WorldWideScience

Sample records for cash crop farms

  1. IFCN Cash Crop: Benchmarking Farms Globally Oilseed Production Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Plessmann, Frank; Ebmeyer, Christian; Goerg, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Vegetable oil production has become one of the fastest expanding cash crop sectors in the last 50 years and it is still increasing rapidly. However the regions of expansion, the sources of plant oil and their importance vary over time. To shed light on this development it is necessary to look at the farm level production systems and their production costs for a variety of countries and oilseeds. In this paper we present the first results of the IFCN Cash Crop Network covering the internationa...

  2. Effects of Farm Type and Different Intensities of Soil Tillage on Cash Crop Yields and Soil Organic Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Franz; Brock, Christopher; Leithold, Günter

    2008-01-01

    An organic long-term field experiment has been carried out at the experimental station Gladbacherhof (Giessen University, Germany) since 1998 to survey the performance of agronomical, economical and ecological indicators dependant on farm type and tillage intensity. This article presents results on cash crop yields and changes in humus contents in the first two rotations of the experiment. It can be concluded that organic stockless farming without ley affects cash crop yields and demands spec...

  3. Energy self-reliance, net-energy production and GHG emissions in Danish organic cash crop farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Niels; Dalgaard, Randi; Olesen, Jørgen E;

    2008-01-01

    -energy production were modeled. Growing rapeseed on 10% of the land could produce bio-diesel to replace 50-60% of the tractor diesel used on the farm. Increasing grass-clover area to 20% of the land and using half of this yield for biogas production could change the cash crop farm to a net energy producer...

  4. A Strategic Approach to the Implementation of Precision Agriculture Principles in Cash Crop Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Maine, Ntsikane; Nell, Wilhelm T.

    2005-01-01

    Precision agriculture is one of the important agricultural technologies that can assist farmers and managers in promoting long-term success. Precision agriculture can help farm managers increase their management capacity, which is of utmost importance in the highly competitive modern agriculture. Increased yields and/or efficient input use can also be achieved with precision agriculture. Precision agriculture also involve a large capital outlay and requires skills in interpreting the masses o...

  5. Impact of Crop Insurance Indemnity Payments on Cash Rents and Land Values

    OpenAIRE

    Langemeier, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the impact of a yield protection crop insurance product on cash rents and land values for a representative Indiana farm. The net return to land and management for scenarios that included and excluded crop insurance were very similar. Predicted cash rents and land values were not impacted by crop insurance indemnity payments.

  6. Changing from subsistence to cash cropping. Sakaramma's story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamma, G

    1993-10-01

    In India, conversion of land to cash-crop rather than subsistence production has effected the standard of living of rural women. Food security, which used to be attained by supplementing home-grown produce with income from agricultural labor, is now achieved with funds raised by selling cash crops. The quality of food purchased is often inferior to that formerly raised on homesteads. Greater quantities of a wider variety of food were consumed under the old system, and the quality of the food was assured. Cash is now a daily necessity, yet the supply of cash depends upon fluctuating markets beyond local control. Cash income can increase without any increase in real income, and purchases of necessary fertilizers are financed by loans with high rates of interest. Women have no control over how the increased income from cash is spent, and it is often dedicated to debt clearance, alcohol, and household items rather than food. In the past, women agricultural workers were paid in kind and received the same compensation that men received. When payments were converted to cash, women received less. Women's work has increased because they must gather fuel and fodder for the cattle after working in their own and others' fields. Formerly these raw materials were readily available from the residue of traditional crops. It is clear that traditional farming is more advantageous for small farmers than cash-cropping, but more and more small farmers are yielding to government propaganda and adopting the new system. Women are never consulted about such a switch, yet they suffer most from the loss of the flow of their nonmonetary resources into their households. PMID:12320725

  7. The Farm Level Economic Impacts of Increased Cash Lease Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Raulston, J. Marc; Knapek, George M.; Richardson, James W.; Outlaw, Joe L.; Anderson, David P.

