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Sample records for caspofungin treatment laboratory

  1. Caspofungin versus liposomal amphotericin B for treatment of invasive fungal infections or febrile neutropenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jinyu; Gong Yizhen; Wang Ke; Kong Jinliang; Chen Yiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Background Nowadays,there are published trials in regards to the comparison of caspofungin with liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB).However,these studies have a modest sample size and convey inconclusive results.The aim of this study was to review the efficacy and safety of caspofungin for the treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs),compared with L-AmB.Methods Electronic databases (up to July 31,2013) PubMed and Embase databases,the Cochrane Library,and Google Scholar were searched to identify relevant trials of caspofungin and L-AmB.Analyses of efficacy and adverse outcomes were performed by relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (C/s).Heterogeneity was assessed by x2-test and the/2-statistic.Results Three trials were included in this meta-analysis with 1249 modified intention-to-treat (MITT) patients.The results showed that caspofungin produced equal efficacy in favorable overall response (RR=1.02,95% Cl 0.88-1.18; P=0.81) and mortality rate (RR=1.53,95% Cl 0.38-6.27,P=0.55),safer in clinical adverse events (RR=0.20,95% Cl 0.08-0.54; P=0.001),laboratory adverse events (RR=0.69,95% Cl 0.57-0.84; P=0.0002),and discontinuation rate (RR=0.26,95% Cl 0.08-0.83,P=0.02),compared with L-AmB in the treatment of patients with IFls.Conclusion Based on the results of this meta-analysis,it would appear that caspofungin was measured to have equal efficacy in clinical outcomes and safer in terms of adverse events.

  2. Caspofungin: Pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical uses and treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jessica C; Stevens, David A

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decade, echinocandins have emerged as first-line antifungal agents for many Candida infections. The echinocandins have a unique mechanism of action, inhibiting the synthesis of β-1,3-d-glucan polymers, key components of the cell wall in pathogenic fungi. Caspofungin was the first echinocandin antifungal agent to become licensed for use. The objectives of this review are to summarize the existing published data on caspofungin, under the subject headings of chemistry and mechanism of action, spectrum of activity, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical studies, safety, drug interactions, dosing, and an overview of the drug's current place in therapy. PMID:26369708

  3. Successful treatment of Candida parapsilosis (fluconazole-resistant) osteomyelitis with caspofungin in a HIV patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legout, L; Assal, M; Rohner, P; Lew, D; Bernard, L; Hoffmeyer, P

    2006-01-01

    Treating Candida arthritis is challenging. We report a case of Candida parapsilosis arthritis successfully treated with caspofungin. We illustrate the likelihood of severe infections due fluconazole resistant C. parapsilosis after extensive fluconazole use and discuss the role of newer antifungal agents in the treatment of arthritis due to Candida spp. PMID:16857628

  4. Breakthrough Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans double infection during caspofungin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Buzina, Walter;

    2009-01-01

    Caspofungin is used for the treatment of acute invasive candidiasis and as salvage treatment for invasive aspergillosis. We report characteristics of isolates of Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus detected in a patient with breakthrough infection complicating severe gastrointestinal surgery...... and evaluate the capability of susceptibility methods to identify candin resistance. The susceptibility of C. albicans to caspofungin and anidulafungin was investigated by Etest, microdilution (European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing [EUCAST] and CLSI), disk diffusion, agar dilution......, and FKS1 sequencing and in a mouse model. Tissue was examined by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and sequencing for the presence of A. fumigatus and resistance mutations. The MICs for the C. albicans isolate were as follows: >32 microg/ml caspofungin and 0.5 microg/ml anidulafungin by Etest, 2 microg...

  5. Successful Treatment of Liver Aspergilloma by Caspofungin Acetate First-Line Therapy in a Non-Immunocompromised Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Juan Dong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillosis remains to be a life-threatening complication in immunocompromised patients. However, Aspergillus infection can be observed in non-immunocompromised individuals in rare cases. We report a case of liver aspergilloma in a chronic aplastic anemia patient under relatively intact immune status. Therapeutic strategy for this rare condition was extensively discussed and caspofungin acetate single agent first-line therapy was applied after careful consideration. Encouraging clinical and radiologic improvements were achieved in response to the antifungal salvage. Our long-term follow-up study also revealed a favorable prognosis. Based on this experience, we suggest caspofungin acetate as first-line therapy for treatment plans of liver aspergilloma.

  6. Tratamiento con caspofungina de endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol Treatment with caspofungin of Candida tropicalis endocarditis resistant to fluconazol

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    Marcelo del Castillo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Las endocarditis causadas por hongos, (Candida en particular, requieren tratamiento médico-quirúrgico, siendo la anfotericina B la droga de elección. Caspofungina es una equinocandina con gran actividad sobre Candida y Aspergillus. Se presenta un paciente con una endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol tratado con caspofungina bajo un esquema de salvataje, luego de haber presentado efectos adversos por anfotericina B. El paciente tuvo respuesta microbiológica.Fungal endocarditis, in particular due to Candida species, requires medical and surgical treatment and amphotericin B is the drug of choice. Caspofungin is an echinocandin very effective against Candida and Aspergillus. We present a patient with Candida tropicalis endocarditis, fluconazol resistant, treated with caspofungin, on a compassional basis as a result of adverse effects with amphotericin B. The patient had a microbiological response.

  7. Prophylaxis and treatment of invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole, posaconazole and caspofungin - review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Karthaus M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Major progress for the management of invasive aspergillosis has come from the introduction of new antifungals since the late 1990s. Although mortality of invasive aspergillosis remains as high as 30-50%. Backbone of management are prophylaxis, early diagnosis and early initiation of antifungals for reduction of invasive aspergillosis related mortality. Randomized trials have been undertaken for the prophylaxis as well as treatment of invasive aspergillosis in the last two decades. Po...

  8. Prophylaxis and treatment of invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole, posaconazole and caspofungin - review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthaus M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Major progress for the management of invasive aspergillosis has come from the introduction of new antifungals since the late 1990s. Although mortality of invasive aspergillosis remains as high as 30-50%. Backbone of management are prophylaxis, early diagnosis and early initiation of antifungals for reduction of invasive aspergillosis related mortality. Randomized trials have been undertaken for the prophylaxis as well as treatment of invasive aspergillosis in the last two decades. Posaconazole is recommended for prophylaxis against aspergillosis in patients treated for acute myelogenous leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome or patients with graft versus host disease after allogeneic transplantation. Efficacy has been shown for first-line therapy of invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin B. Gastrointestinal resorption for the azoles posaconazole, voriconazole and itraconazole differ considerably. While oral voriconazole resportion is reduced when taken with food, posaconazole has to be taken with fatty food for optimal intestinal resorption. Beside all advances in the management of invasive aspergillosis important questions remain unresolved. This article reviews the current state of prophylaxis and treatment of invasive aspergillosis and points out clinicians unmet needs.

  9. Treatment and prophylaxis of invasive candidiasis with anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin and its impact on use and costs - review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilke MH

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Invasive fungal infections are on the rise. Echinocandins are a relatively new class of antifungal drugs that act by inhibition of a key enzyme necessary for integrity of the fungal cell wall. Currently there are three available agents: caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin. While the individual echinocandin antifungals have a different spectrum of licensed indications, basically all of them are available for the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis. Antifungal treatment modalities basically include in therapy for suspected or proven infection and prophylaxis. All three drugs are comparatively expensive. Therefore a systematic review of the literature was performed to investigate the following aspects: • General aspects of cost-effectiveness in the treatment of invasive fungal infections • Cost-effectiveness of the treatment with the above-mentioned antifungals • Cost-effectiveness in two settings: therapy and prophylaxis Early initiation of antifungal therapy, adjustment after availability of microbiological results, duration of therapy, success and occurrence of severe complications (e.g renal failure are the most important cost drivers in antifungal therapy. Considering the specific antifungals, for caspofungin the best evidence for cost-effectiveness is found in treatment of invasive candidiasis and in empiric therapy of suspected infections. Favourable economic data are available for micafungin as a cost-effective alternative to LAmB for prophylaxis in patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. For anidulafungin, cost-effectiveness was demostrated in a pharmacoeconomic model. Net savings - yet not significant - were observed in a retrospective chart review of 234 patients. Generally, however, most analyses are still based on pharmacoeconomic modelling rather than direct analysis of trial data or real-life clinical populations. As an overall conclusion, using caspofungin, micafungin, or

  10. Complete heart block in a neutropenic patient with aspergillosis: An unusual adverse effect of caspofungins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasmita Biswal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of complete heart block (CHB in a 58-year-old female patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML with no past history of cardiac disease, who received caspofungin in the treatment of disseminated fungal infection. To our knowledge, this is the first case of CHB associated with caspofungins. Subsequent to induction chemotherapy the patient developed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with sudden tachypnea, dyspnoea, fever, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and acute respiratory insufficiency consequent to neutropenia with ANC<500. During the first dose of antifungal therapy with caspofungins, she developed complete atrioventricular block and cardiac arrest. Complete heart block is an unusual adverse effect of caspofungins which has not been reported previously. Caspofungins release histamine in peripheral blood cells, so possible histamine-mediated symptoms ranging from severe fatal anaphylaxis can occur. These data suggest that infusion-related reactions associated with caspofungin may be mediated by histamine release secondary to caspofungin therapy.

  11. Pharmacodynamics of Caspofungin in a Murine Model of Systemic Candidiasis: Importance of Persistence of Caspofungin in Tissues to Understanding Drug Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Louie, Arnold; Deziel, Mark; Liu, Weiguo; Drusano, Michael F.; Gumbo, Tawanda; Drusano, George L.

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies were conducted in a murine model of systemic candidiasis to determine the pharmacodynamic parameter linked with caspofungin efficacy. Additional studies defined the importance of persistent tissue drug concentrations to treatment outcome. The pharmacokinetics of caspofungin were determined in the serum and kidneys of infected mice over 96 h. Population pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated a serum terminal half-life (t1/2) for caspofungin of 20.2 h ...

  12. Efficacy of Caspofungin and Voriconazole Combinations in Experimental Aspergillosis

    OpenAIRE

    MacCallum, Donna M; Whyte, Julie A.; Odds, Frank C.

    2005-01-01

    Guinea pigs were infected with Aspergillus fumigatus at two challenge doses and treated for 7 days with a placebo, intraperitoneal caspofungin (1 mg/kg daily), oral voriconazole (1 mg/kg twice a day), or a combination of the caspofungin and voriconazole treatments. The combination therapy statistically significantly prolonged survival over that with the control at both challenge doses and achieved a statistically significant reduction in kidney burdens as measured by quantitative PCR. The sam...

  13. [New antifungal agents: voriconazole and caspofungin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, B

    2003-12-01

    Among new available antifungal agents voriconazole is a new triazole with an intravenous (i.v.) and oral formulation, and caspofungin is an echinocandin, new family with a new mode of action on the cell wall. It is available as an i.v. preparation. Both drugs have a broad spectrum targeting most of the usual pathogens: Candida and Aspergillus, even with low suceptibility or resistance to other antifungals. Voriconazole is also active on Scedosporium and Fusarium. The efficacy of these molecules was established in vitro and in experimental infections in animals either normal or immunosuppressed. Voriconazole is active in oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis, in refractory invasive candidiasis and as a first line treatment of invasive aspergillosis with better results than amphotéricine B. It was also effective in scedosporiosis and in fusariosis. Caspofungin is active in oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis, in invasive candidiasis ranking among the best drugs in non neutropenic patients. It was shown effective in refractory aspergillosis. As empirical treatment of febrile neutropenic patients, these molecules should probably be restricted to the highest risk-population. Safety is good, side effects are a rare cause of discontinuation of treatment, class specific drug-drug interactions occur with voriconazole. These molecules open an important field of investigations with combination of antifungal agents. PMID:15022787

  14. [New developments in antifungal therapy: fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wout, J.W. van 't; Kuijper, E.J.; Verweij, P.E.; Kullberg, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    The azole antifungal voriconazole and the echinocandin caspofungin have recently become available for the treatment of invasive mycoses. Fluconazole remains the drug of choice for candidemia, except for infections with one of the resistent species such as Candida krusei and some strains of Candida g

  15. Safety and efficacy of a caspofungin-based combination therapy for treatment of proven or probable aspergillosis in pediatric hematological patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldi Eugenia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fungal infections are diagnosed increasingly often in patients affected by hematological diseases and their mortality has remained high. The recent development of new antifungal drugs gives the clinician the possibility to assess the combination of antifungal drugs with in-vitro or in animal-model synergistic effect. Methods We analyzed retrospectively the safety and efficacy of caspofungin-based combination therapy in 40 children and adolescents, most of them were being treated for a malignant disease, who developed invasive aspergillosis (IA between November 2002 and November 2005. Results Thirteen (32.5% patients developed IA after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, 13 after primary diagnosis, usually during remission-induction chemotherapy, and 14 after relapse of disease. Severe neutropenia was present in 31 (78% out of the 40 patients. IA was classified as probable in 20 (50% and documented in 20 (50% patients, respectively. A favorable response to antifungal therapy was obtained in 21 patients (53% and the probability of 100-day survival was 70%. Different, though not significant, 100-day survival was observed according to the timing of diagnosis of IA: 51.9% after HSCT; 71.4% after relapse; and 84.6% after diagnosis of underlying disease, p 0.2. After a median follow-up of 0.7 years, 20 patients are alive (50%. Overall, the combination therapy was well tolerated. In multivariate analysis, the factors that were significantly associated to a better overall survival were favorable response to antifungal therapy, p 0.003, and the timing of IA in the patient course of underlying disease, p 0.04. Conclusion This study showed that caspofungin-based combination antifungal therapy is an effective therapeutic option also for pediatric patients with IA. These data need to be confirmed by prospective, controlled studies.

  16. Clinical evidence for caspofungin monotherapy in the first-line and salvage therapy of invasive Aspergillus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Werner J; Buchheidt, Dieter; Ullmann, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    In 2001, caspofungin received market authorisation by the FDA and EMA and is globally licensed for several indications, including candidiasis, empirical antifungal therapy in patients with neutropenic fever of unknown origin and treatment of invasive aspergillosis in patients refractory to or intolerant of amphotericin B, lipid formulations of amphotericin B or itraconazole. Despite the lack of phase III data in first-line treatment of invasive aspergillosis, increasing evidence supports the use of first-line therapy. Here, we analyse the evidence of therapeutic activity, represented by favourable response rates, of caspofungin for invasive aspergillosis. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify international presentations and papers reporting monotherapy with caspofungin. Efficacy data are summarised separately for first-line and salvage therapy. Thirty-one papers and published abstracts reported caspofungin therapy for aspergillosis. Fifteen full papers and two abstracts fulfilled the criteria of reporting significant outcome data for caspofungin monotherapy for invasive aspergillosis. Consistent with other analyses and the known safety profile, few adverse events and associated terminations of caspofungin medication have been reported. Although a randomised, comparative, prospective study using caspofungin in this indication is still lacking, growing evidence supports the efficacy of this echinocandin not only for salvage but also for first-line therapy. PMID:27324802

  17. Comparison of susceptibility and transcription profile of the new antifungal hassallidin A with caspofungin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is First report on the antifungal effects of the new glycolipopeptide hassallidin A. Due to related molecular structure moieties between hassallidin A and the established antifungal drug caspofungin we assumed parallels in the effects on cell viability. Therefore we compared hassallidin A with caspofungin by antifungal susceptibility testing and by analysing the genome-wide transcriptional profile of Candida albicans. Furthermore, we examined modifications in ultracellular structure due to hassallidin A treatment by electron microscopy. Hassallidin A was found to be fungicidal against all tested Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans isolates. MICs ranged from 4 to 8 μg/ml, independently from the species. Electron microscopy revealed noticeable ultrastructural changes in C. albicans cells exposed to hassallidin A. Comparing the transcriptional profile of C. albicans cells treated with hassallidin A to that of cells exposed to caspofungin, only 20 genes were found to be similarly up- or down-regulated in both assays, while 227 genes were up- or down-regulated induced by hassallidin A specifically. Genes up-regulated in cells exposed to hassallidin A included metabolic and mitotic genes, while genes involved in DNA repair, vesicle docking, and membrane fusion were down-regulated. In summary, our data suggest that, although hassallidin A and caspofungin have similar structures, however, the effects on susceptibility and transcriptional response to yeasts seem to be different

  18. Caspofungin Etest susceptibility testing of Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Pfaller, Michael A; Rosenvinge, Flemming Schønning

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of caspofungin Etest and the recently revised CLSI breakpoints. A total of 497 blood isolates, of which 496 were wild-type isolates, were included. A total of 65/496 susceptible isolates (13.1%) were misclassified as intermediate (I) or re...... resistant (R). Such misclassifications were most commonly observed for Candida krusei (73.1%) and Candida glabrata (33.1%). The revised breakpoints cannot be safely adopted for these two species....

  19. OUTCOME OF CANDIDA PARAPSILOSIS COMPLEX INFECTIONS TREATED WITH CASPOFUNGIN IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker Devrim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to evaluate the correlation of caspofungin E-tests with the prognosis and response to caspofungin therapy of Candida parapsilosis complex bloodstream infections in children hospitalized in pediatric intensive care unit. Methods: All children who had C.parapsilosis complex bloodstream infections and who were treated with caspofungin were included in this retrospective study. For each patient, the following parameters, including all consecutive blood and central venous catheter (CVC cultures, duration between diagnosis and CVC removal, mortality rate, relapses of the C.parapsilosis complex infections as well as the demographic features, were recorded. Results: The study covered 53 patients with a median age of 11 months. The median duration of C.parapsilosis complex isolation was 31 days. The CVC rescue rate was 33.3% under caspofungin treatment. In 92.4% of the patients, the negative culture was achieved within a median duration of 14 days. The rate of relapses was 18.9%. The overall mortality rate was %37.7 (20 patients and 30-days mortality rate was 7.5% (4 patients. Conclusions: Caspofungin is an attractive option due to its effects on biofilms in vivo, while the reflection of its affect on C.parapsilosis complex was limited in our study, but it should not be underestimated in children who strongly need the presence of central venous catheters. Moreover, in vivo susceptibility might not always guarantee good clinical response in clinical practice. The clinicians should weigh their priority for their patients and choose the optimal antifungal therapy for C.parapsilosis complex infections in children.

  20. Emergence of a Candida krusei Isolate with Reduced Susceptibility to Caspofungin during Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hakki, Morgan; Staab, Janet F.; Marr, Kieren A.

    2006-01-01

    Clinical failure associated with reduced susceptibility to caspofungin has been described in Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. We report a case of Candida krusei infection that progressed despite caspofungin therapy. Reduced microbial susceptibility to all three echinocandins (caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin) was noted but was not associated with mutations in FKS1.

  1. Enhanced efficacy of synergistic combinations of antimicrobial peptides with caspofungin versus Candida albicans in insect and murine models of systemic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, D M; Desbois, A P; Coote, P J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether combinations of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with caspofungin display enhanced antifungal activity versus Candida albicans in vitro and in vivo. Three conventional AMPs that satisfied criteria favouring their potential development as novel antifungals were selected for investigation. Colistin sulphate was also included as a cyclic peptide antibiotic used in the clinic. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for each antifungal agent and checkerboard assays were used to determine fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) values for dual combinations of AMPs or colistin with caspofungin. Viability assays were performed for the same combinations in order to investigate fungicidal interactions. Synergistic antifungal combinations were then tested for efficacy in vivo and compared to monotherapies in wax moth larva and murine models of systemic C. albicans infection. In combination with caspofungin, each of the AMPs [hMUC7-12, DsS3(1-16), hLF(1-11)] and colistin were synergistic and candidacidal in vitro. The treatment of infected wax moth larvae with combinations of caspofungin with hMUC7-12, DsS3(1-16) or colistin resulted in significant enhancements in survival compared to treatment with monotherapies. Notably, the treatment of C. albicans-infected mice with a combination of caspofungin and DsS3(1-16) resulted in the enhancement of survival compared to groups treated with just the individual agents. This study demonstrates that combination therapies containing caspofungin and AMPs or colistin merit further development as potential novel treatments for C. albicans infections. PMID:23572153

  2. Evaluation of Etest Method for Determining Caspofungin (MK-0991) Susceptibilities of 726 Clinical Isolates of Candida Species

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaller, M A; Messer, S. A.; Mills, K.; Bolmström, A.; Jones, R N

    2001-01-01

    The performance of the Etest for testing the susceptibilities to caspofungin (MK-0991) of 726 isolates of Candida spp. was assessed against the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) microdilution broth method. The NCCLS method employed RPMI 1640 broth medium, and MICs were read after incubation for 48 h at 35°C. MICs were determined by Etest for all 726 isolates with RPMI agar containing 2% glucose (RPG) and were read after incubation for 48 h at 35°C. The Candida isola...

  3. Caspofungin as secondary antifungal prophylaxis and subsequent maintenance antifungal prophylaxis therapy in hematological malignancy patients

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Mingjuan; Li, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yongqing; Zhai, Bing; Zhang, Qingyi; Wang, Lijun; Zhao, Yu; Li, Honghua; Wang, Quanshun; Gao, Chunji; Huang, Wenrong; Yu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of caspofungin as secondary antifungal prophylaxis (SAP) and subsequent maintenance therapy for SAP in hematological malignancy patients. Methods: Forty four patients receiving caspofungin for SAP and 43 patients not receiving any SAP agents during their subsequent chemotherapy or HSCT were reviewed retrospectively. The clinical characteristics and diagnosis were analyzed according to the diagnostic criteria for IFD. Results: The re...

  4. Caspofungin versus fluconazole as prophylaxis of invasive fungal infection in high-risk liver transplantation recipients: A propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortún, Jesús; Muriel, Alfonso; Martín-Dávila, Pilar; Montejo, Miguel; Len, Oscar; Torre-Cisneros, Julian; Carratalá, Jordi; Muñoz, Patricia; Fariñas, Carmen; Moreno, Asunción; Fresco, Gema; Goikoetxea, Josune; Gavaldá, Joan; Pozo, Juan Carlos; Bodro, Marta; Vena, Antonio; Casafont, Fernando; Cervera, Carlos; Silva, José Tiago; Aguado, José M

    2016-04-01

    Targeted prophylaxis has proven to be an efficient strategy in liver transplantation recipients (LTRs). The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of caspofungin with that of fluconazole in high-risk (HR) LTRs. Caspofungin and fluconazole were compared in a multicenter, retrospective, cohort study in HR-LTRs in Spain. Outcomes were assessed at 180 days after transplantation. A propensity score approach was applied. During the study period (2005-2012), we analyzed 195 HR-LTRs from 9 hospitals. By type of prophylaxis, 97 patients received caspofungin and 98 received fluconazole. Of a total of 17 (8.7%) global invasive fungal infections (IFIs), breakthrough IFIs accounted for 11 (5.6%) and invasive aspergillosis (IA) accounted for 6 (3.1%). By univariate analysis, no differences were observed in the prevention of global IFIs. However, caspofungin was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of breakthrough IFIs (2.1% versus 9.2%, P = 0.04). In patients requiring dialysis (n = 62), caspofungin significantly reduced the frequency of breakthrough IFIs (P = 0.03). The propensity score analysis confirmed a significant reduction in the frequency of IA in patients receiving caspofungin (absolute risk reduction, 0.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.001-0.11; P = 0.044). Linear regression analysis revealed a significant decrease in blood alanine aminotransferase levels and a significant increase in bilirubin levels after administration of caspofungin. Caspofungin and fluconazole have similar efficacy for the prevention of global IFIs in HR-LTRs in this observational, multicenter cohort study. However, caspofungin was associated with a significant reduction of breakthrough IFIs and, after adjusting for confounders, caspofungin was associated with a lower rate of IA. This benefit is probably more favorable in patients on dialysis. Caspofungin is safe in HR-LTRs, although bilirubin levels may be increased. PMID:26709146

  5. Amphotericin B and caspofungin resistance in Candida glabrata isolates recovered from a critically ill patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Mikkel; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Heslet, Lars;

    2006-01-01

    also resistant to azoles and caspofungin. In this study, 4 isolates were studied thoroughly using susceptibility assays and a mouse model and to determine clonality. METHODS: Different broth microdilution tests, Etests, and time-kill studies for antifungals were performed in different media. Three of...... the 4 isolates were examined in an in vivo experiment, in which mice were challenged intravenously with 1 of 3 isolates and treated daily with amphotericin B, caspofungin, or saline. For the clonality studies, arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with the 4 isolates, 8...... differentiate between amphotericin B-susceptible and -resistant isolates. All assays identified caspofungin-susceptible and -resistant isolates. Arbitrarily primed PCR showed that the 4 isolates probably were of clonal origin. CONCLUSIONS: We have documented the emergence of amphotericin B-resistant and...

  6. Plasma concentrations of caspofungin at two different dosage regimens in a patient with hepatic dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, K. C. M.; Bruggemann, R. J. M.; Rodgers, M. G. G.; Alffenaar, J. W. C.

    2012-01-01

    The currently recommended dosage regimen of caspofungin (50 mg/day) was developed for patients with invasive candidiasis. With invasive aspergillosis, successful outcomes occur in less than half the patients. We evaluate the pharmacokinetics in a patient with elevated liver enzyme levels after liver

  7. In vitro susceptibility testing of Aspergillus spp. against voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jun-yan; WANG He; GUO Li-na; XU Ying-chun; SHI Yi; L(U) Huo-xiang; LIU Yong; ZHAO Wang-sheng; CHEN Dong-mei; XI Li-yan; ZHOU Xin

    2010-01-01

    Background During recent years, the incidence of serious infections caused by opportunistic fungi has increased dramatically due to alterations of the immune status of patients with hematological diseases, malignant tumors,transplantations and so forth. Unfortunately, the wide use of triazole antifungal agents to treat these infections has lead to the emergence of Aspergillus spp. resistant to triazoles. The present study was to assess the in vitro activities of five antifungal agents (voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin) against different kinds of Aspergillus spp. that are commonly encountered in the clinical setting.Methods The agar-based Etest MIC method was employed. One hundred and seven strains of Aspergillus spp. (5 species) were collected and prepared according to Etest Technique Manuel. Etest MICs were determined with RPMI agar containing 2% glucose and were read after incubation for 48 hours at 35℃. MIC50, MIC90 and MIC range were acquired by Whonet 5.4 software.Results The MIC90 of caspofungin against A. fumigatus, A. flavus and A. nidulans was 0.094 μg/ml whereas the MIC90 against A. niger was 0.19 μg/ml. For these four species, the MlC90 of caspofungin was the lowest among the five antifungal agents. For A. terrus, the MIC90 of posaconazole was the lowest. For A. fumigatus and A. flavus, the MlC90in order of increasing was caspofungin, posaconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B. The MIC of amphotericin B against A. terrus was higher than 32 μg/ml in all 7 strains tested.Conclusions The in vitro antifungal susceptibility test shows the new drug caspofungin, which is a kind of echinocandins, has good activity against the five species of Aspergillus spp. and all the triazoles tested have better in vitro activity than traditional amphotericin B.

  8. In vitro activity of Caspofungin combined with Fluconazole on mixed Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesee, Siripen; Angkananuwat, Chayanit; Tancharoensukjit, Sudarat; Muanmai, Somporn; Sirivan, Pattaraporn; Bubphawas, Manita; Tanarerkchai, Nissara

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effect of caspofungin (CAS) combined with fluconazole (FLU) on the biofilm biomass and cultivable viability and microstructure ofCandida albicansandCandida glabratamixed biofilmin vitro.Biofilms were formed in a 96-well microtiter plate for crystal violet assay and colony forming unit (CFU) method and grown on plastic coverslip disks for scanning electron microscopy. MIC50of CAS and FLU against singleCandida spp.and mixedCandida spp.biofilms were evaluated using crystal violet assay. Additional,C. albicansandC. glabratamixed biofilms were incubated with subinhibitory CAS concentration plus FLU and their percentages ofCandidabiofilm reduction were calculated. We found that percentages of biofilm reduction were significantly decreased when CAS at 0.25MIC and FLU (0.25 or 0.5MIC) were combined (P< .05) but not different when CAS at 0.5 MIC combined with FLU at 0.25 or 0.5MIC, compared to CAS treatment alone. Structural analyses revealed that CAS/FLU combination-treated biofilms showed less hyphae and blastospores with some aberrant cells compared to control group. Although it was evident that a greater CFU ofCandida glabratawere demonstrated in every group, the total viable cells derived from CAS/FLU combination-treated biofilms at any ratio were not significantly different from positive control. Overall, CAS/FLU combinations appeared to affect the quantity and cell architecture, but number of viable cell, ofCandida albicansandCandida glabratamixed biofilm. This antifungal effect was CAS concentration dependent. PMID:26768371

  9. An Analysis of the Response of Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans to Caspofungin

    OpenAIRE

    Eshwika, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is capable of causing a range of diseases in immunocompromised patients and is responsible for up to 3% of all hospitalbased deaths in the EU. The yeast Candida albicans induces a range of diseases in immunocompromised patients. Caspofungin is a recently introduced antifungal compound that has good efficacy against these fungi with minimal side effects. The aim of the work presented here was to characterise the response of A. fumigat...

  10. Synergistic Activity of the Plant Defensin HsAFP1 and Caspofungin against Candida albicans Biofilms and Planktonic Cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Vriens

    Full Text Available Plant defensins are small, cysteine-rich peptides with antifungal activity against a broad range of yeast and fungi. In this study we investigated the antibiofilm activity of a plant defensin from coral bells (Heuchera sanguinea, i.e. HsAFP1. To this end, HsAFP1 was heterologously produced using Pichia pastoris as a host. The recombinant peptide rHsAFP1 showed a similar antifungal activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium culmorum as native HsAFP1 purified from seeds. NMR analysis revealed that rHsAFP1 consists of an α-helix and a triple-stranded antiparallel β-sheet stabilised by four intramolecular disulfide bonds. We found that rHsAFP1 can inhibit growth of the human pathogen Candida albicans as well as prevent C. albicans biofilm formation with a BIC50 (i.e. the minimum rHsAFP1 concentration required to inhibit biofilm formation by 50% as compared to control treatment of 11.00 ± 1.70 μM. As such, this is the first report of a plant defensin exhibiting inhibitory activity against fungal biofilms. We further analysed the potential of rHsAFP1 to increase the activity of the conventional antimycotics caspofungin and amphotericin B towards C. albicans. Synergistic effects were observed between rHsAFP1 and these compounds against both planktonic C. albicans cells and biofilms. Most notably, concentrations of rHsAFP1 as low as 0.53 μM resulted in a synergistic activity with caspofungin against pre-grown C. albicans biofilms. rHsAFP1 was found non-toxic towards human HepG2 cells up to 40 μM, thereby supporting the lack of a general cytotoxic activity as previously reported for HsAFP1. A structure-function study with 24-mer synthetic peptides spanning the entire HsAFP1 sequence revealed the importance of the γ-core and its adjacent regions for HsAFP1 antibiofilm activity. These findings point towards broad applications of rHsAFP1 and its derivatives in the field of antifungal and antibiofilm drug development.

  11. U.S. Ebola Treatment Center Clinical Laboratory Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelden, Katelyn C; Iwen, Peter C; Herstein, Jocelyn J; Biddinger, Paul D; Kraft, Colleen S; Saiman, Lisa; Smith, Philip W; Hewlett, Angela L; Gibbs, Shawn G; Lowe, John J

    2016-04-01

    Fifty-five hospitals in the United States have been designated Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) by their state and local health authorities. Designated ETCs must have appropriate plans to manage a patient with confirmed Ebola virus disease (EVD) for the full duration of illness and must have these plans assessed through a CDC site visit conducted by an interdisciplinary team of subject matter experts. This study determined the clinical laboratory capabilities of these ETCs. ETCs were electronically surveyed on clinical laboratory characteristics. Survey responses were returned from 47 ETCs (85%). Forty-one (87%) of the ETCs planned to provide some laboratory support (e.g., point-of-care [POC] testing) within the room of the isolated patient. Forty-four (94%) ETCs indicated that their hospital would also provide clinical laboratory support for patient care. Twenty-two (50%) of these ETC clinical laboratories had biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) containment. Of all respondents, 34 (72%) were supported by their jurisdictional public health laboratory (PHL), all of which had available BSL-3 laboratories. Overall, 40 of 44 (91%) ETCs reported BSL-3 laboratory support via their clinical laboratory and/or PHL. This survey provided a snapshot of the laboratory support for designated U.S. ETCs. ETCs have approached high-level isolation critical care with laboratory support in close proximity to the patient room and by distributing laboratory support among laboratory resources. Experts might review safety considerations for these laboratory testing/diagnostic activities that are novel in the context of biocontainment care. PMID:26842705

  12. Treatment of Laboratory Wastewater by Sequence Batch reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These studies were conducted on the characterization and treatment of sewage mixed with waste -water of research and testing laboratory (PCSIR Laboratories Lahore). In this study all the parameters COD, BOD and TSS etc of influent (untreated waste-water) and effluent (treated waste-water) were characterized using the standard methods of examination for water and waste-water. All the results of the analyzed waste-water parameters were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) set at National level. Treatment of waste-water was carried out by conventional sequencing batch reactor technique (SBR) using aeration and settling technique in the same treatment reactor at laboratory scale. The results of COD after treatment were reduced from (90-95 %), BOD (95-97 %) and TSS (96-99 %) and the reclaimed effluent quality was suitable for gardening purposes. (author)

  13. Treatment of active laboratory liquid wastes by ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new treatment of active laboratory liquid wastes has been started in UP3 since mid 95. This facility is a part of the new liquid waste management performed by COGEMA in order to minimize the volume of final residues to be disposed of. After the introduction, part II of this paper outlines the main principles of the new waste management. The treatment of active laboratory liquid wastes, based on actinide precipitation and ultrafiltration is then described in more details in part III and part IV. Finally, some operating results after the first year of operation of the new facility are given in part V. (author)

  14. Susceptibility of Candida albicans biofilms to caspofungin and anidulafungin is not affected by metabolic activity or biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Zambrano, Laura Judith; Escribano, Pilar; Bouza, Emilio; Guinea, Jesús

    2016-02-01

    Micafungin is more active against biofilms with high metabolic activity; however, it is unknown whether this observation applies to caspofungin and anidulafungin and whether it is also dependent on the biomass production. We compare the antifungal activity of anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin against preformed Candida albicans biofilms with different degrees of metabolic activity and biomass production from 301 isolates causing fungemia in patients admitted to Gregorio Marañon Hospital (January 2007 to September 2014). Biofilms were classified as having low, moderate, or high metabolic activity according XTT reduction assay or having low, moderate, or high biomass according to crystal violet assay. Echinocandin MICs for planktonic and sessile cells were measured using the EUCAST E.Def 7.2 procedure and XTT reduction assay, respectively. Micafungin showed the highest activity against biofilms classified according to the metabolic activity and biomass production (P < .001). The activity of caspofungin and anidulafungin was not dependent on the metabolic activity of the biofilm or the biomass production. These observations were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. None of the echinocandins produced major changes in the structure of biofilms with low metabolic activity and biomass production when compared with the untreated biofilms. However, biofilm with high metabolic activity or high biomass production was considerably more susceptible to micafungin; this effect was not shown by caspofungin or anidulafungin. PMID:26543157

  15. Argonne National Laboratory's photooxidation organic mixed-waste treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the installation and startup testing of the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) photo-oxidation organic mixed-waste treatment system. This system will treat organic mixed (i.e., radioactive and hazardous) waste by oxidizing the organics to carbon dioxide and inorganic salts in an aqueous media. The residue will be treated in the existing radwaste evaporators. The system is installed in the waste management facility at the ANL-E site in Argonne, Illinois

  16. Development of a remote laboratory-scale waste treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A waste treatment facility, designed on the basis of a feedrate of 1 l/hr of concentrated waste to a spray calciner, has been installed in a radiochemical hot cell at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The facility includes three modules: feed preparation (storage tanks, evaporator, condenser), waste solidification (a spray calciner and in-can melter), and effluent control (venturi scrubber, cyclone separator, fission product adsorbers, nitrogen oxides destructor, iodine adsorber, HEPA filter, and packed scrubber). The system is flexible. The spray calciner and in-can melter can be easily removed and replaced by alternative solidification systems, and the effluent control system can be operated in many different sequences. Other components can be easily added to the effluent system for tests. Two effluent control flowsheets, designed to simulate those in defense waste and commercial waste processing plants, will be evaluated during the first radioactive runs. Most operational data from the system are remotely recorded continuously on strip-chart and multipoint recorders. Data on equipment operating parameters and upset conditions will be used to help maximize data on effluents, effluent decontamination factors and product quality. Five laboratory, pilot- and full-scale radioactive and nonradioactive waste solidification systems have already been operated at PNL. Experience with these systems demonstrated a need for additional radioactive work. Thus, the Remote Laboratory-Scale Waste Treatment Facility was developed. Operations completed with the other systems have indicated that scaling factors related to equipment size will not be a major consideration in the interpretation and usage of results from this equipment. These results can be used to provide guidance in developing full-scale radioactive waste treatment equipment

  17. In Vitro Synergy of Caspofungin and Itraconazole against Aspergillus spp.: MIC versus Minimal Effective Concentration End Points

    OpenAIRE

    Shalit, Itamar; Shadkchan, Yona; Samra, Zmira; Osherov, Nir

    2003-01-01

    Caspofungin and itraconazole were studied alone and in combination against 31 clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. according to NCCLS M38-P guidelines. MICs and microscopic minimal effective concentrations (MECs) were recorded, and synergy was calculated by using both end points. Synergy or synergy to additivity was found in 30 of 31 isolates by using MIC end points. With MEC end points no synergy was found and indifference was detected in 26 of 31 strains.

  18. Thermal treatment technology at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent surveys of mixed wastes in interim storage throughout the 30-site Department of Energy complex indicate that only 12 of those sites account for 98% of such wastes by volume. Current inventories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) account for 38% of total DOE wastes in interim storage, the largest of any single site. For a large percentage of these waste volumes, as well as the substantial amounts of buried and currently generated wastes, thermal treatment processes have been designated as the technologies of choice. Current facilities and a number of proposed strategies exist for thermal treatment of wastes of this nature at the INEL. High-level radioactive waste is solidified in the Waste Calciner Facility at the Idaho Central Processing Plant. Low-level solid wastes until recently have been processed at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF), a compaction, size reduction, and controlled air incineration facility. WERF is currently undergoing process upgrading and RCRA Part B permitting. Recent systems studies have defined effective strategies, in the form of thermal process sequences, for treatment of wastes of the complex and heterogeneous nature in the INEL inventory. This presentation reviews the current status of operating facilities, active studies in this area, and proposed strategies for thermal treatment of INEL wastes

  19. The haploinsufficiency profile of α-hederin suggests a caspofungin-like antifungal mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Thomas A K; Rigby, Luke P; Veitch, Nigel C; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2014-05-01

    The leaves of common ivy (Hedera helix) contain the cytotoxic saponin α-hederin, which is inhibitory to Candida albicans at low concentrations. To investigate the mode of action of α-hederin, a haploinsufficiency screen was carried out using a library of 1152 Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion strains. An ethanol ivy extract containing α-hederin was used in the initial screen to reduce the amount of compound required. Strains exhibiting disproportionately low growth were then examined in more detail by comparing growth curves in the presence and absence of α-hederin. This approach identified three hypersensitive strains carrying gene deletions for components of the transcription related proteins SWI/SNF, RNA polymerase II and the RSC complex. Saponin cytotoxicity is often attributed to membrane damage, however α-hederin did not induce hypersensitivity with an aminophospholipid translocase deletion strain that is frequently hypersensitive to membrane damaging agents. The haploinsufficiency profile of α-hederin is most similar to that reported for drugs such as caspofungin that inhibit synthesis of the fungal cell wall. Screening with plant extracts rather than isolated compounds, provides a valuable shortcut in haploinsufficiency screening provided hypersensitive strains are then confirmed as such using purified active principles. PMID:24569176

  20. Treatment studies at the Process Waste Treatment Plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precipitation and ion-exchange methods are being developed to decontaminate Oak Ridge National Laboratory process wastewaters containing small amounts of 90Sr and 137Cs while minimizing waste generation. Many potential processes have been examined in laboratory-scale screening tests. Based on these data, five process flowsheets were developed and are being evaluated under pilot- and full-scale operating conditions. Improvements in the existing treatment system based on this study have resulted in a 66 vol % reduction in waste generation. 19 refs., 26 figs., 45 tabs

  1. Susceptibility testing of Candida albicans isolated from oropharyngeal mucosa of HIV+ patients to fluconazole, amphotericin B and Caspofungin: killing kinetics of caspofungin and amphotericin B against fluconazole resistant and susceptible isolates Teste de suscetibilidade de Candida albicans isoladas da mucosa orofaringeana de pacientes HIV+, ao fluconazol, anfotericcina B e caspofungina: cinética de morte de caspofungina e anfotericina B contra isolados fluconazol resistentes e suscetíveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine de Aquino Lemos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A clear understanding of the pharmacodynamic properties of antifungal agents is important for the adequate treatment of fungal infections like candidiasis. For certain antifungal agents, the determination of Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC and time kill curve could be clinically more relevant than the determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. In this study, MIC and MFC to fluconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against C. albicans isolates and the killing patterns obtained with caspofungin and amphotericin B against susceptible and resistant strains to fluconazole were determined. The results of MICs showed that all C. albicans isolates were highly susceptible to amphotericin B, but two isolates were fluconazole resistant. The comparative analysis between MIC and MFC showed that MFC of fluconazole was fourfold higher than MIC in 41.9% of the C. albicans isolates. Same values of MFC and MIC of amphotericin B and caspofungin were found for 71% of the isolates. Correlation between time kill curves and MFC of amphotericin B and caspofungin against all 4 isolates tested was observed. The caspofungin killing effect was more evident at MFC in 6 hours of incubation than at MIC in this time, suggesting dependence of concentration. The similarity of results of time-kill curve and MFC values indicate that determination of MFC is an alternative for the detection of the fungicidal activity of these drugs.Um claro entendimento das propriedades farmacodinâmicas dos agentes antifúngicos é de grande importância para o adequado tratamento das infecções fúngicas como a candidíase. Em alguns casos de escolha do agente antifúngico, a determinação da concentração fungicida minima (CFM e a curva do tempo de morte podem ser mais clinicamente relevantes do que a concentração inibitória minima (CIM. Nesse estudo, foi avaliado a CIM e a CFM de fluconazol, anfotericina B e caspofungina em Candida albicans e ainda os padrões de

  2. Laboratory validation of an ozone device for recreational water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donofrio, Robert S; Aridi, Sal; Saha, Ratul; Bechanko, Robin; Schaefer, Kevin; Bestervelt, Lorelle L; Hamil, Beth

    2013-06-01

    Obtaining an accurate assessment of a treatment system's antimicrobial efficacy in recreational water is difficult given the large scale and high flow rates of the water systems. A laboratory test system was designed to mimic the water conditions and potential microbial contaminants found in swimming pools. This system was utilized to evaluate the performance of an in situ ozone disinfection device against four microorganisms: Cryptosporidium parvum, bacteriophage MS2, Enterococcus faecium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The sampling regimen evaluated the antimicrobial effectiveness in a single pass fashion, with samples being evaluated initially after exposure to the ozone unit, as well as at points downstream from the device. Based on the flow dynamics and log reductions, cycle threshold (Ct) values were calculated. The observed organism log reductions were as follows: >6.7 log for E. faecium and P. aeruginosa; >5.9 log for bacteriophage MS2; and between 2.7 and 4.1 log for C. parvum. The efficacy results indicate that the test system effectively functions as a secondary disinfection system as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Model Aquatic Health Code. PMID:23708574

  3. Treatment of Mercury Contaminated Oil from Sandia National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First Article Tests of a stabilization method for greater than 260 mg mercury/kg oil were performed under a treatability study. This alternative treatment technology will address treatment of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) organics (mainly used pump oil) contaminated with mercury and other heavy metals. Some of the oil is also co-contaminated with tritium, other radionuclides, and hazardous materials. The technology is based on contacting the oil with a sorbent powder (Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Support, SAMMS), proven to adsorb heavy metals, followed by stabilization of the oil/powder mixture using a stabilization agent (Nochar N990). Two variations of the treatment technology were included in the treatability study. The SAMMS (Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Silica) technology was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for removal and stabilization of RCRA metals (i.e., lead, mercury, cadmium, silver, etc.) and for removal of mercury from organic solvents [1]. The SAMMS material is based on self-assembly of functionalized monolayers on mesoporous oxide surfaces. The unique mesoporous oxide supports provide a high surface area, thereby enhancing the metal-loading capacity. SAMMS material has high flexibility in that it binds with different forms of mercury, including metallic, inorganic, organic, charged, and neutral compounds [1] The material removes mercury from both organic wastes, such as pump oils, and from aqueous wastes. Mercury-loaded SAMMS not only passes TCLP tests, but also has good long-term durability as a waste form because: (1) the covalent binding between mercury and SAMMS has good resistance in ion-exchange, oxidation, and hydrolysis over a wide pH range and (2) the uniform and small pore size of the mesoporous silica prevents bacteria from solubilizing the bound mercury. Nochar's N990 Petrobond (Nochar, Inc., Indianapolis, IN) is an oil stabilization agent, specifically formulated for stabilizing vacuum pump

  4. Successful Waste Treatment Methods at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the remediation of the waste landfills at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico nine drums of mock high explosives were generated. This mixed waste stream was proposed to several offsite vendors for treatment and prices ranged from $2.50 to $10 per gram a total cost estimated to be in excess of $2 million dollars. This cost represents more than 30 percent of the annual budget for the Sandia Waste Management Operations. Concentrated solutions of common oxidizers, such as nitrates, nitrites, and peroxides, will also act as oxidizers and will give positive results in the Hazard Categorization oxidizer test. These solutions carry an EPA Hazardous Waste Number D001, Ignitable Waste, and Oxidizer as defined in 49 CFR 173.151. Sandia decided that given budget and time constraints to meet a Federal Facilities Compliance Act milestone, a process for onsite treatment should be evaluated. Clean samples of mock high explosive materials were obtained from Pantex excess inventory and treatability studies initiated to develop a treatment formula and process. The following process was developed and implemented in the summer of 2006: - Size reduction to allow for dissolution of the barium nitrate in water; - Dissolution of the Mock HE in water; - Deactivation of the oxidizer; - Stabilization of the barium and the cadmium contamination present as an underlying hazardous constituent. This project was completed and the treatment milestone achieved for less than $300,000. The Disassembly Sanitization Operation (DSO) is a process that was implemented to support weapon disassembly and disposition using recycling and waste minimization while achieving the demilitarization mission. The Department of Energy is faced with disassembling and disposition of a huge inventory of retired weapons, components, training equipment, spare parts, and weapon maintenance equipment. Environmental regulations have caused a dramatic increase for information needed to support the

  5. Laboratory testing improves diagnosis and treatment outcomes in primary health care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Y. Carter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine if use of basic laboratory tests improves diagnosis and treatment outcomes in outpatients attending rural primary health care facilities.Setting: Six rural health centres in Kenya.Design: Cross-sectional study to observe change in diagnosis and treatment made by clinical officers after laboratory testing in outpatients attending six rural health centres in Kenya.Subject: The diagnosis and treatment of 1134 patients attending outpatient services in six rural health centres were compared before and after basic laboratory testing. Essential clinical diagnostic equipment and laboratory tests were established at each health centre. Clinical officers and laboratory technicians received on-site refresher training in good diagnostic practices and laboratory procedures before the study began.Results: Laboratory tests were ordered on 704 (62.1% patients. Diagnosis and treatment were changed in 45% of tested patients who returned with laboratory results (21% of all patients attending the clinics. 166 (23.5% patients did not return to the clinician for a final diagnosis and management decision after laboratory testing. Blood slide examination for malaria parasites, wet preparations, urine microscopy and stool microscopy resulted in most changes to diagnosis. There was no significant change in drug costs after laboratory testing. The greatest changes in numbers of recorded diseases following laboratory testing was for intestinal worms (53% and malaria (21%.Conclusion: Effective use of basic laboratory tests at primary health care level significantly improves diagnosis and patient treatment. Use of laboratory testing can be readily incorporated into routine clinical practice. On-site refresher training is an effective means of improving the quality of patient care and communication between clinical and laboratory staff.

