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Sample records for caspofungin treatment laboratory

  1. Caspofungin versus liposomal amphotericin B for treatment of invasive fungal infections or febrile neutropenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jinyu; Gong Yizhen; Wang Ke; Kong Jinliang; Chen Yiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Background Nowadays,there are published trials in regards to the comparison of caspofungin with liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB).However,these studies have a modest sample size and convey inconclusive results.The aim of this study was to review the efficacy and safety of caspofungin for the treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs),compared with L-AmB.Methods Electronic databases (up to July 31,2013) PubMed and Embase databases,the Cochrane Library,and Google Scholar were searched to identify relevant trials of caspofungin and L-AmB.Analyses of efficacy and adverse outcomes were performed by relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (C/s).Heterogeneity was assessed by x2-test and the/2-statistic.Results Three trials were included in this meta-analysis with 1249 modified intention-to-treat (MITT) patients.The results showed that caspofungin produced equal efficacy in favorable overall response (RR=1.02,95% Cl 0.88-1.18; P=0.81) and mortality rate (RR=1.53,95% Cl 0.38-6.27,P=0.55),safer in clinical adverse events (RR=0.20,95% Cl 0.08-0.54; P=0.001),laboratory adverse events (RR=0.69,95% Cl 0.57-0.84; P=0.0002),and discontinuation rate (RR=0.26,95% Cl 0.08-0.83,P=0.02),compared with L-AmB in the treatment of patients with IFls.Conclusion Based on the results of this meta-analysis,it would appear that caspofungin was measured to have equal efficacy in clinical outcomes and safer in terms of adverse events.

  2. Caspofungin for the treatment of invasive fungal disease in hematological patients (ProCAS Study).

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    Jarque, I; Tormo, M; Bello, J L; Rovira, M; Batlle, M; Julià, A; Tabares, S; Rivas, C; Fernández-Sevilla, A; García-Boyero, R; Debén, G; González-Campos, J; Capote, F J; Sanz, M A

    2013-02-01

    Caspofungin is an echinocandin with proven efficacy in invasive candidiasis (IC) and invasive aspergillosis (IA). This multicenter, prospective, non-comparative, observational ProCAS study was aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of caspofungin in adult hematological patients with IC or IA under everyday clinical conditions. Favorable outcomes included complete and partial responses on the last day of caspofungin therapy. Safety was assessed up to 14 days post-caspofungin. A total of 115 patients (69 male) with a median age of 52 years (range, 23-78 years) were analyzed. Underlying disease was acute myeloid leukemia in 45 patients (39%), and 21 (18%) were allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. Thirty-four (29.5%) patients had a diagnosis of IA and 26 (22.6%) had IC (candidemia). The median duration of caspofungin therapy was 14 days (range, 1-100). The overall favorable response rate was 77% (20/26) for patients with IC (69% first-line) and 79% (27/34) for those with IA. Antifungal therapy with caspofungin was generally well tolerated, only two (1.7%) patients having a non-serious drug-related adverse reaction. These results suggest that caspofungin, either alone or in combination, should be considered an effective and safe option for the treatment of invasive mycoses in patients with severe hematological disorders.

  3. Caspofungin: Pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical uses and treatment outcomes.

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    Song, Jessica C; Stevens, David A

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decade, echinocandins have emerged as first-line antifungal agents for many Candida infections. The echinocandins have a unique mechanism of action, inhibiting the synthesis of β-1,3-d-glucan polymers, key components of the cell wall in pathogenic fungi. Caspofungin was the first echinocandin antifungal agent to become licensed for use. The objectives of this review are to summarize the existing published data on caspofungin, under the subject headings of chemistry and mechanism of action, spectrum of activity, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical studies, safety, drug interactions, dosing, and an overview of the drug's current place in therapy.

  4. Successful caspofungin treatment of persistent candidemia in extreme prematurity at 23 and 24 weeks' gestation.

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    Jeon, Ga Won; Sin, Jong Beom

    2014-03-01

    Systemic fungal infection continues to be a major cause of mortality in extremely low-birth-weight premature infants. Amphotericin B has been recommended as the primary treatment; however, its use is limited due to drug-induced nephrotoxicity and amphotericin B-resistant candidemia. Caspofungin therapy was initiated in seven extremely premature infants at 23 and 24 weeks' gestation with persistent systemic candidiasis despite liposomal amphotericin B treatment. The gestational age was 23(+1)-24(+6) weeks, and birth weight was 530-825 g. Of the seven patients, the peripheral blood cultures of six patients were positive for Candida parapsilosis and one had positive culture for Candida albicans. The dosage of caspofungin was 2 mg/kg/day, and the mean treatment duration was 14 days. All of the persistent candidemia resolved on caspofungin therapy. There was no recurrent candidemia after discontinuing caspofungin. There were no adverse effects, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, anemia, or thrombocytopenia. Caspofungin successfully treated persistent candidemia in extremely premature infants at 23 and 24 weeks' gestational age.

  5. Limitations of caspofungin in the treatment of obstructive pyonephrosis due to Candida glabrata infection

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    Ross Calum N

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspofungin is a new antifungal agent with high-level activity against a number of Candida species including those that are resistant to azoles. Its good safety profile and low nephrotoxicity makes it an attractive drug to treat fungal infections in patients with compromised renal function. However, little is known about the clinical efficacy in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections due to Candida species such as pyonephrosis. Case presentation We report a case of obstructive pyonephrosis due to an azole (fluconazole and itraconazole resistant Candida glabrata strain that failed to respond to intravenous treatment with caspofungin. A sustained clinical and microbiological response was only achieved after percutaneous drainage and instillation of amphotericin B deoxycholate into the renal pelvis in combination with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B. Conclusion This case demonstrates the limitation of intravenous antifungal agents such as caspofungin as the sole treatment of an obstructive upper urinary tract infection due to Candida species. In order to achieve long term sustained cure from an obstructive pyonephrosis, pus and fungal balls should be drained and an anti-fungal agent such as amphotericin B deoxycholate instilled locally. The pharmacokinetics and role of caspofungin in the treatment of complicated Candida urinary tract infection is reviewed.

  6. Caspofungin in salvage treatment of severe pneumocystis pneumonia: case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Xiang-dong; QUE Cheng-li; HE Bing; WANG Guang-fa; LI Hai-chao

    2009-01-01

    @@ Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is one of the most critical and life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients with AIDS (especially CD4+ T cell less than 0.2×109/L), hematological malignancies, organ transplantation or connective tissue diseases.1It is caused by a fungus called Pneumocystis firoveci (P. jiroveci, formerly called P. carinii).2Despite treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) and corticosteroids, the morbidity of this disease is often high because of late treatment or contraindications of sulfanilamide. New therapeutic approaches are therefore warranted. Caspofungin, a beta-1, 3-glucan synthesis inhibitor, has shown activity against P. jiroveci in experimental animals,3but clinical trials about this are rare.4-8We here report our clinical experience with caspofungin in salvage treatment of severe PCP in a patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and uremia.

  7. Caspofungin Injection

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    Caspofungin injection is used in adults and children 3 months of age and older to treat yeast ... people with a weakened ability to fight infection. Caspofungin injection is in a class of antifungal medications ...

  8. Rare severe mycotic infections in children receiving empirical caspofungin treatment for febrile neutropenia

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    Deniz Yilmaz Karapinar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTEmpirical antifungal therapy is most often given to patients with leukemia. However breakthrough fungal infections under antifungal therapy are not uncommon. Four children, with hematologic malignant disease developed mycotic breakthrough infections while on empirical caspofungin treatment for a median of 14 (range 11-19 days. Trichosporon asahii was detected in the blood culture of two patients and Geotrichum capitatum in the other two (one patient also had positive cerebrospinal fluid culture. Because the patients' clinical situation worsened, voriconazole was empirically added for two patients three and five days before the agent was detected. The first sterile blood culture was obtained 3-7 days of voriconazole treatment. All patients reached clear cultures but one patient died. One patient with central nervous system infection with G. capitatum had severe neurological sequelae. Very severe fungal infections can occur during empirical caspofungin therapy. Therefore, patients should be followed closely.

  9. Evaluation of the correlation of caspofungin MICs and treatment outcome in murine infections by wild type strains of Candida parapsilosis.

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    Salas, Valentina; Pastor, F Javier; Capilla, Javier; Sutton, Deanna A; Mayayo, Emilio; Fothergill, Annette W; Rinaldi, Michael G; Guarro, Josep

    2013-09-01

    We have evaluated the in vitro activity of caspofungin against 36 wild-type strains of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto using 3 techniques: broth microdilution, disk diffusion, and the determination of minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). The first 2 methods showed a good in vitro activity of caspofungin, but the MFCs were ≥2 dilutions above their corresponding MICs. In a murine model of disseminated infection, we evaluated the efficacy of caspofungin at 5 mg/kg against 8 strains of C. parapsilosis representing different degrees of in vitro susceptibility (0.12-1 μg/mL). All the isolates responded to treatment and (1→3)-β-D-glucan levels were reduced in all the cases; however, the study revealed differences among isolates, since caspofungin reduced the tissue burden of mice infected with isolates with MICs ≤0.5 μg/mL but was less effective against those with MICs of 1 μg/mL.

  10. Caspofungin Use in Daily Clinical Practice for Treatment of Invasive Aspergillosis: Results of a Prospective Observational Registry

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    Chandwani Sheenu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prospective observational registry assessed real world experience with caspofungin monotherapy or combination therapy for the initial or salvage treatment of proven or probable invasive aspergillosis (IA. Methods Data were collected from April 2006 to September 2007 for patients treated with caspofungin for a single episode of IA. Clinical effectiveness was categorized as favorable (complete or partial or unfavorable (stable disease or failure at the end of caspofungin therapy (EOCT. Results Consecutive patients (n = 103 with proven or probable IA (per EORTC/MSG criteria were identified from 11 countries. Malignancy (76.7%, neutropenia (64.1%, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, 22.3%, solid organ transplantation (8.7%, autologous HSCT (4.9%, and HIV/AIDS (2.9% were the most common underlying conditions. Most patients (84.5% had pulmonary IA. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most frequently isolated species. The majority of patients received caspofungin monotherapy (82.5% primarily as salvage therapy (82.4%. The main reason for switching to salvage therapy was clinical failure of the first-line therapy (69%. A favorable response at EOCT was seen in 56.4% (57/101 of patients overall, including 56.5% (48/85 and 56.3% (9/16 of patients receiving caspofungin monotherapy and combination therapy, respectively. Favorable response rates in clinically relevant subgroups were: malignancy, 51.9% (41/79; allogeneic HSCT, 56.5% (13/23; and neutropenia at time of hospitalization, 53.0% (35/66. There was a 72.3% (73/101 survival at 7 days after EOCT. Serious adverse events related to caspofungin were reported in 4 cases (3.9%; 3 patients (2.9% discontinued treatment due to an adverse event related to caspofungin. Conclusions Caspofungin was both effective and well tolerated among high-risk patient groups such as those with neutropenia and active malignancies.

  11. A fatal case of Trichosporon asahii fungemia and pneumonia in a kidney transplant recipient during caspofungin treatment

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    Yang MF

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mei-fang Yang,1,2 Hai-nv Gao,1,2 Lan-juan Li1,2 1State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University; 2Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Trichosporon asahii is an emerging opportunistic pathogen that is life-threatening particularly for immunosuppressed patients. Only a few studies have described Trichosporon infection in kidney transplant recipients. This study reports a 67-year-old male kidney transplant recipient who developed fatal fungemia and pneumonia caused by T. asahii during caspofungin treatment. Although funguria is benign, kidney transplant recipients are still at risk of T. asahii fungemia and invasive T. asahii infection even if they are under antifungal therapy, particularly echinocandins. Keywords: funguria, organ transplant, opportunistic infection, invasive fungal infection, antifungal therapy

  12. Calcium-Mediated Induction of Paradoxical Growth following Caspofungin Treatment Is Associated with Calcineurin Activation and Phosphorylation in Aspergillus fumigatus.

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    Juvvadi, Praveen R; Muñoz, Alberto; Lamoth, Frédéric; Soderblom, Erik J; Moseley, M Arthur; Read, Nick D; Steinbach, William J

    2015-08-01

    The echinocandin antifungal drug caspofungin at high concentrations reverses the growth inhibition of Aspergillus fumigatus, a phenomenon known as the "paradoxical effect," which is not consistently observed with other echinocandins (micafungin and anidulafungin). Previous studies of A. fumigatus revealed the loss of the paradoxical effect following pharmacological or genetic inhibition of calcineurin, yet the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we utilized a codon-optimized bioluminescent Ca(2+) reporter aequorin expression system in A. fumigatus and showed that caspofungin elicits a transient increase in cytosolic free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]c) in the fungus that acts as the initial trigger of the paradoxical effect by activating calmodulin-calcineurin signaling. While the increase in [Ca(2+)]c was also observed upon treatment with micafungin, another echinocandin without the paradoxical effect, a higher [Ca(2+)]c increase was noted with the paradoxical-growth concentration of caspofungin. Treatments with a Ca(2+)-selective chelator, BAPTA [1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid], or the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil abolished caspofungin-mediated paradoxical growth in both the wild-type and the echinocandin-resistant (EMFR-S678P) strains. Concomitant with increased [Ca(2+)]c levels at higher concentrations of caspofungin, calmodulin and calcineurin gene expression was enhanced. Phosphoproteomic analysis revealed that calcineurin is activated through phosphorylation at its serine-proline-rich region (SPRR), a domain previously shown to be essential for regulation of hyphal growth, only at a paradoxical-growth concentration of caspofungin. Our results indicate that as opposed to micafungin, the increased [Ca(2+)]c at high concentrations of caspofungin activates calmodulin-calcineurin signaling at both a transcriptional and a posttranslational level and ultimately leads to paradoxical fungal growth.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of caspofungin in ICU patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muilwijk, E.W.; Schouten, J.A.; Leeuwen, H.J. van; Zanten, A.R. van; Lange, D.W. de; Colbers, A.; Verweij, P.E.; Burger, D.M.; Pickkers, P.; Bruggemann, R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Caspofungin is used for treatment of invasive fungal infections. As the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antimicrobial agents in critically ill patients can be highly variable, we set out to explore caspofungin PK in ICU patients. METHODS: ICU patients receiving caspofungin were eligible. Patien

  14. Caspofungin Treatment of Aspergillus fumigatus Results in ChsG-Dependent Upregulation of Chitin Synthesis and the Formation of Chitin-Rich Microcolonies.

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    Walker, Louise A; Lee, Keunsook K; Munro, Carol A; Gow, Neil A R

    2015-10-01

    Treatment of Aspergillus fumigatus with echinocandins such as caspofungin inhibits the synthesis of cell wall β-1,3-glucan, which triggers a compensatory stimulation of chitin synthesis. Activation of chitin synthesis can occur in response to sub-MICs of caspofungin and to CaCl2 and calcofluor white (CFW), agonists of the protein kinase C (PKC), and Ca(2+)-calcineurin signaling pathways. A. fumigatus mutants with the chs gene (encoding chitin synthase) deleted (ΔAfchs) were tested for their response to these agonists to determine the chitin synthase enzymes that were required for the compensatory upregulation of chitin synthesis. Only the ΔAfchsG mutant was hypersensitive to caspofungin, and all other ΔAfchs mutants tested remained capable of increasing their chitin content in response to treatment with CaCl2 and CFW and caspofungin. The resulting increase in cell wall chitin content correlated with reduced susceptibility to caspofungin in the wild type and all ΔAfchs mutants tested, with the exception of the ΔAfchsG mutant, which remained sensitive to caspofungin. In vitro exposure to the chitin synthase inhibitor, nikkomycin Z, along with caspofungin demonstrated synergistic efficacy that was again AfChsG dependent. Dynamic imaging using microfluidic perfusion chambers demonstrated that treatment with sub-MIC caspofungin resulted initially in hyphal tip lysis. However, thickened hyphae emerged that formed aberrant microcolonies in the continued presence of caspofungin. In addition, intrahyphal hyphae were formed in response to echinocandin treatment. These in vitro data demonstrate that A. fumigatus has the potential to survive echinocandin treatment in vivo by AfChsG-dependent upregulation of chitin synthesis. Chitin-rich cells may, therefore, persist in human tissues and act as the focus for breakthrough infections.

  15. Caspofungin for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in Germany: results of a pre-planned subanalysis of an international registry

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    Egerer Gerlinde

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is a pre-planned country-specific subanalysis of results in Germany from a multinational multicenter registry to prospectively assess real-world experience with caspofungin administered for treatment of proven or probable invasive aspergillosis (IA. Methods Data from patients treated with caspofungin for a single episode of IA were collected. Effectiveness was determined by the local investigator as favorable (complete or partial response or unfavorable (stable disease, failure or death at the end of caspofungin therapy. Descriptive statistics with binomial exact confidence intervals were employed. Results Forty-two consecutive patients were identified in three German centers. Three patients (7% had proven IA and 39/42 (93% had probable IA (modified European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycosis Study Group (EORTC/MSG criteria. Forty-one patients had pulmonary IA and one had tracheal IA. Caspofungin monotherapy was received by 36/42 patients (86%; of these, 26/36 (72% received salvage therapy. A favorable response was observed in 29/42 patients (69%; 95% CI 53 to 82%; of these, 21/29 (72% had a complete and 8/29 (28% a partial response. Favorable response rate was 69% in patients with monotherapy (95% CI 52% to 84%; 25/36 patients, and 67% in patients receiving combination therapy (95% CI 22% to 96%; 4/6 patients. Favorable response rate in patients with first line therapy was 64% (95% CI 31% to 89%; 7/11 patients, and 73% in patients with second line therapy (95% CI 54% to 88%; 20/30 patients. No adverse events were reported. In total, 35/42 patients (83%; 95% CI 69 to 93% survived seven days after completion of caspofungin therapy. Conclusions These real-life findings in Germany are consistent with the international findings from this registry and with findings from randomized studies.

  16. Successful Treatment of Liver Aspergilloma by Caspofungin Acetate First-Line Therapy in a Non-Immunocompromised Patient

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    Hong-Juan Dong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillosis remains to be a life-threatening complication in immunocompromised patients. However, Aspergillus infection can be observed in non-immunocompromised individuals in rare cases. We report a case of liver aspergilloma in a chronic aplastic anemia patient under relatively intact immune status. Therapeutic strategy for this rare condition was extensively discussed and caspofungin acetate single agent first-line therapy was applied after careful consideration. Encouraging clinical and radiologic improvements were achieved in response to the antifungal salvage. Our long-term follow-up study also revealed a favorable prognosis. Based on this experience, we suggest caspofungin acetate as first-line therapy for treatment plans of liver aspergilloma.

  17. Interlaboratory variability of Caspofungin MICs for Candida spp. Using CLSI and EUCAST methods: should the clinical laboratory be testing this agent?

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    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Arendrup, M C; Pfaller, M A; Bonfietti, L X; Bustamante, B; Canton, E; Chryssanthou, E; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Dannaoui, E; Fothergill, A; Fuller, J; Gaustad, P; Gonzalez, G M; Guarro, J; Lass-Flörl, C; Lockhart, S R; Meis, J F; Moore, C B; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L; Pelaez, T; Pukinskas, S R B S; St-Germain, G; Szeszs, M W; Turnidge, J

    2013-12-01

    Although Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) clinical breakpoints (CBPs) are available for interpreting echinocandin MICs for Candida spp., epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) based on collective MIC data from multiple laboratories have not been defined. While collating CLSI caspofungin MICs for 145 to 11,550 Candida isolates from 17 laboratories (Brazil, Canada, Europe, Mexico, Peru, and the United States), we observed an extraordinary amount of modal variability (wide ranges) among laboratories as well as truncated and bimodal MIC distributions. The species-specific modes across different laboratories ranged from 0.016 to 0.5 μg/ml for C. albicans and C. tropicalis, 0.031 to 0.5 μg/ml for C. glabrata, and 0.063 to 1 μg/ml for C. krusei. Variability was also similar among MIC distributions for C. dubliniensis and C. lusitaniae. The exceptions were C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii MIC distributions, where most modes were within one 2-fold dilution of each other. These findings were consistent with available data from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) (403 to 2,556 MICs) for C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis. Although many factors (caspofungin powder source, stock solution solvent, powder storage time length and temperature, and MIC determination testing parameters) were examined as a potential cause of such unprecedented variability, a single specific cause was not identified. Therefore, it seems highly likely that the use of the CLSI species-specific caspofungin CBPs could lead to reporting an excessive number of wild-type (WT) isolates (e.g., C. glabrata and C. krusei) as either non-WT or resistant isolates. Until this problem is resolved, routine testing or reporting of CLSI caspofungin MICs for Candida is not recommended; micafungin or anidulafungin data could be used instead.

  18. Pharmacology and metabolism of anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidosis - review of the literature

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    Kofla G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Echinocandins represent the newest class of antifungal agents. Currently, three echinocandins, anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin are licensed for clinical use in various indications. They act as inhibitors of β-(1,3-glucan synthesis in the fungal cell wall and have a favorable pharmacological profile. They have a broad spectrum of activity against all Candida species. Higher MIC's have been observed against C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii. Data from clinical trials for invasive Candida infections/candidaemia suggest that the clinical outcome of patients treated with either drug may be very similar. A comparison has been done between caspofungin and micafungin but for anidulafungin a comparative trial with another echinocandin is still lacking. All three drugs are highly effective if not superior to treatment with either fluconazole or Amphotericin B, particularly in well-defined clinical settings such as invasive Candida infections, Candida oesophagitis and candidaemia. Differences between the three echinocandins with regard to the route of metabolism, requirement for a loading dose, dose adjustment in patients with moderate to severe hepatic disease and different dosing schedules for different types of Candida infections have to be considered. Relevant drug-drug interactions of Caspofungin and Micafungin are minimal. Anidulafungin has no significant drug interactions at all. However, echinocandins are available only for intravenous use. All three agents have an excellent safety profile.

  19. Caspofungin first-line therapy for invasive aspergillosis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients: an European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer study.

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    Herbrecht, R; Maertens, J; Baila, L; Aoun, M; Heinz, W; Martino, R; Schwartz, S; Ullmann, A J; Meert, L; Paesmans, M; Marchetti, O; Akan, H; Ameye, L; Shivaprakash, M; Viscoli, C

    2010-07-01

    Caspofungin at standard dose was evaluated as first-line monotherapy of mycologically documented probable/proven invasive aspergillosis (IA) (unmodified European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycosis Study Group criteria) in allogeneic hematopoietic SCT patients. The primary efficacy end point was complete or partial response at end of caspofungin treatment. Response at week 12, survival and safety were additional end points. Enrollment was stopped prematurely because of low accrual, with 42 enrolled and 24 eligible, giving the study a power of 85%. Transplant was from unrelated donors in 16 patients; acute or chronic GVHD was present in 15. In all, 12 patients were neutropenic (<500/microl) at baseline, 10 received steroids and 16 calcineurin inhibitors or sirolimus. Median duration of caspofungin treatment was 24 days. At the end of caspofungin therapy, 10 (42%) patients had complete or partial response (95% confidence interval: 22-63%); 1 (4%) and 12 (50%) had stable and progressing disease, respectively; one was not evaluable. At week 12, eight patients (33%) had complete or partial response. Survival rates at week 6 and 12 were 79 and 50%, respectively. No patient had a drug-related serious adverse event or discontinued because of toxicity. Caspofungin first-line therapy was effective and well tolerated in allogeneic hematopoietic SCT patients with mycologically documented IA.

  20. A clinical-economic study of caspofungin use in the treatment of invasive candidiasis in intensive care units

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    A. S. Kolbin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida spp. are the fourth on the list of sepsis pathogens in patients in intensive care units. Currently the physician’s armamentarium includes a whole range of antifungal medicines that have demonstrated high clinicalmycological effectiveness in clinical trials. The aim of this study to evaluate the clinical-economic usefulness of caspofungin therapy in the treatment of invasive candidiasis versus standard and alternative treatments in patients inintensive care units. The first time in the Russian clinical-economic analysis for targeted IC treatment in non-neutropenic patients in intensive care units who have not received primary prophylaxis with azole antimycotics, as well as in those with low (< 20% occurrence of in vitro Candida spp. resistance to fluconazole according to national or local study results, yielded the following findings: the best strategy is initial amphotericin B therapy with subsequent switching to caspofungin in patients with ineffective initial amphotericin B therapy or those with severe adverse events.

  1. Caspofungin exposure-response relationships in adult patients with mucosal or invasive candidiasis.

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    Comisar, Wendy; Sun, Peng; Li, Susan; Sable, Carole; Schwartz, Michael; Bi, Sheng; Chow, Joseph; Ngai, Angela; Winchell, Gregory; Kartsonis, Nicholas; Stone, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Caspofungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent administered once daily as an intravenous infusion. Relationships between caspofungin exposure and clinical efficacy and safety were investigated. End-of-infusion (CEOI ) and trough (C24 hours ) concentrations were obtained in 218 patients with mucosal (i.e., esophageal and/or oropharyngeal) candidiasis (MC) receiving caspofungin 35, 50, or 70 mg/day and 278 patients with invasive candidiasis (IC) receiving 50, 100, or 150 mg/day. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-24 hours ) was obtained in a subset of MC patients (n = 99). Odds ratios were estimated for the association between log-transformed PK and efficacy response and the occurrence of common adverse events. No pharmacokinetic or hybrid parameter (ratio of AUC:MIC, CEOI :MIC, C24 hours :MIC) was significantly correlated with overall treatment outcome in either MC or IC, although this patient population may exhibit confounding factors which masked a potential pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship. An exploratory evaluation of MC identified significant pharmacokinetic correlations with endoscopic response, but not symptom response. Statistically significant associations were identified for IC patients with C. parapsilosis infections. Occurrence of clinical adverse events and/or laboratory abnormalities did not appear to be increased by higher caspofungin plasma concentrations. Caspofungin concentrations achieved with 50 mg/day are generally within the therapeutic window for the treatment of candidiasis.

  2. Tratamiento con caspofungina de endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol Treatment with caspofungin of Candida tropicalis endocarditis resistant to fluconazol

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    Marcelo del Castillo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Las endocarditis causadas por hongos, (Candida en particular, requieren tratamiento médico-quirúrgico, siendo la anfotericina B la droga de elección. Caspofungina es una equinocandina con gran actividad sobre Candida y Aspergillus. Se presenta un paciente con una endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol tratado con caspofungina bajo un esquema de salvataje, luego de haber presentado efectos adversos por anfotericina B. El paciente tuvo respuesta microbiológica.Fungal endocarditis, in particular due to Candida species, requires medical and surgical treatment and amphotericin B is the drug of choice. Caspofungin is an echinocandin very effective against Candida and Aspergillus. We present a patient with Candida tropicalis endocarditis, fluconazol resistant, treated with caspofungin, on a compassional basis as a result of adverse effects with amphotericin B. The patient had a microbiological response.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and safety of intravitreal caspofungin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ying-Cheng; Liang, Chiao-Ying; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Lin, Keng-Hung; Hsu, Min-Yen; Yuen, Hon-Leung; Wei, Li-Chen

    2014-12-01

    Caspofungin exhibits potent antifungal activities against Candida and Aspergillus species. The elimination rate and retinal toxicity of caspofungin were determined in this study to assess its pharmacokinetics and safety in the treatment of fungal endophthalmitis. Intravitreal injections of 50 μg/0.1 ml of caspofungin were administered to rabbits. Levels of caspofungin in the vitreous and aqueous humors were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at selected time intervals (10 min and 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 h), and the half-lives were calculated. Eyes were intravitreally injected with caspofungin to obtain concentrations of 10 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, and 200 μg/ml. Electroretinograms were recorded 4 weeks after injections, and the injected eyes were examined histologically. The concentrations of intravitreal caspofungin at various time points exhibited an exponential decay with a half-life of 6.28 h. The mean vitreous concentration was 6.06 ± 1.76 μg/ml 1 h after intravitreal injection, and this declined to 0.47 ± 0.15 μg/ml at 24 h. The mean aqueous concentration showed undetectable levels at all time points. There were no statistical differences in scotopic a-wave and b-wave responses between control eyes and caspofungin-injected eyes. No focal necrosis or other abnormality in retinal histology was observed. Intravitreal caspofungin injection may be considered to be an alternative treatment for fungal endophthalmitis based on its antifungal activity, lower retinal toxicity, and lower elimination rate in the vitreous. More clinical data are needed to determine its potential role as primary therapy for fungal endophthalmitis.

  4. New microbiological assay for determination of caspofungin in the presence of its degradation products and its measurement uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisleni, Daniela Dal Molim; Okamoto, Rogério Takao; De Oliveira, Amaral Cleide Maria; Lourenço, Felipe Rebello; De Jesus, Andreoli Pinto Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    Caspofungin is an echinocandin antifungal used in the treatment of invasive fungal infections. Several methods have been reported for the quantitative analysis of echinocandins; however, there is no microbiological assay for determination of caspofungin potency in the presence of its degradation products. This study aimed to develop and validate a microbiological method for quantitative analysis of caspofungin in lyophilized powder, evaluate the stability, and determinate the degradation kinetics of the drug when the finished product is submitted to heat stress. A procedure was established to estimate measurement uncertainty for routine analysis. The validation was performed as recommended in the current official guidelines. The agar diffusion method is based on the inhibitory effect of caspofungin on Candida albicans. Results showed selectivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy of the method. Statistical analysis demonstrated that method is linear (in the range 2.5 to 16 microg/mL, y= 15.73 + 6.4x, r2 = 0.9965), precise (intermediate precision: 2.54%), and accurate (recovery range: 95.01-102.46%). The proposed method allowed evaluation of the thermal stability of the drug at 80 degreesC for 120 min and determination of first order degradation kinetics. The variability of inhibition zone sizes was the most important source of uncertainty at about 87% of the overall uncertainty (103.0+/-1.7%). These results show that the proposed method is applicable to routine laboratory testing, and is sensitive to thermal degradation of caspofungin.

  5. Lack of Response in Severe Pneumocystis Pneumonia to Combined Caspofungin and Clindamycin Treatment: a Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Zhang; Hua Zhang; Jun XU; Chan Wu; Xiao-jun Ma

    2011-01-01

    PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia (PCP) is among the most common opportunistic infections in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).Although trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is the first line therapy for that condition given its efficacy,approximately one third of patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity.1 For cases of severe to moderate PCP,if TMP-SMX treatment fails or is contraindicated,primaquine combined with clindamycin or intravenous pentamidine is recommended as second line therapy.2 However,both primaquine and pentamidine are associated with severe adverse reactions and often unavailable at hospitals in China.3 As a result,other treatment options have been explored.

  6. 卡泊芬净联合克林霉素治疗重症肺孢子菌肺炎的临床观察%Clinical Observation on Caspofungin and Clindamycin in the Treatment of Severe Pneumocystis Pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘晓飞; 金鑫

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨卡泊芬净联合克林霉素治疗重症肺孢子菌肺炎的临床效果。方法将82例重症肺孢子菌肺炎患者分为两组,治疗组采取卡泊芬净联合克林霉素治疗,对照组采取卡泊芬净治疗,对比2组疗效。结果治疗组治疗总有效率95.1%,高于对照组的75.6%(P<0.05)。结论卡泊芬净联合克林霉素治疗重症肺孢子菌肺炎的效果理想。%Objective To investigate clinical effect of caspofungin in combination with clindamycin in the treatment of severe Pneumocystis pneumonia.Methods 82 cases of severe Pneumocystis pneumonia patients divided into two groups. Treatment group taking caspofungin combined with clindamycin treatment, the control group was treated with caspofungin. The curative effects were compared between two groups.Results Treatment group of total rate was 95.1%,was significantly higher than that of the control group of 75.6%(P<0.05).Conclusion Combination of caspofungin and clindamycin in treatment of severe Pneumocystis pneumonia have ideal effect.

  7. Complete heart block in a neutropenic patient with aspergillosis: An unusual adverse effect of caspofungins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasmita Biswal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of complete heart block (CHB in a 58-year-old female patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML with no past history of cardiac disease, who received caspofungin in the treatment of disseminated fungal infection. To our knowledge, this is the first case of CHB associated with caspofungins. Subsequent to induction chemotherapy the patient developed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with sudden tachypnea, dyspnoea, fever, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and acute respiratory insufficiency consequent to neutropenia with ANC<500. During the first dose of antifungal therapy with caspofungins, she developed complete atrioventricular block and cardiac arrest. Complete heart block is an unusual adverse effect of caspofungins which has not been reported previously. Caspofungins release histamine in peripheral blood cells, so possible histamine-mediated symptoms ranging from severe fatal anaphylaxis can occur. These data suggest that infusion-related reactions associated with caspofungin may be mediated by histamine release secondary to caspofungin therapy.

  8. Treatment and prophylaxis of invasive candidiasis with anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin and its impact on use and costs - review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilke MH

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Invasive fungal infections are on the rise. Echinocandins are a relatively new class of antifungal drugs that act by inhibition of a key enzyme necessary for integrity of the fungal cell wall. Currently there are three available agents: caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin. While the individual echinocandin antifungals have a different spectrum of licensed indications, basically all of them are available for the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis. Antifungal treatment modalities basically include in therapy for suspected or proven infection and prophylaxis. All three drugs are comparatively expensive. Therefore a systematic review of the literature was performed to investigate the following aspects: • General aspects of cost-effectiveness in the treatment of invasive fungal infections • Cost-effectiveness of the treatment with the above-mentioned antifungals • Cost-effectiveness in two settings: therapy and prophylaxis Early initiation of antifungal therapy, adjustment after availability of microbiological results, duration of therapy, success and occurrence of severe complications (e.g renal failure are the most important cost drivers in antifungal therapy. Considering the specific antifungals, for caspofungin the best evidence for cost-effectiveness is found in treatment of invasive candidiasis and in empiric therapy of suspected infections. Favourable economic data are available for micafungin as a cost-effective alternative to LAmB for prophylaxis in patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. For anidulafungin, cost-effectiveness was demostrated in a pharmacoeconomic model. Net savings - yet not significant - were observed in a retrospective chart review of 234 patients. Generally, however, most analyses are still based on pharmacoeconomic modelling rather than direct analysis of trial data or real-life clinical populations. As an overall conclusion, using caspofungin, micafungin, or

  9. CLINICAL ANALYSIS OF CASPOFUNGIN IN TREATMENT OF HEMATOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES COMBINED INVASIVE PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS INFECTION%卡泊芬净治疗恶性血液病合并IPA感染临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁莉; 申徐良; 张梅香; 张国香; 魏武

    2014-01-01

    目的:评估卡泊芬净治疗恶性血液病合并侵袭性肺曲霉菌(IPA)感染的临床疗效和安全性。方法:2008年1月-2012年12月恶性血液病合并IPA感染患者49例,所有患者均经CT检查和GM试验临床诊断;采用注射用醋酸卡泊芬净进行治疗,根据临床疗效标准,评价卡泊芬净治疗的疗效和安全性。结果:49例患者的治疗总有效率为91.84%(45/49)。卡泊芬净治疗过程中9例发生不良反应,不良反应发生率为18.37%。结论:卡泊芬净有很好的抗真菌活性,是治疗恶性血液病合并肺曲霉菌感染安全有效的药物。%Objective:To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of caspofungin in treatment of hematological malignanciescombinedinvasivepulmonaryaspergillosis(IPA)infection.Methods:49hematologicalmalignanciescombined IPA infection patients (2008.1-2012.12) that were diagnosed by CT and galactomannan test were treated with caspofungin. The clinical efficacy and safety of caspofungin were evaluated according to clinical curative effect standard.Results:The total effective rate of 49 patients was 91.84%(45/49) after caspofungin treatment;and the incidence of drug related adverse events was 18.37%(9/49).Conclusions:Caspofungin has good antifungal activity, and it is a safe and effective drug for treating hematological malignancies combinedIPAinfection.

  10. Intraocular caspofungin: in vitro safety profile for human ocular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernt, M; Kampik, A

    2011-07-01

    Endogenous Candida endophthalmitis is sight-threatening, difficult to treat and sometimes leads to loss of the eye. Only a few therapeutic agents are available for its treatment. Caspofungin is the first of a new class of antifungal drugs (echinocandins) with a high activity against Candida species, the most common pathogens found in endogenous endophthalmitis. This study investigates the safety profile of caspofungin for intraocular application in a cell-culture model. Endothelial toxicity of caspofungin was evaluated in cultured human corneas. Possible toxic effects of caspofungin (5-300 μg ml(-1)) in corneal endothelial cells (CEC), primary human trabecular meshwork cells (TMC) and primary human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were evaluated after 24 h and under conditions of inflammatory stress by treatment with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Toxicity was evaluated by tetrazolium dye-reduction assay; cell viability was quantified by a microscopic live-dead assay. No corneal endothelial toxicity could be detected after 30 days of treatment with 75 μg ml(-1) of caspofungin. Concentrations up to 75 μg ml(-1) had no influence on CEC, TMC or RPE cell proliferation, or on cell viability when administered for 24 h. Exposure to H(2)O(2) did not increase cellular toxicity of caspofungin at concentrations of 5-50 μg ml(-1). After preincubation with TNF-α, LPS or IL-6 for 24 h followed by treatment with caspofungin for 24 h, no significant decrease in cell proliferation or viability was observed. This study showed no significant toxicity for caspofungin on CEC, TMC or RPE cells, or human corneal endothelium when administered in therapeutic concentrations up to 50 μg ml(-1).

  11. Breakthrough Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans double infection during caspofungin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Buzina, Walter

    2009-01-01

    and evaluate the capability of susceptibility methods to identify candin resistance. The susceptibility of C. albicans to caspofungin and anidulafungin was investigated by Etest, microdilution (European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing [EUCAST] and CLSI), disk diffusion, agar dilution, and FKS1...... with this isolate (P > 0.05 compared to untreated control animals), while both candins completely sterilized the kidneys in animals infected with a control isolate. Disk diffusion and agar dilution methods clearly separated the two isolates. Immunohistochemistry and sequencing confirmed the presence of A. fumigatus...... without FSK1 resistance mutations in liver and lung tissues. Breakthrough disseminated aspergillosis and candidiasis developed despite an absence of characteristic FKS1 resistance mutations in the Aspergillus isolates. EUCAST and CLSI methodology did not separate the candin-resistant clinical isolate from...

  12. Low Caspofungin Exposure in Patients in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Elst, Kim C M; Veringa, Anette; Zijlstra, Jan G; Beishuizen, Albertus; Klont, Rob; Brummelhuis-Visser, Petra; Uges, Donald R A; Touw, Daan J; Kosterink, Jos G W; van der Werf, Tjip S; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    2017-02-01

    In critically ill patients, drug exposure may be influenced by altered drug distribution and clearance. Earlier studies showed that the variability in caspofungin exposure was high in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The primary objective of this study was to determine if the standard dose of caspofungin resulted in adequate exposure in critically ill patients. A multicenter prospective study in ICU patients with (suspected) invasive candidiasis was conducted in the Netherlands from November 2013 to October 2015. Patients received standard caspofungin treatment, and the exposure was determined on day 3 of treatment. An area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) of 98 mg · h/liter was considered adequate exposure. In case of low exposure (i.e., caspofungin dose was increased and the exposure reevaluated. Twenty patients were included in the study, of whom 5 had a positive blood culture. The median caspofungin AUC0-24 at day 3 was 78 mg · h/liter (interquartile range [IQR], 69 to 97 mg · h/liter). A low AUC0-24 (caspofungin dose in mg/kg/day (P = 0.011). The median AUC0-24 with a caspofungin dose of 1 mg/kg was estimated using a pharmacokinetic model and was 114.9 mg · h/liter (IQR, 103.2 to 143.5 mg · h/liter). In conclusion, the caspofungin exposure in ICU patients in this study was low compared with that in healthy volunteers and other (non)critically ill patients, most likely due to a larger volume of distribution. A weight-based dose regimen is probably more suitable for patients with substantially altered drug distribution. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01994096.).

  13. Interlaboratory comparison of results of susceptibility testing with caspofungin against Candida and Aspergillus species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odds, F.C.; Motyl, M.; Andrade, R.; Bille, J.; Canton, E.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Davidson, A.; Durussel, C.; Ellis, D.; Foraker, E.; Fothergill, A.; Ghannoum, M.A.; Giacobbe, R.A.; Gobernado, M.; Handke, R.; Laverdiere, M.; Lee-Yang, W.; Merz, W.G.; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Peman, J.; Perea, S.; Perfect, J.R.; Pfaller, M.A.; Proia, L.; Rex, J.H.; Rinaldi, M.; Rodriguez-Tudela, J.L.; Schell, W.A.; Shields, C.; Sutton, D.A.; Verweij, P.E.; Warnock, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Seventeen laboratories participated in a study of interlaboratory reproducibility with caspofungin microdilution susceptibility testing against panels comprising 30 isolates of Candida spp. and 20 isolates of Aspergillus spp. The laboratories used materials supplied from a single source to determine

  14. Clinical utility of caspofungin eye drops in fungal keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neoh, Chin Fen; Daniell, Mark; Chen, Sharon C-A; Stewart, Kay; Kong, David C M

    2014-08-01

    Treatment of fungal keratitis remains challenging. To date, only the polyenes and azoles are commonly used topically in the management of fungal keratitis. Natamycin, a polyene, is the only antifungal eye drop that is commercially available; the remainder are prepared in-house and are used in an 'off-label' manner. Failure of medical treatment for fungal keratitis is common, hence there is a need for more effective topical antifungal therapy. To increase the antifungal eye drop armamentarium, it is important to investigate the utility of other classes of antifungal agents for topical use. Caspofungin, an echinocandin antifungal agent, could potentially be used to address the existing shortcomings. However, little is known about the usefulness of topically administered caspofungin. This review will briefly explore the incidence, epidemiology and antifungal treatment of fungal keratitis. It will focus primarily on evidence related to the efficacy, safety and practicality of using caspofungin eye drops in fungal keratitis.

  15. Efficacy of caspofungin in treatment of fluconazole-resistant deep fungal infections%卡泊芬净治疗耐氟康唑深部真菌感染疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪坚军; 徐颖颖

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate efficacy and safety of caspofungin in patients with deep fungal infections in intensive care unit and had not response to fluconazole. METHODS A total of 51 ICU patients with deep fungal infections were retrospectively analyzed and underwent caspofungin treatment. 16 patients were definitely diagnosed, 19 patients were diagnosed by clinical and imageological symptoms and 16 patients were diagnosed by experience. All patients received injection of caspofungin after fluconazole failed. RESULTS The overall effective response rate was 45. 1 %; the effective response rates of definitely diagnosed patients , clinically diagnosed patients and empirically diagnosed patients were 62. 5%, 57. 9% and 50. 0%, respectively. The effect response time was 3~17d, and the median effect response time was 5. 5d. CONCLUSION Caspofungin is still effective for ICU patients with deep fungal infection who fail with the fluconazole treatment; moreover, adverse effects should be followed with concern when caspofungin is used.%目的 研究卡泊芬净对氟康唑无效的ICU患者深部真菌感染的临床效果,并评价药物安全性.方法 回顾性分析51例真菌感染的ICU患者,其中明确诊断16例,临床诊断19例,拟诊16例,全部病例均使用过氟康唑无效后给予卡泊芬净注射液治疗.结果 51例患者经卡泊芬净治疗后的总有效率为45.1%;确诊病例、临床诊断病例和拟诊病例的有效率分别为50.0%、47.4%和37.5%;临床治疗有效时间为3~17 d,中位有效时间为5.5d.结论 卡泊芬净对氟康唑无效的重症监护患者深部真菌感染疗效确切,同时在使用过程中需密切关注药物的不良反应.

  16. A double-blind comparative study of the safety and efficacy of caspofungin versus micafungin in the treatment of candidiasis and aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, S; Izumikawa, K; Yoshida, M; Takesue, Y; Oka, S; Kamei, K; Miyazaki, Y; Yoshinari, T; Kartsonis, N A; Niki, Y

    2013-03-01

    The safety and efficacy profile of caspofungin and micafungin in Japanese patients with fungal infections were directly compared in this prospective, randomized, double-blind study. The proportion of patients who developed significant drug-related adverse event(s) (defined as a serious drug-related adverse event or a drug-related adverse event leading to study therapy discontinuation) was compared in 120 patients [caspofungin 50 mg, or 50 mg following a 70-mg loading dose on Day 1 (hereinafter, 70/50 mg) group: 60 patients; micafungin 150 mg: 60 patients]. The overall response rate was primarily evaluated in the per-protocol set (PPS) population. The proportion of patients who developed significant drug-related adverse events was 5.0 % (3/60) in the caspofungin group and 10.0 % (6/60) in the micafungin group [95 % confidence interval (CI) for the difference: -15.9 %, 5.2 %]. The favorable overall response in the PPS population for patients with esophageal candidiasis, invasive candidiasis, and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis including aspergilloma was 100.0 % (6/6), 100.0 % (3/3), and 46.7 % (14/30) in the caspofungin group, and 83.3 % (5/6), 100.0 % (1/1), and 42.4 % (14/33) in the micafungin group, respectively. In Japanese patients with Candida or Aspergillus infections, there was no statistical difference in the safety between caspofungin and micafungin. Consistent with other data on these two agents, the efficacy of caspofungin and micafungin was similar.

  17. Efficacy analysis of caspofungin treatment of invasive fungal infections in cancer patients%卡泊芬净治疗癌症患者侵袭性真菌感染疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷小林; 林远洪; 高泽莉; 王文辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate efficacy and safety of caspofungin treatment in cancer patients with invasive fungal Infections (IFI). Methods The patients were divided into Group A and Group B. The 30 patients failed in Flu-conazole therapy formed Group A, while the 24 patients who couldn't tolerate Amphotericin formed Group B. Patients from both Group A and B had no significant difference in age, gender or pathology (P>0. 05). Thus Group A and Group B were comparable. All these patients received caspofungin treatment and the treatment time continued until 5d after the body temperature becoming normal or 3d after aputum smear consecutive becoming negative or treatment of 14d. The efficacy and toxicity of Caspofungin have been evaluated. Results The total effective rate of caspofungin treatment of invasive fungal infections in cancer patients was 72. 2%. Among them, the effective rate of the 30 patients in Group A was 66. 7% and 79. 2% of the 24 patients in Group B. The caspofungin treatment has had fewer toxicity effects. And the toxicity effects include electrolyte imbalance, phlebitis, gastrointestinal tract, abnormal transaminase, etc. The rate of the 54 patients receiving this treatment who have suffered the toxicity effects was 20. 4% and the toxicity effects were not serious which could be eased by relevant symptomatic treatment. Conclusion Caspofungin treatment in Cancer patients with Invasive fungal Infections is effective and safe.%目的 观察卡泊芬净治疗癌症患者合并侵袭性真菌感染(IFI)的疗效和安全性.方法 选择经氟康唑治疗无效和不能耐受两性霉素B的54例侵袭性真菌感染的癌症患者,其中氟康唑治疗无效的30例为A组,不能耐受两性霉素B治疗的24例为B组,两组都给予卡泊芬净治疗,治疗时间均持续至体温正常后5d或连续痰涂片阴性后3d,或者疗程达14d,观察并评价卡泊芬净的疗效和毒副作用.结果 卡泊芬净治疗癌症患者合并侵袭性真菌感

  18. Retrospective evaluation of caspofungin therapy in invasive aspergillosis (RECAM-IA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Tami; Klimko, Nikolay; Laverdiere, Michel; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Kliasova, Galina; Trenschel, Rudolf; Kumar, Ritesh N

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate caspofungin in high-risk invasive aspergillosis (IA) patient, a retrospective review of patient characteristics, antifungal therapies and clinical outcomes on hospitalised patients at sites in Russia, Canada, Germany, and Thailand was performed. Fifty-five patients were included, six with proven and 49 with probable aspergillosis; 76.4% had haematological diseases, 80% were on immunosuppressive drugs, 32.7% were neutropenic at caspofungin initiation. Median duration of prior antifungal therapy was 9 days (range 1-232). Reasons for initiating caspofungin included: disease refractory to first-line antifungal (49.1%) and toxicities with prior antifungals (18.2%). Median caspofungin therapy duration was 14 days (range 2-62), with a median of 13 days (range 1-62) as monotherapy. Favourable responses were observed in 45.5% of the patients, complete responses in 40% and partial responses in 5.5%; 74.5% survived 7 days after completion of caspofungin therapy with 69.1% having been successfully discharged from the hospital. Few patients (14.6%) on caspofungin switched because of suspected resistance, lack of response or adverse events. There were no increases in hospital stay as a result of adverse events or drug-drug interactions related to caspofungin; 7.3% of patients had a mean value of 13 (± 14.11) days of increased stay attributable to treatment failure. Caspofungin was well-tolerated. It exhibited effectiveness and high survival in treating severe IA patients.

  19. Combined caspofungin and trimethoprim treatment for severe pneumocystis caeinii pneumonia%卡泊芬净联合复方磺胺甲嗯唑治疗重症肺孢子菌肺炎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘一; 刘颖; 李建; 樊再雯; 张波

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effection of combined caspofungin and trimethoprim on severe pneumocystis caeinii pneumonia (PCP). Methods The clinical feature, diagnosis and treatment procedure of six severe PCP patients were analyzed. Results All of six patients received combined therapy of caspofungin and trimethoprim. Among them, five patients acquired good effectiveness except that one patient abandoned therapy. Three non-responders to the mono-therapy of trimethoprim were all responsive to the combined drug use, and the disease condition was under control. Conclusions Combined therapy of caspofungin and trimethoprim has good effectiveness for the treatment of severe PCP and deserves to be a good regimen for the treatment of trimethoprim failure PCP patients.%目的 探讨卡泊芬净联合复方磺胺甲嗯唑治疗重症肺孢子菌肺炎的疗效.方法 分析总结6例肺孢子菌肺炎患者的临床特点和诊治经过.结果 6例患者均接受卡泊芬净联合复方磺胺甲噁唑治疗,除1例放弃治疗外,其余5例均收到满意疗效.其中3例患者初始单用复方磺胺甲噁唑治疗,病情无好转,后改为联合卡泊芬净,病情得到控制.结论 卡泊芬净联合复方磺胺甲噁唑治疗肺孢子菌肺炎取得了满意疗效,值得推荐作为单用复方磺胺甲噁唑不能控制的肺孢子菌肺炎的治疗选择.

  20. Efficacy of single large doses of caspofungin in a neutropenic murine model against the "psilosis" group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berényi, Réka; Kovács, Renátó; Domán, Marianna; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Kardos, Gábor; Juhász, Béla; Perlin, David; Majoros, László

    2014-07-01

    We compared the in vivo efficacy of single large dose of caspofungin to that of daily smaller caspofungin doses (with same cumulative doses) against C. albicans (echinocandin susceptible and resistant isolates) and the “psilosis� group in a neutropenic murine model. Seven treatment groups were formed for C. orthopsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. albicans (no treatment, 1, 2 and 3 mg/kg caspofungin daily for five days; single 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg caspofungin doses). For C. parapsilosis there were five treatment groups (no treatment, 3 and 4 mg/kg caspofungin daily for five days; single 15 and 20 mg/kg caspofungin). Tissue burdens of C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis were significantly decreased by daily 3 mg/kg and 10 or 15 mg/kg single caspofungin doses (Pcaspofungin doses (Pcaspofungin were comparable or sometimes superior to the lower, daily-dose regimen against the “psilosis� group supporting further studies with this therapeutic strategy.

  1. [New developments in antifungal therapy: fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wout, J.W. van 't; Kuijper, E.J.; Verweij, P.E.; Kullberg, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    The azole antifungal voriconazole and the echinocandin caspofungin have recently become available for the treatment of invasive mycoses. Fluconazole remains the drug of choice for candidemia, except for infections with one of the resistent species such as Candida krusei and some strains of Candida g

  2. Evidence supporting a role for mammalian chitinases in efficacy of caspofungin against experimental aspergillosis in immunocompromised rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia E B Verwer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Caspofungin, currently used as salvage therapy for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA, strangely only causes morphological changes in fungal growth in vitro but does not inhibit the growth. In vivo it has good efficacy. Therefore the question arises how this in vivo activity is reached. Caspofungin is known to increase the amount of chitin in the fungal cell wall. Mammals produce two chitinases, chitotriosidase and AMCase, which can hydrolyse chitin. We hypothesized that the mammalian chitinases play a role in the in vivo efficacy of caspofungin. METHODS: In order to determine the role of chitotriosidase and AMCase in IPA, both chitinases were measured in rats which did or did not receive caspofungin treatment. In order to understand the role of each chitinase in the breakdown of the caspofungin-exposed cells, we also exposed caspofungin treated fungi to recombinant enzymes in vitro. RESULTS: IPA in immunocompromised rats caused a dramatic increase in chitinase activity. This increase in chitinase activity was still noted when rats were treated with caspofungin. In vitro, it was demonstrated that the action of both chitinases were needed to lyse the fungal cell wall upon caspofungin exposure. CONCLUSION: Caspofungin seemed to alter the cell wall in such a way that the two chitinases, when combined, could lyse the fungal cell wall and assisted in clearing the fungal pathogen. We also found that both chitinases combined had a direct effect on the fungus in vitro.

  3. Comparison of in vitro and vivo efficacy of caspofungin against Candida parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földi, Richárd; Kovács, Renátó; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Kardos, Gábor; Berényi, Réka; Juhász, Béla; Szilágyi, Judit; Mózes, Julianna; Majoros, László

    2012-10-01

    Caspofungin activity was determined in vitro and in vivo against three Candida orthopsilosis, three C. metapsilosis, two C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and two C. albicans isolates. MIC values and killing activity were determined in RPMI-1640 plus 50 % human serum. Neutropenic (cyclophosphamide-treated) mice were infected intravenously. Five-day intraperitoneal treatment with caspofungin was started after 24 h postinfection. Kidney burden was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's post-test. In killing studies, caspofungin was fungistatic and fungicidal against C. albicans at ≥0.25 and ≥2 μg/ml concentrations, respectively. Caspofungin was fungistatic at ≥8-16, ≥2-8 and at ≥2-8 μg/ml against C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, respectively. In the murine model, C. albicans was inhibited by 1, 2 and 5 mg/kg of caspofungin (P caspofungin was effective against both isolates (P caspofungin was effective against all C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates (P caspofungin against four Candida species. Caspofungin at clinically attainable concentrations proved to be effective against all four species.

  4. Safety and pharmacokinetics of higher doses of caspofungin in healthy adult participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migoya, Elizabeth M; Mistry, Goutam C; Stone, Julie A; Comisar, Wendy; Sun, Peng; Norcross, Alisha; Bi, Sheng; Winchell, Gregory A; Ghosh, Kalyan; Uemera, Naoto; Deutsch, Paul J; Wagner, John A

    2011-02-01

    Caspofungin was the first in a new class of antifungal agents (echinocandins) indicated for the treatment of primary and refractory fungal infections. Higher doses of caspofungin may provide another option for patients who have failed caspofungin or other antifungal therapy. This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of single 150- and 210-mg doses of caspofungin in 16 healthy participants and 100 mg/d for 21 days in 20 healthy participants. Other than infusion site reactions and 1 reversible elevation in alanine aminotransferase (≥2× and caspofungin was generally well tolerated. Geometric mean AUC(0-∞) after single 150- and 210-mg doses was 279.7 and 374.9 µg·h/mL, respectively; peak concentrations were 29.4 and 33.5 µg/mL, respectively; and 24-hour postdose concentrations were 2.8 and 4.2 µg/mL, respectively. Steady state was achieved in the third week of dosing. Following multiple 100-mg doses of caspofungin, day 21 geometric mean AUC(0-24) was 227.4 µg·h/mL, peak concentration was 20.9 µg/mL, and trough concentration was 4.7 µg/mL. Beta-phase t(1/2) was ~8 to ~13 hours. Caspofungin pharmacokinetics at these higher doses were dose proportional to and consistent with those observed at lower doses, suggesting a modest nonlinearity of increased accumulation with dose, which was considered not clinically meaningful.

  5. 卡泊芬净在心脏体外循环术后侵袭性真菌感染的临床应用%Caspofungin in the Treatment of Invasive Fungous Infection after Cardiac Extracorporeal Circulation Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄德荣; 李秀毛; 刘达兴

    2015-01-01

    目的探讨卡泊芬净治疗心脏体外循环术后重症真菌感染的安全性及有效性。方法对我院从2006年10月~2014年10月27例心脏体外循环术后侵袭性真菌感染进行回顾性分析,2010年以前13例用两性霉素B或氟康唑治疗(对照组),2010年以后14例用卡泊芬净治疗(观察组),治疗开始1w和2w后分别检测肝肾功能指标,疗程结束7~14d后观察治疗效果。结果治疗1~2w两组患者肝、肾功能比较,观察组明显优于对照组(<0.05),随访7~14d,观察组临床治愈率明显高于对照组(<0.035)。结论卡泊芬净是一种治疗心脏体外循环术后侵袭性真菌感染的理想药物。%Objective To evaluate the ef icacy and safety of Caspofungin for treatment of invasive fungous infection(IFI)in post cardiac extracorporeal circulation surgery patients.Methods Clinical data of 27 cases of cardiac extracorporeal circulation surgery patients with fungal infections were reviewed retrospectively,in13 cases fungal infections were treated with amphotericin B or Fluconazole,after 2006,the infecion was treated with Caspofungin (observation group)in 14cases.liver function and renal function were evaluated at one and two weeks espectively.Result of treatment was evaluated 7~14d after the treatment as for the clinical cure rate.Ressults 1~2 weeks treatment compared two groups with liver and kidney function,the observation group was bet er than control group ( <0.05),fol owed up for 7 to 14 d,clinical cure rate observation group was obviously higher than that of control group ( <0.035).Conclusion Caspofungin is an ideal alternative therapy for invasive fungal infection after cardiac extracorporeal circulation surgery.