    2008-01-01

    Higher commodity price expectations have led to increases in cash lease rates nationwide. This study evaluates the farm level impacts of higher cash lease rates. Current levels of cash rents along with land tenure arrangements of specific farms are instrumental in determining the impacts of increases in lease rates.

  8. The nutrition and health impact of cash cropping in west Africa: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, T A

    1991-01-01

    The impact of cash cropping in West Africa cannot be isolated from its social and historical background. Among the many changes brought to West African economies by cash cropping since the beginning of the century, the present document shows how the extension of trade with European merchants and colonizers created new sets of values and criteria for wealth. Food crops gradually lost their prominent cultural and economics roles to the benefit of export crops or goods. Traditional systems of agricultural production were profoundly disrupted by military actions. They imposed colonial rule and control of trade of tropical crops and goods. Forced labor and compulsory (poorly paid) work assignments were instituted for private and public enterprises: construction of roads, railways, public buildings and plantations. The main justification was the need for cheap labor to cultivate, transport and build roads for the extraction of raw materials. This in turn caused massive migrations from countries such as Burkina Faso (Upper Volta) to Ivory Coast. Cash cropping made systematic collection of taxes possible. An imposition on a per capita basis became the rule and the major incentive of small farmers to engage in commercial farming. Cash cropping made also possible extensive monetarization of West Africa. This results in both favorable and unfavorable effects on the quality of the diet. In profoundly disrupted traditional societies, the diffusion of new consumption patterns was easier and faster. It led to massive food imports of wheat, rice, sugar, alcohol, etc. Cash cropping was (and still is) practiced as a 'mining' agriculture, exhausting soils and deteriorating their fertility for extended periods of time. In the Sudanian and Sahelian zones cash cropping conflicted with the cultivation of grains because peak demands for labor were similar. Therefore, millet and sorghum production declined. Cash cropping was developed in response to the need of European economies for

  9. Rush for cash crops and forest protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone; Broegaard, Rikke Brandt; Mertz, Ole;

    2016-01-01

    In many countries with large tracts of tropical forests, there is a dual focus on enhancing forest protection and increasing commercial agriculture for economic development. Laos is a case in point for this development as the Government of Laos (GoL) has a strong commitment to economic growth...... Meuang District since the mid-2000s as a result of high demands for maize in Vietnam and because local authorities see the crop as a way to reduce rural poverty and reduce traditional subsistence shifting cultivation practices. Communities have increased the areas that they dedicate to maize cultivation...

  10. Crop rotation planning tool for organic farms

    OpenAIRE

    Bachinger, J.; Zander, P.

    2001-01-01

    To support the development and expansion of organic farming, more research is needed to optimise the function and practices of individual farms. Furthermore, it is important to assess the ecological effects of organic farming on a regional scale in order to show potential ad-vantages of organic farming compared to conventional farming. Both issues require model-ling of cropping methods and crop rotations. The authors present a rule-based model for the generation of site-specific and agronomic...

  11. Rubber Cash Crop and Changes in Livelihoods Strategies in a Village in Northeastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maniemai Thongyou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research article aims to explain the changes of livelihoods strategies in a village in the Northeast region of Thailand after the introduction of rubber as cash crop. Northeast region is considered a new rubber growing area of Thailand, the world’s largest rubber exporter. A village in Udornthani province was selected as a case study for a qualitative research conducted in 2012-2013. In order to get a full understanding of these changes, the research studied livelihood changes in the village over the last 62 years or since the village establishment. We have classified livelihood strategies into three periods, based on the dominant mode of production and livelihoods. The first period was the livelihoods before cash crops, in which people were involved in subsistence mode of production. The second period was marked by the introduction of cash crops and market economy into the village in the early 1960s. During this period, subsistence economy had been transformed into market oriented. Forest lands were changed into cash crop farms, so much that the natural capital lost its balance and became less dependable. The third period, starting in 2001, was the rubber period, the focus of this research. Rubber came to the northeastern region as a result of the promotion of the state. Strong research, development and extension supports that used to work well in the Southern region were applied to promote rubber growing here. However, the adoption of rubber was not without problems. People had to adjust themselves to the capitalist standardized farming practices of rubber. In addition, there was a misbalance of and unequal access to capital assets, particularly financial capital. Within the changing socio-economic context and constraining status of capital assets and access, rural households adopted integrated livelihood strategies, including 1 economic diversification or pluri-activities to reduce risks and increase income 2 maintaining rice