  6. Laboratory testing improves diagnosis and treatment outcomes in primary health care facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Y. Carter; Orgenes E. Lema; Magdaline W. Wangai; Charles G. Munafu; Philip H. Rees; Jackson A. Nyamongo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine if use of basic laboratory tests improves diagnosis and treatment outcomes in outpatients attending rural primary health care facilities.Setting: Six rural health centres in Kenya.Design: Cross-sectional study to observe change in diagnosis and treatment made by clinical officers after laboratory testing in outpatients attending six rural health centres in Kenya.Subject: The diagnosis and treatment of 1134 patients attending outpatient services in six rural health cent...

  7. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Jacqmin, G. [NUKEM GmbH, Industreistr, Alzenau (Germany)

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  8. Mixed debris treatment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    August 18, 1992 the EPA published the final revised treatment standards for hazardous debris, including mixed debris. Whereas previous standards had been concentration based, the revised standards are performance based. Debris must be treated prior to land disposal, using specific technologies from one or more of the following families of debris treatment technologies: Extraction, destruction, or immobilization. Seventeen specific technologies with generic application are discussed in the final rule. The existing capabilities and types of debris at the INEL were evaluated against the debris rule to determine an overall treatment strategy for the INEL. Seven types of debris were identified: Combustible, porous, non-porous, inherently hazardous, HEPA filters, asbestos contaminated, and reactive metals contaminated debris. With the exception of debris contaminated with reactive metals treatment can be achieved utilizing existing facilities coupled with minor modifications

  9. Mixed debris treatment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    August 18, 1992 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final revised treatment standards for hazardous debris, including mixed debris. (1) Whereas previous standards had been concentration based, the revised standards are performance based. Debris must be treated prior to land disposal, using specific technologies from one or more of the following families of debris treatment technologies: Extraction, destruction, or immobilization. Seventeen specific technologies with generic application are discussed in the final rule. The existing capabilities and types of debris at the INEL were scrubbed against the debris rule to determine an overall treatment strategy. Seven types of debris were identified: combustible, porous, non-porous, inherently hazardous, HEPA filters, asbestos contaminated, and reactive metals contaminated debris. With the exception of debris contaminated with reactive metals treatment can be achieved utilizing existing facilities coupled with minor modifications

  10. The treatment of low-level waste at Mound Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program at Mound Laboratory to handle low-level radioactive waste has two major objectives: 1) to design a volume reduction system for low-level combustible waste, both solid and liquid, and 2) to develop separation methods for removing radionuclides from liquid waste, both, low-level and intermediate-level. The result of the former effort is the Cyclone Incinerator which provides a volume reduction of >35:1. In meeting the latter objective, ultrafiltration has been demonstrated to be a feasible way of reducing the generation of secondary waste. Development of such techniques will significantly reduce waste management costs in the nuclear industry

  11. Effect of seed treatment for laboratory germination of Albizia chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Nongrum; L. Kharlukhi

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of Albizia chinensis(Osb.) Merr. in addition to water were also treated with different treatments by incubating in ethyl alcohol, acetone, and petroleum ether at room temperature for different durations. Seed heat treatment was done at temperatures of 30, 40 and 60ºC for different durations up to 24 h. To overcome dormancy caused by the impermeable seed coat, seeds were nicked and also treated with concen-trated sulphuric acid for different durations. Seeds responded to treat-ments with sulphuric acid and nicking only. Treatment with sulphuric acid for 20 and 30 min showed maximum germination at all incubation temperatures as compared to untreated controls and seeds treated with sulphuric acid for 10 min and nicking. Seedling length was greatest from seeds treated with sulphuric acid for 20 and 30 min and incubated at 30 ºC. Seedling dry weight was highest from nicked seeds incubated at 20ºC. The most favourable incubation temperature was 30 ºC as evidenced from GRI (germination rate index) and GV (germination value). After ascertaining the seed response and performance we recommend that seeds of Albizia chinensis be treated with sulphuric acid for 20 or 30 min and incubation temperature of 25 to 30ºC.

  12. The effects of tricyclazole treatment on aquatic macroinvertebrates in the field and in laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    B. Rossaro; Cortesi, P

    2013-01-01

    The effects of tricyclazole treatments on benthic macroinvertebrates in the field and in laboratory were studied. In field conditions, low density of benthic populations was observed, both in treated and untreated plots, which was attributed to the short period of submersion of the rice field and high water temperature, fungicide treatments had no significant effect. Both laboratory acute toxicity test and a test using a mesocosm suggested a low toxicity of tricyclazole on invertebrates. A re...

  13. 卡泊芬净成功治愈奥默柯达真菌血症1例%A case of 75 -year -old woman patient with Kodamaea ohmeri fungemia treated by Caspofungin successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春玲; 徐德祥; 王立生; 孙荣丽; 李黎

    2011-01-01

    1 例确诊为奥默柯达(毕赤)真菌血症的75 岁女性患者经卡泊芬净治疗后痊愈.该患者既往有冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病、高血压病、糖尿病及糖尿病肾病,近期因脑出血行脑内血肿置管引流术,术后因肺炎及呼吸衰竭行气管切开及机械通气,因消化道出血行全胃肠外营养.此后多次血液及静脉导管头培养均提示为奥默柯达真菌感染,先后给予氟康唑、伏立康唑、卡泊芬净及移除深静脉导管后血培养转阴,续用卡泊芬净21 d 并连续6 次血培养阴性考虑真菌血症治愈.目前报道的所有奥默毕赤真菌血症患者都存在免疫功能低下,卡泊芬净适合于肾功能不全患者,移除深静脉导管和停止静脉营养是治疗该病的重要措施,为避免复发抗真菌药物的疗程应在血培养阴性后维持2 周以上.%A case of 75-year-old woman patient diagnosed as Kodamaea (Pichia) ohmeri fungemia was recovered through the treatment of Caspofungin. The patient suffered coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, hypertensive disease, diabetes and diabetic nephropathy in the past, and was performed percutaneous catheter drainage in the intracerebral hematoma because of cerebral hemorrhage recently, and was taken incision of tracheal and mechanical ventilation after the operation because of the complication of pneumonia and respiratory failure, and was given total parenteral nutrition because of the severe ali -mentary tract hemorrhage. After that, multiple blood culture and culture of the tip of central venous catheter (CVC) all showed that there was Kodamaea ohmeri infection. The patient was cured after the treatment of Fluconazole, Voriconazole and the removal of CVC. Caspofungin was kept on for 21days and the blood culture showed 6 consecutive negative results, with the results, we considered that fungemia was cured. In recent reports, all patients with Kodamaea ohmeri fungemia had low immunity. Caspofungin was

  14. Correlation of MIC with Outcome for Candida Species Tested against Caspofungin, Anidulafungin, and Micafungin: Analysis and Proposal for Interpretive MIC Breakpoints▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaller, M A; Diekema, D. J.; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Rex, J H; Alexander, B. D.; Andes, D.; Brown, S D; Chaturvedi, V.; Ghannoum, M A; Knapp, C C; Sheehan, D. J.; Walsh, T J

    2008-01-01

    The CLSI Antifungal Subcommittee followed the M23-A2 “blueprint” to develop interpretive MIC breakpoints for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin against Candida species. MICs of ≤2 μg/ml for all three echinocandins encompass 98.8 to 100% of all clinical isolates of Candida spp. without bisecting any species group and represent a concentration that is easily maintained throughout the dosing period. Data from phase III clinical trials demonstrate that the standard dosing regimens for eac...

  15. Evaluation of selected neutralizing agents for the treatment of uranium tailings leachates. Laboratory progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of selected neutralizing agents for the treatment of uranium tailings solutions. Highly acidic tailings solutions (pH3) reagent grade; Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] reagent grade; Magnesium oxide (MgO) reagent grade; Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) reagent grade; and Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reagent grade. Evaluation of the effectiveness for the treatment of uranium tailings solutions for the selected neutralizing agents under controlled laboratory conditions was based on three criteria. The criteria are: (1) treated effluent water quality, (2) neutralized sludge handling and hydraulic properties, and (3) reagent costs and acid neutralizing efficiency. On the basis of these limited laboratory results calcium hydroxide or its dehydrated form CaO (lime) appears to be the most effective option for treatment of uranium tailings solutions

  16. A Manual of Simplified Laboratory Methods for Operators of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, Arnold F., Ed.; Bennett, Ernest C., Ed.

    This manual is designed to provide the small wastewater treatment plant operator, as well as the new or inexperienced operator, with simplified methods for laboratory analysis of water and wastewater. It is emphasized that this manual is not a replacement for standard methods but a guide for plants with insufficient equipment to perform analyses…

  17. Laboratory development of methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved centralized treatment methods are needed in the management of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). LLLW, which usually contains radioactive contaminants at concentrations up to millicurie-per-liter levels, has accumulated in underground storage tanks for over 10 years and has reached a volume of over 350,000 gal. These wastes have been collected since 1984 and are a complex mixture of wastes from past nuclear energy research activities. The waste is a highly alkaline 4-5 M NaNO3 solution with smaller amounts of other salts. This type of waste will continue to be generated as a consequence of future ORNL research programs. Future LLLW (referred to as newly generated LLLW or NGLLLW) is expected to a highly alkaline solution of sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide with a smaller concentration of sodium nitrate. New treatment facilities are needed to improve the manner in which these wastes are managed. These facilities must be capable of separating and reducing the volume of radioactive contaminants to small stable waste forms. Treated liquids must meet criteria for either discharge to the environment or solidification for onsite disposal. Laboratory testing was performed using simulated waste solutions prepared using the available characterization information as a basis. Testing was conducted to evaluate various methods for selective removal of the major contaminants. The major contaminants requiring removal from Melton Valley Storage Tank liquids are 90Sr and 137Cs. Principal contaminants in NGLLLW are 9OSr, 137Cs, and 106Ru. Strontium removal testing began with literature studies and scoping tests with several ion-exchange materials and sorbents

  18. Human Laboratory Settings for Assessing Drug Craving; Implications for the Evaluation of Treatment Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alam Mehrjerdi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on assessing craving in laboratory settings often involves inducing and then measuring craving in subjects. Cue-induced craving is studied in laboratory settings using the cue reactivity paradigm, in which drug-related photos, videos, evocative scripts, olfactory cues, and paraphernalia may induce craving. Cue-induced craving evoked by drug-related stimuli could be associated with relapse and recurrence of drug addiction. In this article, the authors review different methods of assessing craving in laboratory settings and explain how human laboratory settings can bridge the gap between randomized clinical trials (RCTs and animal models on pharmacological treatments for drug dependence. The brief reviewed literature provides strong evidence that laboratory-based studies of craving may improve our understanding of how subjective reports of drug craving are related to objective measures of drug abuse and laboratory settings provide an opportunity to measure the degree to which they co-vary during pharmacological interventions. This issue has important implications inclinical studies.

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid and Gaseous Waste Treatment System Strategic Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excellence in Laboratory operations is one of the three key goals of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Agenda. That goal will be met through comprehensive upgrades of facilities and operational approaches over the next few years. Many of ORNL's physical facilities, including the liquid and gaseous waste collection and treatment systems, are quite old, and are reaching the end of their safe operating life. The condition of research facilities and supporting infrastructure, including the waste handling facilities, is a key environmental, safety and health (ES and H) concern. The existing infrastructure will add considerably to the overhead costs of research due to increased maintenance and operating costs as these facilities continue to age. The Liquid Gaseous Waste Treatment System (LGWTS) Reengineering Project is a UT-Battelle, LLC (UT-B) Operations Improvement Program (OIP) project that was undertaken to develop a plan for upgrading the ORNL liquid and gaseous waste systems to support ORNL's research mission

  20. The effects of tricyclazole treatment on aquatic macroinvertebrates in the field and in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rossaro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tricyclazole treatments on benthic macroinvertebrates in the field and in laboratory were studied. In field conditions, low density of benthic populations was observed, both in treated and untreated plots, which was attributed to the short period of submersion of the rice field and high water temperature, fungicide treatments had no significant effect. Both laboratory acute toxicity test and a test using a mesocosm suggested a low toxicity of tricyclazole on invertebrates. A reduction of the macroinvertebrate density was observed only when tricyclazole concentration was applied at concentrations 100 times the ones tested in the field, acute toxicity test gave an LC50 after 48 h of 26 mg*L–1, in agreement with data obtained for other species.

  1. A comparison of a laboratory scale experiment with a field trial treatment using chlorpyrifos-methyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was carried out in which a field treatment of a small bulk of grain with chlorpyrifos-methyl was compared with a laboratory treatment of 1 kg of grain with 14C radiolabelled chlorpyrifos-methyl. The conditions under which the grain was maintained in the laboratory mimicked those of the field trial as closely as possible, with sampling and analysis being carried out at the same time and in a similar manner in both. The results from the two experiments were in general agreement with approx. 60% of the chlorpyrifos-methyl remaining intact at the end. A satisfactory level of biological control was achieved in the field trial. The use of the radio-label enabled more information about the fate of the degraded insecticide to be obtained from the laboratory experiment. The majority of this radioactivity comprised a fraction which remained within the grain tissue after solvent extraction. The level of activity in the grain tissues gradually increased with time but its nature is as yet unknown. The good agreement obtained between the residue profile and the breakdown patterns in both experiments would suggest that a laboratory scale experiment is a satisfactory model for the situation pertaining in a large scale field trial. (author)

  2. FY 1995 separation studies for liquid low-level waste treatment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During FY 1995, studies were continued to develop improved methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Focus in this reporting period was on (1) identifying the parameters that affect the selective removal of 90Sr and 137Cs, two of the principal radioactive contaminants expected in the waste; (2) validating the effectiveness of the treatment methods by testing an ac Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate; (3) evaluating the optimum solid/liquid separation techniques for the waste; (4) identifying potential treatment methods for removal of technetium from LLLW; and (5) identifying potential methods for stabilizing the high-activity secondary solid wastes generated by the treatment

  3. Mixed waste treatment options for wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has generated mixed wastes (MWs) during its daily operations. MWs contain both radioactive and hazardous components, as defined by the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency. Treatment and disposal of stored MWs, as well as future generated MWs, are required to meet all regulations specified by the regulating agencies. This report reviews proven and emerging technologies that can treat MWs. It also provides a method for selection of the appropriate technology for treatment of a particular waste stream. The report selects for further consideration various treatments that can be used to treat MWs that fall under Land Disposal Restrictions. The selection methodology was used to arrive at these treatments. 63 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs

  4. Laboratory Scale Study of Activated Sludge Process in Jet Loop Reactor for Waste WaterTreatment

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Patil; G. A. Usmani

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of Activated Sludge Process (ASP) for the treatment of synthetic wastewater and to develop a simple design criteria under local conditions.A laboratory scale Compact jet loop reactor model comprising of an aeration tank and final clarifier was used for this purpose.Settled synthetic wastewater was used as influent to the aeration tank. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of the influent and effluent was measured to find...

  5. Separation technologies for the treatment of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is collaborating with several DOE and international organizations to develop and evaluate: technologies for the treatment of acidic high-level radioactive wastes. The focus on the treatment of high-level radioactive wastes is on the removal of cesium and strontium from wastes typically 1 to 3 M in acidity. Technologies to treat groundwater contaminated with radionuclides and/or toxic metals. Technologies to remove toxic metals from hazardous or mixed waste streams, for neutral pH to 3 M acidic waste streams

  6. Separation technologies for the treatment of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, T.; Herbst, S.

    1996-10-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is collaborating with several DOE and international organizations to develop and evaluate: technologies for the treatment of acidic high-level radioactive wastes. The focus on the treatment of high-level radioactive wastes is on the removal of cesium and strontium from wastes typically 1 to 3 M in acidity. Technologies to treat groundwater contaminated with radionuclides and/or toxic metals. Technologies to remove toxic metals from hazardous or mixed waste streams, for neutral pH to 3 M acidic waste streams.

  7. Aptitude treatment effects of laboratory grouping method for students of differing reasoning ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, Frances; Munch, Theodore W.

    This study examines aptitude treatment effects in an inquiry/learning cycle based physical science class for elementary education majors. The aptitude was formal reasoning ability and the students were arranged into three groups: high, middle, and low ability reasoners. The treatment was method of forming groups to work in the laboratory. Students in each of three classes were grouped according to reasoning ability. In one class the laboratory groups were homogeneous, i.e., students of similar reasoning ability were grouped together. In the second class the students were grouped heterogeneously, i.e., students of different reasoning ability were grouped together. In the third class, the student choice pattern, the students chose their own partners. The findings were that there were no aptitude treatment interaction for achievement or for gain in formal reasoning ability, that grouping students of similar cognitive ability together for laboratory work in the class was more effective in terms of science achievement than grouping students of differing cognitive ability together or than allowing students to choose their own partners, and that students at different levels of reasoning ability experienced differential gains in that ability over the semester.

  8. Recommendations of treatment technologies for radioactively contaminated lead at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately one million pounds of radioactively contaminated lead are currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and must be treated according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This excess lead exists in various forms, including brick, sheet, shot, wool, blankets, steel-jacketed casks, scrap, and miscellaneous solids. Several lead treatment technologies were evaluated based on effectiveness, applicability, feasibility, availability of equipment and materials, health and safety, generation of secondary waste streams, cost, and flexibility. Emphasis is given in this report to those treatment technologies that yield recyclable lead products. Methods that treat lead for storage and disposal were also investigated. Specific treatment technologies for decontaminating the excess lead at the INEL are recommended. The proposed treatment for lead brick, sheet, shot, blankets, and scrap is a series of surface decontamination techniques followed by melt-refining, if necessary. The recommended series of treatments for lead casks begins with removing and macroencapsulating the steel jackets, followed by size reducing and melt-refining the lead. Macroencapsulation is the proposed treatment for miscellaneous lead solids. Recycling lead that has been successfully decontaminated and macroencapsulating or stabilizing the treatment residuals is also recommended

  9. Federal Facility Compliance Act: Conceptual Site Treatment Plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by section 3021(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (the Act), to prepare plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. The Act requires site treatment plans (STPs or plans) to be developed for each site at which DOE generates or stores mixed waste and submitted to the State or EPA for approval, approval with modification, or disapproval. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP) is the preliminary version of the plan required by the Act and is being provided to California, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and others for review. A list of the other DOE sites preparing CSTPs is included in Appendix 1.1 of this document. Please note that Appendix 1.1 appears as Appendix A, pages A-1 and A-2 in this document.

  10. Federal Facility Compliance Act: Conceptual Site Treatment Plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by section 3021(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (the Act), to prepare plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. The Act requires site treatment plans (STPs or plans) to be developed for each site at which DOE generates or stores mixed waste and submitted to the State or EPA for approval, approval with modification, or disapproval. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP) is the preliminary version of the plan required by the Act and is being provided to California, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and others for review. A list of the other DOE sites preparing CSTPs is included in Appendix 1.1 of this document. Please note that Appendix 1.1 appears as Appendix A, pages A-1 and A-2 in this document

  11. Treatment of 1,10-phenanthroline laboratory wastewater using the solar photo-Fenton process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The red Fe2+-phenanthroline complex is the basis of a classical spectrophotometric method for determination of iron. Due to the toxicity of this complexing agent, direct disposal of the wastewaters generated in analytical laboratories is not environmentally safe. This work evaluates the use of the solar photo-Fenton process for the treatment of laboratory wastewaters containing phenanthroline. Firstly, the degradation of phenanthroline in water was evaluated at two concentration levels (0.1 and 0.01%, w/v) and the efficiencies of degradation using ferrioxalate (FeOx) and ferric nitrate were compared. The 0.01% w/v solution presented much higher mineralization, achieving 82% after 30 min of solar irradiation with both iron sources. The solar photo-Fenton treatment of laboratory wastewater containing, in addition to phenanthroline, other organic compounds such as herbicides and 4-chlorophenol, equivalent to 4500 mg L-1 total organic carbon (TOC) resulted in total degradation of phenanthroline and 25% TOC removal after 150 min, in the presence of either FeOx or ferric nitrate. A ratio of 1:10 dilution of the residue increased mineralization in the presence of ferrioxalate, achieving 38% TOC removal after 120 min, while use of ferric nitrate resulted in only 6% mineralization over the same period

  12. Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus disease and corresponding biosafety considerations in the China Ebola Treatment Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qing; Fu, Wei-Ling; You, Jian-Ping; Mao, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD), caused by Ebola virus (EBOV), is a potent acute infectious disease with a high case-fatality rate. Etiological and serological EBOV detection methods, including techniques that involve the detection of the viral genome, virus-specific antigens and anti-virus antibodies, are standard laboratory diagnostic tests that facilitate confirmation or exclusion of EBOV infection. In addition, routine blood tests, liver and kidney function tests, electrolytes and coagulation tests and other diagnostic examinations are important for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of EVD. Because of the viral load in body fluids and secretions from EVD patients, all body fluids are highly contagious. As a result, biosafety control measures during the collection, transport and testing of clinical specimens obtained from individuals scheduled to undergo EBOV infection testing (including suspected, probable and confirmed cases) are crucial. This report has been generated following extensive work experience in the China Ebola Treatment Center (ETC) in Liberia and incorporates important information pertaining to relevant diagnostic standards, clinical significance, operational procedures, safety controls and other issues related to laboratory testing of EVD. Relevant opinions and suggestions are presented in this report to provide contextual awareness associated with the development of standards and/or guidelines related to EVD laboratory testing. PMID:26952811

  13. Cost-effectiveness of Voriconasole in treatment of invasive aspregillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Climko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is widespread infectious implication in immunodeficient patients, characterized by severe clinical manifestations and high mortality. This article presents the first case of pharmacoeconomical analysis of Voriconasole in treatment of IA compared with alternative therapies in Russia. Using mathematic modeling methods, we evalued total costs (including costs of IA treatment, clinical effectiveness and IA-related mortality in each therapy group. Obtained results showed the dominating of Voriconasole because of its high effectiveness and lower costs compared with caspofungine or amphotericine B. Total costs of therapy with Voricinasole were up to 30% lower compared with caspofungine and up to 70% lower compared with amphotericine B. Performed univariate sensitivity analysis showed that cost-effectiveness of anti-IA treatment depends mostly on clinical effectiveness of antimycotics rather than drug costs. Thus, treatment with Voriconasole is cost-effective in IA patients.

  14. Installation of laboratory scale flue gas treatment system at ALURTRON, MINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory scale test rig to treat simulated flue gas using electron beam technology was installed at the Alurtron EB-irradiation center, MINT. The experiment test rig was proposed as a result of a feasibility studies conducted jointly by IAEA, MINT and TNB Research in 1997. The test rig system consisted of several components, among other, diesel generator, gas analyzers and spray cooler. The installation was completed and commissioned in October 2001. Results from the commissioning test runs and subsequent experimental work showed that the efficiency of the gas treatment is high. It was proven that electron beam technology might be applied in the treatment of air pollutants. This paper describes the design and work function of the individual major components as well as the full system function. Results from the initial experimental works are also presented. (Author)

  15. Survey of subsurface treatment technologies for environmental restoration sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.

    2003-08-01

    This report provides a survey of remediation and treatment technologies for contaminants of concern at environmental restoration (ER) sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The sites that were evaluated include the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater, Technical Area V, and Canyons sites. The primary contaminants of concern at these sites include trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and nitrate in groundwater. Due to the low contaminant concentrations (close to regulatory limits) and significant depths to groundwater ({approx}500 feet) at these sites, few in-situ remediation technologies are applicable. The most applicable treatment technologies include monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation/denitrification to reduce the concentrations of TCE, PCE, and nitrate in the groundwater. Stripping technologies to remove chlorinated solvents and other volatile organic compounds from the vadose zone can also be implemented, if needed.

  16. Treatment feasibility of the acidic intermediate level radioactive liquid waste - a laboratory scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acidic ILW from PREFRE-2 have higher concentrations of U, Fe, Mn and TBP degraded products. During the pretreatment of this acidic ILW prior to ion exchange process, there was formation of large volumes of precipitate having poor settling characteristics. This was reducing the throughput of the processing plant. Laboratory scale studies were carried out to remove the precipitating constituents by solvent extraction using Di - 2 -Ethyl Hexyl Phosporic acid (D2EHPA). In single contact almost 99 % of U and Fe got extracted in D2EHPA in 0.2 M acidic condition. After making alkaline the aqueous part forms only small quantities of Mn(OH)2 precipitate. Decant of this is amenable for conventional ion exchange treatment. The low active effluent from RF resin column is amenable for chemical co-precipitation treatment. (author)

  17. Oak Ridge National Laboratory West End Treatment Facility simulated sludge vitrification demonstration, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Facility sites to convert hazardous and mixed wastes to a form suitable for permanent disposal. Vitrification, which has been declared the Best Demonstrated Available Technology for high-level radioactive waste disposal by the EPA, is capable of producing a highly durable wasteform that minimizes disposal volumes through organic destruction, moisture evaporation, and porosity reduction. However, this technology must be demonstrated over a range of waste characteristics, including compositions, chemistries, moistures, and physical characteristics to ensure that it is suitable for hazardous and mixed waste treatment. These wastes are typically wastewater treatment sludges that are categorized as listed wastes due to the process origin or organic solvent content, and usually contain only small amounts of hazardous constituents. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) West End Treatment Facility's (WETF) sludge is considered on of these representative wastes. The WETF is a liquid waste processing plant that generates sludge from the biodenitrification and precipitation processes. An alternative wasteform is needed since the waste is currently stored in epoxy coated carbon steel tanks, which have a limited life. Since this waste has characteristics that make it suitable for vitrification with a high likelihood of success, it was identified as a suitable candidate by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) for testing at CU. The areas of special interest with this sludge are (1) minimum nitrates, (2) organic destruction, and (3) waste water treatment sludges containing little or no filter aid

  18. Options Assessment Report: Treatment of Nitrate Salt Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Patrice Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-17

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognizes that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and that a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL’s preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  19. Options assessment report: Treatment of nitrate salt waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Patrice Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-16

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognized that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL's preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  20. Laboratory investigation of aluminum solubility and solid-phase properties following alum treatment of lake waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Jacob; Anderson, Michael A; Graham, Robert C

    2005-10-01

    Water samples from two southern California lakes adversely affected by internal nutrient loading were treated with a 20 mg/L dose of Al3+ in laboratory studies to examine Al solubility and solid-phase speciation over time. Alum [Al2(SO4)3 . 18 H2O] applications to water samples from Big Bear Lake and Lake Elsinore resulted in a rapid initial decrease in pH and alkalinity followed by a gradual recovery in pH over several weeks. Dissolved Al concentrations increased following treatment, reaching a maximum of 2.54 mg/L after 17 days in Lake Elsinore water and 0.91 mg/L after 48 days in Big Bear Lake water; concentrations in both waters then decreased to 45% gibbsite. These results were supported by geochemical modeling using Visual MINTEQ, with Al solubility putatively controlled by amorphous Al(OH)3 shortly after treatment and approaching that of microcrystalline gibbsite after about 150 days. These findings indicate that Al(OH)3 formed after alum treatment undergoes significant chemical and mineralogical changes that may alter its effectiveness as a reactive barrier to phosphorus release from lake sediments. PMID:16139325

  1. Options Assessment Report: Treatment of Nitrate Salt Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognizes that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and that a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL's preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  2. Lack of effect of cannabis-based treatment on clinical and laboratory measures in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centonze, Diego; Mori, Francesco; Koch, Giacomo; Buttari, Fabio; Codecà, Claudia; Rossi, Silvia; Cencioni, Maria Teresa; Bari, Monica; Fiore, Stefania; Bernardi, Giorgio; Battistini, Luca; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2009-12-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), and relief from pain and spasticity has been reported in MS patients self-medicating with marijuana. A cannabis-based medication containing Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (Sativex) has been approved in some countries for the treatment of MS-associated pain. The effects of this pharmaceutical preparation on other clinically relevant aspects of MS pathophysiology, however, are still unclear. In 20 MS patients, we measured the effects of Sativex on clinically measured spasticity and on neurophysiological and laboratory parameters that correlate with spasticity severity or with the modulation of the ECS. Sativex failed to affect spasticity and stretch reflex excitability. This compound also failed to affect the synthesis and the degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide, as well as the expression of both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors in various subpopulations of peripheral lymphocytes. PMID:19768368

  3. The statistical treatment implemented to obtain the planetary protection bioburdens for the Mars Science Laboratory mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudet, Robert A.

    2013-06-01

    NASA Planetary Protection Policy requires that Category IV missions such as those going to the surface of Mars include detailed assessment and documentation of the bioburden on the spacecraft at launch. In the prior missions to Mars, the approaches used to estimate the bioburden could easily be conservative without penalizing the project because spacecraft elements such as the descent and landing stages had relatively small surface areas and volumes. With the advent of a large spacecraft such as Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), it became necessary for a modified—still conservative but more pragmatic—statistical treatment be used to obtain the standard deviations and the bioburden densities at about the 99.9% confidence limits. This article describes both the Gaussian and Poisson statistics that were implemented to analyze the bioburden data from the MSL spacecraft prior to launch. The standard deviations were weighted by the areas sampled with each swab or wipe. Some typical cases are given and discussed.

  4. Laboratory Scale Study of Activated Sludge Process in Jet Loop Reactor for Waste WaterTreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Patil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of Activated Sludge Process (ASP for the treatment of synthetic wastewater and to develop a simple design criteria under local conditions.A laboratory scale Compact jet loop reactor model comprising of an aeration tank and final clarifier was used for this purpose.Settled synthetic wastewater was used as influent to the aeration tank. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of the influent and effluent was measured to find process efficiency at various mixed liquorvolatile suspended solids (MLVSS and hydraulic retention time (θ. The results of the studydemonstrated that an efficiency of above 95% could be obtained for COD if the ASP is operated atan MLVSS concentration of 3000 mg/L keeping an aeration time of 1 hour.In the present investigation the preliminary studies were carried out in a lab scale Jet loop reactor made of glass. Synthetic waste water having a composition of 1000 mg/L mixed with other nutrients such as Urea, Primary and secondary Potassium phosphates, Magnesium sulfate, Iron chloriderequired for the bacteria was prepared in the laboratory and reduction in COD and the increase inSuspended Solids (SSand the Sludge Volume Index (SVI were determined.

  5. Clinical feasibility and safety of a novel miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory in diagnosis and treatment for coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Ming; Han Yaling; Wang Geng; Yao Tianming; Sun Jingyang; Li Fei; Xu Kai

    2014-01-01

    Background The lack of medical facilities causes delayed diagnosis and treatment of coronary heart disease in remote mountainous area and/or at disaster site.The miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory was developed to be an intervention platform for coronary heart disease diagnosis and treatment by our team.Pre-clinical research indicated that the miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory performed well in the rescue of critical cardiovascular diseases,even ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical safety and timeliness of the miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory for emergent coronary interventional diagnosis and treatment.Methods X-ray radiation safety and disinfection efficacy in the miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory were tested during working status.Coronary angiography and/or percutaneous coronary intervention were performed in remote mountainous areas on patients who were first diagnosed as having coronary heart disease by senior interventional cardiologists.The percutaneous coronary intervention procedures and results from patients in the miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory were compared with patients who were treated in the hospital catheter lab.Results The X-ray radiation dosages in the miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory were 39.55 μGy/s,247.4 μGy/h,90.3 μGy/h and 39.4 μGy/h which were corresponded to 0 m,1 m,2 m and 3 m away from the tube central of the medium C-arm.And the radiation dosages used in the miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory were less than the corresponding positions in the hospital catheter lab.The numbers of bacteria colonies in the miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory in different environments range from (60±8) cfu/m3 to (120±10) cfu/m3 and met the demands of percutaneous coronary intervention.A total of 17 patients who received angiography in the miniature mobile

  6. Startup of the remote laboratory-scale waste-treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Remote Laboratory-Scale Waste-Treatment Facility was designed as a system to solidify small volumes of radioactive liquid wastes. The objectives in operating this facility are to evaluate solidification processes, determine the effluents generated, test methods for decontaminating the effluents, and provide radioactive solidified waste products for evaluation. The facility consists of a feed-preparation module, a waste-solidification module and an effluent-treatment module. The system was designed for remote installation and operation. Several special features for remotely handling radioactive materials were incorporated into the design. The equipment was initially assembled outside of a radiochemical cell to size and fabricate the connecting jumpers between the modules and to complete some preliminary design-verification tests. The equipment was then disassembled and installed in the radiochemical cell. When installation was completed the entire system was checked out with water and then with a nonradioactive simulated waste solution. The purpose of these operations was to start up the facility, find and solve operational problems, verify operating procedures and train personnel. The major problems experienced during these nonradioactive runs were plugging of the spray calciner nozzle and feed tank pumping failures. When these problems were solved, radioactive operations were started. This report describes the installation of this facility, its special remote design feature and the startup operations

  7. Conceptual Site Treatment Plan Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research Environmental Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, T.E.

    1993-10-01

    The Federal Facilities Compliance Act (the Act) of 1992 waives sovereign immunity for federal facilities for fines and penalties under the provisions of the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act, state, interstate, and local hazardous and solid waste management requirements. However, for three years the Act delays the waiver for violations involving US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The Act, however, requires that the DOE prepare a Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP) for each of its sites that generate or store mixed wastes (MWs). The purpose of the CSTP is to present DOE`s preliminary evaluations of the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating a site`s MW. This CSTP presents the preliminary capacity and technology evaluation for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR). The five identified MW streams at LEHR are evaluated to the extent possible given available information. Only one MW stream is sufficiently well defined to permit a technology evaluation to be performed. Two other MW streams are in the process of being characterized so that an evaluation can be performed. The other two MW streams will be generated by the decommissioning of inactive facilities onsite within the next five years.

  8. Conceptual Site Treatment Plan Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research Environmental Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Facilities Compliance Act (the Act) of 1992 waives sovereign immunity for federal facilities for fines and penalties under the provisions of the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act, state, interstate, and local hazardous and solid waste management requirements. However, for three years the Act delays the waiver for violations involving US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The Act, however, requires that the DOE prepare a Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP) for each of its sites that generate or store mixed wastes (MWs). The purpose of the CSTP is to present DOE's preliminary evaluations of the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating a site's MW. This CSTP presents the preliminary capacity and technology evaluation for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR). The five identified MW streams at LEHR are evaluated to the extent possible given available information. Only one MW stream is sufficiently well defined to permit a technology evaluation to be performed. Two other MW streams are in the process of being characterized so that an evaluation can be performed. The other two MW streams will be generated by the decommissioning of inactive facilities onsite within the next five years

  9. Treatment of laboratory wastewater in a tropical constructed wetland comparing surface and subsurface flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meutia, A A

    2001-01-01

    Wastewater treatment by constructed wetland is an appropriate technology for tropical developing countries like Indonesia because it is inexpensive, easily maintained, and has environmentally friendly and sustainable characteristics. The aim of the research is to examine the capability of constructed wetlands for treating laboratory wastewater at our Center, to investigate the suitable flow for treatment, namely vertical subsurface or horizontal surface flow, and to study the effect of the seasons. The constructed wetland is composed of three chambered unplanted sedimentation tanks followed by the first and second beds, containing gravel and sand, planted with Typha sp.; the third bed planted with floating plant Lemna sp.; and a clarifier with two chambers. The results showed that the subsurface flow in the dry season removed 95% organic carbon (COD) and total phosphorus (T-P) respectively, and 82% total nitrogen (T-N). In the transition period from the dry season to the rainy season, COD removal efficiency decreased to 73%, T-N increased to 89%, and T-P was almost the same as that in the dry season. In the rainy season COD and T-N removal efficiencies increased again to 95% respectively, while T-P remained unchanged. In the dry season, COD and T-P concentrations in the surface flow showed that the removal efficiencies were a bit lower than those in the subsurface flow. Moreover, T-N removal efficiency was only half as much as that in the subsurface flow. However, in the transition period, COD removal efficiency decreased to 29%, while T-N increased to 74% and T-P was still constant, around 93%. In the rainy season, COD and T-N removal efficiencies increased again to almost 95%. On the other hand, T-P decreased to 76%. The results show that the constructed wetland is capable of treating the laboratory wastewater. The subsurface flow is more suitable for treatment than the surface flow, and the seasonal changes have effects on the removal efficiency. PMID:11804141

  10. Best available technology for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midkiff, W.S.; Romero, R.L.; Suazo, I.L.; Garcia, R.; Parsons, R.M.

    1993-10-15

    The existing Los Alamos National Laboratory TA-50 liquid radioactive waste treatment plant RLWP has been in service for over thirty years, during this period many technical, regulatory, and processing changes have occurred. The existing facility can no longer comply with the demands and requirements for continued operation, and would not be able to comply with anticipated stringent future contaminant discharge limitations. Either a major upgrading or replacement of the existing facility is required. In order to assess the most appropriate means of providing an adequate facility to comply with predicted requirements for Ta-50, this Best Available Technology (BAT) Study was conducted to compare feasible technical and economic alternatives in order to define the most favorable technology configuration. This report consists of eleven sections. Section 1 provides a general introduction and background of the TA-50 operations and the basis for this study. Section 2 provides a technical discussion of the unit processes at TA-50 and several other comparable operations at other DOE sites. Section 3 addresses the evaluation and selection of appropriate treatment processes. Section 4 provides an analysis of environmental issues and concerns. Section 5 presents the rationale for the selection of preferred process configurations. Section 6 is the evaluation of operational issues. Section 7 addresses energy and resource use topics. Section 8 provides an economic analysis, and Section 9 summarizes the evaluation and the identification of the BAT. These sections are augmented by appendices. The report identifies the construction of a new radioactive liquid waste treatment facility as the BAT. Based on the information analyzed for this study, this option appears to provide the best combination of environmental compliance, operability, and economic value.

  11. Best available technology for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing Los Alamos National Laboratory TA-50 liquid radioactive waste treatment plant RLWP has been in service for over thirty years, during this period many technical, regulatory, and processing changes have occurred. The existing facility can no longer comply with the demands and requirements for continued operation, and would not be able to comply with anticipated stringent future contaminant discharge limitations. Either a major upgrading or replacement of the existing facility is required. In order to assess the most appropriate means of providing an adequate facility to comply with predicted requirements for Ta-50, this Best Available Technology (BAT) Study was conducted to compare feasible technical and economic alternatives in order to define the most favorable technology configuration. This report consists of eleven sections. Section 1 provides a general introduction and background of the TA-50 operations and the basis for this study. Section 2 provides a technical discussion of the unit processes at TA-50 and several other comparable operations at other DOE sites. Section 3 addresses the evaluation and selection of appropriate treatment processes. Section 4 provides an analysis of environmental issues and concerns. Section 5 presents the rationale for the selection of preferred process configurations. Section 6 is the evaluation of operational issues. Section 7 addresses energy and resource use topics. Section 8 provides an economic analysis, and Section 9 summarizes the evaluation and the identification of the BAT. These sections are augmented by appendices. The report identifies the construction of a new radioactive liquid waste treatment facility as the BAT. Based on the information analyzed for this study, this option appears to provide the best combination of environmental compliance, operability, and economic value

  12. Comparison of Galactomannan Detection, PCR-Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, and Real-Time PCR for Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis in a Neutropenic Rat Model and Effect of Caspofungin Acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Scotter, Jennifer M.; Chambers, Stephen T

    2005-01-01

    The performance of different in vitro diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) was investigated in a transiently neutropenic rat model. Rats were immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide and then inoculated intravenously with 1.5 × 104 CFU Aspergillus fumigatus spores. Animals were then either treated with caspofungin acetate, 1 mg/kg/day for 7 days, or not treated. PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), real-time PCR, and galactomannan (GM) detection were perfo...