  6. Caspofungin for treatment of invasive fungal infections after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation%卡泊芬净治疗异基因造血干细胞移植术后侵袭性真菌感染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白海涛; 王椿; 万理萍; 姜杰玲; 杨隽; 蔡宇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of Caspofungin for the treatment of invasive fungal infections after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation ( allo-HSCT). Methods Thirty-nine cases of invasive fungal infections after allo-HSCT were selected, stratified diagnosis was made according to the standard of European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer ( EORTC), and treatment with intravenous Caspofungin was performed. The initial dosage and maintenance dosage were 70 mg/d and 50 mg/d respectively, with time of infusion more than 1 h and course of treatment ranging from 14 d to 42 d. Imaging and microbiological examinations were carried out weekly before treatment and in the course of treatment. Side effects were assessed after treatment. Results The overall favorable response to Caspofungin was 76.9% (30/39). The response rates of confirmed cases, clinically diagnosed cases and suspected cases were 100% (3/3), 73.7% (14/19) and 76.5% (13/17) respectively. There was no significant difference in the response rates between clinically diagnosed cases and suspected cases (P > 0. 05). Three cases had mild liver function abnormalities, and hypokalemia occurred in 4 cases. Conclusion Caspofungin is an effective agent with minimal adverse effects for treatment of invasive fungal infections after allo-HSCT.%目的 观察卡泊芬净治疗异基因造血干细胞移植(allo-HSCT)术后患者深部真菌感染的疗效和安全性.方法 收集39例诊断为深部真菌感染的allo-HSCT术后患者,按照欧洲癌症治疗研究组织(EORTC)的诊断标准分层诊断,给予静脉卡泊芬净治疗.卡泊芬净首日负荷剂量70 mg/d,维持剂量50 mg/d,输注时间≥1h,疗程14~42 d.患者治疗前和治疗期间每周进行影像学检查和微生物学检验;治疗后进行药物不良反应评价.结果 39例allo-HSCT术后侵袭性真菌感染患者经卡泊芬净治疗后,总有效率为76.9% (30/39);3例

  7. Elevated chitin content reduces the susceptibility of Candida species to caspofungin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Louise A; Gow, Neil A R; Munro, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    The echinocandin antifungal drugs inhibit synthesis of the major fungal cell wall polysaccharide β(1,3)-glucan. Echinocandins have good efficacy against Candida albicans but reduced activity against other Candida species, in particular Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii. Treatment of Candida albicans with a sub-MIC level of caspofungin has been reported to cause a compensatory increase in chitin content and to select for sporadic echinocandin-resistant FKS1 point mutants that also have elevated cell wall chitin. Here we show that elevated chitin in response to caspofungin is a common response in various Candida species. Activation of chitin synthesis was observed in isolates of C. albicans, Candida tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii and in some isolates of Candida krusei in response to caspofungin treatment. However, Candida glabrata isolates demonstrated no exposure-induced change in chitin content. Furthermore, isolates of C. albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii which were stimulated to have higher chitin levels via activation of the calcineurin and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways had reduced susceptibility to caspofungin. Isolates containing point mutations in the FKS1 gene generally had higher chitin levels and did not demonstrate a further compensatory increase in chitin content in response to caspofungin treatment. These results highlight the potential of increased chitin synthesis as a potential mechanism of tolerance to caspofungin for the major pathogenic Candida species.

  8. [symbol: see text]Caspofungin and [symbol: see text]voriconazole for fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Systemic fungal infections are difficult to treat and often fatal. Established treatment options include conventional amphotericin B or one of its lipid-based or liposomal formulations, or a triazole antifungal such as fluconazole or itraconazole. [symbol: see text]Caspofungin (Cancidas--Merck Sharp & Dohme) and [symbol: see text]voriconazole (Vfend--Pfizer) are two new antifungals for severe infections caused by Candida spp. (invasive candidiasis) and Aspergillus spp. (invasive aspergillosis). Caspofungin is the first licensed echinocandin antifungal, while voriconazole is a triazole. Promotional claims for caspofungin include that it "provides an effective, yet less toxic, alternative to amphotericin B" while voriconazole is claimed to offer "significantly improved survival in invasive aspergillosis compared with amphotericin B". Here we consider the place of caspofungin and voriconazole in managing patients with severe fungal infections.

  9. The Clinical Analysis on Caspofungin in the Treatment of Severe Patients With Invasive Fungal Infection%卡泊芬净治疗重症患者侵袭性真菌感染的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明珠; 唐殿成

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析卡泊芬净治疗重症患者侵袭性真菌感染的临床效果。方法选择重症侵袭性真菌感染患者84例,随机分为对照组和治疗组各42例。对照组患者给予伏立康唑治疗,治疗组在此基础上给予卡泊芬净治疗,对比两组治疗效果及不良反应。结果治疗组总有效率95.2%显著高于对照组81.0%(P<0.05)。结论卡泊芬净治疗重症患者侵袭性真菌感染效果显著,安全性高。%Objective To analysis the clinical effect of caspofungin in the treatment of patients with severe invasive fungal infection. Methods 84 patients with severe invasive fungal infection were randomly divided into control group and treatment group with 42 cases each group. Patients in control group were treated with voriconazole, the treatment group were treated with caspofungin, and compared the adverse reaction and curative effect between the two groups. Results The total effective rate of treatment group was 95.2%, it was signiifcantly higher than that in control group 81%(P invasive fungal infections has signiifcant effect.

  10. Caspofungin dose escalation for invasive candidiasis due to resistant Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, Nathan P; Najvar, Laura K; Bocanegra, Rosie A; Kirkpatrick, William R; Patterson, Thomas F

    2011-07-01

    Previous in vivo studies have reported caspofungin dose escalation to be effective against Candida glabrata with reduced susceptibility. We hypothesized that higher doses of caspofungin would be effective against invasive candidiasis caused by the more virulent species Candida albicans, including isolates resistant to this echinocandin. Immunocompetent mice were inoculated with one of three C. albicans isolates, including one susceptible and two resistant isolates with different FKS1 hot spot 1 point mutations. Mice received daily caspofungin treatment for 7 days and were then followed off therapy for 2 weeks to assess survival. Kidney tissue and blood were collected, and fungal burden and serum (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan were measured. Significant differences in virulence were observed among the three C. albicans isolates, which translated into differences in responses to caspofungin. The most virulent of the resistant isolates studied (isolate 43001; Fks1p F641S) did not respond to caspofungin doses of up to 10 mg/kg of body weight, as there were no differences in survival (survival range, 0 to 12% with treatment), tissue burden, or (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan concentration compared to those for untreated controls. Higher doses of caspofungin did improve survival against the second resistant isolate (53264; Fks1p S645P) that demonstrated reduced virulence (5 and 10 mg/kg; 80% survival). In contrast, caspofungin doses as low as 1 mg/kg improved survival (85 to 95%) and reduced tissue burden and (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan concentration against the susceptible isolate (ATCC 90028). These data suggest that caspofungin dose escalation for invasive candidiasis may not be consistently effective against resistant C. albicans isolates, and this may be associated with the virulence of the strain.

  11. 卡泊芬净治疗高龄患者侵袭性真菌病29例临床分析%Clinical analysis of caspofungin treatment for invasive fungal disease in advanced age patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱砚萍; 单琳; 周伊南; 李向阳; 朱惠莉

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of caspofungin in the treatment of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in advanced age patients. Methods A retrospective analysis of the clinical data was conducted. IFD patients who had received caspofungin treatment in elderly wards were included. Results From January 2007 to August 2009, 29 IFD patients aged 80-100 years (mean 89 ) were treated with caspofungin. Except that one patient dead on the first drug administration day, there were 28 evaluable patients, 13 were cured (46.4%), 6 were markedly improved (21.4%), 3 progressed (10.8%) and 6 dead (21.4%). The overall effective rate was 67. 8%. Of 13cured patients, 12 were Candida bacreremia, 1 was Candida albicans disease of lung. Of 6 dead patients, 2 were Candida bacteremia, 1 was Candida albicans disease of lung and 3 was suspected of lung IFD. One patient performed that alanine aminotransferase was increased, considering drug-related impairment of liver function. Conclusions Caspofungin is effective and safe in the treatment of IFD in advanced age patients.%目的 观察卡泊芬净治疗高龄患者侵袭性真菌病(IFD)的疗效和安全性. 方法 回顾分析我院老年病房接受过卡泊芬净治疗的IFD患者的临床资料. 结果 2007年1月至2009年8月共有29例患者接受卡泊芬净治疗,且均为80岁以上高龄患者.除1例于用药当天死亡外,28例可评价疗效的患者中,痊愈13例(46.4%),显效6例(21.4%),进步3例(10.8%),无效6例(21.4%),总有效率为67.8%.13例痊愈者中,12例为念珠菌菌血症患者,1例为拟诊肺白念珠菌病患者.无效6例患者中,2例为念珠菌菌血症患者,1例为拟诊肺念珠菌病患者,3例为疑诊肺IFD患者.治疗过程中1例患者出现谷丙转氨酶升高,考虑为与用药有关的肝功能受损. 结论 卡泊芬净是治疗高龄患者侵袭性真菌病的安全有效药物.

  12. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of voriconazole vs. caspofungin in the empirical antifungal therapy of febrile neutropenia in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Badriyeh, Daoud; Liew, Danny; Stewart, Kay; Kong, David C M

    2012-05-01

    In two major clinical trials, voriconazole and caspofungin were recommended as alternatives to liposomal amphotericin B for empirical use in febrile neutropenia. This study investigated the health economic impact of using voriconazole vs. caspofungin in patients with febrile neutropenia. A decision analytic model was developed to measure downstream consequences of empirical antifungal therapy. Clinical outcomes measured were success, breakthrough infection, persistent base-line infection, persistent fever, premature discontinuation and death. Treatment transition probabilities and patterns were directly derived from data in two relevant randomised controlled trials. Resource use was estimated using an expert clinical panel. Cost inputs were obtained from latest Australian sources. The analysis adopted the perspective of the Australian hospital system. The use of caspofungin led to a lower expected mean cost per patient than voriconazole (AU$40,558 vs. AU$41,356), with a net cost saving of AU$798 (1.9%) per patient. Results were most sensitive to the duration of therapy and the alternative therapy used post-discontinuation. In uncertainty analysis, the cost associated with caspofungin is less than that with voriconazole in 65.5% of cases. This is the first economic evaluation of voriconazole vs. caspofungin for empirical therapy. Caspofungin appears to have a higher probability of having cost-savings than voriconazole for empirical therapy. The difference between the two medications does not seem to be statistically significant however.

  13. Clinical evidence for caspofungin monotherapy in the first-line and salvage therapy of invasive Aspergillus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Werner J; Buchheidt, Dieter; Ullmann, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    In 2001, caspofungin received market authorisation by the FDA and EMA and is globally licensed for several indications, including candidiasis, empirical antifungal therapy in patients with neutropenic fever of unknown origin and treatment of invasive aspergillosis in patients refractory to or intolerant of amphotericin B, lipid formulations of amphotericin B or itraconazole. Despite the lack of phase III data in first-line treatment of invasive aspergillosis, increasing evidence supports the use of first-line therapy. Here, we analyse the evidence of therapeutic activity, represented by favourable response rates, of caspofungin for invasive aspergillosis. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify international presentations and papers reporting monotherapy with caspofungin. Efficacy data are summarised separately for first-line and salvage therapy. Thirty-one papers and published abstracts reported caspofungin therapy for aspergillosis. Fifteen full papers and two abstracts fulfilled the criteria of reporting significant outcome data for caspofungin monotherapy for invasive aspergillosis. Consistent with other analyses and the known safety profile, few adverse events and associated terminations of caspofungin medication have been reported. Although a randomised, comparative, prospective study using caspofungin in this indication is still lacking, growing evidence supports the efficacy of this echinocandin not only for salvage but also for first-line therapy.

  14. Comparative effects of micafungin, caspofungin, and anidulafungin against a difficult-to-treat fungal opportunistic pathogen, Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreghini, Elisabetta; Orlando, Fiorenza; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella; Giannini, Daniele; Manso, Esther; Barchiesi, Francesco

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro and in vivo activities of micafungin, caspofungin, and anidulafungin against Candida glabrata. The MICs against 28 clinical isolates showed that the overall susceptibilities to caspofungin and to micafungin were not statistically different in the absence of human serum, whereas the isolates were less susceptible to micafungin than to caspofungin in its presence. Minimum fungicidal concentrations, as well as time-kill experiments, showed that caspofungin was more active than anidulafungin, while micafungin was superior to either caspofungin or anidulafungin without serum; its addition rendered caspofungin and micafungin equally effective. A murine model of systemic candidiasis against a C. glabrata-susceptible isolate was performed to study the effects of all three echinocandins, and kidney burden counts showed that caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin were active starting from 0.25, 1, and 5 mg/kg of body weight/day, respectively. Two echinocandin-resistant strains of C. glabrata were selected: C. glabrata 30, a laboratory strain harboring the mutation Fks2p-P667T, and C. glabrata 51, a clinical isolate harboring the mutation Fks2p-D666G. Micafungin activity was shown to be as effective as or more effective than that of caspofungin or anidulafungin in terms of MICs. In vivo studies against these resistant strains showed that micafungin was active starting from 1 mg/kg/day, while caspofungin was effective only when administrated at higher doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg/day. Although a trend toward colony reduction was observed with the highest doses of anidulafungin, a significant statistical difference was never reached.

  15. Cost effectiveness of caspofungin vs. voriconazole for empiric therapy in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S J; Senol, E; Kara, A; Al-Badriyeh, D; Dinleyici, E C; Kong, D C M

    2014-08-01

    Invasive fungal infections from febrile neutropenia are associated with significant cost and mortality. The mainstay of treatment has been liposomal amphotericin B, however, echinocandins and azoles have shown promise as alternative treatments. Data on clinical efficacy exist, however, data incorporating pharmacoeconomic considerations are required in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the cost effectiveness of caspofungin vs. voriconazole in empiric treatment of febrile neutropenia in Turkey. A decision analytic model was utilised, built upon two randomised-controlled trials and supplemented with expert panel input from clinicians in Turkey. A five-point composite outcome measure was utilised and sensitivity analyses were performed to demonstrate the robustness of the model. The base case scenario resulted in caspofungin being preferred by TL2,533, TL29,256 and TL2,536 per patient treated, successfully treated patient and patient survival, respectively (approx. USD1414, 16 328 and 1415); sensitivity analyses did not change the outcome. Monte Carlo simulation highlighted a 78.8% chance of favouring caspofungin. The result was moderately sensitive to treatment duration and acquisition cost of the antifungal agents compared. This is the first pharmacoeconomic study comparing caspofungin to voriconazole within Turkey, resulting in an advantage towards caspofungin. The study will aid in formulary decision-making based on the clinical and economic consequences of each agent in the Turkish health care setting.

  16. A mucormycosis case treated with a combination of caspofungin and amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, E; Aslan, E; Akalın, H; Saraydaroğlu, O; Hakyemez, B; Erişen, L; Yazıcı, B; Gürcüoğlu, E; Yılmaz, E; Ener, B; Helvacı, S

    2013-09-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare, invasive and fatal disease that occurs mainly in diabetes mellitus patients with uncontrolled blood glucose levels or in immunocompromised patients. The mortality rate of this disease is as high as 25 to 80%, despite aggressive surgical treatment and antifungal therapy. This high mortality requires alternative treatment approaches. The accepted treatment modality of invasive mucormycosis are amphotericin B lipid formulations. Although echinocandins generally show no activity against Mucorales, it was shown that Rhizopus oryzae expressed the target enzyme for echinocandins, 1,3-beta-glucan synthase. Additionally, there are some experimental studies in a diabetic mouse model and case reports regarding the effects of caspofungin. In this report, we present a rhinocerebral mucormycosis case treated with liposomal amphotericin B and caspofungin. There was regression of the patient's clinical and radiological condition with the addition of caspofungin, but she died due to discontinuation of her treatment and reasons other than mucormycosis.

  17. Paradoxical growth of Candida albicans in the presence of caspofungin is associated with multiple cell wall rearrangements and decreased virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Cristina; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Zaragoza, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, echinocandins have emerged as an important family of antifungal drugs because of their fungicidal activity against Candida spp. Echinocandins inhibit the enzyme β-1,3-d-glucan synthase, encoded by the FKS genes, and resistance to echinocandins is associated with mutations in this gene. In addition, echinocandin exposure can produce paradoxical growth, defined as the ability to grow at high antifungal concentrations but not at intermediate concentrations. In this work, we have demonstrated that paradoxical growth of Candida albicans in the presence of caspofungin is not due to antifungal degradation or instability. Media with high caspofungin concentrations recovered from wells where C. albicans showed paradoxical growth inhibited the growth of a Candida krusei reference strain. Cells exhibiting paradoxical growth at high caspofungin concentrations showed morphological changes such as enlarged size, abnormal septa, and absence of filamentation. Chitin content increased from the MIC to high caspofungin concentrations. Despite the high chitin levels, around 23% of cells died after treatment with caspofungin, indicating that chitin is required but not sufficient to protect the cells from the fungicidal effect of caspofungin. Moreover, we found that after paradoxical growth, β-1,3-glucan was exposed at the cell wall surface. Cells grown at high caspofungin concentrations had decreased virulence in the invertebrate host Galleria mellonella. Cells grown at high caspofungin concentrations also induced a proinflammatory response in murine macrophages compared to control cells. Our work highlights important aspects about fungal adaptation to caspofungin, and although this adaptation is associated with reduced virulence, the clinical implications remain to be elucidated.

  18. Observation on the Caspofungin in treatment of senile fungal pneumonia (30 cases)%卡泊芬净治疗超高龄真菌性肺炎30例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凌云

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the effect of caspofungin in the treatment of senile fungal pneumonia clinical curative effect. METHODS 60 cases with senile fungal pneumonia were randomly divided into intervention and control groups, and 30 cases in each group. The two groups were actively treated with basic diseases, and the control group were given itraconazole injection. The observation group were given caspofungin by intravenous infusion. We observed the fever, cough, chest pain, hemoptysis and symptom changes as well as the symptoms vanished time of the two groups. RESULTS The cure rate was 53.33% in group, and was 36.67% in control group. There was significant difference in the two groups (P< 0.05); The total efficiency was 93.33% in group, and was 83.33% in control group. There was significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). After treatment, we observed improvement for patients in terms of fever, cough, chest pain and hemoptysis (P< 0.05) , and the observation group was better than that in the control group (P < 0.05). Fever, cough, chest pain, hemoptysis and other symptoms significantly improved in the observation group when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Caspofungin in treatment of senile fungal pneumonia had clinical curative effect, and can be quickly reduced the symptom in terms of fever, cough, chest pain, tired of hemoptysis and other symptoms.%目的 观察卡泊芬净治疗超高龄真菌性肺炎的临床疗效.方法 将符合病例入选标准的60例超高龄真菌性肺炎患者随机分为观察组、对照组各30例.两组均积极治疗基础疾病,对照组同时给予伊曲康唑注射液5 mg/kg+50 ml生理盐水,静脉滴注,避光,lh滴完,每日1次,连用7d.观察组同进给予卡泊芬净70 mg/m2+50 ml生理盐水,静脉滴注,每日1次,连用7d.观察两组发热、咳嗽、胸痛、咯血等症状积分的变化情况及上述症状的消失时间.结果 痊愈率观察组53.33%,对照组36.67%,两

  19. Clinical experience of the use of voriconazole, caspofungin or the combination in primary and salvage therapy of invasive aspergillosis in haematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raad, Issam I; Zakhem, Aline El; Helou, Gilbert El; Jiang, Ying; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Hachem, Ray

    2015-03-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening infection in severely immunocompromised haematological malignancy patients. In this study, the efficacy and safety of caspofungin, voriconazole or the combination as primary and salvage therapy in patients with IA were compared. The study included 181 patients with haematological malignancies and IA who received primary or salvage therapy with caspofungin, voriconazole or the combination. In total, 138 patients who received treatment for ≥7 days were analysed; 86 underwent primary antifungal therapy (15 with caspofungin, 38 with voriconazole and 33 with both). Among the salvage therapy patients, 17 received caspofungin, 24 received voriconazole and 35 received both. In the primary therapy group, no difference in therapy response was found, but caspofungin was associated with higher IA mortality rates. A multivariate competing risk analysis of primary antifungal therapy revealed that voriconazole was independently associated with lower IA-associated mortality rates than caspofungin (hazard ratio=0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.06-0.96; P=0.04). In the salvage therapy group, the three treatment groups had similar responses and IA-associated mortality rates. The combination of voriconazole and caspofungin did not result in better outcomes compared with voriconazole alone, as primary or salvage therapy, in haematological malignancy patients. However, voriconazole was associated with a lower Aspergillus-associated mortality rate compared with caspofungin monotherapy.

  20. Efficacy of caspofungin in treatment of fungal infections in adults with leukemia%卡泊芬净对成年人白血病真菌感染的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣华; 郭树霞; 张晓娟

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficacy and safety of caspofungin in treatment of fungal infections in the adults with leukemia and explore the therapeutic effect of caspofungin on the treatment of leukemia complicated with fungal infections.METHODS Totally 24 cases of leukemia patients complicated with fungal infections who were invalid for the treatment with fluconazole were enrolled in the study,all the patients aged setween 23 and 64 years old,were treated with caspofungin,then the efficacy and the bacterial clearance rate were compared between 7 days and 14 days after the treatment,and the clinical safety of the treatment was evaluated.RESULTS Seven days after the treatment,2 cases were cured,15 cases improved,progress in 2 cases,and 5 cases ineffective,with the effective rate of 70.83%;14 days after the treatment,4 cases were cured,17 cases improved,2 cases in progression,and 1 case ineffectively,with the effective rate of 87.5% the difference in the effective rate of treatment was significant(P<0.05).On the seventh day after the treatment,there were 5 strains of fungi cleared with the clearance rate of 20.83% and 12 (50.00%) strains without being cleared,with 7 (29.17%) strains unknown;on the 14th day after the treatment,there were 18 (75.00%) strains of fungi cleared and 2 (8.33%) strains without being cleared.CONCLUSION Caspofungin can achieve good clinical efficacy as well as the fungal clearance effect on the treatment of the leukemia adults complicated with fungal infections,with safety high,thus it is worthy to be promoted in the hospital.%目的 探讨卡泊芬净对成年人白血病并发真菌感染的疗效及安全性,探究卡泊芬净对白血病真菌感染患者的治疗效果.方法 将医院收治经氟康唑治疗无效的24例白血病合并真菌感染的患者作为研究对象,年龄23~64岁,所有患者均采用卡泊芬净治疗,对患者接受治疗后7d及14 d的疗效及真菌清除率进行调查分析,同时对

  1. Clinical observation of sulfadiazine silver in combination with caspofungin in the treatment of burn wound%磺胺嘧啶银联合卡泊芬净治疗烧伤创面临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯贺宪; 汤国红; 王辉; 王鹏

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨磺胺嘧啶银联合卡泊芬净治疗烧伤创面临床疗效。方法80例符合纳入标准的烧伤患者随机分为两组,每组40例。对照组给予卡泊芬净治疗,观察组在对照组的基础上联合使用磺胺嘧啶银治疗。结果观察组抗真菌感染治疗有效率为90.0%,明显高于对照组70.0%的治疗有效率(P<0.05)。观察组浅II度创面和深II度创面愈合时间分别为(8.5±2.9)d和(17.4±4.2)d,明显短于对照组的(11.9±2.5)d和(22.0±4.9)d(P<0.05)。两组患者均未出现严重的不良反应。结论磺胺嘧啶银联合卡泊芬净治疗烧伤创面疗效可靠,可以提高抗真菌感染的治疗有效率,缩短创面愈合时间,不良反应少,值得临床推广。%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of sulfadiazine silver in combination with caspofungin in the treatment of burn wound.Methods A total of 80 cases of burn patients meeting the inclusion criterions were randomly divided into two groups, and each group contained 40 cases. The control group was treated with caspofungin, and the observation group was treated with additional sulfadiazine silver.Results The observation group had a total anti-fungal infection efficiency rate of 90.0%, which was statistically higher than 70.0% of the control group (P<0.05). The wound healing time of the superficial and deep second-degree burns in the observation group were (8.5±2.9) d and (17.4±4.2) d, which was respectively obviously shorter than (11.9±2.5) d and (22.0±4.9) d of the control group (P<0.05). There were no severe adverse reactions in the two groups.Conclusion Sulfadiazine silver in combination with caspofungin has a reliable curative effect in the treatment of burn wound, which can increase efficiency rate of anti-fungal infection, and shorten wound healing time with few adverse reactions.

  2. Clinical study of caspofungin for the treatment of invasive fungal disease%卡泊芬净治疗侵袭性真菌病的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱光发; 张颖; 宗华; 刘双; 张蔚; 杨京华; 米玉红; 张京岚; 张向峰; 刘泽英; 陆艳辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of caspofungin for the treatment of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Methods The clinical data of IFD patients who were treated with caspofungin in 3 ICUs (respiratory, emergency and surgical) were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Results From May 2005 to November 2009, 35 patients with IFD were treated with caspofungin, including 24 males and 11 females. The mean age was (58. 3 ± 24. 1) years old. Twenty were proven cases, including 18 candidemia (10 C. Albicans, 3 C. Parapsilosis, 2 C. Glabrata, 2 C. Tropicalis and 1 C. Krusei), 2 cases of pulmonary IFD (1 C. Glabrata and 1 Aspergillus) , 5 probable pulmonary IFD cases and 10 possible pulmonary IFD cases. Twenty-five patients were post-operational (20 cardiovascular, 5 others). The remaining 10 were internal medicine patients (4 with connective tissue disease, 3 chronic pulmonary diseases and 1 adult Still's disease receiving long term steroid therapy, 2 lung cancer receiving chemotherapy). The mean duration of the caspofungin therapy was (19. 8 ± 11. 3) days. Among the 34 evaluable patients (1 died of cardiac arrest within 24 hours after the therapy and was excluded), 16 were cured (16/34, 47. 1%) , 9 were markedly improved (9/34, 26. 5%). The overall effective rate was 73. 6% (25/34). Five patients were improved and 4 failed. Thirteen patients died finally. The overall mortality rate was 37.1% (13/35). No drug-related side effect or toxicity was recorded. Conclusions Caspofungin may be an effective and safe drug to treat IFD in ICU patients, which warrants further clinical study.%目的 探讨卡泊芬净治疗侵袭性真菌病(IFD)的疗效与安全性.方法 回顾分析北京安贞医院呼吸科、急诊科和外科ICU接受卡泊芬净治疗的IFD患者临床资料.结果 2005年5月-2009年12月共35例接受卡泊芬净治疗患者.其中,确诊20例,包括念珠菌血症18例(白念珠菌10例,近平滑念珠菌3

  3. Therapeutic potential of caspofungin combined with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for pneumocystis pneumonia: a pilot study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Maria Luísa; Esteves, Francisco; de Sousa, Bruno; Cardoso, Fernando; Cushion, Melanie T; Antunes, Francisco; Matos, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in immunocompromised patients. There are limited alternative therapeutic choices to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) which is the standard first line therapy/prophylaxis for PcP. The efficacy of low doses of caspofungin and caspofungin in association with TMP-SMX standard-prophylactic dose was evaluated in an experimental model of Pneumocystis. Susceptibility of Pneumocystis spp. to low doses of caspofungin and caspofungin/TMP-SMX was evaluated in Balb/c immunosuppressed mice, infected intranasally with P. murina. Caspofungin was administered once daily at 0.1 mg/kg, 0.05 mg/kg, and 0.001 mg/kg and TMP-SMX was administered by oral gavage (12.25 mg/62.5 mg/day), for 21 days. Efficacy was calculated based on the reduction in organism burden determined through quantitative fluorescent-based real-time PCR (qPCR). Serum β-1,3-D-glucan was measured as an additional marker of infection. The present data showed that caspofungin demonstrated anti-Pneumomocystis effect. However, the doses administrated were too low to achieve Pneumocystis eradication, which suggests that echinocandin treatment should not be administrated as mono-therapy. After 21 days of treatment, P. murina was not detected in the lungs of mice with either TMP-SMX or caspofungin/TMP-SMX. The results showed that, even at the lowest concentrations tested, the efficacy of caspofungin in association with TMP-SMX was higher than the efficacy of either drug used alone. The administration of caspofungin/TMP-SMX was at least 1.4 times more effective against P. murina infection than TMP-SMX used alone. The most promising result was achieved with the combination of caspofungin 0.05 mg/kg/day with TMP-SMX 12.5 mg-62.5 mg/day, which reduced the parasite burden to undetectable levels immediately at the 14(th) day of treatment, showing a highly marked anti-Pneumomocystis effect. These data suggest that the administration of low doses of

  4. Therapeutic potential of caspofungin combined with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for pneumocystis pneumonia: a pilot study in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luísa Lobo

    Full Text Available Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in immunocompromised patients. There are limited alternative therapeutic choices to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX which is the standard first line therapy/prophylaxis for PcP. The efficacy of low doses of caspofungin and caspofungin in association with TMP-SMX standard-prophylactic dose was evaluated in an experimental model of Pneumocystis. Susceptibility of Pneumocystis spp. to low doses of caspofungin and caspofungin/TMP-SMX was evaluated in Balb/c immunosuppressed mice, infected intranasally with P. murina. Caspofungin was administered once daily at 0.1 mg/kg, 0.05 mg/kg, and 0.001 mg/kg and TMP-SMX was administered by oral gavage (12.25 mg/62.5 mg/day, for 21 days. Efficacy was calculated based on the reduction in organism burden determined through quantitative fluorescent-based real-time PCR (qPCR. Serum β-1,3-D-glucan was measured as an additional marker of infection. The present data showed that caspofungin demonstrated anti-Pneumomocystis effect. However, the doses administrated were too low to achieve Pneumocystis eradication, which suggests that echinocandin treatment should not be administrated as mono-therapy. After 21 days of treatment, P. murina was not detected in the lungs of mice with either TMP-SMX or caspofungin/TMP-SMX. The results showed that, even at the lowest concentrations tested, the efficacy of caspofungin in association with TMP-SMX was higher than the efficacy of either drug used alone. The administration of caspofungin/TMP-SMX was at least 1.4 times more effective against P. murina infection than TMP-SMX used alone. The most promising result was achieved with the combination of caspofungin 0.05 mg/kg/day with TMP-SMX 12.5 mg-62.5 mg/day, which reduced the parasite burden to undetectable levels immediately at the 14(th day of treatment, showing a highly marked anti-Pneumomocystis effect. These data suggest that the administration of

  5. Insufficient serum caspofungin levels in a paediatric patient on ECMO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C.P. Koch (Birgit); E.D. Wildschut (Enno); A.L. de Goede (Anna); M. de Hoog (Matthijs); M. Brüggemann (Monika)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCaspofungin, aechinocandin, is a relatively new lipophilic antifungal drug. Little is known concerning the pharmacokinetics of caspofungin in children. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) allows prolonged cardiopulmonary support in patients with life-threatening respiratory or car

  6. Clinical Observation of Caspofungin Acetate in the Treatment of Invasive Pulmoary Fungal Infection%醋酸卡泊芬净治疗侵袭性肺部真菌感染的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘素霞; 蔡静; 许亚平; 郭丽萍

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of caspofungin acetate in the treatment of invasive pulmo-nary fungal infection(IPFI). METHODS:70 patients with IPFI were selected and randomly divided into observation group(40 cas-es) and control group (30 cases). Control group was given Itraconazole injection with initial dose of 250 mg,bid,decreasing to 200 mg,qd,2 days later;observation group was given Caspofungin acetate injection 70 mg on the first day,decreasing to 50 mg, ivgtt,qd,within 1 h. Clinical efficacy,the rate of nacterial smear negative conversion and ADR were observed in 2 groups. RE-SULTS:The total effective rate of observation group was 92.50%,which was significantly higher than that of control group (76.67%);the rate of nacterial smear negative conversion was 72.00% in observation group,which was significantly higher than that of control group(42.10%);the incidence of ADR was 7.50%in observation group,which was significantly lower than that of control group (13.33%),with statistical significance (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Caspofungin acetate is effective for IPFI with low incidence of ADR.%目的:观察醋酸卡泊芬净治疗侵袭性肺部真菌感染的临床疗效及安全性。方法:选取侵袭性肺部真菌感染患者70例,按随机数字表法分为观察组(40例)和对照组(30例),对照组患者给予伊曲康唑注射液起始剂量250 mg,bid,2 d后减量至200 mg, qd;观察组患者第1天给予注射用醋酸卡泊芬净70 mg,之后减量至50 mg,ivgtt,1 h内滴完,qd。观察两组患者临床疗效、真菌涂片阴转率及不良反应情况。结果:观察组患者总有效率为92.50%,显著高于对照组的76.67%;观察组患者真菌涂片阴转率为72.00%,显著高于对照组的42.10%;观察组患者不良反应发生率为7.50%,显著低于对照组的13.33%,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:醋酸卡泊芬净治疗侵袭性真菌肺炎治

  7. Albumin Enhances Caspofungin Activity against Aspergillus Species by Facilitating Drug Delivery to Germinating Hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Petros; Andrianaki, Aggeliki; Akoumianaki, Tonia; Kyrmizi, Irene; Albert, Nathaniel; Perlin, David; Samonis, George; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Chamilos, Georgios

    2015-12-07

    The modest in vitro activity of echinocandins against Aspergillus implies that host-related factors augment the action of these antifungal agents in vivo. We found that, in contrast to the other antifungal agents (voriconazole, amphotericin B) tested, caspofungin exhibited a profound increase in activity against various Aspergillus species under conditions of cell culture growth, as evidenced by a ≥4-fold decrease in minimum effective concentrations (MECs) (P = 0. 0005). Importantly, the enhanced activity of caspofungin against Aspergillus spp. under cell culture conditions was strictly dependent on serum albumin and was not observed with the other two echinocandins, micafungin and anidulafungin. Of interest, fluorescently labeled albumin bound preferentially on the surface of germinating Aspergillus hyphae, and this interaction was further enhanced upon treatment with caspofungin. In addition, supplementation of cell culture medium with albumin resulted in a significant, 5-fold increase in association of fluorescently labeled caspofungin with Aspergillus hyphae (P caspofungin, with albumin acting as a potential carrier molecule to facilitate antifungal drug delivery to Aspergillus hyphae.

  8. Efficacy of caspofungin in a juvenile mouse model of central nervous system candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flattery, Amy M; Hickey, Emily; Gill, Charles J; Powles, Mary Ann; Misura, Andrew S; Galgoci, Andrew M; Ellis, Joan D; Zhang, Rena; Sandhu, Punam; Ronan, John; Abruzzo, George K

    2011-07-01

    Neonatal candidiasis is an increasingly common occurrence causing significant morbidity and mortality and a higher risk of dissemination to the central nervous system (CNS) than that seen with older patients. The current understanding of optimal antifungal therapy in this setting is limited. We have developed a model of disseminated candidiasis with CNS involvement in juvenile mice to assess the efficacy of the echinocandin caspofungin relative to amphotericin B (AmB). Juvenile mice were inoculated intravenously with 5.64 × 10(4) CFU of Candida albicans MY1055. Treatment with caspofungin at 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg of body weight/day, AmB at 1 mg/kg/day, or a vehicle control (VC) was initiated 30 h after infection and continued for 7 days. Pharmacokinetic parameters for caspofungin were also determined. Culture and histology showed evidence of disseminated candidiasis with multifocal encephalitis at the start of antifungal therapy. Survival was 100% in all treated groups, while mortality was 100% in the VC by day 11 after infection. By day 5, all mice in the caspofungin treatment (four doses) groups showed reductions in kidney and brain burden relative to the VC, while AmB treatment reduced kidney burden but gave no reduction of brain fungal burden. Systemic levels of caspofungin were similar in infected and uninfected mice, while brain levels were higher in infected animals. In this juvenile mouse model, caspofungin demonstrated dose-dependent activity, equivalent to or better than that of AmB at 1 mg/kg, against disseminated candidiasis with CNS involvement.

  9. Clinical analysis of caspofungin in the treatment of invasive fungal infection in old COPD patients%卡泊芬净治疗老年COPD患者侵袭性肺部真菌感染36例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴纪珍; 赵丽敏; 马利军

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察老年COPD患者应用卡泊芬净治疗侵袭性真菌感染(IFI)的疗效与安全性.方法 回顾分析本院老年临床医学部呼吸内科诊断为IFI并接受卡泊芬净治疗的COPD患者的临床资料.结果 2009年10月~2010年12月共36例COPD患者接受了卡泊芬净治疗,确诊4例,包括念珠菌菌血症2例(光滑念珠菌1例,热带念珠菌l例),肺IFI 2例,为曲霉菌;临床诊断20例,其中曲霉菌15例,白念珠菌5例;拟诊12例,包括白念珠菌6例,光滑念珠菌2例,近平滑念珠菌2例,曲霉菌2例.卡泊芬净的疗程(16.5±6.5)d,痊愈+显效的总有效率72.2%,进步22.2%,无效5.6%.治疗过程中未发现与卡泊芬净有关的不良反应.结论 卡泊芬净治疗老年COPD患者合并IFI有效且安全.%Objective To evaluate the effect and safety of caspofungin in the treatment of invasive fungal infection (IFI) in old COPD patients. Methods A retrospective analysis of the clinical data was conducted for 36 old COPD patients with IFI and treated with caspofungin in elderly clinical respiratory department. Results From October 2009 to December 2010, 36 COPD patients with IFI were treated with caspofungin. Four patients were confirmed cases, including 2 candidemia (1 Candida glabrata, 1 C. Tropicalis), 2 pulmonary IFI (Aspergillus spp.). 20 clinical diagnosis cases consisted of 15 Aspergillus and 5 C. Albicans spp. There were 12 probable cases, including 6 C. Albicans, 1 C. Glabrata, 2 C. Parapsilosis and 2 Aspergillus. The mean treatment course of caspofungin was (16.5±6.5)d. The overall effective rate was 72.2%. No drug-related side effect or adverse event appeared. Conclusion Caspofungin is likely to be an effective and safe treatment for IFI in old COPD patients.

  10. In Vitro Pharmacodynamics of Anidulafungin and Caspofungin against Candida glabrata Isolates, Including Strains with Decreased Caspofungin Susceptibility▿

    OpenAIRE

    Cota, Jason; Carden, Michael; Graybill, John R.; Najvar, Laura K.; Burgess, David S.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.

    2006-01-01

    The activities of anidulafungin and caspofungin against Candida glabrata were evaluated. MICs, 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values), and IC90 values for anidulafungin were lower than those for caspofungin for 16 of 18 strains tested. Anidulafungin has potent in vitro activity against C. glabrata that is maintained against isolates with elevated caspofungin MICs.

  11. Clinical efficacy of caspofungin in treatment of invasive fungal infections in cancer patients%卡泊芬净治疗癌症患者侵袭性真菌感染的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅晓雷; 艾超; 李向荣; 李俊

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨卡泊芬净治疗癌症患者侵袭性真菌感染(IFI)的临床疗效,以期提高临床治疗水平。方法随机选取2011年6月-2013年6月90例癌症IFI患者为研究对象,分成两组,入院后对照组24 h内死亡3例,观察组死亡2例,对照组42例患者给予伊曲康唑注射液治疗,观察组43例患者给予卡泊芬净治疗,对比两组治疗后的临床疗效;采用SPSS13.0软件进行统计分析,计量资料采用 t检验,计数资料采用χ2检验。结果对照组确诊、拟诊、疑似治疗后总有效率分别为53.85%、71.43%、62.5%,观察组分别为85.71%、89.47%、90.00%,两组比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);对照组对假丝酵母菌属、曲霉菌属治疗的总有效率分别为70.97%、36.36%,观察组分别为93.33%、92.31%,两组比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);对照组初治、抢救的总有效率为66.67%、33.33%,观察组分别为89.65%、57.14%,两组比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);不良反应发生率对照组为45.24%、观察组为18.61%,两组比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论卡泊芬净治疗癌症患者IFI临床效果显著,不良反应发生率低。%OBJECTIVE To explore the clinical efficacy of caspofungin in treatment of invasive fungal infections in cancer patients so as to improve the level of clinical treatment .METHODS A total of 90 cancer patients with inva-sive fungal infections ,who were treated in the hospital from Jun 2011 to Jun 2013 ,were randomly recruited in the study and divided into two groups ,3 cases in the control group and 2 cases in the observation group died within 24 hours after the admission to hospital ;the 42 cases in the control group were treated with itraconazole injection , while the 43 cases in the observation group were treated with caspofungin ,then the therapeutic effect was

  12. 卡泊芬净治疗中国成年人侵袭性念珠菌病和食管念珠菌病的安全性、耐受性及疗效的非对照、多中心、开放性研究%A non-controlled, multicenter open-label study to evaluate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of caspofungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and esophageal candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林东昉; 王健民; 俞云松; 韩明哲; 沈志祥; 宋诗铎; 张婴元

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the safety ,tolerability and efficacy of intravenous caspofungin for treatment of invasive candidiasis and esophageal candidiasis in Chinese adults .Methods This was a non-controlled ,multicenter ,candidiasis .All the 63 patients were included in the safety set (SS) and the full analysis set (FAS) .In the SS ,19 SAEs occurred in 14 patients .All these SAEs were unrelated to caspofungin .There were 73 caspofungin-related non-serious AEs in 31 patients (49 .2% ) .Five patients (7 .9% ) had both clinical AEs and laboratory abnormalities .Eight patients (12 .7% ) had clinical AEs (mainly rashes) ,and 27 patients (42 .9% ) had laboratory abnormalities ,mainly increases in liver enzymes alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase and reduction in blood potassium .About 91 .7% of the clinical AEs were mild to moderate .Treatment was discontinued in 1 patient (1 .6% ,1/63) due to AEs .The overall efficacy was 58 .1% (36/62) in the FAS and 70 .0% (35/70) in the per-protocol set (PPS) .In the FAS ,the therapeutic efficacy was 57 .6% (34/59) for invasive candidiasis and 66 .7% (2/3) for esophageal candidiasis .In the PPS , the therapeutic efficacy was 68 .8% (33/48 ) for invasive candidiasis and 100% (3/3 ) for esophageal candidiasis .Conclusions The AEs of caspofungin were mostly mild to moderate in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and esophageal candidiasis in Chinese adults .Only one patient terminated therapy due to drug-related AE .Caspofungin is safe and effective for the treatment of invasive candidiasis and esophageal candidiasis in Chinese adults .%目的:评价卡泊芬净注射剂治疗中国成年人侵袭性念珠菌病和食管念珠菌病的疗效及安全性。方法本研究为非对照、多中心、开放性临床研究,入选对象为年龄≥18岁,确诊为侵袭性念珠菌病或食管念珠菌病需要进行抗真菌治疗的中国成人患者。采用卡泊芬净静脉给药,每日50 mg

  13. 卡泊芬净经验性治疗白血病并发真菌感染的临床疗效分析与评价%Efficacy of caspofungin in empirical treatment of fungal infections patients with leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文征; 王学霞; 孙建荣; 陈绍水

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of caspofungin in treatment of fungal infections patients with leukemia and the adverse reactions. METHODS A total of 50 leukemia patients with fungal infections who received caspofungin or itraconazole for treatment were divided into the caspofungin group and the itraconazole group with 25 patients in each, the treatment continued until 5 days after the body temperature returned back to normal, or the course reached to 14 days or the sputum smear were negative for 3 consecutive days; the efficacy of the two drugs and the adverse reactions were observed and the evaluated. RRESULTS In the treatment of leukemia with fungal infections by using caspofungin and itraconazole, the total effective rates were 88, 0% and 64. 0%, respectively, the differences were statistically significant (F<0. 05), this study found that caspofungin had less adverse reactions than did the itraconazole with good tolerance. CONCLUSION Caspofungin, with less adverse reaction and better tolerance to the patients, is a safe and effective drug for the treatment of leukemia patients with fungal infections.%目的 评估卡泊芬净经验性治疗白血病并发真菌感染的疗效分析及不良反应.方法 选择2009年1月-2011年10月医院白血病并发真菌感染的50例患者,分为卡泊芬净及伊曲康唑两组,每组25例,卡泊芬净组给予卡泊芬净经验性治疗,伊曲康唑组给予伊曲康唑抗真菌治疗,两组治疗时间均持续至体温恢复正常后5d或疗程达14 d或连续痰涂片阴性后3d;对两种药物的疗效和不良反应进行观察和评价.结果 卡泊芬净和伊曲康唑在治疗白血病并发真菌感染中,总有效率分别为88.0%和64.0%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),两组比较后发现,卡泊芬净较伊曲康唑不良反应少,耐受性好.结论 在白血病并发真菌感染的治疗中,卡泊芬净较伊曲康唑疗效更好,不良反应更少,患者耐受性更好,是治疗白

  14. Insufficient serum caspofungin levels in a paediatric patient on ECMO

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Birgit C. P.; Wildschut, Enno D; Goede, Anna L. de; Hoog, Matthijs; Brüggemann, Roger J M

    2012-01-01

    Caspofungin, aechinocandin, is a relatively new lipophilic antifungal drug. Little is known concerning the pharmacokinetics of caspofungin in children. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) allows prolonged cardiopulmonary support in patients with life-threatening respiratory or cardiac failure. Pharmacokinetics may be altered by ECMO. We describe the case of a paediatric patient on ECMO with severe pneumonia and sepsis, who had subtherapeutic exposure of caspofungin despite normal to hi...

  15. Nanoscale effects of caspofungin against two yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formosa, C; Schiavone, M; Martin-Yken, H; François, J M; Duval, R E; Dague, E

    2013-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans are model yeasts for biotechnology and human health, respectively. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the effects of caspofungin, an antifungal drug used in hospitals, on these two species. Our nanoscale investigation revealed similar, but also different, behaviors of the two yeasts in response to treatment with the drug. While administration of caspofungin induced deep cell wall remodeling in both yeast species, as evidenced by a dramatic increase in chitin and decrease in β-glucan content, changes in cell wall composition were more pronounced with C. albicans cells. Notably, the increase of chitin was proportional to the increase in the caspofungin dose. In addition, the Young modulus of the cell was three times lower for C. albicans cells than for S. cerevisiae cells and increased proportionally with the increase of chitin, suggesting differences in the molecular organization of the cell wall between the two yeast species. Also, at a low dose of caspofungin (i.e., 0.5× MIC), the cell surface of C. albicans exhibited a morphology that was reminiscent of cells expressing adhesion proteins. Interestingly, this morphology was lost at high doses of the drug (i.e., 4× MIC). However, the treatment of S. cerevisiae cells with high doses of caspofungin resulted in impairment of cytokinesis. Altogether, the use of AFM for investigating the effects of antifungal drugs is relevant in nanomedicine, as it should help in understanding their mechanisms of action on fungal cells, as well as unraveling unexpected effects on cell division and fungal adhesion.

  16. 卡泊芬净治疗粒细胞缺乏血液病患者合并侵袭性真菌感染的临床效果%Clinical Effect of Caspofungin in the Treatment of Neutropenic Patients with Hematological Disease Complicated with Invasive Fungal Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖晓芳; 王娟平; 陈喆

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨卡泊芬净治疗粒细胞缺乏血液病患者合并侵袭性真菌感染的临床效果。方法:随机选取吉安市中心人民医院2012年3月至2016年3月收治的粒细胞缺乏血液病合并侵袭性真菌感染患者40例,依据治疗方法将这些患者分为卡泊芬净组(n=20)和伏立康唑组(n=20)两组,对两组患者的临床疗效、不良反应发生情况进行统计分析。结果:卡泊芬净组患者治疗的总有效率95.0%(19/20)显著高于伏立康唑组70.0%(14/20)(P<0.05),不良反应发生率5.0%(1/20)显著低于伏立康唑组20.0%(4/20)(P<0.05)。结论:卡泊芬净治疗粒细胞缺乏血液病患者合并侵袭性真菌感染的临床效果较伏立康唑好,值得在临床推广使用。%Objective: Study the clinical effect of caspofungin on neutropenic patients with hematological disease complicated with invasive fungal infection.Method: 40 cases granulocyte lack blood disease combined with the invasion of fungal infection inJi'an Central People's Hospital from March 2012 to March 2016 were randomly divided into two groups, the caspofungin group (n=20) and voriconazole group (n=20), and then the clinical curative effect of two groups of patients, adverse reactions occurrence were evaluated. Result:The caspofungin group with total efficiency of 95% (19/20) was significantly higher than that in the voriconazole group 70.0%(14/20) (P<0.05), and adverse reactions occurred rate of 5.0% (1/20) was significantly lower than that of voriconazole was 20.0% (4/20) (P<0.05).Conclusion: The clinical effect of caspofungin in the treatment of granulocyte lack blood disease patients with invasive fungal infection is better than voriconazole. Therefore, it is worth to popularize in the clinical use.

  17. 抗真菌新药卡泊芬净在血液病患者经验性抗真菌治疗中的疗效观察%Study on efficacy of caspofungin in empirical antifungal treatment of neutropenic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蓓; 廖清高

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of caspofungin in empirical antifungal treatment of neutropenic patients with persistent fever. Methods Forty cases of hematonostic patients and invalid antibiotic treatment, suspected fungal infection in this hospital during October 2008 to October 2010 were randomly divided into two groups, 20 patients in group A were given with caspofungin therapy, 70mg intravenous infusion at first day, and 50 mg at next day; 20 patients in group B were treated with liposomal amphotericin B, 3 mg/( kg o d ) intravenous infusion, the therapeutic course in both groups was 10 days, and the efficacy and adverse reactions of these two groups were observed and compared. Results There was no significant difference in total effective rate between these two groups (66.7% vs 61. 1 % ) ( χ2 - 1. 17 , P > 0. 05 ), but the incidence of renal toxicity and infusion reaction in group A was significantly lower than that of group B( χ2 -4.37 , 4.37, P 0.05),但A组肾毒性、输液反应发生率明显低于B组(χ2=4.37,4.37,P<0.05).结论 卡泊芬净用于血液病患者经验性抗真菌治疗,效果较好,患者耐受性较好,是侵袭性真菌感染的一个较好选择.

  18. OUTCOME OF CANDIDA PARAPSILOSIS COMPLEX INFECTIONS TREATED WITH CASPOFUNGIN IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker Devrim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to evaluate the correlation of caspofungin E-tests with the prognosis and response to caspofungin therapy of Candida parapsilosis complex bloodstream infections in children hospitalized in pediatric intensive care unit. Methods: All children who had C.parapsilosis complex bloodstream infections and who were treated with caspofungin were included in this retrospective study. For each patient, the following parameters, including all consecutive blood and central venous catheter (CVC cultures, duration between diagnosis and CVC removal, mortality rate, relapses of the C.parapsilosis complex infections as well as the demographic features, were recorded. Results: The study covered 53 patients with a median age of 11 months. The median duration of C.parapsilosis complex isolation was 31 days. The CVC rescue rate was 33.3% under caspofungin treatment. In 92.4% of the patients, the negative culture was achieved within a median duration of 14 days. The rate of relapses was 18.9%. The overall mortality rate was %37.7 (20 patients and 30-days mortality rate was 7.5% (4 patients. Conclusions: Caspofungin is an attractive option due to its effects on biofilms in vivo, while the reflection of its affect on C.parapsilosis complex was limited in our study, but it should not be underestimated in children who strongly need the presence of central venous catheters. Moreover, in vivo susceptibility might not always guarantee good clinical response in clinical practice. The clinicians should weigh their priority for their patients and choose the optimal antifungal therapy for C.parapsilosis complex infections in children.

  19. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of caspofungin on treatment of invasive fungal infections in critical patients%卡泊芬净治疗重症患者侵袭性真菌感染疗效及安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆雪萍; 夏炳杰; 叶宁

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解卡泊芬净治疗重症患者侵袭性真菌感染(IFI)的疗效及安全性.方法 回顾性分析2008年4月-2010年9月ICU使用卡泊芬净>5 d的21例IFI患者临床资料;卡泊芬净首剂70 mg/d,后据肝功能分级予50 mg/d或35 mg/d;治疗期间监测肺影像学、肝肾功能等.结果 确诊3例为血源感染,临床诊断、拟诊各14、4例,均为肺部感染;治疗总有效率71.43%;有效组疗程为(21.67±6.88)d,长于无效组的(12.40±5.70)d,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),抢先/经验治疗组有效率为91.67%,高于目标/挽救治疗组的44.44%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);未见明显不良反应.结论 卡泊芬净是治疗重症患者IFI安全有效的药物;抢先治疗能提高疗效.%OBJECTIVE To investigate efficacy and safety of caspofungin therapy in critical patients with invasive fungal infection(IFI). METHODS The clinical data of 21 cases critical patients with IFI treated by caspofungin (the duration was up to 5 days) between Apr 2008 and Sep 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were treated with caspofungin in a dose of 70 mg in the first day, and then 50 mg/d or 35 mg/d according to liver function classification Child-Pugh score. Lung' s image, liver and kidney function were monitored during treatment. RESULTS There were 3 proven cases(blood IFI), 14 probable cases and 4 possible cases (pulmonary IFI). The overall effective rate was 71.43%. The average duration of the caspofungin therapy of the effective group was longer than that of ineffective group (21.67±6.88 vs 12. 40±5.70 P<0.05). The effective rate of preemptive/empirical therapy group was higher than that of goal/rescue therapy group(91.67 % vs 44.44 %, P< 0.05). No drug-related side effect was found during treatment. CONCLUSION Caspofungin is an effective and safe antifungal drug for critical patients with IFI. Preemptive therapy may improve the curative effect.

  20. [The use of caspofungin in extremely low birth weight preterm infants based on clinical trials and reports considering the own experience (case report)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempniewicz, Krzysztof; Walas, Wojciech; Gregorek-Pełka, Edyta; Kamińska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, despite of significant progress in the treatment of premature infants with extremely low body weight, still a significant problem remains severe, treatment-resistant generalized infections among which the percentage of fungal infections is increasing. The invasive candidiasis, especially caused by non-albicans species of Candida, are of particular importance. In the case of resistance on fluconazole and amphotericin B the use of echinocandin drug may be a useful choice. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetics of caspofungin in neonates and children, as well as the case reports and clinical trials on the use of caspofungin in neonates, including the premature infants. We describe also the premature neonate with low birth weight and a generalized infection caused by Candida glabrata, where, despite of the treatment based on the sensitivity of the fungus it did not achieve clinical improvement and sterilization of cultures. It was not until the lead-in of caspofungin in dose 2 mg/kg/day allowed to cure the patient. There was a transient increase in the activity of aminotransferases and level of bilirubin as a complication of treatment. At the end of application of caspofungin the liver functions have been slowly normalized. Caspofungin appeared to be effective in the treatment of systemic fungal C. glabrata in premature neonate with extremely low birth weight. Echinocandins, including caspofungin, appear to be a promising alternative to previously used agents in the treatment of invasive Candida infections in newborns. However, the further randomized trials on the use of caspofungin in preterm neonates, regarding long term follow-up, should be undertaken.

  1. Comparison between micafungin and caspofungin for the empirical treatment of severe intraabdominal infections in surgical intensive care patients%外科重症腹腔感染患者使用米卡芬净与卡泊芬净的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫婷; 李双玲; 王东信

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of micafungin with caspofungin for the empirical treatment of severe intra-abdominal infections in surgical intensive care patients.Method This was a retrospective cohort study.From May 1 st 2012 to April 30 2015,47 patients with severe intraabdominal infection complicated with specific risk of Intra-abdominal invasive candidiasis (IAC) receiving empirical treatment of echinocandins were enrolled in Department of Critical Care Medicine,Peking University First Hospital.Micafungin and caspofungin substituted each other every six months.The baseline information,risk factors of IAC,characteristics of intra-abdominal infections,antifungal treatment and other intra-abdominal infections (IAI) related treatment information,clinical outcome were collected and compared between the micafungin and caspofungin groups.Result Forty-seven patients met inclusion/exclusion criteria.The average score of APACHE Ⅱ was 19.0 ± 7.7),the incidence of IAC was 23.4%.The patients were divided into the micafungin group (n =26) and the caspofungin group (n =21).The average therapeutic course was 10 (5,13) days.There were no significant differences in the baseline information,risk factors of IAC,characteristics of intra-abdominal infections and other IAI related treatment informations between the two groups.SOFA score,body temperature,persistence of extra-gastrointestinal fungal colonization significantly improved from the baseline in both groups.The leukocyte count decrease was different between the micafungin group and the caspofungin group respectively [(12.5 ± 5.4) 109/L vs (9.8±4.3) 109/L,P=0.013;(12.9±5.4) 109/L vs (10.4±4.7) 109/L,P=0.134].There were no significantly differences in the recovery of GI function,the incidence of breakthrough IC,the incidence of newly developed organ failure,the 30-day mortality,the length of ICU stay and hospitalization period or the incidence of alternative antifungal therapy between the micafungin group

  2. Efficacy of caspofungin, a 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase inhibitor, on Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peipei; Tong, Zhaohui

    2014-11-01

    Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PcP) is a common and potentially fatal opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed patients, and the standard trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) treatment has serious side effects. The cell wall of the causative fungal pathogen is enriched in 1-3-β-D-glucan, providing an alternative therapeutic target. We directly compared the efficacy of the 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase inhibitor caspofungin to TMP-SMZ for promoting survival and reducing lung cyst number during the early phase of treatment in a rat model of PcP. Rats were immunosuppressed using dexamethasone for 8 weeks and PcP infection confirmed in test animals by lung print smear. The remaining rats were randomly divided into three control groups, a baseline group and two observed for 7 or 14 days, two caspofungin groups treated intravenously for 7 or 14 days (1 mg/kg/d), and 2 TMP-SMZ positive control groups treated by oral gavage for 7 or 14 days (300 mg/kg/d). Mortality was markedly reduced by both caspofungin and TMP-SMZ after 14 days (caspofungin: 20.0%, TMP-SMZ: 13.3%, Control: 40.0%). Body weight gain in caspofungin-treated rats after 7 (3.04 ± 3.54%) and 14 (4.27 ± 2.79%) days was similar to that in TMP-SMZ-treated rats (3.35 ± 1.88% and 5.85 ± 2.78%, respectively), whereas untreated controls showed weight loss. Lung weight to body weight ratio, and mean cyst number per 50 microscopic fields were significantly lower (all P caspofungin-treated rats than untreated controls at both 7 and 14 days, and similar to those in the TMP-SMZ-treated rats (all P > 0.05 vs. caspofungin). Caspofungin exhibited similar efficacy to TMP-SMZ for enhancing survival and reducing lung edema and cyst load in a rat model of PcP, suggesting potential clinical utility against PcP.

  3. Efficacy Observation of Voriconazole Combined with Caspofungin in the Treatment of Secondary Invasive Fungal Infection%伏立康唑联合卡泊芬净治疗继发侵袭性真菌感染患者的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王后兴; 梁静芝; 杨伟

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察伏立康唑联合卡泊芬净治疗继发侵袭性真菌感染患者的临床疗效及安全性.方法:196例确诊及高度疑似继发侵袭性真菌感染的重症患者随机分为对照组与观察组.观察组使用伏立康唑、卡泊芬净序贯疗法,对照组使用伊曲康唑,治疗全程10周.比较2组患者疗效与安全性2个方面的差异.结果:观察组患者病原学疗效、临床疗效、细胞因子改善情况均优于对照组;2组患者的真菌清除率、临床有效率和细胞因子的水平改善情况差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);2组患者的不良反应发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:联合使用伏立康唑与卡泊芬净治疗继发侵袭性真菌感染的疗效优于单用伊曲康唑.%OBJECTIVE: To observe clinical efficacy and safety of voriconazole combined with caspofungin in the treatment of secondary invasive fungal infection (IFI). METHODS: 196 diagnosed and highly suspected secondary IFI cases were randomly divided into control group and observation group. Observation group was given sequential therapy of voriconazole and caspofungin, and control group was given itraconazole. Treatment course lasted for 10 weeks. The difference of clinical efficacy and safety were compared between 2 groups. RESULTS: The pathogeny efficacy, clinical efficacy and improvement of cytokine were better in observation group than in control group. The differences of fungal clearance rate, clinical effective rate and improvement of cytokine were significant between 2 groups (P0.05). CONCLUSION: Voriconazole combined with caspofungin is better than itraconazole alone in the treatment of secondary IFI.

  4. Caspofungin Etest susceptibility testing of Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Pfaller, Michael A; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of caspofungin Etest and the recently revised CLSI breakpoints. A total of 497 blood isolates, of which 496 were wild-type isolates, were included. A total of 65/496 susceptible isolates (13.1%) were misclassified as intermediate (I) or re......) or resistant (R). Such misclassifications were most commonly observed for Candida krusei (73.1%) and Candida glabrata (33.1%). The revised breakpoints cannot be safely adopted for these two species....