  12. Measuring the Impact of Cash Crops on Household Expenditure and Poverty in Rural Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Viet, Cuong

    2008-01-01

    This paper measures the impacts of cash crops on household consumption expenditure and poverty in rural Viet Nam using data from the Viet Nam household living standards surveys (VHLSSs) of 2002 and 2004. It has been found that revenues from cash crops have positive and statistically significant impacts on per capita expenditure. More specifically, an increase of 1 Viet Nam dong (VND) in rice revenues leads to an increase of 0.019 VND in per capita expenditure, and the corresponding figures fo...

  13. THE EFFECT OF AGROCLIMATIC FACTORS ON CASH CROPS PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA.

    OpenAIRE

    KAMIL AKINTUNDE

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of agroclimatic factors on the yield of cash crops in Nigeria and other variables such as producer prices, exchange rate and level of national income (GDP). The effects of total rainfall, mean temperature, sunshine hour, relative humidity, radiation, exchange rate and GDP on the yields of three cash crops (Cocoa, Palm Kernel and Palm Oil) were estimated for the period 1970-2003 in Nigeria. The methods of analysis employed in the study were mainly error-correcti...

  14. Farming with future: making crop protection sustainable

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnands, F.G.

    2011-01-01

    The project Farming with future works with parties with a vested interest to promote sustainable crop protection in practice. Besides developing new knowledge, it spends a good deal of its energy in the embedding of sustainable practices within relevant organisations, businesses and agrarian entrepreneurs in order to make these practices permanent features of their activities.

  15. Using pennycress, camelina, and canola cash crops to provision pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    As pollinator decline continues, the need to provide high value forage for insects continues to rise. Finding agricultural crops to diversify the landscape and provide forage is one way to improve pollinator health. Three winter industrial oilseed crops (pennycress, winter camelina, and winter canol...

  16. Crop biodiversity repercussions of subsidized organic farming in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Nastis, Stefanos A.; Michailidis, Anastasios; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of CAP financial assistance on crop biodiversity under uncertainty. A stochastic production function is employed and estimated to assess whether risk-averse farmers hedge risk by diversifying their portfolio of crops, thus increasing crop biodiversity. The model is applied to farm-level data of organic crop farms in Greece. Organic farming financial assistance poses a double-edged sword: even though it is considered agrobiodiversity enhancing as a cultivation me...

  17. Nitrate leaching from organic and conventional crop production farms

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, J. E.; Berntsen, J.; Petersen, B.M.; Kristensen, I. S.

    2004-01-01

    Farm accounting data from the Institute of Food Economics and from Central Agricultural Registers in Denmark were used to define the import of nitrogen (N) to farmed fields on conventional and organic arable farms to 129 and 51 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Based on the recorded distribution of crops, a generalised crop rotation was defined for each of the two farming systems. The crop rotation for the organic farm had a high share of spring cereals and additionally 20% grass-clover in the ro...

  18. Adapting precision farming principles to organic crop production

    OpenAIRE

    David, C.

    2006-01-01

    Precision farming is a discipline that aims to increase efficiency in the management of agriculture throughout new technologies. Organic crop production systems in the future need to combine satisfactory productivity with long term sustainability. The aim of this paper is to present potentials and limits using precision farming priciples in organic crop production

  19. Is there any future for cash crops in developing countries? The case of vanilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Smutka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A generally used ter m for easy mar ketable commodities usually with high prices is cash crops As a result of it these commodities are produced by many developing and especially least developed countries (LDC. These crops have witnessed fluctuation in prices during the last decade. We can suppose that these products would be the domain of developing countries nevertheless the opposite is true. Vanilla is a very good example of those products especially because just ver y few producers exist. We can suppose that vanilla trade would be the sphere of very few producers and beside that the agents would deal mostly with the demand site on the international mar ket. However, the international vanilla mar ket shows slight differences. Nevertheless, it can be grown just in very few areas. Madagascar belongs between the most well known producers. The aim of this paper is to analyse the international vanilla trade with regards to the production and consumption side and specifics of cash crops in general. International vanilla trade is even higher than the production itself. These results indicate that vanilla is being re-exported and the trade is not just a nor mal commodity trade but being use as a investment instr ument as well.