  13. Bio sorption of uranium with Sargassum filipendula: use in treatment of effluents of laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International and National Standards establish methodologies for the management of radioactive waste in order to comply with radiological protection principles. Thus, it is necessary to find alternatives with both low cost and effective results. This work studied the use of brown algae Sargassum filipendula in its ability to remove uranium in waste generated in the environmental analysis laboratories of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry. At first, the kinetics of bio sorption was studied. This experiment was conducted on a batch at concentrations of 1 mg/L and 100 mg/L. Mathematical models of the first and second order were used to fit the experimental results. In evaluating the maximum removal capacity by marine biomass on a batch, different uranium concentrations were analyzed, and iso terms of bio sorption were plotted. The experimental results have been adjusted by Langmuir and Freundlich models. The Freundlich model presented the best correlation coefficients (0.99 and 0.94) for studies with an hour and three hours of contact, respectively. In order to determine the best conditions for removal of uranium using the Sargassum filipendula, it was necessary to hold experiments in a continuous flow. A study on the critical height of bed depth was carried out by filling a column with different masses of seaweed. It was obtained a lower outlet concentration o f uranium (0.07 mg/L) in 40 cm bed depth. This best height of bed was applied to the waste treatment of SEANA laboratories. It was monitored the increase of retention in biomass for a known quantity of uranium. The results showed an excellent uptake of uranium (1.25 mg U/g of biomass) even in the presence of other metals and reagents. Decontamination of the effluent for uranium reached values below those set by CONAMA for water classes I and II, making it possible to reuse the water. (author)

  14. Environmental assessment for the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory proposes to build, permit, and operate the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF) to treat explosive waste at LLNL`s Experimental Test Site, Site 300. It is also proposed to close the EWTF at the end of its useful life in accordance with the regulations. The facility would replace the existing Building 829 Open Burn Facility (B829) and would treat explosive waste generated at the LLNL Livermore Site and at Site 300 either by open burning or open detonation, depending on the type of waste. The alternatives addressed in the 1992 sitewide EIS/EIR are reexamined in this EA. These alternatives included: (1) the no-action alternative which would continue open burning operations at B829; (2) continuation of only open burning at a new facility (no open detonation); (3) termination of open burning operations with shipment of explosive waste offsite; and (4) the application of alternative treatment technologies. This EA examines the impact of construction, operation, and closure of the EWTF. Construction of the EWTF would result in the clearing of a small amount of previously disturbed ground. No adverse impact is expected to any state or federal special status plant or animal species (special status species are classified as threatened, endangered, or candidate species by either state or federal legislation). Operation of the EWTF is expected to result in a reduced threat to involved workers and the public because the proposed facility would relocate existing open burning operations to a more remote area and would incorporate design features to reduce the amount of potentially harmful emissions. No adverse impacts were identified for activities necessary to close the EWTF at the end of its useful life.

  15. Compatibility and competitiveness of a laboratory strain of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) after irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated under semi-natural field cage conditions sexual compatibility and competitiveness of a laboratory strain (LAB) compared to a wild population (TUC) of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann). The LAB strain is produced under semi-mass rearing conditions at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres facility (Tucuman, Argentina). Wild flies were obtained at Horco Molle (Tucuman, Argentina) from infested guava fruits. LAB pupae were irradiated (60Co) 48 h before adult emergence. The tested doses were 0 (control), 40, 70, and 100 Gy. Twenty-five males and 25 females each of TUC and LAB were released into cages and mating pairs collected. Only 1 irradiation dose was considered at a time. Females were separated and allowed to lay eggs into artificial fruits to estimate induced sterility from the corresponding hatching rate. Copulation start time did not differ significantly between strains nor among irradiation treatments. Copulation duration showed highly significant differences among irradiation doses, but no differences between strains. The index of sexual isolation (ISI) and the relative sterility index (RSI) indices indicated that LAB and TUC are fully compatible, males from TUC and LAB did not differ in mating competitiveness, and irradiation within the range tested did not affect these indices. Non-irradiated LAB females exhibited higher mating propensity than TUC ones. However, a significant reduction in the female relative performance index (FRPI) index was observed with increasing irradiation dose. The analysis of induced sterility indicated that treatment with 40 Gy reduces male fertility from about 80% to 0.75%, and higher doses produce total sterility. In females, the 40 Gy dose reduces fertility to about 2% and higher doses prevent egg laying. (author)

  16. A Laboratory Study of Natural Zeolite for Treatment of Fluorinated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A.

    2015-12-01

    Fluoride contamination is mainly induced in ground water by chemical interaction between water and fluoride bearing rocks and natural fluoridation is further catalyzed by anthropogenic activities. Elevated fluoride concentrations in the water bodies above the permissible limits are not only degrading water for drinking purposes but also to the agricultural, industrial as well as daily household needs. Fluoride content in water has been constantly a subject of serious concern to the concerned authorities. It is significantly contributing in increasing tolls of arthritis, brain and kidney diseases, cancer, male fertility issues and cases of thyroid diseases. Hence, the present study has been conducted to investigate the possibility of treating fluorinated water using zeolites. The capabilities of natural zeolites are attributed to their catalytic, molecular sieve, adsorption and ion-exchange properties which have been utilized in our laboratory experiment. The experiment was carried out in two phases. In the first phase of the experiment, the properties of zeolites were tested in solid and liquid phases using ICP-OES, SEM, EDX and IC tests. Physio-chemical alterations induced by zeolites in the fluid chemistry were monitored by analyzing fluid sample regularly for pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids, and by conducting metal and anion tests. In second phase, zeolite was used for treatment of fluorinated water with known concentration of fluoride, and the geochemical processes associated with fluoride remediation were monitored by conducting non-invasive, invasive geochemical and physical measurements at regular time periods on the water samples collected from both control column and the experiment column. Results thus obtained in this study showed decrease in fluoride concentration over time, indicating the possibility of use of zeolites in treatment of fluorinated water.

  17. 伊曲康唑和卡泊芬净治疗严重烧伤患者真菌感染的疗效对比及安全性分析%Comparison of Effect and Safety Analysis of Deep Fungal Infections in Severe Burn Patients Cured by Itraconazole and Caspofungin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文元; 周静; 徐银兰; 李文生; 李刚; 卢文霄; 裴敬仲

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察和对比严重烧伤合并真菌感染患者分别采用伊曲康唑和卡泊芬净进行治疗的临床疗效,旨在为临床用药提供有效依据. 方法 该研究收集2012年5月—2015年5月该院接诊的60例严重烧伤合并侵袭性真菌感染患者,通过随机数字列表法将所有患者随机分成对照组(n=30例)和研究组(n=30例). 对照组30例患者给予伊曲康唑进行治疗,研究组30例患者给予卡泊芬净进行治疗.观察和对比两组患者的临床治疗效果.结果 研究组患者治疗后的总有效率为(90.0%),明显高于对照组治疗后的总有效率(76.67%), 差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05). 研究组患者的不良反应发生率(0.0%)明显低于对照组(26.67%),差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论 与伊曲康唑对比,卡泊芬净在严重烧伤合并真菌感染患者治疗中的疗效和安全性更具优势,值得推广.%Objective To observe and analyze the clinical effects of deep fungal infections in severe burn patients cured by itraconazole and caspofungin and to provide effective basis for clinical use of drugs. Methods 60 patients with severe burn combined with invasive fungal infection and who accepted treatments in our hospital from May, 2012 to May, 2014 were taken as the research objects, and these patients were randomly divided into the control group and the study group accord-ing to the random number list method, with 30 patients in each group. In the control group, they were treated with the itra-conazole while in the study group,they were treated with the caspofungin. Then,the clinical effects of these two groups of patients were compared.Resluts The response rate in the study group was 90.00%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group was 76.67%and the differences had the statistical significance(P<0.05).In addition, the incidence of ad-verse reactions in the study group was 0%),which was significantly lower than that in the control group (26

  18. Electrical processes for the treatment of medium active liquid wastes: a laboratory-scale evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide range of electrochemical separation processes has been evaluated through literature and experimental studies for potential application to the treatment of medium-active liquid wastes. Of the ten processes considered, electro-osmosis and electrochemical ion-exchange show the most promise for immediate further development to a larger scale, while the faradaic deposition of PuO2, Tc, RuO2 require further laboratory study before judgement can be passed on these. Electro-osmosis has an exceptionally high solids retention (99.99%) and is capable of dewatering suspensions to 35% - suitable for direct incorporation in concrete. Electrochemical ion-exchange has the attractions of a conventional ion-exchange process but with the added features of enhanced kinetics and pH operating range, as well as elution into demineralized water merely by polarity reversal. All electrical processes have the advantage of the added process variable of externally applied potential, which can enable remote, automatic control. (author)

  19. Electrical processes for the treatment of medium-active liquid wastes: a laboratory-scale evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide range of electrochemical separation processes have been evaluated through the literature and experimental studies for potential application to the treatment of medium-active liquid wastes. Of the 10 processes considered, electro-osmosis and electrochemical ion-exchange show the most promise for immediate further development to a larger scale, while the faradic deposition of PuO2, Tc, RuO2 require further laboratory study before judgment can be passed on these. Electro-osmosis has an exceptionally high solids retention (99.99%) and is capable of dewatering suspensions to 35% - suitable for direct incorporation in concrete. Electrochemical ion-exchange has the attractions of a conventional ion-exchange process but with the added features of enhanced kinetics and pH operating range, as well as elution into demineralized water merely by polarity reversal. All electrical processes have the advantage of the added process variable of externally applied potential, which can enable remote, automatic control

  20. Treatment process for MSW combustion fly ash laboratory and pilot plant experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilewska-Bien, M; Lundberg, M; Steenari, B-M; Theliander, H

    2007-01-01

    Fly ash from combustion of municipal solid waste sometimes contains large amounts of soluble salts, such as NaCl, even though the content of soluble toxic metal compounds is relatively low. Removal of the salts by washing with water has been suggested as a method to increase the stability of this type of ash. In the work presented here, a simple washing process was studied and evaluated. The process includes three steps: leaching with water, filtration and displacement washing. Basic data were obtained in laboratory experiments and used in the construction of pilot plant equipment at a full size fluidized bed boiler, where a side-stream of the cyclone ash was treated. The process was designed to minimize the water consumption while obtaining an effective removal of salts and a stable ash residue. In order to achieve this, recirculation of leaching liquor was used and the displacement washing was adjusted to become close to ideal. The results showed that an ash/water slurry with a liquid to solid ratio as low as 3 could be handled without difficulty in the mixing, pumping and filtration units. Washing of the filter cake at a liquid to solid ratio of 0.5 removed the major part of the remaining dissolved salts in the pore liquid. About 90% of the chloride content was removed from the ash, whereas the contents of Na, K, Ca, Cd, Pb and a number of other minor elements were removed by 10-30%. Before treatment, the results of ash leaching tests were sometimes too high for chloride (2003/33/EC), but the treatment reduced the amount of soluble chlorides to far below the limit values. The leachability of most metals was reduced or unaffected by the ash treatment. For Na, K and Cl, it was less than 10% of the value for the untreated ash. However, the results showed that some ash components may be mobilized by the washing. Antimony is the most important due to its toxicity. PMID:17157492

  1. Sustainable Treatment and Reuse of Diluted Pig Manure Streams in Russia: From Laboratory Trials to Full-Scale Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.; Sklyar, V.; Epov, A.; Arkhipchenko, I.; Barboulina, I.; Orlova, O.; Kovalev, A.; Nozhevnikova, A.; Klapwijk, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained during the laboratory and pilot development of integrated biologic and physicochemical treatment and reuse of diluted pig manure streams. The application of a straw filter was an effective means to separate the solid and liquid fractions of raw wastewater

  2. 2015 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2014, through October 31, 2015.

  3. Tularemia in Children: Evaluation of Clinical, Laboratory and Treatment Outcomes of 15 Tularemia Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Koyuncu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tularemia is a zoonotic diseases caused by Francisella tularensis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory findings of 15 children with the diagnosis of tularemia.Materials and Methods: Fifteen cases admitted with fever, sore throat, lymphadenopathy and a F. tularensis antibody titer of 1/160 and above in the microagglutination test (MAT were evaluated retrospectively. Their sociodemographic characteristics, contact with animals, history of tick bite, duration of complaints, clinical and laboratory findings, treatments and clinical courses were studied.Results: The mean age of patients was 11.5±5.1 (3-17 years and 61.3% were male. Fifty-three percent of the patients were living in rural areas, and had contact with contaminated water. Swelling in the neck (93.3%, sore throat (66.7% and fever (66.7% were the most frequently observed symptoms. Oropharyngeal tularemia (66.7% was predominated. In 27% of the patients LAPs were drained surgically, and in 13.3% of cases they were drained by itself. The mean duration between onset of tularemia symptoms and diagnosis was 53±45.3 (5-150 days. Sixty percent of patients were received beta-lactam-antibiotics before admission. It was noted that 6 patients with suppurative lymph nodes were admitted to hospital within median 61 (20-150 days, while others were admitted within median 35 (5-75 days (p<0.05. Mean leukocyte count was 8558.6±1384.5 (6030-11400/mm3, mean CRP was 5.8±2.9 (1-6.7 mg/dl, and mean ESR was 33.1±28.9 (6-103 mm/h. MAT showed that titers ranged from 1/160 to 1/1280. Gentamicin was given in seven patients (47%, streptomycin in five patients (33%, and doxycycline in 3 patients (20%.Conclusions: Tularemia should to be taken into account in the differential diagnosis in patients having tonsillopharyngitis and cervical lymphadenopathy without response to beta-lactam antibiotics in rural areas. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2013;11:61-6

  4. Effect of systemic isotretinoin treatment on laboratory variables in patients with acne and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydar Uçak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Isotretinoin (ISO is a synthetic retinoid that is a preferred drug for unresponsive to conventional therapy in the treatment of severe cystic acne. In this study, to evaluate retrospectively laboratory values in patients with acne using oral ISO treatment was aimed. Methods: 40 patients were enrolled to the study that admitted to the dermatology clinic and clinically diagnosed as acne vulgaris and oral isotretinoin treatment was started. Patient’s retreatment and 3rd month of the teatment values of liver function tests (AST, ALT, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL and triglyceride (TG levels were obtained by screening of files. Results:Compared to values of patients before and 3rd month of treatment, statistically significant differences was detected for total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, TG and AST values (p<0.001, p<0.001, p= 0.003, p= 0.01, p=0.001 respectively. Conclusion: We think that starting a good diet before treatment would be useful to prevent TG disorder. In addition, we believe it would be useful to do strict laboratory follow in patients with familial hypertriglyceridemia during treatment. We believe that it is more necessary to follow up the blood lipid values rather than liver and kidney function tests. However, we also think that it would be sufficient to follow up once every 2 or 3 months.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of three echinocandins and fluconazole in the treatment of candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis in nonneutropenic adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grau S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available S Grau,1 JC Pozo,2 E Romá,2 M Salavert,3 JA Barrueta,4 C Peral,4 I Rodriguez,5 D Rubio-Rodríguez,6 C Rubio-Terrés6 1Hospital del Mar (IMIM, Barcelona, 2Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, Córdoba, 3Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, 4Pfizer SLU, Alcobendas, 5Trial Form Support, Madrid, 6Health Value, Madrid, Spain Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of three echinocandins (anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin and generic fluconazole in the treatment of nonneutropenic adult patients with candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis in intensive care units in Spain. Materials and methods: A decision-tree model was applied. The success and safety (hepatic and renal adverse effects of first-line treatments were obtained from meta-analyses and systematic reviews of clinical trials. In the case of failure, a second-line treatment (liposomal amphotericin B after the echinocandins, or one of the echinocandins after fluconazole was administered. The duration of the treatments (14 days total was established by a panel of clinical experts using the Delphi method and according to Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines. The cost of the medications and renal toxicity were considered. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations were carried out. Results: The total cost of the treatment of candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis with anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, and fluconazole was €5,483, €5,968, €6,231, and €2,088, respectively. Anidulafungin was the dominant treatment (more effective, less expensive compared to micafungin and caspofungin. The cost of achieving one more patient successfully treated with anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin compared to fluconazole was €17,199, €23,962, and €27,339, respectively. The result remained stable, despite modification of the duration of the first-line and second-line treatments, as well as most of the

  6. Laboratory evaluation of the utilization of hydrogen peroxide for enhanced biological treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminanats in soilsoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the laboratory study was to evaluate the benefit of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition to soil as a source of molecular oxygen for enhanced biological treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contaminants (JP-5, diesel fuel, and lubricating oil) by the indigenous microflora. Hydrogen peroxide is a strong oxidant and a potential source of molecular oxygen for enhanced biological treatment. In this laboratory study, the benefit of H2O2 addition to soil was evaluated using synthetic and field-contaminated samples. The study was designed toe valuate PHC biodegradation potential by the indigenous microflora in clean sand and humus that had been spiked with JP-5, diesel fuel, or lubricating oil and in PHC-contaminated soil that had been collected from three contaminated soil staging areas that were used for the temporary staging of soils containing JP-5, diesel fuel, or waste lubricating oil

  7. Internal Treatment of Process Waters in Paper Production by Dissolved Air Flotation with Newly Developed Chemicals. 1. Laboratory Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Carreño, Rubén; Negro Álvarez, Carlos Manuel; Blanco Suárez, Ángeles

    2009-01-01

    New chemicals, based on the synergistic effect between inorganic polyaluminium salts and organic cationic polyelectrolytes, have been tested for the chemical optimization of a dissolved air flotation (DAF) unit, used as internal treatment of process waters in a paper mill based on 100% recovered paper. Laboratory tests have demonstrated that polyamine modifications of the aluminum salts are the most efficient in the removal of contaminants, the combination of a polyaluminium nitrate sulfate s...

  8. 2010 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 2.2 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  9. 2012 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2011, through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2012 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant.

  10. The quality of sputum smear microscopy in public-private mix directly observed treatment laboratories in West Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaw Manalebh

    Full Text Available Ethiopia adopted Public-Private Mix Directly Observed Treatment Short Course Chemotherapy (PPM-DOTS strategy for tuberculosis (TB control program. Quality of sputum smear microscopy has paramount importance for tuberculosis control program in resource-poor countries like Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the quality of sputum smear microscopy in 37 Public-Private Mix laboratories in West Amhara, Ethiopia. The three external quality assessment methods (onsite evaluation, panel testing and blind rechecking were employed. Onsite assessment revealed that 67.6% of PPM-DOTS laboratories were below the standard physical space (5 X 6 m2. The average monthly workload per laboratory technician was 19.5 (SD±2.9 slides with 12.8% positivity rate. The quality of Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB staining reagents was sub-standard. The overall agreement for blind rechecking of 1,123 AFB slides was 99.4% (Kappa = 0.97. Reading of 370 AFB panel slides showed 3.5% false reading (Kappa = 0.92. Moreover, the consistency of reading scanty bacilli slides was lower (93% compared to 1+, 2+ and 3+ bacilli. Based on blind rechecking and panel testing results, PPM-DOTS site laboratories showed good agreement with the reference laboratory. Physical space and qualities of AFB reagents would be areas of intervention to sustain the quality of sputum smear microscopy. Therefore, regular external quality assessment and provision of basic laboratory supplies for TB diagnosis would be the way forward to improve the quality of sputum smear microscopy services in PPM-DOTS laboratories.

  11. Design and installation of a laboratory-scale system for radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described are the mechanical design features and remote installation of a laboratory-scale radiochemical immobilization system which is to provide a means at Pacific Northwest Laboratory of studying effluents generated during solidification of high-level liquid radioactive waste. Detailed are the hot cell, instrumentation, two 4-in. and 12-in. service racks, the immobilization system modules - waste feed, spray calciner unit, and effluent - and a gamma emission monitor system for viewing calcine powder buildup in the spray calciner/in-can melter

  12. Treatment and final disposal of nuclear waste. Aespoe hard rock laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific investigations within SBK's research programme are a part of the work of designing a deep repository and identifying and investigating a suitable site. A balanced appraisal of the facts, requirements and assessments presented in connection with the preparation of R and D-programme 86 led to the proposal to construct an underground research laboratory. This proposal was presented in the aforementioned research programme and was very positively recived by the reviewing bodies. In the autumn of 1986, SKB initiated the field work for the siting of an underground laboratory, the Aespoe hard rock laboratory, in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. At the end of 1988, SKB arrived at a decision in principle to site the facility on southern Aespoe about 2 km north of the Oskarshamn nuclear power station. After regulatory review, SKB ordered the excavation of the access tunnel to the Aespoe hard rock laboratory to commence in the autumn of 1990. In conjunction with the tunneling work, which has now (September 1992) reached a depth of more than 200 m, a large number of investigations have been carried out. This background report to SKB's RD and D-programme 92 is based on the previous and 89 /2/. The report provides a general background and presents goals, projects results obtained to date and future work. Compared to the previous background reports, more space is devoted here to experiment planning and the future demonstration programme. (au)

  13. Design and validation of laboratory-scale simulations for selecting tribomaterials and surface treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-05-01

    Engineering approaches to solving tribology problems commonly involve friction, lubrication, or wear testing, either in the field or in a laboratory setting. Since wear and friction are properties of the materials in the larger context of the tribosystem, the selection of appropriate laboratory tribotesting procedures becomes critically important. Laboratory simulations must exhibit certain key characteristics of the application in order for the test results to be relevant, but they may not have to mimic all operating conditions. The current paper illustrates a step-by-step method to develop laboratory-scale friction and wear simulations based on a tribosystem analysis. Quantitative or qualitative metrics are established and used to validate the effectiveness of the tribosimulation. Sometimes standardized test methods can be used, but frequently a new type of test method or procedure must be developed. There are four factors to be addressed in designing effective simulations: (1) contact macrogeometry and the characteristics of relative motion, (2) pressure--velocity relationships, (3) thermal and chemical environment (including type of lubrication), and (4) the role of third-bodies. In addition, there are two typical choices of testing philosophy: (1) the worst-case scenario and, (2) the nominal-operations scenario. Examples of the development and use of simulative friction and wear tests are used to illustrate major points.

  14. Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory for Idaho Cleanup Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patented THORR steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected as the technology of choice for treatment of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP). SBW is an acidic tank waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at INL. It consists primarily of waste from decontamination activities and laboratory wastes. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid, alkali and aluminum nitrates, with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium and strontium. The THORR steam reforming process will convert the SBW tank waste feed into a dry, solid, granular product. The THORR technology was selected to treat SBW, in part, because it can provide flexible disposal options to accommodate the final disposition path selected for SBW. THORR can produce a final end-product that will meet anticipated requirements for disposal as Remote-Handled TRU (RH-TRU) waste; and, with modifications, THORR can also produce a final end-product that could be qualified for disposal as High Level Waste (HLW). SBW treatment will be take place within the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU), a new facility that will be located at the INTEC. This paper provides an overview of the THORR process chemistry and process equipment being designed for the IWTU. (authors)

  15. Pilot studies to achieve waste minimization and enhance radioactive liquid waste treatment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive and Industrial Wastewater Science Group manages and operates the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The RLWTF treats low-level radioactive liquid waste generated by research and analytical facilities at approximately 35 technical areas throughout the 43-square-mile site. The RLWTF treats an average of 5.8 million gallons (21.8-million liters) of liquid waste annually. Clarifloculation and filtration is the primary treatment technology used by the RLWTF. This technology has been used since the RLWTF became operable in 1963. Last year the RLWTF achieved an average of 99.7% removal of gross alpha activity in the waste stream. The treatment process requires the addition of chemicals for the flocculation and subsequent precipitation of radionuclides. The resultant sludge generated during this process is solidified in drums and stored or disposed of at LANL

  16. Laboratory recommendations for scoring deep molecular responses following treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cross, N. C. P.; White, H. E.; Colomer, D.;

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with tyrosine kinase inhibitors has advanced to a stage where many patients achieve very low or undetectable levels of disease. Remarkably, some of these patients remain in sustained remission when treatment is withdrawn, suggesting that they may be at ...

  17. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Laboratory evaluation of in situ vapor stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the study described in this report was to determine the efficiency of vapor stripping coupled with soil mixing for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from clay soils such as those that underlie the PORTS X-231B Solid Waste Management Unit. This was accomplished by conducting experiments wherein contaminated soil cores were treated in the laboratory using a system that simulated a field-scale vapor stripping/soil mixing treatment process. Treatment efficiencies obtained using several sets of process conditions, such as air temperature and flow rate, were determined through subsampling of the soil cores to establish pre- and posttreatment levels of VOCs in the soil. Two series of experiments were conducted under this study. In the first series, laboratory treatment was performed on intact soil cores that were taken from contaminated zones within the PORTS X-231B Unit using sampler liners that could be adapted as reaction lysimeters. Since soil core disturbance was minimized using this approach, the treatability experiments were conducted on soil that was fairly close to in situ conditions in terms of both soil structure and contaminant levels. The second series of experiments were performed on cores that were packed using X-231B soil and spiked with known amounts of trichloroethylene (TCE). This approach was taken for the second series because the VOC levels in the intact cores were found to be much lower than field values. In addition, the packed cores were smaller than the intact soil cores, with treatment volumes that were about a fifth of the treatment volumes in the intact soil cores. The smaller packed cores were not only easier to handle but were also more reliably characterized due to smaller treatment volumes from which samples were taken

  18. Performance of a Laboratory-scale Microalgae Pond for Secondary Treatment of Distillery Wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Travieso, L.; Benítez, F.; Sánchez, E.; Borja, R.; De León, M; Raposo, F.; Rincón, B.

    2008-01-01

    Distillery waste disposal is one of the major problems being faced by all nations across the globe. To diminish its organic loading, the distillery waste is treated before its final disposal by biological processes. Microalgae pond gives a way to solve this situation. An evaluation of the performance of a laboratory-scale microalgae pond treating distillery waste previously treated in an anaerobic filter was carried out. The microalgae pond operated with an effluent recycling (R) of 10:1 w...

  19. Modeling stress and drug craving in the laboratory: implications for addiction treatment development

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajita

    2008-01-01

    Addition is a chronic relapsing illness affected by multiple social, individual and biological factors that significantly impact course and recovery of the illness. Stress interacts with these factors and increases addiction vulnerability and relapse risk, thereby playing a significant role in the course of the illness. This paper reviews our efforts in developing and validating laboratory models of stress and drug cue-related provocation to assess stress responses and stress-related adaptati...

  20. Evaluation of periodontitis treatment effects on carotid intima-media thickness and expression of laboratory markers related to atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toregeani, Jeferson Freitas; Nassar, Carlos Augusto; Nassar, Patrícia Oehlmeyer; Toregeani, Krischina Mendes; Gonzatto, Geyssi Karolyne; Vendrame, Rafael; Castilhos, Jussimar Scheffer; Rotta, Larissa Sokol; Reinheimer, Andréia Carpenedo; Longoni, Anelise; Barcella, Mariana Waterkemper Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the treatment of periodontal disease and its effects on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and expression of laboratory markers related to atherosclerosis. Twenty-three healthy patients (group 1) and 21 patients with moderate to severe periodontitis (group 2) underwent evaluation of clinical periodontal parameters. The patients were submitted to CIMT measurements and laboratory evaluations at the start of the study (0 months), 6 months, and 12 months. All patients received oral hygiene instruction; patients in group 2 also underwent supragingival and subgingival scaling and root planing. A statistically significant improvement in clinical periodontal parameters occurred in both groups (P periodontal instrumentation in group 2--were effective in improving clinical periodontal parameters of both groups and promoting reduction in CIMT at 6 months. PMID:26742169

  1. Treatment of arsenic containing artificial wastewater in different laboratory-scale constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Zillur Rahman, Khaja

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge regarding dynamics of As-species and their interactions under gradient redox conditions in the rhizosphere of treatment wetlands is still insufficient. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the fundamental processes and mechanisms operative in treatment wetlands to realise long-term stability and high As-removal efficiencies, both in the presence and absence of wetland plants. In the past, little attention has been paid to the biotransformation processes and metabolism of As in c...

  2. Greenhouse and laboratory study for the land application of water treatment residual

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Jay B.

    1991-01-01

    The disposal of water treatment residual has received little attention due to a lack of regulation, funding, and concern about their environmental impacts. Many treatment plants discharge alum residual directly into nearby water courses or dewater them for landfilling. If suitable land is available, land application of residual is cost effective and has the potential for negligible effects on the environment and may prove to be a long-term solution to the disposal problem. This...

  3. Evaluation of operating characteristics for a chabazite zeolite system for treatment of process wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, T.E.; Perona, J.J.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Taylor, P.A.

    1998-02-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale testing were performed for development and design of a chabazite zeolite ion-exchange system to replace existing treatment systems at the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The process wastewater treatment systems at ORNL need upgrading to improve efficiency, reduce waste generation, and remove greater quantities of contaminants from the wastewater. Previous study indicated that replacement of the existing PWTP systems with an ion-exchange system using chabazite zeolite will satisfy these upgrade objectives. Pilot-scale testing of the zeolite system was performed using a commercially available ion-exchange system to evaluate physical operating characteristics and to validate smaller-scale column test results. Results of this test program indicate that (1) spent zeolite can be sluiced easily and completely from a commercially designed vessel, (2) clarification followed by granular anthracite prefilters is adequate pretreatment for the zeolite system, and (3) the length of the mass transfer zone was comparable with that obtained in smaller-scale column tests. Laboratory studies were performed to determine the loading capacity of the zeolite for selected heavy metals. These test results indicated fairly effective removal of silver, cadmium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc from simple water solutions. Heavy-metals data collected during pilot-scale testing of actual wastewater indicated marginal removal of iron, copper, and zinc. Reduced effectiveness for other heavy metals during pilot testing can be attributed to the presence of interfering cations and the relatively short zeolite/wastewater contact time. Flocculating agents (polyelectrolytes) were tested for pretreatment of wastewater prior to the zeolite flow-through column system. Several commercially available polyelectrolytes were effective in flocculation and settling of suspended solids in process wastewater.

  4. Experience of radiation treatment of laboratory and farm animal feeds in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The testing of methods suitable for the disinfection and sterilization of farm and laboratory animal feeds, and research into the effects of the methods on feeds and animals, started in Hungary within the last decade. Altogether, 871 tonnes of feeds sterilized and disinfected by various methods were used in 1976 for the feeding of farm and laboratory animals. Gamma radiation was used for sterilization of approx. 90 tonnes. Feeds for SPF animals were sterilized mainly at 1.5 Mrad, but 2.0-2.5 Mrad levels were also used. Feeds for germ-free animals were sterilized at a level of 4.5 Mrad. Experience gained over the past ten years has shown that irradiation at levels between 1.5 and 2.5 Mrad is excellent for the sterilization of mouse, rat, guinea pig and poultry feeds. Quality deterioration of the feeds remained slight and only slight decomposition of vitamins A and E and among the essential amino acids of lysine was observed. The irradiated feeds were readily consumed by the animals. In some cases, e.g. mice and rats, it was observed that weight gain in groups receiving irradiated diets exceeded that in groups fed on untreated or autoclaved diets, and at the same time the daily feed consumption in the groups receiving irradiated feed also increased. No adverse effect on reproduction and health of the farm and laboratory animals fed on irradiated feeds was observed. In Hungary the widespread use of feeds sterilized by irradiation is hindered, in spite of several advantages over feeds sterilized by conventional methods, mainly by the high cost of the irradiation and the supplemental costs associated with special packing and delivery. Therefore only a modest increase in the utilization of irradiated feeds can be expected in the next few years. (author)

  5. Laboratory measurements of the influence of air treatment devices on radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents laboratory measurements in which the effect of air cleaners on radon decay products has been studied. Experiments show that both a high-efficiency particulate air filter and an electrostatic precipitator substantially decrease the total airborne radon daughter concentration leading to a situation where most of the decay products are unattached. However, in some situations the concentration of fine particles generated by the corona discharge in the electronic air cleaner becomes high enough to increase the total radon daughter concentration and decrease the free decay product concentration. Impurities in the air may have a notable role in the formation of these condensation nuclei. (Author)

  6. Spent fuel treatment and mineral waste form development at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. Both mineral and metal high-level waste forms will be produced. The mineral waste form will contain the active metal fission products and the transuranics. Cold small-scale waste form testing has been on-going at Argonne in Illinois. Large-scale testing is commencing at ANL-West

  7. Removal of radioactive contaminants from aqueous laboratory wastes by chemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following conclusions can be drawn from the studies reported. The presence of suspended matter (i.e., clay) in the spiked tapwater solution improved the plutonium removals; however, the addition of clinoptilolite to the plant raw feed did not provide any noticeable improvement for plutonium removal. The addition of powdered clinoptilolite to the regular treatment in the plant significantly improved the removal of 137Cs, but had little effect on plutonium or 90Sr removal. Magnesium sulfate-lime-TSP (trisodium phosphate) treatment in the plant performed adequately, but not as well as the regular ferric sulfate-lime-TSP treatment. However, magnesium appears to be an adequate alternate during occasions of non-typical influents. A large portion of the plutonium is associated with the suspended solids matter in the waste. Autoradiographs indicate that the plutonium is generally evenly distributed, with some occasional hot spots

  8. The centrality of laboratory services in the HIV treatment and prevention cascade: The need for effective linkages and referrals in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemnji, George; Fonjungo, Peter; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Peter, Trevor; Kantor, Rami; Nkengasong, John

    2014-05-01

    Strong laboratory services and systems are critical for delivering timely and quality health services that are vital to reduce patient attrition in the HIV treatment and prevention cascade. However, challenges exist in ensuring effective laboratory health systems strengthening and linkages. In particular, linkages and referrals between laboratory testing and other services need to be considered in the context of an integrated health system that includes prevention, treatment, and strategic information. Key components of laboratory health systems that are essential for effective linkages include an adequate workforce, appropriate point-of-care (POC) technology, available financing, supply chain management systems, and quality systems improvement, including accreditation. In this review, we highlight weaknesses of and gaps between laboratory testing and other program services. We propose a model for strengthening these systems to ensure effective linkages of laboratory services for improved access and retention in care of HIV/AIDS patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24742299

  9. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  10. 2013 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2012, through October 31, 2013. The report contains, as applicable, the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. However, soil samples were collected in October from soil monitoring unit SU-014101.

  11. Preliminary siting criteria for the proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office. This facility will provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies the siting requirements imposed on facilities that treat and store these waste types by Federal and State regulatory agencies and the US Department of Energy. Site selection criteria based on cost, environmental, health and safety, archeological, geological and service, and support requirements are presented. These criteria will be used to recommend alternative sites for the new facility. The National Environmental Policy Act process will then be invoked to evaluate the alternatives and the alternative sites and make a final site determination

  12. Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps

  13. Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-06-24

    The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps.

  14. The fate of MtBE during Fenton-like treatments through laboratory scale column tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscitelli, Daniela; Zingaretti, Daniela; Verginelli, Iason; Gavasci, Renato; Baciocchi, Renato

    2015-12-01

    In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) based on the Fenton's process is a proven technology for the treatment of groundwater contaminated by organic compounds. Nevertheless, the application of this treatment process to methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) is questioned, as there are concerns about its capacity to achieve complete mineralization. Many existing studies have focused on water contaminated by MtBE and are thus not representative of in situ treatments since they do not consider the presence of soil. In this work, the effectiveness of a Fenton-like process for MtBE treatment was proven in soil column tests performed at operating conditions (i.e., oxidant and contaminant concentration and flow rates) resembling those typically used for in situ applications. No MtBE by-products were detected in any of the tested conditions, thus suggesting that the tert-butyl group of MtBE was completely degraded. A mass balance based on the CO2 produced was used as evidence that most of the MtBE removed was actually mineralized. Finally, the obtained results show that preconditioning of soil with a chelating agent (EDTA) significantly enhanced MtBE oxidation.

  15. 实验室废水的危害及处理%The Dangers of Laboratory Wastewater and Its Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟

    2014-01-01

    针对化学实验消耗大量的化学药品,如酸、碱、盐和有机物等,其中大多是有害物质且易溶于水。因此,实验室所排出的大量废水便成了污水,对环境和人类健康造成了严重的影响和危害。阐述了实验室废水的危害,提出通过实验室管道布置和污水处理来推进绿色化学、保护环境及人类健康,实现可持续发展。%Aimed at a mass of chemicals like acid, alkali, salt and organics consumed in chemical experiment, the most of them are hazardous substances and soluble in water. Therefore the waste water discharged from Labo-ratory becomes sewage which can cause serious influence and harm for the environment and human health. Based on that the dangers of wastewater from laboratory were set forth, the boosting green chemistry, protecting the en-vironment and human health and realizing sustainable development were put forward through laboratory pipeline layout and sewage treatment.

  16. Avaliação em escala laboratorial da utilização do processo eletrolítico no tratamento de águas Laboratory scale assessment of an electrolytic process for water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Otenio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Water treatment uses chlorine for disinfection causing formation of trihalomethanes. In this work, an electrolytic water pre-treatment was studied and applied to the water from a fountainhead. The action against microorganisms was evaluated using cast-iron and aluminum electrodes. Assays were made in laboratory using the electrolytic treatment. After 5 min of electrolysis the heterotrophic bacteria count was below 500 cfu/mL and complete elimination of total and fecal coliforms was observed. Using electrolytic treatment as a pretreatment of conventional tap water treatment is proposed.

  17. Development and testing of ion exchangers for treatment of liquid wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses three areas of waste treatment: (1) treatment of newly generated low-level liquid waste and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate using inorganic ion exchangers; (2) treatment of processing streams at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC); and (3) removal of radionuclides from organic solutions. Distribution of various radionuclides between simulated waste solutions and several sorbents was determined in batch tests. Inorganic ion exchangers were prepared in the form of microspheres by an intemal gelation process. Microspheres of hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, hydrous titania containing embedded sodium cobalt hexacyanoferrate, and the corresponding phosphate forms of these materials were prepared. Several zeolites (PDZ-140, PDZ-300, EE-96, CBV-10A) and inorganic ion exchangers (hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, polyantimanic acid, sodium cobalt hexacyanoferrate) were tested for the removal of cesium and strontium from the acidic simulated Cleanex raffinate generated at REDC. A resorcinol-based ion-exchange resin and three types of sodium titanate were tested for removal of cesium and strontium from the REDC caustic dissolver solution. Hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, and their corresponding phosphates were tested for the removal of Eu3+ from various solutions of di-2-ethylbexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in toluene or dodecane

  18. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Conceptual Site Treatment Plan. Tables 8.1 and 8.2, Appendices A, B, C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, D.

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Section 3021(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct), to prepare plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. The FFCAct requires site treatment plans (STPs or plans) to be developed for each site at which DOE generates or stores mixed waste and submitted to the host state or the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for either approval, approval with modification, or disapproval. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP) is the preliminary version of the plan required by the FFCAct and is being provided to the State of Idaho, the EPA, and others for review. A list of the other DOE sites preparing CSTPs is included in Appendix A of this document. In addition to aiding the INEL in formulating its Final Proposed STP, this CSTP will also provide information to other DOE sites for use in identifying common technology needs and potential options for treating their wastes. The INEL CSTP is also intended to be used in conjunction with CSTPs from other sites as a basis for nationwide discussions among state regulators, the EPA, and other interested parties on treatment strategies and options, and on technical and equity issues associated with DOE`s mixed waste.

  19. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Conceptual Site Treatment Plan. Tables 8.1 and 8.2, Appendices A, B, C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Section 3021(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct), to prepare plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. The FFCAct requires site treatment plans (STPs or plans) to be developed for each site at which DOE generates or stores mixed waste and submitted to the host state or the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for either approval, approval with modification, or disapproval. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP) is the preliminary version of the plan required by the FFCAct and is being provided to the State of Idaho, the EPA, and others for review. A list of the other DOE sites preparing CSTPs is included in Appendix A of this document. In addition to aiding the INEL in formulating its Final Proposed STP, this CSTP will also provide information to other DOE sites for use in identifying common technology needs and potential options for treating their wastes. The INEL CSTP is also intended to be used in conjunction with CSTPs from other sites as a basis for nationwide discussions among state regulators, the EPA, and other interested parties on treatment strategies and options, and on technical and equity issues associated with DOE's mixed waste

  20. Treatment of two postoperative endophthalmitis cases due to Aspergillus flavus and Scopulariopsis spp. with local and systemic antifungal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyar Guliz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endophthalmitis is the inflammatory response to invasion of the eye with bacteria or fungi. The incidence of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery varies between 0.072–0.13 percent. Treatment of endophthalmitis with fungal etiology is difficult. Case Presentation Case 1: A 71-year old male diabetic patient developed postoperative endophthalmitis due to Aspergillus flavus. The patient was treated with topical amphotericin B ophthalmic solution, intravenous (IV liposomal amphotericin-B and caspofungin following vitrectomy. Case 2: A 72-year old male cachectic patient developed postoperative endophthalmitis due to Scopulariopsis spp. The patient was treated with topical and IV voriconazole and caspofungin. Conclusion Aspergillus spp. are responsible of postoperative fungal endophthalmitis. Endophthalmitis caused by Scopulariopsis spp. is a very rare condition. The two cases were successfully treated with local and systemic antifungal therapy.

  1. Treatment Interruption after Pregnancy: Effects on Disease Progression and Laboratory Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Watts

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess clinical progression and inflammatory markers among women stopping or continuing antiretroviral therapy (ART after pregnancy. Methods. ART-naïve women with CD4+ lymphocyte counts >350 cells/uL initiating ART during pregnancy had clinical events and laboratory markers compared over one year postpartum between those stopping (n=59 or continuing (n=147 ART. Results. Slopes in CD4 count and HIV RNA did not differ between groups overall and in subsets of ZDV or combination therapy. The hazard ratio (HR of a new class B event was 2.09 (95% CI 0.79–5.58 among women stopping ART, 1.24 (0.31–4.95 in those stopping ZDV, and 2.93 (0.64–13.36 among those stopping combination therapy. Women stopping ART had increased immune activation. No significant differences were seen in C-reactive protein, lipids, leptin, or interleukin-6. Conclusions. While changes in CD4 and HIV RNA levels over one year were similar between women stopping or continuing ART postpartum, higher immune activation among women stopping therapy requires further study.

  2. Treatment and Outcomes of Aspergillosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whose infections don’t get better after taking voriconazole. These include itraconazole, lipid amphotericin formulations, caspofungin, micafungin, and posaconazole. Whenever possible, immunosuppressive medications ...