  5. Clinical efficacy and tolerability of caspofungin in a renal transplant patient with Aspergillus flavus lung infection: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasticci, M B; Barchiesi, F; Fallani, S; Palladino, N; Lapalorcia, L M; Gubbiotti, M; Cozzari, M; Novelli, A; Baldelli, F

    2006-10-01

    Organ transplant recipients are at increased risk for severe invasive aspergillosis, and amphotericin deoxycholate has been the standard treatment for many years. Currently, however, lipid formulations are preferred due to their few side effects. Also, a number of new antifungal drugs have been developed including new azoles and echinocandins. Caspofungin is the first of the echinocandin derivatives patented to treat patients with invasive aspergillosis who are refractory or intolerant to other therapies. A renal transplant patient on immunosuppressive treatment with chronic hepatitis B virus infection was admitted with fever, hemophthisis and lung consolidation, diagnosed to be probably caused by Aspergillus flavus. The patient developed cholestatic hepatitis most likely related to itraconazole. Clinical failure and in vitro itraconazole resistance of the isolate was also documented while the patient was receiving itraconazole at a reduced dosage. Caspofungin was administered once a day as ambulatory treatment and was well tolerated. Clinical improvement was observed after 6 weeks of treatment and no hepatic toxicity was documented. Caspofungin seems to be a potentially useful antifungal agent in renal transplant patients with invasive aspergillosis. Further evaluation of the efficacy of caspofungin is needed.

  6. Evaluation of Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Caspofungin in the Treatment of Severe Invasive Pulmonary Fungal Infection%卡泊芬净治疗重症侵袭性肺部真菌感染的疗效及安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆雪萍; 施善阳; 叶宁; 夏炳杰

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解卡泊芬净治疗重症侵袭性肺部真菌感染(IPFI)的疗效及安全性.方法:回顾性分析2008年4月-2010年9月ICU使用卡泊芬净5 d以上的18例重症IPFI患者的临床资料.卡泊芬净首剂70 mg,后据肝功能分级予50 mg·d-1或35 mg·d-1.治疗期间监测肺部影像学、肝肾功能等.结果:临床诊断14例、拟诊4例.治疗总有效率72.22%(13/18).有效组疗程长于无效组((21.55±6.91)dvs.(10.00±3.50)d,P<0.05),抢先/经验性治疗组有效率高于目标/挽救治疗组(91.67%vs.33.33%,P<0.05).有效组肺部影像改善时间明显滞后.未见明显不良反应.结论:卡泊芬净是治疗重症IPFI安全、有效的药物选择,且抢先治疗能提高疗效.%OBJECTIVE: To investigate therapeutic efficacy and safety of caspofungin in the treatment of severe invasive pulmonary fungal infection (IPFI). METHODS: The clinical data of 18 cases of severe IPFI treated by caspofungin (the duration was up to 5 days) between Apr. 2008 and Sept. 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were treated with caspofungin in a dose of 70 mg at the first day, and then 50 mg·d-1 or 35 mg·d-1 according to liver function classification Child-Pugh score. Lung's image, liver and kidney function were monitored during treatment. RESULTS: There were 14 probable cases and 4 possible cases. The overall effective rate was 72.22% (13/18). The treatment duration of effective group was longer than that of ineffective group (21.55 ±6.91) d vs.(10.00±3.50)d,P<0.05). The effective rate of preemptive/empirical therapy group was higher than that of goal/rescue therapy group(91.67% vs. 33.33% ,P<0.05). It is delayed obviously to improve lung's image in effective group. No significant adverse drug reaction was found during treatment. CONCLUSION: Caspofungin is effective drug for critical patients with severe IPFI. Preemptive therapy may improve therapeutic efficacy.

  7. Pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of caspofungin in Japanese pediatric patients with invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masaaki; Imaizumi, Masue; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Kaneko, Takashi; Goto, Hiroaki; Kato, Koji; Hara, Junichi; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Koike, Kazutoshi; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Maeda, Naoko; Yoshinari, Tomoko; Kishino, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kenichi; Kawahara, Shizuko; Kartsonis, Nicholas A; Komada, Yoshihiro

    2015-06-01

    The antifungal agents approved in Japan for pediatric use are limited and many unapproved drugs are actually used without clear instruction for dosage. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of caspofungin for the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis in 20 Japanese pediatric patients using a pediatric-specific dosage based on body surface area. Caspofungin was administered intravenously over 60 min as 70 mg/m(2) on Day 1, followed by 50 mg/m(2) per day. Five or 4 point blood sampling were done in 15 patients on Day 4-5 to calculate AUC0-24 h. The geometric means (95% confidence interval) of C24 h and AUC0-24 h in the pediatric patients were 3.3(2.5, 4.4) μg/mL and 175.1 (139.3, 220.1) μg hr/mL, respectively, which were comparable to those in Japanese adult patients [3.2 (2.8, 3.5) μg/mL and 144.9 (131.7, 159.3) μg hr/mL, respectively]. Among the 20 patients, 10 (50%) had at least 1 drug-related adverse event which was considered related to caspofungin therapy. No drug-related serious adverse event and no death occurred. The most common drug-related adverse events were events relating to hepatic function (mainly increases in ALT and AST). The overall success in efficacy was observed in 13 of 20 patients. In conclusion, once daily administration of caspofungin (70 mg/m(2) on Day 1, followed by 50 mg/m(2) [maximum daily dose not to exceed 70 mg]), which is the same dosage being used in overseas, achieved sufficient drug exposure and a favorable efficacy and acceptable safety profile in Japanese pediatric patients with invasive fungal infections.

  8. Empirical caspofungin therapy in clinical practice for suspected invasive fungal disease in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehl, Michael G; Egerer, Gerlinde; Engelhardt, Monika; Gross, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) after cytotoxic chemotherapy or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at risk for life-threatening invasive fungal disease (IFD). The aim was to evaluate the characteristics, antifungal therapy and outcome of adult patients with ALL after chemotherapy or HSCT receiving caspofungin empirically in a clinical setting. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted at nine large tertiary care centres in Germany. Adult patients with ALL treated empirically with caspofungin according to the product label between 2006 and 2012 were eligible. Data were extracted as case reports. In total, 25 patients (12 males, 13 females; median age 37 years; 19 with B-ALL, 6 with T-ALL) with 28 treatment episodes because of suspected IFD (18 episodes after chemotherapy, 10 episodes after allogeneic HSCT) were included in the analysis. Empirical caspofungin therapy (median duration: 19 days, range 1-105 days) was given as first-line monotherapy in 20 (71.4%), second-line monotherapy in five (17.9%) and combination therapy in three (10.7%) episodes respectively. Therapy rated successful according to the physician's overall assessment (inflammatory parameters, clinical symptoms): 20 (95%) of 21 evaluable episodes with therapy duration of at least 8 days. Empirical caspofungin appears to be an effective therapeutic option in critically ill adult ALL patients with suspected IFD in clinical practice.

  9. Enhanced efficacy of synergistic combinations of antimicrobial peptides with caspofungin versus Candida albicans in insect and murine models of systemic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, D M; Desbois, A P; Coote, P J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether combinations of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with caspofungin display enhanced antifungal activity versus Candida albicans in vitro and in vivo. Three conventional AMPs that satisfied criteria favouring their potential development as novel antifungals were selected for investigation. Colistin sulphate was also included as a cyclic peptide antibiotic used in the clinic. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for each antifungal agent and checkerboard assays were used to determine fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) values for dual combinations of AMPs or colistin with caspofungin. Viability assays were performed for the same combinations in order to investigate fungicidal interactions. Synergistic antifungal combinations were then tested for efficacy in vivo and compared to monotherapies in wax moth larva and murine models of systemic C. albicans infection. In combination with caspofungin, each of the AMPs [hMUC7-12, DsS3(1-16), hLF(1-11)] and colistin were synergistic and candidacidal in vitro. The treatment of infected wax moth larvae with combinations of caspofungin with hMUC7-12, DsS3(1-16) or colistin resulted in significant enhancements in survival compared to treatment with monotherapies. Notably, the treatment of C. albicans-infected mice with a combination of caspofungin and DsS3(1-16) resulted in the enhancement of survival compared to groups treated with just the individual agents. This study demonstrates that combination therapies containing caspofungin and AMPs or colistin merit further development as potential novel treatments for C. albicans infections.

  10. Synergy of caspofungin with human polymorphonuclear granulocytes for killing Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Tullio, Vivian; Mandras, Narcisa; Scalas, Daniela; Allizond, Valeria; Banche, Giuliana; Roana, Janira; Greco, Deborah; Castagno, Franco; Cuffini, Anna Maria; Carlone, Nicola A.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of caspofungin on polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Candida albicans was investigated. Caspofungin, at all of the concentrations tested (2, 3.2, and 8 μg/ml), significantly increased intracellular killing by PMNs through its direct action on both yeast cells and PMNs, indicating the potential ability of caspofungin to synergize with phagocytes for candidal killing. Caspofungin may therefore constitute an effective therapeutic option for ...

  11. Assessment of the In Vitro Kinetic Activity of Caspofungin against Candida glabrata ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nagappan, V.; Boikov, D; Vazquez, J A

    2009-01-01

    Echinocandins have become the drug of choice in infections caused by Candida glabrata. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of caspofungin alone and in combination against C. glabrata. In vitro assays demonstrated that caspofungin alone showed excellent fungicidal activity against C. glabrata, including fluconazole-resistant strains. The combination of caspofungin and azole antifungals showed potential synergy against C. glabrata. Overall, caspofungin demonstrated...

  12. Emergence of a Candida krusei Isolate with Reduced Susceptibility to Caspofungin during Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hakki, Morgan; Staab, Janet F.; Marr, Kieren A.

    2006-01-01

    Clinical failure associated with reduced susceptibility to caspofungin has been described in Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. We report a case of Candida krusei infection that progressed despite caspofungin therapy. Reduced microbial susceptibility to all three echinocandins (caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin) was noted but was not associated with mutations in FKS1.

  13. Addition of Caspofungin to Fluconazole Does Not Improve Outcome in Murine Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Graybill, John R.; Bocanegra, Rosie; Najvar, Laura K.; Hernandez, Steve; Larsen, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Caspofungin is a potent antifungal inhibiting glucan synthesis in Candida species. However, caspofungin is not 100% curative in candidiasis. Therefore, we evaluated combinations of fluconazole with caspofungin for murine candidemia. We could not show any benefit of combined therapy over individual antifungal drugs.

  14. Efficacy and toxicity of caspofungin in empirical treatment of invasive fungal infection in 32 patients with hematological malignancy%卡泊芬净经验性治疗血液疾病合并真菌感染32例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵慧瑾; 钱樱; 陈丽; 沈杨

    2011-01-01

    目的:评估卡泊芬净经验性治疗血液疾病中性粒细胞减少合并疑似侵袭性真菌感染的安全性和疗效.方法:入选32例发热合并中性粒细胞缺乏、基础疾病为血液系统恶性肿瘤的患者.给予卡泊芬净经验性治疗,第1天70 mg,加入生理盐水250 mL,静脉滴注,持续1h,随后每天50 mg,加入生理盐水250 mL,静脉滴注,持续lh.治疗持续时间为体温好转、粒细胞缺乏恢复后继续使用3d;若患者粒细胞缺乏期间体温未好转,最长使用2周.结果:23例(72%)患者在中性粒细胞减少期间体温好转.主要不良事件是转氨酶升高(4/32)和低钾血症(4/32),经治疗均好转.3例患者死亡.所有患者治疗期间均未发生突破性真菌感染事件.结论:卡泊芬净是血液疾病合并真菌感染经验性治疗安全和有效的药物.%Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of caspofungin in empirical treatment of invasive fungal infection (IFI) in patients with hematological malignancy. Methods Thirty two patients with underlying hematological malignancy and febrile neutropenia were enrolled. Caspofungin 70 mg was infused intravenously for at least 1 h on the first day, and then reduced to 50 mg for successive days. The treatment lasted until 3 days after recovery of neutropenia. A maximum of 2 weeks of treatment was allowed if the patients didn't recover from fever. Results Twenty three patients (72%) had their temperature returned to normal during the period of neutropenia. The most frequent adverse events were elevation of transaminases (4/32) and hypokalemia (4/32). All the adverse events were reversible. Three patients died. No breaking through fungal infection events occurred. Conclusions Caspofungin is a safe and effective drug for the empirical treatment of hematological malignancy patients complicated with fungal infection.

  15. Dose escalation studies with caspofungin against Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domán, Marianna; Kovács, Renátó; Perlin, David S; Kardos, Gábor; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Juhász, Béla; Bozó, Aliz; Majoros, László

    2015-09-01

    Echinocandins are recommended as first-line agents against invasive fungal infections caused by Candida glabrata, which still carry a high mortality rate. Dose escalation of echinocandins has been suggested to improve the clinical outcome against C. glabrata. To address this possibility, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments with caspofungin against four WT C. glabrata clinical isolates, a drug-susceptible ATCC 90030 reference strain and two echinocandin-resistant strains with known FKS mutations. MIC values for the clinical isolates in RPMI 1640 were ≤ 0.03 mg l(-1 ) but increased to 0.125-0.25 mg l(-1 )in RPMI 1640+50% serum. In RPMI 1640+50% serum, the replication of C. glabrata was weaker than in RPMI 1640.Caspofungin in RPMI 1640 at 1 and 4 mg l(-1) showed a fungicidal effect within 7 h against three of the four clinical isolates but was only fungistatic at 16 and 32 mg l(-1) (paradoxically decreased killing activity). In RPMI 1640+50% serum, caspofungin at ≥ 1 mg l(-1) was rapidly fungicidal (within 3.31 h) against three of the four isolates. In a profoundly neutropenic murine model, all caspofungin doses (1, 2, 3, 5 and 20 mg kg(-1) daily) decreased the fungal tissue burdens significantly (P caspofungin dose escalation does not improve efficacy.

  16. Rapid development of Candida krusei echinocandin resistance during caspofungin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forastiero, A; Garcia-Gil, V; Rivero-Menendez, O; Garcia-Rubio, R; Monteiro, M C; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A; Jordan, R; Agorio, I; Mellado, E

    2015-11-01

    In invasive candidiasis, there has been an epidemiological shift from Candida albicans to non-albicans species infections, including infections with C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei. Although the prevalence of C. krusei remains low among yeast infections, its intrinsic resistance to fluconazole raises epidemiological and therapeutic concerns. Echinocandins have in vitro activity against most Candida spp. and are the first-line agents in the treatment of candidemia. Although resistance to echinocandin drugs is still rare, individual cases of C. krusei resistance have been reported in recent years, especially with strains that have been under selective pressure. A total of 15 C. krusei strains, isolated from the blood, urine, and soft tissue of an acute lymphocytic leukemia patient, were analyzed. Strains developed echinocandin resistance during 10 days of caspofungin therapy. The molecular epidemiology of the isolates was investigated using two different typing methods: PCR-based amplification of the species-specific repetitive polymorphic CKRS-1 sequence and multilocus sequence typing. All isolates were genetically related, and the mechanism involved in decreased echinocandin susceptibility was characterized. Clinical resistance was associated with an increase in echinocandin MICs in vitro and was related to three different mutations in hot spot 1 of the target enzyme Fks1p. Molecular evidence of the rapid acquisition of resistance by different mutations in FKS1 highlights the need to monitor the development of resistance in C. krusei infections treated with echinocandin drugs.

  17. 侵袭性真菌感染的血液病患者采用卡泊芬净经验性抗真菌治疗的效果%Efficacy observation of Caspofungin in empirical antifungal treatment of invasive fungal infection patients with hemopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate efficacy of Caspofungin in empirical antifungal treatment of invasive fungal infection patients with hemopathy. Methods 40 cases of hematopathy patients with persistent fever, invalid antibiotic treatment, invasive fungal infection in our hospital from October 2008 to October 2010 were randomly divided into two groups, 20 patients in group A were given Caspofungin therapy, the first day of 70 mg intravenous infusion, and 50 mg from the next day; 20 patients in group B were treated with liposomal Amphotericin B, 3 mg/(kg·d) intravenous infusion, both groups were treated for 10 days, the efficacy and adverse reactions of two groups were observed. Results There was no significant difference in total effective rate of two groups (66.7% vs 61.1%) (X2 = 1.17, P > 0.05), but the incidence of kidney toxicity, infusion reaction of group A were significantly lower than group B (X2 = 4.37, 4.37,all P < 0.05). Conclusion The efficacy of Caspofungin in empirical antifungal treatment of invasive fungal infection patients with hemopathy is good, with tolerance better patient, and it is a better choice for invasive fungal infection.%目的 探讨卡泊芬净在血液病患者经验性抗真菌治疗中的疗效.方法选取我院2008年10月~2010年10月收治的抗生素治疗无效且怀疑真菌感染的血液病患者40例,随机分为两组,A组20例患者给予卡泊芬净治疗,第1天70 mg静脉滴注,第2天起50 mg静脉滴注;B组20例患者给予脂质体两性霉素B治疗,3 mg/(kg·d)静脉滴注,两组均治疗10 d,观察两组患者的疗效和不良反应.结果两组总有效率比较(66.7% vs 61.1%),差异无统计学意义(χ2 = 1.17,P > 0.05),但A组肾毒性、输液反应发生率明显低于B组(χ2 = 4.37、4.37,均P < 0.05).结论卡泊芬净用于经验性抗真菌治疗,效果较好,患者耐受性较好,是侵袭性真菌感染的一个较好选择.

  18. Global Surveillance of In Vitro Activity of Micafungin against Candida: a Comparison with Caspofungin by CLSI-Recommended Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Boyken, L.; Hollis, R. J.; Messer, S. A.; Tendolkar, S.; Diekema, D. J.

    2006-01-01

    Micafungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent that has recently been approved for the prevention of invasive fungal infection and the treatment of esophageal candidiasis. Prospective sentinel surveillance for the emergence of in vitro resistance to micafungin among invasive Candida sp. isolates is indicated. We determined the in vitro activity of micafungin against 2,656 invasive (bloodstream or sterile site) unique patient isolates of Candida spp. collected from 60 medical centers worldwide in 2004 and 2005. We performed antifungal susceptibility testing according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A2 method and used a 24-hour prominent inhibition endpoint for determination of the MIC. Caspofungin was tested in parallel against all isolates. Of 2,656 invasive Candida sp. isolates, species distribution was 55.6% Candida albicans, 14.4% Candida parapsilosis, 13.4% Candida glabrata, 10.1% Candida tropicalis, 2.4% Candida krusei, 1.7% Candida guilliermondii, 0.9% Candida lusitaniae, 0.6% Candida kefyr, and 0.9% other Candida species. Overall, micafungin was very active against Candida (MIC50/MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested are inhibited [MIC90], 0.015/1 μg/ml; 96% inhibited at a MIC of ≤1 μg/ml, 100% inhibited at a MIC of ≤2 μg/ml) and comparable to caspofungin (MIC50/MIC90, 0.03/0.25 μg/ml; 99% inhibited at a MIC of ≤2 μg/ml). Results by species, expressed as MIC50/MIC90 (micrograms per milliliter), were as follows: C. albicans, 0.015/0.03; C. glabrata, 0.015/0.015; C. tropicalis, 0.03/0.06; C. krusei, 0.06/0.12; C. kefyr, 0.06/0.06; C. parapsilosis, 1/2; C. guilliermondii, 0.5/1; C. lusitaniae, 0.12/0.25; other Candida spp., 0.25/1. Although the species distribution varied considerably among the different geographic regions, there was no difference in micafungin activity across the regions. Micafungin has excellent in vitro activity against invasive clinical isolates of Candida from centers worldwide. PMID:17021079

  19. [Clinical laboratory approaches to parodontitis treatment optimization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, L A; Shul'diakov, A A; Oseeva, A O; Aleksandrova, E A

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine cycloferon liniment clinical-pathogenetic efficacy in comprehensive parodontitis therapy examination and treatment of 80 patients was done. It was determined that the cycloferon liniment use in comprehensive treatment of patients with parodontitis let to reduce infectious load in parodontal pockets and local inflammation intensity, to normalize the secretory immunoglobulin level and immune status indices that provided speed up of healing process and reduction relapse frequency.

  20. Killing Rates of Caspofungin in 50 Percent Serum Correlate with Caspofungin Efficacy Against Candida albicans in a Neutropenic Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domán, Marianna; Kovács, Renátó; Kardos, Gábor; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Juhász, Béla; Bozó, Aliz; Kardos, Tamás; Saleh, Qasem; Majoros, László

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that caspofungin dose escalation against Candida species is more beneficial than currently used lower daily doses. Thus, we determined in vitro and in vivo activity of caspofungin against six wild-type C. albicans clinical isolates, the ATCC 10231 strain and an echinocandin resistant strain. MIC ranges of clinical isolates in RPMI-1640 with and without 50% serum were 0.125-0.25 and 0.015-0.06 mg/L, respectively. Two and three isolates showed paradoxical growth in MIC and time-kill tests, respectively, in RPMI-1640 but not in 50% serum. Caspofungin killing rate (k) in RPMI-1640 at 1 mg/L was higher than at 16 and 32 mg/L for all isolates (p0.05 for all comparisons), but for one isolate k value at 32 mg/L was significantly lower than at 1-16 mg/L. Although k values at 1-32 mg/L showed a great variability in 50% serum (the lowest and highest k value ranges were 0.085-0.109 and 0.882-0.985 1/h, respectively), daily 3, 5 and 15 mg/kg caspofungin was effective in a neutropenic murine model against all isolates, without significant differences between the effective doses. This study confirms that paradoxical growth does not affect the in vivo efficacy of caspofungin. We demonstrated that dose escalation did not increase the efficacy of caspofungin against C. albicans either in vitro or in vivo. These results are in concordance with the clinical experience that efficacy of echinocandins does not increase at larger doses.

  1. 卡泊芬净治疗重症侵袭性真菌感染患者的疗效分析和安全性评价%Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of Caspofungin for Patients with Invasive Fungal Infection and Non-effect/intolerant to Imidazole/polyenoid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of caspofungin in patients with invasive fungal infetion (IFI) but non-effect/intolerant to imidazole/polyenoid. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted in 16 IFI patients who were non-effect/intolerant to imidazole/polyenoid. They were treated with caspofungin in a dose of 70 mg in the first day, and then in a maintenance dose of 50 or 35 mg·d-1. Results: The treatment was ineffective in the group with a short course of caspofungin (≤7 days), while patients in the group with a long course (≥10 days) had clinical responses. Used as the first-line antifungal therapy, caspofungin demonstrated favorable effects in two cases.Used as a salvage treatment,the improvement rate of caspofungin was 42.9% (6/14). The total efficiency was 50%. No drug-related clinical or laboratory adverse events occurred in the patients received caspofungin. Conclusion: Caspofungin is safe and in certain extent effective, and it may be used as the first choice for IFI patients.%目的:评价卡泊芬净治疗对咪唑类或多烯类无效或不耐受的侵袭性真菌感染患者(IFI)的疗效和安全性.方法:回顾性分析2011年1月~5月入住我院16例对咪唑及多烯类无效或不能耐受时继以卡泊芬净的IFI患者的治疗结果,首日给予卡泊芬净负荷剂量70 mg,后根据肝功能分级继以50 mg·d-1或35 mg·d-1维持.结果:8例卡泊芬净疗程大于10d者均治疗有效;8例疗程小于7d的患者均治疗无效.2例首选卡泊芬净经验性治疗患者均有效;14例将卡泊芬净作为挽救治疗者中,仅6例有效.所有纳入安全性评价的的患者均未出现临床不良反应和实验室指标异常.临床有效率为50%(8/16).结论:卡泊芬净治疗IFI患者安全有效,且抢先治疗疗效更佳,可作为抗IFI的首选药物.

  2. A retrospective analysis of the use of caspofungin in recipients of liver transplant with a modified high index of suspicion for fungal infection. A critical review of mortality, acute cellular rejection, infections, and changes in the liver function tests while on caspofungin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, Cataldo; Bodzin, Adam S; Vaccino, Silvia; Daskalakis, Constantine; Krawitz, Steven; Ramirez, Carlo B

    2011-01-01

    This study is a retrospective analysis of death, adverse events (AE), fungal infections, and hepatic function among recipients of liver transplantation at high risk of fungal infection who received prophylactic treatment with caspofungin. After reviewing data of 105 patients who had received isolated liver transplant between January 2003 and April 2007, we identified and analyzed 82 high-risk patients. Post-transplant patients at high risk for fungal infection are commonly defined by the presence of at least one of the following: (i) re-transplantation; (ii) re-operation; (iii) renal dysfunction. However, in our practice, patients are also considered at high risk for developing fungal infections if they present with the following: (iv) fever of unknown origin; (v) hypothermia; (vi) positive random culture for fungus at the time of transplant (bile and/or ascites); (vii) sepsis; (viii) use of vasopressors; (ix) re-intubation, during the first hospitalization after liver transplant; (x) prolonged intubation (>24 h), and (xi) acute respiratory distress syndrome, until negative fungal cultures are obtained. Exact conditional logistic regression was used to compare the risk of death, AEs, and fungal infections between patients who received caspofungin, other antifungal drugs, and no antifungal drugs. Analyses were then performed with SAS 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Patients were between 27 and 72 yr old (mean = 55), with two-thirds male and three-quarters Caucasian. Sixteen patients received caspofungin (11 preventively), and 32 received other antifungal (26 preventively). There were no proven fungal infections among the patients who received caspofungin, three infections among patients who received other antifungal (3/26 = 12%), and 14 infections among patients who were not preventively treated (14/45 = 31%). These infection rates were significantly different across the three groups (p = 0.029), with caspofungin and other antifungal preventive treatment

  3. Synergistic activity of the tyrocidines, antimicrobial cyclodecapeptides from Bacillus aneurinolyticus, with amphotericin B and caspofungin against Candida albicans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troskie, Anscha Mari; Rautenbach, Marina; Delattin, Nicolas; Vosloo, Johan Arnold; Dathe, Margitta; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2014-07-01

    Tyrocidines are cationic cyclodecapeptides from Bacillus aneurinolyticus that are characterized by potent antibacterial and antimalarial activities. In this study, we show that various tyrocidines have significant activity against planktonic Candida albicans in the low-micromolar range. These tyrocidines also prevented C. albicans biofilm formation in vitro. Studies with the membrane-impermeable dye propidium iodide showed that the tyrocidines disrupt the membrane integrity of mature C. albicans biofilm cells. This membrane activity correlated with the permeabilization and rapid lysis of model fungal membranes containing phosphatidylcholine and ergosterol (70:30 ratio) induced by the tyrocidines. The tyrocidines exhibited pronounced synergistic biofilm-eradicating activity in combination with two key antifungal drugs, amphotericin B and caspofungin. Using a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model, we found that tyrocidine A potentiated the activity of caspofungin. Therefore, tyrocidines are promising candidates for further research as antifungal drugs and as agents for combinatorial treatment.

  4. Low caspofungin exposure in patients in the Intensive Care Unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, Kim C M; Veringa, Anette; Zijlstra, Jan G; Beishuizen, Albertus; Klont, Rob; Brummelhuis-Visser, Petra; Uges, Donald R A; Touw, Daan J; Kosterink, Jos G W; van der Werf, Tjip S; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    2016-01-01

    In critically ill patients, drug exposure may be influenced by altered drug distribution and clearance. Earlier studies showed that the variability in caspofungin exposure was high in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. The primary objective of this study was to determine if the standard dose of cas

  5. Killing rates for caspofungin against Candida albicans after brief and continuous caspofungin exposure in the presence and absence of serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Renátó; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Perlin, David S; Kardos, Gábor; Domán, Marianna; Berényi, Réka; Majoros, László

    2014-10-01

    It was previously demonstrated that brief (≤1 h) exposures to echinocandins are as effective to kill Candida albicans cells as continuous 24-h exposure. However, killing rates after continuous and short (1 h) echinocandin exposures to C. albicans have not yet been evaluated in RPMI-1640 with and without 50 % serum. We evaluated four echinocandin susceptible C. albicans bloodstream isolates, ATCC 10231 type strain and an echinocandin-resistant isolate (DPL20, FKS F645P). Caspofungin MICs, time-kill and postantifungal effect (PAFE) tests were performed in RPMI-1640 with and without 50 % serum. Killing rates (k values) in time-kill and PAFE experiments were determined for each strain and concentration. In time-kill experiments, colony count decreases were isolate- and concentration-dependent at 0.25, 1, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mg/L in RPMI-1640, but concentration-independent at 1, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mg/L in 50 % serum. One-hour caspofungin exposure at 4, 16 and 32 mg/L resulted in CFU decreases comparable with the results obtained in time-kill experiments in RPMI-1640, but 50 % serum at 4, 16 and 32 mg/L allowed growth of all isolates (k values were negative) (P caspofungin exposure. As only a short growth inhibition without killing was observed in 50 % serum, clinical relevance of caspofungin PAFE in vivo is questionable.

  6. The characteristics, treatment and prevention of laboratory animal allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Ferdenzi, Elisabetta; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-12-17

    Laboratory animal allergy (LAA) is a pervasive problem that affects up to one-third of laboratory animal personnel. An immediate hypersensitivity reaction can be triggered by contact with antigens present in urine, hair, dander and saliva of laboratory animals. The authors provide an overview of the epidemiology, triggering mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment and risk factors of LAA. They also discuss primary and secondary prevention measures that can be taken to reduce LAA morbidity and to allow personnel suffering from LAA to safely continue to do their jobs.

  7. Concentration-Dependent Effects of Caspofungin on the Metabolic Activity of Aspergillus Species▿

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The minimum effective concentration (MEC) used to assess the in vitro antifungal activity of caspofungin against Aspergillus spp. is a qualitative endpoint requiring microscopic examination of hyphae. We therefore developed a tool for the quantitative assessment of caspofungin activity against Aspergillus spp. at clinically applicable concentrations. Susceptibility to caspofungin (0.008 to 8 μg/ml) was studied for 9 A. fumigatus, 8 A. flavus, and 12 A. terreus isolates based on the Clinical a...

  8. Effects of Treated versus Untreated Polystyrene on Caspofungin In Vitro Activity against Candida Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fothergill, Annette W; McCarthy, Dora I; Albataineh, Mohammad T; Sanders, Carmita; McElmeel, Maria; Wiederhold, Nathan P

    2016-03-01

    Significant interlaboratory variability is observed in testing the caspofungin susceptibility of Candida species by both the CLSI and EUCAST broth microdilution methodologies. We evaluated the influence of treated versus untreated polystyrene microtiter trays on caspofungin MICs using 209 isolates of four Candida species, including 16 C. albicans and 11 C. glabrata isolates with defined FKS mutations. Caspofungin MICs were also determined using the commercially available YeastOne and Etest assays and 102 isolates. All C. glabrata isolates had caspofungin MICs of ≥0.5 μg/ml, the clinical breakpoint for caspofungin resistance in this species, measured using trays made of treated polystyrene, regardless of the FKS status. In contrast, susceptible isolates could readily be distinguished from resistant/non-wild-type isolates when caspofungin MICs were measured using untreated polystyrene trays and both the YeastOne and Etest assays. Similar results were also observed for C. krusei isolates, as all isolates had caspofungin MICs above the threshold for resistance measured using treated polystyrene trays. In contrast, C. albicans isolates could be correctly identified as susceptible or resistant when caspofungin MICs were measured with treated or untreated trays and with the YeastOne and Etest assays. MICs falsely elevated above the resistance breakpoint were also not observed for C. tropicalis isolates. These results demonstrated that the use of treated polystyrene may be one factor that leads to falsely elevated caspofungin in vitro susceptibility results and that this may also be a greater issue for some Candida species than for others.

  9. 卡泊芬净治疗慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期合并肺部真菌感染的疗效及安全性分析%The efficacy and safety of caspofungin in the treatment of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary fungal infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张友林; 唐猛

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究与分析卡泊芬净在治疗慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期合并肺部真菌感染的疗效及安全性。方法选取慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期合并肺部真菌感染患者62例,采用数字表法随机将患者分为研究组和对照组各31例。研究组静脉滴注卡泊芬净,初始剂量70 mg/d,后续50 mg/d;对照组静脉滴注两性霉素 B 脂质体,剂量控制在3 mg・ kg-1・ d-1。两组治疗时间持续在症状消失后5 d,记录分析两组临床疗效及不良反应。结果研究组治疗有效率为67.74%,明显高于对照组的41.93%,差异有统计学意义(χ2=2.0251,P =0.0429);不良反应发生率研究组为16.13%,明显低于对照组的48.39%,差异有统计学意义(χ2=2.6948,P =0.0070);肝肾功能指标对照组不仅 ALT、AST 治疗前后差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),而且治疗前后 BUN 与 Cr 差异同样有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期合并肺部真菌感染患者采用卡泊芬净治疗,治疗有效率与不良反应的发生率都明显好于两性霉素 B 脂质体,并且对肾功能伤害小,值得在临床推广应用。%Objective To study and analyze the efficacy and safety of caspofungin in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients complicated with pulmonary fungal infections.Methods 62 patients of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease complicated with pulmonary fungal infec-tions were randomly divided into study group and control group,31 cases in each group.Study group was intravenously given caspofungin,with an initial dose of 70mg/d,follow 50mg/d.The control group was intravenously given liposomal amphotericin B,dose control in 3mg・ kg-1 ・ d-1 .After treatment lasted symptoms 5d,clinical efficacy and side effects of two groups were recorded.Results The

  10. 卡泊芬净治疗40例恶性血液病患者合并侵袭性真菌感染临床研究%Clinical study of caspofungin in the treatment of invasive fungal infection in patients with hematologic malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏亮; 夏瑞祥; 曾庆曙; 杨明珍; 王永庆

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of caspofungin in the treatment of invasive fungal infection (IFI) in patients with hematologic malignancies. Methods Data of 40 hematologic malignancies patients received caspofungin (with caspofunjin at a dose of 70 mg in the first day,and then at a dose of 50 mg/d) treatment between January 2010 and December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed.Adverse events and the efficacy were investigated. Results Of the 40 patients, 26 were male and 14 were female, with a median age of 38 years old. One candida glabrata and 1 candida tropical were positive (blood culture);two cases were aspergillus positive (pleural effusion culture). Ten cases of qualified sputum culture were positive, including 4 candida albicans, 2 aspergillus, 2 candida glabrata, 1 candida krusei, and 1 candida tropical. Four cases were proven IFI and 10 probable IFI, 26 possible IFI. In all 40 patients, 17 cases were cured (42.5%) and 8 cases markedly improved (20.0%), 8 cases were progressive(20.0%), and 7 cases were ineffective(17.5%), with an overall effective rate of 62.5%. In effectively treated patients, the median time of fever clearance was 4.5 (l~ll)d. In the group of initial treatment, 17 cases were effective in 21 with an effective rate of 81.0%; in the saving group, 8 cases were effective in 19 with an effective rate of 42.1%. In the process of caspofun— gin treatment, treatment—related adverse reactions were mostly treated and had recoverability. Conclusion Caspofungin may be an effective and safe drug to treat IFI in patients with hematologic malignancies, and can be used as the first choice of antifungal therapy in IFI patients.%目的 探讨卡泊芬净治疗恶性血液病合并侵袭性真菌感染(IFI)的疗效及安全性.方法 回顾分析2010 年1 月至2011年12 月40 例接受卡泊芬净治疗(首日70 mg/d,之后50 mg/d,疗程依患者病情而定)恶性血液病患者的临床资料,观察患者

  11. DESALINATION AND WATER TREATMENT RESEARCH AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigali, Mark J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Altman, Susan J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Biedermann, Laura [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuzio, Stephanie P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rempe, Susan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Water is the backbone of our economy - safe and adequate supplies of water are vital for agriculture, industry, recreation, and human consumption. While our supply of water today is largely safe and adequate, we as a nation face increasing water supply challenges in the form of extended droughts, demand growth due to population increase, more stringent health-based regulation, and competing demands from a variety of users. To meet these challenges in the coming decades, water treatment technologies, including desalination, will contribute substantially to ensuring a safe, sustainable, affordable, and adequate water supply for the United States. This overview documents Sandia National Laboratories' (SNL, or Sandia) Water Treatment Program which focused on the development and demonstration of advanced water purification technologies as part of the larger Sandia Water Initiative. Projects under the Water Treatment Program include: (1) the development of desalination research roadmaps (2) our efforts to accelerate the commercialization of new desalination and water treatment technologies (known as the 'Jump-Start Program),' (3) long range (high risk, early stage) desalination research (known as the 'Long Range Research Program'), (4) treatment research projects under the Joint Water Reuse & Desalination Task Force, (5) the Arsenic Water Technology Partnership Program, (6) water treatment projects funded under the New Mexico Small Business Administration, (7) water treatment projects for the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), (8) Sandia- developed contaminant-selective treatment technologies, and finally (9) current Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funded desalination projects.

  12. Weight drives caspofungin pharmacokinetic variability in overweight and obese people: fractal power signatures beyond two-thirds or three-fourths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ronald G; Swancutt, Mark A; Meek, Claudia; Leff, Richard; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2013-05-01

    Echinocandins, such as caspofungin, are commonly used to treat candidemia and aspergillosis. Success rates for candidemia treatment are approximately 70%. Dose optimization may further help improve these success rates, given that the microbial effect of these agents is concentration dependent. There are conflicting data as regards the effect of weight and/or obesity on caspofungin drug concentrations. We designed a prospective study to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics of caspofungin in adults with a weight difference range of 100 kg. Caspofungin pharmacokinetics were best described using a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model. There were 18 subjects studied, of whom half were women. The central volume was typically 4.2 liters but increased by a factor of (weight/53.6)(3/4). The peripheral compartment volume was typically 2.53 liters but increased by a factor of (weight/53.6)(3/2), an unusual power law signature. Similarly, the 3/4 power law best described the relationship between weight and systemic clearance for persons weighing >66.3 kg, whereas intercompartmental clearance was best described by the 3/2 power signature. There are two implications of our findings. First, lower caspofungin area-under-the-concentration-time curves are achieved in obese persons than thinner ones. This suggests that dose optimization in heavier patients may improve clinical success rates. Second, the 3/2 exponent is unusual in fractal geometry-based scaling and warrants further study. Moreover, this suggests that use of a "floating" instead of a fixed exponent may be more useful in studies where weight is under investigation as a potential cause of pharmacokinetic variability within adult patients. (This study protocol was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov under registration number NCT01062165.).

  13. Caspofungin primes the immune response of the larvae of Galleria mellonella and induces a non-specific antimicrobial response

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Judy; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The echinocandins (e.g. caspofungin) function by inhibiting the synthesis of 1,3-b-glucan in the fungal cell wall. While the potent antifungal activity of caspofungin has been well characterized in mammals, this study investigated the in vivo antifungal effect of caspofungin using larvae of the insect Galleria mellonella. Caspofungin was successful in increasing the survival of larvae that were inoculated with Candida albicans 1 h before the drug was administered, particularly whe...

  14. Caspofungin exposure alters the core septin AspB interactome of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Muñiz, José M; Renshaw, Hilary; Waitt, Greg; Soderblom, Erik J; Moseley, M Arthur; Palmer, Jonathan M; Juvvadi, Praveen R; Keller, Nancy P; Steinbach, William J

    2017-04-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus, the main etiological agent of invasive aspergillosis, is a leading cause of death in immunocompromised patients. Septins, a conserved family of GTP-binding proteins, serve as scaffolding proteins to recruit enzymes and key regulators to different cellular compartments. Deletion of the A. fumigatus septin aspB increases susceptibility to the echinocandin antifungal caspofungin. However, how AspB mediates this response to caspofungin is unknown. Here, we characterized the AspB interactome under basal conditions and after exposure to a clinically relevant concentration of caspofungin. While A. fumigatus AspB interacted with 334 proteins, including kinases, cell cycle regulators, and cell wall synthesis-related proteins under basal growth conditions, caspofungin exposure altered AspB interactions. A total of 69 of the basal interactants did not interact with AspB after exposure to caspofungin, and 54 new interactants were identified following caspofungin exposure. We generated A. fumigatus deletion strains for 3 proteins (ArpB, Cyp4, and PpoA) that only interacted with AspB following exposure to caspofungin that were previously annotated as induced after exposure to antifungal agents, yet only PpoA was implicated in the response to caspofungin. Taken together, we defined how the septin AspB interactome is altered in the presence of a clinically relevant antifungal.

  15. Argonne National Laboratory`s photooxidation organic mixed-waste treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, T.L.; Torres, T.; Conner, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the installation and startup testing of the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) photo-oxidation organic mixed-waste treatment system. This system will treat organic mixed (i.e., radioactive and hazardous) waste by oxidizing the organics to carbon dioxide and inorganic salts in an aqueous media. The residue will be treated in the existing radwaste evaporators. The system is installed in the waste management facility at the ANL-E site in Argonne, Illinois.

  16. Multicenter Study of Epidemiological Cutoff Values and Detection of Resistance in Candida spp. to Anidulafungin, Caspofungin, and Micafungin Using the Sensititre YeastOne Colorimetric Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Fernandez, M.; Cantón, E.; Carver, P. L.; Chen, S. C.-A.; Eschenauer, G.; Getsinger, D. L.; Gonzalez, G. M.; Grancini, A.; Hanson, K. E.; Kidd, S. E.; Klinker, K.; Kubin, C. J.; Kus, J. V.; Lockhart, S. R.; Meletiadis, J.; Morris, A. J.; Pelaez, T.; Rodriguez-Iglesias, M.; Sánchez-Reus, F.; Shoham, S.; Wengenack, N. L.; Borrell Solé, N.; Echeverria, J.; Esperalba, J.; Gómez-G. de la Pedrosa, E.; García García, I.; Linares, M. J.; Marco, F.; Merino, P.; Pemán, J.; Pérez del Molino, L.; Roselló Mayans, E.; Rubio Calvo, C.; Ruiz Pérez de Pipaon, M.; Yagüe, G.; Garcia-Effron, G.; Perlin, D. S.; Sanguinetti, M.; Shields, R.; Turnidge, J.

    2015-01-01

    Neither breakpoints (BPs) nor epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) have been established for Candida spp. with anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin when using the Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) broth dilution colorimetric method. In addition, reference caspofungin MICs have so far proven to be unreliable. Candida species wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (for microorganisms in a species/drug combination with no detectable phenotypic resistance) were established for 6,007 Candida albicans, 186 C. dubliniensis, 3,188 C. glabrata complex, 119 C. guilliermondii, 493 C. krusei, 205 C. lusitaniae, 3,136 C. parapsilosis complex, and 1,016 C. tropicalis isolates. SYO MIC data gathered from 38 laboratories in Australia, Canada, Europe, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States were pooled to statistically define SYO ECVs. ECVs for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin encompassing ≥97.5% of the statistically modeled population were, respectively, 0.12, 0.25, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. albicans, 0.12, 0.25, and 0.03 μg/ml for C. glabrata complex, 4, 2, and 4 μg/ml for C. parapsilosis complex, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. tropicalis, 0.25, 1, and 0.25 μg/ml for C. krusei, 0.25, 1, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. lusitaniae, 4, 2, and 2 μg/ml for C. guilliermondii, and 0.25, 0.25, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. dubliniensis. Species-specific SYO ECVs for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin correctly classified 72 (88.9%), 74 (91.4%), 76 (93.8%), respectively, of 81 Candida isolates with identified fks mutations. SYO ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibility to anidulafungin, micafungin, and especially caspofungin, since testing the susceptibilities of Candida spp. to caspofungin by reference methodologies is not recommended. PMID:26282428

  17. Multicenter study of epidemiological cutoff values and detection of resistance in Candida spp. to anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin using the Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Alvarez-Fernandez, M; Cantón, E; Carver, P L; Chen, S C-A; Eschenauer, G; Getsinger, D L; Gonzalez, G M; Govender, N P; Grancini, A; Hanson, K E; Kidd, S E; Klinker, K; Kubin, C J; Kus, J V; Lockhart, S R; Meletiadis, J; Morris, A J; Pelaez, T; Quindós, G; Rodriguez-Iglesias, M; Sánchez-Reus, F; Shoham, S; Wengenack, N L; Borrell Solé, N; Echeverria, J; Esperalba, J; Gómez-G de la Pedrosa, E; García García, I; Linares, M J; Marco, F; Merino, P; Pemán, J; Pérez Del Molino, L; Roselló Mayans, E; Rubio Calvo, C; Ruiz Pérez de Pipaon, M; Yagüe, G; Garcia-Effron, G; Guinea, J; Perlin, D S; Sanguinetti, M; Shields, R; Turnidge, J

    2015-11-01

    Neither breakpoints (BPs) nor epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) have been established for Candida spp. with anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin when using the Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) broth dilution colorimetric method. In addition, reference caspofungin MICs have so far proven to be unreliable. Candida species wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (for microorganisms in a species/drug combination with no detectable phenotypic resistance) were established for 6,007 Candida albicans, 186 C. dubliniensis, 3,188 C. glabrata complex, 119 C. guilliermondii, 493 C. krusei, 205 C. lusitaniae, 3,136 C. parapsilosis complex, and 1,016 C. tropicalis isolates. SYO MIC data gathered from 38 laboratories in Australia, Canada, Europe, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States were pooled to statistically define SYO ECVs. ECVs for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin encompassing ≥97.5% of the statistically modeled population were, respectively, 0.12, 0.25, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. albicans, 0.12, 0.25, and 0.03 μg/ml for C. glabrata complex, 4, 2, and 4 μg/ml for C. parapsilosis complex, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. tropicalis, 0.25, 1, and 0.25 μg/ml for C. krusei, 0.25, 1, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. lusitaniae, 4, 2, and 2 μg/ml for C. guilliermondii, and 0.25, 0.25, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. dubliniensis. Species-specific SYO ECVs for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin correctly classified 72 (88.9%), 74 (91.4%), 76 (93.8%), respectively, of 81 Candida isolates with identified fks mutations. SYO ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibility to anidulafungin, micafungin, and especially caspofungin, since testing the susceptibilities of Candida spp. to caspofungin by reference methodologies is not recommended.

  18. 卡泊芬净醋酸酯%Caspofungin acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凡; 王强

    2006-01-01

    卡泊芬净醋酸酯(caspofungin acetate)是由Glarea lozoyensis的发酵产物合成得到的半合成肽化合物(棘白素类)。卡泊芬净是新一类抗真菌药物(葡萄糖合成酶抑制剂)的第一个上市产品.通过抑制真菌细胞壁的重要组成成分B(1,3)-D-葡萄糖的合成而发挥抗真菌作用。

  19. Wild-Type MIC Distributions and Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Caspofungin and Aspergillus spp. for the CLSI Broth Microdilution Method (M38-A2 Document)▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Fothergill, A.; Fuller, J.; Johnson, E.; Pelaez, T.; Turnidge, J.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical breakpoints have not been established for mold testing. Epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) are available for six Aspergillus spp. and the triazoles, but not for caspofungin. Wild-type (WT) minimal effective concentration (MEC) distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined in order to establish ECVs for six Aspergillus spp. and caspofungin. The number of available isolates was as follows: 1,691 A. fumigatus, 432 A. flavus, 192 A. nidulans, 440 A. niger, 385 A. terreus, and 75 A. versicolor isolates. CLSI broth microdilution MEC data gathered in five independent laboratories in Canada, Europe, and the United States were aggregated for the analyses. ECVs expressed in μg/ml that captured 95% and 99% of the modeled wild-type population were for A. fumigatus 0.5 and 1, A. flavus 0.25 and 0.5, A. nidulans 0.5 and 0.5, A. niger 0.25 and 0.25, A. terreus 0.25 and 0.5, and A. versicolor 0.25 and 0.5. Although caspofungin ECVs are not designed to predict the outcome of therapy, they may aid in the detection of strains with reduced antifungal susceptibility to this agent and acquired resistance mechanisms. PMID:21422219

  20. Compliance to HIV treatment monitoring guidelines can reduce laboratory costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Cassim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Panel tests are a predetermined group of tests commonly requested together to provide a comprehensive and conclusive diagnosis, for example, liver function test (LFT. South African HIV antiretroviral treatment (ART guidelines recommend individual tests for toxicity monitoring over panel tests. In 2008, the National Health Laboratory Services (NHLS request form was redesigned to list individual tests instead of panel tests and removed the ‘other tests’ box option to facilitate efficient ART laboratory monitoring.Objectives: This study aimed to demonstrate changes in laboratory expenditure, for individual and panel tests, for ART toxicity monitoring.Method: NHLS Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW data were extracted for HIV conditional grant accounts to assess ART toxicity monitoring laboratory expenditure between 2010/2011 and 2014/2015. Data were classified based on the tests requested, as either panel (LFT or urea and electrolytes or individual (alanine transaminase or creatinine tests.Results: Expenditure on panel tests reduced from R340 million in 2010/2011 to R140m by 2014/2015 (reduction of R204m and individual test expenditure increased from R34m to R76m (twofold increase. A significant reduction in LFT panel expenditure was noted, reducing from R322m in 2010/2011 to R130m in 2014/2015 (60% reduction.Conclusion: Changes in toxicity monitoring guidelines and the re-engineering of the NHLS request form successfully reduced expenditure on panel tests relative to individual tests. The introduction of order entry systems could further reduce unnecessary laboratory expenditure.Keywords: HIV;ART;Toxicity Monitoring;Expenditure

  1. Synthesis and antifungal activities of glycosylated derivatives of the cyclic peptide fungicide caspofungin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junxiang; Hu, Honggang; Zhao, Qingjie; Wang, Ting; Zou, Yan; Yu, Shichong; Wu, Qiuye; Guo, Zhongwu

    2012-08-01

    Diseases caused by systemic fungal infections have become a significant clinical problem in recent decades. A series of glycosyl derivatives of the approved cyclic peptide antifungal drug caspofungin conjugated with β-D-glucopyranose, β-D-galactopyranose, β-D-xylopyranose, β-L-rhamnopyranose, β-maltose and β-lactose units were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as new potential antifungal drugs. The compounds were obtained by coupling the corresponding glycosyl amines to the free primary amino groups of caspofungin through a bifunctional glutaryl linker. In contrast to caspofungin, these glycosylated derivatives are soluble in water, but are not hygroscopic and moreover, are more stable than caspofungin under high humidity and temperature. CD studies showed that glycosylation has very little impact on the conformation of the cyclic peptide of caspofungin. In vitro antifungal tests against seven human pathogenic fungi revealed that the caspofungin-monosaccharide conjugates, but not the disaccharide conjugates, have increased antifungal activities against the majority of tested fungus species relative to caspofungin. The β-D-glucopyranosyl derivative 2 a showed the strongest and broadest antifungal activity, providing a lead for further studies.

  2. Role of innate immune receptors in paradoxical caspofungin activity in vivo in preclinical aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Silvia; Bozza, Silvia; D'Angelo, Carmen; Casagrande, Andrea; Della Fazia, Maria Agnese; Pitzurra, Lucia; Romani, Luigina; Aversa, Franco

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the possible mechanisms underlying the paradoxical caspofungin activity in vivo in preclinical aspergillosis. We evaluated the activity of escalating doses of caspofungin in vivo in different preclinical models of invasive aspergillosis, including mice deficient for selected innate immune receptors. The therapeutic efficacy of caspofungin in experimental invasive aspergillosis was strictly dose dependent, being observed at doses of 0.1 and 1 mg/kg of body weight depending on the experimental models. Paradoxical increase in pulmonary fungal burden as well as inflammatory pathology was observed at the highest dose of caspofungin (5 mg/kg), occurred independently of the so-called Eagle effect and susceptibility to caspofungin in vitro, and was contingent upon the presence of TLR2, Dectin-1, and TLR9. Increased expression of Dectin-1 and TLR9 were observed upon exposure to caspofungin in vitro and in vivo. Together, these findings suggest that the net activity of caspofungin in vivo is orchestrated by the activation, directly or indirectly, of multiple innate immune receptors.

  3. Exposure of Aspergillus fumigatus to caspofungin results in the release, and de novo biosynthesis, of gliotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshwika, Ahmed; Kelly, Judy; Fallon, John P; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2013-02-01

    Caspofungin is a member of the echinocandin class of antifungal agents that inhibit the synthesis of β 1,3 glucan thus disrupting fungal cell wall structure and function. Exposure of the Aspergillus fumigatus cultures to caspofungin (0.01, 0.1 or 1.0 μg/ml) resulted in a reduction in cell growth, but the production of the epipolythiodioxopiperazine toxin, gliotoxin, was comparable, or greater, in cultures exposed to caspofungin than untreated controls. Exposure of A. fumigatus hyphae to 1.0 μg/ml caspofungin for 4 h resulted in the release of amino acids (P = 0.01), protein (P = 0.002) and gliotoxin (P = 0.02). Cultures of A. fumigatus incubated in the presence of caspofungin for 4 or 24 h demonstrated enhanced gliotoxin release (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively) and biosynthesis (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively) compared to that by control cultures. The results presented here indicate that exposure of A. fumigatus to caspofungin results in increased cell permeability and an increase in the synthesis and release of gliotoxin. Since gliotoxin has well established immunosuppressive properties it is possible that exposure of A. fumigatus to caspofungin may potentiate the production of this toxin at the site of infection. Elevated gliotoxin biosynthesis may be an attempt by the fungus to restore the redox balance of the cell following exposure to the antifungal agent but the overall effect appears to be enhanced synthesis and release.

  4. Effects of Treated versus Untreated Polystyrene on Caspofungin In Vitro Activity against Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fothergill, Annette W.; McCarthy, Dora I.; Albataineh, Mohammad T.; Sanders, Carmita; McElmeel, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Significant interlaboratory variability is observed in testing the caspofungin susceptibility of Candida species by both the CLSI and EUCAST broth microdilution methodologies. We evaluated the influence of treated versus untreated polystyrene microtiter trays on caspofungin MICs using 209 isolates of four Candida species, including 16 C. albicans and 11 C. glabrata isolates with defined FKS mutations. Caspofungin MICs were also determined using the commercially available YeastOne and Etest assays and 102 isolates. All C. glabrata isolates had caspofungin MICs of ≥0.5 μg/ml, the clinical breakpoint for caspofungin resistance in this species, measured using trays made of treated polystyrene, regardless of the FKS status. In contrast, susceptible isolates could readily be distinguished from resistant/non-wild-type isolates when caspofungin MICs were measured using untreated polystyrene trays and both the YeastOne and Etest assays. Similar results were also observed for C. krusei isolates, as all isolates had caspofungin MICs above the threshold for resistance measured using treated polystyrene trays. In contrast, C. albicans isolates could be correctly identified as susceptible or resistant when caspofungin MICs were measured with treated or untreated trays and with the YeastOne and Etest assays. MICs falsely elevated above the resistance breakpoint were also not observed for C. tropicalis isolates. These results demonstrated that the use of treated polystyrene may be one factor that leads to falsely elevated caspofungin in vitro susceptibility results and that this may also be a greater issue for some Candida species than for others. PMID:26763959

  5. Treatment of contaminated wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, S.M.; Kent, T.E.; Arnold, W.D.

    1993-03-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an energy research and radioisotope production facility, operates two centralized liquid waste treatment systems, one for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system and the other for process waste (PW). New regulatory and waste minimization requirements have led ORNL to consider zeolite ion exchangers for removing cesium and strontium from LLLW and PW streams for their economic advantages, selective molecular sieve properties, and ease of disposal. Natural and synthetic zeolites have been compared with inorganic and organic ion exchangers for these applications.

  6. Application analysis of caspofungin used in 156 patients in our hospital%卡泊芬净在156例患者中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亚青; 张小雪

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To survey the application of caspofungin in our hospital and provide reference for rational use in clinic. Methods: A total of 156 cases using caspofungin were extracted from January 2011 to March 2012 and retrospectively analyzed in respect of the number of use of caspofungin in different wards, situation of medication, clinical efifcacy and adverse reactions. Results:Among 156 cases of application of caspofungin, the usage and administration in 141 cases complied with the speciifcation of caspofungin, the loading doses and maintenance doses in 3 children patients were reduced, both of the maintenance doses and loading doses in other 12 cases were 70 mg. The highest frequent use of caspofungin was respiratory department (38 cases, accounting for 24.36%), followed by hematology department (31 cases,accounting for 19.87%) and cardiovascular department (17 cases, accounting for 10.90%). After application of caspofungin treatment, the total effective rate was 51.93%, and in the course of treatment no serious adverse reaction was found. Conclusion:Caspofungin was relatively safe and effective for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis, invasive candidiasis as well as candidemia.%目的:了解卡泊芬净在我院的应用情况,为规范其使用提供参考。方法:采用回顾性方法,抽取我院2011年1月-2012年3月应用卡泊芬净的患者156例,统计卡泊芬净在各个科室的使用例数、用药情况等,对不同患者使用该药物的临床疗效以及不良反应进行分析。结果:156例患者中,141例患者的卡泊芬净用法用量符合说明书规定,3例儿童患者负荷剂量及维持剂量减半或减少,12例患者负荷剂量及维持剂量均为70 mg;用药频次最高的临床科室为呼吸科38例(占24.36%),其次为血液科31例(占19.87%),心血管科17例(占10.90%)。156例患者经卡泊芬净治疗后,总有效率为51.93%,在治疗过程

  7. Overexpression of Sbe2p, a Golgi Protein, Results in Resistance to Caspofungin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Osherov, Nir; May, Gregory S.; Albert, Nathaniel D.; Kontoyiannis, D. P.

    2002-01-01

    Caspofungin inhibits the synthesis of 1, 3-β-d-glucan, an essential cell wall target in fungi. Genetic studies in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that mutations in FKS1 and FKS2 genes result in caspofungin resistance. However, direct demonstration of the role of gene overexpression in caspofungin resistance has been lacking. We transformed wild-type S. cerevisiae with an S. cerevisiae URA3-based GAL1 cDNA library and selected transformants in glucose synthetic complete pla...

  8. Posaconazole exhibits in vitro and in vivo synergistic antifungal activity with caspofungin or FK506 against Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Lien Chen

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to test whether posaconazole, a broad-spectrum antifungal agent inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, exhibits synergy with the β-1,3 glucan synthase inhibitor caspofungin or the calcineurin inhibitor FK506 against the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Although current drug treatments for Candida infection are often efficacious, the available antifungal armamentarium may not be keeping pace with the increasing incidence of drug resistant strains. The development of drug combinations or novel antifungal drugs to address emerging drug resistance is therefore of general importance. Combination drug therapies are employed to treat patients with HIV, cancer, or tuberculosis, and has considerable promise in the treatment of fungal infections like cryptococcal meningitis and C. albicans infections. Our studies reported here demonstrate that posaconazole exhibits in vitro synergy with caspofungin or FK506 against drug susceptible or resistant C. albicans strains. Furthermore, these combinations also show in vivo synergy against C. albicans strain SC5314 and its derived echinocandin-resistant mutants, which harbor an S645Y mutation in the CaFks1 β-1,3 glucan synthase drug target, suggesting potential therapeutic applicability for these combinations in the future.