  20. Rubber Cash Crop and Changes in Livelihoods Strategies in a Village in Northeastern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Maniemai Thongyou

    2014-01-01

    This research article aims to explain the changes of livelihoods strategies in a village in the Northeast region of Thailand after the introduction of rubber as cash crop. Northeast region is considered a new rubber growing area of Thailand, the world’s largest rubber exporter. A village in Udornthani province was selected as a case study for a qualitative research conducted in 2012-2013. In order to get a full understanding of these changes, the research studied livelihood changes in the vil...

  1. Impacts of Cash Crop Production on Land Management and Land Degradation: The Case of Coffee and Cotton in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Pender, John L.; Nkonya, Ephraim M.; Kato, Edward; Kaizzi, Crammer; Ssali, Henry

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the impacts of coffee and cotton production on land management and land degradation in Uganda, based on a survey of 851 households and soil measurements in six major agro-ecological zones, using matching and multivariate regression methods. The impacts of cash crop production vary by agro-ecological zones and cropping system. In coffee producing zones, use of organic inputs is most common on plots growing coffee with other crops (mainly bananas), and least common on mono-croppe...

  2. THE EFFECT OF AGROCLIMATIC FACTORS ON CASH CROPS PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMIL AKINTUNDE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of agroclimatic factors on the yield of cash crops in Nigeria and other variables such as producer prices, exchange rate and level of national income (GDP. The effects of total rainfall, mean temperature, sunshine hour, relative humidity, radiation, exchange rate and GDP on the yields of three cash crops (Cocoa, Palm Kernel and Palm Oil were estimated for the period 1970-2003 in Nigeria. The methods of analysis employed in the study were mainly error-correction model (ECM within the context of co-integration theory. The results showed that all the variables are not stationary at their levels and thus, a need for differencing once to attain stationary. Statistical significance of the error-correction terms for the three produce validates the existence of an equilibrium relationship among the variables in each of these co-integrating vectors. However, producer price, temperature and GDP were the most significant factors influencing the yield of cocoa while only exchange rate was the most significant factors for the palm produce.

  3. Average Crop Revenue Election, Crop Insurance, and Supplemental Revenue Assistance: Interactions and Overlap for Illinois and Kansas Farm Program Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Zulauf, Carl R.; Schnitkey, Gary D.; Langemeier, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Farm-level data from Illinois and Kansas for the 1991–2007 crops are used to examine the interaction and overlap among crop revenue insurance, Supplemental Revenue Assistance (SURE), and Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE). Compared with 75% Crop Revenue Coverage Insurance (75% CRCP), ACRE provides more payments and has a greater impact on minimum farm revenue for the Illinois farms. In contrast, for the Kansas farms, 75% CRCP has the greater impact. SURE’s relative impact on the Illinoi...

  4. Optimising an integrated crop-livestock farm using risk programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SE Visagie

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have analysed farm planning decisions focusing on producer risk preferences. Few studies have focussed on the farm planning decisions in an integrated croplivestock farm context. Income variability and means of managing risk continues to receive much attention in farm planning research. Different risk programming models have attempted to focus on minimising the income variability of farm activities. This study attempts to identify the optimal mix of crops and the number of animals the farm needs to keep in the presence of crop production risk for a range of risk levels. A mixed integer linear programming model was developed to model the decision environment faced by an integrated crop-livestock farmer. The deviation of income from the expected value was used as a measure of risk. A case study is presented with representative data from a farm in the Swartland area. An investigation of the results of the model under different constraints shows that, in general, strategies that depend on crop rotation principles are preferred to strategies that follow mono-crop production practices.