  3. Hyperthermia treatment at moderate depth laboratory and clinical experience using three methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors developed 3 ways to heat tumors deeper than 5cm. 1.) Interstitial 915MHz or 300MHz antennae inserted in plastic carriers with air-cooling for uniform heat field, before and after 192 Ir proved most effective (6/9 CR), well tolerated. 2.) Intracavitary 915MHz or 300MHz antenna in aircooled, waterproof jacket, inserted in pharynx, esophagus or rectum, combined with radiation teletherapy was less effective (9/23 CR), often poorly tolerated. 3.) A system of 2 or 3 standard design 300MHz horn waveguides excited in phase has been evaluated, placed about phantoms and living subjects. Both depth and homogeneity of heating profiles were greatly enhanced by positive interference of waveforms. Heat fields in vitro were determined in tissue equivalent phantoms by thermocouples and 3 dimensional photography of liquid crystal sheets. In pigs temperatures in therapeutic range were obtained up to 9cm depth. About 900 patient treatments have been given using 2 applicators opposed for tumors in pelvis, abdomen, thorax and extremities, with minimal toxicity equal to that of a single applicator. Treatments have been uniformly well tolerated with surprisingly little discomfort. Patients perspire profusely. Core temperature has increased at most 20C, when 2 fields were treated consecutively. Significant palliation and tumor control was achieved in 90% of 42 completed, with 5/42 CR, 25/42 PR. Details of invitro and invivo experiments are presented

  4. Laboratory and industrial research installations for electron beam flue gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam technology is a second generation technology which allows the simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOx from flue gas; the final product can be used as a fertilizer. This technology is a possible method to control air pollution in Poland, where coal is used almost exclusively as a fuel even in the case of small units below 50 MW. Two research installations were constructed in Poland. The first is a laboratory unit built at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. Two gas fired boilers generate flue gases with a volume flow of up to 400 Nm3/h. The composition of the gas can be adjusted by additional injection of those impurities whose reduction is being investigated. An ILU-6 accelerator is used as an irradiator (electron energy: 600-1000 keV). The post-irradiation aerosol is removed from the gas stream with a fabric filter. The removal efficiencies for SO2 (960-1060 ppm) and NOx (about 50 ppm) are 85-95% and 72-80%, respectively. The second installation, a pilot plant with a flow capacity of 20,000 Nm3/h, was constructed at the Kaweczyn Electric Power Station. For the first time in an industrial unit, cascade, step by step irradiation was applied (two ELW-3 accelerators in series of 50 kW power each, 500-600 keV electron beam energy). The inlet concentration was 540 ppm for SO2 and 250 ppm for NOx. The removal efficiencies, depending on the power applied of the accelerators, reached 95% and 80%, respectively. Agricultural tests have confirmed the possibility of by-product application. (author). 7 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Results of HWVP transuranic process waste treatment laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests using specially ground zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process waste streams from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) may require treatment for cesium, strontium, and transuranic (TRU) element removal in order to meet criteria for incorporation in grout. The approach planned for cesium and strontium removal is ion exchange using a zeolite exchanger followed by filtration. Filtration using a pneumatic hydropulse filter is planned to remove TRU elements which are associated with process solids and to also remove zeolite bearing the cesium and strontium. The solids removed during filtration are recycled to the melter feed system to be incorporated into the HWVP glass product. Fluor Daniel, Inc., the architect-engineering firm for HWVP, recommended a Pneumatic Hydropulse (PHP) filter manufactured by Mott Metallurgical Corporation for use in the HWVP. The primary waste streams considered for application of zeolite contact and filtration are melter off-gas condensate from the submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and equipment decontamination solutions from the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT). Other waste streams could be treated depending on TRU element and radionuclide content. Laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests were conducted to provide a preliminary assessment of the adequacy of the recommended filter for application to HWVP waste treatment

  6. Stabilization of residues obtained from the treatment of laboratory waste: Part 2--transformation of plasma vitrified slag into composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Tseng, Ho-Jung; Chang, Juu-En; Chao, Chih-C; Wang, Chih-Ta; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Wang, Jian-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The Sustainable Environment Research Center of National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan has set up a treatment plant to dispose of laboratory waste. In the treatment process, the residue from the incineration system and the physical and chemical system is vitrified by a plasma melting system. Part 1 of this study described the treatment path of metals during vitrification. In Part 2, plasma vitrified slag is reused by using a molding technology. Unsaturated polyester resin and glass fiber were used as the molding material and additive, respectively, in the molding process. With an appropriate mixing ratio of unsaturated polyester resin, glass fiber, and slag, the physical properties of composites improved, and the ultimate tensile strength reached 17.6 MPa. However, an excess amount of slag reduced the strength and even retarded the production of composites. Differential thermal analysis and the water bathing test results show that the composite decomposed at 80 degrees C and that it vaporized at 187 degrees C. Although the unsaturated polyester resin decomposed, the metal encapsulated in the slag did not leach out. The results show that the reuse of slag using molding technology should be taken into consideration. PMID:21305891

  7. Results of HWVP transuranic process waste treatment laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests using specially ground zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakin, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    Process waste streams from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) may require treatment for cesium, strontium, and transuranic (TRU) element removal in order to meet criteria for incorporation in grout. The approach planned for cesium and strontium removal is ion exchange using a zeolite exchanger followed by filtration. Filtration using a pneumatic hydropulse filter is planned to remove TRU elements which are associated with process solids and to also remove zeolite bearing the cesium and strontium. The solids removed during filtration are recycled to the melter feed system to be incorporated into the HWVP glass product. Fluor Daniel, Inc., the architect-engineering firm for HWVP, recommended a Pneumatic Hydropulse (PHP) filter manufactured by Mott Metallurgical Corporation for use in the HWVP. The primary waste streams considered for application of zeolite contact and filtration are melter off-gas condensate from the submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and equipment decontamination solutions from the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT). Other waste streams could be treated depending on TRU element and radionuclide content. Laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests were conducted to provide a preliminary assessment of the adequacy of the recommended filter for application to HWVP waste treatment.

  8. Tank waste treatment R and D activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste contained in the ORNL storage tanks has similarities to waste found at other sites, but it is typically 10 to 100 times less radioactive. It is estimated that nearly 4.9 million litres of legacy waste is stored on the site of ORNL. Of this volume about one-fifth is transuranic sludges. The remainder of the waste volume is classified as low-level waste. The waste contains approximately 130,000 Ci, composed primarily of 137Cs, 90Sr, and small amounts of other fission products. In addition to the legacy waste, about 57,000 L of concentrated waste is generated annually, which contains about 13,000 Ci, consisting primarily of 137Cs, 90Sr, and small amounts of other fission products. A number of tasks are under way at ORNL to address the wastes currently stored in tanks across the DOE complex. The efforts are summarized in three tasks: the treatment of the tank supernatant to remove Cs, Tc, and Sr; the leaching or washing of the sludges to reduce the volume of waste to be vitrified; and the immobilisation of the sludges. (author)

  9. Liquid wastes from mining and milling of uranium ores - a laboratory study of treatment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of reducing the concentration of contaminants in mine water and in the acidic raffinate from uranium milling operations have been studied. Lime, limestone, caustic soda and lime-soda ash mixtures were compared as reagents for neutralising raffinates and for removing amines and heavy metals including radium from solution. All methods of neutralisation reduced contaminant levels significantly. Two-stage neutralisation using limestone in the first stage to pH 4, followed by second stage lime treatment appears to be an economically attractive approach. This method usually gave the lowest residual radium concentration provided the solids from the first stage were not removed before adding lime. Radium can be further removed from neutralised raffinates or from mine water conditioned with sulphate by the addition of barium chloride to co-precipitate the sulphates of barium and radium. The concentration of radium was readily reduced to less than 3 pCi l-1 by adding 10 mg Ba l-1 raffinate. For mine waters conditioned to 0.01 M in sulphate, barium additions of 20 mg l-1 were required to attain the same radium concentrations. Adsorption on barytes was also effective in removing radium from conditioned mine water and neutralised raffinates. (author)

  10. Toxicity to freshwater organisms from oils and oil spill chemical treatments in laboratory microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxicity of oil and diesel fuel to freshwater biota may be increased by use of oil spill cleaning agents. - Toxicity and temporal changes in toxicity of freshwater-marsh-microcosms containing South Louisiana Crude (SLC) or diesel fuel and treated with a cleaner or dispersant, were investigated using Chironomus tentans, Daphnia pulex, and Oryzias latipes. Bioassays used microcosm water (for D. pulex and O. latipes) or soil slurry (for C. tentans) taken 1,7, 31, and 186 days after treatment. SLC was less toxic than diesel, chemical additives enhanced oil toxicity, the dispersant was more toxic than the cleaner, and toxicities were greatly reduced by day 186. Toxicities were higher in the bioassay with the benthic species than in those with the two water-column species. A separate experiment showed that C. tentans' sensitivity was intermediate to that of Tubifex tubifex and Hyallela azteca. Freshwater organisms, especially benthic invertebrates, thus appear seriously effected by oil under the worst-case-scenario of our microcosms. Moreover, the cleaner and dispersant tested were poor response options under those conditions

  11. Toxicity to freshwater organisms from oils and oil spill chemical treatments in laboratory microcosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Klerks, P.L.; Nyman, J.A

    2003-04-01

    Toxicity of oil and diesel fuel to freshwater biota may be increased by use of oil spill cleaning agents. - Toxicity and temporal changes in toxicity of freshwater-marsh-microcosms containing South Louisiana Crude (SLC) or diesel fuel and treated with a cleaner or dispersant, were investigated using Chironomus tentans, Daphnia pulex, and Oryzias latipes. Bioassays used microcosm water (for D. pulex and O. latipes) or soil slurry (for C. tentans) taken 1,7, 31, and 186 days after treatment. SLC was less toxic than diesel, chemical additives enhanced oil toxicity, the dispersant was more toxic than the cleaner, and toxicities were greatly reduced by day 186. Toxicities were higher in the bioassay with the benthic species than in those with the two water-column species. A separate experiment showed that C. tentans' sensitivity was intermediate to that of Tubifex tubifex and Hyallela azteca. Freshwater organisms, especially benthic invertebrates, thus appear seriously effected by oil under the worst-case-scenario of our microcosms. Moreover, the cleaner and dispersant tested were poor response options under those conditions.

  12. Clinical and laboratory features and response to treatment in patients presenting with vitamin B12 deficiency-related neurological syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical and laboratory features of patients admitted with vitamin B12 deficiency-related (B12def neurological syndromes. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A hospital-based retrospective and prospective study conducted at a referral teaching hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients admitted with vitamin B12 deficiency-related neurological disorders during a three-year period from June 2000 to May 2003 were included. Data regarding clinical and laboratory features were obtained. Follow-up was done at least six months following treatment with parenteral vitamin B12. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 63 patients (52 males with a mean age of 46.2 years were studied. The mean duration of symptoms at presentation was 10.3 months. Myeloneuropathy (54% was the commonest neurological manifestation, followed by myeloneuropathy with cognitive dysfunction (34%, and peripheral neuropathy (9%. Neuropsychiatric manifestations and dementia were observed in 38% and 19% of patients respectively. All the patients had megaloblastic changes in the bone marrow smear. Eleven (17.5% patients had both hemoglobin and the mean corpuscular volume (MCV within the normal range. Follow-up after at least six months of therapy with parenteral B12 showed improvement in 54% patients. CONCLUSIONS: A high index of suspicion of B12def is required in patients presenting with myelopathy, cognitive decline, or neuropathy. A normal hemoglobin or MCV does not exclude B12def; therefore, other tests such as bone marrow smear and serum vitamin B12 assay are essential, as the condition is often reversible with treatment.

  13. Treatment of arsenic contaminated water in a laboratory scale up-flow bio-column reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes the observations on the treatment of arsenic contaminated synthetic industrial effluent in a bio-column reactor. Ralstonia eutropha MTCC 2487 has been immobilized on the granular activated carbon (GAC) bed in the column reactor. The synthetic water sample containing As(T) (As(III):As(V) = 1:1), Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn at the initial concentrations of 25, 10, 2, 5, 10 ppm, respectively, was used. Concentrations of all the elements have been found to be reduced below their permissible limits in the treated water. The significant effect of empty bed contact time (EBCT) and bed height on the arsenic removal was observed in the initial stage. However, after some time of operation (approximately 3-4 days) no such effect was observed. Removal of As(III) and As(V) was almost similar after ∼2 days of operation. However, at the initial stage As(V) removal was slightly more than that of As(III). In absence of washing, after ∼4-5 days of operation, the bio-column reactor was observed to act as a GAC column reactor based on physico-chemical adsorption. Like arsenic, the percent removals of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn also attained minimum after ∼1 day and increased significantly to the optimum value within 3-4 days of operation. Dissolved oxygen (DO) has been found to decrease along with the increasing bed height from the bottom. The pH of the solution in the reactor has increased slightly and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) has decreased with the time of operation

  14. Separation technologies for the treatment of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, T.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Currently about 6.8 million L of acidic, radioactive liquid waste that is not amenable to calcination, and about 3800 m{sup 3} of calcine exist at the ICPP. Legal drivers (court orders) and agreements between the state of Idaho, the U.S. Navy, and DOE exist that obligate INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for treatment and interim storage of the radioactive liquid and calcine wastes. Per these agreements, all tank waste must be removed from the underground liquid storage tanks by the year 2012, and high-level radioactive waste must be treated and removed from INEL by 2035. Separation of the radionuclides from the wastes, followed by immobilization of the high-activity and low-activity fractions in glass and grout, respectively, is the approach preferred by INEL. Technologies to remove actinides (U, Np, Pu, and Am), Cs, Sr, and possibly Tc from highly acidic solutions are required to process INEL wastes. Decontamination of the wastes to NRC Class A low-level waste (LLW) is planned. Separation and isolation of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cr) from the highly radioactive waste streams may also be required. Remediation efforts will begin in FY 1997 to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radionuclides (Cs and Sr) from groundwater located at the Test Area North facility at INEL. A plume of VOCs and radionuclides has spread from the former TSF-05 injection well, and a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Conservation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation action is under way. A Record of Decision was signed in August 1995 that commits INEL to remediate the plume from TSF-05. Removal of Sr and Cs from the groundwater using commercially available ion-exchange resins has been unsuccessful at meeting maximum contaminant levels, which are 119 pCi/L and 8 pCi/L for Cs and Sr, respectively. Cesium and Sr are the major contaminants that must be removed from the groundwater.

  15. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  16. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  17. Steam Reforming Technology Demonstration Program for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patented THORR steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) for treatment of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. The SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid and alkali and aluminum nitrates, along with many other inorganic compounds, including substantial levels of radionuclides. As part of the implementation of the THORR process at INTEC, an engineering-scale test demonstration (ESTD) was conducted using a specially designed pilot plant located at Hazen Research, Inc. in Golden Colorado. The purpose of the ESTD was to confirm and optimize operation of the THORR dual fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) process for treating the SBW. The performance of the integrated FBSR thermal and off-gas systems was demonstrated while treating waste simulants representative of the actual SBW. Simulants were utilized that consisted of highly acidic nitrate solutions, with both dissolved and undissolved solids (UDS). The SBW simulant solutions were converted into a dry, granular solid, consisting of carbonate and aluminate product compounds. The successful performance of the integrated FBSR system was verified and demonstrated. (authors)

  18. 2014 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2013, through October 31, 2014. The report contains, as applicable, the following information; Site description; Facility and system description; Permit required monitoring data and loading rates; Status of compliance conditions and activities; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. The current permit expires on March 16, 2015. A permit renewal application was submitted to Idaho Department of Environmental Quality on September 15, 2014. During the 2014 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. Seepage testing of the three lagoons was performed between August 26, 2014 and September 22, 2014. Seepage rates from Lagoons 1 and 2 were below the 0.25 inches/day requirement; however, Lagoon 3 was above the 0.25 inches/day. Lagoon 3 has been isolated and is being evaluated for future use or permanent removal from service.

  19. Environmental Assessment for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified a need to improve the management of wastewater resulting from high explosives (HE) research and development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LANL's current methods off managing HE-contaminated wastewater cannot ensure that discharged HE wastewater would consistently meet the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE needs to enhance He wastewater management to e able to meet both present and future regulatory standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE also proposes to incorporate major pollution prevention and waste reduction features into LANL's existing HE production facilities. Currently, wastewater from HE processing buildings at four Technical Areas (TAs) accumulates in sumps where particulate HE settles out and barium is precipitated. Wastewater is then released from the sumps to the environment at 15 permitted outfalls without treatment. The released water may contain suspended and dissolved contaminants, such as HE and solvents. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes two alternatives, the Proposed Action and the Alternative Action, that would meet the purpose and need for agency action. Both alternatives would treat all HE process wastewater using sand filters to remove HE particulates and activated carbon to adsorb organic solvents and dissolved HE. Under either alternative, LANL would burn solvents and flash dried HE particulates and spent carbon following well-established procedures. Burning would produce secondary waste that would be stored, treated, and disposed of at TA-54, Area J. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility

  20. Laboratory assessment of a gravity-fed ultrafiltration water treatment device designed for household use in low-income settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas; Naranjo, Jaime; Frauchiger, Daniel; Gerba, Charles

    2009-05-01

    Interventions to improve water quality, particularly when deployed at the household level, are an effective means of preventing endemic diarrheal disease, a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the developing world. We assessed the microbiologic performance of a novel water treatment device designed for household use in low-income settings. The device employs a backwashable hollow fiber ultrafiltration cartridge and is designed to mechanically remove enteric pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoan cysts from drinking water without water pressure or electric power. In laboratory testing through 20,000 L (approximately 110% of design life) at moderate turbidity (15 nephelometric turbidity unit [NTU]), the device achieved log(10) reduction values of 6.9 for Escherichia coli, 4.7 for MS2 coliphage (proxy for enteric pathogenic viruses), and 3.6 for Cryptosporidium oocysts, thus exceeding levels established for microbiological water purifiers. With periodic cleaning and backwashing, the device produced treated water at an average rate of 143 mL/min (8.6 L/hour) (range 293 to 80 mL/min) over the course of the evaluation. If these results are validated in field trials, the deployment of the unit on a wide scale among vulnerable populations may make an important contribution to public health efforts to control intractable waterborne diseases. PMID:19407130

  1. Treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives for the gunite and associated tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) are inactive, liquid low-level waste tanks located in and around the North and South Tank Farms at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These underground tanks are the subject of an ongoing treatability study that will determine the best remediation alternatives for the tanks. As part of the treatability study, an assessment of viable treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) alternatives has been conducted. The report summarizes relevant waste characterization data and statistics obtained to date. The report describes screening and evaluation criteria for evaluating TSD options. Individual options that pass the screening criteria are described in some detail. Order-or-magnitude cost estimates are presented for each of the TSD system alternatives. All alternatives are compared to the baseline approach of pumping all of the GAAT sludge and supernate to the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility for eventual TSD along with the existing MOST waste. Four TSD systems are identified as alternatives to the baseline approach. The baseline is the most expensive of the five identified alternatives. The least expensive alternative is in-situ grouting of all GAAT sludge followed by in-situ disposal. The other alternatives are: (1) ex-situ grouting with on-site storage and disposal at Nevada Test Site (NTS); (2) ex-situ grouting with on-site storage and disposal at NTS and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); and (3) ex-situ vitrification with on-site storage and disposal at NTS and WIPP

  2. Comparing laboratory column test treatments with field profiles of fecal indicator bacteria and virus from concentrated source areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, J.; Culligan, P.; Ferguson, A. S.; Mailloux, B. J.; McKay, L. D.; Ahmed, K.; Alam, M.; Huq, M.; Emch, M.; Serre, M. L.; Yunus, M.; van Geen, A.

    2010-12-01

    Fecal contamination of potable water supplies is prevalent throughout the developing world. In rural Bangladesh, groundwater contamination of shallow unconfined aquifers is attributed to the infiltration of fecal organisms from sewage ponds, sewage ditches and latrines. However, few studies conclusively link sources to wells at the scale required for microbial transport to occur. We present a combined field and laboratory investigation into the transport of the fecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enteric viral indicator F+ RNA coliphage (MS-2) using drive point piezometers and extracted sediment cores. Fieldwork and coring took place in the Matlab Upazila, Bangladesh. Field measurements at the 100-cm scale were made using an array of three drive-point piezometers under highly contaminated ponds and canals over a 10-day period during the peak of the monsoon season. The profiles of E. coli detected under ponds and canals by a culture-based most probable number method were consistent with a first order filtration rate over the distances studied and filtration rates ranged from 1 - 8 m-1. In order to determine possible attachment mechanisms and the influence of sediment treatments applied in laboratory testing, duplicate column transport studies at the 10-cm scale were performed on intact cores processed immediately on-site, intact cores preserved by freezing, dried repacked sediment, acid-washed repacked sediment, and a uniform silica sand. Two ionic strengths (3.5 and 20 mM) were used to encompass the range of electrical conductivity typically found in the shallow portion of the aquifer. Columns were dissected and the attached E. coli quantified by section. Even at the solution chemistry less favorable for particle attachment (low ionic strength), filtration rates for the core tested on-site predict a transport distance of 0.5m for a 4-log unit reduction in E. coli concentration. Although the filtration rates found in the field study are lower

  3. Pegylated interferon for the treatment of early myelofibrosis: correlation of serial laboratory studies with response to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Caitlin; Siddiqi, Imran; Brynes, Russell K; Vergara-Lluri, Maria; Moschiano, Elizabeth; O'Connell, Casey

    2016-04-01

    Pegylated interferon α-2a (Peg-IFN) has been shown to induce hematologic and molecular responses in patients with the Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), including polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET). We describe a series of patients with long-standing MPNs among whom Peg-IFN was initiated when they developed anemia and increased bone marrow reticulin fibrosis suggestive of early transformation to post-ET (PET) or post-PV (PPV) myelofibrosis (MF). Six patients were treated with Peg-IFN for a mean duration of 33.8 months (range 2-63 months). Five patients had long-standing ET (three were calreticulin (CALR)-positive, one janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-positive, and one JAK2-negative and CALR-negative), and one had long-standing JAK2-positive PV prior to starting Peg-IFN. This is the first study to report that, concurrent with the improvement in anemia, serial laboratory studies demonstrate an increase in serum LDH and left-shifted myeloid cells in the peripheral circulation over approximately 6 months, followed by a gradual normalization of these findings. Splenomegaly also increased and then resolved among responding patients. Serial bone marrow biopsies were available, which showed little change except for improvement in the grade of reticulin fibrosis in two patients. Among patients with early transformation to PET or PPV MF, our data support the efficacy of Peg-IFN in improving hemoglobin levels and reducing splenomegaly. These peripheral blood findings should not, therefore, be considered evidence of treatment failure within the first year of Peg-IFN therapy. PMID:26961933

  4. Cell-based laboratory evaluation of coagulation activation by antineoplastic drugs for the treatment of lymphoid tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunaka, Misae; Arai, Reina; Ohashi, Ayaka; Koyama, Takatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Combining vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin (Dox) led to improved response rates in the treatment of lymphoid tumors. However, deep-vein thrombosis has been noted as one of the most serious side effects with these drugs, and how these regimens cause deep-vein thrombosis is unclear. Methods: We investigated the procoagulant effects of vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin in lymphoid tumors, focusing on tissue factor, phosphatidylserine, and antithrombin. The human vascular endothelial cell line EAhy926 as well as the lymphoid neoplastic cell lines HUT78 (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma), Molt4 (acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia), and Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma) were employed to investigate these procoagulant effects. Results: Vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin induced exposure of phosphatidylserine and procoagulant activity on the surface of lymphoid tumor cells. Vorinostat and doxorubicin also induced phosphatidylserine exposure and increased procoagulant activity on EAhy926 cells. Expression of tissue factor antigen was induced by doxorubicin on the surface of each type of cells, whereas expression of tissue factor mRNA was unchanged. Secretion of antithrombin from HepG2 cells was reduced only by L-asparaginase. Conclusion: These data suggest that vorinostat and doxorubicin may induce procoagulant activity in vessels through apoptosis of tumor cells and through phosphatidylserine exposure and/or tissue factor expression on vascular endothelial cells. L-asparaginase may induce a thrombophilic state by reducing the secretion of anticoagulant proteins such as antithrombin. The laboratory methods described here could be useful to evaluate the procoagulant effects of antineoplastic drugs. PMID:27504186

  5. Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of the thermo-treatment process to dispose of recombinant DNA waste from biological research laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mengnan; Zheng Guanghong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang Lei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)], E-mail: celwang@yahoo.com; Xiao Wei [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Fu Xiaohua; Le Yiquan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ren Daming [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2009-01-01

    The discharge of recombinant DNA waste from biological laboratories into the eco-system may be one of the pathways resulting in horizontal gene transfer or 'gene pollution'. Heating at 100 deg. C for 5-10 min is a common method for treating recombinant DNA waste in biological research laboratories in China. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness and the safety of the thermo-treatment method in the disposal of recombinant DNA waste. Quantitative PCR, plasmid transformation and electrophoresis technology were used to evaluate the decay/denaturation efficiency during the thermo-treatment process of recombinant plasmid, pET-28b. Results showed that prolonging thermo-treatment time could improve decay efficiency of the plasmid, and its decay half-life was 2.7-4.0 min during the thermo-treatment at 100 deg. C. However, after 30 min of thermo-treatment some transforming activity remained. Higher ionic strength could protect recombinant plasmid from decay during the treatment process. These results indicate that thermo-treatment at 100 deg. C cannot decay and inactivate pET-28b completely. In addition, preliminary results showed that thermo-treated recombinant plasmids were not degraded completely in a short period when they were discharged into an aquatic environment. This implies that when thermo-treated recombinant DNAs are discharged into the eco-system, they may have enough time to re-nature and transform, thus resulting in gene diffusion.

  6. Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of the thermo-treatment process to dispose of recombinant DNA waste from biological research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discharge of recombinant DNA waste from biological laboratories into the eco-system may be one of the pathways resulting in horizontal gene transfer or 'gene pollution'. Heating at 100 deg. C for 5-10 min is a common method for treating recombinant DNA waste in biological research laboratories in China. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness and the safety of the thermo-treatment method in the disposal of recombinant DNA waste. Quantitative PCR, plasmid transformation and electrophoresis technology were used to evaluate the decay/denaturation efficiency during the thermo-treatment process of recombinant plasmid, pET-28b. Results showed that prolonging thermo-treatment time could improve decay efficiency of the plasmid, and its decay half-life was 2.7-4.0 min during the thermo-treatment at 100 deg. C. However, after 30 min of thermo-treatment some transforming activity remained. Higher ionic strength could protect recombinant plasmid from decay during the treatment process. These results indicate that thermo-treatment at 100 deg. C cannot decay and inactivate pET-28b completely. In addition, preliminary results showed that thermo-treated recombinant plasmids were not degraded completely in a short period when they were discharged into an aquatic environment. This implies that when thermo-treated recombinant DNAs are discharged into the eco-system, they may have enough time to re-nature and transform, thus resulting in gene diffusion

  7. Treatment of EBR-I NaK mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory and subsequent land disposal at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium/potassium (NaK) liquid metal coolant, contaminated with fission products from the core meltdown of Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) and classified as a mixed waste, has been deactivated and converted to a contact-handled, low-level waste at Argonne's Sodium Component Maintenance Shop and land disposed at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Treatment of the EBR-I NaK involved converting the sodium and potassium to its respective hydroxide via reaction with air and water, followed by conversion to its respective carbonate via reaction with carbon dioxide. The resultant aqueous carbonate solution was solidified in 55-gallon drums. Challenges in the NaK treatment involved processing a mixed waste which was incompletely characterized and difficult to handle. The NaK was highly radioactive, i.e. up to 4.5 R/hr on contact with the mixed waste drums. In addition, the potential existed for plutonium and toxic characteristic metals to be present in the NaK, resultant from the location of the partial core meltdown of EBR-I in 1955. Moreover, the NaK was susceptible to degradation after more than 40 years of storage in unmonitored conditions. Such degradation raised the possibility of energetic exothermic reactions between the liquid NaK and its crust, which could have consisted of potassium superoxide as well as hydrated sodium/potassium hydroxides

  8. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  9. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  10. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns

  11. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical

  12. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  13. Clinical and laboratory features and response to treatment in patients presenting with vitamin B12 deficiency-related neurological syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron S; Kumar Sudhir; Vijayan J; Jacob J; Alexander M; Gnanamuthu C

    2005-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical and laboratory features of patients admitted with vitamin B12 deficiency-related (B12def) neurological syndromes. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A hospital-based retrospective and prospective study conducted at a referral teaching hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients admitted with vitamin B12 deficiency-related neurological disorders during a three-year period from June 2000 to May 2003 were included. Data regarding clinical and laboratory fea...

  14. The effect of treatment parameters and detergent additions on the softening of radioactively contaminated process wastewater at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, radioactively contaminated process wastewater is sequentially treated by precipitation is critical to the effective performance of the ion exchange process; magnesium and calcium inhibit the ability of the ion exchange resin to adequately remove strontium. A series of laboratory jar tests performed on the wastewater indicate that parameters such as ferric sulfate concentrations, sodium carbonate addition, reaction time, and pH adjustment, have a noticable impact upon the softening reaction. Tests also showed that a detergent used for equipment equipment decontamination at the treatment plant had a detrimental effect on the softening process. Alternative detergents tested were shown to have differing effects on the softening reaction. The results of the experimental program conducted to measure the relative importance of the softening variables will be presented in conjuction with the elevation of the effect various detergents have on softener performance

  15. Laboratory model for the study and treatment of traumatic tattoos with the Q-switched ruby laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Richard T.; Lach, Elliot

    1994-09-01

    The outcome of laser tattoo removal is dependent on the type of laser and characteristics of the tattoo. A rabbit model was developed to study the Q-switched ruby laser in the treatment of traumatic tattooing. On the backs of white New Zealand rabbits, three 3 cm patches were dermabraded and dressed with carbon black and antibiotic ointment. After a healing period of eight weeks, pre-treatment biopsies were obtained, and the rabbits were treated with the Q- switched ruby laser at various fluence settings with a pulse width of 34 nsec. At set intervals, further biopsies were obtained and studied with light and electron microscopic analysis, and photodocumentation was performed. Grossly, clearance of the tattooed areas was noted in the laser treated specimens. More effective clearance was observed with higher fluence treatment. No infections occurred, and hair regrowth was noted in all cases, though the rate seemed to be altered by laser treatment.

  16. Leachability and leaching patterns from aluminium-based water treatment residual used as media in laboratory-scale engineered wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Babatunde, A.O.; Zhao, Y. Q.

    2010-01-01

    Concept and purpose Virtually all water treatment facilities worldwide generate an enormous amount of water treatment residual (WTR) solids for which environmentally-friendly end-use options are continually being sought as opposed to their landfilling. Aluminium-based WTR (Al-WTR) can offer huge benefits particularly for phosphorus (P) removal and biofilm attachment when used as media in engineered wetlands. However, potential environmental risks that may arise from the leaching out of it...

  17. Development of a microbiological method (heat treatment method) to confirm the irradiation of food samples in a blind trial of collaborating laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A practical screening method is needed so that any laboratory can easily and cheaply distinguish between non-irradiated and irradiated food. We carried out a study last year based on the findings that the sensitivity of bacteria to heat-treatment rose when bacteria was damaged by the irradiation, and the possibility that the irradiation could be detected in certain processing conditions. This method consists of a first assessment based on a general viable cell count and the second assessment based on the difference in the number of bacteria before and after the heat-treatment. A joint research study among a number of laboratories was conducted this year on the detection method by examining the effect of the heat-treatment on viable cells that adhered to spices. From the results, we found that there are two kinds of spices. For one type, both the first and second assessment need to be done, and for the other only the first assessment should be done. Therefore, the target spice should be classified into either the type only requiring the first assessment or the type for which the second assessment must also be carried out. In that case, we were able to obtain a high correct answer rate

  18. The Concept of the Three Rs in Biomedical Research The Ethical and Scientific Basis for the Humane Treatment of Laboratory Animals --The British Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GC BANTIN

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction 1.1 THE CONCEPT OF ANIMAL CARE.Ethics and the developing demand for relevant legislation During the late 19th Century there was an increasing concern in the UK with respect to a aspects of illtreatment of animals. This was reflected in the thinking of the research community and in 1871 The British Association For the Advancement of Science issued a set of basic principles of animal experimentation.This was a response to the growing awareness by the BA of the need for an ethical approach to biomedical research and for the considerate treatment of laboratory animals.

  19. Assays at laboratory scale for anaerobic treatment of piggery farm wastewater; Depuracion anaerobia de aguas residuales de granjas porcinas. Ensayos a escala de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Barrantes, M. M.; Alvarez Mateos, P.; Carta Escobar, F.; Romero Guzman, F. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Fiestas Ros de Ursinos, J. A. [Instituto de la Grasa. Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The viability of an integrated biological treatment for the swine waste-water purification in a piggery farm, was studied. Previously, at a laboratory scale, the anaerobic biodegradability of this wastewater was analysed, using different clayey supports to immobilize the microorganisms in batch regime, at 35 degree centigree, with an organic load ranged from 0,2 to 2,2, g COD/I. The highest methane production was achieved at the first 24 hours. The mean highest efficiency (%COD removal) was obtained in reactors with sepiolite, natural sepiolite and treated sepiolite. (Author) 10 refs.

  20. A 6-Year-Old Child with Severe Ebola Virus Disease: Laboratory-Guided Clinical Care in an Ebola Treatment Center in Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Palich, Romain; Gala, Jean-Luc; Petitjean, Frédéric; Shepherd, Susan; Peyrouset, Olivier; Bing M Abdoul; Kinda, Moumouni; Danel, Christine; Augier, Augustin; Anglaret, Xavier; Malvy, Denis; Blackwell, Nicole; McElroy, Anita K.

    2016-01-01

    An unprecedented epidemic of Ebola virus disease has ravaged West Africa since December, 2013. The French nongovernmental organization Alliance for International Medical Action opened the N’zérékoré Ebola treatment center (ETC) on December 2nd, 2014. This center includes a laboratory managed by the Belgian organization B-Fast/B-Life. Between December 2nd, 2014, and February 7th, 2015, 130 patients were admitted, of whom 76 were confirmed to have Ebola virus disease (EVD), which was fatal in 6...

  1. Study of Dormancy Type and Effect of Different Pre-Sowing Treatments on Seed Germination of Bladder-Senna (Colutea bohsei Boiss. in Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BEIKMOHAMMADI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the existence and type of the dormancy and effects of different dormancy breaking treatments on seed germination of Colutea buhsei Boiss. (Fabaceae as one of the Iran native plants, arid-land and ornamental shrub with ability of usage in the urban landscape design. The experiment was performed with 15 treatments and 3 replications in a completely randomized design. Seeds were subjected to different treatments including various levels of GA3, concentrated (98% H2SO4, cold stratification (CS, soaking with tab water, floating in hot water (100�C followed by continual cooling for 24 hr in the same water and combined treatments. Afterwards seeds were sown in laboratory conditions to determine the factors� effects on germination percentage (GP, germination rate (GR, root and shoot length of Colutea bohsei seeds. All of these treatments, except for GA3 (250 and 500 ppm, increased the percentage and rate of the seed germination. Maximum germination percentage (66.25% and rate (14.9 seeds per day in 7 days was obtained at concentrated (98% H2SO4 (15 min. Maximum root and shoot length was observed at concentrated (98% H2SO4 (15 min plus GA3 (100 ppm, 24 hr. Use of GA3 (100 ppm in 24 hr after H2SO4 increased the germination rate and shoot length but this additive effect was not significant.

  2. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory The Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose...

  3. Laboratory evaluations of Lepidopteran-active soybean seed treatments on survivorship of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two anthranilic diamide insecticides, chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole, were evaluated as soybean, Glycine max L., seed treatments for control of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Bioassays were conducted using 2nd instar larvae and plants from both field and greenhouse gr...

  4. Assessment of potential climate change impacts on peatland dissolved organic carbon release and drinking water treatment from laboratory experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catchments draining peat soils provide the majority of drinking water in the UK. Over the past decades, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have increased in surface waters. Residual DOC can cause harmful carcinogenic disinfection by-products to form during water treatment processes. Increased frequency and severity of droughts combined with and increased temperatures expected as the climate changes, have potentials to change water quality. We used a novel approach to investigate links between climate change, DOC release and subsequent effects on drinking water treatment. We designed a climate manipulation experiment to simulate projected climate changes and monitored releases from peat soil and litter, then simulated coagulation used in water treatment. We showed that the ‘drought’ simulation was the dominant factor altering DOC release and affected the ability to remove DOC. Our results imply that future short-term drought events could have a greater impact than increased temperature on DOC treatability. - Highlights: ► We model realistic temperature and moisture changes on peat and surface vegetation. ► Quantity, quality and treatability changes of dissolved organic carbon were examined. ► Moisture has significantly greater influence than temperature on DOC production. ► Dry conditions alter treatability of DOC released from surface litter. ► Droughts have greater impact on water treatment than short-term heat waves alone. - Future drought events are likely to alter soil moisture, which predominately controls production of peat-derived dissolved organic carbon and subsequently drinking water quality.

  5. Laboratory screening evaluation on the utilization of hydrogen peroxide for enhanced biological treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the laboratory study was to evaluate the benefit of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition to soil as a source of molecular oxygen for enhanced removal of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contaminants (JP-5, diesel fuel, and lubricating oil) by the indigenous microflora. Upflow soil columns containing PHC-spiked soil (sand and humus) and previously contaminated sandy soils were used for the study. Changes in bacterial population density and concentration-independent indicators of PHC biodegradation (n-C17/pristane, n-C18/phytane, and resolved alkane/unresolved alkane ratios) between test and control columns were used as the test parameters. Test and control columns received Dworkin-Foster medium which is a basal salts solution for supporting microbial growth; test columns received increasing concentrations of H2O. The benefit of H2O2 addition to soil in test columns was demonstrated which suggested that oxygen was limiting microbial growth on available PHCs

  6. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Conceptual Site Treatment Plan. Sections 1 through 8, Tables 2-1 through 6-1, Figures 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Section 3021(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct), to prepare plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. The FFCAct requires site treatment plans (STPs or plans) to be developed for each site at which DOE generates or stores mixed waste and submitted to the host state or the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for either approval, approval with modification, or disapproval. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP) is the preliminary version of the plan required by the FFCAct and is being provided to the State of Idaho, the EPA, and others for review. A list of the other DOE sites preparing CSTPs is included in Appendix A of this document. In addition to aiding the INEL in formulating its Final Proposed STP, this CSTP will also provide information to other DOE sites for use in identifying common technology needs and potential options for treating their wastes. The INEL CSTP is also intended to be used in conjunction with CSTPs from other sites as a basis for nationwide discussions among state regulators, the EPA, and other interested parties on treatment strategies and options, and on technical and equity issues associated with DOE's mixed waste

  7. EVOLUTION OF PATIENTS WITH AIDS AFTER cART: CLINICAL AND LABORATORY EVOLUTION OF PATIENTS WITH AIDS AFTER 48 WEEKS OF ANTIRETROVIRAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Esther Carvalho Gomes Fukumoto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART aims to inhibit viral replication, delay immunodeficiency progression and improve survival in AIDS patients. The objective of this study was to compare two different schemes of cART, based on plasma viral load (VL and CD4+ T lymphocyte count, during 48 weeks of treatment. For this purpose, 472 medical charts of a Specialized Outpatient Service were reviewed from 1998 to 2005. Out of these, 58 AIDS patients who had received a triple drug scheme as the initial treatment were included in the study and two groups were formed: Group 1 (G1: 47 individuals treated with two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI and one non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor; Group 2 (G2: 11 patients treated with two NRTI and one protease inhibitor. In G1 and G2, 53.2% and 81.8% respectively were patients with an AIDS-defining disease. The T CD4+ lymphocyte count increased progressively up until the 24th week of treatment in all patients, while VL became undetectable in 68.1% of G1 and in 63.6% of G2. The study concluded that the evolutions of laboratory tests were similar in the two treatment groups and that both presented a favorable clinical evolution.

  8. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  9. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  10. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Laboratory evaluation of chemical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatability studies were conducted as part of a comprehensive research project initiated to demonstrate as well as evaluate in situ treatment technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radioactive substances in wet, slowly permeable soils. The site of interest for this project was the X-231B Oil Biodegradation unit at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility in southern Ohio. This report describes the treatability studies that investigated the feasibility of the application of low-strength hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solutions to treat trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated soil

  11. Effects of a physico-chemical treatment of a dredged sediment on its ecotoxicity after discharge in laboratory gravel pit microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Bernard; Vaille, Gilles; Moretto, Robert; Vernus, Emmanuel; Abdelghafour, Mohammed

    2010-03-15

    In France, dredged sediments may be dumped into submerged gravel pits. As a consequence, adverse effects may be expected. In addition, groundwater quality may be impacted due to hydraulic communications with gravel pits. The immersion of dredged sediments into gravel pits should thus be restricted to clean or slightly contaminated sediments to minimize the impacts on aquatic ecosystems and human safe. For highly contaminated sediments, alternatives may be treatments aiming at removing or/and neutralizing contaminants. The Novosol treatment was aimed at neutralizing metals by complexation with orthophosphoric acid and discarding organic pollutants by calcination. The efficiency of the Novosol treatment was assessed in a scenario of sediment immersion into experimental laboratory gravel pits (LGP). A 180L water compartment was set up in each system so as to simulate the gravel pit, and various living organisms were introduced. Following a period of colonization and stabilization, raw and treated sediments were introduced into two different LGPs, and the fate and effects of pollutants were studied during the period of deposition and post-deposition. The treatment had positive effects on survival and development of benthic populations and reproduction of pond snails but the introduction of the treated sediment was followed by an increase in salinity (phosphates, sulphates) and a peak of hexavalent chromium at concentrations above drinkability limits and likely to have impaired invertebrate populations of the water column. The results of this study suggest that discharge of contaminated sediments at a high solid:liquid ratio (1:10) in gravel pits or equivalent aquatic ecosystems may have only limited effects on biota and ground water quality. The Novosol treatment should, however, be improved so as to increase efficiency of oxidised chromium complexation during the phosphatation step. PMID:19879042

  12. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-21

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  13. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  14. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. Laboratory evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A., III; Ward, S.J.; Hammarstrom, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) containing elevated concentrations of dissolved iron and other metals can be neutralized to varying degrees by reactions with limestone in passive treatment systems. We evaluated the chemical and mineralogical characteristics and the effectiveness of calcitic and dolomitic limestone for the neutralization of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD from a flooded anthracite mine. The calcitic limestone, with CaCO3 and MgCO3 contents of 99.8 and treatment system in 2003 at the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. In the winter of 2002-2003, laboratory neutralization-rate experiments evaluated the evolution of effluent quality during 2 weeks of continuous contact between AMD from the Bell Mine and the crushed calcitic or dolomitic limestone in closed, collapsible containers (cubitainers). The cubitainer tests showed that: (1) net-alkaline effluent could be achieved with detention times greater than 3 h, (2) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates were equivalent for uncoated and Fe(OH)3-coated calcitic limestone, and (3) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates for dolomitic limestone were about half those for calcitic limestone. The dissolution rate data for the cubitainer tests were used with data on the volume of effuent and surface area of limestone in the treatment system at the Bell Mine to evaluate the water-quality data for the first 1.5 years of operation of the treatment system. These rate models supported the interpretation of field results and indicated that treatment benefits were derived mainly from the dissolution of calcitic limestone, despite a greater quantity of dolomitic limestone within the treatment system. The dissolution-rate models were extrapolated on a decadal scale to indicate the expected decreases in the mass of limestone and associated alkalinities resulting from the long-term reaction of

  15. Technology Evaluations Related to Mercury, Technetium, and Chloride in Treatment of Wastes at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Barnes; D. D. Taylor; S. C. Ashworth; J. B. Bosley; D. R. Haefner

    1999-10-01

    The Idaho High-Level Waste and Facility Disposition Environmental Impact Statement defines alternative for treating and disposing of wastes stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Development is required for several technologies under consideration for treatment of these wastes. This report contains evaluations of whether specific treatment is needed and if so, by what methods, to remove mercury, technetium, and chlorides in proposed Environmental Impact Statement treatment processes. The evaluations of mercury include a review of regulatory requirements that would apply to mercury wastes in separations processes, an evaluation of the sensitivity of mercury flowrates and concentrations to changes in separations processing schemes and conditions, test results from laboratory-scale experiments of precipitation of mercury by sulfide precipitation agents from the TRUEX carbonate wash effluent, and evaluations of methods to remove mercury from New Waste Calcining Facility liquid and gaseous streams. The evaluation of technetium relates to the need for technetium removal and alternative methods to remove technetium from streams in separations processes. The need for removal of chlorides from New Waste Calcining Facility scrub solution is also evaluated.