  9. Thermal treatment technology at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillary, J.M. [EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Recent surveys of mixed wastes in interim storage throughout the 30-site Department of Energy complex indicate that only 12 of those sites account for 98% of such wastes by volume. Current inventories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) account for 38% of total DOE wastes in interim storage, the largest of any single site. For a large percentage of these waste volumes, as well as the substantial amounts of buried and currently generated wastes, thermal treatment processes have been designated as the technologies of choice. Current facilities and a number of proposed strategies exist for thermal treatment of wastes of this nature at the INEL. High-level radioactive waste is solidified in the Waste Calciner Facility at the Idaho Central Processing Plant. Low-level solid wastes until recently have been processed at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF), a compaction, size reduction, and controlled air incineration facility. WERF is currently undergoing process upgrading and RCRA Part B permitting. Recent systems studies have defined effective strategies, in the form of thermal process sequences, for treatment of wastes of the complex and heterogeneous nature in the INEL inventory. This presentation reviews the current status of operating facilities, active studies in this area, and proposed strategies for thermal treatment of INEL wastes.

  10. Mixed waste groundwater treatment at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claggett, S.L.

    1994-12-31

    Test Area North (TAN) is located at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL was listed on the National Priority List (NPL) in 1989 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for several environmental concerns. Subsequently, A Record of Decision for one area of concern was signed to begin interim remedial action of groundwater at TAN. ADTECHS was selected to design, procure, construct and operate a 50 gpm groundwater treatment facility to treat radioactive and hazardous contaminants (mixed waste). It is a {open_quotes}pump and treat{close_quotes} system that will undoubtably add to the controversy of their effectiveness in aquifer restoration. The facility will provide information for final remedial action of the Snake River aquifer at TAN.

  11. Network Modeling Reveals Cross Talk of MAP Kinases during Adaptation to Caspofungin Stress in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altwasser, Robert; Baldin, Clara; Weber, Jakob; Guthke, Reinhard; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Brakhage, Axel A; Linde, Jörg; Valiante, Vito

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are highly conserved in eukaryotic organisms. In pathogenic fungi, their activities were assigned to different physiological functions including drug adaptation and resistance. Aspergillus fumigatus is a human pathogenic fungus, which causes life-threatening invasive infections. Therapeutic options against invasive mycoses are still limited. One of the clinically used drugs is caspofungin, which specifically targets the fungal cell wall biosynthesis. A systems biology approach, based on comprehensive transcriptome data sets and mathematical modeling, was employed to infer a regulatory network and identify key interactions during adaptation to caspofungin stress in A. fumigatus. Mathematical modeling and experimental validations confirmed an intimate cross talk occurring between the cell wall-integrity and the high osmolarity-glycerol signaling pathways. Specifically, increased concentrations of caspofungin promoted activation of these signalings. Moreover, caspofungin affected the intracellular transport, which caused an additional osmotic stress that is independent of glucan inhibition. High concentrations of caspofungin reduced this osmotic stress, and thus decreased its toxic activity. Our results demonstrated that MAPK signaling pathways play a key role during caspofungin adaptation and are contributing to the paradoxical effect exerted by this drug.

  12. Caspofungin primes the immune response of the larvae of Galleria mellonella and induces a non-specific antimicrobial response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Judy; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2011-02-01

    The echinocandins (e.g. caspofungin) function by inhibiting the synthesis of 1,3-β-glucan in the fungal cell wall. While the potent antifungal activity of caspofungin has been well characterized in mammals, this study investigated the in vivo antifungal effect of caspofungin using larvae of the insect Galleria mellonella. Caspofungin was successful in increasing the survival of larvae that were inoculated with Candida albicans 1 h before the drug was administered, particularly when a concentration of 0.19 μg ml(-1) was used. Pre-injecting larvae with caspofungin also increased their survival when they were inoculated with either Staphylococcus aureus or C. albicans. Caspofungin administration resulted in an increase in the number of circulating immune cells (haemocytes), an increase in the expression of the genes encoding IMPI and transferrin, and an increase in the expression of a number of proteins (identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) some of which have immune functions. This work indicates that administration of caspofungin can increase the survival of infected G. mellonella larvae, and this is due to the antifungal properties of caspofungin and also to the ability of caspofungin to prime the insect's immune response.

  13. Treatment of mixed radioactive liquid wastes at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C. [and others

    1994-03-01

    Aqueous mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is traditionally generated in small volumes with a wide variety of compositions. A cooperative effort at ANL between Waste Management (WM) and the Chemical Technology Division (CMT) was established, to develop, install, and implement a robust treatment operation to handle the majority of such wastes. For this treatment, toxic metals in mixed-waste solutions are precipitated in a semiautomated system using Ca(OH){sub 2} and, for some metals, Na{sub 2}S additions. This step is followed by filtration to remove the precipitated solids. A filtration skid was built that contains several filter types which can be used, as appropriate, for a variety of suspended solids. When supernatant liquid is separated from the toxic-metal solids by decantation and filtration, it will be a low-level waste (LLW) rather than a mixed waste. After passing a Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test, the solids may also be treated as LLW.

  14. Laboratory validation of an ozone device for recreational water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donofrio, Robert S; Aridi, Sal; Saha, Ratul; Bechanko, Robin; Schaefer, Kevin; Bestervelt, Lorelle L; Hamil, Beth

    2013-06-01

    Obtaining an accurate assessment of a treatment system's antimicrobial efficacy in recreational water is difficult given the large scale and high flow rates of the water systems. A laboratory test system was designed to mimic the water conditions and potential microbial contaminants found in swimming pools. This system was utilized to evaluate the performance of an in situ ozone disinfection device against four microorganisms: Cryptosporidium parvum, bacteriophage MS2, Enterococcus faecium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The sampling regimen evaluated the antimicrobial effectiveness in a single pass fashion, with samples being evaluated initially after exposure to the ozone unit, as well as at points downstream from the device. Based on the flow dynamics and log reductions, cycle threshold (Ct) values were calculated. The observed organism log reductions were as follows: >6.7 log for E. faecium and P. aeruginosa; >5.9 log for bacteriophage MS2; and between 2.7 and 4.1 log for C. parvum. The efficacy results indicate that the test system effectively functions as a secondary disinfection system as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Model Aquatic Health Code.

  15. Hsp70 and the Cochaperone StiA (Hop) Orchestrate Hsp90-Mediated Caspofungin Tolerance in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoth, Frédéric; Juvvadi, Praveen R; Soderblom, Erik J; Moseley, M Arthur; Steinbach, William J

    2015-08-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the primary etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis (IA), a major cause of death among immunosuppressed patients. Echinocandins (e.g., caspofungin) are increasingly used as second-line therapy for IA, but their activity is only fungistatic. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) was previously shown to trigger tolerance to caspofungin and the paradoxical effect (i.e., decreased efficacy of caspofungin at higher concentrations). Here, we demonstrate the key role of another molecular chaperone, Hsp70, in governing the stress response to caspofungin via Hsp90 and their cochaperone Hop/Sti1 (StiA in A. fumigatus). Mutation of the StiA-interacting domain of Hsp70 (C-terminal EELD motif) impaired thermal adaptation and caspofungin tolerance with loss of the caspofungin paradoxical effect. Impaired Hsp90 function and increased susceptibility to caspofungin were also observed following pharmacologic inhibition of the C-terminal domain of Hsp70 by pifithrin-μ or after stiA deletion, further supporting the links among Hsp70, StiA, and Hsp90 in governing caspofungin tolerance. StiA was not required for the physical interaction between Hsp70 and Hsp90 but had distinct roles in the regulation of their function in caspofungin and heat stress responses. In conclusion, this study deciphering the physical and functional interactions of the Hsp70-StiA-Hsp90 complex provided new insights into the mechanisms of tolerance to caspofungin in A. fumigatus and revealed a key C-terminal motif of Hsp70, which can be targeted by specific inhibitors, such as pifithrin-μ, to enhance the antifungal activity of caspofungin against A. fumigatus.

  16. Caspofungin versus fluconazole as prophylaxis of invasive fungal infection in high-risk liver transplantation recipients: A propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortún, Jesús; Muriel, Alfonso; Martín-Dávila, Pilar; Montejo, Miguel; Len, Oscar; Torre-Cisneros, Julian; Carratalá, Jordi; Muñoz, Patricia; Fariñas, Carmen; Moreno, Asunción; Fresco, Gema; Goikoetxea, Josune; Gavaldá, Joan; Pozo, Juan Carlos; Bodro, Marta; Vena, Antonio; Casafont, Fernando; Cervera, Carlos; Silva, José Tiago; Aguado, José M

    2016-04-01

    Targeted prophylaxis has proven to be an efficient strategy in liver transplantation recipients (LTRs). The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of caspofungin with that of fluconazole in high-risk (HR) LTRs. Caspofungin and fluconazole were compared in a multicenter, retrospective, cohort study in HR-LTRs in Spain. Outcomes were assessed at 180 days after transplantation. A propensity score approach was applied. During the study period (2005-2012), we analyzed 195 HR-LTRs from 9 hospitals. By type of prophylaxis, 97 patients received caspofungin and 98 received fluconazole. Of a total of 17 (8.7%) global invasive fungal infections (IFIs), breakthrough IFIs accounted for 11 (5.6%) and invasive aspergillosis (IA) accounted for 6 (3.1%). By univariate analysis, no differences were observed in the prevention of global IFIs. However, caspofungin was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of breakthrough IFIs (2.1% versus 9.2%, P = 0.04). In patients requiring dialysis (n = 62), caspofungin significantly reduced the frequency of breakthrough IFIs (P = 0.03). The propensity score analysis confirmed a significant reduction in the frequency of IA in patients receiving caspofungin (absolute risk reduction, 0.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.001-0.11; P = 0.044). Linear regression analysis revealed a significant decrease in blood alanine aminotransferase levels and a significant increase in bilirubin levels after administration of caspofungin. Caspofungin and fluconazole have similar efficacy for the prevention of global IFIs in HR-LTRs in this observational, multicenter cohort study. However, caspofungin was associated with a significant reduction of breakthrough IFIs and, after adjusting for confounders, caspofungin was associated with a lower rate of IA. This benefit is probably more favorable in patients on dialysis. Caspofungin is safe in HR-LTRs, although bilirubin levels may be increased.

  17. Treatment of Mercury Contaminated Oil from Sandia National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, KT

    2002-05-28

    First Article Tests of a stabilization method for greater than 260 mg mercury/kg oil were performed under a treatability study. This alternative treatment technology will address treatment of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) organics (mainly used pump oil) contaminated with mercury and other heavy metals. Some of the oil is also co-contaminated with tritium, other radionuclides, and hazardous materials. The technology is based on contacting the oil with a sorbent powder (Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Support, SAMMS), proven to adsorb heavy metals, followed by stabilization of the oil/powder mixture using a stabilization agent (Nochar N990). Two variations of the treatment technology were included in the treatability study. The SAMMS (Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Silica) technology was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for removal and stabilization of RCRA metals (i.e., lead, mercury, cadmium, silver, etc.) and for removal of mercury from organic solvents [1]. The SAMMS material is based on self-assembly of functionalized monolayers on mesoporous oxide surfaces. The unique mesoporous oxide supports provide a high surface area, thereby enhancing the metal-loading capacity. SAMMS material has high flexibility in that it binds with different forms of mercury, including metallic, inorganic, organic, charged, and neutral compounds [1] The material removes mercury from both organic wastes, such as pump oils, and from aqueous wastes. Mercury-loaded SAMMS not only passes TCLP tests, but also has good long-term durability as a waste form because: (1) the covalent binding between mercury and SAMMS has good resistance in ion-exchange, oxidation, and hydrolysis over a wide pH range and (2) the uniform and small pore size of the mesoporous silica prevents bacteria from solubilizing the bound mercury. Nochar's N990 Petrobond (Nochar, Inc., Indianapolis, IN) is an oil stabilization agent, specifically formulated for stabilizing vacuum

  18. Assessment of caspofungin susceptibility of Candida glabrata by the Etest®, CLSI, and EUCAST methods, and detection of FKS1 and FKS2 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, N; Laurens, C; Bertout, S; Balard, Y; Krasteva, D; Rispail, P; Lachaud, L

    2014-07-01

    Candida glabrata has emerged as a major pathogen in invasive candidiasis in recent years. Currently, guidelines for invasive candidiasis treatment recommend fluconazole or an echinocandin as the first-line therapy. Nevertheless, the resistance of Candida glabrata to echinocandin is an emerging problem and has been partly associated with mutations in the FKS1 and FKS2 genes. The Etest® is an appropriate method for determining antifungal susceptibility in emergency routine diagnosis. In this work, we evaluated the reliability of the Etest® in comparison with the two reference broth microdilution methods, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST), to assess the caspofungin resistance of 193 isolates of Candida glabrata. The interpretation of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values was also discussed according to different breakpoints. Moreover, FKS1 and FKS2 mutations were investigated for isolates with high MICs. Our results showed that the MIC50 value was similar to the MIC90 value for each method. The Etest® method showed the lowest MIC values, whereas EUCAST presented the highest. Categorical agreement between the Etest® and CLSI methods was 100 % and 36 % using the breakpoints proposed by Arendrup et al. (Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56(7):3965-3968, 2012) and Pfaller et al. (Int J Antimicrob Agents 38(1):65-69, 2011), respectively. Two isolates showed high MIC values with the three methods and both presented FKS2 mutations. A novel FKS2 mutation was also reported for one isolate. Future epidemiological studies should also evaluate the reliability of the Etest® to detect echinocandin resistance, as it remains a routine method.

  19. Discovery and development of first in class antifungal caspofungin (CANCIDAS®)--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkovec, James M; Hughes, David L; Masurekar, Prakash S; Sable, Carole A; Schwartz, Robert E; Singh, Sheo B

    2014-01-01

    Covering: 1985 to 2001.This paper describes a fifteen year journey from concept to clinical discovery and development of the first in class caspofungin acetate (CANCIDAS®) a parenteral antifungal agent. Caspofungin is a semisynthetic derivative of pneumocandin B0, a naturally occurring, lipophilic cyclic peptide isolated from the fungus, Glarea lozoyensis. While the echinocandins had been previously studied for antifungal activity by several organizations, the class was dropped for a variety of reasons. Merck subsequently initiated a research program leading to the discovery and development of caspofungin. The multitude of challenges that ensued during the discovery and development process and which were successfully resolved by multi-disciplinary teams constitute the content of this article. The article consists of five sections that describe the discovery and development of caspofungin in chronological order: (i) discovery of the natural product pneumocandin B0 from fungal fermentations, (ii) fermentation development to improve the titer of pneumocandin B0 to make it commercially viable, (iii) semisynthetic modification by medicinal chemistry to successfully improve the properties of pneumocandin B0 leading to the discovery of caspofungin, (iv) development of commercial semisynthesis and purification and formulation development to improve stability and (v) clinical development and approval of CANCIDAS® as an antifungal drug which subsequently saved thousands of lives.

  20. Caspofungin in combination with amphotericin B against Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchiesi, Francesco; Spreghini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Serena; Giannini, Daniele; Scalise, Giorgio

    2007-03-01

    Candida parapsilosis has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen. In the present study, a checkerboard broth microdilution method was performed to investigate the in vitro activities of caspofungin (CAS) in combination with amphotericin B (AMB) against three clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis. Although there was a significant reduction of the MIC of one or both drugs used in combination, an indifferent interaction (fractional inhibitory concentration index greater than 0.50 and less than or equal to 4.0) was observed in 100% of cases. This finding was confirmed by killing curve studies. By a disk diffusion assay, the halo diameters produced by antifungal agents in combination were often significantly greater than those produced by each drug alone. Antagonism was never observed. In a murine model of systemic candidiasis, CAS at either 0.25 or 1 mg/kg/day combined with AMB at 1 mg/kg/day was significantly more effective than each single drug at reducing the colony counts in kidneys. Higher doses of the echinocandin (i.e., 5 and 10 mg/kg/day) combined with the polyene did not show any advantage over CAS alone. Overall, our study showed a positive interaction of CAS and AMB against C. parapsilosis.

  1. Postantifungal effect of caspofungin against the Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2016-10-01

    Killing and postantifungal effects could be relevant for the selection of optimal dosing schedules. This study aims to compare time-kill and postantifungal effects with caspofungin on Candida albicans (C. albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida africana) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis) clades. In the postantifungal effect experiments, strains were exposed to caspofungin for 1 h at concentrations 0.12-8 μg/mL. Time-kill experiments were conducted at the same concentrations. Caspofungin exhibited a significant and prolonged postantifungal effect (>37 h) with 2 μg/mL against the most strains of C. albicans clade. Against the C. parapsilosis clade, the postantifungal effect was albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. metapsilosis.

  2. Effect of caspofungin and micafungin in combination with farnesol against Candida parapsilosis biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Renátó; Bozó, Aliz; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Domán, Marianna; Kardos, Gábor; Nagy, Fruzsina; Tóth, Zoltán; Majoros, László

    2016-04-01

    The in vitro activities of caspofungin and micafungin were determined with and without farnesol against Candida parapsilosis biofilms. Drug interactions were examined using the XTT colorimetric assay-based broth microdilution chequerboard method. Drug-drug interactions were assessed utilising the FICI, Bliss independence models and time-kill experiments. Median sessile MICs of five C. parapsilosis clinical isolates ranged between 32-256 mg/L, 16-512 mg/L and >300 μM for caspofungin, micafungin and farnesol, respectively. Median MICs for caspofungin and micafungin in combination with farnesol showed 8-64- and 4-64-fold decreases, respectively. Paradoxical growth noticed with both echinocandins was eliminated by farnesol. Based on FICIs for sessile clinical isolates, synergism was observed for caspofungin (range of median FICIs, 0.155-0.5) and micafungin (range of median FICIs, 0.093-0.5). Concordantly, MacSynergy analysis and global fitting of non-linear regression based on a Bliss independence models also showed synergism for caspofungin and micafungin. In line with FICI findings and the Bliss independence model, synergistic interactions were confirmed by time-kill experiments. The metabolic activity of fungal cells was significantly inhibited by caspofungin+farnesol at all three tested combinations (4 mg/L+75 μM, 8 mg/L+75 μM and 16 mg/L+75 μM) between 3 and 24 h compared with the control (P<0.05-0.001). Significant inhibition was observed for micafungin+farnesol between 3 and 12h (P<0.001) but not at 24 h. Despite the favourable effect of farnesol in combination with echinocandins, further in vivo studies are needed to confirm its therapeutic advantage in catheter-associated infections caused by C. parapsilosis.

  3. Nanoscale analysis of caspofungin-induced cell surface remodelling in Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Alsteens, David; Jackson, Desmond N.; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of fungal pathogens that are resistant to the classic repertoire of antifungal drugs has increased the need for new therapeutic agents. A prominent example of such a novel compound is caspofungin, known to alter cell wall biogenesis by inhibiting β-1,3-d-glucan synthesis. Although much progress has been made in understanding the mechanism of action of caspofungin, little is known about its influence on the biophysical properties of the fungal cells. Here, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to demonstrate that caspofungin induces major remodelling of the cell surface properties of Candida albicans. Caspofungin causes major morphological and structural alterations of the cells, which correlate with a decrease of the cell wall mechanical strength. Moreover, we find that the drug induces the massive exposure of the cell adhesion protein Als1 on the cell surface and leads to increased cell surface hydrophobicity, two features that trigger cell aggregation. This behaviour is not observed in yeast species lacking Als1, demonstrating the key role that the protein plays in determining the aggregation phenotype of C. albicans. The results show that AFM opens up new avenues for understanding the molecular bases of microbe-drug interactions and for developing new therapeutic agents.The advent of fungal pathogens that are resistant to the classic repertoire of antifungal drugs has increased the need for new therapeutic agents. A prominent example of such a novel compound is caspofungin, known to alter cell wall biogenesis by inhibiting β-1,3-d-glucan synthesis. Although much progress has been made in understanding the mechanism of action of caspofungin, little is known about its influence on the biophysical properties of the fungal cells. Here, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to demonstrate that caspofungin induces major remodelling of the cell surface properties of Candida albicans. Caspofungin causes major morphological and structural alterations of the

  4. Laboratory testing improves diagnosis and treatment outcomes in primary health care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Y. Carter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine if use of basic laboratory tests improves diagnosis and treatment outcomes in outpatients attending rural primary health care facilities.Setting: Six rural health centres in Kenya.Design: Cross-sectional study to observe change in diagnosis and treatment made by clinical officers after laboratory testing in outpatients attending six rural health centres in Kenya.Subject: The diagnosis and treatment of 1134 patients attending outpatient services in six rural health centres were compared before and after basic laboratory testing. Essential clinical diagnostic equipment and laboratory tests were established at each health centre. Clinical officers and laboratory technicians received on-site refresher training in good diagnostic practices and laboratory procedures before the study began.Results: Laboratory tests were ordered on 704 (62.1% patients. Diagnosis and treatment were changed in 45% of tested patients who returned with laboratory results (21% of all patients attending the clinics. 166 (23.5% patients did not return to the clinician for a final diagnosis and management decision after laboratory testing. Blood slide examination for malaria parasites, wet preparations, urine microscopy and stool microscopy resulted in most changes to diagnosis. There was no significant change in drug costs after laboratory testing. The greatest changes in numbers of recorded diseases following laboratory testing was for intestinal worms (53% and malaria (21%.Conclusion: Effective use of basic laboratory tests at primary health care level significantly improves diagnosis and patient treatment. Use of laboratory testing can be readily incorporated into routine clinical practice. On-site refresher training is an effective means of improving the quality of patient care and communication between clinical and laboratory staff.

  5. 卡泊芬净联合克林霉素治疗重症肺孢子菌肺炎的案例分析%Analysis of caspofungin combined with clindamycin for severe pneumocystis pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆涛; 沈宁; 王蒙; 孙丽娜; 丁艳苓; 贺蓓

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic value of caspofun-gin combined with clindamycin for pneumocystis pneumonia ( PCP ).Methods The clinical data of two severe PCP patients treated by caspo-fungin combined with clindamycin regimen in department of respiratory medicine of our hospital were analyzed.Because of definitely sulfame-thoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP) allergy history, they were both ini-tially treated with caspofungin single drug , and received mechanical ven-tilation and methylprednisolone treatment.However , clindamycin was added to both patients after 3-4 days because of poor response to caspo-fungin monotherapy.Then they got better gradually , the arterial blood gas and chest CT scan showed that the respiratory failure and lung infil-tration were much improved.Results and Conclusion The courses of caspofungin combined with clindamycin were both 3 weeks, the patients were cured without adverse drug reactions.For PCP patients with limited usage of SMZ/TMP, caspofungin combined with clindamycin may be an effective and safe regimen.%目的:探讨卡泊芬净联合克林霉素治疗肺孢子菌肺炎的价值。方法分析我院呼吸内科2例接受卡泊芬净联合克林霉素治疗的重症肺孢子菌肺炎患者的临床资料。2例患者均因明确的磺胺药过敏史而给予卡泊芬净初始单药治疗,同时给予机械通气、甲泼尼龙等治疗。3~4d后,因疗效欠佳而加用克林霉素,病情逐渐好转,复查动脉血气分析和胸部CT提示呼吸衰竭纠正、双肺渗出性病变明显吸收好转。结果与结论卡泊芬净联合克林霉素治疗3周,2例患者均治愈,且无不良反应。对于磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶不能耐受或治疗失败的肺孢子菌肺炎患者,卡泊芬净联合克林霉素方案可能是安全、有效的选择。

  6. Caspofungin Etest susceptibility testing of Candida species: risk of misclassification of susceptible isolates of C. glabrata and C. krusei when adopting the revised CLSI caspofungin breakpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Pfaller, Michael A

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of caspofungin Etest and the recently revised CLSI breakpoints. A total of 497 blood isolates, of which 496 were wild-type isolates, were included. A total of 65/496 susceptible isolates (13.1%) were misclassified as intermediate (I) or resistant (R). Such misclassifications were most commonly observed for Candida krusei (73.1%) and Candida glabrata (33.1%). The revised breakpoints cannot be safely adopted for these two species.

  7. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Jacqmin, G. [NUKEM GmbH, Industreistr, Alzenau (Germany)

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  8. Caspofungin as antifungal prophylaxis in pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Döring Michaela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT often receive intravenous liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB as antifungal prophylaxis. There are no guidelines for antifungal prophylaxis in children in this situation. Caspofungin (CAS, a broad-spectrum echinocandin, could be an effective alternative with lower nephrotoxicity than L-AmB. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of CAS in our center, and compared the results with L-AmB as antifungal monoprophylaxis in pediatric patients undergoing HSCT. 60 pediatric patients received L-AmB (1 or 3 mg/kg bw/day and another 60 patients received CAS (50 mg/m2/day as antifungal monoprophylaxis starting on day one after HSCT. The median ages of patients receiving L-AmB and CAS were 7.5 years and 9.5 years, respectively. Results No proven breakthrough fungal infection occurred in either group during the median treatment period of 23 days in the L-AmB group and 24 days in the CAS group. One patient receiving CAS developed probable invasive aspergillosis. During L-AmB treatment, potassium levels significantly decreased below normal values. Patients treated with L-AmB had more drug-related side effects and an increased need for oral supplementation with potassium, sodium bicarbonate and calcium upon discharge as compared with the CAS group. CAS was well-tolerated and safe in this cohort of immunocompromised pediatric patients, who underwent high-dose chemotherapy and HSCT. Conclusion Prophylactic CAS and L-AmB showed similar efficacy in this biggest cohort of pediatric patients after allogeneic HSCT reported, so far. A prospective randomized trial in children is warranted to allow for standardized guidelines.

  9. The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, S.A.; Kent, T.E.; Taylor, P.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility (WTTF) contains 0.5 L/min test systems which provide a wide range of physical and chemical separation unit operations. The facility is a modified 48 foot trailer which contains all the unit operations of the ORNL`s Process Waste Treatment Plant and Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant including chemical precipitation, clarification, filtration, ion-exchange, air stripping, activated carbon adsorption, and zeolite system. This facility has been used to assess treatability of potential new wastewaters containing mixed radioactive, hazardous organic, and heavy metal compounds. With the ability to simulate both present and future ORNL wastewater treatment systems, the WTTF has fast become a valuable tool in solving wastewater treatment problems at the Oak Ridge reservation.

  10. [Hepatosplenic and kidneys candidasis complicating an acute myeloblastic leukemia. A case treated with voriconazole and caspofungin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elouennass, M; Doghmi, K; Fagot, T; Soler, C; Mac Nab, C; Foissaud, V; De Revel, T; Hervé, V

    2005-01-01

    We report the observation of hepato-splenic and kidneys candidiasis complicating the chemotherapy of a myeloblastic leukemia (LAM5b). Following the lack of effectiveness of a first line treatement, using amphotericine B liposomale and 5-fluorocytosine, implementation of an association of new molecules, a triazole of second generation (voriconazole) and an echinocandine (caspofungine) has allowed a successful result.

  11. A colorimetric and spectrophotometric method for in vitro susceptibility testing of Aspergillus species against caspofungin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsthorst, D.T.A. te; Zwaaftink, R.B.; Rijs, A.J.M.M.; Meletiadis, J.; Verweij, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of 45 Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus isolates against caspofungin (CAS) was assessed by the CLSI reference method with spectrophotometric reading and by a colorimetric method that employed the dye MTT. Perfect agreement was found between

  12. Favorable outcome of neonatal cerebrospinal fluid shunt-associated Candida meningitis with caspofungin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, J.; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Christmann, V.; Verweij, P.E.; Warris, A.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive Candida infections associated with medical devices are very difficult to cure without device removal. We present a case of neonatal cerebrospinal fluid shunt-associated Candida meningitis, in which removal of the device was precluded, that was successfully treated with caspofungin. Pharmaco

  13. Trailing or paradoxical growth of Aspergillus flavus exposed to caspofungin is independent of genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrich, Inès; Neji, Sourour; Makni, Fattouma; Ayadi, Ali; Elloumi, Moez; Ranque, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    There are limited data on in vitro susceptibility testing of echinocandins against Aspergillus species. The objective of this study was to describe the phenotypes of Aspergillus flavus observed on exposure to caspofungin in vitro and to test whether these phenotypes were associated with A. flavus genotypes. The caspofungin MICs of 37 A. flavus clinical isolates collected from 14 patients with invasive aspergillosis were determined using Etest assays. Caspofungin MICs ranged from 0.012 to 0.064 mg l(-1); the modal MIC was 0.023 mg l(-1) and the MIC₅₀ and MIC₉₀ were 0.032 and 0.064 mg l(-1), respectively. A clear end point was noted in 24 (65 %) isolates, whereas seven (19 %) displayed a trailing effect and six (16 %) showed paradoxical growth when exposed to caspofungin. In these A. flavus isolates, the absence of a significant population structure or genetic differentiation indicated that trailing or paradoxical growth phenotypes were independent of microsatellite genotype.

  14. Plasma concentrations of caspofungin at two different dosage regimens in a patient with hepatic dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elst, K.C. van der; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Rodgers, M.G.; Alffenaar, J.W.C.

    2012-01-01

    The currently recommended dosage regimen of caspofungin (50 mg/day) was developed for patients with invasive candidiasis. With invasive aspergillosis, successful outcomes occur in less than half the patients. We evaluate the pharmacokinetics in a patient with elevated liver enzyme levels after liver

  15. Antifungal coatings by caspofungin immobilization onto biomaterials surfaces via a plasma polymer interlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Stefani S; Jasieniak, Marek; Coad, Bryan R; Griesser, Hans J

    2015-12-14

    Not only bacteria but also fungal pathogens, particularly Candida species, can lead to biofilm infections on biomedical devices. By covalent grafting of the antifungal drug caspofungin, which targets the fungal cell wall, onto solid biomaterials, a surface layer can be created that might be able to provide long-term protection against fungal biofilm formation. Plasma polymerization of propionaldehyde (propanal) was used to deposit a thin (∼20 nm) interfacial bonding layer bearing aldehyde surface groups that can react with amine groups of caspofungin to form covalent interfacial bonds for immobilization. Surface analyses by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry confirmed the intended grafting and uniformity of the coatings, and durability upon extended washing. Testing for fungal cell attachment and ensuing biofilm formation showed that caspofungin retained activity when covalently bound onto surfaces, disrupting colonizing Candida cells. Mammalian cytotoxicity studies using human primary fibroblasts indicated that the caspofungin-grafted surfaces were selective in eliminating fungal cells while allowing attachment and spreading of mammalian cells. These in vitro data suggest promise for use as antifungal coatings, for example, on catheters, and the use of a plasma polymer interlayer enables facile transfer of the coating method onto a wide variety of biomaterials and biomedical devices.

  16. Argonne National Laboratory`s photo-oxidation organic mixed waste treatment system - installation and startup testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, T.L.; Nelson, R.A.; Torres, T.; Conner, C.; Wygmans, D.

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the installation and startup testing of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL-E) Photo-Oxidation Organic Mixed Waste Treatment System. This system will treat organic mixed (i.e., radioactive and hazardous) waste by oxidizing the organics to carbon dioxide and inorganic salts in an aqueous media. The residue will be treated in the existing radwaste evaporators. The system is installed in the Waste Management Facility at the ANL-E site in Argonne, Illinois. 1 fig.

  17. Mixed debris treatment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.C. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Porter, C.L. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wallace, M.T. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-10-01

    August 18, 1992 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final revised treatment standards for hazardous debris, including mixed debris. (1) Whereas previous standards had been concentration based, the revised standards are performance based. Debris must be treated prior to land disposal, using specific technologies from one or more of the following families of debris treatment technologies: Extraction, destruction, or immobilization. Seventeen specific technologies with generic application are discussed in the final rule. The existing capabilities and types of debris at the INEL were scrubbed against the debris rule to determine an overall treatment strategy. Seven types of debris were identified: combustible, porous, non-porous, inherently hazardous, HEPA filters, asbestos contaminated, and reactive metals contaminated debris. With the exception of debris contaminated with reactive metals treatment can be achieved utilizing existing facilities coupled with minor modifications.

  18. Caspofungin kills Candida albicans by causing both cellular apoptosis and necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Binghua; Cheng, Shaoji; Clancy, Cornelius J; Nguyen, M Hong

    2013-01-01

    Caspofungin exerts candidacidal activity by inhibiting cell wall (1,3)-β-d-glucan synthesis. We investigated the physiologic mechanisms of caspofungin-induced Candida albicans cell death. Apoptosis (programmed cell death) and necrosis were studied after C. albicans SC5314 cells were exposed to caspofungin at 0.06, 0.125, and 0.5 μg/ml (0.5×, 1×, and 4× the MIC, respectively) for 3 h. Caspofungin at 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml reduced cellular viability by >50%, as measured by colony counts and methylene blue exclusion. Apoptosis and necrosis were demonstrated by annexin V and propidium iodide staining for phosphatidylserine externalization and loss of membrane integrity, respectively. At all concentrations of caspofungin, 20 to 25% and 5 to 7% of C. albicans cells exhibited early apoptosis and late apoptosis/necrosis, respectively (P value was not significant [NS]). Necrosis, on the other hand, was significantly greater at 0.125 (43%) and 0.5 (48%) μg/ml than at 0.06 μg/ml (26%) (P values of 0.003 and 0.003, respectively). The induction of apoptosis at concentrations less than or equal to the MIC was corroborated by dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR-123) and dihydroethidium (DHE) staining (reactive oxygen species production), JC-1 staining (mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation), and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining (DNA damage and nuclear fragmentation). Moreover, electron microscopy of cells exposed to 0.125 μg/ml of caspofungin showed hallmark apoptotic features like chromatin margination and condensation and nuclear blebs. Apoptosis was associated with metacaspase 1 activation, as demonstrated by D2R staining. Caspofungin exerts activity against C. albicans by directly killing cells (resulting in necrosis) and causing others to undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis). Apoptosis is initiated at subinhibitory concentrations, suggesting that strategies to target

  19. 卡泊芬净治疗恶性血液病患者化疗或移植过程中肺真菌感染临床研究%Treatment of lung fungal infection with caspofungin in patients with malignant hemopathy after chemotherapy or during stem cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 黄文荣; 王书红; 朱海燕; 李红华; 王全顺; 高春记; 于力

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究卡泊芬净(Caspofungin)治疗恶性血液病患者化疗或移植过程中肺真菌感染的疗效及安全性.方法 回顾性分析卡泊芬净治疗恶性血液病肺真菌感染患者的疗效和不良反应.结果 20例疗效评价病例中,临床有效率为80%(16/20).其中1例痊愈,13例显效,2例进步,4例用药之后无效.低钾血症(13/20)、低钙血症(11/20)、低蛋白血症(9/20),转氨酶、尿素、胆红素、碱性磷酸酶及转肽酶等指标升高为主要不良反应.结论 卡泊芬净是治疗恶性血液病患者化疗或移植过程中肺真菌感染有效的药物,其不良反应可以耐受.

  20. In vitro susceptibility testing of Aspergillus spp. against voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jun-yan; WANG He; GUO Li-na; XU Ying-chun; SHI Yi; L(U) Huo-xiang; LIU Yong; ZHAO Wang-sheng; CHEN Dong-mei; XI Li-yan; ZHOU Xin

    2010-01-01

    Background During recent years, the incidence of serious infections caused by opportunistic fungi has increased dramatically due to alterations of the immune status of patients with hematological diseases, malignant tumors,transplantations and so forth. Unfortunately, the wide use of triazole antifungal agents to treat these infections has lead to the emergence of Aspergillus spp. resistant to triazoles. The present study was to assess the in vitro activities of five antifungal agents (voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin) against different kinds of Aspergillus spp. that are commonly encountered in the clinical setting.Methods The agar-based Etest MIC method was employed. One hundred and seven strains of Aspergillus spp. (5 species) were collected and prepared according to Etest Technique Manuel. Etest MICs were determined with RPMI agar containing 2% glucose and were read after incubation for 48 hours at 35℃. MIC50, MIC90 and MIC range were acquired by Whonet 5.4 software.Results The MIC90 of caspofungin against A. fumigatus, A. flavus and A. nidulans was 0.094 μg/ml whereas the MIC90 against A. niger was 0.19 μg/ml. For these four species, the MlC90 of caspofungin was the lowest among the five antifungal agents. For A. terrus, the MIC90 of posaconazole was the lowest. For A. fumigatus and A. flavus, the MlC90in order of increasing was caspofungin, posaconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B. The MIC of amphotericin B against A. terrus was higher than 32 μg/ml in all 7 strains tested.Conclusions The in vitro antifungal susceptibility test shows the new drug caspofungin, which is a kind of echinocandins, has good activity against the five species of Aspergillus spp. and all the triazoles tested have better in vitro activity than traditional amphotericin B.

  1. Effect of seed treatment for laboratory germination of Albizia chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Nongrum; L. Kharlukhi

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of Albizia chinensis(Osb.) Merr. in addition to water were also treated with different treatments by incubating in ethyl alcohol, acetone, and petroleum ether at room temperature for different durations. Seed heat treatment was done at temperatures of 30, 40 and 60ºC for different durations up to 24 h. To overcome dormancy caused by the impermeable seed coat, seeds were nicked and also treated with concen-trated sulphuric acid for different durations. Seeds responded to treat-ments with sulphuric acid and nicking only. Treatment with sulphuric acid for 20 and 30 min showed maximum germination at all incubation temperatures as compared to untreated controls and seeds treated with sulphuric acid for 10 min and nicking. Seedling length was greatest from seeds treated with sulphuric acid for 20 and 30 min and incubated at 30 ºC. Seedling dry weight was highest from nicked seeds incubated at 20ºC. The most favourable incubation temperature was 30 ºC as evidenced from GRI (germination rate index) and GV (germination value). After ascertaining the seed response and performance we recommend that seeds of Albizia chinensis be treated with sulphuric acid for 20 or 30 min and incubation temperature of 25 to 30ºC.

  2. Antifungal Activity of Caspofungin against Candida albicans Biofilms in Vitro%卡泊芬净对生物膜态白色念珠菌体外抑菌作用的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳隽; 张天托; 朱家馨

    2011-01-01

    目的:检测卡泊芬净对生物膜态白色念珠菌分离株的抑菌作用,探讨临床治疗其相关感染的最适治疗剂量.方法:分别测定卡泊芬净对10株白色念珠菌临床株游离态及生物膜态的半数抑菌浓度(MIC50),并对比观察不同浓度卡泊芬净作用下白色念珠菌的增殖活性.结果:卡泊芬净对游离态白色念珠菌的MlC50为0.125~0.5 mg·L-1,对生物膜态白色念殊菌的MIC50为0.25~256 mg·L-1,当卡泊芬净浓度高于白色念珠菌MIC50时,全部游离态白色念珠菌的增殖活性几乎完全受到抑制,但有7株生物膜态白色念珠菌的增殖活性再次增强,且大于阳性对照的50%.结论:卡泊芬净对生物膜态白色念珠菌有抑菌作用,但并不呈浓度依赖性,当其用于治疗生物膜态白色念珠菌相关感染时的最适治疗剂量有待临床研究验证.%OBJECTIVE: To detect antifungal activity of caspofungin against Candida albicans biofilms in vitro, and to investigate the suitable dosage of clinical treatment for relevant infection. METHODS: The MIC50 of caspofungin against planktonic cells and biofilm-associated adherent cells were determined respectively. Metabolic activity of Candida albicans was determined at MICso of caspofungin. RESULTS: The MICso of caspofungin against planktonic cells were 0.125 - 0.5 mg-L-1,the MICso of caspofungin against biofilm-associated adherent cells were 0.25 - 256 mg-L-1. But metabolic activity of planktonic cells was inhibited totally while that of 7 strains of biofilm-associated adherent cells were enhanced again in the caspofungin concentration above the MICso. It was more than 50% of positive control. CONCLUSION: Caspofungin displays antifungal activity against Candida albicans biofilms in vitro, not in concentration dependent manner. But the optimal dose of caspofungin for biofilm-associated infection should be determined in clinical study.

  3. Laboratory Variables and Treatment Adequacy in Hemodialysis Patients in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourfarziani Vahid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the laboratory variables in Iranian hemodialysis pa-tients. We studied 338 patients in 6 dialysis centers around the country. Sixty four percent of the patients were anemic, and the mean of hemoglobin levels in the patients was 9.6 ± 1.9 g/dL. Women had a significantly higher prevalence of anemia (p= 0.004; however, considering the absolute hemoglobin values, there was no significant difference between genders (p> 0.05. The mean urea reduction ratio (URR and Kt/V in the patients were 62.6 ± 12.8 and 1.17 ± 0.31, respectively. Hyperphosphatemia and hyperkalemia were observed in 50% and 58%, respectively. We conclude that our study demonstrated a relatively high prevalence of anemia and hyper-phosphatemia, however, a surprisingly good dialysis urea clearance in the Iranian hemodialysis patients. We should exploit more effort to maintain hemoglobin and serum phosphate levels with-in the target ranges.

  4. Evaluation of Caspofungin Susceptibility Testing by the New Vitek 2 AST-YS06 Yeast Card Using a Unique Collection of FKS Wild-Type and Hot Spot Mutant Isolates, Including the Five Most Common Candida Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astvad, Karen M; Perlin, David S; Johansen, Helle K

    2013-01-01

    FKS mutant isolates associated with breakthrough or failure cases are emerging in clinical settings. Discrimination of these from wild-type (wt) isolates in a routine laboratory setting is complicated. We evaluated the ability of caspofungin MIC determination using the new Vitek 2 AST-Y06 yeast...... susceptibility card to correctly identify the fks mutants from wt isolates and compared the performance to those of the CLSI and EUCAST reference methods. A collection of 98 Candida isolates, including 31 fks hot spot mutants, were included. Performance was evaluated using the FKS genotype as the "gold standard...

  5. Application of caspofungin in China compared with amphotericin B and fluconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang CY

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chunyu Zhang,1 Jiaoying Cheng,2 Yan Jiang,3 Junyang Liu41Department of Health Reform and Development, China–Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, China–Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3National Management Center of 12320 Health Hotline, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Pharmacy, China–Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Fungal infection has increased in the past 2 decades in China. There are three classes of antifungal drugs, polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins, that are applied frequently in China. Caspofungin, which disrupts the fungal cell wall glucan formation through inhibiting the enzyme 1,3-ß-glucan synthase, is one of the echinocandins. According to the results of clinical practices applied in China, caspofungin has shown to be superior to the other two classes of antifungal drugs, due to its efficacy in treating fungal infection (15% superior to fluconazole; fewer adverse events such as infusion-related reaction, hepatic dysfunction, and vomiting (25%–50% lower incidence rate; rapid resolution of symptoms (about 3 days quicker than amphotericin B; and absence of antagonism in combination with other antifungal drugs. However, caspofungin will remain as a second-line antifungal drug in the near future because of its high price and the policy of health insurance reimbursement in China.Keywords: fungal infection, caspofungin, efficacy, adverse event

  6. Laboratory analysis of a system for catchment, pre-treatment and treatment (SCPT) of runoff from impervious pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Barrera, A H; Rodriguez-Hernandez, J; Castro-Fresno, D; Vega-Zamanillo, A

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the development and construction of a 1:1 scale laboratory prototype of a System for Catchment, Pre-treatment and Treatment (SCPT) of runoff polluted by contaminants washed from impervious pavements. The concept of the SCPT is an online system with an up-flow filter. The filter is composed of geotextile layers and limestone. The laboratory tests carried out were focused on determining the SCPT prototype behaviour under different working conditions. The variables studied were: inflow, pollutant loads and filtration system configuration. The results show that the system designed has a high capacity for treatment of solids and oil, with an average efficiency of 85% and 97% respectively. Moreover, the regression equations of the treatment efficiency were determined for each of the pollutants studied, for different inflow conditions and pollution loads.

  7. Synergistic Activity of the Plant Defensin HsAFP1 and Caspofungin against Candida albicans Biofilms and Planktonic Cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Vriens

    Full Text Available Plant defensins are small, cysteine-rich peptides with antifungal activity against a broad range of yeast and fungi. In this study we investigated the antibiofilm activity of a plant defensin from coral bells (Heuchera sanguinea, i.e. HsAFP1. To this end, HsAFP1 was heterologously produced using Pichia pastoris as a host. The recombinant peptide rHsAFP1 showed a similar antifungal activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium culmorum as native HsAFP1 purified from seeds. NMR analysis revealed that rHsAFP1 consists of an α-helix and a triple-stranded antiparallel β-sheet stabilised by four intramolecular disulfide bonds. We found that rHsAFP1 can inhibit growth of the human pathogen Candida albicans as well as prevent C. albicans biofilm formation with a BIC50 (i.e. the minimum rHsAFP1 concentration required to inhibit biofilm formation by 50% as compared to control treatment of 11.00 ± 1.70 μM. As such, this is the first report of a plant defensin exhibiting inhibitory activity against fungal biofilms. We further analysed the potential of rHsAFP1 to increase the activity of the conventional antimycotics caspofungin and amphotericin B towards C. albicans. Synergistic effects were observed between rHsAFP1 and these compounds against both planktonic C. albicans cells and biofilms. Most notably, concentrations of rHsAFP1 as low as 0.53 μM resulted in a synergistic activity with caspofungin against pre-grown C. albicans biofilms. rHsAFP1 was found non-toxic towards human HepG2 cells up to 40 μM, thereby supporting the lack of a general cytotoxic activity as previously reported for HsAFP1. A structure-function study with 24-mer synthetic peptides spanning the entire HsAFP1 sequence revealed the importance of the γ-core and its adjacent regions for HsAFP1 antibiofilm activity. These findings point towards broad applications of rHsAFP1 and its derivatives in the field of antifungal and antibiofilm drug development.

  8. Laboratory development of methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, W.D.; Bostick, D.T.; Burgess, M.W.; Taylor, P.A.; Perona, J.J.; Kent, T.E.

    1994-10-01

    Improved centralized treatment methods are needed in the management of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). LLLW, which usually contains radioactive contaminants at concentrations up to millicurie-per-liter levels, has accumulated in underground storage tanks for over 10 years and has reached a volume of over 350,000 gal. These wastes have been collected since 1984 and are a complex mixture of wastes from past nuclear energy research activities. The waste is a highly alkaline 4-5 M NaNO{sub 3} solution with smaller amounts of other salts. This type of waste will continue to be generated as a consequence of future ORNL research programs. Future LLLW (referred to as newly generated LLLW or NGLLLW) is expected to a highly alkaline solution of sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide with a smaller concentration of sodium nitrate. New treatment facilities are needed to improve the manner in which these wastes are managed. These facilities must be capable of separating and reducing the volume of radioactive contaminants to small stable waste forms. Treated liquids must meet criteria for either discharge to the environment or solidification for onsite disposal. Laboratory testing was performed using simulated waste solutions prepared using the available characterization information as a basis. Testing was conducted to evaluate various methods for selective removal of the major contaminants. The major contaminants requiring removal from Melton Valley Storage Tank liquids are {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. Principal contaminants in NGLLLW are {sup 9O}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 106}Ru. Strontium removal testing began with literature studies and scoping tests with several ion-exchange materials and sorbents.

  9. Chemical waste treatment and recovery laboratory: an alternative for industrial waste of southern Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Tavares da Costa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript consisted to obtain data, such as costs, equipments and investments necessary for the implementation of a Waste Treatment and Recovery Laboratory at UNIFAL-MG, campus II in Alfenas. In order to give support for the implementation and operation of this laboratory, in a way to guarantee a sustainable investment from the economic point of view, the EVTE was applied. This work was performed following the steps: identification and quantification of the wastes, EVTE elaboration, draft of the physical laboratory architecture and the analysis of the potential financial resources. It was verified that the implementation and management of the Chemical Waste Treatment Laboratory get to support an initial waste volume of 372 L/month and 3.5 kg/month of inorganic salts, beyond other industrial wastes from the neighborhood region. The implementation and maintenance of this laboratory are economic viable depending on the treated, recovered and recycled waste volume as well as on the provided service for the industry client. It is necessary to highlight the environmental benefits, especially due to the chemical waste disposal reduction, the academic formation opportunity and the social awareness promoted by the action of the laboratory. It can be add on the principle related to the Sustainable Logistic Plan in the Federal Public Administration.JEL-Code | Q01; QR3; L65.

  10. A Manual of Simplified Laboratory Methods for Operators of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, Arnold F., Ed.; Bennett, Ernest C., Ed.

    This manual is designed to provide the small wastewater treatment plant operator, as well as the new or inexperienced operator, with simplified methods for laboratory analysis of water and wastewater. It is emphasized that this manual is not a replacement for standard methods but a guide for plants with insufficient equipment to perform analyses…

  11. Preliminary laboratory evaluation of iron-bearing reactive media for pesticide water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural pesticides are often found in ground and surface waters, and if present in high enough concentrations, create risks to human and ecological health. Filter treatment systems can potentially remove pesticides from water. Therefore, a laboratory investigation was initiated to assess the wa...

  12. Caspofungin-induced in-vitro post-antifungal effect and its impact on adhesion related traits of oral Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellepola, Arjuna Nishantha Bandara; Chandy, Rachel; Khan, Zia Uddin; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera

    2016-03-01

    Adhesion to buccal epithelial cells (BEC) and denture acrylic surfaces (DAS), germ tube (GT) formation and cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) are all virulence traits involved in the pathogenicity of Candida. Post-antifungal effect (PAFE) also have a bearing on pathogenicity and virulence of Candida. Candida dubliniensis is associated with oral and systemic candidosis, which can be managed with caspofungin. There is no published information on caspofungin-induced PAFE and its impact on adhesion traits of C. dubliniensis isolates. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the in vitro duration of PAFE on 20 C. dubliniensis isolates following transient exposure to caspofungin. Furthermore the impacts of caspofungin-induced PAFE on adhesion to BEC and DAS, GT formation and CSH of these isolates were also determined. After establishing the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of caspofungin, C. dubliniensis isolates were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (×3 MIC) of caspofungin for 1 hr. Thereafter the duration of PAFE, adhesion to BEC and DAS, GT formation and CSH were determined by previously described in-vitro assays. MIC (μg/mL) of C. dubliniensis isolates to caspofungin ranged from 0.004 to 0.19. Caspofungin-induced mean PAFE on C. dubliniensis isolates was 2.17 hr. Exposure to caspofungin suppressed the ability of C. dubliniensis isolates to adhere to BEC and DAS, form GT and CSH by 69.97%, 71.95%, 90.06% and 32.29% (P < 0.001 for all), respectively. Thus, transient exposure of C. dubliniensis isolates to caspofungin produces an antifungal effect not only by suppressing its growth but also by altering its adhesion traits.

  13. Human Laboratory Settings for Assessing Drug Craving; Implications for the Evaluation of Treatment Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alam Mehrjerdi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on assessing craving in laboratory settings often involves inducing and then measuring craving in subjects. Cue-induced craving is studied in laboratory settings using the cue reactivity paradigm, in which drug-related photos, videos, evocative scripts, olfactory cues, and paraphernalia may induce craving. Cue-induced craving evoked by drug-related stimuli could be associated with relapse and recurrence of drug addiction. In this article, the authors review different methods of assessing craving in laboratory settings and explain how human laboratory settings can bridge the gap between randomized clinical trials (RCTs and animal models on pharmacological treatments for drug dependence. The brief reviewed literature provides strong evidence that laboratory-based studies of craving may improve our understanding of how subjective reports of drug craving are related to objective measures of drug abuse and laboratory settings provide an opportunity to measure the degree to which they co-vary during pharmacological interventions. This issue has important implications inclinical studies.

  14. Hitting the caspofungin salvage pathway of human-pathogenic fungi with the novel lasso peptide humidimycin (MDN-0010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiante, Vito; Monteiro, Maria Cândida; Martín, Jesús; Altwasser, Robert; El Aouad, Noureddine; González, Ignacio; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Mellado, Emilia; Palomo, Sara; de Pedro, Nuria; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Tormo, José R; Vicente, Francisca; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Brakhage, Axel A

    2015-09-01

    Fungal infections have increased dramatically in the last 2 decades, and fighting infectious diseases requires innovative approaches such as the combination of two drugs acting on different targets or even targeting a salvage pathway of one of the drugs. The fungal cell wall biosynthesis is inhibited by the clinically used antifungal drug caspofungin. This antifungal activity has been found to be potentiated by humidimycin, a new natural product identified from the screening of a collection of 20,000 microbial extracts, which has no major effect when used alone. An analysis of transcriptomes and selected Aspergillus fumigatus mutants indicated that humidimycin affects the high osmolarity glycerol response pathway. By combining humidimycin and caspofungin, a strong increase in caspofungin efficacy was achieved, demonstrating that targeting different signaling pathways provides an excellent basis to develop novel anti-infective strategies.

  15. Comparison of laboratory and field observations: Ozone water treatment for cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, K.P. [Marley Cooling Tower Co., Mission, KS (United States)

    1996-11-01

    This evaluation, comparing laboratory- and field-generated data, explains the functional results of ozone water treatment use for operating heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) cooling water systems. These effects are classified in the areas of biological growth control, corrosion rate control, and scale control or retardation. Limitations on the application of ozone are discussed. Field results from multiple sites are examined and compared to laboratory-generated data. Theories as to mechanisms are discussed based on the accumulated information. Specific situations such as under-ozonation, and soft and hard water are discussed.

  16. Time to move from presumptive malaria treatment to laboratory-confirmed diagnosis and treatment in African children with fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie D'Acremont

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Current guidelines recommend that all fever episodes in African children be treated presumptively with antimalarial drugs. But declining malarial transmission in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, declining proportions of fevers due to malaria, and the availability of rapid diagnostic tests mean it may be time for this policy to change. This debate examines whether enough evidence exists to support abandoning presumptive treatment and whether African health systems have the capacity to support a shift toward laboratory-confirmed rather than presumptive diagnosis and treatment of malaria in children under five.

  17. The effects of tricyclazole treatment on aquatic macroinvertebrates in the field and in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rossaro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tricyclazole treatments on benthic macroinvertebrates in the field and in laboratory were studied. In field conditions, low density of benthic populations was observed, both in treated and untreated plots, which was attributed to the short period of submersion of the rice field and high water temperature, fungicide treatments had no significant effect. Both laboratory acute toxicity test and a test using a mesocosm suggested a low toxicity of tricyclazole on invertebrates. A reduction of the macroinvertebrate density was observed only when tricyclazole concentration was applied at concentrations 100 times the ones tested in the field, acute toxicity test gave an LC50 after 48 h of 26 mg*L–1, in agreement with data obtained for other species.

  18. Separation technologies for the treatment of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, T.; Herbst, S.

    1996-10-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is collaborating with several DOE and international organizations to develop and evaluate: technologies for the treatment of acidic high-level radioactive wastes. The focus on the treatment of high-level radioactive wastes is on the removal of cesium and strontium from wastes typically 1 to 3 M in acidity. Technologies to treat groundwater contaminated with radionuclides and/or toxic metals. Technologies to remove toxic metals from hazardous or mixed waste streams, for neutral pH to 3 M acidic waste streams.

  19. FY 1995 separation studies for liquid low-level waste treatment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D.; Burgess, M.W. [and others

    1995-01-01

    During FY 1995, studies were continued to develop improved methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Focus in this reporting period was on (1) identifying the parameters that affect the selective removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, two of the principal radioactive contaminants expected in the waste; (2) validating the effectiveness of the treatment methods by testing an ac Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate; (3) evaluating the optimum solid/liquid separation techniques for the waste; (4) identifying potential treatment methods for removal of technetium from LLLW; and (5) identifying potential methods for stabilizing the high-activity secondary solid wastes generated by the treatment.

  20. Effect of nikkomycin Z and 50% human serum on the killing activity of high-concentration caspofungin against Candida species using time-kill methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Judit; Földi, Richárd; Bayegan, Sedigh; Kardos, Gábor; Majoros, László

    2012-02-01

    Caspofungin and nikkomycin Z (NIK) efficacy alone and in combination were tested against seven Candida species showing or not showing paradoxical growth (PG) against caspofungin in time-kill test in RPMI-1640. Selected isolates against caspofungin and NIK were also tested in 50% serum. PG was always eliminated by NIK as well as by serum. In the serum, 1 and 16 μg/ml caspofungin yielded 0.14-4.0 and 0.34-4.0 log CFU decreases from the starting inocula for C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis, respectively. CFU decrease (0.10-2.08 log) at 16 μg/ml, but not at lower caspofungin concentration was noted against C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. One C. parapsilosis isolate was not inhibited even by 16 μg/ml caspofungin. Caspofungin against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis maintained its activity in serum at even 1 μg/ml concentration. PG seems to an in vitro phenomenon, without clinical relevance.

  1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory West End Treatment Facility simulated sludge vitrification demonstration, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J. [Clemson Univ., Anderson, SC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Systems Engineering

    1994-01-26

    Technologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nuclear Facility sites to convert hazardous and mixed wastes to a form suitable for permanent disposal. Vitrification, which has been declared the Best Demonstrated Available Technology for high-level radioactive waste disposal by the EPA, is capable of producing a highly durable wasteform that minimizes disposal volumes through organic destruction, moisture evaporation, and porosity reduction. However, this technology must be demonstrated over a range of waste characteristics, including compositions, chemistries, moistures, and physical characteristics to ensure that it is suitable for hazardous and mixed waste treatment. These wastes are typically wastewater treatment sludges that are categorized as listed wastes due to the process origin or organic solvent content, and usually contain only small amounts of hazardous constituents. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) West End Treatment Facility`s (WETF) sludge is considered on of these representative wastes. The WETF is a liquid waste processing plant that generates sludge from the biodenitrification and precipitation processes. An alternative wasteform is needed since the waste is currently stored in epoxy coated carbon steel tanks, which have a limited life. Since this waste has characteristics that make it suitable for vitrification with a high likelihood of success, it was identified as a suitable candidate by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) for testing at CU. The areas of special interest with this sludge are (1) minimum nitrates, (2) organic destruction, and (3) waste water treatment sludges containing little or no filter aid.

  2. Efficacy and safety of far infrared radiation in lymphedema treatment: clinical evaluation and laboratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Ning Fei; Feng, Shao Qing; Tong, Yun; Zhang, Ju Fang; Constantinides, Joannis; Lazzeri, Davide; Grassetti, Luca; Nicoli, Fabio; Zhang, Yi Xin

    2017-01-26

    Swelling is the most common symptom of extremities lymphedema. Clinical evaluation and laboratory analysis were conducted after far infrared radiation (FIR) treatment on the main four components of lymphedema: fluid, fat, protein, and hyaluronan. Far infrared radiation is a kind of hyperthermia therapy with several and additional benefits as well as promoting microcirculation flow and improving collateral lymph circumfluence. Although FIR therapy has been applied for several years on thousands of lymphedema patients, there are still few studies that have reported the biological effects of FIR on lymphatic tissue. In this research, we investigate the effects of far infrared rays on the major components of lymphatic tissue. Then, we explore the effectiveness and safety of FIR as a promising treatment modality of lymphedema. A total of 32 patients affected by lymphedema in stage II and III were treated between January 2015 and January 2016 at our department. After therapy, a significant decrease of limb circumference measurements was noted and improving of quality of life was registered. Laboratory examination showed the treatment can also decrease the deposition of fluid, fat, hyaluronan, and protein, improving the swelling condition. We believe FIR treatment could be considered as both an alternative monotherapy and a useful adjunctive to the conservative or surgical lymphedema procedures. Furthermore, the real and significant biological effects of FIR represent possible future applications in wide range of the medical field.