  5. Effects of crop rotation and soil tillage on weeds in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz, Franz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An organic long-term field experiment with two factors has been carried out since 1998 at the experimental station Gladbacherhof, University of Giessen. Effects of 3 different farm types (with lifestock raising, stockless farming with rotational set-aside, stockless farming only cash crops combined with 4 tillage treatments (mouldboard plough, two-layer-plough, reduced tillage depth and tillage without plough on plants, soil and environment have been investigated. This article presents results on the coverage rate of arable wild plants (weed coverage, the range of weed species, the abundance of C. arvense (L. Scop. (Canada thistle and the weed phytomass during harvest time of the main crops dependent on farm type and soil tillage. It can be concluded that, compared to conventional economic weed thresholds, the weed coverage was generally relatively low and only limited ranges of species were found. Wild arable plants probably did not have any impact on yields of the cultivated plants due to intensive mechanical regulatory measures. In stockless organic farming without alfalfa-grass in the crop rotation Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. (Canada thistle might become a problem whereas this perennial root-weed does not seem to raise a long term problem in a soil tillage system without ploughing. In all treatments the abundance of weeds like Galium aparine L. (catchweed bedstraw and Stellaria media L. (chickweed was high. However, none of the farm types or soil tillage systems succeeded in providing evidence of promoting rare species or encouraging biodiversity. In order to achieve this special support measures should be implemented.

  6. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF NEW CROPPING PRACTICES UPON SUBSISTENCE FARMING: A FARM LEVEL ANALYSIS IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Brandao, Elizabeth Santos; McCarl, Bruce A.; Schuh, G. Edward

    1984-01-01

    An analysis is done on the potential effects of several improved cropping practices in a subsistence agricultural farming system along with analyses of other development options. The farming system is modeled as a linear programming model. The problem involves mixture of perennials and annuals, sharecropping provisions and risk. The practices are found to have differential effects on the distribution of income between the landlords and tenants, marketable surplus and on farm employment.

  7. SOUTHEASTERN MINNESOTA FARM BUSINESS MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 2002 ANNUAL REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Nordquist, Dale W.; Westman, Lorin L.; Kent D. Olson

    2003-01-01

    The average net farm income was $64,666 for the 54 farms included in the 2002 annual report of the Southeastern Minnesota Farm Business Management Association. This was an increase of 6% from 2001. While gross cash farm income increased by 10%, total cash operating expenses increased substantially more, by 19%. This increase in expenses was offset by an increase in the value of inventories resulting primarily from higher crop yields and higher crop prices. As in previous years, the income lev...

  8. Potato: A Favorable Crop for Plant Molecular Farming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Kumar G B; Ganapathi T R; Bapat V A

    2006-01-01

    Potato is one of the important food crops with a high yield potential and nutritional value. It has been used extensively for molecular farming to produce vaccines, antibodies and industrial enzymes. It has several desirable attributes as a favorable crop for the production of recombinant proteins. Potato tubers were employed for bulk production of recombinant antibodies. Vaccine production in potato has progressed to human clinical trials. Human milk proteins were successfully expressed in potato tubers. Potato hairy roots offer as another attractive system for the production of useful recombinant proteins both as intra cellular and secreted forms. This review describes the use of potato as a prospective host for plant molecular farming.

  9. UNDERSTANDING CROP INSURANCE PRINCIPLES: A PRIMER FOR FARM LEADERS

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Barry J.; Coble, Keith H.

    1999-01-01

    Federal policy-makers increasingly emphasize the Federal Crop Insurance Program as the primary federal risk management program for farmers. Farm leaders need to understand the underlying mechanics of insurance products if they are to effectively argue their interests and contribute constructively to future agricultural policy dialogue. Further they need to understand the unique circumstances created by the fact that the Federal Crop Insurance program functions as a public-private partnership ...

  10. Analyzing Federal Farm Program and Crop Insurance Options to Assess Policy Design and Risk Management Implications for Crop Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Lubben, Bradley; Stockton, Matthew; Protopop, Iuliia; Jansen, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Recent changes in federal farm programs and contemporary farm program proposals highlight an evolving shift in farm policy from income support to risk management. A mix of price- and revenue-based commodity programs as well as yield- and revenue-based insurance products provide crop producers a complex portfolio of risk management tools and choices. To make effective risk management decisions, crop producers must integrate farm programs and crop insurance alternatives in a comprehensive risk ...