  16. Technology Evaluations Related to Mercury, Technetium, and Chloride in Treatment of Wastes at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho High-Level Waste and Facility Disposition Environmental Impact Statement defines alternative for treating and disposing of wastes stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Development is required for several technologies under consideration for treatment of these wastes. This report contains evaluations of whether specific treatment is needed and if so, by what methods, to remove mercury, technetium, and chlorides in proposed Environmental Impact Statement treatment processes. The evaluations of mercury include a review of regulatory requirements that would apply to mercury wastes in separations processes, an evaluation of the sensitivity of mercury flowrates and concentrations to changes in separations processing schemes and conditions, test results from laboratory-scale experiments of precipitation of mercury by sulfide precipitation agents from the TRUEX carbonate wash effluent, and evaluations of methods to remove mercury from New Waste Calcining Facility liquid and gaseous streams. The evaluation of technetium relates to the need for technetium removal and alternative methods to remove technetium from streams in separations processes. The need for removal of chlorides from New Waste Calcining Facility scrub solution is also evaluated

  17. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility: Documentation of impact analysis for design alternatives presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to construct and operate a new Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF). The proposed DWTF would replace the existing Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities at LLNL. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) to assess the environmental consequences of the proposed DWTF and its alternatives. This report presents the assumptions, methodologies, and analyses used to estimate the waste flows, air emissions, ambient air quality impacts, and public health risks that are presented in the DEIS. Two DWTF design alternatives (Level I and Level II) have been designated as reasonable design alternatives considering available technologies, environmental regulations, and current and future LLNL waste generation. Both design alternatives would include new, separate radioactive and nonradioactive liquid waste treatment systems, a solidification unit, a new decontamination facility, storage and treatment facilities for reactive materials, a radioactive waste storage area, receiving and classification areas, and a uranium burn pan. The Level I design alternative would include a controlled-air incinerator system, while the Level II design alternative would include a rotary kiln incinerator system. 43 refs., 4 figs., 24 tabs

  18. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  19. Treatment of waste incinerator air-pollution-control residues with FeSO4: Laboratory investigation of design parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Lundtorp, Kasper

    2002-01-01

    supplied, the liquid-to-solid ratio of the process, the separation of solids and wastewater, the sequence of material mixing, the possibilities of reuse of water, the feasibility of using secondary (brackish) water, and simple means to improve the wastewater quality. The investigation showed that an...... must be optimised for each residue. The overall water use can be limited to a L/S-ratio of 3 l kg–1 including water used for washing of the treated products.......The key design parameters of a new process for treatment of air-pollution-control (APC) residues (the Ferroxprocess) were investigated in the laboratory. The optimisation involved two different APC-residues from actual incinerator plants. The design parameters considered were: amount of iron oxide...

  20. Treatment of waste incinerator air-pollution-control residues with FeSO4: Laboratory investigation of design parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Lundtorp, Kasper

    2002-01-01

    The key design parameters of a new process for treatment of air-pollution-control (APC) residues (the Ferroxprocess) were investigated in the laboratory. The optimisation involved two different APC-residues from actual incinerator plants. The design parameters considered were: amount of iron oxide...... supplied, the liquid-to-solid ratio of the process, the separation of solids and wastewater, the sequence of material mixing, the possibilities of reuse of water, the feasibility of using secondary (brackish) water, and simple means to improve the wastewater quality. The investigation showed that an...... optimum process configuration could be obtained yielding a stabilised solid product with low leaching of heavy metals and a dischargable wastewater with high contents of salts (in order to remove salts from the solid product) and low concentrations of heavy metals. The amount of iron added to the APC...

  1. Report of exploratory trenching for the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresen, M.D.; Weiss, R.B.

    1985-12-01

    Three exploratory trenches, totaling about 1,300 ft in length were excavated and logged across the site of a proposed Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF), to assess whether or not active Greenville fault zone, located about 4100 ft to the northeast, pass through or within 200 ft of the site. The layout of the trenches (12-16 ft deep) was designed to provide continuous coverage across the DWTF site and an area within 200 ft northeast and southwest of the site. Deposits exposed in the trench walls are primarily of clay, and are typical of weakly cemented silty sand to sandy silt with the alluvial deposits in the area. Several stream channels were encountered that appear to have an approximated east-west orintation. The channel deposits consist of well-sorted, medium to coarse-grained sand and gravel. A well-developed surface soil is laterally continuous across all three trenches. The soil reportedly formed during late Pleistocene time (about 35,000 to 40,000 yr before present) based on soil stratigraphic analyses. A moderately to well-developed buried soil is laterally continuous in all three trenches, except locally where it has been removed by channelling. This buried soil apparently formed about 100,000 yr before present. At least one older, discontinuous soil is present below the 100,000-yr-old soil in some locations. The age of the older soil is unknown. At several locations, two discontinuous buried soils were observed between the surface soil and the 100,000-yr-old soil. Various overlapping stratigraphic units could be traced across the trenches providing a continuous datum of at least 100,000 yr to assess the presence or absence of faulting. The continuity of stratigraphic units in all the trenches demonstrated that no active faults pass through or within 200 ft of the proposed DWTF site.

  2. Report of exploratory trenching for the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three exploratory trenches, totaling about 1,300 ft in length were excavated and logged across the site of a proposed Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF), to assess whether or not active Greenville fault zone, located about 4100 ft to the northeast, pass through or within 200 ft of the site. The layout of the trenches (12-16 ft deep) was designed to provide continuous coverage across the DWTF site and an area within 200 ft northeast and southwest of the site. Deposits exposed in the trench walls are primarily of clay, and are typical of weakly cemented silty sand to sandy silt with the alluvial deposits in the area. Several stream channels were encountered that appear to have an approximated east-west orintation. The channel deposits consist of well-sorted, medium to coarse-grained sand and gravel. A well-developed surface soil is laterally continuous across all three trenches. The soil reportedly formed during late Pleistocene time (about 35,000 to 40,000 yr before present) based on soil stratigraphic analyses. A moderately to well-developed buried soil is laterally continuous in all three trenches, except locally where it has been removed by channelling. This buried soil apparently formed about 100,000 yr before present. At least one older, discontinuous soil is present below the 100,000-yr-old soil in some locations. The age of the older soil is unknown. At several locations, two discontinuous buried soils were observed between the surface soil and the 100,000-yr-old soil. Various overlapping stratigraphic units could be traced across the trenches providing a continuous datum of at least 100,000 yr to assess the presence or absence of faulting. The continuity of stratigraphic units in all the trenches demonstrated that no active faults pass through or within 200 ft of the proposed DWTF site

  3. Consecutive anaerobic-aerobic treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and lignocellulosic materials in laboratory-scale landfill-bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellera, Frantseska-Maria; Pasparakis, Emmanouil; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2016-10-01

    The scope of this study is to evaluate the use of laboratory-scale landfill-bioreactors, operated consecutively under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, for the combined treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with two different co-substrates of lignocellulosic nature, namely green waste (GW) and dried olive pomace (DOP). According to the results such a system would represent a promising option for eventual larger scale applications. Similar variation patterns among bioreactors indicate a relatively defined sequence of processes. Initially operating the systems under anaerobic conditions would allow energetic exploitation of the substrates, while the implementation of a leachate treatment system ultimately aiming at nutrient recovery, especially during the anaerobic phase, could be a profitable option for the whole system, due to the high organic load that characterizes this effluent. In order to improve the overall effectiveness of such a system, measures towards enhancing methane contents of produced biogas, such as substrate pretreatment, should be investigated. Moreover, the subsequent aerobic phase should have the goal of stabilizing the residual materials and finally obtain an end material eventually suitable for other purposes. PMID:27497587

  4. Chronic Chagas' heart disease: a disease on its way to becoming a worldwide health problem: epidemiology, etiopathology, treatment, pathogenesis and laboratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Saravia, Silvia Gilka; Haberland, Annekathrin; Wallukat, Gerd; Schimke, Ingolf

    2012-01-01

    Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is ranked as the most serious parasitic disease in Latin America. Nearly 30% of infected patients develop life-threatening complications, and with a latency of 10-30 years, mostly Chagas' heart disease which is currently the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America, enormously burdening economic resources and dramatically affecting patients' social and labor situations. Because of increasing migration, international tourism and parasite transfer by blood contact, intrauterine transfer and organ transplantation, Chagas' heart disease could potentially become a worldwide problem. To raise awareness of this problem, we reflect on the epidemiology and etiopathology of Chagas' disease, particularly Chagas' heart disease. To counteract Chagas' heart disease, in addition to the general interruption of the infection cycle and chemotherapeutic elimination of the infection agent, early and effective causal or symptomatic therapies would be indispensable. Prerequisites for this are improved knowledge of the pathogenesis and optimized patient management. From economic and logistics viewpoints, this last prerequisite should be performed using laboratory medicine tools. Consequently, we first summarize the mechanisms that have been suggested as driving Chagas' heart disease, mainly those associated with the presence of autoantibodies against G-protein-coupled receptors; secondly, we indicate new treatment strategies involving autoantibody apheresis and in vivo autoantibody neutralization; thirdly, we present laboratory medicine tools such as autoantibody estimation and heart marker measurement, proposed for diagnosis, risk assessment and patient guidance and lastly, we critically reflect upon the increase in inflammation and oxidative stress markers in Chagas' heart disease. PMID:21165698

  5. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G; Daniels, J; Wegrecki, A

    2007-10-01

    This document contains the human health and ecological risk assessment for the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF). Volume 1 is the text of the risk assessment, and Volume 2 (provided on a compact disc) is the supporting modeling data. The EWTF is operated by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Site 300, which is located in the foothills between the cities of Livermore and Tracy, approximately 17 miles east of Livermore and 8 miles southwest of Tracy. Figure 1 is a map of the San Francisco Bay Area, showing the location of Site 300 and other points of reference. One of the principal activities of Site 300 is to test what are known as 'high explosives' for nuclear weapons. These are the highly energetic materials that provide the force to drive fissionable material to criticality. LLNL scientists develop and test the explosives and the integrated non-nuclear components in support of the United States nuclear stockpile stewardship program as well as in support of conventional weapons and the aircraft, mining, oil exploration, and construction industries. Many Site 300 facilities are used in support of high explosives research. Some facilities are used in the chemical formulation of explosives; others are locations where explosive charges are mechanically pressed; others are locations where the materials are inspected radiographically for such defects as cracks and voids. Finally, some facilities are locations where the machined charges are assembled before they are sent to the onsite test firing facilities, and additional facilities are locations where materials are stored. Wastes generated from high-explosives research are treated by open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD). OB and OD treatments are necessary because they are the safest methods for treating explosives wastes generated at these facilities, and they eliminate the requirement for further handling

  6. Long-term effects of antibiotics on the elimination of chemical oxygen demand, nitrification, and viable bacteria in laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susan; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2012-10-01

    Antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals are contaminants of the environment because of their widespread use and incomplete removal by microorganisms during wastewater treatment. The influence of a mixture of ciprofloxacin (CIP), gentamicin (GM), sulfamethoxazole (SMZ)/trimethoprim (TMP), and vancomycin (VA), up to a final concentration of 40 mg/L, on the elimination of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrification, and survival of bacteria, as well as the elimination of the antibiotics, was assessed in a long-term study in laboratory treatment plants (LTPs). In the presence of 30 mg/L antibiotics, nitrification of artificial sewage by activated sludge ended at nitrite. Nitrate formation was almost completely inhibited. No nitrification at all was possible in the presence of 40 mg/L antibiotics. The nitrifiers were more sensitive to antibiotics than heterotrophic bacteria. COD elimination in antibiotic-stressed LTPs was not influenced by ≤20 mg/L antibiotics. Addition of 30 mg/L antibiotic mixture decreased COD removal efficiency for a period, but the LTPs recovered. Similar results were obtained with 40 mg/L antibiotic mixture. The total viable count of bacteria was not affected negatively by the antibiotics. It ranged from 2.2 × 10(6) to 8.2 × 10(6) colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) compared with the control at 1.4 × 10(6)-6.3 × 10(6) CFU/mL. Elimination of the four antibiotics during phases of 2.4-30 mg/L from the liquid was high for GM (70-90 %), much lower for VA, TMP, and CIP (0-50 %), and highly fluctuating for SMZ (0-95 %). The antibiotics were mainly adsorbed to the sludge and not biodegraded. PMID:22622431

  7. Effect of Diuron on aquatic bacteria in laboratory-scale wastewater treatment ponds with special reference to Aeromonas species studied by colony hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumpono; Perotti, P; Belan, A; Forestier, C; Lavedrine, B; Bohatier, J

    2003-01-01

    Six laboratory-scale wastewater treatment ponds were filled with sediment and water obtained from a reference pond (a wastewater treatment plant located in a rural environment at Montel-de-Gelat, Puy-de-Dôme, France). They were kept at 20 degrees C, with alternative light and dark periods (12 h-12 h), and fed with raw effluent supplied weekly. Three of them were treated with Diuron (dissolved in DMSO) at a final concentration 10 mg/l, while the other three received only DMSO. Physico-chemical parameters, total bacteria, cultivable bacteria, and Aeromonas spp. were measured periodically until 41 days after the Diuron contamination. Total bacteria were treated with 4,6-diamidino 2-phenylindole (DAPI) and counted by epifluoroscence microscopy. The cultivable bacteria were quantified on plate count agar medium and Aeromonas spp. using colony hybridization. In the contaminated pilots, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), ammonium, phosphorus, and bacteria increased, but dissolved oxygen decreased. The abundance of total bacteria, cultivable bacteria (multiplied by 30), and Aeromonas spp. increased for two weeks after Diuron introduction, reverting to initial values three weeks later. The percentage of cultivable bacteria relative to total bacteria was 0.2% in controls and 1.2% in treated pilots, while the percentage of Aeromonas spp. relative to cultivable bacteria decreased from 6-10% to 2%. Our results suggest that Diuron, which acts on the photosystem II of phototrophs, supports the development of cultivable bacteria through new carbon sources derived from the decomposition of photosynthetic micro-organisms, but does not specifically support Aeromonas spp. PMID:12656266

  8. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the human health and ecological risk assessment for the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF). Volume 1 is the text of the risk assessment, and Volume 2 (provided on a compact disc) is the supporting modeling data. The EWTF is operated by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Site 300, which is located in the foothills between the cities of Livermore and Tracy, approximately 17 miles east of Livermore and 8 miles southwest of Tracy. Figure 1 is a map of the San Francisco Bay Area, showing the location of Site 300 and other points of reference. One of the principal activities of Site 300 is to test what are known as 'high explosives' for nuclear weapons. These are the highly energetic materials that provide the force to drive fissionable material to criticality. LLNL scientists develop and test the explosives and the integrated non-nuclear components in support of the United States nuclear stockpile stewardship program as well as in support of conventional weapons and the aircraft, mining, oil exploration, and construction industries. Many Site 300 facilities are used in support of high explosives research. Some facilities are used in the chemical formulation of explosives; others are locations where explosive charges are mechanically pressed; others are locations where the materials are inspected radiographically for such defects as cracks and voids. Finally, some facilities are locations where the machined charges are assembled before they are sent to the onsite test firing facilities, and additional facilities are locations where materials are stored. Wastes generated from high-explosives research are treated by open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD). OB and OD treatments are necessary because they are the safest methods for treating explosives wastes generated at these facilities, and they eliminate the requirement for further handling and

  9. Comparison of antifungal MICs for yeasts obtained using the EUCAST method in a reference laboratory and the Etest in nine different hospital laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannaoui, E; Paugam, A; Develoux, M; Chochillon, C; Matheron, J; Datry, A; Bouges-Michel, C; Bonnal, C; Dromer, F; Bretagne, S

    2010-07-01

    In routine laboratory practice, the determination of MICs of antifungals for yeasts often relies on the Etest, because of a good correlation with reference methods. However, this correlation was established through predesigned studies, rather than prospective testing. The surveillance programme of fungaemia (YEASTS programme), implemented since 2003, facilitated our comparison of the Etest and the EUCAST results, obtained on a routine basis in nine different hospitals and in a reference laboratory, respectively. The analysis included 690 isolates recovered from blood culture (362 Candida albicans, 113 Candida glabrata, 69 Candida parapsilosis, 55 Candida tropicalis, 31 Cryptococcus neoformans, and 60 other yeast species) that were tested for their susceptibility to amphotericin B (n = 655), fluconazole (n = 669), itraconazole (n = 198), voriconazole (n = 588), flucytosine (n = 314), and caspofungin (n = 244). Agreement between the Etest and EUCAST datasets was calculated and categorized on the basis of previously published breakpoints. The level of agreement at ±2 dilutions was 75% for amphotericin B and 90% for flucytosine; for the azoles, it ranged from 71% for itraconazole to 87% for voriconazole. No significant difference was observed among the yeast species, except for Cryptococcus neoformans and flucytosine, with an agreement <40%. Categorical agreement ranged from 60% for itraconazole to 90% for flucytosine. Major and very major discrepancies occurred in <12% and 6%, respectively. The Etest, even when performed on a routine basis, shows a ≥71% agreement with the EUCAST reference method. PMID:19778296

  10. Analytical Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s analytical laboratories in Pittsburgh, PA, and Albany, OR, give researchers access to the equipment they need to thoroughly study the properties of materials...

  11. National laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foundation of a 'National Laboratory' which would support a Research center in synchrotron radiation applications is proposed. The essential features of such a laboratory differing of others centers in Brazil are presented. (L.C.)

  12. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  13. Computational Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains a number of commercial off-the-shelf and in-house software packages allowing for both statistical analysis as well as mathematical modeling...

  14. Clinical and economic analysis of voriconazole using for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Ignatieva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Based on clinical studies data voriconazole is recommended as the drug of choice for treatment of invasive aspergillosis (IA – a widespread infectious complications occurring in immunocompromised patients and is characterized by severe clinical course and high mortality.The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of voriconazole compared to other preparations recommended in the Russian practice for the treatment of IA in adult patients.Materials and methods. The authors constructed a «decision tree» type of model, which compared the three treatment alternatives for the IA in adult patients, depending on the drug in first-line therapy: 1 voriconazole, 2, caspofungin, or 3 amphotericin B lipid complex (LC. Efficacy was assessed as the probability of patient survival within 14 weeks of starting treatment. We took into account the drugs cost and an increase in the hospitalization duration due to the development of serious adverse events. The model parameters were determined on the basis of the published results of clinical studies, the costs were calculated on the basis of medicines prices in the public procurement and the average bed-day cost in system of obligatory health insurance. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed.Results. It has been shown that the use of voriconazole for treatment of IA is the dominant strategy compared to the use of caspofungin and amphotericin B LC, providing cost reduction while achieving maximum effect. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (1000 simulations showed stability of the revealed pattern.Conclusion. The use of voriconazole in the treatment of IA allows to save the greatest number of lives at minimal cost compared to other preparations recommended in the Russian practice.

  15. Ondansetron reduces naturalistic drinking in non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent individuals with the LL 5′-HTTLPR genotype: a laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, George A.; Zywiak, William H.; Swift, Robert M.; McGeary, John E.; Clifford, James S.; Shoaff, Jessica R.; Vuittonet, Cynthia; Fricchione, Samuel; Brickley, Michael; Beaucage, Kayla; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Background One hypothesis suggests that the differential response to ondansetron and serotonin specific re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may be due to a functional polymorphism of the 5′-HTTLPR promoter region in SLC6A4, the gene that codes for the serotonin transporter (5-HTT). The LL 5′-HTTLPR genotype is postulated to be specifically sensitive to the effects of ondansetron with SS/SL 5′-HTTLPR genotypes sensitive to SSRIs. This study tests this hypothesis by matching non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent (AD) individuals with LL genotype to ondansetron and SS/SL genotypes to the SSRI sertraline, and mis-matching them assessing naturalistic and bar-laboratory alcohol drinking. Methods Seventy-seven AD individuals were randomized to one of two counterbalanced arms to receive sertraline 200mg/day or ondansetron 0.5 mg/day for three weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then received placebo for three weeks followed by a second ASAE. Individuals then received the alternate drug for three weeks followed by a third ASAE. Drinks per drinking day (DDD with drinks in SDUs) for 7 days prior to each ASAE and milliliters consumed during each ASAE were the primary outcomes. Results Fifty-five participants completed the study. The genotype x order interaction was significant [F(1,47) = 8.42, p = .006] for DDD. Three ANCOVAs were conducted for DDD during the week before each ASAE. Ondansetron compared to sertraline resulted in a significant reduction in DDD during the week before the first [F(1,47) = 7.64, p = .008] but not the third ASAE. There was no difference in milliliters consumed during each ASAE. Conclusion This study modestly supports the hypothesis that ondansetron may reduce DDD in AD individuals with the LL genotype as measured naturalistically. By contrast there was no support that ondansetron reduces drinking during the ASAEs or that sertraline reduces alcohol use in individuals who have SS/SL genotypes. We provide limited

  16. Oil water laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usually, the oily water effluent from petroleum processes needs to be treated prior to its environment discard and/or reuse. The synthesis of such water effluent residues in an Oily Water Laboratory - equipped with Water Treatment Pilot Scale Units - is fundamental to the study and effectiveness comparison among the typical industrial water treatment processes. The Oily Water Laboratory will allow the reproduction - in a small scale - of any oily water effluent produced in the industrial PETROBRAS units - such reproduction can be obtained by using the same fluids, oily concentration, salinity, process temperature, particle size distribution etc. Such Laboratory also allows the performance analysis of typical industrial equipment used throughout the water treatment schemes (e.g., hydro-cyclones), resulting in design and/or operational guidelines for these industrial scale schemes. In the particular niche of very small diameter oil droplet removal, more efficient and non-conventional schemes - such as centrifuges and/or membrane filtration - will be also studied in the Laboratory. In addition, the Laboratory shall be used in the certification of in-line oily water analyzers (e.g., TOC - Total Organic Carbon and OWC - Oil Wax Content). This paper describes the characteristics of such Laboratory and its main operational philosophy. (author)

  17. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  18. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  19. Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...

  20. Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  1. Development of a passive-flow treatment system for 90Sr-contaminated seep water at Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seep C is a free-flowing stream of groundwater (typical flow of 0.2 to 2 L/min) that emerges in a narrow valley below the old low-level waste disposal trenches in Solid Waste Storage Area 5 (SWSA 5), which is part of Waste Area Grouping 5 (WAG 5). The seep water contains high concentrations of Sr-90 (10,000 to 20,000 Bq/L) and contributes about 25% of all the Sr-90 leaving Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Seep C was identified as a primary source of off-site contaminant transport and was designated for an early removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA). A passive-flow treatment system was chosen as the most cost-effective method for treating the seep water. The goal of the removal action is to have a system operational by November 1, 1994, that reduces the Sr-90 concentration in the water collected and treated by at least 90%. In order to provide design and operating data for the full-scale system, a pilot-scale system, consisting of a 5-gal bucket with an inlet connection in the lid and a screened outlet on the bottom filled with 16 L of chabazite zeolite, was used to treat the seep water. The test was started on March 17, 1994, and concluded on June 15, 1994. The system treated 63,470 L (3967 bed volumes) of water and 22.7 mCi of Sr-90 from the seep water. The system removed over 99.5% of the Sr-90 from the first 43,000 L of water treated, after which the removal efficiency slowly decreased as the zeolite became loaded until it reached 84% for the final sample. The passive system performed at least as well as comparable pumped zeolite systems in terms of removal efficiency and zeolite utilization. The test was terminated just before the construction crew mobilized at Seep C to build the full-scale system

  2. Laboratory and field evaluation of municipal compost/limestone/iron mixtures as filling material for permeable reactive barriers for in-situ acid mine drainage treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibert, O. [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. d' Enginyeria Quimica]|[Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Centre Tecnologic de Manresa; Cortina, J.-L. [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. d' Enginyeria Quimica; Ayora, C. [Institut de Ciencies de la Terra Jaume Almera, Barcelona (Spain); Bolzicco, J.; Carrera, J. [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. d' Enginyeria del Terreny

    2003-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the potential of municipal compost as a carbon provider to sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) for AMD bio-remediation for use in PRB at high flow rates (>0.1 m/d). Different mixtures where municipal compost was accompanied by limestone and optionally by zero-valent iron were assessed in batch and column experiments to treat acidic waters with high contents of sulphates and eventually of metals. A check of the treated wate was carried out throughout the experiments. At the end of the column experiments, precipitates were withdrawn for SEM, EDS and XRD examination and, for one of the columns, solid digestion and sequential extraction were carried out for chemical analysis. Results showed that waters were cleaned of metals and acidity, but when no supplementation of simple organic carbon compounds was carried out it does not seem from chemical and morphology analysis that mechanisms whereby metal removal occurs was due predominantly to biogenic sulphide generation but to the pH increase, i.e. metal (oxy)hydroxides and carbonates precipitation. These precipitates could sorb other metals onto the surface. Sorption to organic matter could also contribute to some extent to metal removal. When zero-valent iron was present, cementation of copper also occurred. It can be concluded that, as applied in this study, municipal compost assessed under high flow rates was a poorly effective carbon source to support a continuous SRB activity. Then selection of reactive materials for permeable reactive barriers is a critical issue on the step of barrier design and construction. Optimisation of such treatments is very laborious, still being studied up to date and often empirical. In the present laboratory study the municipal compost assessed (typically selected as carbon organic source for PRB treating acid mine drainage) under our experimental conditions was too poor a carbon source to support a continuous SRB activity, due to the high

  3. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... or conditions. What are lab tests? Laboratory tests are medical procedures that involve testing samples of blood, urine, or other tissues or ...

  4. Development and Deployment of a Full-Scale Cross-Flow Filtration System for Treatment of Liquid Low-Level Waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, T.E.

    2000-05-12

    A full-scale modular solid/liquid separation (SLS) system was designed, fabricated, installed, and successfully deployed for treatment of liquid low-level waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The SLS module, utilizing cross-flow filtration, was operated as part of an integrated tank waste pretreatment system (otherwise known as the Wastewater Triad) to remove suspended solids and prevent fouling of ion-exchange materials and heat exchange surfaces. The information gained from this testing was used to complete design specifications for the full-scale modular SLS system in May 1997. The contract for detailed design and fabrication of the system was awarded to NUMET in July 1997, and the design was completed in January 1998. Fabrication began in March 1998, and the completed system was delivered to ORNL on December 29, 1998. Installation of the system at the MVST facility was completed in May 1999. After completing an operational readiness assessment, approval was given to commence hot operations on June 7, 1999. Operations involving two of the eight MVSTs were performed safely and with very little unscheduled downtime. Filtration of supernatant from tank W-31 was completed on June 24, 1999 and W-26 processing was completed on August 20, 1999. The total volume processed during these two campaigns was about 45,000 gal. The suspended solids content of the liquid processed from tank W-31 was lower than expected, resulting in higher-than-expected filtrate production for nearly the entire operation. The liquid processed from tank W-26 was higher in suspended solids content, and filtrate production was lower, but comparable to the rates expected based on the results of previous pilot-scale, single-element filtration tests. The quality of the filtrate consistently met the requirements for feed to the downstream ion-exchange and evaporation processes. From an equipment and controls standpoint, the modular system (pumps

  5. Development and Deployment of a Full-Scale Cross-Flow Filtration System for Treatment of Liquid Low-Level Waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A full-scale modular solid/liquid separation (SLS) system was designed, fabricated, installed, and successfully deployed for treatment of liquid low-level waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The SLS module, utilizing cross-flow filtration, was operated as part of an integrated tank waste pretreatment system (otherwise known as the Wastewater Triad) to remove suspended solids and prevent fouling of ion-exchange materials and heat exchange surfaces. The information gained from this testing was used to complete design specifications for the full-scale modular SLS system in May 1997. The contract for detailed design and fabrication of the system was awarded to NUMET in July 1997, and the design was completed in January 1998. Fabrication began in March 1998, and the completed system was delivered to ORNL on December 29, 1998. Installation of the system at the MVST facility was completed in May 1999. After completing an operational readiness assessment, approval was given to commence hot operations on June 7, 1999. Operations involving two of the eight MVSTs were performed safely and with very little unscheduled downtime. Filtration of supernatant from tank W-31 was completed on June 24, 1999 and W-26 processing was completed on August 20, 1999. The total volume processed during these two campaigns was about 45,000 gal. The suspended solids content of the liquid processed from tank W-31 was lower than expected, resulting in higher-than-expected filtrate production for nearly the entire operation. The liquid processed from tank W-26 was higher in suspended solids content, and filtrate production was lower, but comparable to the rates expected based on the results of previous pilot-scale, single-element filtration tests. The quality of the filtrate consistently met the requirements for feed to the downstream ion-exchange and evaporation processes. From an equipment and controls standpoint, the modular system (pumps

  6. Water Treatment Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This team researches and designs desalination, water treatment, and wastewater treatment systems. These systems remediate water containing hazardous c hemicals and...

  7. Certificate of Waiver Laboratory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CLIA requires all laboratories that examine materials derived from the human body for diagnosis, prevention, or treatment purposes to be certified by the Secretary...

  8. Analytical laboratory in NUCEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical laboratory was completed in NUCEF (the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility) of JAERI. NUCEF has two critical facilities (STACY and TRACY) and a fuel treatment system for criticality safety research. In addition, the facility has BECKY (Back-end Cycle Key Elements Research Facility) for the research on advanced reprocessing technology, TRU waste management and so on. This present report describes the design conditions and structure of the analytical laboratory as well as the specification of each analytical equipment. (J.P.N.)

  9. Laboratory evaluation of the hydrogen sulfide gas treatment approach for remediation of chromate-, uranium(VI)-, and nitrate-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bench-scale soil treatment tests were conducted as part of an effort to develop and implement an in situ chemical treatment approach to the remediation of metal and radionuclide contaminated soils through the use of reactive gases. In general, > 90% immobilization of chromium and > 50% immobilization of uranium was achieved. Leach test results indicate that the treatment process is irreversible for chromium but partially reversible for uranium indicates that immobilization for this contaminant is more readily achieved in organic rich soils. This observation is ascribed to the reducing nature of organic matter. Additional tests were also conducted with soils contaminated to the 5,000 ppm level with nitrate. Nitrate was not found to interfere significantly with treatment of the contaminants. Nitrite was observed in the leachate samples obtained from tests with an organic-rich soil containing clay, however. Leachate chemistries suggested that no other significantly hazardous byproducts were generated by the treatment process and that soil alteration effects were minimal. Test results also suggest that treatment effectiveness is somewhat lower in very dry soils but still able to immobilize chromium and uranium to an acceptable degree. Results of these testing activities indicate that the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the gas mixture is not a limited factor in treatment as long as a sufficient volume of the mixture is delivered to the soil to achieve a mole ratio of hydrogen sulfide to contaminant of at least 10

  10. Fugitive green-house gas emissions during biological wastewater treatment: investigating sources and mitigation strategies in laboratory and full-scale systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    The exponential increase of the atmospheric concentration of green-house gases due to human activities is responsible for the acceleration of global warming and climate change. Recently, scientific studies have pointed at wastewater treatment systems as relevant sources of fugitive green-house gases (GHGs) such as nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). Nitric oxide (NO) can also be emitted during wastewater treatment, and it is a potent ozone-depleting compound and a precursor ...

  11. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  12. Virtual Laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Hut, P

    2006-01-01

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations play a central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simul...

  13. Laboratory investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our task is to design mined-repository systems that will adequately secure high-level nuclear waste for at least 10,000 yr and that will be mechanically stable for 50 to 100-yr periods of retrievability during which mistakes could be corrected and a valuable source of energy could be reclaimed, should national policy on the reprocessing of spent fuel ever change. The only credible path for the escape of radionuclides from the repository to the biosphere is through ground-water, and in hard rock, bulk permeability is largely governed by natural and artificial fracture systems. Catastrophic failure of an excavation in hard rock is likely to occur at the weakest links - the discontinuities in the rock mass that is perturbed first by mining and then by radiogenic heating. The laboratory can contribute precise measurements of the pertinent thermomechanical, hydrological and chemical properties and improve our understanding of the fundamental processes through careful experiments under well controlled conditions that simulate the prototype environment. Thus laboratory investigations are necessary, but they are not sufficient, for conventional sample sizes are small relative to natural defects like joints - i.e., the rock mass is not a continuum - and test durations are short compared to those that predictive modeling must take into account. Laboratory investigators can contribute substantially more useful data if they are provided facilities for testing large specimens(say one cubic meter) and for creep testing of all candidate host rocks. Even so, extrapolations of laboratory data to the field in neither space nor time are valid without the firm theoretical foundations yet to be built. Meanwhile in-situ measurements of structure-sensitive physical properties and access to direct observations of rock-mass character will be absolutely necessary

  14. Culham Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains summaries of work carried out under the following headings: fusion research experiments; U.K. contribution to the JET project; supporting studies; theoretical plasma physics, computational physics and computing; fusion reactor studies; engineering and technology; contract research; external relations; staff, finance and services. Appendices cover main characteristics of Culham fusion experiments, staff, extra-mural projects supported by Culham Laboratory, and a list of papers written by Culham staff. (U.K.)

  15. Final closure plan for the high-explosives open burn treatment facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, S.

    1997-04-01

    This document addresses the interim status closure of the HE Open Bum Treatment Facility, as detailed by Title 22, Division 4.5, Chapter 15, Article 7 of the Califonia Code of Regulations (CCR) and by Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, Subpart G, ``Closure and Post Closure.`` The Closure Plan (Chapter 1) and the Post- Closure Plan (Chapter 2) address the concept of long-term hazard elimination. The Closure Plan provides for capping and grading the HE Open Bum Treatment Facility and revegetating the immediate area in accordance with applicable requirements. The Closure Plan also reflects careful consideration of site location and topography, geologic and hydrologic factors, climate, cover characteristics, type and amount of wastes, and the potential for contaminant migration. The Post-Closure Plan is designed to allow LLNL to monitor the movement, if any, of pollutants from the treatment area. In addition, quarterly inspections will ensure that all surfaces of the closed facility, including the cover and diversion ditches, remain in good repair, thus precluding the potential for contaminant migration.

  16. Hyperprolactinemia Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may receive treatment with estrogen (for women) or testosterone (for men). Hypothyroidism. An underactive thyroid most often needs treatment with synthetic (laboratory- made) thyroid hormone. Most often this treatment ...

  17. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Technetium Decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Melter Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  18. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Technetium Decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Melter Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  19. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Pre-project Rare Plant and Wildlife Surveys For the Pit 7 Drainage Diversion and Groundwater Extraction and Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, L; Woollett, J

    2007-07-17

    In January 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) released the final Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Environmental Remediation at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 Pit 7 Complex. At the same time, the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) released the final Negative Declaration and Initial Study covering the Pit 7 remediation. No substantial adverse effect on wildlife species of concern was anticipated from the project. However, it was proposed that wildlife surveys should be conducted prior to construction because species locations and breeding areas could potentially change by the time construction activities began. Although no known populations of rare or endangered/threatened plant species were known to occur within the project impact area at the time these documents were released, rare plants listed by the California Native Plant Society had been observed in the vicinity. As such, both DOE and DTSC proposed that plant surveys would be undertaken at the appropriate time of year to determine if rare plants would be impacted by project construction. This document provides the results of wildlife and rare plant surveys taken prior to the start of construction at the Pit 7 Complex.

  20. 300 Area Treatability Test: Laboratory Development of Polyphosphate Remediation Technology for In Situ Treatment of Uranium Contamination in the Vadose Zone and Capillary Fringe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Oostrom, Martinus; Gunderson, Katie M.; Webb, Samuel M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Clayton, Eric T.; Parker, Kent E.; Ermi, Ruby M.; Baum, Steven R.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2008-09-30

    This report presents results from bench-scale treatability studies conducted under site-specific conditions to optimize the polyphosphate amendment for implementation of a field-scale technology demonstration to stabilize uranium within the 300 Area vadose and smear zones of the Hanford Site. The general treatability testing approach consisted of conducting studies with site sediment and under site conditions, to develop an effective chemical formulation and infiltration approach for the polyphosphate amendment under site conditions. Laboratory-scale dynamic column tests were used to 1) quantify the retardation of polyphosphate and its degradation products as a function of water content, 2) determine the rate of polyphosphate degradation under unsaturated conditions, 3) develop an understanding of the mechanism of autunite formation via the reaction of solid phase calcite-bound uranium and aqueous polyphosphate remediation technology, 4) develop an understanding of the transformation mechanism, the identity of secondary phases, and the kinetics of the reaction between uranyl-carbonate and -silicate minerals with the polyphosphate remedy under solubility-limiting conditions, and 5) quantify the extent and rate of uranium released and immobilized based on the infiltration rate of the polyphosphate remedy and the effect of and periodic wet-dry cycling on the efficacy of polyphosphate remediation for uranium in the vadose zone and smear zone.

  1. Response of ammonium removal to growth and transpiration of Juncus effusus during the treatment of artificial sewage in laboratory-scale wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiessner, A; Kappelmeyer, U; Kaestner, M; Schultze-Nobre, L; Kuschk, P

    2013-09-01

    The correlation between nitrogen removal and the role of the plants in the rhizosphere of constructed wetlands are the subject of continuous discussion, but knowledge is still insufficient. Since the influence of plant growth and physiological activity on ammonium removal has not been well characterized in constructed wetlands so far, this aspect is investigated in more detail in model wetlands under defined laboratory conditions using Juncus effusus for treating an artificial sewage. Growth and physiological activity, such as plant transpiration, have been found to correlate with both the efficiency of ammonium removal within the rhizosphere of J. effusus and the methane formation. The uptake of ammonium by growing plant stocks is within in a range of 45.5%, but under conditions of plant growth stagnation, a further nearly complete removal of the ammonium load points to the likely existence of additional nitrogen removal processes. In this way, a linear correlation between the ammonium concentration inside the rhizosphere and the transpiration of the plant stocks implies that an influence of plant physiological activity on the efficiency of N-removal exists. Furthermore, a linear correlation between methane concentration and plant transpiration has been estimated. The findings indicate a fast response of redox processes to plant activities. Accordingly, not only the influence of plant transpiration activity on the plant-internal convective gas transport, the radial oxygen loss by the plant roots and the efficiency of nitrification within the rhizosphere, but also the nitrogen gas released by phytovolatilization are discussed. The results achieved by using an unplanted control system are different in principle and characterized by a low efficiency of ammonium removal and a high methane enrichment of up to a maximum of 72.7% saturation. PMID:23764577

  2. Mediterranean fruit flies: sterility and sexual competitiveness in the laboratory after treatment with gamma irradiation in air, carbon dioxide, helium, nitrogen, or partial vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of sterility of males of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was similar when a given dose of gamma irradiation was applied to pupae in atmospheres of nitrogen, carbon dioxide or helium or in a partial vacuum. A dose of 10 krad in air was sufficient to produce 99.5 percent sterility in males; a dose of 16 krad was required to obtain this same level of sterility when treatment was done in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, helium or partial vacuum. Males treated in each of the modified atmospheres were significantly more competitive than males treated in air; however, flies treated in nitrogen or helium were most competitive. When pupae treated in air, partial vacuum or nitrogen were packed in polyethylene bags and held for 20 h at 240C to simulate shipping conditions, competitive values for males were 0.22, 0.56, and 0.71, respectively

  3. Summary Report of Laboratory Testing to Establish the Effectiveness of Proposed Treatment Methods for Unremediated and Remediated Nitrate Salt Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    The inadvertent creation of transuranic waste carrying hazardous waste codes D001 and D002 requires the treatment of the material to eliminate the hazardous characteristics and allow its eventual shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report documents the effectiveness of two treatment methods proposed to stabilize both the unremediated and remediated nitrate salt waste streams (UNS and RNS, respectively). The two technologies include the addition of zeolite (with and without the addition of water as a processing aid) and cementation. Surrogates were developed to evaluate both the solid and liquid fractions expected from parent waste containers, and both the solid and liquid fractions were tested. Both technologies are shown to be effective at eliminating the characteristic of ignitability (D001), and the addition of zeolite was determined to be effective at eliminating corrosivity (D002), with the preferred option1 of zeolite addition currently planned for implementation at the Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility. During the course of this work, we established the need to evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed remedy for debris material, if required. The evaluation determined that Wypalls absorbed with saturated nitrate salt solutions exhibit the ignitability characteristic (all other expected debris is not classified as ignitable). Follow-on studies will be developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of stabilization for ignitable Wypall debris. Finally, liquid surrogates containing saturated nitrate salts did not exhibit the characteristic of ignitability in their pure form (those neutralized with Kolorsafe and mixed with sWheat did exhibit D001). As a result, additional nitrate salt solutions (those exhibiting the oxidizer characteristic) will be tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of the remedy.

  4. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  5. FOOTWEAR PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory provides biomechanical and physical analyses for both military and commercial footwear. The laboratory contains equipment that is integral to the us...

  6. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratories The Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  7. Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL's Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL) houses 22 research laboratories for conducting a wide-range of research including catalyst formulation, chemical analysis,...