  3. Susceptibility of Candida albicans biofilms to caspofungin and anidulafungin is not affected by metabolic activity or biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Zambrano, Laura Judith; Escribano, Pilar; Bouza, Emilio; Guinea, Jesús

    2016-02-01

    Micafungin is more active against biofilms with high metabolic activity; however, it is unknown whether this observation applies to caspofungin and anidulafungin and whether it is also dependent on the biomass production. We compare the antifungal activity of anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin against preformed Candida albicans biofilms with different degrees of metabolic activity and biomass production from 301 isolates causing fungemia in patients admitted to Gregorio Marañon Hospital (January 2007 to September 2014). Biofilms were classified as having low, moderate, or high metabolic activity according XTT reduction assay or having low, moderate, or high biomass according to crystal violet assay. Echinocandin MICs for planktonic and sessile cells were measured using the EUCAST E.Def 7.2 procedure and XTT reduction assay, respectively. Micafungin showed the highest activity against biofilms classified according to the metabolic activity and biomass production (P caspofungin and anidulafungin was not dependent on the metabolic activity of the biofilm or the biomass production. These observations were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. None of the echinocandins produced major changes in the structure of biofilms with low metabolic activity and biomass production when compared with the untreated biofilms. However, biofilm with high metabolic activity or high biomass production was considerably more susceptible to micafungin; this effect was not shown by caspofungin or anidulafungin.

  4. Evidence Supporting a Role for Mammalian Chitinases in Efficacy of Caspofungin against Experimental Aspergillosis in Immunocompromised Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.B. Verwer (Patricia); M.T. ten Kate (Marian); F.H. Falcone (Franco); S. Morroll (Shaun); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjectives:Caspofungin, currently used as salvage therapy for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), strangely only causes morphological changes in fungal growth in vitro but does not inhibit the growth. In vivo it has good efficacy. Therefore the question arises how this in vivo activi

  5. Federal Facility Compliance Act: Conceptual Site Treatment Plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by section 3021(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (the Act), to prepare plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. The Act requires site treatment plans (STPs or plans) to be developed for each site at which DOE generates or stores mixed waste and submitted to the State or EPA for approval, approval with modification, or disapproval. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP) is the preliminary version of the plan required by the Act and is being provided to California, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and others for review. A list of the other DOE sites preparing CSTPs is included in Appendix 1.1 of this document. Please note that Appendix 1.1 appears as Appendix A, pages A-1 and A-2 in this document.

  6. Micafungin triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms, including caspofungin non-susceptible isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, F; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2015-01-01

    Candida biofilms play an important role in infections associated with medical devices and are resistant to antifungals. We hypothesized that the echinocandin micafungin (MICA) exerts an enhanced antifungal activity against caspofungin (CAS)-susceptible (CAS-S) and CAS-non-susceptible (CAS-NS) Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis which is at least in part through apoptosis, even in the biofilm environment. Apoptosis was characterized by detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation, lack of plasma membrane integrity, and metacaspase activation following exposure of Candida biofilm to MICA for 3h at 37°C in RPMI 1640 medium. The minimum inhibitory concentration was higher for CAS (2.0-16.0 μg/mL) than for MICA (1.0-8.0 μg/mL) for Candida biofilms. Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Finally higher ß-1, 3 glucan levels were seen in sessile cells compared to planktonic cells, especially in CAS-NS strains. MICA treatment might induce a metacaspase-dependent apoptotic process in biofilms of both CAS-S C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, and to some degree in CAS-NS strains.

  7. UV irradiation and autoclave treatment for elimination of contaminating DNA from laboratory consumables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefrides, Lisa A; Powell, Mark C; Donley, Michael A; Kahn, Roger

    2010-02-01

    Laboratories employ various approaches to ensure that their consumables are free of DNA contamination. They may purchase pre-treated consumables, perform quality control checks prior to casework, and use in-house profile databases for contamination detection. It is better to prevent contamination prior to DNA typing than identify it after samples are processed. To this end, laboratories may UV irradiate or autoclave consumables prior to use but treatment procedures are typically based on killing microorganisms and not on the elimination of DNA. We report a systematic study of UV and autoclave treatments on the persistence of DNA from saliva. This study was undertaken to determine the best decontamination strategy for the removal of DNA from laboratory consumables. We have identified autoclave and UV irradiation procedures that can eliminate nanogram quantities of contaminating DNA contained within cellular material. Autoclaving is more effective than UV irradiation because it can eliminate short fragments of contaminating DNA more effectively. Lengthy autoclave or UV irradiation treatments are required. Depending on bulb power, a UV crosslinker may take a minimum of 2h to achieve an effective dose for elimination of nanogram quantities of contaminating DNA (>7250mJ/cm(2)). Similarly autoclaving may also take 2h to eliminate similar quantities of contaminating DNA. For this study, we used dried saliva stains to determine the effective dose. Dried saliva stains were chosen because purified DNA as well as fresh saliva are less difficult to eradicate than dried stains and also because consumable contamination is more likely to be in the form of a collection of dry cells.

  8. Interlaboratory reproducibility of Etest amphotericin B and caspofungin yeast susceptibility testing and comparison with the CLSI method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranque, S; Lachaud, L; Gari-Toussaint, M; Michel-Nguyen, A; Mallié, M; Gaudart, J; Bertout, S

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the interlaboratory reproducibility at four university hospital laboratories in the southeast region of France of the Etest technique for the determination of caspofungin (CAS) and amphotericin B (AMB) MICs and to compare it to the CLSI broth microdilution reference method. Consecutive clinical yeast isolates (n = 198) were included in the study. AMB and CAS MICs were read at 24 and 48 h. Interlaboratory reproducibility was estimated by using (i) an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), (ii) essential agreement (EA), and (iii) categorical agreement (CA). For Etest interlaboratory reproducibility for CAS, ICCs were 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 0.84) and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.77 to 0.85) at 24 and 48 h, respectively. For AMB, the ICCs were 0.51 (95% CI, 0.43 to 0.58) and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.63 to 0.74) at 24 and 48 h, respectively. At 48 h, the between-center EAs ranged from 94.4 to 99.0% for both antifungals. For the comparison of the CLSI method and the Etest, the between-technique ICCs were 0.69 (95% CI, 0.63 to 0.74) and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.68) for CAS and AMB, respectively. The EAs ranged from 76.5 to 98.5% for CAS and from 90.3 to 97.4% for AMB according to the centers. CAs ranged from 87.9% to 91.4%, with four very major errors for 2 strains (1 Candida albicans strain and 1 Candida krusei strain), for CAS and from 97.5 to 99.5%, with four major errors, for AMB. In conclusion, the Etest showed a good interlaboratory reproducibility and a good correlation with the CLSI technique. It is well suited for the routine clinical laboratory and can thus be used to monitor clinical yeast isolates' in vitro susceptibilities in this setting.

  9. Audit of the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-19

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) generates radioactive and liquid wastes that must be treated before being discharged to the environment. Presently, the liquid wastes are treated in the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (Treatment Facility), which is over 30 years old and in need of repair or replacement. However, there are various ways to satisfy the treatment need. The objective of the audit was to determine whether Los Alamos cost effectively managed its Treatment Facility operations. The audit determined that Los Alamos` treatment costs were significantly higher when compared to similar costs incurred by the private sector. This situation occurred because Los Alamos did not perform a complete analysis of privatization or prepare a {open_quotes}make-or-buy{close_quotes} plan for its treatment operations, although a {open_quotes}make-or-buy{close_quotes} plan requirement was incorporated into the contract in 1996. As a result, Los Alamos may be spending $2.15 million more than necessary each year and could needlessly spend $10.75 million over the next five years to treat its radioactive liquid waste. In addition, Los Alamos has proposed to spend $13 million for a new treatment facility that may not be needed if privatization proves to be a cost effective alternative. We recommended that the Manager, Albuquerque Operations Office (Albuquerque), (1) require Los Alamos to prepare a {open_quotes}make-or-buy{close_quotes} plan for its radioactive liquid waste treatment operations, (2) review the plan for approval, and (3) direct Los Alamos to select the most cost effective method of operations while also considering other factors such as mission support, reliability, and long-term program needs. Albuquerque concurred with the recommendations.

  10. Highly Dynamic and Specific Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate, Septin, and Cell Wall Integrity Pathway Responses Correlate with Caspofungin Activity against Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrane, Hassan; Nguyen, M Hong; Clancy, Cornelius J

    2016-06-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] activates the yeast cell wall integrity pathway. Candida albicans exposure to caspofungin results in the rapid redistribution of PI(4,5)P2 and septins to plasma membrane foci and subsequent fungicidal effects. We studied C. albicans PI(4,5)P2 and septin dynamics and protein kinase C (PKC)-Mkc1 cell wall integrity pathway activation following exposure to caspofungin and other drugs. PI(4,5)P2 and septins were visualized by live imaging of C. albicans cells coexpressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and red fluorescent protein-Cdc10p, respectively. PI(4,5)P2 was also visualized in GFP-PH domain-expressing C. albicans mkc1 mutants. Mkc1p phosphorylation was measured as a marker of PKC-Mkc1 pathway activation. Fungicidal activity was assessed using 20-h time-kill assays. Caspofungin immediately induced PI(4,5)P2 and Cdc10p colocalization to aberrant foci, a process that was highly dynamic over 3 h. PI(4,5)P2 levels increased in a dose-response manner at caspofungin concentrations of ≤4× MIC and progressively decreased at concentrations of ≥8× MIC. Caspofungin exposure resulted in broad-based mother-daughter bud necks and arrested septum-like structures, in which PI(4,5)P2 and Cdc10 colocalized. PKC-Mkc1 pathway activation was maximal within 10 min, peaked in response to caspofungin at 4× MIC, and declined at higher concentrations. The caspofungin-induced PI(4,5)P2 redistribution remained apparent in mkc1 mutants. Caspofungin exerted dose-dependent killing and paradoxical effects at ≤4× and ≥8× MIC, respectively. Fluconazole, amphotericin B, calcofluor white, and H2O2 did not impact the PI(4,5)P2 or Cdc10p distribution like caspofungin did. Caspofungin exerts rapid PI(4,5)P2-septin and PKC-Mkc1 responses that correlate with the extent of C. albicans killing, and the responses are not induced by other antifungal agents. PI(4,5)P2-septin regulation is crucial in early

  11. Survey of subsurface treatment technologies for environmental restoration sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.

    2003-08-01

    This report provides a survey of remediation and treatment technologies for contaminants of concern at environmental restoration (ER) sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The sites that were evaluated include the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater, Technical Area V, and Canyons sites. The primary contaminants of concern at these sites include trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and nitrate in groundwater. Due to the low contaminant concentrations (close to regulatory limits) and significant depths to groundwater ({approx}500 feet) at these sites, few in-situ remediation technologies are applicable. The most applicable treatment technologies include monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation/denitrification to reduce the concentrations of TCE, PCE, and nitrate in the groundwater. Stripping technologies to remove chlorinated solvents and other volatile organic compounds from the vadose zone can also be implemented, if needed.

  12. Deletion of AIF1 but not of YCA1/MCA1 protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans cells from caspofungin-induced programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Chin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Caspofungin was the first member of a new class of antifungals called echinocandins to be approved by a drug regulatory authority. Like the other echinocandins, caspofungin blocks the synthesis of β(1,3-D-glucan of the fungal cell wall by inhibiting the enzyme, β(1,3-D-glucan synthase. Loss of β(1,3-D-glucan leads to osmotic instability and cell death. However, the precise mechanism of cell death associated with the cytotoxicity of caspofungin was unclear. We now provide evidence that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells cultured in media containing caspofungin manifest the classical hallmarks of programmed cell death (PCD in yeast, including the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, the fragmentation of mitochondria, and the production of DNA strand breaks. Our data also suggests that deleting AIF1 but not YCA1/MCA1 protects S. cerevisiae and Candida albicans from caspofungin-induced cell death. This is not only the first time that AIF1 has been specifically tied to cell death in Candida but also the first time that caspofungin resistance has been linked to the cell death machinery in yeast.

  13. Assessment of Options for the Treatment of Nitrate Salt Wastes at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Patrice Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-17

    This paper summarizes the methodology used to evaluate options for treatment of the remediated nitrate salt waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The method selected must enable treatment of the waste drums, which consist of a mixture of complex nitrate salts (oxidizer) improperly mixed with sWheat Scoop®1, an organic kitty litter and absorbent (fuel), in a manner that renders the waste safe, meets the specifications of waste acceptance criteria, and is suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. A Core Remediation Team was responsible for comprehensively reviewing the options, ensuring a robust, defensible treatment recommendation. The evaluation process consisted of two steps. First, a prescreening process was conducted to cull the list on the basis for a decision of feasibility of certain potential options with respect to the criteria. Then, the remaining potential options were evaluated and ranked against each of the criteria in a consistent methodology. Numerical scores were established by consensus of the review team. Finally, recommendations were developed based on current information and understanding of the scientific, technical, and regulatory situation. A discussion of the preferred options and documentation of the process used to reach the recommended treatment options are presented.

  14. Rapid redistribution of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate and septins during the Candida albicans response to caspofungin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrane, Hassan; Nguyen, M Hong; Blankenship, Jill R; Cheng, Shaoji; Hao, Binghua; Mitchell, Aaron P; Clancy, Cornelius J

    2012-09-01

    We previously showed that phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and septin regulation play major roles in maintaining Candida albicans cell wall integrity in response to caspofungin and other stressors. Here, we establish a link between PI(4,5)P2 signaling and septin localization and demonstrate that rapid redistribution of PI(4,5)P2 and septins is part of the natural response of C. albicans to caspofungin. First, we studied caspofungin-hypersusceptible C. albicans irs4 and inp51 mutants, which have elevated PI(4,5)P2 levels due to loss of PI(4,5)P2-specific 5'-phosphatase activity. PI(4,5)P2 accumulated in discrete patches, rather than uniformly, along surfaces of mutants in yeast and filamentous morphologies, as visualized with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-pleckstrin homology domain. The patches also contained chitin (calcofluor white staining) and cell wall protein Rbt5 (Rbt5-GFP). By transmission electron microscopy, patches corresponded to plasma membrane invaginations that incorporated cell wall material. Fluorescently tagged septins Cdc10 and Sep7 colocalized to these sites, consistent with well-described PI(4,5)P2-septin physical interactions. Based on expression patterns of cell wall damage response genes, irs4 and inp51 mutants were firmly positioned within a group of caspofungin-hypersusceptible, septin-regulatory protein kinase mutants. irs4 and inp51 were linked most closely to the gin4 mutant by expression profiling, PI(4,5)P2-septin-chitin redistribution and other phenotypes. Finally, sublethal 5-min exposure of wild-type C. albicans to caspofungin resulted in redistribution of PI(4,5)P2 and septins in a manner similar to those of irs4, inp51, and gin4 mutants. Taken together, our data suggest that the C. albicans Irs4-Inp51 5'-phosphatase complex and Gin4 function upstream of PI(4,5)P2 and septins in a pathway that helps govern responses to caspofungin.

  15. An e-health driven laboratory information system to support HIV treatment in Peru: E-quity for laboratory personnel, health providers and people living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero N Patricia

    2009-12-01

    health providers and PLHIV, allowing patients to access their own results and other helpful information about their health, extending the scope of HIV treatment beyond the health facility and providing a model for other countries to follow. The NETLAB system now includes 100 diseases of public health importance for which the Peruvian National Institute of Health and the network of public health laboratories provide testing and results.

  16. Laboratory investigation of aluminum solubility and solid-phase properties following alum treatment of lake waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Jacob; Anderson, Michael A; Graham, Robert C

    2005-10-01

    Water samples from two southern California lakes adversely affected by internal nutrient loading were treated with a 20 mg/L dose of Al3+ in laboratory studies to examine Al solubility and solid-phase speciation over time. Alum [Al2(SO4)3 . 18 H2O] applications to water samples from Big Bear Lake and Lake Elsinore resulted in a rapid initial decrease in pH and alkalinity followed by a gradual recovery in pH over several weeks. Dissolved Al concentrations increased following treatment, reaching a maximum of 2.54 mg/L after 17 days in Lake Elsinore water and 0.91 mg/L after 48 days in Big Bear Lake water; concentrations in both waters then decreased to Lake Elsinore water. Surface areas also decreased over time as crystals reordered to form gibbsite/microcrystalline gibbsite species. DSC-TGA results suggested that the initially formed amorphous Al(OH)3 underwent transformation to >45% gibbsite. These results were supported by geochemical modeling using Visual MINTEQ, with Al solubility putatively controlled by amorphous Al(OH)3 shortly after treatment and approaching that of microcrystalline gibbsite after about 150 days. These findings indicate that Al(OH)3 formed after alum treatment undergoes significant chemical and mineralogical changes that may alter its effectiveness as a reactive barrier to phosphorus release from lake sediments.

  17. Options Assessment Report: Treatment of Nitrate Salt Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Patrice Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-17

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognizes that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and that a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL’s preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  18. Options assessment report: Treatment of nitrate salt waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Patrice Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-16

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognized that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL's preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  19. Laboratory Scale Study of Activated Sludge Process in Jet Loop Reactor for Waste WaterTreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Patil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of Activated Sludge Process (ASP for the treatment of synthetic wastewater and to develop a simple design criteria under local conditions.A laboratory scale Compact jet loop reactor model comprising of an aeration tank and final clarifier was used for this purpose.Settled synthetic wastewater was used as influent to the aeration tank. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of the influent and effluent was measured to find process efficiency at various mixed liquorvolatile suspended solids (MLVSS and hydraulic retention time (θ. The results of the studydemonstrated that an efficiency of above 95% could be obtained for COD if the ASP is operated atan MLVSS concentration of 3000 mg/L keeping an aeration time of 1 hour.In the present investigation the preliminary studies were carried out in a lab scale Jet loop reactor made of glass. Synthetic waste water having a composition of 1000 mg/L mixed with other nutrients such as Urea, Primary and secondary Potassium phosphates, Magnesium sulfate, Iron chloriderequired for the bacteria was prepared in the laboratory and reduction in COD and the increase inSuspended Solids (SSand the Sludge Volume Index (SVI were determined.

  20. 新型抗真菌药物--卡泊芬净%Newly developed antifungal drug--caspofungin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高磊

    2005-01-01

    @@ 卡泊芬净(caspofungin,商品名科赛斯,cansidas)是迄今获准上市的第一个棘白霉素(echinocandin)类新型抗真菌药物,用于治疗念珠菌病、对标准疗法无效或不能耐受患者的侵袭性曲霉菌病.

  1. Efficacy and safety of caspofungin for the management of invasive fungal infections in 56 patients with neutropenia%卡泊芬净治疗粒细胞缺乏血液病患者合并侵袭性真菌感染56例观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉清; 李琳; 张茵; 时杰; 臧玉柱

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of caspofungin for the management of invasive fungal infections(IFI) in patients with neutropenia and haematological diseases. Methods Totally 56 patients with proven, probable or possible IFI received caspofungin at the standard dose.Results An overall favorable response to caspofungin was achieved in 37 (66. 1% ) patients. The response rate in proven, probable and possible IFI was 71.4% ( 5/7 ), 80% ( 16/20 ) and 55.2%(16/29) respective. The adverse drug- related event that was possibly attributable to caspofungin was rash, hypokalemia,liver toxicity, elevated creatinine, fever and nausea and/or vomiting. Conclusions These results suggest that caspofungin is an effective and well - tolerated agent with minimal adverse effects for primary antifungal treatment in patients with neutropenia and haematological diseases.%目的 探讨卡泊芬净治疗中性粒细胞缺乏血液病患者侵袭性真菌感染的疗效和安全性.方法 56例中性粒细胞缺乏的成人血液病患者按欧洲癌症研究治疗协会(EORTC)标准诊断为真菌感染确诊、临床诊断和拟诊病例,接受卡泊芬净治疗.结果 56例患者的总有效率(治愈+明显改善)为66.1%(37/56),其中确诊患者有效率为71.4%(5/7),临床诊断患者有效率为80%(16/20),拟诊患者有效率为55.2%(16/29).可能与卡泊芬净有关的不良反应包括恶心、呕吐,肝功能异常,低血钾,血肌酐升高,皮疹和发热.结论 卡泊芬净用于治疗真菌感染抗菌谱广,无论对于曲霉菌还是念珠菌疗效均肯定,不良反应少,可以作为治疗中性粒细胞缺乏的重症血液病患者侵袭性真菌感染的一线用药.

  2. Laboratory comparison of four iron-based filter materials for drainage water phosphate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Barry J; Racharaks, Ratanachat

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory investigation evaluated phosphate (PO4(3-)) drainage water treatment capabilities of four iron-based filter materials. The iron-based filter materials tested were zero-valent iron (ZVI), porous iron composite (PIC), sulfur modified iron (SMI), and iron oxide/ hydroxide (IOH). Only filter material retained on a 60-mesh sieve (> 0.25 mm) was used for evaluation. The laboratory investigation included saturated falling-head hydraulic conductivity tests, contaminant removal or desorption/dissolution batch tests, and low-to-high flow rate saturated solute transport column tests. Each of the four iron-based filter materials have sufficient water flow capacity as indicated by saturated hydraulic conductivity values that in most cases were greater than 1 x 10(-2) cm/s. For the 1, 10, and 100 ppm PO4(3-)-P contaminant removal batch tests, each of the four iron-based filter materials removed at least 95% of the PO4(3-)-P originally present. However, for the 1000 ppm PO4(3-)-P contaminant removal batch tests, IOH by far exhibited the greatest removal effectiveness (99% PO4(3-)-P removal), followed by SMI (72% PO4(3-)-P removal), then ZVI (62% PO4(3-)-P removal), and finally PIC (15% PO4(3-)-P removal). The desorption/dissolution batch test results, especially with respect to SMI and IOH, indicate that once PO4(3-) is adsorbed/precipitated onto surfaces of iron-based filter material particles, this PO4(3-) becomes fixed and is then not readily desorbed/dissolved back into solution. The results from the column tests showed that regardless of low or high flow rate (contact time ranged from a few hours to a few minutes) and PO4(3-) concentration (1 ppm or 10 ppm PO4(3-)-P), PIC, SMI, and IOH reduced PO4(3-)-P concentrations to below detection limits, while ZVI removed at least 90% of the influent PO4(3-)-P. Consequently, these laboratory results indicate that the ZVI, PIC, SMI, and IOH filter materials all exhibit promise for phosphate drainage water treatment.

  3. Clinical feasibility and safety of a novel miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory in diagnosis and treatment for coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Ming; Han Yaling; Wang Geng; Yao Tianming; Sun Jingyang; Li Fei; Xu Kai

    2014-01-01

    Background The lack of medical facilities causes delayed diagnosis and treatment of coronary heart disease in remote mountainous area and/or at disaster site.The miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory was developed to be an intervention platform for coronary heart disease diagnosis and treatment by our team.Pre-clinical research indicated that the miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory performed well in the rescue of critical cardiovascular diseases,even ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical safety and timeliness of the miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory for emergent coronary interventional diagnosis and treatment.Methods X-ray radiation safety and disinfection efficacy in the miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory were tested during working status.Coronary angiography and/or percutaneous coronary intervention were performed in remote mountainous areas on patients who were first diagnosed as having coronary heart disease by senior interventional cardiologists.The percutaneous coronary intervention procedures and results from patients in the miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory were compared with patients who were treated in the hospital catheter lab.Results The X-ray radiation dosages in the miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory were 39.55 μGy/s,247.4 μGy/h,90.3 μGy/h and 39.4 μGy/h which were corresponded to 0 m,1 m,2 m and 3 m away from the tube central of the medium C-arm.And the radiation dosages used in the miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory were less than the corresponding positions in the hospital catheter lab.The numbers of bacteria colonies in the miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory in different environments range from (60±8) cfu/m3 to (120±10) cfu/m3 and met the demands of percutaneous coronary intervention.A total of 17 patients who received angiography in the miniature mobile

  4. Susceptibility testing of Candida albicans isolated from oropharyngeal mucosa of HIV+ patients to fluconazole, amphotericin B and Caspofungin: killing kinetics of caspofungin and amphotericin B against fluconazole resistant and susceptible isolates Teste de suscetibilidade de Candida albicans isoladas da mucosa orofaringeana de pacientes HIV+, ao fluconazol, anfotericcina B e caspofungina: cinética de morte de caspofungina e anfotericina B contra isolados fluconazol resistentes e suscetíveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine de Aquino Lemos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A clear understanding of the pharmacodynamic properties of antifungal agents is important for the adequate treatment of fungal infections like candidiasis. For certain antifungal agents, the determination of Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC and time kill curve could be clinically more relevant than the determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. In this study, MIC and MFC to fluconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against C. albicans isolates and the killing patterns obtained with caspofungin and amphotericin B against susceptible and resistant strains to fluconazole were determined. The results of MICs showed that all C. albicans isolates were highly susceptible to amphotericin B, but two isolates were fluconazole resistant. The comparative analysis between MIC and MFC showed that MFC of fluconazole was fourfold higher than MIC in 41.9% of the C. albicans isolates. Same values of MFC and MIC of amphotericin B and caspofungin were found for 71% of the isolates. Correlation between time kill curves and MFC of amphotericin B and caspofungin against all 4 isolates tested was observed. The caspofungin killing effect was more evident at MFC in 6 hours of incubation than at MIC in this time, suggesting dependence of concentration. The similarity of results of time-kill curve and MFC values indicate that determination of MFC is an alternative for the detection of the fungicidal activity of these drugs.Um claro entendimento das propriedades farmacodinâmicas dos agentes antifúngicos é de grande importância para o adequado tratamento das infecções fúngicas como a candidíase. Em alguns casos de escolha do agente antifúngico, a determinação da concentração fungicida minima (CFM e a curva do tempo de morte podem ser mais clinicamente relevantes do que a concentração inibitória minima (CIM. Nesse estudo, foi avaliado a CIM e a CFM de fluconazol, anfotericina B e caspofungina em Candida albicans e ainda os padrões de

  5. Assessment of laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis after maternal treatment with spiramycin in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background The different laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis have variable sensitivity and specificity. There is no evidence to prove that maternal treatment reduces the risk of fetal infection. The purpose of this study was to assess methods for the confirmation of congenital toxoplasmosis after maternal treatment with spiramycin during pregnancy, and to evaluate the effect of this treatment on clinical manifestations of the disease in newborns (NB). Methods ...

  6. Conceptual Site Treatment Plan Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research Environmental Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, T.E.

    1993-10-01

    The Federal Facilities Compliance Act (the Act) of 1992 waives sovereign immunity for federal facilities for fines and penalties under the provisions of the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act, state, interstate, and local hazardous and solid waste management requirements. However, for three years the Act delays the waiver for violations involving US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The Act, however, requires that the DOE prepare a Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP) for each of its sites that generate or store mixed wastes (MWs). The purpose of the CSTP is to present DOE`s preliminary evaluations of the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating a site`s MW. This CSTP presents the preliminary capacity and technology evaluation for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR). The five identified MW streams at LEHR are evaluated to the extent possible given available information. Only one MW stream is sufficiently well defined to permit a technology evaluation to be performed. Two other MW streams are in the process of being characterized so that an evaluation can be performed. The other two MW streams will be generated by the decommissioning of inactive facilities onsite within the next five years.

  7. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and treatment characteristics of spondyloarthritis patients with and without acute anterior uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gehlen

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Acute anterior uveitis is a common extra-articular manifestation in spondyloarthritis patients. The aim of this study was to compare demographic, clinical, laboratory and treatment data among spondyloarthritis patients with and without acute anterior uveitis. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional analytical study at the Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic of the Evangelical University Hospital, Curitiba, Brazil. METHODS: Spondyloarthritis patients with without acute anterior uveitis were compared regarding demographic data, spondyloarthritis subtype, peripheral arthritis, enthesitis, disease activity, functional index, physical examination, radiological involvement, HLA-B27 and treatment. RESULTS: Presence of acute anterior uveitis was not found to have any relationship with functional index, degree of radiological involvement, peripheral arthritis or enthesitis. Acute anterior uveitis showed a negative association with skin manifestations (P = 0.04 and a trend towards higher disease activity (P = 0.06. CONCLUSION: In the study sample, it could not be shown that AAU had any association with the functional and radiological prognoses. The patients with spondyloarthritis with and without acute anterior uveitis did not differ clinically except for a higher proportion of ankylosing spondylitis and smaller presence of skin involvement in those with uveitis.

  8. Feasible modifications for the low-level waste treatment plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilton, J.M.

    1984-06-01

    Aqueous, low-level, radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contain small amounts of /sup 60/Co, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and trace amounts of other radionuclides. These wastes are processed by passage through beds of a strong-acid cation exchange resin, and the treated water is then discharged to the environment. Studies show that pretreatment of the waste with a weak-acid cation exchange resin would result in a significant decrease in regeneration reagents and a saving of manpower. This can be accomplished in the present plant by piping changes on the existing columns. The effluent from the cation treatment process contains all of the radionuclides that are present in anionic form. Routinely, this consists only of approximately one-half of the /sup 60/Co. Under certain conditions, other anions (such as /sup 131/I) could be present. Studies show that these can be removed by use of an anion exchange resin bed at the end of the process. This would require the construction of an additional column, if the head-end treatment described above is also installed. 2 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Best available technology for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midkiff, W.S.; Romero, R.L.; Suazo, I.L.; Garcia, R.; Parsons, R.M.

    1993-10-15

    The existing Los Alamos National Laboratory TA-50 liquid radioactive waste treatment plant RLWP has been in service for over thirty years, during this period many technical, regulatory, and processing changes have occurred. The existing facility can no longer comply with the demands and requirements for continued operation, and would not be able to comply with anticipated stringent future contaminant discharge limitations. Either a major upgrading or replacement of the existing facility is required. In order to assess the most appropriate means of providing an adequate facility to comply with predicted requirements for Ta-50, this Best Available Technology (BAT) Study was conducted to compare feasible technical and economic alternatives in order to define the most favorable technology configuration. This report consists of eleven sections. Section 1 provides a general introduction and background of the TA-50 operations and the basis for this study. Section 2 provides a technical discussion of the unit processes at TA-50 and several other comparable operations at other DOE sites. Section 3 addresses the evaluation and selection of appropriate treatment processes. Section 4 provides an analysis of environmental issues and concerns. Section 5 presents the rationale for the selection of preferred process configurations. Section 6 is the evaluation of operational issues. Section 7 addresses energy and resource use topics. Section 8 provides an economic analysis, and Section 9 summarizes the evaluation and the identification of the BAT. These sections are augmented by appendices. The report identifies the construction of a new radioactive liquid waste treatment facility as the BAT. Based on the information analyzed for this study, this option appears to provide the best combination of environmental compliance, operability, and economic value.

  10. Caspofungin treats pulmonary invasive fungal infection in 12 renal transplant patients%卡泊芬净治疗肾移植后肺部侵袭性真菌感染:12例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宽; 尚文俊

    2014-01-01

    背景:肾移植后侵袭性真菌感染是肾移植失败的主要原因。卡泊芬净具有独特的抗真菌机制,对氟康唑和伊曲康唑耐药的念珠菌有很强的抗菌作用,并表现出很好的耐受性,且没有与剂量或作用持续时间相关的毒性。  目的:评价卡泊芬净治疗肾移植后肺部侵袭性真菌感染的有效性和安全性。  方法:回顾性分析2013年1至12月三门峡市中心医院呼吸科诊断为肺部侵袭性真菌感染的肾移植患者,采用卡泊芬净抗真菌治疗,卡泊芬净首剂为70 mg/d,继以50 mg/d,静脉滴注。用药后每周最少监测2次肝功能,若肝功能损害加重或出现新的肝功能损害,根据肝脏功能调整剂量或者停药,疗程为10-14 d。观察患者的疗效和不良反应。  结果与结论:共收治12例患者,可以找到真菌微生物学证据者占67%,其培养真菌以念珠菌为主,占75%,合并细菌感染比例为58%,合并巨细胞病毒感染的比例为25%。治疗有效率为92%(11/12),死亡率为8%(1/12),不良事件发生率为25%。提示对于肾移植后侵袭性真菌感染患者的经验性抗真菌治疗,卡泊芬净的疗效较好,且不良事件发生率低。卡泊芬净可以作为肾移植后侵袭性真菌感染的首选药物。%BACKGROUND:Lung invasive fungal infection is the main reason for the failure in renal transplant recipients. Caspofungin has specific anti-fungi mechanism, and can effectively prevent the candida fungus that is resistant to Fluconazol and Itraconazole. Caspofungin exerts good tolerance, without dose-or time-dependent toxicity. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Caspofungin in treatment of pulmonary invasive fungal infection fol owing kidney transplantation. METHODS:A retrospective analysis was performed in renal transplant patients who were diagnosed pulmonary invasive fungal infection in Department of Respiratory Medicine

  11. Multicenter Comparison of the Vitek 2 Antifungal Susceptibility Test with the CLSI Broth Microdilution Reference Method for Testing Caspofungin, Micafungin, and Posaconazole against Candida spp.▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jess F.; Pfaller, Michael A.; Diekema, Daniel J.; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Riebe, Katherine M.; Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of the automated Vitek 2 (bioMérieux, Inc., Marcy l'Etoile, France) antifungal susceptibility system was compared to that of broth microdilution (BMD) for the determination of MICs of various antifungal drugs. A total of 112 challenge strains and 755 clinical isolates of Candida spp. were tested against caspofungin and micafungin. An additional 452 clinical isolates of Candida albicans were tested against posaconazole. Reference BMD MIC endpoints were established after 24 h of incubation for caspofungin and micafungin and after 48 h of incubation for posaconazole. Essential agreements (EAs) between the Vitek 2 and BMD methods for caspofungin and micafungin were 99.5% and 98.6%, respectively. EA between the Vitek 2 and BMD methods was 95.6% for posaconazole. The overall categorical agreements (CAs) between the Vitek 2 system and BMD were 99.8% for caspofungin, 98.2% for micafungin, and 98.1% for posaconazole. The Vitek 2 system reliably determined caspofungin and micafungin MICs among Candida spp. and posaconazole MICs among C. albicans isolates and demonstrated excellent quantitative and qualitative agreement with the reference BMD method. PMID:21430096

  12. The clinical features, laboratory findings, treatment and follow-up results of patients with morphea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehir Parlak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Morphea, also known as localized scleroderma, is a rare skin disease of unknown pathogenesis, characterized by fibrosis in the skin and subcutaneous tissue. In this study, we aim to evaluate the demographic features, clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and response to treatment in patients diagnosed with morphea. Materials and Methods: The findings of fifty eight patients diagnosed with morphea were retrospectively evaluated between 1995-2011. All patients' clinical symptoms, concomitant diseases, symptoms, immunological features and presence of peripheral eosinophilia were investigated. Treatment methods, response to therapy of 40 patients whose treatment continued for 2-12 months were examined. Fourty nine patients (84.5% were female and 9 patients (15.5% were male of 58 patients who were diagnosed with morphea. The mean age of patients was 42.33±18.44 years (range: 7-75 years. Diagnosis was made histopathologically in all cases. Borrelia antibodies were negative in all patients enrolling the study. Thirty six patients (62.1% had plaque type, 17 patients (29.3% had generalized type, 3 patients (5.2% had mixed type (linear + plaque and 2 patients (3.4% had linear type of morphea. ANA was found to be positive in 12 (26.2% of 46 patients. Considering the relationship between the clinical types of morphea with ANA, 38.5% of plaque type, 53.8% of generalized type, 7.7% of mixed type patients showed ANA positivity. ANA positivity was statistically significant in patients with generalized morphea (p=0.027. Peripheral eosinophilia was detected in one case in whom lesions were generalized (2.1%. Colchicine therapy was given to 23 cases. Complete and partial response rates are 47.8% and 26.1%, respectively. However, 17.4% of patients remained stable and progression was noted in 8.7% of the cases. Conclusion: In conclusion, plaque type morphea is the most common type of morphea. ANA positivity was statistically significant in

  13. Environmental assessment for the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory proposes to build, permit, and operate the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF) to treat explosive waste at LLNL`s Experimental Test Site, Site 300. It is also proposed to close the EWTF at the end of its useful life in accordance with the regulations. The facility would replace the existing Building 829 Open Burn Facility (B829) and would treat explosive waste generated at the LLNL Livermore Site and at Site 300 either by open burning or open detonation, depending on the type of waste. The alternatives addressed in the 1992 sitewide EIS/EIR are reexamined in this EA. These alternatives included: (1) the no-action alternative which would continue open burning operations at B829; (2) continuation of only open burning at a new facility (no open detonation); (3) termination of open burning operations with shipment of explosive waste offsite; and (4) the application of alternative treatment technologies. This EA examines the impact of construction, operation, and closure of the EWTF. Construction of the EWTF would result in the clearing of a small amount of previously disturbed ground. No adverse impact is expected to any state or federal special status plant or animal species (special status species are classified as threatened, endangered, or candidate species by either state or federal legislation). Operation of the EWTF is expected to result in a reduced threat to involved workers and the public because the proposed facility would relocate existing open burning operations to a more remote area and would incorporate design features to reduce the amount of potentially harmful emissions. No adverse impacts were identified for activities necessary to close the EWTF at the end of its useful life.

  14. Simulation of High-Level Waste Treatment Process Trains at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Lauerhass, Lance; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the overall planning framework for the role of simulation in the integration/optimization of treatment process trains for the High Level Waste (HLW) Program at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INELL). This project involves a TTP (Technical Task Plan ID77WT31, Subtask C) with Savannah River Site (SRS) to jointly develop a simulation tool set that can support flowsheet optimization for HLW treatment trains at INEEL. Despite the commonality between the simulation efforts at SRS and INEEL, the individual work scopes of the two sites are different – that of the INEEL is broader. This document concerns only the scope of the INEEL effort, and it describes the boundaries of several scope-related planning areas for this project INEEL: 1) the objective of the project – the needs (drivers) the simulation efforts are attempting to satisfy, the role simulation results will play in managerial decision making, and the type of issues to be investigated; 2) constraints – higher-level budget forecasts and schedules, legal commitments, customer directives, and other similar forces that a priori define boundary elements; 3) the process domain – the set of chemical and physical operations to be modeled; 4) the model’s life cycle – the phases of the waste treatment’s life cycle that will utilize simulation, i.e., process configuration, design, and/or operations; 5) the types of models involved in the integrated simulation tool set – discrete vs. continuous, deterministic vs. stochastic, etc.; and 6) and targeted users – the downstream activities that may potentially use the simulation results. This document closes with a description of the budget, schedule, and task inter-relationships that result from the determined scope. This document is the cornerstone of the planning process, and many of the software requirements flow directly from the decisions discussed in this document.

  15. A Laboratory Study of Natural Zeolite for Treatment of Fluorinated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A.

    2015-12-01

    Fluoride contamination is mainly induced in ground water by chemical interaction between water and fluoride bearing rocks and natural fluoridation is further catalyzed by anthropogenic activities. Elevated fluoride concentrations in the water bodies above the permissible limits are not only degrading water for drinking purposes but also to the agricultural, industrial as well as daily household needs. Fluoride content in water has been constantly a subject of serious concern to the concerned authorities. It is significantly contributing in increasing tolls of arthritis, brain and kidney diseases, cancer, male fertility issues and cases of thyroid diseases. Hence, the present study has been conducted to investigate the possibility of treating fluorinated water using zeolites. The capabilities of natural zeolites are attributed to their catalytic, molecular sieve, adsorption and ion-exchange properties which have been utilized in our laboratory experiment. The experiment was carried out in two phases. In the first phase of the experiment, the properties of zeolites were tested in solid and liquid phases using ICP-OES, SEM, EDX and IC tests. Physio-chemical alterations induced by zeolites in the fluid chemistry were monitored by analyzing fluid sample regularly for pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids, and by conducting metal and anion tests. In second phase, zeolite was used for treatment of fluorinated water with known concentration of fluoride, and the geochemical processes associated with fluoride remediation were monitored by conducting non-invasive, invasive geochemical and physical measurements at regular time periods on the water samples collected from both control column and the experiment column. Results thus obtained in this study showed decrease in fluoride concentration over time, indicating the possibility of use of zeolites in treatment of fluorinated water.

  16. Laboratory-scale investigation of UV treatment of ammonia for livestock and poultry barn exhaust applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockafellow, Erin M; Koziel, Jacek A; Jenks, William S

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of using deep ultraviolet (UV) treatment for abatement of ammonia (NH(3)) in livestock and poultry barn exhaust air was examined in a series of laboratory-scale experiments. These experiments simulated moving exhaust air through an irradiation chamber with variables of UV wavelength and dose, NH(3) concentrations, humidity, and presence of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). Ammonia, initially at relevant barn exhaust concentrations in air, was substantially or completely reduced by irradiation with 185 nm light. Reactions were monitored using chemiluminescence detection, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, of which the latter was found to be the most informative and flexible. Detected nitrogen-containing products included N(2)O, NH(4)NO(3), and HNO(3). It was presumed that atomic oxygen is the primary photochemical product that begins the oxidative cascade. The data show that removal of NH(3) is plausible, but they highlight concerns over pollution swapping due to formation of ozone and N(2)O.

  17. In vitro activity of Caspofungin combined with Fluconazole on mixed Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesee, Siripen; Angkananuwat, Chayanit; Tancharoensukjit, Sudarat; Muanmai, Somporn; Sirivan, Pattaraporn; Bubphawas, Manita; Tanarerkchai, Nissara

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effect of caspofungin (CAS) combined with fluconazole (FLU) on the biofilm biomass and cultivable viability and microstructure of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata mixed biofilm in vitro.Biofilms were formed in a 96-well microtiter plate for crystal violet assay and colony forming unit (CFU) method and grown on plastic coverslip disks for scanning electron microscopy. MIC50 of CAS and FLU against single Candida spp.and mixed Candida spp.biofilms were evaluated using crystal violet assay. Additional,C. albicans and C. glabrata mixed biofilms were incubated with subinhibitory CAS concentration plus FLU and their percentages of Candida biofilm reduction were calculated. We found that percentages of biofilm reduction were significantly decreased when CAS at 0.25MIC and FLU (0.25 or 0.5MIC) were combined (PCandida glabrata were demonstrated in every group, the total viable cells derived from CAS/FLU combination-treated biofilms at any ratio were not significantly different from positive control. Overall, CAS/FLU combinations appeared to affect the quantity and cell architecture, but number of viable cell, of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata mixed biofilm. This antifungal effect was CAS concentration dependent.

  18. A new antifungal agent,Caspofungin%抗真菌新药--卡泊芬净

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈轶坚; 吴菊芳

    2004-01-01

    @@ 随着免疫缺陷患者的增多以及新的操作技术的开展,深部真菌感染的发病率逐年增加.据报道,深部真菌感染列美国医院感染第4位.是侵袭性真菌感染病死率上升的重要原因.卡泊芬净(caspofungin)是一类全新的抗真菌药--棘白菌素(echinocandins)的第1个上市品种(商品名Cancidas,Merk 公司).本品对包括曲霉和念珠菌属在内的真菌均有良好的抗菌作用,已有的临床资料显示本品用于治疗侵袭性曲霉病和念珠菌感染等真菌感染可获得较满意的疗效.以下就卡泊芬净的抗真菌作用、药动学、临床应用和安全性等方面分别综述如下.

  19. 2015 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2014, through October 31, 2015.

  20. Sustainable Treatment and Reuse of Diluted Pig Manure Streams in Russia: From Laboratory Trials to Full-Scale Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.; Sklyar, V.; Epov, A.; Arkhipchenko, I.; Barboulina, I.; Orlova, O.; Kovalev, A.; Nozhevnikova, A.; Klapwijk, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained during the laboratory and pilot development of integrated biologic and physicochemical treatment and reuse of diluted pig manure streams. The application of a straw filter was an effective means to separate the solid and liquid fractions of raw wastewater

  1. Tularemia in Children: Evaluation of Clinical, Laboratory and Treatment Outcomes of 15 Tularemia Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Koyuncu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tularemia is a zoonotic diseases caused by Francisella tularensis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory findings of 15 children with the diagnosis of tularemia.Materials and Methods: Fifteen cases admitted with fever, sore throat, lymphadenopathy and a F. tularensis antibody titer of 1/160 and above in the microagglutination test (MAT were evaluated retrospectively. Their sociodemographic characteristics, contact with animals, history of tick bite, duration of complaints, clinical and laboratory findings, treatments and clinical courses were studied.Results: The mean age of patients was 11.5±5.1 (3-17 years and 61.3% were male. Fifty-three percent of the patients were living in rural areas, and had contact with contaminated water. Swelling in the neck (93.3%, sore throat (66.7% and fever (66.7% were the most frequently observed symptoms. Oropharyngeal tularemia (66.7% was predominated. In 27% of the patients LAPs were drained surgically, and in 13.3% of cases they were drained by itself. The mean duration between onset of tularemia symptoms and diagnosis was 53±45.3 (5-150 days. Sixty percent of patients were received beta-lactam-antibiotics before admission. It was noted that 6 patients with suppurative lymph nodes were admitted to hospital within median 61 (20-150 days, while others were admitted within median 35 (5-75 days (p<0.05. Mean leukocyte count was 8558.6±1384.5 (6030-11400/mm3, mean CRP was 5.8±2.9 (1-6.7 mg/dl, and mean ESR was 33.1±28.9 (6-103 mm/h. MAT showed that titers ranged from 1/160 to 1/1280. Gentamicin was given in seven patients (47%, streptomycin in five patients (33%, and doxycycline in 3 patients (20%.Conclusions: Tularemia should to be taken into account in the differential diagnosis in patients having tonsillopharyngitis and cervical lymphadenopathy without response to beta-lactam antibiotics in rural areas. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2013;11:61-6

  2. Transcriptional activation of heat shock protein 90 mediated via a proximal promoter region as trigger of caspofungin resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoth, Frédéric; Juvvadi, Praveen R; Gehrke, Christopher; Asfaw, Yohannes G; Steinbach, William J

    2014-02-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a deadly infection for which new antifungal therapies are needed. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an essential chaperone in Aspergillus fumigatus representing an attractive antifungal target. Using a thiamine-repressible promoter (pthiA), we showed that genetic repression of Hsp90 significantly reduced virulence in a murine model of invasive aspergillosis. Moreover, substituting the A. fumigatus hsp90 promoter with 2 artificial promoters (potef, pthiA) and the Candida albicans hsp90 promoter resulted in hypersensitivity to caspofungin and abolition of the paradoxical effect (resistance at high caspofungin concentrations). By inducing truncations in the hsp90 promoter, we identified a 100-base pair proximal sequence that triggers a significant increase of hsp90 expression (≥1.5-fold) and is essential for the paradoxical effect. Preventing this increase of hsp90 expression was sufficient to abolish the paradoxical effect and therefore optimize the antifungal activity of caspofungin.

  3. VITRIFICATION SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING WASTE AT LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. NAKAOKA; G. VEAZEY; ET AL

    2001-05-01

    A glove box vitrification system is being fabricated to process aqueous evaporator bottom waste generated at the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The system will be the first within the U.S. Department of Energy Complex to routinely convert Pu{sup 239}-bearing transuranic (TRU) waste to a glass matrix for eventual disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Currently at LANL, this waste is solidified in Portland cement. Radionuclide loading in the cementation process is restricted by potential radiolytic degradation (expressed as a wattage limit), which has been imposed to prevent the accumulation of flammable concentrations of H{sub 2} within waste packages. Waste matrixes with a higher water content (e.g., cement) are assigned a lower permissible wattage limit to compensate for their potential higher generation of H{sub 2}. This significantly increases the number of waste packages that must be prepared and shipped, thus driving up the costs of waste handling and disposal. The glove box vitrification system that is under construction will address this limitation. Because the resultant glass matrix produced by the vitrification process is non-hydrogenous, no H{sub 2} can be radiolytically evolved, and drums could be loaded to the maximum allowable limit of 40 watts. In effect, the glass waste form shifts the limiting constraint for loading disposal drums from wattage to the criticality limit of 200 fissile gram equivalents, thus significantly reducing the number of drums generated from this waste stream. It is anticipated that the number of drums generated from treatment of evaporator bottoms will be reduced by a factor of 4 annually when the vitrification system is operational. The system is currently undergoing non-radioactive operability testing, and will be fully operational in the year 2003.

  4. Tank waste treatment R and D activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.; Lee, D.D.; Beahm, E.C.; Collins, J.L.; Davidson, D.J.; Egan, B.Z.; Mattus, A.J.; Walker, J.F. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1997-08-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) served as the pilot plant for the Hanford production facility during the 1940s. As a result, the waste contained in the ORNL storage tanks has similarities to waste found at other sites, but is typically 10 to 100 times less radioactive. It is estimated that nearly 4.9 million liters of legacy of waste is stored on the site of ORNL. Of this volume about one-fifth is transuranic sludges. The remainder of the waste volume is classified as low-level waste. The waste contains approximately 130,000 Ci, composed primarily of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and small amounts of other fission products. The wastes were originally acidic in nature but were neutralized using Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NaOH, or CaO to allow their storage in tanks constructed of carbon steel or concrete (Gunite). In addition to the legacy waste, about 57,000 L of concentrated waste is generated annually, which contains about 13,000 Ci, consisting primarily of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and small amounts of other fission products. As part of the US department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management Tanks Focus Area and Efficient Separations and Processing programs, a number of tasks are under way at ORNL to address the wastes currently stored in tanks across the DOE complex. This paper summarizes the efforts in three of these tasks: (1) the treatment of the tank supernatant to remove Cs, Tc, and Sr; (2) the leaching or washing of the sludges to reduce the volume of waste to be vitrified; and (3) the immobilization of the sludges.

  5. Office of Inspector General audit report on waste treatment plans at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (Laboratory) stores nearly 65,000 cubic meters of waste generated on site or brought to the State of Idaho (Idaho) from Department of Energy (DOE) sites across the country since 1970. This represents approximately 62 percent of the stored waste that DOE plans to ship and permanently dispose of at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. In December 1996, DOE met the first milestone by awarding a fixed-price contract to a private company to construct and operate the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Facility (Treatment Facility) -- nearly 6 months ahead of schedule. Because the Treatment Facility would not be available to meet the 3,100 cubic meter milestone by December 31, 2002, DOE decided to dispose of untreated waste using the characterization process that was in place in 1989, and adapting it to meet new characterization requirements. The purpose of the audit was to determine whether it is in the best interest of the Government to defer processing the 3,100 cubic meters of waste until the new Treatment Facility can do so. The analysis showed that waiting until the Treatment Facility can process the 3,100 cubic meters of waste would be more economic and reduce the environmental risks to Laboratory employees. Therefore, a compromise between DOE and Idaho officials allowing such a deferral would be in the best interest of the Government.

  6. Changes in cell wall synthesis and ultrastructure during paradoxical growth effect of caspofungin on four different Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizerra, Fernando C; Melo, Analy S A; Katchburian, Eduardo; Freymüller, Edna; Straus, Anita H; Takahashi, Hélio K; Colombo, Arnaldo L

    2011-01-01

    Paradoxical growth (PG) has been described for echinocandins and is characterized by cell growth at drug concentrations above the MIC. In this study, two isolates each of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. parapsilosis, all of which displaying PG in response to caspofungin, were subjected to MIC, minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and time-kill curve assays to evaluate the levels of PG. Cell wall components and ultrastructural modifications of the PG cells were also investigated. The results showed that when cell growth and survival were evaluated by MFC or time-kill curve assays, high concentrations of caspofungin did not show fungicidal activity against PG cells. Furthermore, for C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis, time-kill curves were more discriminatory than MFCs in detecting the PG effect. The four different Candida species studied demonstrated similar alterations in cell wall components and ultrastructure associated with PG. In PG cells, β-1,3-glucan content decreased from 2.7- to 7.8-fold, whereas chitin content increased from 4.0- to 6.6-fold. An electron microscopy study of the PG cells revealed morphological alterations, clumping of cells, enlarged cells, the absence of filamentation, abnormal septa, and accumulation of chitin in the cell wall. Also, PG cells basically exhibited a single dark high-density layer in the cell wall, indicating the loss of the β-1,3-glucan layer. Our results present novel details about the ultrastructural alterations that occur in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. tropicalis during PG and show that chitin is the major component of the cell walls of PG cells. Stimulation of chitin synthesis may represent a rescue mechanism against caspofungin activity.

  7. 新型抗真菌药物卡泊芬净%Caspofungin,a new anti-fungal agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪立伟; 谭玲; 傅得兴

    2004-01-01

    卡泊芬净为美国及欧洲批准的棘球白素类中第一个用于临床的药物,是真菌细胞壁1,3-β-D葡聚糖合成酶抑制剂,用于两性霉素B治疗无效或不能耐受两性霉素B的侵袭性曲霉病成年患者.综述了卡泊芬净(caspofungin)的抗真菌作用机制、药动学及临床评价.

  8. Clinical and Laboratory Features, Treatment and Prognosis in Children with Guillian-Barre Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Suponeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 42 cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP in children aged between 7 months and 15 years, registered at the Municipal Clinical Hospital №1 throughout a 7 year period (2007—2014, was performed to investigate the features of pediatric Guillian-Barre Syndrome (GBS. GBS has shown to be the most common cause of AFP in children, with prevalence of 74% of all 31 cases. Clinical manifestations, functional status, laboratory and electrodiagnostic data were evaluated in group of 31 children in order to highlight particular features of childhood GBS in Russia. The highest frequency of GBS was observed in children aged between 1 to 3 with the median 6 [3; 11] years. Boys with GBS outnumbered girls by a 2,1:1 ratio. No seasonal dependence has been observed, with children equally suffering from this disease without a seasonal pattern throughout the year. According to the electrophysiological and clinical data, 24 children were diagnosed with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP (77%, 5 with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN (16% and 2 with аcute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN in a total of cases (7%. Several exclusive features of GBS in children for Russia were discovered. The most common initial symptom was limb pain, with the impartial sensory disturbance found only in 13% of the patients observed, 10% of which were paresthesias and the remaining 3% belonging to hypostesias. Children reached the nadir state rapidly, the median time from onset to nadir was 9.5 [6,25; 12,5] days. Cranial nerve dysfunction at nadir was observed in a greater percentage of patients (51% compared to that of 23% cases at the onset, with the facial palsy increasing from 10 to 32% and the bulbar palsy from 12 to 19%. The patients were given intravenous immunoglobulin in various doses: from 0.2 to 1.75 mg/kg per course (0.5 [0.5; 0.8] g/kg and/or plasmapheresis with a median volume of 93 [81; 100] ml/kg per

  9. Characterization of wastewater treatment plant microbial communities and the effects of carbon sources on diversity in laboratory models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangwon Lee

    Full Text Available We are developing a laboratory-scale model to improve our understanding and capacity to assess the biological risks of genetically engineered bacteria and their genetic elements in the natural environment. Our hypothetical scenario concerns an industrial bioreactor failure resulting in the introduction of genetically engineered bacteria to a downstream municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP. As the first step towards developing a model for this scenario, we sampled microbial communities from the aeration basin of a MWWTP at three seasonal time points. Having established a baseline for community composition, we investigated how the community changed when propagated in the laboratory, including cell culture media conditions that could provide selective pressure in future studies. Specifically, using PhyloChip 16S-rRNA-gene targeting microarrays, we compared the compositions of sampled communities to those of inocula propagated in the laboratory in simulated wastewater conditionally amended with various carbon sources (glucose, chloroacetate, D-threonine or the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim]Cl. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria were predominant in both aeration basin and laboratory-cultured communities. Laboratory-cultured communities were enriched in γ-Proteobacteria. Enterobacteriaceae, and Aeromonadaceae were enriched by glucose, Pseudomonadaceae by chloroacetate and D-threonine, and Burkholderiacea by high (50 mM concentrations of chloroacetate. Microbial communities cultured with chloroacetate and D-threonine were more similar to sampled field communities than those cultured with glucose or [C2mim]Cl. Although observed relative richness in operational taxonomic units (OTUs was lower for laboratory cultures than for field communities, both flask and reactor systems supported phylogenetically diverse communities. These results importantly provide a foundation for laboratory models of industrial

  10. 2010 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 2.2 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  11. 2012 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2011, through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2012 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant.

  12. A novel assay of biofilm antifungal activity reveals that amphotericin B and caspofungin lyse Candida albicans cells in biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDone, Louis; Oga, Duana; Krysan, Damian J

    2011-08-01

    The ability of Candida albicans to form drug-resistant biofilms is an important factor in its contribution to human disease. Assays to identify and characterize molecules with activity against fungal biofilms are crucial for the development of drugs with improved anti-biofilm activity. Here we report the application of an adenylate kinase (AK)-based cytotoxicity assay of fungal cell lysis to the characterization of agents active against C. albicans biofilms. We have developed three protocols for the AK assay. The first measures AK activity in the supernatants of biofilms treated with antifungal drugs and can be performed in parallel with a standard 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-caboxanilide-based biofilm susceptibility assay; a second, more sensitive protocol measures the AK activity present within the biofilm matrix; and a third procedure allows the direct visualization of lytic activity toward biofilms formed on catheter material. Amphotericin B and caspofungin, the two most effective anti-biofilm drugs currently used to treat fungal infections, both directly lyse planktonic C. albicans cells in vitro, leading to the release of AK into the culture medium. These studies serve to validate the AK-based lysis assay as a useful addition to the methods for the characterization of antifungal agents active toward biofilms and provide insights into the mode of action of amphotericin B and caspofungin against C. albicans biofilms.

  13. Candida albicans Fungaemia following Traumatic Urethral Catheterisation in a Paraplegic Patient with Diabetes Mellitus and Candiduria Treated by Caspofungin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Soni, Bakul; Hughes, Peter; Ramage, Gordon; Sherry, Leighann; Singh, Gurpreet; Mansour, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A 58-year-old paraplegic male, with long-term indwelling urethral catheter, developed catheter block. The catheter was changed, but blood-stained urine was drained intermittently. A long segment of the catheter was seen lying outside his penis, which indicated that the balloon of Foley catheter had been inflated in urethra. The misplaced catheter was removed and a new catheter was inserted correctly. Gentamicin 160 mg was given intravenously; meropenem 1 gram every eight hours was prescribed; antifungals were not given. Twenty hours later, this patient developed distension of abdomen, tachycardia, and hypotension; he was not arousable. Computed tomography of abdomen revealed inflamed uroepithelium of right renal pelvis and ureter, 4 mm lower ureteric calculus with gas in right ureter proximally, and vesical calculus containing gas in its matrix. Urine and blood culture yielded Candida albicans. Identical sensitivity pattern of both isolates suggested that the source of the bloodstream infection was most likely urine. Both isolates formed consistently high levels of biofilm formation in vitro as assessed using a biofilm biomass stain, and high levels of resistance to voriconazole were observed. Both amphotericin B and caspofungin showed good activity against the biofilms. HbA1c was 111 mmol/mol. This patient was prescribed human soluble insulin and caspofungin 70 mg followed by 50 mg daily intravenously. He recovered fully from candidemia.