  11. Mixed crop-livestock farming systems: a sustainable way to produce beef? Commercial farms results, questions and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysset, P; Lherm, M; Bébin, D; Roulenc, M

    2014-08-01

    Mixed crop-livestock (MC-L) farming has gained broad consensus as an economically and environmentally sustainable farming system. Working on a Charolais-area suckler cattle farms network, we subdivided the 66 farms of a constant sample, for 2 years (2010 and 2011), into four groups: (i) 'specialized conventional livestock farms' (100% grassland-based farms (GF), n=7); (ii) 'integrated conventional crop-livestock farms' (specialized farms that only market animal products but that grow cereal crops on-farm for animal feed, n=31); (iii) 'mixed conventional crop-livestock farms' (farms that sell beef and cereal crops to market, n=21); and (iv) organic farms (n=7). We analyse the differences in structure and in drivers of technical, economic and environmental performances. The figures for all the farms over 2 years (2010 and 2011) were pooled into a single sample for each group. The farms that sell crops alongside beef miss out on potential economies of scale. These farms are bigger than specialized beef farms (with or without on-farm feed crops) and all types of farms show comparable economic performances. The big MC-L farms make heavier and consequently less efficient use of inputs. This use of less efficient inputs also weakens their environmental performances. This subpopulation of suckler cattle farms appears unable to translate a MC-L strategy into economies of scope. Organic farms most efficiently exploit the diversity of herd feed resources, thus positioning organic agriculture as a prototype MC-L system meeting the core principles of agroecology. PMID:24589421

  12. Farm Level Evaluation of the U.S. Doha Round Proposal on U.S. Representative Crop and Livestock Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Outlaw, Joe L.; Richardson, James W.; Knapek, George M.; Raulston, J. Marc; Anderson, David P.; Herbst, Brian K.; Sartwelle, James D., III; Feldman, Paul A.; Klose, Steven L.

    2005-01-01

    This briefing paper provides a farm level evaluation of the November 2005 USTR Doha Round proposal on 102 U.S. representative crop and livestock farms. This report is a companion to FAPRI-UMC Report #17-05.

  13. The Impact of Crop Insurance on the Economic Performance of Hungarian Cropping Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Sporri, Martina; Baráth, Lajos; Bokusheva, Raushan; Ferto, Imre

    2012-01-01

    Crop insurance products can improve and stabilize economic performance. However, due to insurance market imperfections, the use of insurance products often requires governmental support. This paper analyses the actual impact of insurance products on the economic performance of cropping farms by linking the economic performance model with the insurance demand model. For this analysis, a simultaneous equation system is solved. Our estimations show a negative impact of insurance on the economic ...

  14. Organic farming and gene transfer from genetically modified crops

    OpenAIRE

    Moyes, Catherine L.; Dale, Philip J.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report of MAFF/Defra project OF0157. Genetically modified (GM) crops cannot be released into the environment and used as food, feed, medicines or industrial processing before they have passed through a rigorous and internationally recognised regulatory process designed to protect human and animal health, and the environment. The UK body that oversees standards in organic farming, the United Kingdom Register of Organic Food Standards (UKROFS), has ruled that gene...