  8. Efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment plant system and laboratory-scale micelle-clay filtration for the removal of ibuprofen residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Samer; Al-Rimawi, Fuad; Khamis, Mustafa; Zimmerman, Dikla; Shuali, Uri; Nir, Shlomo; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino A; Karaman, Rafik

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of Al-Quds Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP), which includes sequential elements as activated sludge, ultrafiltration, activated carbon column and reverse osmosis, to remove spiked ibuprofen, a non steroid anti inflammatory drug (NSAID), was investigated. Kinetic studies in pure water and in the activated sludge indicated that the drug was stable during one month of observation. Besides, the overall performance of the integrated plant showed complete removal of ibuprofen from wastewater. Activated carbon column, which was the last element in the sequence before the reverse osmosis system, yielded 95.7% removal of ibuprofen. Batch adsorptions of the drug by using either activated charcoal or composite micelle-clay system were determined at 25°C and well described by Langmuir isotherms. Octadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA) bromide and montmorillonite were used to prepare the micelle-clay adsorbent, for which the adsorption kinetics are much faster than activated charcoal. Results suggest that integrating clay-micelle complex filters within the existing WWTP may be promising in improving removal efficiency of the NSAID. PMID:23688232

  9. Treatment of fungal infections: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Giannattasio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections represent a serious problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs worldwide. Preterm infants are a vulnerable population for major events and adverse sequelae from fungal sepsis. The primary fungus of concern in neonates is C. albicans, whose colonization is associated with devastating complication and high rate of mortality. Among the risk factors responsible for development of invasive fungal infections, previous mucosal and skin colonization are of primary importance. Fungal colonization in neonates may be secondary to either maternal transmission or nosocomial acquisition in the nursery. Antifungal prophylaxis is currently applied in different NICUs and in various patients groups with successful results. Prophylactic drugs can include oral nystatin and oral or intravenous fluconazole. To date, antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole is the recommended approach for neonates lower than 1,000 g and/or 27 weeks’ gestation or less, manly in NICUs with relatively high frequency of invasive candidiasis. First-line treatment of invasive fungal infections includes amphotericin B deoxycholate, lipid preparations of amphotericin B, fluconazole, or micafungin. However, data on pharmacokinetic, schedule treatment and appropriate dosage of antifungal agents in neonates, mainly in premature, are still limited. Future strategies to reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality derived from invasive fungal infections include new echinocandins not yet approved for neonatal use (caspofungin or anidulafungin and other adjuvant treatments as intravenous immunoglobulin, lactoferrin or probiotics. Since current therapies for systemic fungal diseases are not universally successful and morbidity remains high, future efforts will be also focused on better prevention of fungal diseases and understanding of appropriate dosing schedule of the available antifungal agents. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy

  10. Evaluation of the Low-Level Waste Treatment Plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and suggested changes in the design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of the Low-Level Waste Treatment (LLWT) Plant was monitored for one month to determine why the precipitation-filtration step failed to remove the normal amount of hardness. Each of the three resin beds loaded with Duolite CS-100 resin was taken through one loading-elution cycle. The primary radioactivity in this waste is 90Sr and 137Cs, and, under optimum conditions, the plant discharges about 0.015 dpm/ml of 90Sr and 0.06 dpm/ml of 137Cs. Although no strontium breakthrough was noted, the results showed that cesium broke through each of the beds after the passage of about 550 bed volumes. Development work for this process had indicated a useful capacity of about 2000 bed volumes, however, and the plant has routinely operated using this value. Resin samples showed that the static volumetric distribution coefficient (DC) for cesium had dropped from 3900 for new resin to about 475 for used resin. Also, the DC for strontium dropped from 20,000 to about 5500. The optimum loading of cesium was found at pH 11.9. No clear-cut cause could be established for the occasional incomplete calcium precipitation. Even using exhausted resin, however, the exit stream is below the permissible concentration for all radionuclides in public streams. Recommendations from this study are immediate replacement of all three resin columns, relocation of the pH-sensing electrode in the precipitation step, use of a more dilute caustic solution for regeneration, institution of a sampling routine to determine more promptly the breakthrough of cesium from the resin, and relocation and possible modification of the gamma detector in the exit stream

  11. Identification of pre- and post-treatment markers, clinical, and laboratory parameters associated with outcome in renal cancer patients treated with MVA-5T4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RobertAmato

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent approvals of immunotherapeutic agents (Sipuleucel-T and Ipilimumab for the treatment of different solid tumors gave a boost to the growing cancer immunotherapy field, even though few immunotherapy studies have demonstrated convincingly that there is a direct link between the predicted mode of action of an immunological compound and therapeutic benefit. MVA-5T4 (Trovax® is a novel vaccine combining the tumor-associated antigen 5T4 to an engineered vector-modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA. MVA helps to express the oncofetal 5T4 antigen and subsequently trigger a tumor-directed immune reaction. The safety and clinical benefit reported in multiple phase I and II clinical trials using MVA-5T4 were encouraging; immune responses were induced in almost all treated patients, and associations between 5T4-specific cellular or humoral responses and clinical benefit were reported in most of the nine phase II trials. In particular, clinical studies conducted in renal cell carcinoma (RCC patients have demonstrated an association between 5T4-specific (but not MVA antibody responses and enhanced survival. This review describes the clinical studies using MVA-5T4 conducted in RCC that convincingly demonstrated that an antigen-specific immune response induced by vaccination is associated with enhanced patient survival and is not simply a function of the general “health” of patients. We will also provide our expert opinions on possible future better-designed clinical trials based on relevant biomarkers. In addition, various combinations of MVA-5T4 and different and newer immunomodulator agents with promising clinical benefit will be discussed.

  12. Inhibitory Effects of Bio-Energy Therapies on Cancer Growth——An overview of recent laboratory studies in the U.S. And its implications in cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin W. Chen

    2008-01-01

    Bioenergy therapies (such as Qigong, Reiki, Yoga, Pranic healing, and Therapeutic touch) have reported benefits for cancer patients, but few randomized control trials were done to verify their efficacy. It is believed that laboratory study of inhibitory effects of bio-energy therapies on cancer growth may lead to an understanding of the true efficacy of bio-energy and create a foundation for future clinical trials. Methods: Typical in-vitro study involved randomly dividing lab-prepared cancer cells into different groups with one being treated by bio-energy therapy and one or more as control groups. Sometimes, controls were treated by a sham healer. Typical in vivo study involved injecting or implanting cancerous cells into mice, then randomly dividing them into various groups. The control could be either non-treatment or sham treatment; the outcomes include tumor size or survival time. Results: Most studies demonstrated some inhibitory effects of bioenergy therapies on the growth of cancer cells in comparison with control. The in vivo studies reported that the bio-energy treated group had significantly slower tumor growth or longer survival lives than those in the control. One study reported survival with a normal life cycle instead of dying in 3 weeks, and cancer-infected mice developed immune response to the same breast cancer. However, researchers are confronted with methodological challenges in choosing appropriate controis, minimizing contamination, and replicating study outcomes. Conclusion: Encouraging evidence suggests hioenergy may have inhibitory effects on cancer growth, or prolong the life of cancer-infected animals, although improvement is needed in research design and replication of the findings. Bioenergy for cancer treatment is an area that is often neglected by mainstream medicine and research,and it should be seriously examined and considered as an important supplement to conventional cancer treatment.

  13. Laboratory aspects of assisted reproduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, WS; Ng, EH

    2000-01-01

    A number of advances have been made concerning the laboratory aspects of assisted reproduction. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection has revolutionised the treatment of male infertility. With the development of better embryo culture media, blastocyst transfer is now possible and is likely to reduce high-order multiple pregnancy in assisted reproduction treatment. Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis has become an alternative to prenatal diagnosis. The recent use of molecular biology techniques to d...

  14. Engineering Water Analysis Laboratory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    The purposes of water treatment in a marine steam power plant are to prevent damage to boilers, steam-operated equipment, and steam and condensate lives, and to keep all equipment operating at the highest level of efficiency. This laboratory exercise is designed to provide students with experiences in making accurate boiler water tests and to…

  15. Fungal infections of the CNS: treatment strategies for the immunocompromised patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Katharine E; Baden, Lindsey R

    2007-01-01

    Infections with fungi cause significant morbidity in the immunocompromised host and invasion of the CNS may lead to devastating consequences. Vulnerable individuals include those with haematological malignancies, transplant recipients, and those infected with HIV. Potential pathogens include yeasts, Aspergillus spp., other moulds of an increasing variety, and a range of dimorphic fungi, often associated with particular geographical locations. Antifungal treatments include polyenes such as amphotericin B and its lipid formulations, azoles such as fluconazole and itraconazole, and the more recent voriconazole and posaconazole. The new antifungal class of echinocandins, such as caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin, typically lack CNS penetration. Amphotericin B and flucytosine are used to initiate treatment for CNS yeast infections caused by Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans. Voriconazole is preferred for aspergillus, although amphotericin B, particularly in lipid formulation, is also useful. Reliable treatment data are lacking for CNS infections with most of the non-aspergillus moulds; posaconazole holds promise for the zygomycetes and perhaps some of the rarer pigmented fungi, but amphotericin B preparations are still recommended. Oral fluconazole is effective for the CNS manifestations of coccidioides, while histoplasmosis and blastomycoses typically require amphotericin B therapy. Effective treatment requires a definitive diagnosis, which is often challenging in the population at risk of CNS fungal infections. PMID:17381184

  16. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a NASA funded facility, delivering heavy ion beams to a target area where scientists...

  17. Lincoln Laboratory Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Lincoln Laboratory Grid (LLGrid) is an interactive, on-demand parallel computing system that uses a large computing cluster to enable Laboratory researchers to...

  18. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Volume 1: Report of Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G; Daniels, J; Wegrecki, A

    2006-04-24

    This document contains the human health and ecological risk assessment for the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF). Volume 1 is the text of the risk assessment, and Volume 2 (provided on a compact disc) is the supporting modeling data. The EWTF is operated by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Site 300, which is located in the foothills between the cities of Livermore and Tracy, approximately 17 miles east of Livermore and 8 miles southwest of Tracy. Figure 1 is a map of the San Francisco Bay Area, showing the location of Site 300 and other points of reference. One of the principal activities of Site 300 is to test what are known as ''high explosives'' for nuclear weapons. These are the highly energetic materials that provide the force to drive fissionable material to criticality. LLNL scientists develop and test the explosives and the integrated non-nuclear components in support of the United States nuclear stockpile stewardship program as well as in support of conventional weapons and the aircraft, mining, oil exploration, and construction industries. Many Site 300 facilities are used in support of high explosives research. Some facilities are used in the chemical formulation of explosives; others are locations where explosive charges are mechanically pressed; others are locations where the materials are inspected radiographically for such defects as cracks and voids. Finally, some facilities are locations where the machined charges are assembled before they are sent to the on-site test firing facilities, and additional facilities are locations where materials are stored. Wastes generated from high-explosives research are treated by open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD). OB and OD treatments are necessary because they are the safest methods for treating explosives wastes generated at these facilities, and they eliminate the requirement for

  19. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Volume 1: Report of Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the human health and ecological risk assessment for the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF). Volume 1 is the text of the risk assessment, and Volume 2 (provided on a compact disc) is the supporting modeling data. The EWTF is operated by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Site 300, which is located in the foothills between the cities of Livermore and Tracy, approximately 17 miles east of Livermore and 8 miles southwest of Tracy. Figure 1 is a map of the San Francisco Bay Area, showing the location of Site 300 and other points of reference. One of the principal activities of Site 300 is to test what are known as ''high explosives'' for nuclear weapons. These are the highly energetic materials that provide the force to drive fissionable material to criticality. LLNL scientists develop and test the explosives and the integrated non-nuclear components in support of the United States nuclear stockpile stewardship program as well as in support of conventional weapons and the aircraft, mining, oil exploration, and construction industries. Many Site 300 facilities are used in support of high explosives research. Some facilities are used in the chemical formulation of explosives; others are locations where explosive charges are mechanically pressed; others are locations where the materials are inspected radiographically for such defects as cracks and voids. Finally, some facilities are locations where the machined charges are assembled before they are sent to the on-site test firing facilities, and additional facilities are locations where materials are stored. Wastes generated from high-explosives research are treated by open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD). OB and OD treatments are necessary because they are the safest methods for treating explosives wastes generated at these facilities, and they eliminate the requirement for further handling and

  20. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  1. Neural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and The Institute for System Research, the Neural Systems Laboratory studies the functionality of the...

  2. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...

  3. Central Laboratories Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....

  4. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  5. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...

  6. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems. DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  7. Intelligent Optics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...

  8. Laboratory of Chemical Physics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Current research in the Laboratory of Chemical Physics is primarily concerned with experimental, theoretical, and computational problems in the structure, dynamics,...

  9. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  10. Fuels Processing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...

  11. Space Weather Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  12. Embedded Processor Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Embedded Processor Laboratory provides the means to design, develop, fabricate, and test embedded computers for missile guidance electronics systems in support...

  13. Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, researchers study how chemical looping combustion (CLC) can be applied to fossil energy systems....

  14. FOOD SAFETY TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory develops screening assays, tests and modifies biosensor equipment, and optimizes food safety testing protocols for the military and civilian sector...

  15. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts basic and applied human research studies to characterize cognitive performance as influenced by militarily-relevant contextual and physical...

  16. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  17. Virtual Training Devices Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Training Devices (VTD) Laboratory at the Life Cycle Software Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, provides a software testing and support environment...

  18. Engineered Natural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With its pressure vessels that simulate the pressures and temperatures found deep underground, NETL’s Engineered Natural Systems Laboratory in Pittsburgh, PA, gives...

  19. Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory is used to design and integrate computer hardware and software and related electronic subsystems for tactical vehicles....

  20. [Theme: Using Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Jack; Braker, Clifton

    1982-01-01

    Pritchard discusses the opportunities for applied learning afforded by laboratories. Braker describes the evaluation of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills in the agricultural mechanics laboratory. (SK)

  1. Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment of the Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste Collection and Transfer System Upgrade for Building 3544 (Process Waste Treatment Plant) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes and assesses planned modifications to be made to the Building 3544 Process Waste Treatment Plant of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The modifications are made in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) relating to environmental protection requirements for tank systems. The modifications include the provision of a new double contained LLW line replacing an existing buried line that does not provide double containment. This new above ground, double contained pipeline is provided to permit discharge of treated process waste fluid to an outside truck loading station. The new double contained discharge line is provided with leak detection and provisions to remove accumulated liquid. An existing LLW transfer pump, concentrated waste tank, piping and accessories are being utilized, with the addition of a secondary containment system comprised of a dike, a chemically resistant internal coating on the diked area surfaces and operator surveillance on a daily basis for the diked area leak detection. This assessment concludes that the planned modifications comply with applicable requirements of Federal Facility Agreement, Docket No. 89-04-FF, covering the Oak Ridge Reservation

  2. Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment of the Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste Collection and Transfer System Upgrade for Building 3544 (Process Waste Treatment Plant) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This document describes and assesses planned modifications to be made to the Building 3544 Process Waste Treatment Plant of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The modifications are made in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) relating to environmental protection requirements for tank systems. The modifications include the provision of a new double contained LLW line replacing an existing buried line that does not provide double containment. This new above ground, double contained pipeline is provided to permit discharge of treated process waste fluid to an outside truck loading station. The new double contained discharge line is provided with leak detection and provisions to remove accumulated liquid. An existing LLW transfer pump, concentrated waste tank, piping and accessories are being utilized, with the addition of a secondary containment system comprised of a dike, a chemically resistant internal coating on the diked area surfaces and operator surveillance on a daily basis for the diked area leak detection. This assessment concludes that the planned modifications comply with applicable requirements of Federal Facility Agreement, Docket No. 89-04-FF, covering the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  3. Handbook of laboratory techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina have laboratories of support to regulations functions on radiological and nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection, that have a surface of 2950 m2 in the Ezeiza Atomic Center. The manual describes in seven chapters the different techniques developed and applied in the laboratories along four decades of existence. The chapter 1: Dedicated to the treatment of environmental samples, described the procedures associated with the different types of samples: deposits, waters, sediments, vegetables, milk, fish and diet. The chapter 2: Details 48 radiochemical techniques associated to the measurements of americium 241, carbon 16, strontium 90, iodine 129, plutonium, radium 226, radon, uranium, nickel and actinides. The chapter 3: Describes the measurements techniques of alpha and gamma spectrometry. The different techniques of biological and physical dosimetry are described in the chapters 5 and 6 respectively. The final chapter is dedicated the techniques of external and internal contamination. It s important to emphasize that this manual contains the standardized technologies that the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina submits regularly to international comparisons

  4. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Volume 1: Report of Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G M; Daniels, J I; Wegrecki, A M

    2005-11-07

    Human health and ecological risk assessments are required as part of the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal process for waste treatment units. This risk assessment is prepared in support of the RCRA permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The human health risk assessment is based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency approved emissions factors and on California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk assessment and air dispersion models. The risk assessment identifies receptors of concern and evaluates carcinogenic risk, and acute and chronic noncarcinogenic hazard. The carcinogenic risk to a 30-year resident at the maximum offsite receptor location is 0.0000006 or 0.6 in one million. The carcinogenic risk to a 25-year worker at the maximum bystander on-site receptor location is also 0.0000006 or 0.6 in one million. Any risk of less than 1 in a million is below the level of regulatory concern. The acute noncarcinogenic hazard for the 30-year resident is 0.02 and the chronic noncarcinogenic hazard is 0.01. The acute noncarcinogenic hazard for the 25-year worker is 0.3 and the chronic noncarcinogenic hazard is 0.2. The point of comparison for acute and chronic noncarcinogenic hazard is 1.0, an estimate less than 1.0 is below the level of regulatory concern. The estimates of health effects are based on health conservative assumptions and represent an upper bound of the possible exposures to the receptors. For the ecological risk assessment, four receptor species were evaluated for potential detrimental effects; none were found to be adversely affected because for each species the predicted ecological hazard quotients are always less than one. Based on these results, emissions from the operations of the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility should not be considered to be of concern for human health or

  5. Yeasts acquire resistance secondary to antifungal drug treatment by adaptive mutagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Quinto-Alemany

    Full Text Available Acquisition of resistance secondary to treatment both by microorganisms and by tumor cells is a major public health concern. Several species of bacteria acquire resistance to various antibiotics through stress-induced responses that have an adaptive mutagenesis effect. So far, adaptive mutagenesis in yeast has only been described when the stress is nutrient deprivation. Here, we hypothesized that adaptive mutagenesis in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans as model organisms would also take place in response to antifungal agents (5-fluorocytosine or flucytosine, 5-FC, and caspofungin, CSP, giving rise to resistance secondary to treatment with these agents. We have developed a clinically relevant model where both yeasts acquire resistance when exposed to these agents. Stressful lifestyle associated mutation (SLAM experiments show that the adaptive mutation frequencies are 20 (S. cerevisiae -5-FC, 600 (C. albicans -5-FC or 1000 (S. cerevisiae--CSP fold higher than the spontaneous mutation frequency, the experimental data for C. albicans -5-FC being in agreement with the clinical data of acquisition of resistance secondary to treatment. The spectrum of mutations in the S. cerevisiae -5-FC model differs between spontaneous and acquired, indicating that the molecular mechanisms that generate them are different. Remarkably, in the acquired mutations, an ectopic intrachromosomal recombination with an 87% homologous gene takes place with a high frequency. In conclusion, we present here a clinically relevant adaptive mutation model that fulfils the conditions reported previously.

  6. Economic considerations in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis: a review of voriconazole pharmacoeconomic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kem P Krueger

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Kem P Krueger, A Christie NelsonSchool of Pharmacy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USAAbstract: Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening fungal infection predominately affecting immunocompromised individuals. The incidence of inpatient-treated aspergillosis cases in the US is estimated to be between 3.02 and 3.80 per 10,000 hospitalized patients. The estimated difference in hospital costs of patients with an aspergillosis infection is US$36,867 to US$59,356 higher than those of patients without the infection. Voriconazole is a synthetic, broad spectrum triazole antifungal agent, with FDA-approved indications for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis, esophageal candidiasis, candidemia in nonneutropenic patients, invasive candidiasis, and infections due to Scedosporium apiospermum and Fusarium species in patients refractory to or intolerant of other therapy. Eight cost-effectiveness analyses, one cost-minimization analysis, and one cost analysis were identified from a Medline search. The 10 pharmacoeconomic analyses were conducted in six different countries comparing voriconazole to conventional amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, itraconazole, and caspofungin. All the cost-effectiveness and cost-minimization analyses identified voriconazole as the most cost-effective therapy. The cost analysis demonstrated voriconazole cost-savings. While the acquisition costs of voriconazole are higher than those of conventional amphotericin B, the toxicity profile and rate of treatment success associated with voriconazole result in lower total treatment costs per successfully treated patient.Keywords: voriconazole, antifungal agents, invasive aspergillosis, pharmacoeconomics 

  7. Malaria diagnosis and treatment under the strategy of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI): relevance of laboratory support from the rapid immunochromatographic tests of ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2001-07-01

    The algorithm developed for the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) provides guidelines for the treatment of paediatric malaria. In areas where malaria is endemic, for example, the IMCI strategy may indicate that children who present with fever, a recent history of fever and/or pallor should receive antimalarial chemotherapy. In many holo-endemic areas, it is unclear whether laboratory tests to confirm that such signs are the result of malaria would be very relevant or useful. Children from a holo-endemic region of Tanzania were therefore checked for malarial parasites by microscopy and by using two rapid immunochromatographic tests (RIT) for the diagnosis of malaria (ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal. At the time they were tested, each of these children had been targeted for antimalarial treatment (following the IMCI strategy) because of fever and/or pallor. Only 70% of the 395 children classified to receive antimalarial drugs by the IMCI algorithm had malarial parasitaemias (68.4% had Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites, 1.3% only P. falciparum gametocytes, 0.3% P. ovale and 0.3% P. malariae). As indicators of P. falciparum trophozoites in the peripheral blood, fever had a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 15.5% whereas pallor had a sensitivity of 72.2% and a specificity of 50.8%. The RIT both had very high corresponding sensitivities (of 100.0% for the ICT and 94.0% for OptiMal) but the specificity of the ICT (74.0%) was significantly lower than that for OptiMal (100.0%). Fever and pallor were significantly associated with the P. falciparum asexual parasitaemias that equalled or exceeded the threshold intensity (2000/microl) that has the optimum sensitivity and specificity for the definition of a malarial episode. Diagnostic likelihood ratios (DLR) showed that a positive result in the OptiMal test (DLR = infinity) was a better indication of malaria than a positive result in the ICT (DLR = 3.85). In fact, OptiMal had diagnostic reliability (0

  8. Laboratory Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricks, Walter H

    2016-03-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists. PMID:26851660

  9. Energy Materials Research Laboratory (EMRL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energy Materials Research Laboratory at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) creates a cross-disciplinary laboratory facility that lends itself to the...

  10. Health Physics Laboratory - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The activities of the Health Physics Laboratory at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow are principally research in the general area of radiation physics, and radiation protection of the employees of the Institute of Nuclear Physics. Theoretical research concerns modelling of radiation effects in radiation detectors and studies of concepts in radiation protection. Experimental research, in the general area of solid state dosimetry, is primarily concerned with thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry, and more specially: development of LiF:Mg, Ti for medical applications in conventional and hadron radiotherapy, and of LiF:Mg, Cu, P for dosimetry of external low-level ionising radiation in the environment. Radiation measurements of radon concentration in dwellings and in soil gas are also performed using track detectors. The Laboratory provides expert advice on radiation protection regulations at national and international levels. Routine work of the Health Physics Laboratory involves design and maintenance of an in-house developed TL-based personnel dosimetry system for over 200 radiation workers at the INP, monitoring and supervision of radiation safety on INP premises, and advising other INP laboratories on all matters pertaining to radiation safety. We also provide personal TLD dosimetry for several customers outside the INP, mainly in hospitals and nuclear research institutes in Poland. We also calibrate radiation protection instruments for customers in the south of Poland. In 1999 we completed our calibration laboratory for radiation protection instruments, which is now equipped with an 85 MBq Cs-137 source, a computer-controlled automatic dosimetry bench, high-class ionisation chambers with electrometers and a dedicated database. Over 100 radiation protection monitors and dosimeters have been calibrated in the first few months of the activity of this laboratory. Accreditation documents have been submitted to the Main Office of Standards and

  11. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Volume 1: Report of Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegtos, G M; Daniels, J I; Wegrecki, A M

    2007-03-16

    Human health and ecological risk assessments are required as part of the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal process for waste treatment units. This risk assessment is prepared in support of the RCRA permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF) at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The human health risk assessment is based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency- (U.S. EPA) approved emissions factors and on California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA), California Air Resources Board (CARB) and U.S. EPA assessment and air dispersion models. This risk assessment identifies the receptors of concern and evaluates theoretical carcinogenic risk, and theoretical acute and chronic non-carcinogenic hazard, following those guidelines. The carcinogenic risk to a 30-year resident at the maximum off-site receptor location is 0.0000006 or 0.6 in 1 million. The carcinogenic risk to a 25-year worker at the maximum bystander on-site receptor location is also 0.0000006 or 0.6 in 1 million. Any risk of less than 1 in a million is below the level of regulatory concern. The acute non-carcinogenic hazard for the 30-year resident is 0.01, and the chronic non-carcinogenic hazard is 0.01. The acute non-carcinogenic hazard for the 25-year worker is 0.3, and the chronic non-carcinogenic hazard is 0.2. The point of comparison for acute and chronic non-carcinogenic hazard is 1.0; an estimate less than 1.0 is below the level of regulatory concern. The estimates of health effects are based on health conservative assumptions and represent an upper bound of the possible exposures to the receptors. Based on these results, emissions from the operations of the EWTF should not be of concern for human health. For the ecological risk assessment (ERA), 10 receptor species (including plants), representing members of the trophic levels in the habitat of Site 300, were evaluated for the possibility of potential detrimental

  12. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C.; Pearce, J.; Zucker, A. (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents brief descriptions of the following programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: The effects of pollution and climate change on forests; automation to improve the safety and efficiency of rearming battle tanks; new technologies for DNA sequencing; ORNL probes the human genome; ORNL as a supercomputer research center; paving the way to superconcrete made with polystyrene; a new look at supercritical water used in waste treatment; and small mammals as environmental monitors.

  13. Geological Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers use computed tomography (CT) scanners at NETL’s Geological Services Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, to peer into geologic core samples to determine how...

  14. High Bay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory is a specially constructed facility with elevated (37 feet) ceilings and an overhead catwalk, and which is dedicated to research efforts in reducing...

  15. Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Outpatient clinical laboratory services are paid based on a fee schedule in accordance with Section 1833(h) of the Social Security Act. The clinical laboratory fee...

  16. Building the Korogwe Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Richard, Jean Pierre

    2011-01-01

    An illustrated description of the building of a biomedical research laboratory in Korogwe, Tanzania.......An illustrated description of the building of a biomedical research laboratory in Korogwe, Tanzania....

  17. Space Systems Laboratory (SSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) is part of the Aerospace Engineering Department and A. James Clark School of Engineering at the University of Maryland in College...

  18. Moriah Wind System Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Moriah Wind System Laboratory provides in-service support for the more than 50 U.S. Navy, U.S. Coast Guard and Military Sealift Command ships on which...

  19. FLEXIBLE FOOD PACKAGING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment to fabricate and test prototype packages of many types and sizes (e.g., bags, pouches, trays, cartons, etc.). This equipment can...

  20. Electro-Deposition Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The electro-deposition laboratory can electro-deposit various coatings onto small test samples and bench level prototypes. This facility provides the foundation for...

  1. Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...

  2. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to...

  3. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  4. Energetics Laboratory Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These energetic materials laboratories are equipped with explosion proof hoods with blow out walls for added safety, that are certified for safe handling of primary...

  5. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  6. Protective Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory is a 40 by 28 by 9 foot facility that is equipped with tools for the development of various items of control technology related to the transmission...

  7. Mechanical Testing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Mechanical Testing Laboratory in Albany, OR, helps researchers investigate materials that can withstand the heat and pressure commonly found in fossil energy...

  8. Quality in the molecular microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Paul S; MacKay, William G

    2013-01-01

    In the clinical microbiology laboratory advances in nucleic acid detection, quantification, and sequence analysis have led to considerable improvements in the diagnosis, management, and monitoring of infectious diseases. Molecular diagnostic methods are routinely used to make clinical decisions based on when and how to treat a patient as well as monitor the effectiveness of a therapeutic regime and identify any potential drug resistant strains that may impact on the long term patient treatment program. Therefore, confidence in the reliability of the result provided by the laboratory service to the clinician is essential for patient treatment. Hence, suitable quality assurance and quality control measures are important to ensure that the laboratory methods and service meet the necessary regulatory requirements both at the national and international level. In essence, the modern clinical microbiology laboratory ensures the appropriateness of its services through a quality management system that monitors all aspects of the laboratory service pre- and post-analytical-from patient sample receipt to reporting of results, from checking and upholding staff competency within the laboratory to identifying areas for quality improvements within the service offered. For most European based clinical microbiology laboratories this means following the common International Standard Organization (ISO9001) framework and ISO15189 which sets out the quality management requirements for the medical laboratory (BS EN ISO 15189 (2003) Medical laboratories-particular requirements for quality and competence. British Standards Institute, Bristol, UK). In the United States clinical laboratories performing human diagnostic tests are regulated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) following the requirements within the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments document 1988 (CLIA-88). This chapter focuses on the key quality assurance and quality control requirements within the

  9. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  10. Laboratory medicine in the new healthcare environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Simona; Braga, Federica; Panteghini, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    The 21st century challenge is to redesign healthcare systems to be safe, efficient, effective, timely, equitable and patient-centred. Although laboratory medicine is integral to many of these objectives involving prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and managing disease of patients, it suffers from poor visibility as a medical discipline and as a profession and fewer rewards for educational efforts when compared to other medical disciplines. Laboratory scientists are often perceived as managing machinery and equipment, but conversely they need to take a position of shared clinical leadership, showing the role of laboratory tests to guarantee optimal care for patients. This is however challenging because of some reluctance by laboratory professionals to involve themselves in test structuring and requesting and in the inspection of work as it arrives because it is assumed that all requests are clinically necessary; there is a poor communication and integration between clinical wards and laboratory; and, importantly, there is the need for an excellent cultural and scientific background of laboratory professionals for implementing outcome research and to act as knowledge managers and skilled clinical consultants. By combining the unique talent of performing quality laboratory assays with knowledge of the pathophysiologic rationale behind the tests, laboratory professionals have the expertise to advise their clinical colleagues in regard to the appropriate test selection and interpretation of laboratory results, thereby creating opportunities to define the added value and the pivotal role of laboratory medicine on healthcare delivery. PMID:26466169

  11. Laboratory Activities in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Barnea, Nitza

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory activities have long had a distinctive and central role in the science curriculum, and science educators have suggested that many benefits accrue from engaging students in science laboratory activities. Many research studies have been conducted to investigate the educational effectiveness of laboratory work in science education in…

  12. Skylab mobile laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primeaux, G. R.; Larue, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Skylab mobile laboratory was designed to provide the capability to obtain necessary data on the Skylab crewmen 30 days before lift-off, within 1 hour after recovery, and until preflight physiological baselines were reattained. The mobile laboratory complex consisted of six laboratories that supported cardiovascular, metabolic, nutrition and endocrinology, operational medicine, blood, and microbiology experiments; a utility package; and two shipping containers. The objectives and equipment requirements of the Skylab mobile laboratory and the data acquisition systems are discussed along with processes such as permanently mounting equipment in the individual laboratories and methods of testing and transporting the units. The operational performance, in terms of amounts of data collected, and the concept of mobile laboratories for medical and scientific experiments are evaluated. The Skylab mobile laboratory succeeded in facilitating the data collection and sample preservation associated with the three Skylab manned flights.

  13. Personalized laboratory medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzagli, M.; Malentacchi, F.; Mancini, I.;

    2015-01-01

    Developments in "omics" are creating a paradigm shift in Laboratory Medicine leading to Personalised Medicine. This allows the increasing in diagnostics and therapeutics focused on individuals rather than populations. In order to investigate whether Laboratory Medicine is able to implement new...... diagnostic tools and expertise and commands proper state-of-the-art knowledge about Personalized Medicine and Laboratory Medicine in Europe, the joint Working Group "Personalized Laboratory Medicine" of the EFLM and ESPT societies compiled and conducted the Questionnaire "Is Laboratory Medicine ready...... for the era of Personalized Medicine?". 48 laboratories from 18 European countries participated at this survey. The answers of the participating Laboratory Medicine professionals indicate that they are aware that Personalized Medicine can represent a new and promising health model. Whereas they are aware...

  14. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  15. Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory (HFIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory is used to develop advanced, flexible, thin film gauge instrumentation for the Air Force Research Laboratory....

  16. [ISO 15189 accreditation in clinical microbiology laboratory: general concepts and the status in our laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyar, Işin

    2009-10-01

    One important trend in the laboratory profession and quality management is the global convergence of laboratory operations. The goal of an accredited medical laboratory is to continue "offering useful laboratory service for diagnosis and treatment of the patients and also aid to the health of the nation". An accredited clinical laboratory is managed by a quality control system, it is competent technically and the laboratory service meets the needs of all its patients and physicians by taking the responsibility of all the medical tests and therapies. For this purpose, ISO 15189 international standard has been prepared by 2003. ISO 15189 standard is originated from the arrangement of ISO 17025 and ISO 9001:2000 standards. Many countries such as England, Germany, France, Canada and Australia have preferred ISO 15189 as their own laboratory accreditation programme, meeting all the requirements of their medical laboratories. The accreditation performance of a clinical microbiology laboratory is mainly based on five essential points; preanalytical, analytical, postanalytical, quality control programmes (internal, external, interlaboratory) and audits (internal, external). In this review article, general concepts on ISO 15189 accreditation standards for the clinical microbiology laboratories have been summarized and the status of a private laboratory (Acibadem LabMed, Istanbul) in Turkey has been discussed. PMID:20084925

  17. Rehabilitative treatment of cleft lip and palate: experience of the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies/USP (HRAC/USP - Part 5: Institutional outcomes assessment and the role of the Laboratory of Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Alberto de Souza Freitas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratory of Physiology provides support for the diagnosis of functional disorders associated with cleft lip and palate and also conducts studies to assess, objectively, the institutional outcomes, as recommended by the World Health Organization. The Laboratory is conceptually divided into three units, namely the Unit for Upper Airway Studies, Unit for Stomatognathic System Studies and the Unit for Sleep Studies, which aims at analyzing the impact of different surgical and dental procedures on the upper airways, stomatognathic system and the quality of sleep of individuals with cleft lip and palate. This paper describes the main goals of the Laboratory in the assessment of procedures which constitute the basis of the rehabilitation of cleft lip and palate, i.e., Plastic Surgery, Orthodontics and Maxillofacial Surgery and Speech Pathology.

  18. Materials Behavior Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to evaluate mechanical properties of materials including metals, intermetallics, metal-matrix composites, and ceramic-matrix composites under typical...

  19. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  20. Free Surface Hydrodynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Investigates processes and interactions at the air-sea interface, and compares measurements to numerical simulations and field data. Typical phenomena of...

  1. Laboratory Astrophysics White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickhouse, Nancy; Federman, Steve; Kwong, Victor; Salama, Farid; Savin, Daniel; Stancil, Phillip; Weingartner, Joe; Ziurys, Lucy

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory astrophysics and complementary theoretical calculations are the foundations of astronomical and planetary research and will remain so for many generations to come. From the level of scientific conception to that of the scientific return, it is our understanding of the underlying processes that allows us to address fundamental questions regarding the origins and evolution of galaxies, stars, planetary systems, and life in the cosmos. In this regard, laboratory astrophysics is much like detector and instrument development at NASA and NSF; these efforts are necessary for the astronomical research being funded by the agencies. The NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop met at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) from 14-16 February, 2006 to identify the current laboratory data needed to support existing and future NASA missions and programs in the Astrophysics Division of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD). Here we refer to both laboratory and theoretical work as laboratory astrophysics unless a distinction is necessary. The format for the Workshop involved invited talks by users of laboratory data, shorter contributed talks and poster presentations by both users and providers that highlighted exciting developments in laboratory astrophysics, and breakout sessions where users and providers discussed each others' needs and limitations. We also note that the members of the Scientific Organizing Committee are users as well as providers of laboratory data. As in previous workshops, the focus was on atomic, molecular, and solid state physics.

  2. Shallow Water Acoustic Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where high-frequency acoustic scattering and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures...

  3. Virtual Reality Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs basic and applied research in interactive 3D computer graphics, including visual analytics, virtual environments, and augmented reality (AR). The...

  4. Applied Neuroscience Laboratory Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located at WPAFB, Ohio, the Applied Neuroscience lab researches and develops technologies to optimize Airmen individual and team performance across all AF domains....

  5. High Temperature Materials Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The High Temperature Materials Lab provides the Navy and industry with affordable high temperature materials for advanced propulsion systems. Asset List: Arc Melter...

  6. Biochemical Neuroscience Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This biochemistry lab is set up for protein analysis using Western blot, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, immunohistochemistry, and bead-based immunoassays. The...

  7. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  8. Metallurgical Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to increase basic knowledge of metallurgical processing for controlling the microstructure and mechanical properties of metallic aerospace alloys and...

  9. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory equipment to outside universities, industrial researchers, and elementary and secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division (RPSD) has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics, but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations

  10. Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream processing-bioseparations.…

  11. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Love, L.J.

    1999-09-01

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics. but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his/her students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations.

  12. Quality in Teaching Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubington, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a Japanese process-oriented approach called KAIZEN for improving the quality of existing teaching laboratories. It provides relevant quality measurements and indicates how quality can be improved. Use of process criteria sidesteps the difficulty of defining quality for laboratory experiments and allows separation of student assessment…

  13. NVLAP calibration laboratory program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cigler, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the progress up to April 1993 in the development of the Calibration Laboratories Accreditation Program within the framework of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  14. ELECTROPNEUMATIC AUTOMATION EDUCATIONAL LABORATORY

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgorukov, S. O.; National Aviation University; Roman, B. V.; National Aviation University

    2013-01-01

    The article reflects current situation in education regarding mechatronics learning difficulties. Com-plex of laboratory test benches on electropneumatic automation are considered as a tool in advancing through technical science. Course of laboratory works developed to meet the requirement of efficient and reliable way of practical skills acquisition is regarded the simplest way for students to learn the ba-sics of mechatronics.

  15. Rethinking Laboratory Notebooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Zander, Pär-Ola

    2010-01-01

    We take digitalization of laboratory work practice as a challenging design domain to explore. There are obvious drawbacks with the use of paper instead of ICT in the collaborative writing that takes place in laboratory notebooks; yet paper persist in being the most common solution. The ultimate aim...... with our study is to produce design relevant knowledge that can envisage an ICT solution that keeps as many advantages of paper as possible, but with the strength of electronic laboratory notebooks as well. Rather than assuming that users are technophobic and unable to appropriate state of the art...

  16. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory. PMID:26065792

  17. Digital signal processing laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B Preetham

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING Brief Theory of DSP ConceptsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Introduction to MATLAB®/SIMULINK®Hardware Laboratory: Working with Oscilloscopes, Spectrum Analyzers, Signal SourcesDigital Signal Processors (DSPs)ReferencesDISCRETE-TIME LTI SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Signals and SystemsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Simulation of Continuous Time and Discrete-Time Signals and Systems ReferencesTIME AND FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF COMMUNICATION SIGNALS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Fourier Transform (DTFT), Discrete Fourier Transform

  18. Specialized Laboratory Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangott, Bryan

    2016-03-01

    Some laboratories or laboratory sections have unique needs that traditional anatomic and clinical pathology systems may not address. A specialized laboratory information system (LIS), which is designed to perform a limited number of functions, may perform well in areas where a traditional LIS falls short. Opportunities for specialized LISs continue to evolve with the introduction of new testing methodologies. These systems may take many forms, including stand-alone architecture, a module integrated with an existing LIS, a separate vendor-supplied module, and customized software. This article addresses the concepts underlying specialized LISs, their characteristics, and in what settings they are found. PMID:26851663

  19. Simula Research Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Tveito, Aslak

    2010-01-01

    The Simula Research Laboratory, located just outside Oslo in Norway, is rightly famed as a highly successful research facility, despite being, at only eight years old, a very young institution. This fascinating book tells the history of Simula, detailing the culture and values that have been the guiding principles of the laboratory throughout its existence. Dedicated to tackling scientific challenges of genuine social importance, the laboratory undertakes important research with long-term implications in networks, computing and software engineering, including specialist work in biomedical comp

  20. The TANDAR Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author gives a brief description of the TANDAR Laboratory in Buenos Aires and comments on the collaboration programs which are presently underway between this laboratory and other foreign centers. The TANDAR laboratory belongs to the Physics Department of the Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), and it houses a Heavy Ion 20 MV Tandem Electrostatic Accelerator built by NEC. Machines built by this company are ordinarily called Pelletrons because the charging system is made of a chain of metallic pellets. The Buenos Aires Pelletron is the tallest in the world and its nominal voltage ranks it among the three largest

  1. Importance of anemia laboratory indexes in diagnosis and treatment of patients with anemia%贫血的实验室指标在贫血患者诊断治疗中的重要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼芬; 张芸蕾

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study importance of anemia laboratory indexes in diagnosis and treatment of anemia. Methods:4330 cases of anemia were selected, the ratio of male to female patients and anemia type were statistically analyzed. The levels of ser-um ferritin, folic acid and vitamin B12 were analyzed. Results:Among the 4 330 cases, there were 2 254 male patients and 2 076 fe-male patients. Among the male patients, there were 208 cases with microcytic hypochromic anemia, and 194 cases with macrocytic a-nemia;while among the female patients, there were 302 cases with microcytic hypochromic anemia, and 77 cases with macrocytic ane-mia. The serological examination showed that:among the patients with macrocytic anemia, the percentage of vitamin B12 decrease was lower with the ratio of male to female patients of being close to 1:3, but the percentage of folic acid decrease was greater with the ratio of being close to 1. 2:1;among the patients with microcytic anemia, the ratio of male to female patients was close to 2:3; among the patients with microcytic hypochromic anemia, the percentage of serum ferritin combined with folic acid and/or vitamin B12 decrease was 5%. Among 781 cases with macrocytic anemia ﹢microcytic hypochromic anemia, the patients in the departments of oncology and hematology, infection, pediatrics, obstetrics, gastroenterology, and gynecology were more and accounted for 19. 2%, 11. 78%, 10. 50%, 9. 73%, 8. 71% and 7. 94%, respectively. The ratio of male to female patients with microcytic hypochromic anemia was a-bout 3:2, and that of patients with macrocytic anemia was about 2. 5:1. Conclusions:Serum ferritin decrease is an imperative basis in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia, and serum ferritin decrease combined with folic acid or vitamin B12 decrease indicates micro-cytic hypochromic anemia. The detection of folic acid and vitamin B12 is a requisite basis in the diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia.%目的::探讨贫血的实验室指标在贫

  2. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL) Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  3. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  4. Understanding Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the development and marketing of all laboratory tests that use test kits ... at the National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT ...

  5. Physics Laboratory in UEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Tohru; Nakamura, Jin; Suzuki, Masaru

    All the first-year students in the University of Electro-Communications (UEC) take "Basic Physics I", "Basic Physics II" and "Physics Laboratory" as required subjects; Basic Physics I and Basic Physics II are calculus-based physics of mechanics, wave and oscillation, thermal physics and electromagnetics. Physics Laboratory is designed mainly aiming at learning the skill of basic experimental technique and technical writing. Although 95% students have taken physics in the senior high school, they poorly understand it by connecting with experience, and it is difficult to learn Physics Laboratory in the university. For this reason, we introduced two ICT (Information and Communication Technology) systems of Physics Laboratory to support students'learning and staff's teaching. By using quantitative data obtained from the ICT systems, we can easily check understanding of physics contents in students, and can improve physics education.

  6. RAS Laboratory Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Initiative uses multiple technologies to attack RAS-driven cancers. The resources of the Frederick National Lab allocated to the RAS Hub are organized into seven laboratory groups, each contributing to the collaborative effort.

  7. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft is...... laboratory is to conduct dynamic tests of the control and attitude determination algorithms during nominal operation and in abnormal conditions. Further it is intended to use SatLab for validation of various algorithms for fault detection, accommodation and supervisory control. Different mission objectives...... can be implemented in the laboratory, e.g. three-axis attitude control, slew manoeuvres, spins stabilization using magnetic actuation and/or reaction wheels. The spacecraft attitude can be determined applying magnetometer measurements....

  8. Microcontrollers in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ron

    1989-01-01

    Described is the use of automated control using microcomputers. Covers the development of the microcontroller and describes advantages and characteristics of several brands of chips. Provides several recent applications of microcontrollers in laboratory automation. (MVL)

  9. Laboratory of minerals purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laboratory of minerals purification was organized in 1962 where with application of modern physical and chemical methods were investigated the mechanism of flotation reagents interaction with minerals' surface, was elaborated technologies on rising complexity of using of republic's minerals

  10. Immersive Simulation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Develops and tests novel user interfaces for 3D virtual simulators and first-person shooter games that make user interaction more like natural interaction...