  14. Candida albicans Fungaemia following Traumatic Urethral Catheterisation in a Paraplegic Patient with Diabetes Mellitus and Candiduria Treated by Caspofungin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old paraplegic male, with long-term indwelling urethral catheter, developed catheter block. The catheter was changed, but blood-stained urine was drained intermittently. A long segment of the catheter was seen lying outside his penis, which indicated that the balloon of Foley catheter had been inflated in urethra. The misplaced catheter was removed and a new catheter was inserted correctly. Gentamicin 160 mg was given intravenously; meropenem 1 gram every eight hours was prescribed; antifungals were not given. Twenty hours later, this patient developed distension of abdomen, tachycardia, and hypotension; he was not arousable. Computed tomography of abdomen revealed inflamed uroepithelium of right renal pelvis and ureter, 4 mm lower ureteric calculus with gas in right ureter proximally, and vesical calculus containing gas in its matrix. Urine and blood culture yielded Candida albicans. Identical sensitivity pattern of both isolates suggested that the source of the bloodstream infection was most likely urine. Both isolates formed consistently high levels of biofilm formation in vitro as assessed using a biofilm biomass stain, and high levels of resistance to voriconazole were observed. Both amphotericin B and caspofungin showed good activity against the biofilms. HbA1c was 111 mmol/mol. This patient was prescribed human soluble insulin and caspofungin 70 mg followed by 50 mg daily intravenously. He recovered fully from candidemia.

  15. Vertebral infection with Candida albicans failing caspofungin and fluconazole combination therapy but successfully treated with high dose liposomal amphotericin B and flucytosine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Storm

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A patient with Candida spondylitis failed two weeks of fluconazole combined with caspofungin, and the infection relapsed despite six weeks of liposomal amphotericin B followed by two months of fluconazole. Six months therapy with high dose liposomal amphotericin B combined with flucytosine effectively cured the patient.

  16. Reshuffling of Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall components chitin and β-glucan under the influence of caspofungin or nikkomycin Z alone or in combination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.B. Verwer (Patricia); H.M. van Duijn (Miranda); M. Tavakol (Mehri); I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractChitin and β-glucan are major cell wall components of Aspergillus spp. We investigated the antifungal activity of chitin synthesis inhibitors nikkomycin Z, polyoxin D, flufenoxuron, lufenuron, and teflubenzuron, alone and combined with the β-glucan synthesis inhibitor caspofungin. Only n

  17. 伊曲康唑联合卡泊芬净或特比萘芬对球形孢子丝菌体外抑菌作用的研究%In vitro interactions of itraconazole with caspofungin or terbinafine against Sporothrix globosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭静文; 刘伟; 刘伟霞; 张晋卿; 孙毅; 万喆; 李若瑜

    2013-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a common fungal infection with limited therapeutic strategies. Combination of synergistic drugs could provide new angle for treating this disease. We used the standard broth microdilution and checkerboard method to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of combining itraconazole with caspofungin or terbinafine against the yeast and mycelial phases of Sporothrix globosa . Fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was used to interprete the result as following: synergistic if the FICI is ≤0.5; indifferent if the FICI is >0. 5 but ≤4 and antagonistic if the FICI is >4. For yeast phase, the synergic interaction of itraconazole combined with caspofungin or terbinafine was 93. 94% (31/33) and 60. 61% (20/33) , respectively; for mycelial phase, the synergic interaction of itraconazole combined with caspofungin or terbinafine was 96. 97% (32/33 ) and 84. 5% (20/33 ) , respectively. Antagonism was not observed. The in vitro efficacy of combining itraconazole with caspofungin or terbinafine showed perfect synergy against S. globosa , suggesting a potential therapeutic choice for treatment of Sporotrichosis.%目的 探讨伊曲康唑联合卡泊芬净或特比萘芬时对球形孢子丝菌酵母相和菌丝相的体外抑菌作用.方法 参照标准的微量液基稀释法及棋盘微量稀释法对33株球形孢子丝菌行药敏试验,结果使用抑菌浓度指数(FICI)判定“协同”“不相关”和“拮抗”.结果 伊曲康唑与卡泊芬净联合对球形孢子丝菌酵母相菌株的协同率为93.94% (31/33),与特比萘芬联合的协同率为60.61% (20/33);伊曲康唑与卡泊芬净或特比萘芬联合对菌丝相菌株协同率分别为96.97% (32/33)、84.5% (28/33).对所有受试菌株均未观察到上述药物的拮抗作用.结论 体外联合药敏试验结果显示伊曲康唑与卡泊芬净或特比萘芬联合有较好的协同作用.

  18. 76 FR 39110 - Medicare Program; Section 3113: The Treatment of Certain Complex Diagnostic Laboratory Tests...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... classified (NOC)'' code but that would otherwise meet the criteria set forth in section 3113 for being a... Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) code other than a not otherwise classified (NOC) code under such Coding... for diagnostic laboratory tests defined in section 3113(a)(2) but currently billed using NOC...

  19. Design and validation of laboratory-scale simulations for selecting tribomaterials and surface treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-05-01

    Engineering approaches to solving tribology problems commonly involve friction, lubrication, or wear testing, either in the field or in a laboratory setting. Since wear and friction are properties of the materials in the larger context of the tribosystem, the selection of appropriate laboratory tribotesting procedures becomes critically important. Laboratory simulations must exhibit certain key characteristics of the application in order for the test results to be relevant, but they may not have to mimic all operating conditions. The current paper illustrates a step-by-step method to develop laboratory-scale friction and wear simulations based on a tribosystem analysis. Quantitative or qualitative metrics are established and used to validate the effectiveness of the tribosimulation. Sometimes standardized test methods can be used, but frequently a new type of test method or procedure must be developed. There are four factors to be addressed in designing effective simulations: (1) contact macrogeometry and the characteristics of relative motion, (2) pressure--velocity relationships, (3) thermal and chemical environment (including type of lubrication), and (4) the role of third-bodies. In addition, there are two typical choices of testing philosophy: (1) the worst-case scenario and, (2) the nominal-operations scenario. Examples of the development and use of simulative friction and wear tests are used to illustrate major points.

  20. Development of a Novel Depleted Uranium Treatment Process at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates-Anderson, D; Bowers, J; Laue, C; Fitch, T

    2007-01-22

    A three-stage process was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to treat potentially pyrophoric depleted uranium metal wastes. The three-stage process includes waste sorting/rinsing, acid dissolution of the waste metal with a hydrochloric and phosphoric acid solution, and solidification of the neutralized residuals from the second stage with clay. The final product is a solid waste form that can be transported to and disposed of at a permitted low-level radioactive waste disposal site.

  1. The Results of a Laboratory Feasibility Study for the Biological Treatment of Umatilla Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Amendments. Amendment Supplier Contact Phone Address Lactose Columbia River Processing Roy Dugan 541·481-3770 79588 Rippee Road Whey Columbia River...degradation. RDX, on the other hand, was more difficult to treat. The best amendments were molasses, corn syrup, emulsified oil (EOS), lactose, and whey ...Environmental Processes and Engineering Division (EPED), Environmental Laboratory (EL). Dr. Fiona Crocker and Dr. Mansour Zakakhani provided in-house review

  2. Biological treatment of whey by Tetrahymena pyriformis and impact study on laboratory-scale wastewater lagoon process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, J L; Bogaerts, P; Bohatier, J

    1999-06-01

    A procedure based on a biological treatment of whey was tested as part of research on waste treatment at the scale of small cheesemaking units. We studied the potential biodegradation of whey by a protozoan ciliate, Tetrahymena pyriformis, and evaluated the functional, microbiological and physiological disturbances caused by crude whey and the biodegraded whey in laboratory-scale pilots mimicking a natural lagoon treatment. The results show that T. pyriformis can strongly reduce the pollutant load of whey. In the lagoon pilots serving as example of receptor media, crude whey gradually but completely arrested operation, whereas with the biodegraded whey adverse effects were only temporary, and normal operation versus a control was gradually recovered in a few days.

  3. Pilot studies to achieve waste minimization and enhance radioactive liquid waste treatment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freer, J.; Freer, E.; Bond, A. [and others

    1996-07-01

    The Radioactive and Industrial Wastewater Science Group manages and operates the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The RLWTF treats low-level radioactive liquid waste generated by research and analytical facilities at approximately 35 technical areas throughout the 43-square-mile site. The RLWTF treats an average of 5.8 million gallons (21.8-million liters) of liquid waste annually. Clarifloculation and filtration is the primary treatment technology used by the RLWTF. This technology has been used since the RLWTF became operable in 1963. Last year the RLWTF achieved an average of 99.7% removal of gross alpha activity in the waste stream. The treatment process requires the addition of chemicals for the flocculation and subsequent precipitation of radionuclides. The resultant sludge generated during this process is solidified in drums and stored or disposed of at LANL.

  4. Spent fuel treatment and mineral waste form development at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, K.M.; Benedict, R.W.; Bateman, K. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Musick, C.A. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1996-07-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. Both mineral and metal high-level waste forms will be produced. The mineral waste form will contain the active metal fission products and the transuranics. Cold small-scale waste form testing has been on-going at Argonne in Illinois. Large-scale testing is commencing at ANL-West.

  5. The centrality of laboratory services in the HIV treatment and prevention cascade: The need for effective linkages and referrals in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemnji, George; Fonjungo, Peter; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Peter, Trevor; Kantor, Rami; Nkengasong, John

    2014-05-01

    Strong laboratory services and systems are critical for delivering timely and quality health services that are vital to reduce patient attrition in the HIV treatment and prevention cascade. However, challenges exist in ensuring effective laboratory health systems strengthening and linkages. In particular, linkages and referrals between laboratory testing and other services need to be considered in the context of an integrated health system that includes prevention, treatment, and strategic information. Key components of laboratory health systems that are essential for effective linkages include an adequate workforce, appropriate point-of-care (POC) technology, available financing, supply chain management systems, and quality systems improvement, including accreditation. In this review, we highlight weaknesses of and gaps between laboratory testing and other program services. We propose a model for strengthening these systems to ensure effective linkages of laboratory services for improved access and retention in care of HIV/AIDS patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.

  6. Greenhouse and laboratory study for the land application of water treatment residual

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Jay B.

    1991-01-01

    The disposal of water treatment residual has received little attention due to a lack of regulation, funding, and concern about their environmental impacts. Many treatment plants discharge alum residual directly into nearby water courses or dewater them for landfilling. If suitable land is available, land application of residual is cost effective and has the potential for negligible effects on the environment and may prove to be a long-term solution to the disposal problem. This...

  7. Evaluation of operating characteristics for a chabazite zeolite system for treatment of process wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, T.E.; Perona, J.J.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Taylor, P.A.

    1998-02-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale testing were performed for development and design of a chabazite zeolite ion-exchange system to replace existing treatment systems at the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The process wastewater treatment systems at ORNL need upgrading to improve efficiency, reduce waste generation, and remove greater quantities of contaminants from the wastewater. Previous study indicated that replacement of the existing PWTP systems with an ion-exchange system using chabazite zeolite will satisfy these upgrade objectives. Pilot-scale testing of the zeolite system was performed using a commercially available ion-exchange system to evaluate physical operating characteristics and to validate smaller-scale column test results. Results of this test program indicate that (1) spent zeolite can be sluiced easily and completely from a commercially designed vessel, (2) clarification followed by granular anthracite prefilters is adequate pretreatment for the zeolite system, and (3) the length of the mass transfer zone was comparable with that obtained in smaller-scale column tests. Laboratory studies were performed to determine the loading capacity of the zeolite for selected heavy metals. These test results indicated fairly effective removal of silver, cadmium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc from simple water solutions. Heavy-metals data collected during pilot-scale testing of actual wastewater indicated marginal removal of iron, copper, and zinc. Reduced effectiveness for other heavy metals during pilot testing can be attributed to the presence of interfering cations and the relatively short zeolite/wastewater contact time. Flocculating agents (polyelectrolytes) were tested for pretreatment of wastewater prior to the zeolite flow-through column system. Several commercially available polyelectrolytes were effective in flocculation and settling of suspended solids in process wastewater.

  8. 卡泊芬净成功治愈奥默柯达真菌血症1例%A case of 75 -year -old woman patient with Kodamaea ohmeri fungemia treated by Caspofungin successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春玲; 徐德祥; 王立生; 孙荣丽; 李黎

    2011-01-01

    1 例确诊为奥默柯达(毕赤)真菌血症的75 岁女性患者经卡泊芬净治疗后痊愈.该患者既往有冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病、高血压病、糖尿病及糖尿病肾病,近期因脑出血行脑内血肿置管引流术,术后因肺炎及呼吸衰竭行气管切开及机械通气,因消化道出血行全胃肠外营养.此后多次血液及静脉导管头培养均提示为奥默柯达真菌感染,先后给予氟康唑、伏立康唑、卡泊芬净及移除深静脉导管后血培养转阴,续用卡泊芬净21 d 并连续6 次血培养阴性考虑真菌血症治愈.目前报道的所有奥默毕赤真菌血症患者都存在免疫功能低下,卡泊芬净适合于肾功能不全患者,移除深静脉导管和停止静脉营养是治疗该病的重要措施,为避免复发抗真菌药物的疗程应在血培养阴性后维持2 周以上.%A case of 75-year-old woman patient diagnosed as Kodamaea (Pichia) ohmeri fungemia was recovered through the treatment of Caspofungin. The patient suffered coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, hypertensive disease, diabetes and diabetic nephropathy in the past, and was performed percutaneous catheter drainage in the intracerebral hematoma because of cerebral hemorrhage recently, and was taken incision of tracheal and mechanical ventilation after the operation because of the complication of pneumonia and respiratory failure, and was given total parenteral nutrition because of the severe ali -mentary tract hemorrhage. After that, multiple blood culture and culture of the tip of central venous catheter (CVC) all showed that there was Kodamaea ohmeri infection. The patient was cured after the treatment of Fluconazole, Voriconazole and the removal of CVC. Caspofungin was kept on for 21days and the blood culture showed 6 consecutive negative results, with the results, we considered that fungemia was cured. In recent reports, all patients with Kodamaea ohmeri fungemia had low immunity. Caspofungin was

  9. THE CLINICAL AND LABORATORY EFFECTIVENESS OF OSELTAMIVIR FOR TREATMENT OF INFLUENZA IN HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Voloschcuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our study was to estimate the efficacy of antiviral drug Oseltamivir for influenza treatment. We assessed the effect of Oseltamivir on the immune status of the 75 patients. It was formed 2 groups of observations with confirmed diagnosis of influenza: 38 received therapy Oseltamivir and 37 people receiving pathogenetic treatment. Treatment Oseltamivir contributes to a significant reduction in the duration of the catarrhal and intoxication syndromes and prevents the development of complications and exacerbations of chronic disease in persons with modified backdrop premorbid, which indicates for its high antiviral activity. We can assume the effect of Oseltamivir for restore the disturbed balance of cytokines, on assessing the dynamics of IL-1β, IL-8, IFNα, IFNγ in the serum.

  10. Fluconazole-, amphotericin-B-, caspofungin-, and anidulafungin-resistant Candida ciferrii: an unknown cause of systemic mycosis in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agın, Hasan; Ayhan, Yüce; Devrim, Ilker; Gülfidan, Gamze; Tulumoglu, Sener; Kayserili, Ertan

    2011-09-01

    Candida ciferrii, which is known as an agent of superficial yeast infection and onychomycosis, has rarely been isolated as an agent of candidemia. Limited reports have suggested different patterns of antifungal sensitivity. We report a rare candidemia case caused by c.ciferrii in an 8-year-old child in which isolated candida species were resistant to amphotericin-B (MIC > 1 μg/ml), fluconazole, (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml), caspofungin (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml), and anidulafungin (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml) but sensitive to voriconazole (MIC ≤ 0.12 μg/ml). As far as we aware, this was the first recorded C. ciferrii candidemia case in children.

  11. Treatment of waste by the Molten Salt Oxidation process at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosley, S.M.; Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gay, R.L.; Barclay, K.M.; Newcomb, J.C.; Yosim, S.J.

    1993-12-31

    The Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) process has been under development by Rockwell International to treat hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste. Testing of the system was done on a number of wastes to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the process. This testing included simulated intermediate level waste (ILW) from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The intermediate level waste stream consisted of a slurry of concentrated aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate, with a small amount of miscellaneous combustible components (PVC, TBP, kerosene, and ion exchange resins). The purpose of these tests was to evaluate the destruction of the organics, evaporation of the water, and conversion of the hazardous salts (hydroxide and nitrate) to non-hazardous sodium carbonate. Results of the tests are discussed and analyzed, and the possibilities of applying the MSO process to different waste streams at ORNL in the future are explored.

  12. Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-06-24

    The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps.

  13. 2011 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael G. Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2010, through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Site description; (2) Facility and system description; (3) Permit required monitoring data and loading rates; (4) Status of special compliance conditions and activities; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 permit year, approximately 1.22 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  14. 2013 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2012, through October 31, 2013. The report contains, as applicable, the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. However, soil samples were collected in October from soil monitoring unit SU-014101.

  15. Avaliação em escala laboratorial da utilização do processo eletrolítico no tratamento de águas Laboratory scale assessment of an electrolytic process for water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Otenio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Water treatment uses chlorine for disinfection causing formation of trihalomethanes. In this work, an electrolytic water pre-treatment was studied and applied to the water from a fountainhead. The action against microorganisms was evaluated using cast-iron and aluminum electrodes. Assays were made in laboratory using the electrolytic treatment. After 5 min of electrolysis the heterotrophic bacteria count was below 500 cfu/mL and complete elimination of total and fecal coliforms was observed. Using electrolytic treatment as a pretreatment of conventional tap water treatment is proposed.

  16. A novel laboratory scale method for studying heat treatment of cake flour

    OpenAIRE

    Chesterton, A. K. S.; Wilson, D I; Sadd, P. I.; Moggridge, G. D.

    2014-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript version. The final version is available from Elsevier at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0260877414003112. A lab-scale method for replicating the time–temperature history experienced by cake flours undergoing heat treatment was developed based on a packed bed configuration. The performance of heat-treated flours was compared with untreated and commercially heat-treated flour by test baking a high ratio cake formulation. Both cake volume and...

  17. Doses delivered to normal brain under different treatment protocols at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J.; Coderre, J.A.; Liu, H.B. [and others

    1996-12-31

    As of October 31, 1996, 23 glioblastoma multiforme patients underwent BNCT under several treatment protocols at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor. For treatment planning and dosimetry purposes, these protocols may be divided into four groups. The first group comprises protocols that used an 8-cm collimator and allowed a peak normal brain dose of 10.5 Gy-Eq to avolume of 1 cm{sup 3} were the thermal neutron flux was maximal (even if it happened to be in the tumor volume). The second group differs from the first in that it allowed a peak normal brain dose of 12.6 Gy-Eq. The protocols of the third and fourth groups allowed the prescribed peak normal brain dose of 12.6 Gy-Eq to be outside of the tumor volume, used a 12-cm collimator and, respectively, uni- or bilateral irradiations. We describe the treatment planning procedures and report the doses delivered to various structures of the brain.

  18. Development and testing of ion exchangers for treatment of liquid wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L.; Davidson, D.J.; Chase, C.W.; Egan, B.Z. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Ensor, D.D.; Bright, R.M.; Glasgow, D.C. (Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States))

    1993-03-01

    This report addresses three areas of waste treatment: (1) treatment of newly generated low-level liquid waste and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate using inorganic ion exchangers; (2) treatment of processing streams at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC); and (3) removal of radionuclides from organic solutions. Distribution of various radionuclides between simulated waste solutions and several sorbents was determined in batch tests. Inorganic ion exchangers were prepared in the form of microspheres by an intemal gelation process. Microspheres of hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, hydrous titania containing embedded sodium cobalt hexacyanoferrate, and the corresponding phosphate forms of these materials were prepared. Several zeolites (PDZ-140, PDZ-300, EE-96, CBV-10A) and inorganic ion exchangers (hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, polyantimanic acid, sodium cobalt hexacyanoferrate) were tested for the removal of cesium and strontium from the acidic simulated Cleanex raffinate generated at REDC. A resorcinol-based ion-exchange resin and three types of sodium titanate were tested for removal of cesium and strontium from the REDC caustic dissolver solution. Hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, and their corresponding phosphates were tested for the removal of Eu[sup 3+] from various solutions of di-2-ethylbexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in toluene or dodecane.

  19. Development and testing of ion exchangers for treatment of liquid wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L.; Davidson, D.J.; Chase, C.W.; Egan, B.Z. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ensor, D.D.; Bright, R.M.; Glasgow, D.C. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    This report addresses three areas of waste treatment: (1) treatment of newly generated low-level liquid waste and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate using inorganic ion exchangers; (2) treatment of processing streams at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC); and (3) removal of radionuclides from organic solutions. Distribution of various radionuclides between simulated waste solutions and several sorbents was determined in batch tests. Inorganic ion exchangers were prepared in the form of microspheres by an intemal gelation process. Microspheres of hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, hydrous titania containing embedded sodium cobalt hexacyanoferrate, and the corresponding phosphate forms of these materials were prepared. Several zeolites (PDZ-140, PDZ-300, EE-96, CBV-10A) and inorganic ion exchangers (hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, polyantimanic acid, sodium cobalt hexacyanoferrate) were tested for the removal of cesium and strontium from the acidic simulated Cleanex raffinate generated at REDC. A resorcinol-based ion-exchange resin and three types of sodium titanate were tested for removal of cesium and strontium from the REDC caustic dissolver solution. Hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, and their corresponding phosphates were tested for the removal of Eu{sup 3+} from various solutions of di-2-ethylbexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in toluene or dodecane.

  20. Effects of laboratory treatments on silver and other elements in native gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W.L.; Mosier, E.L.; Antweiler, J.C.

    1973-01-01

    Interpretation of the element content of gold and of alloy proportions of gold and silver may have useful applications in prospecting and ore genesis studies. The commonly used methods of concentration and recovery of gold for analysis (acid leach, roasting, or amalgamation), however, alter the content of silver and other elements in the gold. The treatment of gold with four mineral acids (HF, HCL, H2S04, and HNO3) and combinations of these acids, amalgamation of the gold, and roasting the gold in a muffle furnace at 650°C for 8 hours caused losses of 0-100 percent of the elements studied. In some of the samples studied these treatments also caused losses totaling as much as 50 percent, by weight, of the silver content (which made up 20 percent of the total sample weight). The other elements studied show similar behavior to a lesser extent. The results of these studies show that before one interprets compositional analyses for prospecting or other applications he must know to what extent a recovery treatment changes the composition of the elements.

  1. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Conceptual Site Treatment Plan. Tables 8.1 and 8.2, Appendices A, B, C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, D.

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Section 3021(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct), to prepare plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. The FFCAct requires site treatment plans (STPs or plans) to be developed for each site at which DOE generates or stores mixed waste and submitted to the host state or the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for either approval, approval with modification, or disapproval. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP) is the preliminary version of the plan required by the FFCAct and is being provided to the State of Idaho, the EPA, and others for review. A list of the other DOE sites preparing CSTPs is included in Appendix A of this document. In addition to aiding the INEL in formulating its Final Proposed STP, this CSTP will also provide information to other DOE sites for use in identifying common technology needs and potential options for treating their wastes. The INEL CSTP is also intended to be used in conjunction with CSTPs from other sites as a basis for nationwide discussions among state regulators, the EPA, and other interested parties on treatment strategies and options, and on technical and equity issues associated with DOE`s mixed waste.

  2. Laboratory test and acoustic analysis of cabin treatment for propfan test assessment aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, H. L.; Gatineau, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    An aircraft cabin acoustic enclosure, built in support of the Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) program, is described. Helmholtz resonators were attached to the cabin trim panels to increase the sidewall transmission loss (TL). Resonators (448) were located between the trim panels and fuselage shell. In addition, 152 resonators were placed between the enclosure and aircraft floors. The 600 resonators were each tuned to a 235 Hz resonance frequency. After flight testing on the PTA aircraft, the enclosure was tested in the Kelly Johnson R and D Center Acoustics Lab. Laboratory noise reduction (NR) test results are discussed. The enclosure was placed in a Gulfstream 2 fuselage section. Broadband (138 dB overall SPL) and tonal (149 dB overall SPL) excitations were used in the lab. Tonal excitation simulated the propfan flight test excitation. The fundamental tone was stepped in 2 Hz intervals from 225 through 245 Hz. The resonators increase the NR of the cabin walls around the resonance frequency of the resonator array. The effects of flanking, sidewall absorption, cabin adsorption, resonator loading of trim panels, and panel vibrations are presented. Increases in NR of up to 11 dB were measured.

  3. Vitrification as a low-level radioactive mixed waste treatment technology at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazer, J.J.; No, Hyo J.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is developing plans to use vitrification to treat low-level radioactive mixed wastes (LLMW) generated onsite. The ultimate objective of this project is to install a full-scale vitrification system at ANL-E capable of processing the annual generation and historic stockpiles of selected LLMW streams. This project is currently in the process of identifying a range of processible glass compositions that can be produced from actual mixed wastes and additives, such as boric acid or borax. During the formulation of these glasses, there has been an emphasis on maximizing the waste content in the glass (70 to 90 wt %), reducing the overall final waste volume, and producing a stabilized low-level radioactive waste glass. Crucible glass studies with actual mixed waste streams have produced alkali borosilicate glasses that pass the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. These same glass compositions, spiked with toxic metals well above the expected levels in actual wastes, also pass the TCLP test. These results provide compelling evidence that the vitrification system and the glass waste form will be robust enough to accommodate expected variations in the LLMW streams from ANL-E. Approximately 40 crucible melts will be studied to establish a compositional envelope for vitrifying ANL-E mixed wastes. Also being determined is the identity of volatilized metals or off-gases that will be generated.

  4. Discovery, interception, and treatment of a groundwater plume: Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.; Ketelle, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

    1996-06-01

    A radiological groundwater plume was discovered to be discharging into a surface stream and portions of the storm drain network at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A CERCLA removal action was initiated to address the discharges. The plume was found to be migrating 65 degrees oblique to the overall hydraulic gradient and was identified only after historic data were analyzed and field tests were performed under the working hypothesis of stratabound flow and transport. A detailed geologic and hydrologic analysis was performed that accurately predicted the 3-dimensional plume configuration from a single point datum where significantly elevated contaminant levels were found in a bedrock core hole. Subsequent sampling found that direct discharges of contamination existed in the stream only in the location of the predicted stratum. The affected storm drain outfall discharges were suspected to be the major contributors to {sup 90}Sr surface water risk from ORNL. Thus, the selected removal action focused on eliminating the known seepage to the storm drain network. Intercept system operations reduced the total surface water {sup 90}Sr flux by about 90%. Ongoing investigations seek to identify the source of the plume with the hope that the intercept system may eventually be deactivated. However, the efficiency of the system exceeded expectations and demonstrated that a good understanding of the hydrodynamics is a prerequisite to success. The relatively trouble free operation of the system also indicates that simple technologies can serve as effective measures to address immediate problems.

  5. Contaminant monitoring of biota downstream of a radioactive liquid waste treatment facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K.D.; Biggs, J.R.; Fresquez, P.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Environment, Safety, and Health Div.

    1996-12-31

    Small mammals, plants, and sediments were sampled at one upstream location (Site 1) and two downstream locations (Site 2 and Site 3) from the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) outfall {number_sign}051-051 in Mortandad Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. The purpose of the sampling was to identify radionuclides potentially present, to quantitatively estimate and compare the amount of radionuclide uptake at specific locations (Site 2 and Site 3) within Mortandad Canyon to an upstream site (Site 1), and to identify the primary mode (inhalation/ingestion or surface contact) of contamination to small mammals. Three composite samples of at least five animals per sample were collected at each site. The pelt was separated from the carcass of each animal and both were analyzed independently. In addition, three composite samples were also collected for plants and sediments at each site. Samples were analyzed for americium ({sup 241}Am), strontium ({sup 90}Sr), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu), and total uranium (U). With the exception of total U, all mean radionuclide concentrations in small mammal carcasses and sediments were significantly higher at Site 2 than Site 1 or Site 3. No differences were detected in the mean radionuclide concentration of plant samples between sites. However, some radionuclide concentrations found at all three sites were higher than regional background. No differences were found between mean carcass radionuclide concentrations and mean pelt radionuclide concentrations, indicating that the two primary modes of contamination may be equally occurring.

  6. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of Voriconasole in treatment of invasive aspregillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Climko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is widespread infectious implication in immunodeficient patients, characterized by severe clinical manifestations and high mortality. This article presents the first case of pharmacoeconomical analysis of Voriconasole in treatment of IA compared with alternative therapies in Russia. Using mathematic modeling methods, we evalued total costs (including costs of IA treatment, clinical effectiveness and IA-related mortality in each therapy group. Obtained results showed the dominating of Voriconasole because of its high effectiveness and lower costs compared with caspofungine or amphotericine B. Total costs of therapy with Voricinasole were up to 30% lower compared with caspofungine and up to 70% lower compared with amphotericine B. Performed univariate sensitivity analysis showed that cost-effectiveness of anti-IA treatment depends mostly on clinical effectiveness of antimycotics rather than drug costs. Thus, treatment with Voriconasole is cost-effective in IA patients.

  8. Antifungal prophylaxis with liposomal amphotericin B and caspofungin in high-risk patients after liver transplantation: impact on fungal infections and immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrella, A; Esposito, C; Amato, G; Perrella, O; Migliaccio, C; Pisaniello, D; Calise, F; Cuomo, O; Santaniello, W

    2016-02-01

    Antifungal prophylaxis may be required in high-risk patients undergoing liver transplantation and for that reason we aimed to verify its role and its related impact on the graft. From January 2006 throughout 2012, 250 liver transplants were evaluated and 54 patients identified as being at higher risk were randomly selected to undergo the following schedule: 28 patients received liposomal amphotericin B and 26 received caspofungin. We evaluated, throughout 12 months, renal and liver function tests, bacterial and fungal infection episodes, and intensive care unit (ICU) stay, as well as the Th1 and Th2 cytokine network. Differences were analyzed according to non-parametric tests (two-tailed p values). Neither of the groups showed episodes of invasive fungal infection during the 12 months follow-up; however, patients receiving prophylaxis with liposomal amphotericin B had reduced episodes of bacterial infections coupled with an improved immune system response compared with those receiving caspofungin. Finally, a reduced stay in the ICU was also observed. In conclusion, even if the results of liposomal amphotericin B and caspofungin prophylaxis strategies did not differ in terms of invasive fungal infection rate, patients receiving prophylaxis with liposomal amphotericin B had a reduced ICU stay and an improved Th2 status, as well as a reduced number of post-transplant bacterial infections. Further studies are required to better address and evaluate these findings.

  9. Supplementing claims data with outpatient laboratory test results to improve confounding adjustment in effectiveness studies of lipid-lowering treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneeweiss Sebastian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adjusting for laboratory test results may result in better confounding control when added to administrative claims data in the study of treatment effects. However, missing values can arise through several mechanisms. Methods We studied the relationship between availability of outpatient lab test results, lab values, and patient and system characteristics in a large healthcare database using LDL, HDL, and HbA1c in a cohort of initiators of statins or Vytorin (ezetimibe & simvastatin as examples. Results Among 703,484 patients 68% had at least one lab test performed in the 6 months before treatment. Performing an LDL test was negatively associated with several patient characteristics, including recent hospitalization (OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.29-0.34, MI (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.69-0.85, or carotid revascularization (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.25-0.53. Patient demographics, diagnoses, and procedures predicted well who would have a lab test performed (AUC = 0.89 to 0.93. Among those with test results available claims data explained only 14% of variation. Conclusions In a claims database linked with outpatient lab test results, we found that lab tests are performed selectively corresponding to current treatment guidelines. Poor ability to predict lab values and the high proportion of missingness reduces the added value of lab tests for effectiveness research in this setting.

  10. Effect of surface treatments of laboratory-fabricated composites on the microtensile bond strength to a luting resin cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos José; Giannini, Marcelo; Oliveira, Marcelo Tavares de; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Martins, Luis Roberto Marcondes

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different surface treatments on composite resin on the microtensile bond strength to a luting resin cement. Two laboratory composites for indirect restorations, Solidex and Targis, and a conventional composite, Filtek Z250, were tested. Forty-eight composite resin blocks (5.0 x 5.0 x 5.0mm) were incrementally manufactured, which were randomly divided into six groups, according to the surface treatments: 1- control, 600-grit SiC paper (C); 2- silane priming (SI); 3- sandblasting with 50 mm Al2O3 for 10s (SA); 4- etching with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 60 s (HF); 5- HF + SI; 6 - SA + SI. Composite blocks submitted to similar surface treatments were bonded together with the resin adhesive Single Bond and Rely X luting composite. A 500-g load was applied for 5 minutes and the samples were light-cured for 40s. The bonded blocks were serially sectioned into 3 slabs with 0.9mm of thickness perpendicularly to the bonded interface (n = 12). Slabs were trimmed to a dumbbell shape and tested in tension at 0.5mm/min. For all composites tested, the application of a silane primer after sandblasting provided the highest bond strength means.

  11. Serum HMGB1 Serves as a Novel Laboratory Indicator Reflecting Disease Activity and Treatment Response in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ye; Huang, Yishu; Sun, Mengchen; Zhu, Yingzi; Zheng, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Objective. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a late inflammatory factor participating in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In the current study, we analyzed the association between serum levels of HMGB1 and clinical features of AS patients before and during treatment. Methods. Serum HMGB1 was detected in 147 AS patients and 61 healthy controls using ELISA. We evaluated the association between HMGB1 and extra-articular manifestations as well as disease severity indices. Among these AS patients, 41 patients received close follow-up at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. This group comprised 25 patients treated with anti-TNF-α biologics and 16 patients receiving oral NSAIDs plus sulfasalazine. Results. The serum HMGB1 of AS patients was significantly higher than in healthy controls and positively correlated with BASDAI, BASFI, ASDAS-ESR, ASDAS-CRP, ESR, and CRP, but not with HLA-B27, anterior uveitis, and recurrent diarrhea. There was no significant difference between patients with radiographic damage of hip joints and those without. We observed that serum HMGB1 paralleled disease activity after treatment. Conclusion. Serum level of HMGB1 is higher in AS patients, and to some extent, HMGB1 can reflect the activity of AS and be used as a laboratory indicator to reflect the therapeutic response.

  12. Treatment of waste incinerator air-pollution-control residues with FeSO4: Laboratory investigation of design parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Lundtorp, Kasper

    2002-01-01

    The key design parameters of a new process for treatment of air-pollution-control (APC) residues (the Ferroxprocess) were investigated in the laboratory. The optimisation involved two different APC-residues from actual incinerator plants. The design parameters considered were: amount of iron oxide...... must be optimised for each residue. The overall water use can be limited to a L/S-ratio of 3 l kg–1 including water used for washing of the treated products....... supplied, the liquid-to-solid ratio of the process, the separation of solids and wastewater, the sequence of material mixing, the possibilities of reuse of water, the feasibility of using secondary (brackish) water, and simple means to improve the wastewater quality. The investigation showed...

  13. Toxicity to freshwater organisms from oils and oil spill chemical treatments in laboratory microcosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Klerks, P.L.; Nyman, J.A

    2003-04-01

    Toxicity of oil and diesel fuel to freshwater biota may be increased by use of oil spill cleaning agents. - Toxicity and temporal changes in toxicity of freshwater-marsh-microcosms containing South Louisiana Crude (SLC) or diesel fuel and treated with a cleaner or dispersant, were investigated using Chironomus tentans, Daphnia pulex, and Oryzias latipes. Bioassays used microcosm water (for D. pulex and O. latipes) or soil slurry (for C. tentans) taken 1,7, 31, and 186 days after treatment. SLC was less toxic than diesel, chemical additives enhanced oil toxicity, the dispersant was more toxic than the cleaner, and toxicities were greatly reduced by day 186. Toxicities were higher in the bioassay with the benthic species than in those with the two water-column species. A separate experiment showed that C. tentans' sensitivity was intermediate to that of Tubifex tubifex and Hyallela azteca. Freshwater organisms, especially benthic invertebrates, thus appear seriously effected by oil under the worst-case-scenario of our microcosms. Moreover, the cleaner and dispersant tested were poor response options under those conditions.

  14. Metal ion adsorption by Phomopsis sp. biomaterial in laboratory experiments and real wastewater treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiano, Filippo; Ciofalo, Maurizio; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Ramirez, Stefania

    2005-06-01

    An insoluble material of polysaccharidic nature has been obtained by thermal alkali treatment of the filamentous fungus Phomopsis sp. FT-IR spectrum of the resulting material as well as its nitrogen content suggest that chitosan and glucans are the main components of the biomaterial. Information on Lewis base sites has also been obtained and used as a guideline in the evaluation of the complexing ability against a number of metal ions in aqueous media at pH in the range 4--6. Results indicate that after 24h contact time, up to 870 micromol/g of lead, 390 micromol/g of copper, 230 micromol/g of cadmium, 150 micromol/g of zinc and 110 micromol/g of nickel ions are adsorbed into the material. After approximately 10 min, about 70% of the overall adsorption process has already been completed. Adsorbed metal ions can be recovered by washing with dilute acid. Experiments have been extended to a real wastewater effluent confirming the potential of this biomaterial as a depolluting agent.

  15. Separation technologies for the treatment of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, T.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Currently about 6.8 million L of acidic, radioactive liquid waste that is not amenable to calcination, and about 3800 m{sup 3} of calcine exist at the ICPP. Legal drivers (court orders) and agreements between the state of Idaho, the U.S. Navy, and DOE exist that obligate INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for treatment and interim storage of the radioactive liquid and calcine wastes. Per these agreements, all tank waste must be removed from the underground liquid storage tanks by the year 2012, and high-level radioactive waste must be treated and removed from INEL by 2035. Separation of the radionuclides from the wastes, followed by immobilization of the high-activity and low-activity fractions in glass and grout, respectively, is the approach preferred by INEL. Technologies to remove actinides (U, Np, Pu, and Am), Cs, Sr, and possibly Tc from highly acidic solutions are required to process INEL wastes. Decontamination of the wastes to NRC Class A low-level waste (LLW) is planned. Separation and isolation of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cr) from the highly radioactive waste streams may also be required. Remediation efforts will begin in FY 1997 to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radionuclides (Cs and Sr) from groundwater located at the Test Area North facility at INEL. A plume of VOCs and radionuclides has spread from the former TSF-05 injection well, and a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Conservation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation action is under way. A Record of Decision was signed in August 1995 that commits INEL to remediate the plume from TSF-05. Removal of Sr and Cs from the groundwater using commercially available ion-exchange resins has been unsuccessful at meeting maximum contaminant levels, which are 119 pCi/L and 8 pCi/L for Cs and Sr, respectively. Cesium and Sr are the major contaminants that must be removed from the groundwater.

  16. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  17. 2014 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2013, through October 31, 2014. The report contains, as applicable, the following information; Site description; Facility and system description; Permit required monitoring data and loading rates; Status of compliance conditions and activities; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. The current permit expires on March 16, 2015. A permit renewal application was submitted to Idaho Department of Environmental Quality on September 15, 2014. During the 2014 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. Seepage testing of the three lagoons was performed between August 26, 2014 and September 22, 2014. Seepage rates from Lagoons 1 and 2 were below the 0.25 inches/day requirement; however, Lagoon 3 was above the 0.25 inches/day. Lagoon 3 has been isolated and is being evaluated for future use or permanent removal from service.

  18. Sustainable treatment and reuse of diluted pig manure streams in Russia: from laboratory trials to full-scale implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyuzhnyi, Sergey; Sklyar, Vladimir; Epov, Andrey; Arkhipchenko, Irina; Barboulina, Irina; Orlova, Olga; Kovalev, Alexander; Nozhevnikova, Alla; Klapwijk, Abraham

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained during the laboratory and pilot development of integrated biologic and physicochemical treatment and reuse of diluted pig manure streams. The application of a straw filter was an effective means to separate the solid and liquid fractions of raw wastewater and resulted in the removal of a significant part of the dry matter, total nitrogen, and phosphorus (65, 27, and 32%, respectively). From the filtrate generated, 60-80% of the total chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor operating at 15-30 degrees C. Ammonia was efficiently eliminated (>99%) from the anaerobic effluents using Ural laumantite as an ion exchanger. However, the nitrogen-content of the zeolite was too low to consider this method of ammonia removal economically feasible. The phosphate precipitation block, consisting of stripper of CO2 and fluidized-bed crystallizator, was able to decrease the concentration of soluble phosphate in the anaerobic effluents up to 7-15 mg of phosphate/L. The application of aerobic/anoxic biofilter as a sole polishing step was acceptable from an aesthetic point of view (the effluents were transparent and almost colorless and odorless) and elimination of biochemical oxygen demand (the resting COD was hardly biodegradable). However, the effluent nutrient concentrations (especially nitrogen) were far from the current standards for direct discharge of treated wastewater. We discuss the approaches for further improvement of effluent quality. Finally, we provide an outline of a full-scale system that partially implements the laboratory- and pilotscale results obtained.

  19. Prognostic value of clinical, laboratory and molecular predictors in the formation of personalized approaches to breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phokhach A.V.

    2016-06-01

    group without Herceptin (27,4±3,4 months and higher than the HER-2 / neu-negative patients (38,1±3,0 months. The value of coefficient Spearman rank correlation to tumor response and the factor of menopause, age, general condition of the patient were - 0.174; -0.222; -0.250 (P 0.05, in accordance. In the presence of neutropenia at 1 week after treatment it has been revealed significantly better tumor response to treatment - the correlation coefficient: 0.204 (p <0.05. Conclusion. Molecular subtypes detection had shown that HER-2/neu-positive and tripple negative breast cancer demonstrated the most aggresive course of disease. It was found that a more pronounced tumor response to combination chemotherapy can be expected in young patients, pre-menopausal, high ECOG status. The presence of neutropenia has a significantly positive impact on the results of treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer. Citation: Phokhach AV, Elhajj MH, Bondarenko IN, Zavizion VF, Hurtovyi VA. [Prognostic value of clinical, laboratory and molecular predictors in the formation of personalized approaches to breast cancer treatment]. Morphologia. 2016;10(2:53-60. Russian.

  20. Environmental Assessment for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-03

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified a need to improve the management of wastewater resulting from high explosives (HE) research and development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LANL`s current methods off managing HE-contaminated wastewater cannot ensure that discharged HE wastewater would consistently meet the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE needs to enhance He wastewater management to e able to meet both present and future regulatory standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE also proposes to incorporate major pollution prevention and waste reduction features into LANL`s existing HE production facilities. Currently, wastewater from HE processing buildings at four Technical Areas (TAs) accumulates in sumps where particulate HE settles out and barium is precipitated. Wastewater is then released from the sumps to the environment at 15 permitted outfalls without treatment. The released water may contain suspended and dissolved contaminants, such as HE and solvents. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes two alternatives, the Proposed Action and the Alternative Action, that would meet the purpose and need for agency action. Both alternatives would treat all HE process wastewater using sand filters to remove HE particulates and activated carbon to adsorb organic solvents and dissolved HE. Under either alternative, LANL would burn solvents and flash dried HE particulates and spent carbon following well-established procedures. Burning would produce secondary waste that would be stored, treated, and disposed of at TA-54, Area J. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility.

  1. Amphotericin B and caspofungin resistance in Candida glabrata isolates recovered from a critically ill patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Mikkel; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Heslet, Lars

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Consecutive Candida glabrata isolates recovered from a patient in an intensive care unit were resistant to amphotericin B (minimum inhibitory concentration, up to 32 mu g/mL; determined by Etest [AB Biodisk]). Analyses at the national reference laboratory showed that some isolates were...

  2. Treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives for the gunite and associated tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePew, R.E.; Rickett, K. [Advanced Systems Technology, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Redus, K.S. [MACTEC, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DuMont, S.P. [Hazardous and Medical Waste Services, Inc. (United States); Lewis, B.E.; DePaoli, S.M.; Van Hoesen, S.D. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) are inactive, liquid low-level waste tanks located in and around the North and South Tank Farms at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These underground tanks are the subject of an ongoing treatability study that will determine the best remediation alternatives for the tanks. As part of the treatability study, an assessment of viable treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) alternatives has been conducted. The report summarizes relevant waste characterization data and statistics obtained to date. The report describes screening and evaluation criteria for evaluating TSD options. Individual options that pass the screening criteria are described in some detail. Order-or-magnitude cost estimates are presented for each of the TSD system alternatives. All alternatives are compared to the baseline approach of pumping all of the GAAT sludge and supernate to the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility for eventual TSD along with the existing MOST waste. Four TSD systems are identified as alternatives to the baseline approach. The baseline is the most expensive of the five identified alternatives. The least expensive alternative is in-situ grouting of all GAAT sludge followed by in-situ disposal. The other alternatives are: (1) ex-situ grouting with on-site storage and disposal at Nevada Test Site (NTS); (2) ex-situ grouting with on-site storage and disposal at NTS and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); and (3) ex-situ vitrification with on-site storage and disposal at NTS and WIPP.

  3. Baseline Flowsheet Generation for the Treatment and Disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Sodium Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, C.M.; Lauerhass, L.; Olson, A.L.; Taylor, D.D.; Valentine, J.H.; Lockie, K.A. (DOE- ID)

    2002-01-16

    The High-Level Waste (HLW) Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) must implement technologies and processes to treat and qualify radioactive wastes located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for permanent disposal. This paper describes the approach and accomplishments to date for completing development of a baseline vitrification treatment flowsheet for sodium-bearing waste (SBW), including development of a relational database used to manage the associated process assumptions. A process baseline has been developed that includes process requirements, basis and assumptions, process flow diagrams, a process description, and a mass balance. In the absence of actual process or experimental results, mass and energy balance data for certain process steps are based on assumptions. Identification, documentation, validation, and overall management of the flowsheet assumptions are critical to ensuring an integrated, focused program. The INEEL HLW Program initially used a roadmapping methodology, developed through the INEEL Environmental Management Integration Program, to identify, document, and assess the uncertainty and risk associated with the SBW flowsheet process assumptions. However, the mass balance assumptions, process configuration and requirements should be accessible to all program participants. This need resulted in the creation of a relational database that provides formal documentation and tracking of the programmatic uncertainties related to the SBW flowsheet.

  4. Baseline Flowsheet Generation for the Treatment and Disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Sodium Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Charles Marshall; Lauerhass, Lance; Olson, Arlin Leland; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Valentine, James Henry; Lockie, Keith Andrew

    2002-02-01

    The High-Level Waste (HLW) Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) must implement technologies and processes to treat and qualify radioactive wastes located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for permanent disposal. This paper describes the approach and accomplishments to date for completing development of a baseline vitrification treatment flowsheet for sodium-bearing waste (SBW), including development of a relational database used to manage the associated process assumptions. A process baseline has been developed that includes process requirements, basis and assumptions, process flow diagrams, a process description, and a mass balance. In the absence of actual process or experimental results, mass and energy balance data for certain process steps are based on assumptions. Identification, documentation, validation, and overall management of the flowsheet assumptions are critical to ensuring an integrated, focused program. The INEEL HLW Program initially used a roadmapping methodology, developed through the INEEL Environmental Management Integration Program, to identify, document, and assess the uncertainty and risk associated with the SBW flowsheet process assumptions. However, the mass balance assumptions, process configuration and requirements should be accessible to all program participants. This need resulted in the creation of a relational database that provides formal documentation and tracking of the programmatic uncertainties related to the SBW flowsheet.

  5. Use of micafungin as a surrogate marker to predict susceptibility and resistance to caspofungin among 3,764 clinical isolates of Candida by use of CLSI methods and interpretive criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Messer, Shawn A; Diekema, Daniel J; Jones, Ronald N; Castanheira, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Due to unacceptably high interlaboratory variation in caspofungin MIC values, we evaluated the use of micafungin as a surrogate marker to predict the susceptibility of Candida spp. to caspofungin using reference methods and species-specific interpretive criteria. The MIC results for 3,764 strains of Candida (eight species), including 73 strains with fks mutations, were used. Caspofungin MIC values and species-specific interpretive criteria were compared with those of micafungin to determine the percent categorical agreement (%CA) and very major error (VME), major error (ME), and minor error rates as well as their ability to detect fks mutant strains of Candida albicans (11 mutants), Candida tropicalis (4 mutants), Candida krusei (3 mutants), and Candida glabrata (55 mutants). Overall, the %CA was 98.8% (0.2% VMEs and MEs, 0.8% minor errors) using micafungin as the surrogate marker. Among the 60 isolates of C. albicans (9 isolates), C. tropicalis (5 isolates), C. krusei (2 isolates), and C. glabrata (44 isolates) that were nonsusceptible (either intermediate or resistant) to both caspofungin and micafungin, 54 (90.0%) contained a mutation in fks1 or fks2. An additional 10 C. glabrata mutants, two C. albicans mutants, and one mutant each of C. tropicalis and C. krusei were classified as susceptible to both antifungal agents. Using the epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) of 0.12 μg/ml for caspofungin and 0.03 μg/ml for micafungin to differentiate wild-type (WT) from non-WT strains of C. glabrata, 80% of the C. glabrata mutants were non-WT for both agents (96% concordance). Micafungin may serve as an acceptable surrogate marker for the prediction of susceptibility and resistance of Candida to caspofungin.

  6. Use of anidulafungin as a surrogate marker to predict susceptibility and resistance to caspofungin among 4,290 clinical isolates of Candida by using CLSI methods and interpretive criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Diekema, Daniel J; Jones, Ronald N; Castanheira, Mariana

    2014-09-01

    This study addressed the application of anidulafungin as a surrogate marker to predict the susceptibility of Candida to caspofungin due to unacceptably high interlaboratory variation of caspofungin MIC values. CLSI reference broth microdilution methods and species-specific interpretive criteria were used to test 4,290 strains of Candida (eight species), including 71 strains with documented fks mutations. Caspofungin MIC values were compared with those of anidulafungin to determine the percentage of categorical agreement (CA) and very major (VME), major (ME), and minor error rates, as well as the ability to detect fks mutants. For all 4,290 isolates the CA was 97.1% (0.2% VME and ME, 2.5% minor errors) using anidulafungin as the surrogate. Among the 62 isolates of Candida albicans (4 isolates), C. tropicalis (5 isolates), C. krusei (4 isolates), C. kefyr (2 isolates), and C. glabrata (47 isolates) that were nonsusceptible (NS; either intermediate [I] or resistant [R]) to both caspofungin and anidulafungin, 52 (83.8%) contained a mutation in fks1 or fks2. Eight mutants of C. glabrata, two of C. albicans, and one each of C. tropicalis and C. krusei were classified as susceptible (S) to both antifungal agents. The remaining 7 mutants (2 C. albicans and 5 C. glabrata) were susceptible to one of the agents and either intermediate or resistant to the other. Using the epidemiological cutoff value (ECV) of 0.12 μg/ml for both caspofungin and anidulafungin to differentiate wild-type (WT) from non-WT strains of C. glabrata, 42 of the 55 (76.4%) C. glabrata mutants were non-WT and 8 of the 55 (14.5%) were WT for both agents (90.9% concordance). Anidulafungin can accurately serve as a surrogate marker to predict S and R of Candida to caspofungin.

  7. Evaluation of CLSI M44-A2 Disk Diffusion and Associated Breakpoint Testing of Caspofungin and Micafungin Using a Well-Characterized Panel of Wild-Type and fks Hot Spot Mutant Candida Isolates▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Park, Steven; Brown, Steven; Pfaller, Michael; Perlin, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Disk diffusion testing has recently been standardized by the CLSI, and susceptibility breakpoints have been established for several antifungal compounds. For caspofungin, 5-μg disks are approved, and for micafungin, 10-μg disks are under evaluation. We evaluated the performances of caspofungin and micafungin disk testing using a panel of Candida isolates with and without known FKS echinocandin resistance mechanisms. Disk diffusion and microdilution assays were performed strictly according to CLSI documents M44-A2 and M27-A3. Eighty-nine clinical Candida isolates were included: Candida albicans (20 isolates/10 mutants), C. glabrata (19 isolates/10 mutants), C. dubliniensis (2 isolates/1 mutant), C. krusei (16 isolates/3 mutants), C. parapsilosis (14 isolates/0 mutants), and C. tropicalis (18 isolates/4 mutants). Quality control strains were C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 and C. krusei ATCC 6258. The correlations between zone diameters and MIC results were good for both compounds, with identical susceptibility classifications for 93.3% of the isolates by applying the current CLSI breakpoints. However, the numbers of fks hot spot mutant isolates misclassified as being susceptible (S) (very major errors [VMEs]) were high (61% for caspofungin [S, ≥11 mm] and 93% for micafungin [S, ≥14 mm]). Changing the disk diffusion breakpoint to S at ≥22 mm significantly improved the discrimination. For caspofungin, 1 VME was detected (a C. tropicalis isolate with an F76S substitution) (3.5%), and for micafungin, 10 VMEs were detected, the majority of which were for C. glabrata (8/10). The broadest separation between zone diameter ranges for wild-type (WT) and mutant isolates was seen for caspofungin (6 to 12 mm versus −4 to 7 mm). In conclusion, caspofungin disk diffusion testing with a modified breakpoint led to excellent separation between WT and mutant isolates for all Candida species. PMID:21357293

  8. Treatment of EBR-I NaK mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory and subsequent land disposal at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, S. D.; Buzzell, J. A.; Holzemer, M. J.

    1998-02-03

    Sodium/potassium (NaK) liquid metal coolant, contaminated with fission products from the core meltdown of Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) and classified as a mixed waste, has been deactivated and converted to a contact-handled, low-level waste at Argonne's Sodium Component Maintenance Shop and land disposed at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Treatment of the EBR-I NaK involved converting the sodium and potassium to its respective hydroxide via reaction with air and water, followed by conversion to its respective carbonate via reaction with carbon dioxide. The resultant aqueous carbonate solution was solidified in 55-gallon drums. Challenges in the NaK treatment involved processing a mixed waste which was incompletely characterized and difficult to handle. The NaK was highly radioactive, i.e. up to 4.5 R/hr on contact with the mixed waste drums. In addition, the potential existed for plutonium and toxic characteristic metals to be present in the NaK, resultant from the location of the partial core meltdown of EBR-I in 1955. Moreover, the NaK was susceptible to degradation after more than 40 years of storage in unmonitored conditions. Such degradation raised the possibility of energetic exothermic reactions between the liquid NaK and its crust, which could have consisted of potassium superoxide as well as hydrated sodium/potassium hydroxides.

  9. Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of the thermo-treatment process to dispose of recombinant DNA waste from biological research laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Nan; Zheng, Guang-Hong; Wang, Lei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiao-Hua; Le, Yi-Quan; Ren, Da-Ming

    2009-01-01

    The discharge of recombinant DNA waste from biological laboratories into the eco-system may be one of the pathways resulting in horizontal gene transfer or "gene pollution". Heating at 100 degrees C for 5-10 min is a common method for treating recombinant DNA waste in biological research laboratories in China. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness and the safety of the thermo-treatment method in the disposal of recombinant DNA waste. Quantitative PCR, plasmid transformation and electrophoresis technology were used to evaluate the decay/denaturation efficiency during the thermo-treatment process of recombinant plasmid, pET-28b. Results showed that prolonging thermo-treatment time could improve decay efficiency of the plasmid, and its decay half-life was 2.7-4.0 min during the thermo-treatment at 100 degrees C. However, after 30 min of thermo-treatment some transforming activity remained. Higher ionic strength could protect recombinant plasmid from decay during the treatment process. These results indicate that thermo-treatment at 100 degrees C cannot decay and inactivate pET-28b completely. In addition, preliminary results showed that thermo-treated recombinant plasmids were not degraded completely in a short period when they were discharged into an aquatic environment. This implies that when thermo-treated recombinant DNAs are discharged into the eco-system, they may have enough time to re-nature and transform, thus resulting in gene diffusion.

  10. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory The Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose...

  11. Bioassay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...

  12. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics LaboratoryThe Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose of...

  13. The Control and Treatment of Wastes from College Biology Laboratories%高校生物实验室废弃物的控制与处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊家荣; 李赓

    2014-01-01

    高校生物实验产生的废弃物种类复杂、毒性强,对实验人员及环境危害大。分析这些废弃物的种类及危害,提出有效控制和处理废弃物的措施,以期为高校实验室管理和废弃物处置提供有益的借鉴。%Wastes naturally generated in biology laboratories of colleges are complex in types and strong in toxicity, thus being a great hazard to experimenters and the environment. Based on an analysis of the types and hazards of the wastes produced in college biology laboratories, the paper puts forward mea-sures for effectively controlling and treating the wastes, aiming to provide helpful references for the man-agement of college biology laboratories and waste treatment.

  14. Impact of alternate definitions of fever resolution on the composite endpoint in clinical trials of empirical antifungal therapy for neutropenic patients with persistent fever: analysis of results from the Caspofungin Empirical Therapy Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauw, B.E. de; Sable, C.A.; Walsh, T.J.; Lupinacci, R.J.; Bourque, M.R.; Wise, B.A.; Nguyen, B.Y.; DiNubile, M.J.; Teppler, H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sensitivity analyses were incorporated in a Phase III study of caspofungin vs. liposomal amphotericin B as empirical antifungal therapy for febrile neutropenic patients to determine the impact of varying definitions of fever resolution on response rates. METHODS: The primary analysis use

  15. In Vitro Activities of Amphotericin B, Caspofungin, Itraconazole, Posaconazole, and Voriconazole against 45 Clinical Isolates of Zygomycetes: Comparison of CLSI M38-A, Sensititre YeastOne, and the Etest▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Narbona, Marta; Guinea, Jesús; Martínez-Alarcón, José; Peláez, Teresa; Bouza, Emilio

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the activities of amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, and posaconazole against zygomycetes by CLSI M38-A, Etest and Sensititre. The most active drug was posaconazole, followed by amphotericin B and itraconazole. The correlation of the Etest and Sensititre with CLSI M38-A was moderate for posaconazole but poor for the others. PMID:17194821

  16. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  17. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  18. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  19. A cost-effective treatment for severe generalized erosion and loss of vertical dimension of occlusion: laboratory-fabricated composite resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Michael J; Stapleton, Brandon M; Harris, Bryan T; Lin, Wei-Shao

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes preventive and restorative treatment planning for a 56-year-old female patient with severe, chronic, poorly controlled gastroesophageal reflux disease and resulting loss of vertical dimension of occlusion. First, the demineralization process was controlled through collaboration with the patient's physician, and measures were taken to restore adequate stimulated salivary flow. Then, for financial reasons, indirect laboratory-fabricated composite resin restorations were adhesively bonded to replace lost tooth structure and reestablish the patient's collapsed vertical dimension. Indirect-laboratory fabricated restorations can be a cost-effective alternative to direct composite resin or all-ceramic restorations for the treatment of chronic severe erosion, but there are no long-term clinical reports in the current literature to support or contraindicate the use of indirect composites for this type of clinical application. Therefore, careful, long-term follow-up evaluations are planned for this patient.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of three echinocandins and fluconazole in the treatment of candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis in nonneutropenic adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grau S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available S Grau,1 JC Pozo,2 E Romá,2 M Salavert,3 JA Barrueta,4 C Peral,4 I Rodriguez,5 D Rubio-Rodríguez,6 C Rubio-Terrés6 1Hospital del Mar (IMIM, Barcelona, 2Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, Córdoba, 3Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, 4Pfizer SLU, Alcobendas, 5Trial Form Support, Madrid, 6Health Value, Madrid, Spain Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of three echinocandins (anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin and generic fluconazole in the treatment of nonneutropenic adult patients with candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis in intensive care units in Spain. Materials and methods: A decision-tree model was applied. The success and safety (hepatic and renal adverse effects of first-line treatments were obtained from meta-analyses and systematic reviews of clinical trials. In the case of failure, a second-line treatment (liposomal amphotericin B after the echinocandins, or one of the echinocandins after fluconazole was administered. The duration of the treatments (14 days total was established by a panel of clinical experts using the Delphi method and according to Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines. The cost of the medications and renal toxicity were considered. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations were carried out. Results: The total cost of the treatment of candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis with anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, and fluconazole was €5,483, €5,968, €6,231, and €2,088, respectively. Anidulafungin was the dominant treatment (more effective, less expensive compared to micafungin and caspofungin. The cost of achieving one more patient successfully treated with anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin compared to fluconazole was €17,199, €23,962, and €27,339, respectively. The result remained stable, despite modification of the duration of the first-line and second-line treatments, as well as most of the

  1. [Successful treatment of a persistent rhino-cerebral mucormycosis in a pediatric patient with a debut of acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofré, Fernanda; Villarroel, Milena; Castellón, Loreto; Santolaya, María E

    2015-08-01

    The fungi of the order Mucorales cause mucormycosis, which usually presents as an invasive fungal disease with rapid angioinvasion in immunocompromised patients. Rhinocerebral is the most common presentation. The lipid formulations of amphotericin B are used as primary treatment in invasive mucormycosis; the combined use of posaconazole could allow a reduction in the dose of amphotericin B improving tolerance and adherence to treatment. Caspofungin and amphotericin B association has been shown to be synergistic in vitro and effective in murine models. We present the case of a preschool patient that during the debut of acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed a rhinocerebral mucormycosis successfully responding to antifungal treatment with the combination of liposomal amphotericin and caspofungin.