  15. Environmental health impacts of feeding crops to farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; MacDonald, Graham K; West, Paul C; Engstrom, Peder M; Nachman, Keeve E; Lawrence, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    Half of the seafood consumed globally now comes from aquaculture, or farmed seafood. Aquaculture therefore plays an increasingly important role in the global food system, the environment, and human health. Traditionally, aquaculture feed has contained high levels of wild fish, which is unsustainable for ocean ecosystems as demand grows. The aquaculture industry is shifting to crop-based feed ingredients, such as soy, to replace wild fish as a feed source and allow for continued industry growth. This shift fundamentally links seafood production to terrestrial agriculture, and multidisciplinary research is needed to understand the ecological and environmental health implications. We provide basic estimates of the agricultural resource use associated with producing the top five crops used in commercial aquaculture feed. Aquaculture's environmental footprint may now include nutrient and pesticide runoff from industrial crop production, and depending on where and how feed crops are produced, could be indirectly linked to associated negative health outcomes. We summarize key environmental health research on health effects associated with exposure to air, water, and soil contaminated by industrial crop production. Our review also finds that changes in the nutritional content of farmed seafood products due to altered feed composition could impact human nutrition. Based on our literature reviews and estimates of resource use, we present a conceptual framework describing the potential links between increasing use of crop-based ingredients in aquaculture and human health. Additional data and geographic sourcing information for crop-based ingredients are needed to fully assess the environmental health implications of this trend. This is especially critical in the context of a food system that is using both aquatic and terrestrial resources at unsustainable rates. PMID:26970884

  16. Maize crop residue uses and trade-offs on smallholder crop-livestock farms in Zimbabwe: Economic implications of intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusinamhodzi, L.; Wijk, van M.T.; Corbeels, M.; Rufino, M.C.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Decisions to use crop residues as soil cover for conservation agriculture create trade-offs for farmers who own cattle in crop-livestock systems. Trade-offs among soil C, crop and animal and crop productivity were analysed using the NUANCES-FARMSIM (FArm-scale Resource Management SIMulator) dynamic

  17. Cashew cultivation in Guinea-Bissau – risks and challenges of the success of a cash crop

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Catarino; Yusufo Menezes; Raul Sardinha

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades a boom in cashew (Anacardium occidentale)cultivation has taken place in Guinea-Bissau, leading to the replacement of traditional slash-and-burn agriculture by a cash crop. As a result, the country is currently one of the world’s largest producers of raw cashew nuts and the cashew sector has acquired enormous importance in Guinea-Bissau’s economy. Changes induced by the cashew boom at social and environmental levels are yet to be analyzed and understood. The present study pro...

  18. Cashew cultivation in Guinea-Bissau – risks and challenges of the success of a cash crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Catarino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades a boom in cashew (Anacardium occidentalecultivation has taken place in Guinea-Bissau, leading to the replacement of traditional slash-and-burn agriculture by a cash crop. As a result, the country is currently one of the world’s largest producers of raw cashew nuts and the cashew sector has acquired enormous importance in Guinea-Bissau’s economy. Changes induced by the cashew boom at social and environmental levels are yet to be analyzed and understood. The present study provides an account of the process of cashew expansion in Guinea-Bissau, reviews the current situation and discusses its future prospects. The cashew tree was introduced into the country by the Portuguese in the XIXth century, but only effectively expanded in the mid-1980s. It is largely cultivated by small farmers around villages and also plays a role in land ownership, since land tenure practices are linked to the planting of trees. The effects of this cashew boom on habitat fragmentation, fire regimes and biodiversity are still to be assessed. On the other hand, the spread of pests and diseases is becoming a problem. Strong dependence on a single cash crop also renders the country vulnerable to market fluctuations, entailing risks to local producers and the national economy. In the medium term, losses of export earnings can occur, which may impact the living standards and food security of Bissau-Guineans both in urban and rural areas.

  19. The ecological footprint method on a farm level – a case study on a UK organic farm with parallel cropping

    OpenAIRE

    Schmutz, Dr Ulrich; Firth, Chris; Lewis, Kevin; Lillywhite, Mr Robert

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the farming community to understand and improve their ecological footprint and reduce CO2-carbon emissions. This case study compares the ecological footprint of organic and conventional cabbage, celeriac, sugar beet and winter wheat crops on a UK commercial, parallel cropping, farm. Results show lower ecological footprints and energy ratios in all organic crops. However, CO2-emissions per unit yield are only lower if the fertility building is not considered. In...

  20. Can small horticulture crops improve family farm incomes in mountains areas of Central America?

    OpenAIRE

    Marín González, Omar; Hernández Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos Gregorio; Arnés Prieto, Esperanza

    2014-01-01

    Small family farm in mountain areas can found in horticulture one alternative to increase incomes. Horticulture crop required more labour and increased the land intensification. Market of production will be the key factor in the future of this family farms.