  11. GSPEL - Calorimeter Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Testing performance claims on heat transfer components The Calorimeter Lab, located in the Ground Systems Power and Energy Lab (GSPEL), is one of the largest in the...

  12. Performing laboratory compliance audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keoppel, P

    2001-01-01

    Billions of dollars are paid improperly each year because of laboratory service billing errors that include services not covered, incorrect coding, lack of medical necessity, and unsupported services. An important part of a laboratory compliance program is the compliance audit. This article discusses barriers to a successful audit, audit skills for the laboratory, areas to cover in an audit, and writing the audit report. Intermountain Health Care (IHC) is an integrated health-care system consisting of 20 hospitals in Utah and Idaho, health plans with 450,000 directly covered lives and contracts to third-party insurance companies covering 500,000 additional lives, and 75 other facilities with 400 employed physicians. Approximately 1,000 of IHC's 23,000 employees work in laboratories. PMID:11822264

  13. Structural Static Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Structural testing is performed to verify the structural integrity of space flight and ground test hardware. Testing is also performed to verify the finite element...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 60 years, Sandia has delivered essential science and technology to resolve the nation[HTML_REMOVED]s most challenging security issues. Sandia National...

  15. Key Management Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....

  16. Secondary standards dosimetry laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) is part of an international network of dosimetry laboratories established by the IAEA and WHO. The network services maintain the consistency and accuracy of the therapeutic dose by exercising a national and international intercomparison program as well as providing calibration services to the end users, mainly radiotherapy departments in hospitals. The SSDL's are designated by national laboratories (such as Primary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories, PSDL's) to provide national and international absorbed dose traceability for users in that country. The advantage of the SSDL is that the absorbed dose measurements are consistent among the stakeholder countries.The Physics and Safety divisions have recently re-established an SSDL at ANSTO. The SSDL utilises a collimated cobalt-60 source of activity 170 TBq and dose rate of SmGy/sec at 1 metre (within ±2%), and provides a service to calibrate therapy level thimble ionisation chambers and electrometers

  17. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  18. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  19. Transformative geomorphic research using laboratory experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sean J.; Ashmore, Peter; Neuman, Cheryl McKenna

    2015-09-01

    Laboratory experiments in geomorphology is the theme of the 46th annual Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium (BGS). While geomorphic research historically has been dominated by field-based endeavors, laboratory experimentation has emerged as an important methodological approach to study these phenomena, employed primarily to address issues related to scale and the analytical treatment of the geomorphic processes. Geomorphic laboratory experiments can result in transformative research. Several examples drawn from the fluvial and aeolian research communities are offered as testament to this statement, and these select transformative endeavors often share very similar attributes. The 46th BGS will focus on eight broad themes within laboratory experimentation, and a diverse group of scientists has been assembled to speak authoritatively on these topics, featuring several high-profile projects worldwide. This special issue of the journal Geomorphology represents a collection of the papers written in support of this symposium.

  20. Laboratory animal allergy.

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, A

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540 workers at 8 laboratory animal facilities. All participants completed a questionnaire and underwent skin prick testing with common and occupational allergens. Total and specific IgE measures were obtained....

  1. Brief Analysis of the "three wastes" Treatment in the Organic Laboratory of University%高校有机实验室三废的处理浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    买文鹏

    2012-01-01

    文章探讨了高校有机实验室产生的三废,指出了其产生的污染和危害,分析了现存的管理上的问题,并提出相应的解决方法和措施以减少污染的产生。%The paper analyzes the "three wastes" in organic laboratory of university and points out its pollution and harm for environment.It also analyzes problems in the current management and come up with some corresponding solution.

  2. Waste management study: Process development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the present Toxic Waste Control Operations at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, evaluates the technologies most applicable to the treatment of toxic and hazardous wastes and presents conceptual designs of processes for the installation of a new decontamination and waste treatment facility (DWTF) for future treatment of these wastes

  3. San Juan District Laboratory (SJN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program Capabilities SJN-DO Pharmaceutical Laboratory is an A2LA/ISO/IEC 17025 accredited National Servicing Laboratory specialized in Drug Analysis, is a member of...

  4. NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The grand opening of NASA's new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies located at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, took place in July 2004. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory (PRL) serves as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of innovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility is the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, features a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility allows it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellant propulsion. An important area of emphasis is the development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and sets the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications.

  5. Physics laboratory 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers the research activities of the Physics laboratory of H.C. Oersted Institute, University of Copenhagen in the period January 1, 1976 - January 1, 1979. It gives also an idea about the teaching carried out by yhe laboratory. The research - broadly speaking - deals mainly with the interaction of particles (ions, electrons and neutrons) and electromagnetic radiation (X-rays) with matter. Use is made in studies of: atomic physics, radiation effects, surface physics, the electronic and crystallographic structure of matter and some biological problems. The research is carried out partly in the laboratory itself and partly at and in collaboration with other institutes in this country (H.C. Oersted Institute, Chemical Laboratories, Denmark's Technical University, Aarhus University, Institute of Physics and Risoe National Laboratory) and abroad (Federal Republic of Germany, France, India, Sweden, U.K., U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.). All these institutes are listed in the abstract titles. Bibliography comprehends 94 publications. A substantial part of the research is supported by the Danish Natural Sciences Research Council. (author)

  6. Laboratory medicine education in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Bartlingas, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    In Lithuania there are two types of specialists working in medical laboratories and having a university degree: laboratory medicine physicians and medical biologists. Both types of specialists are officially being recognized and regulated by the Ministry of Health of Lithuania. Laboratory medicine physicians become specialists in laboratory medicine after an accredited 4-year multidisciplinary residency study program in Laboratory Medicine. The residency program curriculum for laboratory m...

  7. The laboratory diagnosis of testosterone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Darius A; Brannigan, Robert E; Fuchs, Eugene F; Kim, Edward D; Marmar, Joel L; Sandlow, Jay I

    2014-05-01

    The evaluation and treatment of hypogonadal men has become an important part of urologic practice. Fatigue, loss of libido, and erectile dysfunction are commonly reported, but nonspecific symptoms and laboratory verification of low testosterone (T) are an important part of evaluation in addition to a detailed history and physical examination. Significant intraindividual fluctuations in serum T levels, biologic variation of T action on end organs, the wide range of T levels in human serum samples, and technical limitations of currently available assays have led to poor reliability of T measurements in the clinical laboratory setting. There is no universally accepted threshold of T concentration that distinguishes eugonadal from hypogonadal men; thus, laboratory results have to be interpreted in the appropriate clinical setting. This review focuses on clinical, biological, and technological challenges that affect serum T measurements to educate clinicians regarding technological advances and limitations of the currently available laboratory methods to diagnose hypogonadism. A collaborative effort led by the American Urological Association between practicing clinicians, patient advocacy groups, government regulatory agencies, industry, and professional societies is underway to provide optimized assay platforms and evidence-based normal assay ranges to guide clinical decision making. Until such standardization is commonplace in clinical laboratories, the decision to treat should be based on the presence of signs and symptoms in addition to serum T measurements. Rigid interpretation of T ranges should not dictate clinical decision making or define coverage of treatment by third party payers. PMID:24548716

  8. Canada's Neutron Beam Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the current and planned activities of Canada's Neutron Beam Laboratory which is managed by the National Research Council of Canada. In 1994, Professor Bertram Brockhouse shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for his pioneering work carried out in this laboratory. He developed neutron scattering as a powerful and versatile tool for investigating materials at the level of molecules and nano structures. The neutron source for this work is Canada's NRU reactor located at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. This neutron source is also used for the production of medical isotopes, testing of components for the nuclear power stations and neutron scattering experiments on materials

  9. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft......-axis magnetometer, three piezoelectric gyros, and four reaction wheels in a tetrahedron configuration. The operation of the spacecraft is fully autonomous. The data flow between the transducers and the onboard computer placed physically outside the satellite is provided by a radio link. The purpose...... of the laboratory is to conduct dynamic tests of the control and attitude determination algorithms during nominal operation and in abnormal conditions. Further it is intended to use SatLab for validation of various algorithms for fault detection, accommodation and supervisory control. Different mission objectives...

  10. Process innovation laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2007-01-01

    models. The process innovation laboratory facilitates innovation by using an integrated action learning approach to process modelling in a controlled environment. The study is based on design science and the paper also discusses the implications to EIS research and practice...... thus to create a new methodology for developing and exploring process models and applications. The paper outlines the process innovation laboratory as a new approach to BPI. The process innovation laboratory is a comprehensive framework and a collaborative workspace for experimenting with process......Most organizations today are required not only to operate effective business processes but also to allow for changing business conditions at an increasing rate. Today nearly every business relies on their enterprise information systems (EIS) for process integration and future generations of EIS...

  11. San Francisco District Laboratory (SAN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program Capabilities Food Analysis SAN-DO Laboratory has an expert in elemental analysis who frequently performs field inspections of materials. A recently acquired...

  12. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  13. INFORMATION SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY (ISTL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Background: The Naval Automated Information Laboratory (NAIL), consisting of Navy legacy and transitional systems, was established to emulate a typical command for...

  14. Robotics and Autonomous Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment for developing and evaluating intelligent software for both actual and simulated autonomous vehicles. Laboratory computers provide...

  15. Analytical laboratory quality audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, William D.

    2001-06-11

    Analytical Laboratory Quality Audits are designed to improve laboratory performance. The success of the audit, as for many activities, is based on adequate preparation, precise performance, well documented and insightful reporting, and productive follow-up. Adequate preparation starts with definition of the purpose, scope, and authority for the audit and the primary standards against which the laboratory quality program will be tested. The scope and technical processes involved lead to determining the needed audit team resources. Contact is made with the auditee and a formal audit plan is developed, approved and sent to the auditee laboratory management. Review of the auditee's quality manual, key procedures and historical information during preparation leads to better checklist development and more efficient and effective use of the limited time for data gathering during the audit itself. The audit begins with the opening meeting that sets the stage for the interactions between the audit team and the laboratory staff. Arrangements are worked out for the necessary interviews and examination of processes and records. The information developed during the audit is recorded on the checklists. Laboratory management is kept informed of issues during the audit so there are no surprises at the closing meeting. The audit report documents whether the management control systems are effective. In addition to findings of nonconformance, positive reinforcement of exemplary practices provides balance and fairness. Audit closure begins with receipt and evaluation of proposed corrective actions from the nonconformances identified in the audit report. After corrective actions are accepted, their implementation is verified. Upon closure of the corrective actions, the audit is officially closed.

  16. Underground laboratories in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed

  17. Radiation detectors laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation detectors laboratory was established with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency which gave this the responsibility to provide its services at National and regional level for Latin America and it is located at the ININ. The more expensive and delicate radiation detectors are those made of semiconductor, so it has been put emphasis in the use and repairing of these detectors type. The supplied services by this laboratory are: selection consultant, detectors installation and handling and associated systems. Installation training, preventive and corrective maintenance of detectors and detection systems calibration. (Author)

  18. Satellite Control Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft is suspended on an air bearing, and rotates freely in 3 degrees of freedom. In order to avoid any influence of the gravitational force the centre of mass of the satellite is placed in the geometric centre of...

  19. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  20. Rapid Improvement in Passive Tuberculosis Case Detection and Tuberculosis Treatment Outcomes After Implementation of a Bundled Laboratory Diagnostic and On-Site Training Intervention Targeting Mid-Level Providers

    OpenAIRE

    Manabe, Yukari C; Zawedde-Muyanja, Stella; Burnett, Sarah M.; Mugabe, Frank; Naikoba, Sarah; Coutinho, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background.  Tuberculosis (TB) control is a public health priority with 3 million cases unrecognized by the public health system each year. We assessed the impact of improved TB diagnostics and on-site training on TB case detection and treatment outcomes in rural healthcare facilities. Methods.  Fluorescence microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF, and on-site training were introduced at 10 healthcare facilities. Using quasi-experimental methods, these 10 intervention healthcare facilities were compared wi...

  1. Radiation detectors laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Institute for Nuclear Research has established a Radiation detector laboratory that has the possibility of providing to the consultants on the handling and applications of the nuclear radiation detectors. It has special equipment to repair the radiation detectors used in spectroscopy as the hyper pure Germanium for gamma radiation and the Lithium-silica for X-rays. There are different facilities in the laboratory that can become useful for other institutions that use radiation detectors. This laboratory was created to satisfy consultant services, training and repairing of the radiation detectors both in national and regional levels for Latin America. The laboratory has the following sections: Nuclear Electronic Instrumentation; where there are all kind of instruments for the measurement and characterization of detectors like multichannel analyzers of pulse height, personal computers, amplifiers and nuclear pulse preamplifiers, nuclear pulses generator, aleatories, computer programs for radiation spectra analysis, etc. High vacuum; there is a vacuum escape measurer, two high vacuum pumps to restore the vacuum of detectors, so the corresponding measurers and the necessary tools. Detectors cleaning; there is an anaerobic chamber for the detectors handling at inert atmosphere, a smoke extraction bell for cleaning with the detector solvents. Cryogenic; there are vessels and tools for handling liquid nitrogen which is used for cooling the detectors when they required it. (Author)

  2. Laboratory For Telerobotic Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Paolo; Bejczy, Antal K.; Das, Hari; Zak, Haya

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory telerobotic system performs such complicated tasks as picking up tools, removing thermal blanket, and replacing screws. Human operator in control room operates remote robot with aid of video monitors, torque and force displays, and force feedback. System used to perform research and to develop telerobotic-repair capabilities equal to those of human operator.

  3. Laboratory Density Functionals

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    We compare several definitions of the density of a self-bound system, such as a nucleus, in relation with its center-of-mass zero-point motion. A trivial deconvolution relates the internal density to the density defined in the laboratory frame. This result is useful for the practical definition of density functionals.

  4. Personnel Scheduling in Laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franses, Philip; Post, Gerhard; Burke, Edmund; De Causmaecker, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    We describe an assignment problem particular to the personnel scheduling of organisations such as laboratories. Here we have to assign tasks to employees. We focus on the situation where this assignment problem reduces to constructing maximal matchings in a set of interrelated bipartite graphs. We d

  5. HTS machine laboratory prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    many of HTS properties are not known and need to be tested with a specific purpose in mind not just for different types of HTS conductors but also for the same type of HTS conductors made by different manufactures. To address some of these challenges, we have constructed a laboratory prototype HTS...

  6. Laboratories: Integrating Services

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-04

    This podcast highlights the importance of integrating laboratory services to maximize service delivery to patients.  Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 4/7/2011.

  7. IFS Numerical Laboratory Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical laboratory of a tokamak plasma is being developed. This consists of the backbone (the overall manager in terms of the MPPL programming language), and the modularized components that can be plugged in or out for a particular run and their hierarchical arrangement. The components include various metrics for overall geometry various dynamics, field calculations, and diagnoses. 2 refs

  8. Revitalizing chemistry laboratory instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Phil Blake

    This dissertation involves research in three major domains of chemical education as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Ph.D. program in chemistry at Miami University with a major emphasis on chemical education, and concurrent study in organic chemistry. Unit I, Development and Assessment of a Column Chromatography Laboratory Activity, addresses the domain of Instructional Materials Development and Testing. This unit outlines the process of developing a publishable laboratory activity, testing and revising that activity, and subsequently sharing that activity with the chemical education community. A laboratory activity focusing on the separation of methylene blue and sodium fluorescein was developed to demonstrate the effects of both the stationary and mobile phase in conducting a separation. Unit II, Bringing Industry to the Laboratory, addresses the domain of Curriculum Development and Testing. This unit outlines the development of the Chemistry of Copper Mining module, which is intended for use in high school or undergraduate college chemistry. The module uses the learning cycle approach to present the chemistry of the industrial processes of mining copper to the students. The module includes thirteen investigations (three of which are web-based and ten which are laboratory experiments) and an accompanying interactive CD-ROM, which provides an explanation of the chemistry used in copper mining with a virtual tour of an operational copper mine. Unit III, An Alternative Method of Teaching Chemistry. Integrating Lecture and the Laboratory, is a project that addresses the domain of Research in Student Learning. Fundamental Chemistry was taught at Eastern Arizona College as an integrated lecture/laboratory course that met in two-hour blocks on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. The students taking this integrated course were compared with students taking the traditional 1-hour lectures held on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, with accompanying 3-hour lab on

  9. Health Physics Laboratory - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The activities of the Health Physics Laboratory at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow are principally research in the general area of radiation physics, and radiation protection of the employees of the Institute of Nuclear Physics. Theoretical research concerns modelling of radiation effects in radiation detectors and studies of concepts in radiation protection. Experimental research, in the general area of solid state dosimetry, is primarily concerned with thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry, and more specifically: development of LiF:Mg, Ti and CVD diamond detectors for medical applications in conventional and hadron radiotherapy and of LiF:Mg, Cu, P for low-level natural external ionising radiation. Environmental radiation measurements (cosmic-rays on aircraft and radon in dwellings and soil) are also performed using track CR-39 and TLD detectors. The Laboratory provides expert advice on radiation protection regulations at national and international levels. Routine work of the Health Physics Laboratory involves design and maintenance of an in-house developed TL-based personnel dosimetry system for over 200 radiation workers at the INP, supervision of radiation safety on INP premises, and advising other INP laboratories on all matters pertaining to radiation safety. We provide personal and environmental TLD dosimetry service for several customers outside the INP, mainly in hospitals and nuclear research institutes in Poland. We also calibrate radiation protection instruments for customers in southern Poland. The year 2000 was another eventful year for the Health Physics Laboratory. We started three new research projects granted by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research. Mr P. Bilski co-ordinates the project on the measurements of radiation doses on board of commercial aircraft of Polish LOT Airlines. Dr B. Marczewska and I worked on the application of artificial diamonds for dosimetry of ionising radiation. We also participate in a

  10. Health Physics Laboratory - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the Health Physics Laboratory at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow are principally research in the general area of radiation physics, and radiation protection of the employees of the Institute of Nuclear Physics. Theoretical research concerns modelling of radiation effects in radiation detectors and studies of concepts in radiation protection. Experimental research, in the general area of solid state dosimetry, is primarily concerned with thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry, and more specifically: development of LiF:Mg, Ti for medical applications in conventional and hadron radiotherapy, and of LiF:Mg, Cu, P for low-level natural external ionising radiation. Environmental radiation measurements (radon in dwellings and in soil air) are also performed using track detectors. The Laboratory provides expert advice on radiation protection regulations at national and international levels. Routine work of the Health Physics Laboratory involves design and maintenance of an in-house developed TL-based personnel dosimetry system for over 200 radiation workers at the INP, monitoring and supervision of radiation safety on INP premises, and advising other INP laboratories on all matters pertaining to radiation safety. The year 1998 was another eventful year for the Health Physics Laboratory. In retrospective, the main effort in 1998 has been directed towards preparation and participation in the 12th International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry in Burgos, Spain. One of the research projects is aimed at developing novel miniature TLD detectors with improved LET and dose characteristics for precise phantom measurements in eye cancer radiotherapy with proton beams. The second project concerns the application of ultra-sensitive LiF:Mg, Cu, P (MCP-N) TLD detectors in environmental monitoring of gamma ionising radiation. The main objective of this last project is to develop and to test a system for rapid, short-term monitoring of environmental radiation

  11. International atomic laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some thirty kilometers to the south-east of Vienna, in the village of Seibersdorf, the International Atomic Energy Agency will have its functional laboratory, the first atomic laboratory to be built by peaceful world-wide co-operation. The building is expected to be completed around the middle of 1960 and the scientific installations will start immediately thereafter. The staff (14 Professional and 24 of the General Service category) for the laboratory are also expected to be engaged at that time and it should be possible to start operating the laboratory in the last quarter of 1960. It is estimated that the construction work will cost about US $400 000 and the total equipment will be worth between $200 000 and $300 000. The United States Government is donating $600 000 for this purpose. The operating costs during 1961, the first full year of operation, will be a little over $240 000. The scope of the laboratory should be limited to certain broad functions. The maximum functions envisaged were: (a) standardization of isotopes and preparation of radioactive standards; (b) calibration and adaptation of measuring equipment; (c) quality control of special materials for nuclear technology; (d) measurements and analysis in connexion with the Agency's safeguards and health and safety programme; and (e) services for Member States which can be undertaken with the facilities needed for the former activities. The idea behind this recommendation will be clear if it is remembered that the research functions of the Agency are governed mostly by its other activities, by its Statutory obligation to encourage and assist peaceful atomic energy work in Member States and establish standards for health and safety and for safeguards against military use

  12. Antinuclear antibody testing: discordance between commercial laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, Aryeh M; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Abeles, Micha; Honiden, Shyoko

    2016-07-01

    Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test results frequently affect the course of patients' evaluations, diagnosis, and treatment, but different laboratory centers may yield conflicting results. This study investigated the degree of agreement between laboratory results in a group of subjects who had ANA testing performed at two commercial laboratories. This was a chart review study, in which all ANA tests ordered by the authors from one commercial laboratory over a 4-year period were queried. Corresponding patient charts were reviewed, and if ANA testing had also been performed at the second commercial laboratory, subjects were entered into the study. The primary measurement was agreement between paired ANA results, and we performed sensitivity analysis using varying criteria defining agreement (criteria A to criteria D [strictest to most lenient definition of agreement]). Other data captured included relevant data obtained through the course of evaluation (e.g., presenting complaints, exam findings, other laboratory data) and final diagnoses. Of 101 paired ANA tests, there was 18 % agreement according to the strictest criteria and 42 % according to the most lenient. Of the seven subjects with ANA-associated rheumatic disease, none of the paired tests were in agreement according to criteria A (two agreed according to criteria D). Our findings demonstrate poor agreement between paired ANA tests performed at two commercial laboratories. The low level of agreement may have far-reaching clinical implications. Specifically, this finding calls into question the reliability of ANA testing as it is currently performed and suggests that results may in part depend upon the laboratory center to which patients are referred. PMID:27044430

  13. Rapid improvement in passive tuberculosis case detection and tuberculosis treatment outcomes after implementation of a bundled laboratory diagnostic and on-site training intervention targeting mid-level providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yukari C; Zawedde-Muyanja, Stella; Burnett, Sarah M; Mugabe, Frank; Naikoba, Sarah; Coutinho, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background.  Tuberculosis (TB) control is a public health priority with 3 million cases unrecognized by the public health system each year. We assessed the impact of improved TB diagnostics and on-site training on TB case detection and treatment outcomes in rural healthcare facilities. Methods.  Fluorescence microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF, and on-site training were introduced at 10 healthcare facilities. Using quasi-experimental methods, these 10 intervention healthcare facilities were compared with 2 controls and their own performance the previous year. Results.  From January to October 2012, 186 357 and 32 886 outpatients were seen in the 10 intervention and 2 control facilities, respectively. The intervention facilities had a 52.04% higher proportion of presumptive TB cases with a sputum examination (odds ratio [OR] = 12.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.60-28.55). After adjusting for age group and gender, the proportion of smear-positive patients initiated on treatment was 37.76% higher in the intervention than in the control facilities (adjusted OR [AOR], 7.59; 95% CI, 2.19-26.33). After adjusting for the factors above, as well as human immunodeficiency virus and TB retreatment status, the proportion of TB cases who completed treatment was 29.16% higher (AOR, 4.89; 95% CI, 2.24-10.67) and the proportion of TB cases who were lost to follow-up was 66.98% lower (AOR, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01-0.09). When compared with baseline performance, the intervention facilities had a significantly higher proportion of presumptive TB cases with a sputum examination (64.70% vs 3.44%; OR, 23.95; 95% CI, 12.96-44.25), and these facilities started 56.25% more smear-positive TB cases on treatment during the project period (AOR, 15.36; 95% CI, 6.57-35.91). Conclusions.  Optimizing the existing healthcare workforce through a bundled diagnostics and on-site training intervention for nonphysician healthcare workers will rapidly improve TB case detection and outcomes towards global

  14. Avaliação das técnicas de precipitação química e encapsulamento no tratamento e destinação conjunta de resíduos líquidos contendo cromo e vidrarias de laboratório Evaluation of chemical precipitation and encapsulation techniques in the treatment and joint disposal of liquid wastes containing chromium and laboratory glassware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Graciela Giovannini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present procedures for the treatment and final disposal of residual solutions containing chromium, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical precipitation of the metal and the potential of the glass encapsulation technique, using broken laboratory glassware. The results demonstrated that pH-values convenient for chemical precipitation are between 10 - 11. With regard to Cr(OH3 encapsulation, the leaching and solubilization tests allowed to classify the waste as non-dangerous and non-inert. Finally, it is pointed out that the adoption of waste management practices in universities should be encouraged, helping to train professionals skilled in good laboratory practices.

  15. 恶性血液病患者侵袭性肺曲霉菌感染的治疗分析%Analysis of treatment and influence factors of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematological malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴隼; 字友梅; 黄琰; 马栋; 杨满; 贺立山

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate clinical effect of antifungal therapy for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients with hematological malignancies ,and analyze the influence factors for the reference for clinical data .METHODS According to the therapeutic regimen ,82 patients with hematological malignancies and IPA were randomly divided into 3 groups including voriconazole group (n=28) ,caspofungin group (n=27) and combination group (n=27) .The clinical effect ,adverse reactions ,and influence factors of the effect were analyzed with SAS 9 .0 software .RESULTS Totally 241 patients with hematologic malignancies were investigated in this study ,82 ca-ses were diagnosed as IPA ,the infection rate was 34 .0% .The effect of antifungal therapy in combination group was significantly better than that in voriconazole and caspofungin groups (P0 .05) .The age≥50 years ,haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT ) ,HLA dismatch and IPA history were negative factors for the treatment effect of hematological malignancies combined with IPA .CONCLUSION Combined therapy of voriconazole and caspofungin for hematological malignancies and IPA is better than single medication in efficacy , without increasing the adverse drug reactions .The efficacy of IPA treatment may be related to age ,HSCT ,HLA dismatch and IPA history .%目的:研究恶性血液病患者侵袭性肺曲霉菌感染(IPA )抗真菌治疗效果及其影响因素,为临床资料提供参考依据。方法选择2008年1月-2013年4月收治的82例患者,根据不同的用药方案随机分为伏立康唑组28例、卡泊芬净组27例、联合组27例3组,比较各组患者的临床疗效、不良反应,并对疗效的影响因素,采用SAS 9.0软件进行分析。结果共调查恶性血液病患者241例,其中IPA 82例,感染率为34.0%;联合组的抗真菌疗效显著优于伏立康唑组、卡泊芬净组( P<0.05);单药与两药联合用药的不良反应差异

  16. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxell, Wade [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3

  17. Malaria diagnosis and treatment under the strategy of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI): relevance of laboratory support from the rapid immunochromatographic tests of ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2001-01-01

    The algorithm developed for the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) provides guidelines for the treatment of paediatric malaria. In areas where malaria is endemic, for example, the IMCI strategy may indicate that children who present with fever, a recent history of fever and/or pallor...... and by using two rapid immunochromatographic tests (RIT) for the diagnosis of malaria (ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal. At the time they were tested, each of these children had been targeted for antimalarial treatment (following the IMCI strategy) because of fever and/or pallor. Only 70% of the 395...... sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 15.5% whereas pallor had a sensitivity of 72.2% and a specificity of 50.8%. The RIT both had very high corresponding sensitivities (of 100.0% for the ICT and 94.0% for OptiMal) but the specificity of the ICT (74.0%) was significantly lower than that for OptiMal (100...

  18. Students' laboratory work performance assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Achumba, Ifeyinwa; Azzi, Djamel; Williams, Roy

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory activities are very important in engineering education. Performance assessment of students’ laboratory work is time consuming and an ongoing challenge for teachers. Laboratory work performance assessment is traditionally done by the teacher grading students’ written report of the laboratory activity, despite the fact that the report is often 'doctored'. Assessment of laboratory work based solely on students’ reports has been criticized as failing to address espoused aims. The asses...

  19. Phlebotomy and quality in the African laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry A. Mbah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomy, the act of drawing blood through venepuncture, is one of the most common medical procedures in healthcare, as well as being a basis for diagnosis and treatment. A review of the available research has highlighted the dearth of information on the phlebotomy practice in Africa. Several studies elsewhere have shown that the pre-analytical phase (patient preparation, specimen collection and identification, transportation, preparation for analysis and storage is the most error-prone process in laboratory medicine. The validity of any laboratory test result hinges on specimen quality; thus, as the push for laboratory quality improvement in Africa gathers momentum, the practice of phlebotomy should be subjected to critical appraisal. This article offers several suggestions for the improvement of phlebotomy in Africa.

  20. Health Physics Laboratory - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The activities of the Health Physics Laboratory at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ) in Cracow are principally research in the general area of radiation physics, dosimetry and radiation protection of the employees of the Institute. Theoretical research concerns modelling of radiation effects in radiation detectors and studies of concepts in radiation protection. Experimental research, in the general area of solid state dosimetry, is primarily concerned with thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry, and more specifically: development of LiF:Mg, Ti, CaF2:Tm and CVD diamond detectors for medical applications in conventional and hadron radiotherapy and of LiF:Mg, Cu, P and LiF:Mg, Cu, Si, Na for low-level natural external ionising radiation. Environmental radiation measurements (cosmic-rays on aircraft and radon in dwellings and soil) are also performed using track CR-39 and TLD detectors. The Laboratory provides expert advice on radiation protection regulations at national and international levels. Routine work of the Health Physics Laboratory involves design and maintenance of an in-house developed TL-based personnel dosimetry system for over 200 radiation workers at the INP, supervision of radiation safety on IFJ premises, and advising other INP laboratories on all matters pertaining to radiation safety. We provide personal and environmental TLD dosimetry services for several customers outside the IFJ, mainly in hospitals and nuclear research institutes in Poland. We also calibrate radiation protection instruments (400 per year) for customers in the southern region of Poland. The year 2001 was another eventful year for the Health Physics Laboratory. M. Waligorski has received his Professor of Physics state nomination from A. Kwasniewski, the President of Poland. P. Bilski and M. Budzanowski were granted their Ph.D. degrees by the Scientific Council of the Institute of Nuclear Physics. We continued several national and international research projects. Dr

  1. Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), described in this document, supports a wide variety of projects. Each year more than 1000 scientists and engineers visit RAL to use its world-class laser and neutron-scattering facilities. RAL staff design and build instruments which circle the Earth in satellites, increasing our understanding of ozone depletion and global warming, of the life cycles of stars and galaxies and, indeed, of the origin of the Universe itself. They work with their academic colleagues at international laboratories such as European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, where massive underground machines probe the microstructure of the atomic nucleus. Vastly complex calculations are carried out on the design of anti-cancer drugs, for example, using supercomputers at RAL. (author)

  2. High Resolution Laboratory Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brünken, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    In this short review we will highlight some of the recent advancements in the field of high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy that meet the needs dictated by the advent of highly sensitive and broadband telescopes like ALMA and SOFIA. Among these is the development of broadband techniques for the study of complex organic molecules, like fast scanning conventional absorption spectroscopy based on multiplier chains, chirped pulse instrumentation, or the use of synchrotron facilities. Of similar importance is the extension of the accessible frequency range to THz frequencies, where many light hydrides have their ground state rotational transitions. Another key experimental challenge is the production of sufficiently high number densities of refractory and transient species in the laboratory, where discharges have proven to be efficient sources that can also be coupled to molecular jets. For ionic molecular species sensitive action spectroscopic schemes have recently been developed to overcome some of the limita...

  3. Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Development of the automated microbial metabolism laboratory (AMML) concept is reported. The focus of effort of AMML was on the advanced labeled release experiment. Labeled substrates, inhibitors, and temperatures were investigated to establish a comparative biochemical profile. Profiles at three time intervals on soil and pure cultures of bacteria isolated from soil were prepared to establish a complete library. The development of a strategy for the return of a soil sample from Mars is also reported.

  4. Consolidated Clinical Microbiology Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Sautter, Robert L.; Thomson, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    The manner in which medical care is reimbursed in the United States has resulted in significant consolidation in the U.S. health care system. One of the consequences of this has been the development of centralized clinical microbiology laboratories that provide services to patients receiving care in multiple off-site, often remote, locations. Microbiology specimens are unique among clinical specimens in that optimal analysis may require the maintenance of viable organisms. Centralized laborat...

  5. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses progress on experiments at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The projects and areas discussed are: Principal Parameters Achieved in Experimental Devices, Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, Princeton Large Torus, Princeton Beta Experiment, S-1 Spheromak, Current-Drive Experiment, X-ray Laser Studies, Theoretical Division, Tokamak Modeling, Spacecraft Glow Experiment, Compact Ignition Tokamak, Engineering Department, Project Planning and Safety Office, Quality Assurance and Reliability, and Administrative Operations.

  6. Laboratory Evaluation of Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wallerstein, Ralph O.

    1987-01-01

    The laboratory evaluation of anemia begins with a complete blood count and reticulocyte count. The anemia is then categorized as microcytic, macrocytic or normocytic, with or without reticulocytosis. Examination of the peripheral smear and a small number of specific tests confirm the diagnosis. The serum iron level, total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin level and hemoglobin electrophoresis generally separate the microcytic anemias. The erythrocyte size-distribution width may be particul...

  7. Remote Laboratory in Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Samoila

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new concept of studying, understanding and teaching the performance of solar cells. Using NI ELVIS allows the realization of eight laboratory experiments which study all the important parameters of the solar cells. The model used for the equivalent circuit of the solar cell was the “one diode” model. For the realization of control, data acquisition and processing, a complex program was created, with a friendly interface, using the graphical programming language LabVIEW.

  8. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses progress on experiments at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The projects and areas discussed are: Principal Parameters Achieved in Experimental Devices, Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, Princeton Large Torus, Princeton Beta Experiment, S-1 Spheromak, Current-Drive Experiment, X-ray Laser Studies, Theoretical Division, Tokamak Modeling, Spacecraft Glow Experiment, Compact Ignition Tokamak, Engineering Department, Project Planning and Safety Office, Quality Assurance and Reliability, and Administrative Operations

  9. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act

  10. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

  11. Laboratory diagnosis of leptospirosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad S; Shah S; H Ahmad F

    2005-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira species, for which humans are accidental hosts. It is endemic in the tropical urban areas including our country, where seasonal epidemics are becoming increasingly common. Laboratory tests are necessary to confirm the diagnosis of clinically suspected leptospirosis due to its varied symptomatology. Moreover, leptospirosis must always be considered during the differential diagnosis of other tropical febrile illnesses .Labora...

  12. Exploration Laboratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krihak, M.; Ronzano, K.; Shaw, T.

    2016-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) risk to minimize or reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes and decrements in performance due to in-flight medical capabilities on human exploration missions. To mitigate this risk, the availability of inflight laboratory analysis instrumentation has been identified as an essential capability for manned exploration missions. Since a single, compact space-ready laboratory analysis capability to perform all exploration clinical measurements is not commercially available, the ELA project objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of emerging operational and analytical capability as a biomedical diagnostics precursor to long duration manned exploration missions. The initial step towards ground and flight demonstrations in fiscal year (FY) 2015 was the down selection of platform technologies for demonstrations in the space environment. The technologies selected included two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) performers: DNA Medicine Institutes rHEALTH X and Intelligent Optical Systems later flow assays combined with Holomics smartphone analyzer. The selection of these technologies were based on their compact size, breadth of analytical capability and favorable ability to process fluids in a space environment, among several factors. These two technologies will be advanced to meet ground and flight demonstration success criteria and requirements that will be finalized in FY16. Also, the down selected performers will continue the technology development phase towards meeting prototype deliverables in either late 2016 or 2017.

  13. Laboratory microfusion capability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the issues involved in developing a Laboratory Microfusion Capability (LMC) which is the major objective of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program within the purview of the Department of Energy's Defense Programs. The study was initiated to support a number of DOE management needs: to provide insight for the evolution of the ICF program; to afford guidance to the ICF laboratories in planning their research and development programs; to inform Congress and others of the details and implications of the LMC; to identify criteria for selection of a concept for the Laboratory Microfusion Facility and to develop a coordinated plan for the realization of an LMC. As originally proposed, the LMC study was divided into two phases. The first phase identifies the purpose and potential utility of the LMC, the regime of its performance parameters, driver independent design issues and requirements, its development goals and requirements, and associated technical, management, staffing, environmental, and other developmental and operational issues. The second phase addresses driver-dependent issues such as specific design, range of performance capabilities, and cost. The study includes four driver options; the neodymium-glass solid state laser, the krypton fluoride excimer gas laser, the light-ion accelerator, and the heavy-ion induction linear accelerator. The results of the Phase II study are described in the present report

  14. The Johns Hopkins Hunterian Laboratory Philosophy: Mentoring Students in a Scientific Neurosurgical Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Betty M; Liu, Ann; Sankey, Eric W; Mangraviti, Antonella; Barone, Michael A; Brem, Henry

    2016-06-01

    After over 50 years of scientific contribution under the leadership of Harvey Cushing and later Walter Dandy, the Johns Hopkins Hunterian Laboratory entered a period of dormancy between the 1960s and early 1980s. In 1984, Henry Brem reinstituted the Hunterian Neurosurgical Laboratory, with a new focus on localized delivery of therapies for brain tumors, leading to several discoveries such as new antiangiogenic agents and Gliadel chemotherapy wafers for the treatment of malignant gliomas. Since that time, it has been the training ground for 310 trainees who have dedicated their time to scientific exploration in the lab, resulting in numerous discoveries in the area of neurosurgical research. The Hunterian Neurosurgical Laboratory has been a unique example of successful mentoring in a translational research environment. The laboratory's philosophy emphasizes mentorship, independence, self-directed learning, creativity, and people-centered collaboration, while maintaining productivity with a focus on improving clinical outcomes. This focus has been served by the diverse backgrounds of its trainees, both in regard to educational status as well as culturally. Through this philosophy and strong legacy of scientific contribution, the Hunterian Laboratory has maintained a positive and productive research environment that supports highly motivated students and trainees. In this article, the authors discuss the laboratory's training philosophy, linked to the principles of adult learning (andragogy), as well as the successes and the limitations of including a wide educational range of students in a neurosurgical translational laboratory and the phenomenon of combining clinical expertise with rigorous scientific training. PMID:26934692

  15. Interactions between industrial organic pollutants and rhizosphere components and documentation of material streams in plant-based wastewater treatment plants - laboratory experiments; Wechselwirkungen industrieller organischer Schadstoffe mit Rhizosphaerenkomponenten und Bilanzierung von Stoffstroemen in Pflanzenklaeranlagen - Laborversuche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plugge, J.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the suitability of plant/soil systems for cleaning organically polluted effluents and to assess the influence of plant growth and dissolved humic substances on processes leading to the elimination of organic pollutants. This involved an examination of sorption interactions between selected pollutants on the one hand and sand and root material on the other, use of vertically irrigated plant-bearing sand columns for simulating real plant-based wastewater treatment plants, assessment of the cleaning efficiency of these systems with respect to the employed model pollutants and determination of the contamination of the filter material and plants with pollutants. Radiotracer techniques were used to determine pollution paths of phenanthrene and its microbial degradation in the model system. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die Eignung von Pflanze/Boden-Systemen zur Reinigung carbochemisch belasteter Abwaesser untersucht und der Einfluss eines Pflanzenbewuchses sowie geloester Huminstoffe auf die Prozesse, die zur Entfernung organischer Schadstoffe fuehren, bewertet. Die Bearbeitung dieses Themas umfasste Untersuchungen zu Sorptionswechselwirkungen ausgewaehlter Schadstoffe mit Sand- und Wurzelmaterial, die Anwendung vertikal durchstroemter, bepflanzter Sandsaeulen zur Nachbildung realer Pflanzenklaeranlagen, die Erfassung der Reinigungseffizienz dieser Systeme fuer die Modellschadstoffe sowie die Bestimmung der Schadstoffkontamination des Filtermaterials und der Pflanzen. Unter Anwendung der Radiotracertechnik erfolgte darueber hinaus die Bestimmung der Schadstoffpfade von Phenanthren einschliesslich des mikrobiellen Abbaus im Modellsystem. (orig.)

  16. Biomembranes for wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Aznar Jiménez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Engineering laboratory for wastewater treatment of UC3M (Spain), optimizes the set-up and the design of membrane bioreactors (MBR), advised for higher quality of the treated water or to increase the treatment capacity. MBR system is a versatile method that achieves a fast depuration of biodegradable water, where nitrogen and phosphorous removal can be integrated in a simple way. Companies interested in applying or developing this technology or micro and ultra filtration membrane produc...

  17. 75 FR 80011 - Good Laboratory Practice for Nonclinical Laboratory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ..., 1978 (43 FR 60013). As stated in its scope (Sec. 58.1), this regulation prescribes good laboratory... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 58 Good Laboratory Practice for Nonclinical Laboratory Studies AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Advance notice of proposed...

  18. Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng

    2011-12-28

    The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up

  19. Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics (LEP) performs experimental and theoretical research on the heliosphere, the interstellar medium, and the magnetospheres and upper atmospheres of the planets, including Earth. LEP space scientists investigate the structure and dynamics of the magnetospheres of the planets including Earth. Their research programs encompass the magnetic fields intrinsic to many planetary bodies as well as their charged-particle environments and plasma-wave emissions. The LEP also conducts research into the nature of planetary ionospheres and their coupling to both the upper atmospheres and their magnetospheres. Finally, the LEP carries out a broad-based research program in heliospheric physics covering the origins of the solar wind, its propagation outward through the solar system all the way to its termination where it encounters the local interstellar medium. Special emphasis is placed on the study of solar coronal mass ejections (CME's), shock waves, and the structure and properties of the fast and slow solar wind. LEP planetary scientists study the chemistry and physics of planetary stratospheres and tropospheres and of solar system bodies including meteorites, asteroids, comets, and planets. The LEP conducts a focused program in astronomy, particularly in the infrared and in short as well as very long radio wavelengths. We also perform an extensive program of laboratory research, including spectroscopy and physical chemistry related to astronomical objects. The Laboratory proposes, develops, fabricates, and integrates experiments on Earth-orbiting, planetary, and heliospheric spacecraft to measure the characteristics of planetary atmospheres and magnetic fields, and electromagnetic fields and plasmas in space. We design and develop spectrometric instrumentation for continuum and spectral line observations in the x-ray, gamma-ray, infrared, and radio regimes; these are flown on spacecraft to study

  20. Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up. Efforts

  1. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory waste area groups 1--7 and 10 Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, M.C.; Meservey, R.H.; Little, M.; Ferguson, J.S.; Gilmore, M.C.

    1993-09-01

    The Technology Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternatives for environmental restoration projects at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The diagram (three volumes) documents suggested solutions to the characterization, retrieval, and treatment phases of cleanup activities at contaminated sites within 8 of the laboratory`s 10 waste area groups. Contaminated sites at the laboratory`s Naval Reactor Facility and Argonne National Laboratory-West are not included in this diagram.

  2. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990

  3. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  4. Preoperative Laboratory Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Matthias; Fritsch, Gerhard; Hepner, David L

    2016-03-01

    Routine preoperative testing is not cost-effective, because it is unlikely to identify significant abnormalities. Abnormal findings from routine testing are more likely to be false positive, are costly to pursue, introduce a new risk, increase the patient's anxiety, and are inconvenient to the patient. Abnormal findings rarely alter the surgical or anesthetic plan, and there is usually no association between perioperative complications and abnormal laboratory results. Incidental findings and false positive results may lead to increased hospital visits and admissions. Preoperative testing needs to be done based on a targeted history and physical examination and the type of surgery. PMID:26927738

  5. How Reliable Is Laboratory Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... commonly used to determine the reliability of a clinical laboratory test. Two of these, accuracy and precision, reflect ... confidence your healthcare provider has in using the clinical laboratory. Accuracy and Precision Statistical measurements of accuracy and ...