  2. 棘白素类抗真菌药物——卡泊芬净%A New Echinocandin Drug——Caspofungin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凡; 梅丹; 刘正印; 李大魁

    2006-01-01

    醋酸卡泊芬净(caspofungin acetate,商品名Cancidas),是由默沙东公司开发的第一种棘白素类抗真菌药物,于2001年2月经FDA批准作为处方药用于治疗对其他治疗无效或不能耐受的侵袭性曲霉菌病,并于2004年10月被FDA批准用于发热性中性粒细胞减少症患者真菌感染的治疗。醋酸卡泊芬净的分子式为C52H88N10O15·2C2H4O2,相对分子质量1213.42,其结构式见图1。

  3. Photometrics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Photometrics Laboratory provides the capability to measure, analyze and characterize radiometric and photometric properties of light sources and filters,...

  4. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  5. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  6. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR). DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  7. 隐球菌临床及环境分离株对卡泊芬净与特比萘芬的体外联合药敏试验%Synergism of Caspofungin and Terbinafine against clinical and environmental isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱利平; 翁心华; 章强强; 张永信

    2004-01-01

    目的了解隐球菌临床及环境分离株对卡泊芬净与特比萘芬的体外联合抗菌活性.方法采用美国国家实验室标准委员会(NCCLS)M27-A方案推荐的酵母菌微量稀释法及其微量稀释棋盘法,检测78株新生隐球菌临床和环境分离株对卡泊芬净与特比萘芬的体外抗菌活性及其联合抗菌活性.结果卡泊芬净和特比萘芬对新生隐球菌最小抑菌浓度(MIC)值范围分别是0.25~32 μg/ml、2~16 μg/ml;几何均数分别是32μg/ml、8μg/ml.联合药敏试验结果显示,两者联合后对其中5%菌株有协同作用,42%菌株有累加作用及53%菌株有无关作用,任何菌株均无拮抗作用.同时卡泊芬净的MIC几何均数由26.8 μg/ml降至20.6 μg/ml(P<0.0001),特比萘芬的MIC几何均数由7.9ug/ml降至1.3μg/ml(P<0.0001).此外,有4株菌株对卡泊芬净药物敏感,其MIC分别是2 μg/ml、2μg/ml、0.5 μg/ml、0.25μg/ml.结论卡泊芬净与特比萘芬的体外联合药敏试验表明,两者联合应用对新生隐球菌具有较好的体外抗菌活性.%To evaluate the in vitro interactions of caspofungin and terbinafine against Cryptococcus neoformans.Methods 78 clinical and environmental isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans was tested by a modified National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards(NCCLS)microdilution assay,and the interactions were examined using a checkerboard design.Resuls Caspofungin MICs ranged from 0.25 μg/ml to 32 μg/ml,with a median(MIC at which 50% of the isolates are inhibited)of 32 μg/ml.Terbinafine MICs ranged from 2.0 μg/ml to 16 μg/ml,with a median of 8 μg/ml.A synergistic interaction was observed in 5%(4 of 78)of the isolates,and 42%(33 of 78)of the isolates yielded additive and 53%(41 of 78)of the isolates showed an indifferent interactions.Thus,the interaction of their combinations was synergisticto-additive for 47% isolates.Antagonism had not been observed.The geometric mean MIC of caspofungin dropped from 26.8 to

  8. Laboratory model for the study and treatment of traumatic tattoos with the Q-switched ruby laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Richard T.; Lach, Elliot

    1994-09-01

    The outcome of laser tattoo removal is dependent on the type of laser and characteristics of the tattoo. A rabbit model was developed to study the Q-switched ruby laser in the treatment of traumatic tattooing. On the backs of white New Zealand rabbits, three 3 cm patches were dermabraded and dressed with carbon black and antibiotic ointment. After a healing period of eight weeks, pre-treatment biopsies were obtained, and the rabbits were treated with the Q- switched ruby laser at various fluence settings with a pulse width of 34 nsec. At set intervals, further biopsies were obtained and studied with light and electron microscopic analysis, and photodocumentation was performed. Grossly, clearance of the tattooed areas was noted in the laser treated specimens. More effective clearance was observed with higher fluence treatment. No infections occurred, and hair regrowth was noted in all cases, though the rate seemed to be altered by laser treatment.

  9. Killing rates exerted by caspofungin in 50 % serum and its correlation with in vivo efficacy in a neutropenic murine model against Candida krusei and Candida inconspicua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Renátó; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Berényi, Réka; Domán, Marianna; Kardos, Gábor; Juhász, Béla; Majoros, László

    2014-02-01

    Killing rates (K) of 1-32 µg ml(-1) caspofungin were determined in RPMI-1640 and in 50 % serum using time-kill methodology against three Candida krusei (MICs of all three isolates 0.25 µg ml(-1) in RPMI-1640 and 2 µg ml(-1) in serum) and three Candida inconspicua clinical isolates (MIC ranges 0.06-0.12 µg ml(-1) in RPMI-1640 and 0.25-0.5 µg ml(-1) in serum), against C. krusei ATCC 6258 and against one C. krusei isolate that was resistant to echinocandins (MIC 8 µg ml(-1) in RPMI-1640 and 32 µg ml(-1) in serum). In RPMI-1640, the highest mean K values were observed at 4 (-1.05 h(-1)) and 16 (-0.27 h(-1)) μg ml(-1) caspofungin for C. krusei and C. inconspicua clinical isolates, respectively. In 50 % serum, mean K value ranges at 1-32 and 4-32 µg ml(-1) concentrations for C. inconspicua and C. krusei were -1.12 to -1.44 and -0.42 to -0.57 h(-1), respectively. While K values against C. krusei in RPMI-1640 and 50 % serum were comparable, serum significantly increased the killing rate against C. inconspicua (Pcaspofungin at 1, 2, 3, 5 and 15 mg kg(-1) significantly decreased the fungal tissue burden of C. inconspicua in the kidneys (Pcaspofungin were effective (Pcaspofungin dose was effective even against the echinocandin-resistant C. krusei isolate. In 50 % serum, killing was concentration independent at effective concentrations (≥4 and ≥1 µg ml(-1) for C. krusei and C. inconspicua, respectively), suggesting that the efficacy of dose escalation is questionable. These in vitro results were also supported by the murine model.

  10. The effect of treatment parameters and detergent additions on the softening of radioactively contaminated process wastewater at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, M.M.; Kent, T.E.

    1993-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a research facility owned by the Department of Energy and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems. At ORNL, research is performed in a wide range of areas including nuclear energy research, environmental sciences, materials research, health and safety research, and production of radioisotopes. These activities generate 70 million gallons per year of process wastewater which is basically tap water and ground water containing trace amounts of radioactive compounds. This water is treated for removal of contaminants at the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) before discharge to the environment.

  11. Assays at laboratory scale for anaerobic treatment of piggery farm wastewater; Depuracion anaerobia de aguas residuales de granjas porcinas. Ensayos a escala de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Barrantes, M. M.; Alvarez Mateos, P.; Carta Escobar, F.; Romero Guzman, F. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Fiestas Ros de Ursinos, J. A. [Instituto de la Grasa. Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The viability of an integrated biological treatment for the swine waste-water purification in a piggery farm, was studied. Previously, at a laboratory scale, the anaerobic biodegradability of this wastewater was analysed, using different clayey supports to immobilize the microorganisms in batch regime, at 35 degree centigree, with an organic load ranged from 0,2 to 2,2, g COD/I. The highest methane production was achieved at the first 24 hours. The mean highest efficiency (%COD removal) was obtained in reactors with sepiolite, natural sepiolite and treated sepiolite. (Author) 10 refs.

  12. The Concept of the Three Rs in Biomedical Research The Ethical and Scientific Basis for the Humane Treatment of Laboratory Animals --The British Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GC BANTIN

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction 1.1 THE CONCEPT OF ANIMAL CARE.Ethics and the developing demand for relevant legislation During the late 19th Century there was an increasing concern in the UK with respect to a aspects of illtreatment of animals. This was reflected in the thinking of the research community and in 1871 The British Association For the Advancement of Science issued a set of basic principles of animal experimentation.This was a response to the growing awareness by the BA of the need for an ethical approach to biomedical research and for the considerate treatment of laboratory animals.

  13. Laboratory evaluation of oral treatment of rodents with systemic insecticides for control of bloodfeeding sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascari, Thomas Michael; Stout, Rhett W; Foil, Lane D

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral treatment of rodents with diets containing the systemic insecticides ivermectin, abamectin, imidacloprid, or spinosad, to control bloodfeeding sand flies. We found that diets containing concentrations higher than 10 mg/kg abamectin were not palatable to rodents, and that a diet containing 10 mg/kg abamectin (a palatable concentration) did not cause 100% mortality of bloodfeeding sand flies. Treatment of rodents with imidacloprid was effective for less than 3 days post-treatment. Treatment of rodents with diets containing 20 mg/kg ivermectin or 5000 mg/kg spinosad caused 100% mortality of bloodfeeding sand flies for at least 1 week. The efficacy of ivermectin and spinosad also were not reduced when combined with the fluorescent tracer dye rhodamine B in a single diet. We also did not observe significant benefits by increasing the feeding period of the rodents from 3 to 6 or 9 days. We conclude that ivermectin and spinosad are effective as rodent systemic insecticides against bloodfeeding sand flies, and suggest that weekly treatment of wild rodent reservoirs of Leishmania major with bait containing one of these systemic insecticides could be a useful tool as part of a sand fly control program.

  14. Laboratory Measurement and Interpretation of the Changes of Physical Properties after Heat Treatment in Tight Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of water blocking and optimization of multiscale flow channels will increase gas production of tight reservoirs. Physical properties of samples from representative tight gas reservoirs were measured before and after high temperature treatment. Results show that, with the increase of treatment temperature, mass decreases, acoustic transit time increases, and permeability and porosity increase. Permeability begins to increase dramatically if treatment temperature exceeds the threshold value of thermal fracturing, which is 600~700°C, 500~600°C, 300~500°C, and 300~400°C for shale, mudstone, tight sandstone, and tight carbonate rock, respectively. Comprehensive analyses indicate that the mechanisms of heat treatment on tight porous media include evaporation and dehydration of water, change of mineral structure, generation of microfracture, and network connectivity. Meanwhile, field implementation is reviewed and prospected. Interpretations indicate that, according to the characteristics of multiscale mass transfer in tight gas formation, combining heat treatment with conventional stimulation methods can achieve the best stimulation result.

  15. Laboratory evaluations of Lepidopteran-active soybean seed treatments on survivorship of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two anthranilic diamide insecticides, chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole, were evaluated as soybean, Glycine max L., seed treatments for control of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Bioassays were conducted using 2nd instar larvae and plants from both field and greenhouse gr...

  16. In Vitro Susceptibility of Clinical Isolates of Aspergillus spp. to Anidulafungin, Caspofungin, and Micafungin: a Head-to-Head Comparison Using the CLSI M38-A2 Broth Microdilution Method▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Boyken, L.; Hollis, R. J.; Kroeger, J.; Messer, S. A.; Tendolkar, S.; Diekema, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the in vitro activities of anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin against 526 isolates of Aspergillus spp. (64 A. flavus, 391 A. fumigatus, 46 A. niger, and 25 A. terreus isolates) collected from over 60 centers worldwide from 2001 through 2007. Susceptibility testing was performed according to the CLSI M38-A2 method. All three echinocandins—anidulafungin (50% minimum effective concentration [MEC50], 0.007 μg/ml; MEC90, 0.015 μg/ml), caspofungin (MEC50, 0.015 μg/ml; MEC90, 0.03 μg/ml), and micafungin (MEC50, 0.007 μg/ml; MEC90, 0.015 μg/ml)—were very active against Aspergillus spp. More than 99% of all isolates were inhibited by ≤0.06 μg/ml of all three agents. PMID:19710267

  17. Not all are lost: interrupted laboratory monitoring, early death, and loss to follow-up (LTFU in a large South African treatment program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aima A Ahonkhai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many HIV treatment programs in resource-limited settings are plagued by high rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU. Most studies have not distinguished between those who briefly interrupt, but return to care, and those more chronically lost to follow-up. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 11,397 adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART in 71 Southern African Catholic Bishops Conference/Catholic Relief Services HIV treatment clinics between January 2004 and December 2008. We distinguished among patients with early death, within the first 7 months on ART; patients with interruptions in laboratory monitoring (ILM, defined as missing visits in the first 7 months on ART, but returning to care by 12 months; and those LTFU, defined as missing all follow-up visits in the first 12 months on ART. We used multilevel logistic regression models to determine patient and clinic-level characteristics associated with these outcomes. RESULTS: In the first year on ART, 60% of patients remained in care, 30% missed laboratory visits, and 10% suffered early death. Of the 3,194 patients who missed laboratory visits, 40% had ILM, resuming care by 12 months. After 12 months on ART, patients with ILM had a 30% increase in detectable viremia compared to those who remained in care. Risk of LTFU decreased with increasing enrollment year, and was lowest for patients who enrolled in 2008 compared to 2004 [OR 0.49, 95%CI 0.39-0.62]. CONCLUSIONS: In a large community-based cohort in South Africa, nearly 30% of patients miss follow-up visits for CD4 monitoring in the first year after starting ART. Of those, 40% have ILM but return to clinic with worse virologic outcomes than those who remain in care. The risk of chronic LTFU decreased with enrollment year. As ART availability increases, interruptions in care may become more common, and should be accounted for in addressing program LTFU.

  18. Clinical and laboratory substantiation of Mexidol use in complex treatment of periodontitis in patients with peptic ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrovskaya L.U.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine the clinical pathogenetic efficacy of Mexidol in the combined therapy of parodontitis in patients with peptic ulcers medical examination and treatment of 296 patients were carried out. Endoscopic, histological and im-munohistochemical studies were performed in all examined patients. Investigation of interleukin -6, -10, -18 in oral cavity by immunofermental analysis was conducted. It was established that Mexidol use in the combined treatment of patients with periodontitis and peptic ulcer allowed to decrease evidence of local inflammation, to normalize processes of neurohumoral and cytokine regulation, that provided acceleration of recovery processes, decrease in periodontitis recurrences. The statistical programs Exsel и Statistica 6.0 were used in the study. The subsequent analysis of the received data was carried out

  19. Online beam monitoring in the treatment of ocular pathologies at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-Catania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givehchi, N; Marchetto, F; Valastro, L M; Ansarinejad, A; Attili, A; Garella, M A; Giordanengo, S; Monaco, V; Montero, J Pardo; Sacchi, R; Boriano, A; Bourhaleb, F; Cirio, R; La Rosa, A; Pecka, A; Peroni, C; Cirrone, G A P; Cuttone, G; Donetti, M; Iliescu, S; Pittera, S; Raffaele, L

    2011-10-01

    A detector (MOPI) has been developed for the online monitoring of the beam at the Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate (CATANA), where shallow tumours of the ocular region are treated with 62 MeV protons. At CATANA the beam is passively spread to match the tumour shape. The uniformity of the delivered dose depends on beam geometrical quantities which are checked before each treatment. However, beam instabilities might develop during the irradiation affecting the dose distribution. This paper reports on the use of the MOPI detector to measure the stability of the beam profile during the irradiation in the clinical practice. The results obtained in the treatment of 54 patients are also presented.

  20. Experimental and clinical-laboratory research effectiveness of treatment of main dental diseases in the workers of mining production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazunov O.A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the developed treatment-prevention complex of dental disease in miners. In experiment 70 white rats were exposed to the impact of unfavorable factors of ore-mining industry (increased dust-content in the air and general vibration daily during 5 hours over 5 months’ period with simultaneous use of the worked up treatment-prophylactic complex which causes normalization of biochemical parameters in oral liquid, serum and bone tissue of animals. Application of the proposed complex in 56 miners with dust-caused bronchitis and vibration disease during 2 years’ period favored improvement of dental status, improvement hygiene and periodontal indices, biochemical parameters of saliva, reduce of the interval of pH (ΔpH fluctuations, normalization of number of electro¬phoretic mobility of buccal cell nuclei. The scheme of application of health care complex includes adaptogen "Biotrit C", membranostabilizator "Lecithin D3", complex of vitamins and minerals "Alphabet", Elixir "Lizodent", remi¬neralizing and antiinflammatory toothpastes; this improves the efficiency of dental treatment and reduces relapses.

  1. Evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings of pediatric and adult patients with oropharyngeal tularemia in Turkey: a combination of surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy increases treatment success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozel, Mustafa Gokhan; Engin, Aynur; Altuntas, Emine Elif; Salk, İsmail; Kaya, Ali; Celik, Cem; Dokmetas, Ilyas; Bakir, Mehmet; Elaldi, Nazif

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the clinical and laboratory findings of both pediatric and adult patients with oropharyngeal tularemia. We also compared the therapeutic outcomes of patients who underwent surgical drainage of lymph nodes early or late during antibiotic therapy. A total of 68 patients with oropharyngeal tularemia, including 26 children and 42 adults, were enrolled in this study. The average duration between symptom onset and hospital admission was 20.8 days (4-60 days) in the pediatric group and 32.6 days (4-90 days) in the adult group (P = 0.009). The most frequently observed clinical symptoms were sore throat (100% and 100%), fever (96.2% and 90.5%), tonsillitis (69.2% and 78.6%), and rash (15.4% and 11.9%) in the pediatric and adult groups, respectively. However, the frequencies of erythema, tenderness, and fluctuant of enlarged lymph nodes were significantly higher in the adult group than in the pediatric group (P = 0.005, P = 0.029, and P = 0.041, respectively). Treatment failure was observed in 2 (7.7%) pediatric patients and 4 (9.5%) adult patients, for a total of 6 (8.8%) treatment failures in the study group. Similar clinical findings and treatment outcomes were observed in both groups. We concluded that a combination of surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy increases treatment success for patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal tularemia.

  2. EVOLUTION OF PATIENTS WITH AIDS AFTER cART: CLINICAL AND LABORATORY EVOLUTION OF PATIENTS WITH AIDS AFTER 48 WEEKS OF ANTIRETROVIRAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Esther Carvalho Gomes Fukumoto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART aims to inhibit viral replication, delay immunodeficiency progression and improve survival in AIDS patients. The objective of this study was to compare two different schemes of cART, based on plasma viral load (VL and CD4+ T lymphocyte count, during 48 weeks of treatment. For this purpose, 472 medical charts of a Specialized Outpatient Service were reviewed from 1998 to 2005. Out of these, 58 AIDS patients who had received a triple drug scheme as the initial treatment were included in the study and two groups were formed: Group 1 (G1: 47 individuals treated with two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI and one non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor; Group 2 (G2: 11 patients treated with two NRTI and one protease inhibitor. In G1 and G2, 53.2% and 81.8% respectively were patients with an AIDS-defining disease. The T CD4+ lymphocyte count increased progressively up until the 24th week of treatment in all patients, while VL became undetectable in 68.1% of G1 and in 63.6% of G2. The study concluded that the evolutions of laboratory tests were similar in the two treatment groups and that both presented a favorable clinical evolution.

  3. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Conceptual Site Treatment Plan. Sections 1 through 8, Tables 2-1 through 6-1, Figures 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, D.

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Section 3021(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct), to prepare plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. The FFCAct requires site treatment plans (STPs or plans) to be developed for each site at which DOE generates or stores mixed waste and submitted to the host state or the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for either approval, approval with modification, or disapproval. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP) is the preliminary version of the plan required by the FFCAct and is being provided to the State of Idaho, the EPA, and others for review. A list of the other DOE sites preparing CSTPs is included in Appendix A of this document. In addition to aiding the INEL in formulating its Final Proposed STP, this CSTP will also provide information to other DOE sites for use in identifying common technology needs and potential options for treating their wastes. The INEL CSTP is also intended to be used in conjunction with CSTPs from other sites as a basis for nationwide discussions among state regulators, the EPA, and other interested parties on treatment strategies and options, and on technical and equity issues associated with DOE`s mixed waste.

  4. Thermal composting of faecal matter as treatment and possible disinfection method--laboratory-scale and pilot-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnerås, Björn; Björklund, Anders; Jönsson, Håkan

    2003-05-01

    When using toilets where the urine and faeces are collected separately for reuse as nutrients in agriculture, the collected matter should be disinfected. One way to do this is by thermal composting. Composting of different material mixes was investigated in a laboratory-scale experiment. This showed that the best mixture for dry thermal composting was a mix of faeces, food waste and amendment. The urine was collected separately by use of urine-diverting toilets. A new method was developed to mathematically evaluate and estimate the safety margins of pathogen inactivation during thermal composting. The method is based upon a mathematical calculation of the number of times total inactivation (at least 12log(10) reduction) of the organisms is achieved. In a pilot-scale experiment, the disinfection of a faeces/food waste mix was performed with a calculated safety margin of more than 37 times the total die-off of Enteroviruses and some 550 times that of Ascaris. Thus, well functioning composting seems to be effective for disinfection of faecal matter. To get a high temperature in all of the material, the reactor has to have sufficient insulation. A major disadvantage is the initial need for handling the raw un-disinfected material. The degradation of the organic matter in the compost was almost 75%, resulting in a small final volume that could safely be recycled.

  5. 氨基丁酸联合卡泊芬净的体外抗白色假丝酵母菌协同作用研究%Synergetic antifungal effect of aminobutyric acid with caspofungin against Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘懿萱; 蒋京辰; 叶春林

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨氨基丁酸联合卡泊芬净体外抗白色假丝酵母菌的协同作用。方法采用 CLSI 公布的 M27-A 方案微量棋盘液基稀释法测定氨基丁酸单用以及联合卡泊芬净对白色假丝酵母菌标准株 SC5314的 MIC80值和 FICI 值。采用抗真菌试管敏感性实验,考察给药24 h 后,卡泊芬净单用以及氨基丁酸联合卡泊芬净对白色假丝酵母菌 SC5314生长的影响。采用生长曲线实验,测定氨基丁酸联合卡泊芬净抗白色假丝酵母菌 SC5314的生长曲线。结果氨基丁酸单用对白色假丝酵母菌 SC5314的MIC80>20μmol ・ L -1,说明氨基丁酸单用对 SC5314没有抑菌作用;但1.25μmol ・ L -1氨基丁酸与卡泊芬净合用的 FICI <0.5,说明氨基丁酸与卡泊芬净合用表现出协同关系。另外,在抗真菌试管敏感性实验中,1.25μmol ・ L -1的氨基丁酸联合0.0125μg ・ mL -1的卡泊芬净与0.0125μg ・ mL -1的卡泊芬净单用组相比,可以直观地观察到试管内浑浊程度明显减弱,SC5314的生长受到抑制。在生长曲线实验中,1.25μmol ・ L -1氨基丁酸联合0.0125μg ・ mL -1卡泊芬净的生长曲线显著低于同浓度下两药单用的生长曲线(P<0.05)。结论氨基丁酸本身对白色假丝酵母菌标准株 SC5314没有抑菌作用,但氨基丁酸能显著增强卡泊芬净对白色假丝酵母菌 SC5314的杀菌作用。%Objective To investigate the influence of aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the antifungal effect of caspofungin against Can-dida albicans .Methods Standard stains of Candida albicans SC5314 were used in this study .The minimal inhibitory concentra-tion for 80% (MIC80 ) and the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) were determined by broth microdilution antifungal susceptibility test (published by CLSI) .The antifungal susceptibility assay was used in this study ,at about 24 h post-dose .The group of GABA with caspofungin

  6. Comparison of Neo-Sensitabs Tablet Diffusion Assay with CLSI Broth Microdilution M38-A and Disk Diffusion Methods for Testing Susceptibility of Filamentous Fungi with Amphotericin B, Caspofungin, Itraconazole, Posaconazole, and Voriconazole▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Canton, E.

    2008-01-01

    We compared the Neo-Sensitabs tablet assay to both reference M38-A broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods for testing the susceptibility of 183 filamentous isolates to amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Neo-Sensitabs and disk assay inhibition zone diameters, in millimeters, were obtained on nonsupplemented Mueller-Hinton agar at 16 to 48 h. The reproducibility of zone diameters (i.e., the percentage of replicate zone diameters that were within 2 standard deviations of the means), their correlation with either MICs or minimum effective concentrations (for caspofungin only), and the categorical agreement were similar between tablet and disk assays (93 to 100% [R, >0.70] and 79 to 96%, respectively) with four of the five agents. The exceptions were the results for posaconazole tablets (R, 0.686; disk, 0.757; 84% categorical agreement for tablet and 96% for disk). These data suggest the potential value of the Neo-Sensitabs assay for testing 5-μg caspofungin and 1-μg voriconazole posaconazole tablets against all mold isolates, 8-μg itraconazole and 5-μg tablets against all mold isolates except zygomycetes, and 10-μg amphotericin B tablets against zygomycete isolates only. PMID:18337384

  7. Clinical and laboratory status of patients with chronic Chagas disease living in a vector-controlled area in Minas Gerais, Brazil, before and nine years after aetiological treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Lana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight Chagas disease patients (CD, 22 with the indeterminate clinical form (IND and six with the cardiac or digestive form (CARD/DIG, were treated with benznidazole and underwent clinical and laboratorial analysis before (IND and CARD/DIG and nine years after [patients after treatment (CDt, patients with the indeterminate clinical form at treatment onset (INDt and with the cardiac or digestive form at treatment onset (CARD/DIGt] treatment. The data demonstrate that 82.1% of CDt patients (23/28 remained clinically stable and 95.4% of the INDt (21/22 and 33.3% of the CARD/DIGt (2/6 patients showed unaltered physical and laboratorial examinations. The clinical evolution rate was 2%/year and was especially low in INDt patients (0.5%/year relative to CARD/DIGt patients (7.4%/year. Positive haemoculture in treated patients was observed in 7.1% of the cases. None of the INDt (0/21 and 33.3% of the CARD/DIGt (2/6 patients displayed positive cultures. The PCR presented a positive rate significantly higher (85.2%, 23/27 than haemoculture and two samples from the same patient revealed the same result 57.7% of the patients. Conventional serology-ELISA on 16 paired samples remained positive in all individuals. Semi-quantitative ELISA highlighted significant decreases in reactivity, particularly in INDt relative to IND. Non-conventional serology-FC-ALTA-IgG, after treatment, showed positive results in all sera and 22 paired samples examined at seven and nine years after treatment, demonstrated significantly lower reactivity, particularly in INDt patients. This study was retrospective in nature, had a low number of samples and lacked an intrinsic control group, but the data corroborate other results found in the literature. The data also demonstrate that, even though a cure has not been detected in the none-treated patients, the benefits for clinical evolution were selectively observed in the group of INDt patients and did not occur for CARD

  8. Dynamic, morphotype-specific Candida albicans beta-glucan exposure during infection and drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Robert T; Kombe, Diana; Agarwala, Sudeep D; Fink, Gerald R

    2008-12-01

    Candida albicans, a clinically important dimorphic fungal pathogen that can evade immune attack by masking its cell wall beta-glucan from immune recognition, mutes protective host responses mediated by the Dectin-1 beta-glucan receptor on innate immune cells. Although the ability of C. albicans to switch between a yeast- or hyphal-form is a key virulence determinant, the role of each morphotype in beta-glucan masking during infection and treatment has not been addressed. Here, we show that during infection of mice, the C. albicans beta-glucan is masked initially but becomes exposed later in several organs. At all measured stages of infection, there is no difference in beta-glucan exposure between yeast-form and hyphal cells. We have previously shown that sub-inhibitory doses of the anti-fungal drug caspofungin can expose beta-glucan in vitro, suggesting that the drug may enhance immune activity during therapy. This report shows that caspofungin also mediates beta-glucan unmasking in vivo. Surprisingly, caspofungin preferentially unmasks filamentous cells, as opposed to yeast form cells, both in vivo and in vitro. The fungicidal activity of caspofungin in vitro is also filament-biased, as corroborated using yeast-locked and hyphal-locked mutants. The uncloaking of filaments is not a general effect of anti-fungal drugs, as another anti-fungal agent does not have this effect. These results highlight the advantage of studying host-pathogen interaction in vivo and suggest new avenues for drug development.

  9. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  10. Treatment of two postoperative endophthalmitis cases due to Aspergillus flavus and Scopulariopsis spp. with local and systemic antifungal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyar Guliz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endophthalmitis is the inflammatory response to invasion of the eye with bacteria or fungi. The incidence of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery varies between 0.072–0.13 percent. Treatment of endophthalmitis with fungal etiology is difficult. Case Presentation Case 1: A 71-year old male diabetic patient developed postoperative endophthalmitis due to Aspergillus flavus. The patient was treated with topical amphotericin B ophthalmic solution, intravenous (IV liposomal amphotericin-B and caspofungin following vitrectomy. Case 2: A 72-year old male cachectic patient developed postoperative endophthalmitis due to Scopulariopsis spp. The patient was treated with topical and IV voriconazole and caspofungin. Conclusion Aspergillus spp. are responsible of postoperative fungal endophthalmitis. Endophthalmitis caused by Scopulariopsis spp. is a very rare condition. The two cases were successfully treated with local and systemic antifungal therapy.

  11. Cell Transplantation and Neuroengineering Approach for Spinal Cord Injury Treatment: A Summary of Current Laboratory Findings and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin-Yi; Lai, Bi-Qin; Zeng, Xiang; Che, Ming-Tian; Ling, Eng-Ang; Wu, Wutian; Zeng, Yuan-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause severe traumatic injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Current therapeutic effects achieved for SCI in clinical medicine show that there is still a long way to go to reach the desired goal of full or significant functional recovery. In basic medical research, however, cell transplantation, gene therapy, application of cytokines, and biomaterial scaffolds have been widely used and investigated as treatments for SCI. All of these strategies when used separately would help rebuild, to some extent, the neural circuits in the lesion area of the spinal cord. In light of this, it is generally accepted that a combined treatment may be a more effective strategy. This review focuses primarily on our recent series of work on transplantation of Schwann cells and adult stem cells, and transplantation of stem cell-derived neural network scaffolds with functional synapses. Arising from this, an artificial neural network (an exogenous neuronal relay) has been designed and fabricated by us-a biomaterial scaffold implanted with Schwann cells modified by the neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) gene and adult stem cells modified with the TrkC (receptor of NT-3) gene. More importantly, experimental evidence suggests that the novel artificial network can integrate with the host tissue and serve as an exogenous neuronal relay for signal transfer and functional improvement of SCI.

  12. Tolerance and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin for the treatment of Pseudocapillaria tomentosa in laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collymore, Chereen; Watral, Virginia; White, Julie R; Colvin, Michael E; Rasmussen, Skye; Tolwani, Ravi J; Kent, Michael L

    2014-10-01

    Tolerance of adult zebrafish and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin in eliminating Pseudocapillaria tomentosa infection were evaluated. In the tolerance study, behavioral changes, fecundity, histopathology, and mortality were evaluated for in-feed administration of emamectin (0.05, 0.10, and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg). All doses of emamectin were well tolerated. Ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg administration resulted in mild behavioral changes and a transient decrease in fecundity. Ivermectin 0.10 mg/kg administration resulted in severe behavioral changes and some mortality. In the efficacy study, emamectin (0.05 and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 mg/kg) were evaluated for their efficacy in eliminating P. tomentosa infection. Emamectin reduced parasite burden in infected zebrafish, and ivermectin eliminated intestinal nematode infections. Despite a small margin of safety, ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg was effective at eliminating P. tomentosa infection in adult zebrafish. Higher doses or a longer course of treatment may be needed for complete elimination of P. tomentosa infection using emamectin. In this study, we propose two possible treatments for intestinal nematode infections in zebrafish.

  13. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  14. Computational Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains a number of commercial off-the-shelf and in-house software packages allowing for both statistical analysis as well as mathematical modeling...

  15. Analytical Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s analytical laboratories in Pittsburgh, PA, and Albany, OR, give researchers access to the equipment they need to thoroughly study the properties of materials...

  16. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  17. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-21

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  18. Technology Evaluations Related to Mercury, Technetium, and Chloride in Treatment of Wastes at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Barnes; D. D. Taylor; S. C. Ashworth; J. B. Bosley; D. R. Haefner

    1999-10-01

    The Idaho High-Level Waste and Facility Disposition Environmental Impact Statement defines alternative for treating and disposing of wastes stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Development is required for several technologies under consideration for treatment of these wastes. This report contains evaluations of whether specific treatment is needed and if so, by what methods, to remove mercury, technetium, and chlorides in proposed Environmental Impact Statement treatment processes. The evaluations of mercury include a review of regulatory requirements that would apply to mercury wastes in separations processes, an evaluation of the sensitivity of mercury flowrates and concentrations to changes in separations processing schemes and conditions, test results from laboratory-scale experiments of precipitation of mercury by sulfide precipitation agents from the TRUEX carbonate wash effluent, and evaluations of methods to remove mercury from New Waste Calcining Facility liquid and gaseous streams. The evaluation of technetium relates to the need for technetium removal and alternative methods to remove technetium from streams in separations processes. The need for removal of chlorides from New Waste Calcining Facility scrub solution is also evaluated.

  19. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-21

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  20. Study of enzyme replacement therapy for Gaucher Disease: comparative analysis of clinical and laboratory parameters at diagnosis and after two, five and ten years of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Almeida Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of enzyme replacement therapy for Gaucher Disease on clinical and laboratory parameters after two, five and ten years of treatment. Methods: Data were collected from patient records and analyzed using BioEstat software (version 5.0. Student's t-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, Wilcoxon test and Kruskal–Wallis test were used for statistical analysis. Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly were analyzed using the Kappa test. Results: There was a significant increase in hemoglobin levels (p-value <0.01 and platelet counts (p-value = 0.01 within two years of therapy. At the same time, the frequencies of splenomegaly (p-value <0.01 and hepatomegaly (p-value <0.05 reduced. These results were similar at five and ten years of enzyme replacement therapy. Conclusions: There are substantial and quick (within two years laboratory and clinical responses to enzyme replacement therapy. These improvements continue as long as enzyme replacement therapy is administered every two weeks, as recommended by the literature.

  1. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  2. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  3. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  4. Consecutive anaerobic-aerobic treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and lignocellulosic materials in laboratory-scale landfill-bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellera, Frantseska-Maria; Pasparakis, Emmanouil; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2016-10-01

    The scope of this study is to evaluate the use of laboratory-scale landfill-bioreactors, operated consecutively under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, for the combined treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with two different co-substrates of lignocellulosic nature, namely green waste (GW) and dried olive pomace (DOP). According to the results such a system would represent a promising option for eventual larger scale applications. Similar variation patterns among bioreactors indicate a relatively defined sequence of processes. Initially operating the systems under anaerobic conditions would allow energetic exploitation of the substrates, while the implementation of a leachate treatment system ultimately aiming at nutrient recovery, especially during the anaerobic phase, could be a profitable option for the whole system, due to the high organic load that characterizes this effluent. In order to improve the overall effectiveness of such a system, measures towards enhancing methane contents of produced biogas, such as substrate pretreatment, should be investigated. Moreover, the subsequent aerobic phase should have the goal of stabilizing the residual materials and finally obtain an end material eventually suitable for other purposes.

  5. In situ analysis of Mars soil and rocks samples with the SAM experiment: laboratory measurements supporting treatment and interpretation of the detection of organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, M.; Szopa, C.; Buch, A.; Glavin, D.; Freissinet, C.; Coll, P.; Cabane, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2015-10-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment onboard the Curiosity rover detected numerous organic compounds when analyzing the solid samples collected on the way to Mount Sharp. But MTBSTFA, the chemical reactant for the chemical treatment of the refractory molecules present in the solid samples and present in cups of SAM,was shown to be unfortunately present in the Sample Manipulation System(SMS). During the sample analysis, this chemical species reacts with the organic and inorganic molecules present in the samples. This reaction leads to the production and subsequent detection of numerous MTBSTFA derivatives which makes the treatment and the interpretation of the SAM data complex. Moreover, for the first time on Mars, the wet chemistry method was used on a Cumberland sample to help the GC separation and the MS identification of non volatile compounds. To ensure the identification of the organic molecules and try to discriminate organics generated internally to SAM from those present in the samples analyzed, it is mandatory to perform laboratory experimental calibrations under martian operating conditions.

  6. [Recommendations of antifungal treatment in patients with low grade immunosuppression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberán, J; Mensa, J; Fariñas, C; Llinares, P; Serrano, R; Menéndez, R; Agustí, C; Gobernado, M; Azanza, J R; García Rodríguez, J A

    2008-06-01

    Because of the relevance that the systemic mycoses has acquired in non-highly immunocompromised patients, the treatment difficulties they have due to the increase of the non-albicans Candida species and the need to have a better and more rational use of the new antifungal agents (voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin and micafungin), an experts' panel on infectious diseases in representation of the Spanish Society of Chemotherapy, Spanish Society of Internal Medicine, and Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery has met in order to make a few recommendations based on the scientific evidence in an effort to improve their efficiency.

  7. Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...

  8. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  9. Propulsion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  10. Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  11. Psychology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides testing stations for computer-based assessment of cognitive and behavioral Warfighter performance. This 500 square foot configurable space can...

  12. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  13. Laboratory Aspects of Hyperprolactinemia Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rykova, O.V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the modern laboratory aspects of diagnosing hyperprolactinemia and monitoring the effectiveness of treatment according to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Hyperprolactinemia: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline 2011.

  14. Chronic Chagas' heart disease: a disease on its way to becoming a worldwide health problem: epidemiology, etiopathology, treatment, pathogenesis and laboratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Saravia, Silvia Gilka; Haberland, Annekathrin; Wallukat, Gerd; Schimke, Ingolf

    2012-01-01

    Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is ranked as the most serious parasitic disease in Latin America. Nearly 30% of infected patients develop life-threatening complications, and with a latency of 10-30 years, mostly Chagas' heart disease which is currently the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America, enormously burdening economic resources and dramatically affecting patients' social and labor situations. Because of increasing migration, international tourism and parasite transfer by blood contact, intrauterine transfer and organ transplantation, Chagas' heart disease could potentially become a worldwide problem. To raise awareness of this problem, we reflect on the epidemiology and etiopathology of Chagas' disease, particularly Chagas' heart disease. To counteract Chagas' heart disease, in addition to the general interruption of the infection cycle and chemotherapeutic elimination of the infection agent, early and effective causal or symptomatic therapies would be indispensable. Prerequisites for this are improved knowledge of the pathogenesis and optimized patient management. From economic and logistics viewpoints, this last prerequisite should be performed using laboratory medicine tools. Consequently, we first summarize the mechanisms that have been suggested as driving Chagas' heart disease, mainly those associated with the presence of autoantibodies against G-protein-coupled receptors; secondly, we indicate new treatment strategies involving autoantibody apheresis and in vivo autoantibody neutralization; thirdly, we present laboratory medicine tools such as autoantibody estimation and heart marker measurement, proposed for diagnosis, risk assessment and patient guidance and lastly, we critically reflect upon the increase in inflammation and oxidative stress markers in Chagas' heart disease.

  15. Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Lehman

    2008-06-01

    Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We assessed the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalcites using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial identification was performed by the construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and sequence analysis. Intestinal bacteria in field-collected beetles were then compared to those from groups of beetles that were reared in the lab on an artificial diet with and without antibiotics. Direct cell counts estimated 1.5 × 10S bacteria per milliliter of gut. The digestive tract of field-collected P. chalcites produced an average of 4.8 terminal restriction fragments (tRF) for each beetle. The most abundant clones were affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, followed by the taxa Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridia, and Bacteriodetes. The majority of the sequences recovered were closely related to those reported from other insect gastrointestinal tracts. Lab-reared beetles produced fewer tRF, an average of 3.1 per beetle, and a reduced number of taxa with a higher number of clones from the family Enterobacteriaceae compared to the field-collected beetles. Antibiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of tRF per beetle and selected for a less diverse set of bacterial taxa. We conclude that the digestive tract of P. chalcites is colonized by a simple community of bacteria that possess autochthonous characteristics. Laboratory-reared beetles harbored the most common bacteria found in field-collected beetles, and these bacterial communities may be manipulated in the laboratory with the addition of antibiotics to the diet to allow study of functional roles.

  16. Learning Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Lyn; Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Considers the school library media center as an information learning laboratory. Topics include information literacy; Kuhlthau's Information Search Process model; inquiry theory and approach; discovery learning; process skills of laboratory science; the information scientist; attitudes of media specialists, teachers, and students; displays and Web…

  17. Long-term effects of antibiotics on the elimination of chemical oxygen demand, nitrification, and viable bacteria in laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susan; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2012-10-01

    Antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals are contaminants of the environment because of their widespread use and incomplete removal by microorganisms during wastewater treatment. The influence of a mixture of ciprofloxacin (CIP), gentamicin (GM), sulfamethoxazole (SMZ)/trimethoprim (TMP), and vancomycin (VA), up to a final concentration of 40 mg/L, on the elimination of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrification, and survival of bacteria, as well as the elimination of the antibiotics, was assessed in a long-term study in laboratory treatment plants (LTPs). In the presence of 30 mg/L antibiotics, nitrification of artificial sewage by activated sludge ended at nitrite. Nitrate formation was almost completely inhibited. No nitrification at all was possible in the presence of 40 mg/L antibiotics. The nitrifiers were more sensitive to antibiotics than heterotrophic bacteria. COD elimination in antibiotic-stressed LTPs was not influenced by ≤20 mg/L antibiotics. Addition of 30 mg/L antibiotic mixture decreased COD removal efficiency for a period, but the LTPs recovered. Similar results were obtained with 40 mg/L antibiotic mixture. The total viable count of bacteria was not affected negatively by the antibiotics. It ranged from 2.2 × 10(6) to 8.2 × 10(6) colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) compared with the control at 1.4 × 10(6)-6.3 × 10(6) CFU/mL. Elimination of the four antibiotics during phases of 2.4-30 mg/L from the liquid was high for GM (70-90 %), much lower for VA, TMP, and CIP (0-50 %), and highly fluctuating for SMZ (0-95 %). The antibiotics were mainly adsorbed to the sludge and not biodegraded.

  18. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G; Daniels, J; Wegrecki, A

    2007-10-01

    This document contains the human health and ecological risk assessment for the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF). Volume 1 is the text of the risk assessment, and Volume 2 (provided on a compact disc) is the supporting modeling data. The EWTF is operated by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Site 300, which is located in the foothills between the cities of Livermore and Tracy, approximately 17 miles east of Livermore and 8 miles southwest of Tracy. Figure 1 is a map of the San Francisco Bay Area, showing the location of Site 300 and other points of reference. One of the principal activities of Site 300 is to test what are known as 'high explosives' for nuclear weapons. These are the highly energetic materials that provide the force to drive fissionable material to criticality. LLNL scientists develop and test the explosives and the integrated non-nuclear components in support of the United States nuclear stockpile stewardship program as well as in support of conventional weapons and the aircraft, mining, oil exploration, and construction industries. Many Site 300 facilities are used in support of high explosives research. Some facilities are used in the chemical formulation of explosives; others are locations where explosive charges are mechanically pressed; others are locations where the materials are inspected radiographically for such defects as cracks and voids. Finally, some facilities are locations where the machined charges are assembled before they are sent to the onsite test firing facilities, and additional facilities are locations where materials are stored. Wastes generated from high-explosives research are treated by open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD). OB and OD treatments are necessary because they are the safest methods for treating explosives wastes generated at these facilities, and they eliminate the requirement for further handling

  19. Use of laboratory anaerobic digesters to simulate the increase of treatment rate in full-scale high nitrogen content sewage sludge and co-digestion biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampio, Elina; Ervasti, Satu; Paavola, Teija; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of increasing feedstock treatment rate on the performance of full-scale anaerobic digestion using laboratory-scale reactors with digestate and feedstock from full-scale digesters. The studied nitrogen-containing feedstocks were i) a mixture of industrial by-products and pig slurry, and ii) municipal sewage sludge, which digestion was studied at 41 and 52°C, respectively. This study showed the successful reduction of hydraulic retention times from 25 and 20days to around 15days, which increased organic loading rates from 2 to 3.5kg volatile solids (VS)/m(3)d and 4 to 6kgVS/m(3)d. As a result, the optimum retention time in terms of methane production and VS removal was 10-15% lower than the initial in the full-scale digesters. Accumulation of acids during start-up of the co-digestion reactor was suggested to be connected to the high ammonium nitrogen concentration and intermediate temperature of 41°C.

  20. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  1. Audio Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment and facilities for auditory display research. A primary focus is the performance use of binaurally rendered 3D sound in conjunction...

  2. Elastomers Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Primary capabilities include: elastomer compounding in various sizes (micro, 3x5, 8x12, 8x15 rubber mills); elastomer curing and post curing (two 50-ton presses, one...

  3. Correlation of Neo-Sensitabs Tablet Diffusion Assay Results on Three Different Agar Media with CLSI Broth Microdilution M27-A2 and Disk Diffusion M44-A Results for Testing Susceptibilities of Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans to Amphotericin B, Caspofungin, Fluconazole, Itraconazole, and Voriconazole▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Canton, E.; Gibbs, D.; Wang, A.

    2007-01-01

    We compared the Neo-Sensitabs tablet assay to both reference M27-A2 broth microdilution and M44-A disk diffusion methods for testing susceptibilities of 110 isolates of Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. Neo-Sensitabs assay inhibition zone diameters in millimeters on three agars (Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 2% dextrose and 0.5 μg/ml methylene blue [MGM], Shadomy [SHA], and RPMI 1640 [RPMI, 2% dextrose]) were obtained at 24 to 72 h. The correlation coefficient of Neo-Sensitabs results with MICs was similar to that of the disk method for most of the five agents on MGM (R, 0.80 to 0.89 versus 0.76 to 0.89, respectively). Overall, superior correlation was observed at 24 h for most agents. The exception was amphotericin B (R values of 0.68 and 0.5 for disk and tablet, respectively, at 48 h versus 0.68 and 0.48, respectively, at 24 h). In general, Neo-Sensitabs results were less consistent on SHA and RPMI agars. Although agreement by breakpoint category of Neo-Sensitabs and disk results with CLSI method M27-A2 was also similar on MGM (92.7 to 98.2% versus 95.5 to 100%, respectively), the Neo-Sensitabs method failed to identify two of the six isolates with high amphotericin B MICs. These data suggest the potential value of the Neo-Sensitabs assay for testing at least four of the five agents against yeasts evaluated in the clinical laboratory. PMID:17215342

  4. TREATABILITY STUDY REPORT OF GREEN MOUNTAIN LABORATORIES, INC.'S BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS, TREATMENT OF PCB CONTAMINATED SOILS, AT BEEDE WASTE OIL/CASH ENERGY SUPERFUND SITE, PLAISTOW, NEW HAMPSHIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1998, Green Mountain Laboratories, Inc. (GML) and the USEPA agreed to carry out a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) project to evaluate the effectiveness of GML's Bioremediation Process for the treatment of PCB contaminated soils at the Beede Waste Oil/Cash Ene...

  5. Efficacy of caspofungin against central nervous system Aspergillus fumigatus infection in mice determined by TaqMan PCR and CFU methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gaurav; Imai, Jackie; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A

    2005-04-01

    We have reported previously that prolonged caspofungin (CAS) dosing enhances survival in a murine model of central nervous system aspergillosis. In this study we determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and CFU enumeration whether CAS could reduce fungal burdens, prior to the deaths of untreated animals, and also assessed progressive infection in untreated mice. Mice were infected intracranially and treated for 4 days with CAS (1, 5, or 10 mg/kg of body weight/day) or amphotericin B (AMB) (3 mg/kg/day) starting 1 day postinfection. Fungal burdens in brains and kidneys of untreated controls were determined on days 1, 3, and 5 to assess progressive infection; burdens in treated animals were determined on day 5. qPCR showed higher burdens than CFU enumeration in all comparisons. In untreated animals, qPCR showed transiently increased burdens in brains, while CFU enumeration showed a decrease. qPCR showed increased burdens in kidneys, but CFU enumeration did not. Neither method indicated drug efficacy in the brain. Both methods showed AMB efficacy in the kidneys, and qPCR demonstrated CAS efficacy at all doses. Spearman correlations of qPCR and CFU determination results showed a significant correlation for most untreated groups; results correlated well for kidneys (P CFU groups indicated different slopes for progressive infection in untreated animals but the same slopes for CAS dose-response efficacy. qPCR appeared to better reflect the progression of untreated infection. The lack of demonstration of efficacy in the brain suggests that longer dosing is necessary to cause burden reduction. These results also suggest that, when there is drug efficacy in a therapeutic study, either method appears to be useful for determining Aspergillus fumigatus burdens.

  6. Ondansetron reduces naturalistic drinking in non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent individuals with the LL 5′-HTTLPR genotype: a laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, George A.; Zywiak, William H.; Swift, Robert M.; McGeary, John E.; Clifford, James S.; Shoaff, Jessica R.; Vuittonet, Cynthia; Fricchione, Samuel; Brickley, Michael; Beaucage, Kayla; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Background One hypothesis suggests that the differential response to ondansetron and serotonin specific re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may be due to a functional polymorphism of the 5′-HTTLPR promoter region in SLC6A4, the gene that codes for the serotonin transporter (5-HTT). The LL 5′-HTTLPR genotype is postulated to be specifically sensitive to the effects of ondansetron with SS/SL 5′-HTTLPR genotypes sensitive to SSRIs. This study tests this hypothesis by matching non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent (AD) individuals with LL genotype to ondansetron and SS/SL genotypes to the SSRI sertraline, and mis-matching them assessing naturalistic and bar-laboratory alcohol drinking. Methods Seventy-seven AD individuals were randomized to one of two counterbalanced arms to receive sertraline 200mg/day or ondansetron 0.5 mg/day for three weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then received placebo for three weeks followed by a second ASAE. Individuals then received the alternate drug for three weeks followed by a third ASAE. Drinks per drinking day (DDD with drinks in SDUs) for 7 days prior to each ASAE and milliliters consumed during each ASAE were the primary outcomes. Results Fifty-five participants completed the study. The genotype x order interaction was significant [F(1,47) = 8.42, p = .006] for DDD. Three ANCOVAs were conducted for DDD during the week before each ASAE. Ondansetron compared to sertraline resulted in a significant reduction in DDD during the week before the first [F(1,47) = 7.64, p = .008] but not the third ASAE. There was no difference in milliliters consumed during each ASAE. Conclusion This study modestly supports the hypothesis that ondansetron may reduce DDD in AD individuals with the LL genotype as measured naturalistically. By contrast there was no support that ondansetron reduces drinking during the ASAEs or that sertraline reduces alcohol use in individuals who have SS/SL genotypes. We provide limited

  7. Simultaneous quantification of anidulafungin and caspofungin in plasma by an accurate and simple liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometric method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanrooy, M.J. van; Santoe, R.N.; Elst, K.C. van der; Wilmer, C.M.; Hateren, K. van; Wessels, A.M.; Greijdanus, B.; Alffenaar, J.W.C.; Uges, D.R.A.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Echinocandins are a valuable addition for the treatment of invasive fungal infections, as they are efficacious, demonstrate low toxicity, and have limited drug-drug interactions. In specific clinical situations when altered pharmacokinetics can be expected or dosing guidelines are conf

  8. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  9. Lunar laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  10. Virtual Laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Hut, P

    2006-01-01

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations play a central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simul...

  11. Development of a passive-flow treatment system for {sup 90}Sr-contaminated seep water at Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    Seep C is a free-flowing stream of groundwater (typical flow of 0.2 to 2 L/min) that emerges in a narrow valley below the old low-level waste disposal trenches in Solid Waste Storage Area 5 (SWSA 5), which is part of Waste Area Grouping 5 (WAG 5). The seep water contains high concentrations of Sr-90 (10,000 to 20,000 Bq/L) and contributes about 25% of all the Sr-90 leaving Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Seep C was identified as a primary source of off-site contaminant transport and was designated for an early removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA). A passive-flow treatment system was chosen as the most cost-effective method for treating the seep water. The goal of the removal action is to have a system operational by November 1, 1994, that reduces the Sr-90 concentration in the water collected and treated by at least 90%. In order to provide design and operating data for the full-scale system, a pilot-scale system, consisting of a 5-gal bucket with an inlet connection in the lid and a screened outlet on the bottom filled with 16 L of chabazite zeolite, was used to treat the seep water. The test was started on March 17, 1994, and concluded on June 15, 1994. The system treated 63,470 L (3967 bed volumes) of water and 22.7 mCi of Sr-90 from the seep water. The system removed over 99.5% of the Sr-90 from the first 43,000 L of water treated, after which the removal efficiency slowly decreased as the zeolite became loaded until it reached 84% for the final sample. The passive system performed at least as well as comparable pumped zeolite systems in terms of removal efficiency and zeolite utilization. The test was terminated just before the construction crew mobilized at Seep C to build the full-scale system.

  12. Certificate of Waiver Laboratory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CLIA requires all laboratories that examine materials derived from the human body for diagnosis, prevention, or treatment purposes to be certified by the Secretary...

  13. Laboratory Accreditation in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collino, Cesar; Chiabrando, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory accreditation is an essential element in the healthcare system since it contributes substantially to decision-making, in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the health status of the patients, as well as in the organization and management of public healthcare. Therefore, the clinical biochemistry professional works continuously to provide reliable results and contributes to the optimization of operational logistics and integration of a laboratory into the health system. ISO 15189 accreditation, ensures compliance of the laboratory to minimize instances of error through the planning, prevention, implementation, evaluation and improvement of its procedures, which provides skill areas that involve both training undergraduate and graduate professionals in clinical biochemistry. PMID:27683497

  14. Exploration Laboratory Analysis - ARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Fung, Paul P.

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) risk, Risk of Inability to Adequately Treat an Ill or Injured Crew Member, and ExMC Gap 4.05: Lack of minimally invasive in-flight laboratory capabilities with limited consumables required for diagnosing identified Exploration Medical Conditions. To mitigate this risk, the availability of inflight laboratory analysis instrumentation has been identified as an essential capability in future exploration missions. Mission architecture poses constraints on equipment and procedures that will be available to treat evidence-based medical conditions according to the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Conditions List (SMEMCL). The SMEMCL provided diagnosis and treatment for the evidence-based medical conditions and hence, a basis for developing ELA functional requirements.

  15. Comparison of Laboratory Experiments of Chemical, Biological, and Thermal Methods for Treatment of Chlorinated Solvent DNAPL at Kærgård Plantage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mette; Christensen, Jørgen Fjeldsø; Jørgensen, Torben H.

    2010-01-01

    reductive dechlorination (ERD) via biostimulation/bioaugmentation, and steam enhanced extraction. Treatment have been assessed through monitoring changes in contaminant concentrations, select degradation intermediates, and groundwater toxicity (Microtox® bioassay) consequent to treatment. The tests have...

  16. Virtual Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, P.

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations playa central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simulated dialogues between code developers, thus sharing not only the code, but also the motivations behind the code.

  17. Cleanroom laboratory challenge overcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Ronan

    2010-10-01

    Ronan Quinn, managing director of interior construction specialist Ardmac, describes the challenges of building and fitting out a new cleanroom laboratory for blood and bone marrow therapeutic treatment at Our Lady's Children's Hospital Crumlin in Dublin. The "state-of-the-art" facility, which fully complies with the recent EU Directive concerning human tissues and cells, has been well received by the client and end-users alike, but, as he explains, there were many obstacles to overcome during its completion.

  18. Application of Dextran in Sterility Test of Caspofungin Acetate for Injection%右旋糖酐在注射用醋酸卡泊芬净无菌检查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王似锦; 张光华; 刘文杰; 高春; 佟立今

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To establish a sterility test method for Caspofungin Acetate for Injection according to validation test.Methods:Samples were dissolved by 0.9%sodium chloride solution, and the test was carried out by the technique of membrane filtration.Each membrane was rinsed several times by 0.9%sodium chloride solution and dextran 40 glucose injection, respectively.Dextran 1 g was added to the culture medium.Positive control bacteria was Candida albicans.Results: All the test strains grew well and the method was feasible.Conclusion:The effect of exogenous dextran which makes fungi through the synthesis of its cell wall peptidoglycan exoge-nous utilization, thereby eliminating the antibacterial effect of Caspofungin Acetate.Method of sterility test for Caspofungin Acetate for Injection is established.%目的:通过无菌方法学验证试验,建立注射用醋酸卡泊芬净的无菌检查法。方法:样品分别用0.9%无菌氯化钠溶液溶解,采用薄膜过滤法处理,每膜分别用0.9%无菌氯化钠溶液和右旋糖酐40葡萄糖注射液冲洗若干次,并在培养基中加入右旋糖酐1 g,以白色念珠菌为阳性对照菌。结果:各验证菌株均能够正常生长,方法可行。结论:通过添加外源的右旋糖酐,使真菌通过利用外源的肽聚糖用于自身细胞壁的合成,从而消除了醋酸卡泊芬净的抑菌作用,建立了抗真菌药物注射用醋酸卡泊芬净的无菌检查法。

  19. Laboratory diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ruffatti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of antiphosholipid syndrome (APS is based on laboratory detection of antiphospholipid (aPL antibodies in patients with documented thrombosis or in women with pregnancy morbidity. Recently, both clinical and laboratory criteria were revised on the basis of an international consensus conference held in Sydney (1. The previous international consensus statement of one clinical and one laboratory criterion to diagnose APS was maintained (2 but time-lapse between the previous thromboembolism and laboratory diagnosis should not exceed 5 years. Moreover, laboratory tests should not be performed in the 12 weeks following the event to avoid any interference of the acute phase of the disease. Thus, laboratory evaluation of venous thromboembolism (VTE should not be requested during the hospital stay as tests may be false-positive with no influence on the treatment regimen...