  6. Metallurgical Laboratory and Components Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In the field of metallurgy, TTC is equipped to run laboratory tests on track and rolling stock components and materials. The testing lab contains scanning-electron,...

  7. High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The six user centers in the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML), a DOE User Facility, are dedicated to solving materials problems that limit the efficiency...

  8. Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science (TLAS), located in Cortland, New York, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). TLAS was established...

  9. Propulsion Systems Laboratory, Bldg. 125

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) is NASAs only ground test facility capable of providing true altitude and flight speed simulation for testing full scale gas...

  10. Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL) is adjacent-a nd has access-to the Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences clinical imaging facilities. MBIL...

  11. How safe are Indian laboratories?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.

    ow safe are the laboratories provided by the schools, colleges, Universities and research organizations (government and private) in India? One should not be surprised if the laboratories are located in dilapidated buildings, with paints peeling off...

  12. The National Fire Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The National Fire Research Laboratory (NFRL) is adding a unique facility that will serve as a center of excellence for fireperformance of structures ranging in size...

  13. Physical method of treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920625 Radioenhancement effect of radio-therapy combined with earthworm capsuleon the treatment of esophagus and lungcarcinoma. ZHANG Shaozhang(张绍章)etal. Dept Radiation Med, Xijing Hosp, 4th MilitMed Univ. J 4th Milit Med Univ 1992; 13(3):165-168. Earthworm capsule is a preparation extractedfrom earthworm body in our laboratory. From

  14. Humidity requirements in WSCF Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to develop and document a position on Relative Humidity (RH) requirements in the WSCF Laboratories. A current survey of equipment vendors for Organic, Inorganic and Radiochemical laboratories indicate that 25% - 80% relative humidity may meet the environmental requirements for safe operation and protection of all the laboratory equipment

  15. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory has been established in the Tun Ismail Research Centre, Malaysia as a national laboratory for reference and standardization purposes in the field of radiation dosimetry. This article gives brief accounts on the general information, development of the facility, programmes to be carried out as well as other information on the relevant aspects of the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. (author)

  16. Laboratory Materials: Affordances or Constraints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rebecca C.; Ruibal-Villasenor, Maria; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory instruction is critical to the understanding of biology and is a central piece of biological sciences instruction. Although much investigation has focused on the content of biology laboratory exercises, we contend that understanding the extent to which the laboratory materials can aid or limit experimental investigation is of equal…

  17. Implications of the introduction of laboratory demand management at primary care clinics in South Africa on laboratory expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozayr H. Mahomed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnostic health laboratory services are regarded as an integral part of the national health infrastructure across all countries. Clinical laboratory tests contribute substantially to health system goals of increasing quality of care and improving patient outcomes.Objectives: This study aimed to analyse current laboratory expenditures at the primary healthcare (PHC level in South Africa as processed by the National Health Laboratory Service and to determine the potential cost savings of introducing laboratory demand management.Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of laboratory expenditures for the 2013/2014 financial year across 11 pilot National Health Insurance health districts was conducted. Laboratory expenditure tariff codes were cross-tabulated to the PHC essential laboratory tests list (ELL to determine inappropriate testing. Data were analysed using a Microsoft Access database and Excel software.Results: Approximately R35 million South African Rand (10% of the estimated R339 million in expenditures was for tests that were not listed within the ELL. Approximately 47% of expenditure was for laboratory tests that were indicated in the algorithmic management of patients on antiretroviral treatment. The other main cost drivers for non-ELL testing included full blood count and urea, as well as electrolyte profiles usually requested to support management of patients on antiretroviral treatment.Conclusions: Considerable annual savings of up to 10% in laboratory expenditure are possible at the PHC level by implementing laboratory demand management. In addition, to achieve these savings, a standardised PHC laboratory request form and some form of electronic gatekeeping system that must be supported by an educational component should be implemented.

  18. Novel antifungal drugs against fungal pathogens: do they provide promising results for treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Habip; Şimşek, Funda; Yıldırmak, Taner; Kantürk, Arzu; Arıca, Deniz; Aydın, Demet; Demirel, Naciye; Yokuş, Osman

    2015-06-01

    The febrile neutropenia episodes of hematological patients and their outcomes were evaluated with respect to fungal pathogens and antifungal therapy in this retrospective study. All patients, who were older than 14 years of age and developed at least one neutropenic episode after chemotherapy due to hematological cancer from November 2010 to November 2012, were included into the study. We retrospectively collected demographic, treatment, and survival data of 126 patients with neutropenia and their 282 febrile episodes. The mean Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer score was 17.18 ± 8.27. Systemic antifungal drugs were initiated in 22 patients with 30 culture-proven invasive fungal infections (IFIs), 25 attacks of 19 patients with probable invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), 42 attacks of 38 patients with possible IPA, and 31 attacks of 30 patients with suspected IFI. Voriconazole (VOR), caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B were used to treat 72 episodes of 65 patients, 45 episodes of 37 patients and 34 episodes of 32 patients as a first-line therapy, respectively. Unfavorable conditions of our hematology ward are thought to increase the number of cases with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and VOR use. It should be taken into consideration that increased systemic and per oral VOR usage predisposes patients to colonization and infection with azole-resistant fungal strains. Catheters should be removed in cases where patients' conditions are convenient to remove it. Acute myeloblastic leukemia cases that are more likely to develop invasive fungal infections should be monitored closely for early diagnosis and timely initiation of antifungal drugs which directly correlates with survival rates. PMID:25825558

  19. Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogliani, Harold O [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-19

    The purpose of the briefing is to describe general laboratory technical capabilities to be used for various groups such as military cadets or university faculty/students and post docs to recruit into a variety of Los Alamos programs. Discussed are: (1) development and application of high leverage science to enable effeictive, predictable and reliability outcomes; (2) deter, detect, characterize, reverse and prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their use by adversaries and terrorists; (3) modeling and simulation to define complex processes, predict outcomes, and develop effective prevention, response, and remediation strategies; (4) energetic materials and hydrodynamic testing to develop materials for precise delivery of focused energy; (5) materials cience focused on fundamental understanding of materials behaviors, their quantum-molecular properties, and their dynamic responses, and (6) bio-science to rapidly detect and characterize pathogens, to develop vaccines and prophylactic remedies, and to develop attribution forensics.

  20. FORT Molecular Ecology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Stevens, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the Fort Collins Science Center Molecular Ecology Laboratory is to use the tools and concepts of molecular genetics to address a variety of complex management questions and conservation issues facing the management of the Nation's fish and wildlife resources. Together with our partners, we design and implement studies to document genetic diversity and the distribution of genetic variation among individuals, populations, and species. Information from these studies is used to support wildlife-management planning and conservation actions. Current and past studies have provided information to assess taxonomic boundaries, inform listing decisions made under the Endangered Species Act, identify unique or genetically depauperate populations, estimate population size or survival rates, develop management or recovery plans, breed wildlife in captivity, relocate wildlife from one location to another, and assess the effects of environmental change.

  1. Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z.; Bailey, K.; Jiang, W.; Müller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Zappala, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Due to its simple production and transport processes in the terrestrial environment, the long-lived noble-gas isotope 81Kr (half-life = 230 kyr) is the ideal tracer for studying old water and ice in the age range of 10^5-10^6 years, a range beyond the reach of 14C. 81Kr dating, a concept pursued in the past four decades by numerous laboratories employing a variety of techniques, is now available for the first time to the earth science community at large. This is made possible by the development of ATTA-3 (Jiang et al., GCA 91, 1-6; 2012), an efficient and selective atom counter based on the Atom Trap Trace Analysis method (Chen et al., Science 286, 1139-1141; 1999). The instrument is capable of measuring both 81Kr/Kr and 85Kr/Kr ratios of environmental samples in the range of 10^-14-10^-10. For 81Kr-dating in the age range of 150 - 1,500 kyr, the required sample size is 5 - 10 micro-L STP of krypton gas, which can be extracted from approximately 100 - 200 kg of water or 40 - 80 kg of ice. For 85Kr/Kr analysis, the required sample size is generally smaller by an order of magnitude because of the isotope's higher initial abundance in the atmosphere. The Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating is currently equipped to analyze up to 120 samples per year. With future equipment upgrades, this limit can be increased as demand grows. In the period since November 2011, the Laboratory has measured both 81Kr/Kr and 85Kr/Kr ratios in over 50 samples that had been extracted by collaborators from six different continents. The samples were from groundwater wells in the Great Artesian Basin (Australia), Guarani Aquifer (Brazil), and Locust Grove (Maryland); from brine wells of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (New Mexico); from geothermal steam vents in Yellowstone National Park; from near-surface ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica; and from deep mines in South Africa. Sample collection and purification was performed by groups including the University of Illinois at Chicago, University

  2. The Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics is dedicated to the advancement of knowledge in Earth and planetary science, by conducting innovative research using space technology. The Laboratory's mission and activities support the work and new initiatives at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The Laboratory's success contributes to the Earth Science Directorate as a national resource for studies of Earth from Space. The Laboratory is part of the Earth Science Directorate based at the GSFC in Greenbelt, MD. The Directorate itself is comprised of the Global Change Data Center (GCDC), the Space Data and Computing Division (SDCD), and four science Laboratories, including Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics, Laboratory for Atmospheres, and Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes all in Greenbelt, MD. The fourth research organization, Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), is in New York, NY. Relevant to NASA's Strategic Plan, the Laboratory ensures that all work undertaken and completed is within the vision of GSFC. The philosophy of the Laboratory is to balance the completion of near term goals, while building on the Laboratory's achievements as a foundation for the scientific challenges in the future.

  3. Quality laboratory issues in bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, D M; Mammen, J; Nair, S C; de Lima Montalvão, S A

    2016-07-01

    Selected quality issues pertinent to the determination of accurate results in the haemostasis laboratory are discussed. Specifically, the implementation of a successful external quality-assessment scheme is described, including its impact on result accuracy as well as the programme's unique challenges and opportunities. Errors in the preanalytical phase of laboratory testing represent the greatest source for reporting incorrect test results. Some of the most common preanalytical errors are described including those that necessitate sample rejection. Analytical means to identify potential sources of error and analytical means to overcome particular interferences are described. Representing the most important clinical complication in the treatment of patients with haemophilia, quality issues related to determination of the presence of inhibitory antibodies against factor VIII (FVIII) are reviewed. Heat treatment of patient plasma prior to testing, particularly in patients receiving replacement FVIII concentrate or during induction of immune tolerance to achieve more accurate results is recommended, while screening activated partial thromboplastin time-based mixing tests to rule out inhibitor presence is discouraged. The initiatives presented in this review can be implemented in robust and resource restricted settings to improve the quality of laboratory testing in patients with bleeding disorders. PMID:27405682

  4. Creating the laboratory`s future; A strategy for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    ``Creating The Laboratory`s Future`` describes Livermore`s roles and responsibilities as a Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory and sets the foundation for decisions about the Laboratory`s programs and operations. It summarizes Livermore`s near-term strategy, which builds on recent Lab achievements and world events affecting their future. It also discusses their programmatic and operational emphases and highlights program areas that the authors believe can grow through application of Lab science and technology. Creating the Laboratory`s Future reflects their very strong focus on national security, important changes in the character of their national security work, major efforts are under way to overhaul their administrative and operational systems, and the continuing challenge of achieving national consensus on the role of the government in energy, environment, and the biosciences.

  5. Radiation monitoring programme in a university hot laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Radiochemistry in the University of Helsinki is the only institute teaching radiochemistry at the university level in Finland. The research programme of the Deparment must therefore include the uses of radiation and radionuclides in many branches of science. The students must receive adequate instruction in radiation protection for safe work in laboratories. This also has the educational benefit that the radiochemists will subsequently be able to observe the necessary safety precautions when employing ionizing radiation professionally. The Department of Radiochemistry consists of the following laboratories: a radiotracer laboratory, a neutron/electron and a gamma irradiation laboratory, an environmental low activity level laboratory, a whole-body counting laboratory, a reactor chemistry laboratory and a waste-treatment facility. The radiation protection organization of the Department is presented. Various methods of monitoring, including advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the reactor chemistry laboratory where transuranic elements are utilized. These elements are highly radiotoxic and their monitoring in most cases requires destructive analysis. Different methods of determining external and internal doses are evaluated with regard to sensitivity and accuracy. Detection limits for radionuclides utilized in the laboratory are presented for different measurement systems, including non-destructive monitoring, spectrometry after chemical analysis, liquid scintillation counting and low-energy gamma spectrometry using a CsI-NaI scintillation detector. The guidelines laid down in the IAEA Safety Series Manuals are discussed in the light of practical experience. (author)

  6. Communications and Information Sharing (CIS) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheCommunications and Information Sharing (CIS) Laboratory is a Public Safety interoperable communications technology laboratory with analog and digital radios, and...

  7. Director, Laboratory Animal Care and Use Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIAMS Laboratory Animal Care and Use Section (LACU) provides support to all NIAMS Intramural Research Program (IRP) Branches and Laboratories using animals. The...

  8. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  9. Nuclear electronics laboratory manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Electronics Laboratory Manual is a joint product of several electronics experts who have been associated with IAEA activity in this field for many years. The manual does not include experiments of a basic nature, such as characteristics of different active electronics components. It starts by introducing small electronics blocks, employing one or more active components. The most demanding exercises instruct a student in the design and construction of complete circuits, as used in commercial nuclear instruments. It is expected that a student who completes all the experiments in the manual should be in a position to design nuclear electronics units and also to understand the functions of advanced commercial instruments which need to be repaired or maintained. The future tasks of nuclear electronics engineers will be increasingly oriented towards designing and building the interfaces between a nuclear experiment and a computer. The manual pays tribute to this development by introducing a number of experiments which illustrate the principles and the technology of interfacing

  10. NSLS source development laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Blum, E.; Johnson, E.D. [and others

    1995-09-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) has initiated an ambitious project to develop fourth generation radiation sources. To achieve this goal, the Source Development Laboratory (SDL) builds on the experience gained at the NSLS, and at the highly successful BNL Accelerator Test Facility. The SDL accelerator system will consist of a high brightness short pulse linac, a station for coherent synchrotron and transition radiation experiments, a short bunch storage ring, and an ultra-violet free electron laser utilizing the NISUS wiggler. The electrons will be provided by a laser photocathode gun feeding a 210 MeV S-band electron linac, with magnetic bunch compression at 80 MeV. Electron bunches as short as 100 {mu}m with 1 nC charge will be used for pump-probe experiments utilizing coherent transition radiation. Beam will also be injected into a compact storage ring which will be a source of millimeter wave coherent synchrotron radiation. The linac will also serve as the driver for an FEL designed to allow the study of various aspects of single pass amplifiers. The first FEL configuration will be as a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) FEL at 900 nm. Seeded beam and sub-harmonic seeded beam operations will push the output wavelength below 200 nm. Chirped pulse amplification (CPA) operation will also be possible, and a planned energy upgrade (by powering a fifth linac section) to 310 MeV will extend the wavelength range of the FEL to below 100 nm.

  11. Evidence Based Medicine Laboratory Tests and Preanalytical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turhan B et al.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The practice of evidence-based medicine means logical integration of individual clinical experiences with the best available evidences from systematic research. The recent clinical practice tends to apply evidence based procedures instead of individual clinical opinions. True interpretation of laboratory results is important on diagnosis, treatment and follow-up as well as time and cost effectivity. Although clinicians expect decisive and clear results from the laboratory tests, sometimes unexpected results can be seen. Most of these occasions are resulting from demographic properties, obtaining the sample and other external factors rather then laboratory procedures. It is important to know preanalytical variations that affect the laboratory test results to make quick and accurate assessments for the primary care physicians who are getting increasing number of patients. The aim of this review is to introduce a practical source to the primary care physicians by briefing the effects of preanalytical variables on laboratory test results.

  12. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory waste area groups 1--7 and 10 Technology Logic Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technology Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternatives for environmental restoration projects at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The diagram (three volumes) documents suggested solutions to the characterization, retrieval, and treatment phases of cleanup activities at contaminated sites within 8 of the laboratory's 10 waste area groups. Contaminated sites at the laboratory's Naval Reactor Facility and Argonne National Laboratory-West are not included in this diagram

  13. Remote Microelectronics Fabrication Laboratory MEFLab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Machotka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, there has been a move towards using remote laboratories in engineering education. The majority of these laboratories are static, involving limited user-controlled mechanical movements. The University of South Australia has developed such a laboratory, called NetLab that has been successfully utilized for teaching both on-campus and transnational programs in electrical and electronics engineering. Following this success, we are now developing a remote laboratory for microelectronic fabrication, MEFLab. The first stage of the development is a remote laboratory for visual inspection and testing of electronic circuits directly on the silicon wafer under a microscope which is normally conducted in a cleanroom. The major challenge of this project is the accurate positioning of micro-probes remotely over the internet. This paper presents the details of the setup of this new remote laboratory, with a particular emphasis on the development of the hardware, software and graphical user interface.

  14. Testing Ballast Water Treatment at a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Andrew N.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of the project was to investigate the feasibility of treating ships' ballast water in existing municipal wastewater treatment plants (= publicly-owned treatment works or POTWs). The main objectives included identifying and characterizing the limiting factors that could restrict the volume of ballast water that can be treated at POTWs; and test, in a series of laboratory experiments, the effectiveness of standard municipal wastewater treatment in removing or killing ballast water...

  15. Whole Class Laboratories: More Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouh, Minjoon

    2016-03-01

    Typically, introductory physics courses are taught with a combination of lectures and laboratories in which students have opportunities to discover the natural laws through hands-on activities in small groups. This article reports the use of Google Drive, a free online document-sharing tool, in physics laboratories for pooling experimental data from the whole class. This pedagogical method was reported earlier, and the present article offers a few more examples of such "whole class" laboratories.

  16. Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bowel Incontinence Signs & Symptoms Symptoms of Incontinence Diarrhea Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding a Doctor ...

  17. Communication Systems Analysis Laboratory (CSAL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CSAL conducts electronic warfare investigations of radio frequency communication systems with respect to current and emerging electronic warfare threats. CSAL uses...

  18. Ground Systems Concepts Laboratory (GSCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — GSCL consists of high-performance CAD stations and associated software located in a secure facility. Capabilities: The GSCL provides infrastructure that allows the...

  19. Survivability Armor Ballistic Laboratory (SABL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SABL provides independent analysis, ballistic testing, data collection, data reduction and qualification of current and advanced armors. Capabilities: The SABL...

  20. Ethical Inspection about laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nai-bin; Pan, Xiao-jun; Cheng, Jing-jing; Lin, Jia-qiang; Zhu, Jia-yin

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory animals and animal experiments are foundations and important support conditions for life sciences, especially for medical research. The animal experiments have drawn extensive attention from the society because of the ethical issue. This paper takes Wenzhou Medical University as an example to give a brief introduction to the ethical review about laboratory animals in the university so as to further draw attention and concerns from the public about the ethical issue of laboratory animals. We successively introduce its scientific projects, nurturing environment and ethical review of laboratory animals. PMID:27215017

  1. Space Solar Cell Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Measures, characterizes, and analyzes photovoltaic materials and devices. The primary focus is the measurement and characterization of solar cell response...

  2. Human Laboratory Studies on Cannabinoids and Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Mohamed; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril; Ranganathan, Mohini

    2016-04-01

    Some of the most compelling evidence supporting an association between cannabinoid agonists and psychosis comes from controlled laboratory studies in humans. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover laboratory studies demonstrate that cannabinoid agonists, including phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids, produce a wide range of positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms and psychophysiologic deficits in healthy human subjects that resemble the phenomenology of schizophrenia. These effects are time locked to drug administration, are dose related, and are transient and rarely necessitate intervention. The magnitude of effects is similar to the effects of ketamine but qualitatively distinct from other psychotomimetic drugs, including ketamine, amphetamine, and salvinorin A. Cannabinoid agonists have also been shown to transiently exacerbate symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia in laboratory studies. Patients with schizophrenia are more vulnerable than healthy control subjects to the acute behavioral and cognitive effects of cannabinoid agonists and experience transient exacerbation of symptoms despite treatment with antipsychotic medications. Furthermore, laboratory studies have failed to demonstrate any "beneficial" effects of cannabinoid agonists in individuals with schizophrenia-challenging the cannabis self-medication hypothesis. Emerging evidence suggests that polymorphisms of several genes related to dopamine metabolism (e.g., COMT, DAT1, and AKT1) may moderate the effects of cannabinoid agonists in laboratory studies. Cannabinoid agonists induce dopamine release, although the magnitude of release does not appear to be commensurate to the magnitude and spectrum of their acute psychotomimetic effects. Interactions between the endocannabinoid, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and glutamate systems and their individual and interactive effects on neural oscillations provide a plausible mechanism underlying the psychotomimetic effects of

  3. An attempt to incorporate flexibility in physics laboratories: laboratory immersion

    OpenAIRE

    Verelst, Fien; Langie, Greet; Van Den Bossche, Johan; Lauriks, Walter; Janssen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke

    2009-01-01

    Non-traditional students in scientific and technological higher education have problems with participating in laboratory sessions. We present a possible solution for the physics practical classes in order to make scientific and technological higher education more flexible and accessible for all students: laboratory immersion.

  4. Treatment of molybdenite ore with laboratory scale solar furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutures, J.P.; Benezech, G.; Renard, R.; Skaggs, S.R.

    1979-01-01

    The conventional method of extracting molybdenite concentrate (MoS/sub 2/) from raw ore consumes 145 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of concentrate in fossil fuel equivalent energy. Processing the ore using a solar hear source could save 56% of this energy. Thermodynamic considerations indicate that MoS/sub 2/ is the easiest of the economically valuable ores to extract using a solar heat source. Oxidation of MoS/sub 2/ to molybdic oxide (MoO/sub 3/) is an exothermic process, and it should proceed autogenically if the concentration of MoS/sub 2/ is high enough. Experiments to measure the specific heat of the raw ore were conducted to determine the crossover point for concentration of molybdenite vs sensible heat of the reaction. The reaction temperatures were measured using a calorimeter, and three distinct reaction temperatures were found. These were identified as water and organic vapors, the oxidation of pyrite (FeS/sub 2/) which is present in the raw ore, and oxidation of the molybdenite. The production rate of SO/sub 2/ was measured for 0.5 g samples of three different concentrations of molybdenite: (1) 95% MoS/sub 2/ concentrate, (2) 10% concentrate mixed with the raw ore, and (3) the unadulterated raw ore. A crude mass balance was obtained between the reacted product (oxide) and the unreacted ore (sulfide) in the hearth. The curves of reacted product vs time look very similar to the curves of SO/sub 2/ gas production as a function of time. Both sets of curves show the reaction is more than 90% complete in one minute.

  5. FOAM FLOTATION TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS: LABORATORY AND PILOT SCALE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A floc foam flotation pilot plant reduced lead and zinc in dilute solution to very low concentrations. The results suggest a number of design improvements. A simple diffusion model does not adequately describe axial dispersion at high column leadings. The floc foam flotation of z...

  6. Treatment of COD analysis liquid wastes generated in environmental laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mañunga

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available COD analysis is often carried out in environmental labs. Its wastes are considered hazardous due to the content of metals such as Cr, Ag and Hg; treating these wastes is considered complex and expensive. The experimental results of metal ion precipitation in COD wastes with affordable chemical products are reported in this work. Cr (VI was chemically reduced by adding 200 mg.L-1 of glucose to Cr (III. Final Cr (VI concentration was less than 0.5 mg.L-1. Cr (III was precipitated as a metallic hydroxide by adding NaOH and Ag was reduced to less than 0.2 mg.L-1 by adding 2 g.L-1 of NaCl. Hg was reduced to less than 0.005 mg.L-1 with 10 g.L-1 of FeS. The proposed reduction-precipitation methodology allowed minimising the liquid residue’s hazardous characteristics so that it complied with the maximum allowable values established in Chapter 6, Article 74 of Decree 1594/1984 that regulates the use of water and liquid residues.

  7. Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappala, J. C.; Jiang, W.; Bailey, K. G.; Lu, Z. T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.

    2015-12-01

    Due to its simple production and transport in the terrestrial environment, 81Kr (half-life = 230,000 yr) is the ideal tracer for old water and ice with mean residence times in the range of 105-106 years, a range beyond the reach of 14C. 81Kr-dating is now available to the earth science community at large thanks to the development of an efficient and selective atom counter based on the Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) method. ATTA is a laser-based atom counting method where individual neutral atoms of the desired isotope are selectively captured by laser beams, and their fluorescence detected via a CCD camera. ATTA is unique among trace analysis techniques in that it is free of interferences from any other isotopes, isobars, atomic or molecular species. The ATTA instrument at Argonne's Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating is capable of measuring both 81Kr/Kr and 85Kr/Kr ratios of environmental samples in the range of 10-14-10-10. For 81Kr-dating in the age range of 150 kyr - 1500 kyr, the required sample size is 5 micro-L STP of krypton gas, which can be extracted from approximately 100 kg of water or 40 kg of ice. For 85Kr/Kr analysis, the sample size can be smaller by an order of magnitude. We are continually developing the method towards higher counting efficiency, smaller sample sizes requirements, and higher sample throughput rates. In the past four years, we have performed radiokrypton analysis of over 150 groundwater and ice samples extracted by collaborators from all seven continents. Sample collection and purification was performed by groups including the University of Chicago, the University of Illinois at Chicago, the University of Bern, and the International Atomic Energy Agency. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  8. Use of the Raman spectrometer in gemmological laboratories: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefert, Lore; Karampelas, Stefanos

    2011-10-01

    The current paper gives an overview of the development of Raman spectrometry in gemmological laboratories. While before 1990s, no commercial gemmological laboratory possessed such an instrument, all larger international labs have acquired these instruments by now. The Raman spectrometer is routinely used for the detection of emerald fillers, HPHT treatment of diamonds, analysis of the nature of a gemstone, analysis of gemstone inclusions and treatments, and the characterisation of natural or colour enhanced pearls and corals. Future developments in gemstone research lie in the closer analysis of the features of Raman and PL spectra and in the combination of several instruments.

  9. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics. but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his/her students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations

  10. Whole Class Laboratories: More Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouh, Minjoon

    2016-01-01

    Typically, introductory physics courses are taught with a combination of lectures and laboratories in which students have opportunities to discover the natural laws through hands-on activities in small groups. This article reports the use of Google Drive, a free online document-sharing tool, in physics laboratories for pooling experimental data…

  11. Laboratory solvent reuse -- Liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlin, W.T.; Schaffer, C.L.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a method for reduction of waste solvent in the Process Engineering Chemistry Laboratory. The liquid chromatographs are the largest generators of explosive-contaminated waste in the laboratory. We developed a successful process for the reuse of solvents from the liquid chromatographs and demonstrated the utility of the process in the assay of hexanitrostilbene.

  12. The direction of the laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the scope of the presentation of the 1988 Polytechnic School (France) research programs, the activities concerning each laboratory, are summarized. Several aspects of the programs are considered: the main projects, the results, the planned researches and the technical means. The personnel of the laboratory, their number in the different categories, the published papers, the patents and the thesis are included

  13. Laboratory accreditation in developing economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Accreditation of laboratories has been practiced for well over one hundred years with the primary objective of seeking a formal recognition for the competence of a laboratory to perform specified tests or measurements. While first accreditation schemes intended initially to serve only the immediate needs of the body making the evaluation with the purpose of minimizing testing and inspection to be conducted by laboratories, third-party accreditation enables a laboratory to demonstrate its capability as well as availability of all necessary resources to undertake particular tests correctly and that is managed in such a way that it is likely to do this consistently, taking into consideration standards developed by national and international standards-setting bodies. The international standard ISO/IEC 17025 and laboratory accreditation are concerned with competence and quality management of laboratories only, thus requiring a single common set of criteria applicable to them. Quality assurance is therefore fully relevant to laboratories in general and analytical laboratories in particular; it should not be confused with the certification approach according to ISO/IEC 9000 family of standards, that is concerned with quality management applicable to any organization as a whole. The role of laboratory accreditation can be manifold, but in all cases the recipient of the test report needs to have confidence that the data in it is reliable, particularly if the test data is important in a decision-making process. As such, it offers a comprehensive way to ensure: - the availability of managerial and technical staff with the authority and resources needed; - the effectiveness of equipment management, traceability of measurement and safety procedures; - the performance of tests, taking into consideration laboratory accommodation and facilities as well as laboratory practices. The presentation will include also some practical aspects of quality management system

  14. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okon, Avi B.; Brown, Kyle M.; McGrath, Paul L.; Klein, Kerry J.; Cady, Ian W.; Lin, Justin Y.; Ramirez, Frank E.; Haberland, Matt

    2012-01-01

    This drill (see Figure 1) is the primary sample acquisition element of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that collects powdered samples from various types of rock (from clays to massive basalts) at depths up to 50 mm below the surface. A rotary-percussive sample acquisition device was developed with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. It is the first rover-based sample acquisition device to be flight-qualified (see Figure 2). This drill features an autonomous tool change-out on a mobile robot, and novel voice-coil-based percussion. The drill comprises seven subelements. Starting at the end of the drill, there is a bit assembly that cuts the rock and collects the sample. Supporting the bit is a subassembly comprising a chuck mechanism to engage and release the new and worn bits, respectively, and a spindle mechanism to rotate the bit. Just aft of that is a percussion mechanism, which generates hammer blows to break the rock and create the dynamic environment used to flow the powdered sample. These components are mounted to a translation mechanism, which provides linear motion and senses weight-on-bit with a force sensor. There is a passive-contact sensor/stabilizer mechanism that secures the drill fs position on the rock surface, and flex harness management hardware to provide the power and signals to the translating components. The drill housing serves as the primary structure of the turret, to which the additional tools and instruments are attached. The drill bit assembly (DBA) is a passive device that is rotated and hammered in order to cut rock (i.e. science targets) and collect the cuttings (powder) in a sample chamber until ready for transfer to the CHIMRA (Collection and Handling for Interior Martian Rock Analysis). The DBA consists of a 5/8-in. (.1.6- cm) commercial hammer drill bit whose shank has been turned down and machined with deep flutes designed for aggressive cutting removal. Surrounding the shank of the

  15. Bentonite erosion. Laboratory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the laboratory studies that have been performed at Nuclear Chemistry, KTH in the project 'Bentonite Erosion'. Many of the experiments in this report were performed to support the work of the modelling group and were often relatively simple. One of the experiment series was performed to see the impact of gravity and concentration of mono- and di-valent cations. A clay suspension was prepared in a test tube. A net was placed in contact with the suspension, the test tube was filled with solutions of different concentrations and the system was left overnight to settle. The tube was then turned upside down and the behaviour was visually observed. Either the clay suspension fell through the net or stayed on top. By using this method surprisingly sharp determinations of the Critical Coagulation (Flocculation) Concentration (CCC/CFC) could be made. The CCC/CFC of Ca2+ was for sodium montmorillonite determined to be between 1 and 2 mM. An artificial fracture was manufactured in order to simulate the real case scenario. The set-up was two Plexiglas slabs separated by 1 mm thick spacers with a bentonite container at one side of the fracture. Water was pumped with a very low flow rate perpendicular to bentonite container and the water exiting the fracture was sampled and analyzed for colloid content. The bentonite used was treated in different ways. In the first experiment a relatively montmorillonite rich clay was used while in the second bentonite where only the readily soluble minerals had been removed was used. Since Plexiglas was used it was possible to visually observe the bentonite dispersing into the fracture. After the compacted bentonite (1,000 kg/m3) had been water saturated the clay had expanded some 12 mm out into the fracture. As the experiment progressed the clay expanded more out into the fracture and seemed to fractionate in two different phases with less material in the outmost phase. A dark rim which was later analyzed to contain mostly

  16. Bentonite erosion. Laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Mats (Div. of Nuclear Chemistry, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden), School of Chemical Science and Engineering)

    2009-11-15

    This report covers the laboratory studies that have been performed at Nuclear Chemistry, KTH in the project 'Bentonite Erosion'. Many of the experiments in this report were performed to support the work of the modelling group and were often relatively simple. One of the experiment series was performed to see the impact of gravity and concentration of mono- and di-valent cations. A clay suspension was prepared in a test tube. A net was placed in contact with the suspension, the test tube was filled with solutions of different concentrations and the system was left overnight to settle. The tube was then turned upside down and the behaviour was visually observed. Either the clay suspension fell through the net or stayed on top. By using this method surprisingly sharp determinations of the Critical Coagulation (Flocculation) Concentration (CCC/CFC) could be made. The CCC/CFC of Ca2+ was for sodium montmorillonite determined to be between 1 and 2 mM. An artificial fracture was manufactured in order to simulate the real case scenario. The set-up was two Plexiglas slabs separated by 1 mm thick spacers with a bentonite container at one side of the fracture. Water was pumped with a very low flow rate perpendicular to bentonite container and the water exiting the fracture was sampled and analyzed for colloid content. The bentonite used was treated in different ways. In the first experiment a relatively montmorillonite rich clay was used while in the second bentonite where only the readily soluble minerals had been removed was used. Since Plexiglas was used it was possible to visually observe the bentonite dispersing into the fracture. After the compacted bentonite (1,000 kg/m3) had been water saturated the clay had expanded some 12 mm out into the fracture. As the experiment progressed the clay expanded more out into the fracture and seemed to fractionate in two different phases with less material in the outmost phase. A dark rim which was later analyzed to contain

  17. Making Laboratories Count -- Better Integration of Laboratories in Physics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Jim

    2011-10-01

    The quality of K-12 education leaves something to be desired and presents higher education faculty with the challenge of instructing under-prepared students. However, by their own admission, students from many institutions inform us that laboratory sections in science classes, including physics, consist mostly of showing up, going through the motions, and getting grades that boost their overall grade. This work presents laboratories that challenge students to take their laboratory work more seriously including specific rubrics enforcing SOLVE and Bloom's Taxonomy, pre-lab preparation work, and quizzes on pre-lab preparation. Early results are encouraging revealing greater student progress with better integration of laboratory with the rest of a complete physics course.

  18. Diagnosing sepsis - The role of laboratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shu-Ling; Miller, Nancy S; Lee, John; Remick, Daniel G

    2016-09-01

    Sepsis is the host response to microbial pathogens resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. An accurate and timely diagnosis of sepsis allows prompt and appropriate treatment. This review discusses laboratory testing for sepsis because differentiating systemic inflammation from infection is challenging. Procalcitonin (PCT) is currently an FDA approved test to aid in the diagnosis of sepsis but with questionable efficacy. However, studies support the use of PCT for antibiotic de-escalation. Serial lactate measurements have been recommended for monitoring treatment efficacy as part of sepsis bundles. The 2016 sepsis consensus definitions include lactate concentrations >2mmol/L (>18mg/dL) as part of the definition of septic shock. Also included in the 2016 definitions are measuring bilirubin and creatinine to determine progression of organ failure indicating worse prognosis. Hematologic parameters, including a simple white blood cell count and differential, are frequently part of the initial sepsis diagnostic protocols. Several new biomarkers have been proposed to diagnose sepsis or to predict mortality, but they currently lack sufficient sensitivity and specificity to be considered as stand-alone testing. If sepsis is suspected, new technologies and microbiologic assays allow rapid and specific identification of pathogens. In 2016 there is no single laboratory test that accurately diagnoses sepsis. PMID:27387712

  19. Laboratory cost and utilization containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, J W; Root, J M; White, D C

    1991-01-01

    The authors analyzed laboratory costs and utilization in 3,771 cases of Medicare inpatients admitted to a New England academic medical center ("the Hospital") from October 1, 1989 to September 30, 1990. The data were derived from the Hospital's Decision Resource System comprehensive data base. The authors established a historical reference point for laboratory costs as a percentage of total inpatient costs using 1981-82 Medicare claims data and cost report information. Inpatient laboratory costs were estimated at 9.5% of total inpatient costs for pre-Diagnostic Related Groups (DRGs) Medicare discharges. Using this reference point and adjusting for the Hospital's 1990 case mix, the "expected" laboratory cost was 9.3% of total cost. In fact, the cost averaged 11.5% (i.e., 24% above the expected cost level), and costs represented an even greater percentage of DRG reimbursement at 12.9%. If we regard the reimbursement as a total cost target (to eliminate losses from Medicare), then that 12.9% is 39% above the "expected" laboratory proportion of 9.3%. The Hospital lost an average of $1,091 on each DRG inpatient. The laboratory contributed 29% to this loss per case. Compared to other large hospitals, the Hospital was slightly (3%) above the mean direct cost per on-site test and significantly (58%) above the mean number of inpatient tests per inpatient day compared to large teaching hospitals. The findings suggest that careful laboratory cost analyses will become increasingly important as the proportion of patients reimbursed in a fixed manner grows. The future may hold a prospective zero-based laboratory budgeting process based on predictable patterns of DRG admissions or other fixed-reimbursement admission and laboratory utilization patterns. PMID:10113716

  20. A Microcomputer Laboratory Management System for an Office Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, Bron D.; Addison, Lois

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a description of a laboratory management system which is designed to be used in a university-based Family Practice office laboratory. The system was developed using a commercially available database management system, Knowledgeman. The general design of the system is outlined and the advantages of flexibility and power which accompany the development of an application using a relational database management system are emphasized along with the need to carefully consider the...

  1. Electromedical devices test laboratories accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, C.; Rubio, D.; Ponce, S.; Álvarez Abri, A.; Terrón, A.; Vicencio, D.; Fascioli, E.

    2007-11-01

    In the last years, the technology and equipment at hospitals have been increase in a great way as the risks of their implementation. Safety in medical equipment must be considered an important issue to protect patients and their users. For this reason, test and calibrations laboratories must verify the correct performance of this kind of devices under national and international standards. Is an essential mission for laboratories to develop their measurement activities taking into account a quality management system. In this article, we intend to transmit our experience working to achieve an accredited Test Laboratories for medical devices in National technological University.

  2. Outcome Predictors in Treatment of Yaws

    OpenAIRE

    Mitjà, Oriol; Hays, Russell; Ipai, Anthony; Gubaila, David; Lelngei, Francis; Kirara, Martin; Paru, Raymond; Bassat, Quique

    2011-01-01

    To estimate failure rates after treatment with benzathine penicillin and to identify determinants of failure that affected outcomes for yaws, we conducted a cohort study of 138 patients; treatment failed in 24 (17.4%). Having low initial titers on Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test and living in a village where yaws baseline incidence was high were associated with increased likelihood of treatment failure.

  3. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needs. Psychological treatments used to treat IBS include psychotherapy (dynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapy ), relaxation therapy , hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments can also be combined. Review of well-designed treatment studies of IBS supports ...

  4. On the Interpretation of Bribery in a Laboratory Corruption Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik

    Past studies on laboratory corruption games have not been able to find consistent evidence that subjects make “immoral” decisions. A possible reason, and also a critique of laboratory corruption games, is that the experiment may fail to trigger the intended immorality frame in the minds of the...... participants, leading many to question the very raison d’être of laboratory corruption games. To test this idea, we compare behavior in a harassment bribery game with a strategically identical but neutrally framed ultimatum game. The results show that fewer people, both as briber and bribee, engage in...... corruption in the bribery frame than in the alternative and the average bribe amount is lesser in the former than in the latter. These suggest that moral costs are indeed at work. A third treatment, which relabels the bribery game in neutral language, indicates that the observed treatment effect arises not...

  5. Update on the laboratory diagnosis and monitoring of HIV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niel T CONSTANTINE; William KABAT; Richard Y ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    In China, the estimated number of HIV infected cases is approaching one million. Although public education has been initiated for awareness and behavioral modification for this devastating infection, better diagnostic methods are needed to identify infected persons and manage infection. Simple and more accurate diagnostic tools have become available,particularly for early detection and to monitor treatment in those who receive anti-retroviral treatment. In this short review, we summarize some of the common and new methodologies that can be used in clinical laboratories, in the field,or in private laboratories. These range from simple antibody tests to more sophistical methods that are used to monitor disease progression and identify drug resistance. These tools can assist physicians, medical practitioners, and laboratory personnel to select suitable diagnostic tools for the diagnosis, blood screening, monitoring of disease progression, and for detection of drug resistance to anti-retroviral therapies.

  6. Laboratory Techniques for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombaugh, Dorothy

    1972-01-01

    Describes modifications of laboratory procedures for the BSCS Green Version biology, including dissection, microbiology, animal behavior, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics that make the methods suitable for direct experimentation by blind students. Discusses models as substitutes for microscopy. (AL)

  7. Geoacoustic Physical Model Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Fabricates three-dimensional rough surfaces (e.g., fractals, ripples) out of materials such as PVC or wax to simulate the roughness properties associated...

  8. Research laboratories annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1990-1991 activities, of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission's research laboratories, are presented in this report. The main fields of interest are chemistry and material sciences, life and environmental sciences, nuclear physics and technology

  9. Metallurgical Laboratory (MET-LAB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MET-LAB can perform materials characterization for all types of metallic components and systems to any industry-specific or military standard. Capabilities: The...

  10. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities: testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The testing capabilities at Sandia Laboratories are characterized. Selected applications of these capabilities are presented to illustrate the extent to which they can be applied in research and development programs

  11. [Quality management in medical laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzer-Szekeres, M

    2010-05-01

    During the 20th century understanding for quality has changed and international and national requirements for quality have been published. Therefore also medical branches started to establish quality management systems. Quality assurance has always been important for medical laboratories. Certification according to the standard ISO 9001 and accreditation according to the standard ISO 17025 have been the proof of fulfilling quality requirements. The relatively new standard ISO 15189 is the first standard for medical laboratories. This standard includes technical and management requirements for the medical laboratory. The main focus is the proof of competence within the personnel. As this standard is accepted throughout the European Union an increase in accreditations of medical laboratories is predictable. PMID:20454753

  12. Small Sat Analysis Laboratory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop Small Satellite Analysis Laboratory (SatLab): A simulation-of-simulations framework to integrate component and engineering simulations into a single larger...

  13. Biometrics Research and Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As the Department of Defense moves forward in its pursuit of integrating biometrics technology into facility access control, the Global War on Terrorism and weapon...

  14. Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, H. John

    2004-01-01

    The topics addressed in this viewgraph presentation include information on 1) Historic instruments at Goddard; 2) Integrated Design Capability at Goddard; 3) The Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL).

  15. Laboratory demonstration of ball lightning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A common laboratory facility for creating glowing flying plasmoids akin to a natural ball lightning, allowing a number of experiments to be performed to investigate the main properties of ball lightning, is described. (methodological notes)

  16. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NOAA-GLERL and its partners conduct innovative research on the dynamic environments and ecosystems of the Great Lakes and coastal regions to provide information for...

  17. Contact Lenses in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, David W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes results of a three-item questionnaire returned by 43 Michigan institutions expressing views on wearing contact lenses in chemical laboratories. Questions focused on eye protection, type of protection, and use of contact lenses. (SK)

  18. Research System Integration Laboratory (SIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The VEA Research SIL (VRS) is essential to the success of the TARDEC 30-Year Strategy. The vast majority of the TARDEC Capability Sets face challenging electronics...

  19. Renowned European Laboratory turns 50

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A European Laboratory that was the birthplace of the World Wide Web and home of Nobel prize-winning developments in the quest to understand the makeup of matter wished itself a happy 50th birtheday on Tuesday

  20. Laboratory Workhorse: The Analytical Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Douglas W.

    1979-01-01

    This report explains the importance of various analytical balances in the water or wastewater laboratory. Stressed is the proper procedure for utilizing the equipment as well as the mechanics involved in its operation. (CS)