  20. Development and Deployment of a Full-Scale Cross-Flow Filtration System for Treatment of Liquid Low-Level Waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, T.E.

    2000-05-12

    A full-scale modular solid/liquid separation (SLS) system was designed, fabricated, installed, and successfully deployed for treatment of liquid low-level waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The SLS module, utilizing cross-flow filtration, was operated as part of an integrated tank waste pretreatment system (otherwise known as the Wastewater Triad) to remove suspended solids and prevent fouling of ion-exchange materials and heat exchange surfaces. The information gained from this testing was used to complete design specifications for the full-scale modular SLS system in May 1997. The contract for detailed design and fabrication of the system was awarded to NUMET in July 1997, and the design was completed in January 1998. Fabrication began in March 1998, and the completed system was delivered to ORNL on December 29, 1998. Installation of the system at the MVST facility was completed in May 1999. After completing an operational readiness assessment, approval was given to commence hot operations on June 7, 1999. Operations involving two of the eight MVSTs were performed safely and with very little unscheduled downtime. Filtration of supernatant from tank W-31 was completed on June 24, 1999 and W-26 processing was completed on August 20, 1999. The total volume processed during these two campaigns was about 45,000 gal. The suspended solids content of the liquid processed from tank W-31 was lower than expected, resulting in higher-than-expected filtrate production for nearly the entire operation. The liquid processed from tank W-26 was higher in suspended solids content, and filtrate production was lower, but comparable to the rates expected based on the results of previous pilot-scale, single-element filtration tests. The quality of the filtrate consistently met the requirements for feed to the downstream ion-exchange and evaporation processes. From an equipment and controls standpoint, the modular system (pumps

  1. Laboratory Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the laboratory activities performed by PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project in support of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Program, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The results of these studies are contained in numerous reports (Lindenmeier et al. 2002; Serne et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2002d, 2002e; Lindenmeier et al. 2003; Serne et al. 2004a, 2004b; Brown et al. 2005, 2006a, 2007; Serne et al. 2007) and have generated much of the data reported in Chapter 22 (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), Appendix G (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), and Cantrell et al. (2007, SST WMA Geochemistry Data Package – in preparation). Sediment samples and characterization results from PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project are also shared with other science and technology (S&T) research projects, such as those summarized in Chapter 12 (Associated Science Activities).

  2. Speed of flea knockdown of spinosad compared to afoxolaner, and of spinosad through 28 days post-treatment in controlled laboratory studies

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, Daniel E.; Rumschlag, Anthony J.; Young, Lisa Marie; Ryan, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The speed of flea knockdown by different products and their duration of effectiveness are factors which affect veterinarian prescribing decisions. To further validate the month-long pulicidal effectiveness of spinosad and determine its rate of flea knockdown to that of afoxolaner, three studies were conducted in two laboratories in the United States, utilizing flea infestations from colonies which are regularly refreshed through introduction of locally caught fleas. Methods All stu...

  3. Laboratory Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomares, Christelle; Montoya, Jose G

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that screening and treatment for toxoplasmosis during gestation result in a decrease of vertical transmission and clinical sequelae. Early treatment was associated with improved outcomes. Thus, laboratory methods should aim for early identification of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). Diagnostic approaches should include, at least, detection of Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, and IgA and a comprehensive review of maternal history, including the gestational age at which the mother was infected and treatment. Here, we review laboratory methods for the diagnosis of CT, with emphasis on serological tools. A diagnostic algorithm that takes into account maternal history is presented.

  4. Dynamic study on the susceptibilities of caspofungin and micafungin to Candida species in vitro%卡泊芬净、米卡芬净对念珠菌体外药物敏感性的动态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾荣; 刘维达; 李岷; 陈青; 王乐; 吕桂霞; 沈永年; 蔡晴; 李彩霞; 唐荣才

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the susceptibilities of Candida species to caspofungin and micafungin. Methods Susceptibilities of Candida isolates to caspofungin, micafungin and fluconazole were determined by microdilution method based on CLSI M27-A2 for consecutive seven days. Results After 48 hours, the medians of MIC^ and MIC90 of C. albicans, C. glabrata , and other Candida spp. to caspofungin were 0.03 and 0.03μg/mL,0.06 and 0.125 μg/mL,0.125 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively . The medians of MIC*, and MIC,,, of C. albicans,C. glabrata , and other Candida species to micafungin were 0.03μg/mL and 0.03 μg/mL,0.06 μg/mL and 0. 06 μg/mL,0. 25 μg/mL and 0. 5 μg/mL, respectively. The medians of MIC80 and MIC100 of C. albicans,C. glabrata , and other Candida species to fluconazole were 2 μg/mL and 128 μg/mL,64 μg/mL and 128 μg/mL,2 μg/mL and 32 μg/mL, respectively. None of the 85 isolates of Candida species showed cross-resistance to caspofungin, micafungin or fluconazole. To caspofungin, there was no change on MIC50 or MIC%90of C. albicans after 24 hours. No increase on MIC50and MIC90, of C. glabrata was observed after 72 hours and 120 hours. Neither did increase on MIC50 and MIC90 of other Candida species after 168 hours and 96 hours. To micafungin, there was no change on MICW and MIC,,, of C. albicans and C. glabrata after 24 hours and no increase on M1C50 and MIC90 of other Candida species after 72 hours. Conclusions Caspofungin and micafungin may have great antifungal activities to all Candida species, especially to C. albicans and C. glabrata . The MICs would increase with the exposure time, which show specificity to drug and Candida species.%目的 动态研究卡泊芬净、米卡芬净体外对念珠菌的药物敏感性.方法 参照CLSI公布的M-27A方案微量液体稀释法分别测定卡泊芬净、米卡芬净、氟康唑对85株念珠菌的体外敏感性,并连续7d观测结果.结果 48 h卡泊芬净对白念珠菌、光滑

  5. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratoriesThe Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  6. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratories The Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  7. FOOTWEAR PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory provides biomechanical and physical analyses for both military and commercial footwear. The laboratory contains equipment that is integral to the us...

  8. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratory The Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  9. Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL's Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL) houses 22 research laboratories for conducting a wide-range of research including catalyst formulation, chemical analysis,...

  10. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  11. Application of Department Pure Water Treatment System in Laboratory%实验室中央纯水处理系统在检验科的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑蕴欣

    2012-01-01

    中央纯水系统是取代检验科传统的每个使用点独立产水、用水、维护和管理的用水方式.由于统一产水,通过管道分配直接到用水点,避免了纯水在储存过程的二次污染,降低了使用风险,具有整体提高实验室纯水应用标准和完善实验室全面质量管理水平的优点.文章通过具体实践和相关文献检阅,根据国内实验室用水和纯水的分级标准,阐述了项目的实施步骤和应用情况.系统设计20个用水点,实际开放13个点,连接生化室、临检、门诊、免疫室、微生物室等各区域.日用纯水量约2~3吨,水质日检合格,系统稳定.%Central water purification system is replacing traditional laboratory independent of each point of produce and use water, maintenance, and management of the water used way, due to the unified water production, distribution directly through the pipeline to the water point, avoiding secondary pollution of water storage process, reduce the risk of use, with its overall improvement of laboratory pure water standards and sound laboratory comprehensive advantages of quality management standards. Articles by specific practices and related literature review, according to the classification standard of domestic water and pure water for laboratory, explained the project's implementation procedures and applications. System design of water for 20 points, actual opened 13 points, connecting biochemical, clinical testing, outpatient, laboratory of Immunology, micro-organisms and other regions. Daily approximately 2~3 tons of pure water, water quality inspection qualified, system stability.

  12. Laboratory evaluation of the hydrogen sulfide gas treatment approach for remediation of chromate-, uranium(VI)-, and nitrate-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, E.C.; Baechler, M.A.; Beck, M.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Amonette, J.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Bench-scale soil treatment tests were conducted as part of an effort to develop and implement an in situ chemical treatment approach to the remediation of metal and radionuclide contaminated soils through the use of reactive gases. In general, > 90% immobilization of chromium and > 50% immobilization of uranium was achieved. Leach test results indicate that the treatment process is irreversible for chromium but partially reversible for uranium indicates that immobilization for this contaminant is more readily achieved in organic rich soils. This observation is ascribed to the reducing nature of organic matter. Additional tests were also conducted with soils contaminated to the 5,000 ppm level with nitrate. Nitrate was not found to interfere significantly with treatment of the contaminants. Nitrite was observed in the leachate samples obtained from tests with an organic-rich soil containing clay, however. Leachate chemistries suggested that no other significantly hazardous byproducts were generated by the treatment process and that soil alteration effects were minimal. Test results also suggest that treatment effectiveness is somewhat lower in very dry soils but still able to immobilize chromium and uranium to an acceptable degree. Results of these testing activities indicate that the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the gas mixture is not a limited factor in treatment as long as a sufficient volume of the mixture is delivered to the soil to achieve a mole ratio of hydrogen sulfide to contaminant of at least 10.

  13. Theme: Laboratory Facilities Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Glen M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Laboratory Facilities Improvement" (Miller); "Remodeling Laboratories for Agriscience Instruction" (Newman, Johnson); "Planning for Change" (Mulcahy); "Laboratory Facilities Improvement for Technology Transfer" (Harper); "Facilities for Agriscience Instruction" (Agnew et al.); "Laboratory Facility Improvement" (Boren, Dwyer); and…

  14. Clinical application of antifungal agents caspofungin and micafungin in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation%抗真菌药米卡芬净及卡泊芬净在造血干细胞移植患者中的临床应用及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈迁; 陈孟莉; 贾宁; 朱曼; 吴玉玺

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficacy of caspofungin and micafungin in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. METHODS The clinical data of HSCT patients received caspofungin and micafungin from Aug. 2010 to Jul. 2011 were collected. A retrospective analysis was employed to evaluate the efficacy, adverse reactions and utility of caspofungin and micafungin in HSCT patients. RESULTS Totally 31 patients received caspafungin and 49 patients received micafungin were enrolled. There were no statistical difference between the two groups in age, gender, the underlying disease, the type of transplantation and the time of administration. The effective rates of caspofungin and micafungin in the two groups were 68. 1% and 83. 7% respectively, with no statistical difference; there was statistical difference between the two groups in the incidence of adverse reactions (P<0. 05). The DUIs of caspofungin and micafungin were 1. 050 and 0. 983, respectively. The DDC of caspofungin was 2042. 6 yuan, and micafungin 1290. 4 yuan. CONCLUSION The efficacy of the two types of echinocandin drugs is similar in HSCT patients, but the incidence of adverse reactions in caspofungin group is higher than micafungin. Both DUIs are less or close to 1. 0, which are considered as reasonable use. DDC of caspofungin is 1. 6 times higher than that of micafungin, suggesting micafungin is superior to micafungin on economical perspective while efficacy and adverse reactions are comparable.%目的 探讨卡泊芬净和米卡芬净在造血干细胞移植(HSCT)患者中的应用疗效,评价药物利用.方法 通过收集和整理2010年8月-2011年7月医院内现有的棘白菌素类抗真菌药物在HSCT患者中的应用资料,对其进行回顾性分析,评价卡泊芬净和米卡芬净在HSCT患者中的疗效、不良反应及药物利用情况.结果 应用卡泊芬净患者31例和应用米卡芬净患者49例,2组患者在年龄、性别、疾病种类、移植类型和用药

  15. Effect of cattle slurry pre-treatment by separation and addition of nitrification inhibitors on gaseous emissions and N dynamics: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José; Fangueiro, David; Chadwick, David R; Misselbrook, Tom H; Coutinho, João; Trindade, Henrique

    2010-04-01

    The application of untreated or treated animal manure to soils can result in increased N and C gaseous emissions contributing to ecosystem change and global warming. In the present study, dairy cattle slurry (liquid manure) was subjected first to pre-treatment by separation using a screw press to obtain a liquid (LF) and a solid fraction (SF). Then, the different fractions and the whole slurry (WS) were combined with two nitrification inhibitors (NI), dicyandiamide (DCD) or 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP), were applied to soil to assess the effect of slurry treatment by separation and NI addition on soil N dynamics and CH4, CO2, NH3, NO and N2O emissions. The WS and the two slurry fractions, combined or not with DCD or DMPP, were applied to soil at an equivalent field dosage of 120 kg total N ha(-1). Controls including a soil only, soil-DCD and soil-DMPP treatments were also included. The mixtures were incubated for 93-d at 20 degrees C. Results obtained show that NI inhibited nitrification between 16 and 30-d in WS and LF, with DMPP having a longer effect over time compared to DCD. There was no significant effect of NI on nitrification for the SF treatment. Nitrification inhibitors did not significantly affect (P>0.05) the CH4, CO2 and N2O emissions, but significantly decreased (P<0.05) NO emissions. Furthermore, the two NIs had a similar effect on gaseous emissions. Throughout the entire experiment, the greatest amount of NO was released from the LF treatment (without NI), while the greatest amount of N2O was released from the SF treatment. Slurry separation had no impact on N emissions, while the combination of this process with one of the two NI led to a small reduction in total N emissions.

  16. Clinical Analysis of COPD Elderly Patients with Invasive Pulmonary Fungal Infection Treated with Caspofungin in 36 Cases%卡泊芬净治疗老年COPD患者侵袭性肺部真菌感染36例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘映宏

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨老年COPD患者予卡泊芬净治疗侵袭性肺部真菌感染的效果。方法:36例COPD老年患者使用卡泊芬净治疗后观察效果。结果:13例痊愈,15例显效,6例进步,2例无效,总有效率是77.78%。结论:卡泊芬净治疗老年COPD患者合并侵袭性肺部真菌感染安全有效。%Objective:To investigate the effects of COPD elderly patients with invasive pulmonary fungal infections treated with caspofungin. Meth-ods:After 36 cases of COPD elderly patients were treated with caspofungin, the effects were observed. Results:13 cases were cured, 15 cases mark-edly effective, 6 cases improved, 2 cases ineffective, and the total efficiency of 77.78%. Conclusion: Caspofungin treating COPD elderly patients complicated with invasive pulmonary fungal infection is safe and effective.

  17. Water Treatment Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This team researches and designs desalination, water treatment, and wastewater treatment systems. These systems remediate water containing hazardous c hemicals and...

  18. In situ analysis of Mars soil and rocks samples with the SAM experiment: laboratory measurements supporting treatment and interpretation of the detection of organics

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment onboard the Curiosity rover detected numerous organic compounds when analyzing the solid samples collected on the way to Mount Sharp. But MTBSTFA, the chemical reactant for the chemical treatment of the refractory molecules present in the solid samples and present in cups of SAM, was shown to be unfortunately present in the Sample Manipulation System (SMS). During the sample analysis, this chemical species reacts with the or...

  19. Final closure plan for the high-explosives open burn treatment facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, S.

    1997-04-01

    This document addresses the interim status closure of the HE Open Bum Treatment Facility, as detailed by Title 22, Division 4.5, Chapter 15, Article 7 of the Califonia Code of Regulations (CCR) and by Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, Subpart G, ``Closure and Post Closure.`` The Closure Plan (Chapter 1) and the Post- Closure Plan (Chapter 2) address the concept of long-term hazard elimination. The Closure Plan provides for capping and grading the HE Open Bum Treatment Facility and revegetating the immediate area in accordance with applicable requirements. The Closure Plan also reflects careful consideration of site location and topography, geologic and hydrologic factors, climate, cover characteristics, type and amount of wastes, and the potential for contaminant migration. The Post-Closure Plan is designed to allow LLNL to monitor the movement, if any, of pollutants from the treatment area. In addition, quarterly inspections will ensure that all surfaces of the closed facility, including the cover and diversion ditches, remain in good repair, thus precluding the potential for contaminant migration.

  20. 300 Area Treatability Test: Laboratory Development of Polyphosphate Remediation Technology for In Situ Treatment of Uranium Contamination in the Vadose Zone and Capillary Fringe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Oostrom, Martinus; Gunderson, Katie M.; Webb, Samuel M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Clayton, Eric T.; Parker, Kent E.; Ermi, Ruby M.; Baum, Steven R.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2008-09-30

    This report presents results from bench-scale treatability studies conducted under site-specific conditions to optimize the polyphosphate amendment for implementation of a field-scale technology demonstration to stabilize uranium within the 300 Area vadose and smear zones of the Hanford Site. The general treatability testing approach consisted of conducting studies with site sediment and under site conditions, to develop an effective chemical formulation and infiltration approach for the polyphosphate amendment under site conditions. Laboratory-scale dynamic column tests were used to 1) quantify the retardation of polyphosphate and its degradation products as a function of water content, 2) determine the rate of polyphosphate degradation under unsaturated conditions, 3) develop an understanding of the mechanism of autunite formation via the reaction of solid phase calcite-bound uranium and aqueous polyphosphate remediation technology, 4) develop an understanding of the transformation mechanism, the identity of secondary phases, and the kinetics of the reaction between uranyl-carbonate and -silicate minerals with the polyphosphate remedy under solubility-limiting conditions, and 5) quantify the extent and rate of uranium released and immobilized based on the infiltration rate of the polyphosphate remedy and the effect of and periodic wet-dry cycling on the efficacy of polyphosphate remediation for uranium in the vadose zone and smear zone.

  1. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Pre-project Rare Plant and Wildlife Surveys For the Pit 7 Drainage Diversion and Groundwater Extraction and Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, L; Woollett, J

    2007-07-17

    In January 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) released the final Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Environmental Remediation at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 Pit 7 Complex. At the same time, the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) released the final Negative Declaration and Initial Study covering the Pit 7 remediation. No substantial adverse effect on wildlife species of concern was anticipated from the project. However, it was proposed that wildlife surveys should be conducted prior to construction because species locations and breeding areas could potentially change by the time construction activities began. Although no known populations of rare or endangered/threatened plant species were known to occur within the project impact area at the time these documents were released, rare plants listed by the California Native Plant Society had been observed in the vicinity. As such, both DOE and DTSC proposed that plant surveys would be undertaken at the appropriate time of year to determine if rare plants would be impacted by project construction. This document provides the results of wildlife and rare plant surveys taken prior to the start of construction at the Pit 7 Complex.

  2. 中国与欧盟生物废弃物处理标准化管理研究%Research on management of standardization of laboratory bio-w aste treatment between China and European Union countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德; 魏凤; 袁志明; 宋冬林; 刘汝

    2014-01-01

    The research focuses on the biological waste management and treatment problems of biosafety laboratory .This article compares and analyses the characteristics and inadequacy of the biosafety laboratory waste disposal standards from waste management , waste segregation , waste containers , waste collection , waste storage ,selection of treatment methods ,dispose methods ,testing and validation of waste treatment methods ,and risk management . The result shows that the European standard emphaseis on the waste treatment processes and operability ,while Chinese standard focuses on the principle of waste treatment ,and the operability of our standard is poor in the waste treatment process .Finally ,the available and actionable suggestions are offered .Those suggestions require that the supervisor should strengthen the recording and management process of waste disposal while the bio-waste standard is developed .%针对生物安全实验室生物废弃物管理和处理的问题,从废物管理、废物分离、废物容器、废物收集、废物存储、处理方法的选择、处置方式、废物处理方法的试验和验证、风险管理等9个方面,对比分析中国与欧盟生物安全实验室废弃物处理标准规范的特点和不足,认为欧盟在生物废物处理上较为注重流程化和可操作性,而中国更强调废物处理的原则,在生物废物处理上可操作性较差,在此基础上,提出了中国生物废物标准制定上应加强流程化记录、管理及废物处理办法等具体可实施的对策建议。

  3. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Technetium Decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Melter Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  4. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Decontamination of Cs, Sr, and Actinides from Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-06

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also substantially decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  5. Sorption media for stormwater treatment - A laboratory evaluation of five low-cost media for their ability to remove metals and phosphorus from artificial stormwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn H.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild;

    2012-01-01

    Five sorption materials were studied with focus on polishing pretreated stormwater: crushed limestone, shell-sand, zeolite and two granulates of olivine. These materials are commercially available at comparatively low cost and have been subjected to a minimum of modification from their natural...... and in the presence of chloride. For most sorbent/sorbate combinations, significant sorption occurred within the first minutes of contact between sorbent and sorbate. Treatment to the low microgram per liter range could be achieved by contact times of less than an hour. The study indicated that sorption filters can...... be designed for long life expectancy at comparatively low cost by applying the materials tested....

  6. Clinical, Laboratorial, and Urodynamic Findings of Prostatic Artery Embolization for the Treatment of Urinary Retention Related to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. A Prospective Single-Center Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Alberto A. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil); Carnevale, Francisco C., E-mail: fcarnevale@uol.com.br; Motta Leal Filho, Joaquim M. da [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit (Brazil); Yoshinaga, Eduardo M. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil); Cerri, Luciana M. O. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Ultrasound Unit (Brazil); Baroni, Ronaldo H. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Magnetic Resonance Unit (Brazil); Marcelino, Antonio S. Z. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Ultrasound Unit (Brazil); Cerri, Giovanni G. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Radiology Department (Brazil); Srougi, Miguel [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThis study was designed to describe the clinical, laboratorial, and urodynamic findings of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in patients with urinary retention due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).MethodsA prospective study of 11 patients with urinary retention due to BPH was conducted. Patients underwent physical examination, prostate specific antigen (PSA) measurement, transrectal ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. International prostate symptom score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), and urodynamic testing were used to assess the outcome before and after 1 year.ResultsClinical success was 91 % (10/11 patients) with a mean follow-up of 22.3 months (range, 12-41 months). At the first year follow-up, the mean IPSS score was 2.8 points (p = 0.04), mean QoL was 0.4 points (p = 0.001), mean PSA decreased from 10.1 to 4.3 ng/mL (p = 0.003), maximum urinary flow (Qmax) improved from 4.2 to 10.8 mL/sec (p = 0.009), and detrusor pressure (Pdet) decreased from 85.7 to 51.5 cm H{sub 2}O (p = 0.007). Before PAE, Bladder Outlet Obstruction Index (BOOI) showed values >40 in 100 % of patients. After PAE, 30 % of patients were >40 (obstructed), 40 % were between 20 and 40 (undetermined), and 30 % were <20 (unobstructed). Patients with a BOOI <20 had higher PSA values at 1-day after PAE.ConclusionsClinical and urodynamic parameters improved significantly after PAE in patients with acute urinary retention due to BPH. Total PSA at day 1 after PAE was higher in patients with unobstructed values in pressure flow studies.

  7. Laboratory Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that screening and treatment for toxoplasmosis during gestation result in a decrease of vertical transmission and clinical sequelae. Early treatment was associated with improved outcomes. Thus, laboratory methods should aim for early identification of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). Diagnostic approaches should include, at least, detection of Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, and IgA and a comprehensive review of maternal history, including the gestational age ...

  8. Preparation of tamarind fruit seed activated carbon by microwave heating for the adsorptive treatment of landfill leachate: A laboratory column evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, K Y; Lee, L K; Hameed, B H

    2013-04-01

    The preparation of tamarind fruit seed granular activated carbon (TSAC) by microwave induced chemical activation for the adsorptive treatment of semi-aerobic landfill leachate has been attempted. The chemical and physical properties of TSAC were examined. A series of column tests were performed to determine the breakthrough characteristics, by varying the operational parameters, hydraulic loading rate (5-20 mL/min) and adsorbent bed height (15-21 cm). Ammonical nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand (COD), which provide a prerequisite insight into the prediction of leachate quality was quantified. Results illustrated an encouraging performance for the adsorptive removal of ammonical nitrogen and COD, with the highest bed capacity of 84.69 and 55.09 mg/g respectively, at the hydraulic loading rate of 5 mL/min and adsorbent bed height of 21 cm. The dynamic adsorption behavior was satisfactory described by the Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. The findings demonstrated the applicability of TSAC for the adsorptive treatment of landfill leachate.

  9. Antiviral drug valacyclovir treatment combined with a clean feeding system enhances the suppression of salivary gland hypertrophy in laboratory colonies of Glossina pallidipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Hytrosaviridae cause salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) syndrome in some infected tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae). Infected male and female G. pallidipes with SGH have a reduced fecundity and fertility. Due to the deleterious impact of the virus on G. pallidipes colonies, adding the antiviral drug valacyclovir to the blood diet and changing the feeding regime to a clean feeding system (each fly receives for each feeding a fresh clean blood meal) have been investigated to develop virus management strategies. Although both approaches used alone successfully reduced the virus load and the SGH prevalence in small experimental groups, considerable time was needed to obtain the desired SGH reduction and both systems were only demonstrated with colonies that had a low initial virus prevalence (SGH ≤ 10%). As problems with SGH are often only recognized once the incidence is already high, it was necessary to demonstrate that this combination would also work for high prevalence colonies. Findings Combining both methods at colony level successfully suppressed the SGH in G. pallidipes colonies that had a high initial virus prevalence (average SGH of 24%). Six months after starting the combined treatment SGH symptoms were eliminated from the treated colony, in contrast to 28 months required to obtain the same results using clean feeding alone and 21 months using antiviral drug alone. Conclusions Combining valacyclovir treatment with the clean feeding system provides faster control of SGH in tsetse than either method alone and is effective even when the initial SGH prevalence is high. PMID:24886248

  10. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  11. Gun Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Gun Dynamics Laboratory is a research multi-task facility, which includes two firing bays, a high bay area and a second floor laboratory space. The high bay area...

  12. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a NASA funded facility, delivering heavy ion beams to a target area where scientists...

  13. Lincoln Laboratory Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Lincoln Laboratory Grid (LLGrid) is an interactive, on-demand parallel computing system that uses a large computing cluster to enable Laboratory researchers to...

  14. Denver District Laboratory (DEN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesDEN-DO Laboratory is a multi-functional laboratory capable of analyzing most chemical analytes and pathogenic/non-pathogenic microorganisms found...

  15. Engineering Water Analysis Laboratory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    The purposes of water treatment in a marine steam power plant are to prevent damage to boilers, steam-operated equipment, and steam and condensate lives, and to keep all equipment operating at the highest level of efficiency. This laboratory exercise is designed to provide students with experiences in making accurate boiler water tests and to…

  16. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  17. Summary Report of Laboratory Testing to Establish the Effectiveness of Proposed Treatment Methods for Unremediated and Remediated Nitrate Salt Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    The inadvertent creation of transuranic waste carrying hazardous waste codes D001 and D002 requires the treatment of the material to eliminate the hazardous characteristics and allow its eventual shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report documents the effectiveness of two treatment methods proposed to stabilize both the unremediated and remediated nitrate salt waste streams (UNS and RNS, respectively). The two technologies include the addition of zeolite (with and without the addition of water as a processing aid) and cementation. Surrogates were developed to evaluate both the solid and liquid fractions expected from parent waste containers, and both the solid and liquid fractions were tested. Both technologies are shown to be effective at eliminating the characteristic of ignitability (D001), and the addition of zeolite was determined to be effective at eliminating corrosivity (D002), with the preferred option1 of zeolite addition currently planned for implementation at the Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility. During the course of this work, we established the need to evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed remedy for debris material, if required. The evaluation determined that Wypalls absorbed with saturated nitrate salt solutions exhibit the ignitability characteristic (all other expected debris is not classified as ignitable). Follow-on studies will be developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of stabilization for ignitable Wypall debris. Finally, liquid surrogates containing saturated nitrate salts did not exhibit the characteristic of ignitability in their pure form (those neutralized with Kolorsafe and mixed with sWheat did exhibit D001). As a result, additional nitrate salt solutions (those exhibiting the oxidizer characteristic) will be tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of the remedy.

  18. Fuels Processing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...

  19. Photovoltaic Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST's PV characterization laboratory is used to measure the electrical performance and opto-electronic properties of solar cells and modules. This facility consists...

  20. Embedded Processor Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Embedded Processor Laboratory provides the means to design, develop, fabricate, and test embedded computers for missile guidance electronics systems in support...

  1. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  2. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  3. Geospatial Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: To process, store, and disseminate geospatial data to the Department of Defense and other Federal agencies. DESCRIPTION: The Geospatial Services Laboratory...

  4. Neural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and The Institute for System Research, the Neural Systems Laboratory studies the functionality of the...

  5. Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, researchers study how chemical looping combustion (CLC) can be applied to fossil energy systems....

  6. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  7. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...

  8. Laboratory of Chemical Physics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Current research in the Laboratory of Chemical Physics is primarily concerned with experimental, theoretical, and computational problems in the structure, dynamics,...

  9. Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...

  10. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts basic and applied human research studies to characterize cognitive performance as influenced by militarily-relevant contextual and physical...

  11. Acoustic Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains an electro-magnetic worldwide data collection and field measurement capability in the area of acoustic technology. Outfitted by NASA Langley...

  12. Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory is used to design and integrate computer hardware and software and related electronic subsystems for tactical vehicles....

  13. Combustion Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 60 years, Sandia has delivered essential science and technology to resolve the nation's most challenging security issues.Sandia National Laboratories...

  15. Wind Structural Testing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides office space for industry researchers, experimental laboratories, computer facilities for analytical work, and space for assembling components...

  16. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems. DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  17. Central Laboratories Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....

  18. Wireless Emulation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Wireless Emulation Laboratory (WEL) is a researchtest bed used to investigate fundamental issues in networkscience. It is a research infrastructure that emulates...

  19. Space Weather Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  20. Composites Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose of the Composites Characterization Laboratory is to investigate new and/or modified matrix materials and fibers for advanced composite applications both...

  1. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems.DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  2. Engineered Natural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With its pressure vessels that simulate the pressures and temperatures found deep underground, NETL’s Engineered Natural Systems Laboratory in Pittsburgh, PA, gives...

  3. Virtual Training Devices Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Training Devices (VTD) Laboratory at the Life Cycle Software Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, provides a software testing and support environment...

  4. Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory at the University of Maryland provides the state of the art facilities for realizing next generation products and educating the...

  5. Intelligent Optics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...

  6. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  7. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...

  8. FOOD SAFETY TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory develops screening assays, tests and modifies biosensor equipment, and optimizes food safety testing protocols for the military and civilian sector...

  9. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  10. Treatment of waste water with active virus in bio-safety laboratories%生物安全实验室活毒废水处理工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冠军; 严春炎; 武国梁; 陈咏

    2013-01-01

    目的 在借鉴吸收国外生物安全实验室(BSL)活毒废水处理工艺技术的基础上,结合我国国情,研究开发节能、环保、安全型成套处理技术工艺和设备,实现关键技术和产品国产化.方法 处理系统采用序批式工艺,通过高温高压方式消毒灭菌.结果该处理工艺的技术指标:灭菌温度100~150℃(可调),加热时间≤30 min,灭菌时间30~120 min(可调);处理后排放指标:活微生物为0,温度≤40℃,pH=6~9.结论 该处理工艺整体设计简便灵活,符合BSL设计越简单越安全的理念,适合我国国情,可用于生物安全三级、四级实验室(BSL-3,-4)活毒废水处理.%Objective To develop a whole set of energy-conserving, environmentally friendly and safe technology in order to localize key techniques and products by learning from the foreign technologies for handling waste water with active virus in bio-safety laboratories. Methods This treatment system adopted the sequencing batch technology and was sterilized through high temperature and high pressure. Results The technical requirement of treatment was a sterilization temperature of 100-1501 ( adjustable ), heating time ≤30 min, and sterilization time 30-120 min ( adjustable ). The effluent index after treatment was: no microbe, temperature ≤40℃ , and pH = 6 -9. Conclusion The design of the treatment technology is simple, user-friendly,flexible, and in line with the bio-safety laboratory( BSL ) design concept that the simpler, the safer. It also conforms to the situation in China and can be applied to handling waste water with active virus in the level three or four national BSL( BSL-3 ,-4 ).

  11. The treatment of invasive fungal infection in intension care unit%重症患者合并真菌感染的治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉坤; 陈军; 詹英

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察棘白菌素类抗真菌药物卡泊芬净治疗重症患者的侵袭性真菌感染(IFI)的疗效.方法:回顾性分析2008年1月~2010年8月我科接受卡泊芬净治疗的32例重症患者.32例患者中确诊IFI 10例(白色念珠菌感染6例,热带念珠菌感染3例,近平滑念珠菌1例);临床诊断IF12例(白色念珠菌7例,热带念珠菌2例,光滑念珠菌2例,曲霉菌1例);疑似IFI 10例,病原菌不确定.结果:32例患者中,痊愈9例,显效14例,进步5例,无效4例,死亡3例.结论:卡泊芬净是治疗危重患者侵袭性真菌感染有效且相对安全的药物.%Objective: To explore the efficacy of caspofungin in the invasive fungal infection (IFT) in intensive care unit.Methods: From January 2008 to August 2010, 32 patients of IFI were treated by caspofungin. 10 cases were proven (6 albicans. 3 tropicalis, 1 parapsilosis). 12 cases were probable (7 albicans, 2 tropicalis, 2 glabrata, 1 aspergillus species) and 10 cases were possible. Results: 9 cases were cured, 14 cases were markedly improved, 5 cases were improved and 4 cases were failed, 3 cases were died. Conclusion: Caspofungin is effective and safe in the treatment of invasive fungal infection of intensive care unit.

  12. Treatment and Recycling of Laboratory Chemical Waste in Universities%高校化学实验室废物处理与循环利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 张丽娟; 曹魁; 徐冰

    2012-01-01

    高等学校基础化学实验一般包括大学化学实验、无机化学实验、分析化学实验、有机化学实验以及物理化学实验等。由于实验属性的不同,实验过程中产生的废物(废气、废液、废渣)也不同,需要废物处理及循环利用的手段、途径也各有差异。经过处理可减少污染来源,而进行循环利用可以节约、弥补实验经费的不足,提高经济效益。另外,进行废物处理与循环利用,可强化学生的环境保护意识,培养学生良好的实验习惯和实验操作能力。%The basic chemical experiments in universities generally include university chemistry experiment, inorganic chem- istry experiment, analytical chemistry experiment, organic chemistry experiment and physical chemistry experiment. The waste materials( including waste gas, waste water and waste solid)generated during the experimental process are different due to varying experimental properties. Therefore, the methods for waste disposal and recycling are different. Harmless treatment can reduce pol- lution sources and recycling can save funds and improve the economic benefits. In addition, the waste disposal and recycling can strengthen consciousness of environmental protection and form good experimental habits and experimental abilities of students.

  13. Identification of pre- and post-treatment markers, clinical, and laboratory parameters associated with outcome in renal cancer patients treated with MVA-5T4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eAmato

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent approvals of immunotherapeutic agents (Sipuleucel-T and Ipilimumab for the treatment of different solid tumors gave a boost to the growing cancer immunotherapy field, even though few immunotherapy studies have demonstrated convincingly that there is a direct link between the predicted mode of action of an immunological compound and therapeutic benefit. MVA-5T4 (Trovax® is a novel vaccine combining the tumor-associated antigen 5T4 to an engineered vector-modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA. MVA helps to express the oncofetal 5T4 antigen and subsequently trigger a tumor-directed immune reaction. The safety and clinical benefit reported in multiple phase I and II clinical trials using MVA-5T4 were encouraging; immune responses were induced in almost all treated patients, and associations between 5T4-specific cellular or humoral responses and clinical benefit were reported in most of the nine phase II trials. In particular, clinical studies conducted in renal cell carcinoma (RCC patients have demonstrated an association between 5T4-specific (but not MVA antibody responses and enhanced survival. This review describes the clinical studies using MVA-5T4 conducted in RCC that convincingly demonstrated that an antigen-specific immune response induced by vaccination is associated with enhanced patient survival and is not simply a function of the general health of patients. We will also provide our expert opinions on possible future better-designed clinical trials based on relevant biomarkers. In addition, various combinations of MVA-5T4 and different and newer immunomodulator agents with promising clinical benefit will be discussed.

  14. Inhibitory Effects of Bio-Energy Therapies on Cancer Growth——An overview of recent laboratory studies in the U.S. And its implications in cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin W. Chen

    2008-01-01

    Bioenergy therapies (such as Qigong, Reiki, Yoga, Pranic healing, and Therapeutic touch) have reported benefits for cancer patients, but few randomized control trials were done to verify their efficacy. It is believed that laboratory study of inhibitory effects of bio-energy therapies on cancer growth may lead to an understanding of the true efficacy of bio-energy and create a foundation for future clinical trials. Methods: Typical in-vitro study involved randomly dividing lab-prepared cancer cells into different groups with one being treated by bio-energy therapy and one or more as control groups. Sometimes, controls were treated by a sham healer. Typical in vivo study involved injecting or implanting cancerous cells into mice, then randomly dividing them into various groups. The control could be either non-treatment or sham treatment; the outcomes include tumor size or survival time. Results: Most studies demonstrated some inhibitory effects of bioenergy therapies on the growth of cancer cells in comparison with control. The in vivo studies reported that the bio-energy treated group had significantly slower tumor growth or longer survival lives than those in the control. One study reported survival with a normal life cycle instead of dying in 3 weeks, and cancer-infected mice developed immune response to the same breast cancer. However, researchers are confronted with methodological challenges in choosing appropriate controis, minimizing contamination, and replicating study outcomes. Conclusion: Encouraging evidence suggests hioenergy may have inhibitory effects on cancer growth, or prolong the life of cancer-infected animals, although improvement is needed in research design and replication of the findings. Bioenergy for cancer treatment is an area that is often neglected by mainstream medicine and research,and it should be seriously examined and considered as an important supplement to conventional cancer treatment.

  15. Laboratory Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricks, Walter H

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists.

  16. Clinical and economic analysis of voriconazole using for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Ignatieva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Based on clinical studies data voriconazole is recommended as the drug of choice for treatment of invasive aspergillosis (IA – a widespread infectious complications occurring in immunocompromised patients and is characterized by severe clinical course and high mortality.The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of voriconazole compared to other preparations recommended in the Russian practice for the treatment of IA in adult patients.Materials and methods. The authors constructed a «decision tree» type of model, which compared the three treatment alternatives for the IA in adult patients, depending on the drug in first-line therapy: 1 voriconazole, 2, caspofungin, or 3 amphotericin B lipid complex (LC. Efficacy was assessed as the probability of patient survival within 14 weeks of starting treatment. We took into account the drugs cost and an increase in the hospitalization duration due to the development of serious adverse events. The model parameters were determined on the basis of the published results of clinical studies, the costs were calculated on the basis of medicines prices in the public procurement and the average bed-day cost in system of obligatory health insurance. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed.Results. It has been shown that the use of voriconazole for treatment of IA is the dominant strategy compared to the use of caspofungin and amphotericin B LC, providing cost reduction while achieving maximum effect. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (1000 simulations showed stability of the revealed pattern.Conclusion. The use of voriconazole in the treatment of IA allows to save the greatest number of lives at minimal cost compared to other preparations recommended in the Russian practice.

  17. Clinical and economic analysis of voriconazole using for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Ignatieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Based on clinical studies data voriconazole is recommended as the drug of choice for treatment of invasive aspergillosis (IA – a widespread infectious complications occurring in immunocompromised patients and is characterized by severe clinical course and high mortality.The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of voriconazole compared to other preparations recommended in the Russian practice for the treatment of IA in adult patients.Materials and methods. The authors constructed a «decision tree» type of model, which compared the three treatment alternatives for the IA in adult patients, depending on the drug in first-line therapy: 1 voriconazole, 2, caspofungin, or 3 amphotericin B lipid complex (LC. Efficacy was assessed as the probability of patient survival within 14 weeks of starting treatment. We took into account the drugs cost and an increase in the hospitalization duration due to the development of serious adverse events. The model parameters were determined on the basis of the published results of clinical studies, the costs were calculated on the basis of medicines prices in the public procurement and the average bed-day cost in system of obligatory health insurance. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed.Results. It has been shown that the use of voriconazole for treatment of IA is the dominant strategy compared to the use of caspofungin and amphotericin B LC, providing cost reduction while achieving maximum effect. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (1000 simulations showed stability of the revealed pattern.Conclusion. The use of voriconazole in the treatment of IA allows to save the greatest number of lives at minimal cost compared to other preparations recommended in the Russian practice.

  18. Energy Materials Research Laboratory (EMRL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energy Materials Research Laboratory at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) creates a cross-disciplinary laboratory facility that lends itself to the...

  19. 非HIV感染肺孢子菌肺炎患者临床特点及诊治分析%Analysis of Clinical Features,Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumocystis Pneumonia in the Non-HIV-infected Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲丹; 马跃; 徐小嫚; 李钰

    2014-01-01

    目的:提高对非HIV感染肺孢子菌肺炎( PCP)患者的诊断和认识。方法对2011-2013年我院确诊的24例非HIV感染PCP患者的临床表现、实验室检查、CT影像特点、治疗及转归等临床资料进行总结及讨论。结果发热和呼吸困难为首发症状。病情进展迅速,所有患者存在Ⅰ型呼吸衰竭。胸部CT主要表现为弥漫性磨玻璃影。痰或支气管肺泡灌洗液姬姆萨染色肺孢子菌或肺孢子菌PCR阳性确诊。21例患者应用复方磺胺甲口恶唑( SMZco)治疗,3例患者因SMZco严重过敏或初用SMZco发生不良反应而应用卡泊芬净治疗,所有患者治愈。结论 PCP是应用免疫抑制剂患者易患的机会性感染,通过痰或支气管肺泡灌洗液PCR检测阳性或涂片姬姆萨染色查到肺孢子菌而确诊,临床应注意与其他肺炎鉴别。PCP治疗首选SMZco,当对SMZco过敏或发生不良反应时可改用卡泊芬净治疗。%Objective To improve diagnostic level and awareness of pneumocystis pneumonia( PCP)in the non-HIV-infected patients. Methods The clinical data( including manifestation,laboratory examination,CT imaging features, treatment and prognosis)of twenty-four non-HIV-infected patients with PCP who were diagnosed in our hospital from 2011 to 2013,was summarized and discussed. Results Fever and dyspnea were the first symptoms,the development of PCP was rap-id. All the patients had type Ⅰrespiratory failure. The chest CT characteristics indicated diffuse ground -glass appearance. The phlegm or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was stained by Giemsa stain method,if pneumocystis could be found,or PCR result of phlegm or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was positive for pneumocystis,PCP could be diagnosed. Twenty-one cases were treated with SMZco,the others were highly allergic to SMZco,or adverse reactions occurred,so they were treated with caspofungin,all the patients were cured. Conclusion PCP is a kind of common

  20. Quality Control in Laboratory Hemostasis and Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立红; 刘泽霖

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introdution Laboratory diagnosis in medical practice,the position has been established,hernostasis and thrombosis.expefimental testing is no different.Experimental test of information not only for early diagnosis and guide treatment,prognosis and estimated recurrence.

  1. Desfecho do tratamento e confirmação laboratorial do diagnóstico de tuberculose em pacientes com HIV/AIDS no Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil Treatment outcome and laboratory confirmation of tuberculosis diagnosis in patients with HIV/AIDS in Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Maruza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a freqüência de desfecho desfavorável (óbito, abandono e falência de tratamento entre pacientes com co-infecção tuberculose (TB/HIV submetidos a tratamento para TB com confirmação etiológica do diagnóstico e pacientes co-infectados com TB/HIV e tratados sem confirmação diagnóstica. MÉTODOS: Coorte retrospectivo de pacientes co-infectados com TB/HIV que iniciaram tratamento para TB entre julho de 2002 e junho de 2004, em um serviço de referência para HIV/AIDS no Recife (PE Brasil. A exposição principal, confirmação laboratorial da TB, foi ajustada pelas variáveis de três blocos: variáveis sócio-demográficas; variáveis relacionadas ao HIV/AIDS; e variáveis relacionadas à TB. Para avaliar a significância estatística dos resultados, utilizaram-se o intervalo de confiança de 95% das odds ratios e o valor de p (teste de qui-quadrado e razão de verossimilhança. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 262 pacientes. Não se observou associação entre confirmação laboratorial do diagnóstico de TB e desfecho desfavorável, mesmo após o ajuste pelos fatores de confusão. Permaneceram no modelo final da regressão logística múltipla: coexistência de outras doenças oportunistas; contagem de linfócitos CD4 abaixo de 50 células/mm³; carga viral entre 10.000 e 100.000 cópias/mL; dispnéia; forma disseminada de TB; e mudança do tratamento da TB por reação adversa ou intolerância. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados sugerem que o tratamento para TB sem confirmação etiológica, em pacientes co-infectados, baseado na decisão de profissionais experientes em serviços de referência, não aumentou o risco de desfecho desfavorável do tratamento para TB. Além disso, identificaram-se grupos com maior risco de desfecho desfavorável, os quais devem ser cuidadosamente monitorados.OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of unfavorable outcome (death or default and treatment failure between tuberculosis (TB/HIV co

  2. 卡泊芬净治疗儿童血液病化疗或移植过程中真菌感染35例临床分析%Clinical analysis 35 cases of caspofungin therapy in fungal infection of pediatric hematological patients accepting chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林少汾; 薛红漫; 徐宏贵; 黎阳; 陈纯

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of caspofungin therapy in fungal infection of pediatric hematological patients accepting chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.MethodsFrom April 2010 to March 2013,there were thirty-five pediatric hematological patients with fungal infection,they were treated with caspofungin in first dose of 70 mg/(m2 ·d ),and followed by maintenance dose of 50 mg/(m2 ·d ),of which the clinical efficacy and side effects were analyzed retrospectively.Results The overall clinical efficacy rate of caspofungin was 7 1% and the incidence of side effects was 3%. The side effect was hepatic dysfunction, which is reversible. Conclusions Caspofungin therapy provides high efficacy and safety in these thirty-five pediatric patients.It may be a good choice as a therapy in fungal infection for the pediatric hematological patients accepting chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.%目的:评估卡泊芬净治疗儿童血液病化疗或造血干细胞移植(HSCT)过程中真菌感染的疗效和安全性。方法2010年4月-2013年3月我科35例血液病患儿化疗或HSCT过程中出现真菌感染,予卡泊芬净治疗,第1天予单次负荷剂量70 mg/(m2·d)(实际剂量不超过70 mg/d),随后维持剂量50 mg/(m2·d)(实际剂量不超过70 mg/d),回顾性分析其疗效和安全性。结果卡泊芬净治疗35例儿童血液病化疗或HSCT过程真菌感染总有效率为71%(25/35),毒副作用发生率为3%(1/35)。其毒副作用表现为可逆性肝功能损害,停药后好转。结论卡泊芬净有效率高,安全性好,可以作为儿童血液病化疗或HSCT过程中真菌感染治疗的选择。

  3. Product Evaluation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory offers the services of highly trained and experienced specialists that have a full complement of measuring equipment. It is equipped with two optical...

  4. Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...

  5. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to...

  6. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to a...

  7. Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Lab has a proud history and heritage of almost 70 years of science and innovation. The people at the Laboratory work on advanced technologies to provide the best...

  8. FLEXIBLE FOOD PACKAGING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment to fabricate and test prototype packages of many types and sizes (e.g., bags, pouches, trays, cartons, etc.). This equipment can...

  9. Mechanical Testing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Mechanical Testing Laboratory in Albany, OR, helps researchers investigate materials that can withstand the heat and pressure commonly found in fossil energy...

  10. Philadelphia District Laboratory (PHI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program Capabilities PHI-DO Pharmaceutical Laboratory specializes in the analyses of all forms and types of drug products.Its work involves nearly all phases of drug...

  11. Geometric Design Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Geometric Design Laboratory (GDL) is to support the Office of Safety Research and Development in research related to the geometric design...

  12. Space Systems Laboratory (SSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) is part of the Aerospace Engineering Department and A. James Clark School of Engineering at the University of Maryland in College...

  13. Detroit District Laboratory (DET)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesDET-DO Laboratory is equipped with the usual instrumentation necessary to perform a wide range of analyses of food, drugs and cosmetics. Program...

  14. Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Outpatient clinical laboratory services are paid based on a fee schedule in accordance with Section 1833(h) of the Social Security Act. The clinical laboratory fee...

  15. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  16. Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)�is a scientific facility funded by DOE to create and implement innovative processes for environmental clean-up and...

  17. Detroit District Laboratory (DET)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program Capabilities DET-DO Laboratory is equipped with the usual instrumentation necessary to perform a wide range of analyses of food, drugs and cosmetics. Program...

  18. High Bay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory is a specially constructed facility with elevated (37 feet) ceilings and an overhead catwalk, and which is dedicated to research efforts in reducing...

  19. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  20. Human Factors Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  1. Geological Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers use computed tomography (CT) scanners at NETL’s Geological Services Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, to peer into geologic core samples to determine how...

  2. Philadelphia District Laboratory (PHI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesPHI-DO Pharmaceutical Laboratory specializes in the analyses of all forms and types of drug products.Its work involves nearly all phases of drug...

  3. Protective Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory is a 40 by 28 by 9 foot facility that is equipped with tools for the development of various items of control technology related to the transmission...

  4. Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is an astronaut training facility and neutral buoyancy pool operated by NASA and located at the Sonny Carter Training Facility,...

  5. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  6. Energetics Laboratory Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These energetic materials laboratories are equipped with explosion proof hoods with blow out walls for added safety, that are certified for safe handling of primary...

  7. Moriah Wind System Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Moriah Wind System Laboratory provides in-service support for the more than 50 U.S. Navy, U.S. Coast Guard and Military Sealift Command ships on which...

  8. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C.; Pearce, J.; Zucker, A. (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents brief descriptions of the following programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: The effects of pollution and climate change on forests; automation to improve the safety and efficiency of rearming battle tanks; new technologies for DNA sequencing; ORNL probes the human genome; ORNL as a supercomputer research center; paving the way to superconcrete made with polystyrene; a new look at supercritical water used in waste treatment; and small mammals as environmental monitors.

  9. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Volume 1: Report of Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G; Daniels, J; Wegrecki, A

    2006-04-24

    This document contains the human health and ecological risk assessment for the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF). Volume 1 is the text of the risk assessment, and Volume 2 (provided on a compact disc) is the supporting modeling data. The EWTF is operated by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Site 300, which is located in the foothills between the cities of Livermore and Tracy, approximately 17 miles east of Livermore and 8 miles southwest of Tracy. Figure 1 is a map of the San Francisco Bay Area, showing the location of Site 300 and other points of reference. One of the principal activities of Site 300 is to test what are known as ''high explosives'' for nuclear weapons. These are the highly energetic materials that provide the force to drive fissionable material to criticality. LLNL scientists develop and test the explosives and the integrated non-nuclear components in support of the United States nuclear stockpile stewardship program as well as in support of conventional weapons and the aircraft, mining, oil exploration, and construction industries. Many Site 300 facilities are used in support of high explosives research. Some facilities are used in the chemical formulation of explosives; others are locations where explosive charges are mechanically pressed; others are locations where the materials are inspected radiographically for such defects as cracks and voids. Finally, some facilities are locations where the machined charges are assembled before they are sent to the on-site test firing facilities, and additional facilities are locations where materials are stored. Wastes generated from high-explosives research are treated by open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD). OB and OD treatments are necessary because they are the safest methods for treating explosives wastes generated at these facilities, and they eliminate the requirement for

  10. Laboratory medicine in the new healthcare environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Simona; Braga, Federica; Panteghini, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    The 21st century challenge is to redesign healthcare systems to be safe, efficient, effective, timely, equitable and patient-centred. Although laboratory medicine is integral to many of these objectives involving prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and managing disease of patients, it suffers from poor visibility as a medical discipline and as a profession and fewer rewards for educational efforts when compared to other medical disciplines. Laboratory scientists are often perceived as managing machinery and equipment, but conversely they need to take a position of shared clinical leadership, showing the role of laboratory tests to guarantee optimal care for patients. This is however challenging because of some reluctance by laboratory professionals to involve themselves in test structuring and requesting and in the inspection of work as it arrives because it is assumed that all requests are clinically necessary; there is a poor communication and integration between clinical wards and laboratory; and, importantly, there is the need for an excellent cultural and scientific background of laboratory professionals for implementing outcome research and to act as knowledge managers and skilled clinical consultants. By combining the unique talent of performing quality laboratory assays with knowledge of the pathophysiologic rationale behind the tests, laboratory professionals have the expertise to advise their clinical colleagues in regard to the appropriate test selection and interpretation of laboratory results, thereby creating opportunities to define the added value and the pivotal role of laboratory medicine on healthcare delivery.

  11. Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment of the Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste Collection and Transfer System Upgrade for Building 3544 (Process Waste Treatment Plant) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This document describes and assesses planned modifications to be made to the Building 3544 Process Waste Treatment Plant of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The modifications are made in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) relating to environmental protection requirements for tank systems. The modifications include the provision of a new double contained LLW line replacing an existing buried line that does not provide double containment. This new above ground, double contained pipeline is provided to permit discharge of treated process waste fluid to an outside truck loading station. The new double contained discharge line is provided with leak detection and provisions to remove accumulated liquid. An existing LLW transfer pump, concentrated waste tank, piping and accessories are being utilized, with the addition of a secondary containment system comprised of a dike, a chemically resistant internal coating on the diked area surfaces and operator surveillance on a daily basis for the diked area leak detection. This assessment concludes that the planned modifications comply with applicable requirements of Federal Facility Agreement, Docket No. 89-04-FF, covering the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  12. Characterizing the Laboratory Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehabi, Arman; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; DeMates, Lauren; Mathew, Paul; Sartor, Dale

    2017-04-11

    Laboratories are estimated to be 3-5 times more energy intensive than typical office buildings and offer significant opportunities for energy use reductions. Although energy intensity varies widely, laboratories are generally energy intensive due to ventilation requirements, the research instruments used, and other health and safety concerns. Because the requirements of laboratory facilities differ so dramatically from those of other buildings, a clear need exists for an initiative exclusively targeting these facilities. The building stock of laboratories in the United States span different economic sectors, include governmental and academic institution, and are often defined differently by different groups. Information on laboratory buildings is often limited to a small subsection of the total building stock making aggregate estimates of the total U.S. laboratories and their energy use challenging. Previous estimates of U.S. laboratory space vary widely owing to differences in how laboratories are defined and categorized. A 2006 report on fume hoods provided an estimate of 150,000 laboratories populating the U.S. based in part on interviews of industry experts, however, a 2009 analysis of the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) generated an estimate of only 9,000 laboratory buildings. This report draws on multiple data sources that have been evaluated to construct an understanding of U.S. laboratories across different sizes and markets segments. This 2016 analysis is an update to draft reports released in October and December 2016.

  13. Personalized laboratory medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzagli, M.; Malentacchi, F.; Mancini, I.

    2015-01-01

    Developments in "omics" are creating a paradigm shift in Laboratory Medicine leading to Personalised Medicine. This allows the increasing in diagnostics and therapeutics focused on individuals rather than populations. In order to investigate whether Laboratory Medicine is able to implement new...... diagnostic tools and expertise and commands proper state-of-the-art knowledge about Personalized Medicine and Laboratory Medicine in Europe, the joint Working Group "Personalized Laboratory Medicine" of the EFLM and ESPT societies compiled and conducted the Questionnaire "Is Laboratory Medicine ready...... for the era of Personalized Medicine?". 48 laboratories from 18 European countries participated at this survey. The answers of the participating Laboratory Medicine professionals indicate that they are aware that Personalized Medicine can represent a new and promising health model. Whereas they are aware...

  14. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Volume 1: Report of Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G M; Daniels, J I; Wegrecki, A M

    2005-11-07

    Human health and ecological risk assessments are required as part of the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal process for waste treatment units. This risk assessment is prepared in support of the RCRA permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The human health risk assessment is based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency approved emissions factors and on California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk assessment and air dispersion models. The risk assessment identifies receptors of concern and evaluates carcinogenic risk, and acute and chronic noncarcinogenic hazard. The carcinogenic risk to a 30-year resident at the maximum offsite receptor location is 0.0000006 or 0.6 in one million. The carcinogenic risk to a 25-year worker at the maximum bystander on-site receptor location is also 0.0000006 or 0.6 in one million. Any risk of less than 1 in a million is below the level of regulatory concern. The acute noncarcinogenic hazard for the 30-year resident is 0.02 and the chronic noncarcinogenic hazard is 0.01. The acute noncarcinogenic hazard for the 25-year worker is 0.3 and the chronic noncarcinogenic hazard is 0.2. The point of comparison for acute and chronic noncarcinogenic hazard is 1.0, an estimate less than 1.0 is below the level of regulatory concern. The estimates of health effects are based on health conservative assumptions and represent an upper bound of the possible exposures to the receptors. For the ecological risk assessment, four receptor species were evaluated for potential detrimental effects; none were found to be adversely affected because for each species the predicted ecological hazard quotients are always less than one. Based on these results, emissions from the operations of the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility should not be considered to be of concern for human health or

  15. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  16. Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory (HFIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory is used to develop advanced, flexible, thin film gauge instrumentation for the Air Force Research Laboratory....

  17. Enhanced effect of the combination of aminobutyric acid with caspofungin against biofilm formation of Candida albicans%氨基丁酸联合卡泊芬净抗白色假丝酵母菌生物被膜协同作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘懿萱; 叶春林

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨氨基丁酸联合卡泊芬净抗白色假丝酵母菌生物被膜的协同作用。方法利用白色假丝酵母菌标准菌株SC5314,采用生物被膜形成实验,分为空白对照组、氨基丁酸单用组、卡泊芬净单用组、氨基丁酸联合卡泊芬净组,对比各组生物被膜形成情况。采用XT T还原法测定氨基丁酸、卡泊芬净单用以及氨基丁酸联合卡泊芬净对成熟生物被膜细胞代谢活性的抑制作用。采用YNB培养基菌丝形成实验,考察氨基丁酸与卡泊芬净合用是否具有协同抑制菌丝形成的作用。结果卡泊芬净0.1μg · mL -1联合氨基丁酸0.1μmol · L -1对白色假丝酵母菌SC5314生物被膜的形成具有显著的抑制作用。此外,XT T还原法测定氨基丁酸6.25μmol · L -1联合卡泊芬净0.1μg · mL -1时降低被膜细胞代谢活性的效率能够达到约15%。采用YNB培养基形成菌丝,氨基丁酸6.25μmol · L -1联合卡泊芬净0.1μg · mL -1对白色假丝酵母菌SC5314菌丝形成能力有显著的抑制作用。结论氨基丁酸联合卡泊芬净表现出显著的体外协同抗白色假丝酵母菌标准菌株SC5314生物被膜作用。%Objective To investigate the enhanced effect of aminobutyric acid (GABA) combined with caspofungin on biofilm forma‐tion of Candida albicans .Methods Standard stains of Candida albicans SC5314 were used in this study .The group of caspofun‐gin with GABA comparing with the group of GABA or caspofungin alone were evaluated by observing the prevention of biofilm formation .Candida albicans SC5314 were cultured in YNB medium to induce the formation of hyphae and the metabolic activity was determined by XTT reduction assay .Results The group of caspofungin (0 .1μg · mL -1 ) showed no inhibition against biofilm formation of Candida albicans ,but caspofungin (0 .1 μg · mL -1 ) with GABA (0 .1 μmol · L -1 ) showed apparent inhibition a

  18. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This lab supports cognitive research using rodent models. Capabilities for behavioral assessments include: Morris water maze and Barnes maze (spatial memory) elevate...

  19. Free Surface Hydrodynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Investigates processes and interactions at the air-sea interface, and compares measurements to numerical simulations and field data. Typical phenomena of...

  20. Laboratory for Structural Acoustics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where acoustic radiation, scattering, and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures are...