  1. Reactive Nitrogen Emissions from Crop and Livestock Farming in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies suggest that human activities have accelerated the production and emissions of reactive nitrogen on a global scale. Increased nitrogen emissions may lead to environmental impacts including photochemical air pollution, reduced visibility, changes in biodiversity, and stratospheric ozone depletion. Emissions from agricultural activities, both crop and animal, are known to contain reactive nitrogen compounds. Emissions of reactive nitrogen for India (for the base year 2003 as a case study) from animal and crop farming are analyzed. These emissions are compared and contrasted with global, US, and European reactive nitrogen emissions. Ammonia and nitrous oxide from animal farming in India were estimated at about 1392 Gg NH3-N and 136 Gg N2O-N from livestock; and 2221 Gg NH3-N and 126 Gg N2O-N from fertilizer application. The activity data for all livestock in all the districts were collected from the website of the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries; and for fertilizers consumption, the activity data were collected from the Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Govt. of India. Emission factor suitable for region specific for all sources were utilized. Overall, the Indo-Gangetic basin in the North India had considerably high emissions of all reactive nitrogen components.

  2. An Assessment of Direct on-Farm Energy Use for High Value Grain Crops Grown under Different Farming Practices in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Tek Maraseni; Guangnan Chen; Thomas Banhazi; Jochen Bundschuh; Talal Yusaf

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have quantified the energy consumption associated with crop production in various countries. However, these studies have not compared the energy consumption from a broad range of farming practices currently in practice, such as zero tillage, conventional tillage and irrigated farming systems. This study examines direct on-farm energy use for high value grain crops grown under different farming practices in Australia. Grain farming processes are identified and “typical” farming...

  3. Nuances and nuisances : crop production intensification options for smallholder farming systems of southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rusinamhodzi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: crop production, intensification, extensification, farming systems, tradeoff analysis, maize, legume, manure, fertiliser, southern Africa Soil fertility decline and erratic rainfall are major constraints to crop productivity on smallholder farms in southern Africa. Crop production intensification along with efficient use of chemical fertiliser is required to produce more food per unit area of land, while rebuilding soil fertility. The objective of this thesis was to identify approp...

  4. Expected Crop Yield Loss When Converting to Organic Dairy Farming in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Halberg, N.; Kristensen, I. Sillebak

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge of differences between organic and conventional crop yields is of interest for farmers, advisors, politicians and research scientists. Based on collected data from Danish organic and conventional mixed dairy farms the yield difference was estimated to be 21-37% in grain crops and 12-18% in fodder beets and grass/clover depending on climatic conditions and soil type. A method is presented to correct for the influence of year and geographic differences using crop and farm-specific sim...

  5. Optimizing nitrogen utilization by integrating crop and animal production

    OpenAIRE

    Seuri, Pentti

    2014-01-01

    The farm model was built according to the data from 9 Finnish organic farms. 20% of area produced cash crop and 80% was used as fodder in milk production on the farm. The model indicates that there is high potential (up to 30% compared to Finnish average) to reduce nitrogen losses in agriculture. The key factors are integration between crop and animal production, limited nutrient intensity according to the system itself and BNF. The crop rotation used in model can support milk productio...

  6. Assessing Crop-Livestock Interaction in Mixed Farming Systems of North Western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Wanyama, J. M; Muyekho, F. N; Lusweti, N. F.; Lusweti, C. M.; Omamo, E; Wairimu, K. N.; Kariuki, Nelson; Komen, John

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted in the four counties the maize- wheat-teapotato and sugarcane-based farming system in North western Kenya to explore the variability among household characteristics and farm productivity. The aim of this work was to establish homogenous groups of crop-livestock mixed farming systems of Kenya. A two step approach was adopted for the study. The first was a rapid rural appraisal followed by a formal survey aimed at establishing farm types to facilitate detailed analysis of ...

  7. ORGANIC FARMING ENHANCES THE RECOVERY OF ANCIENT CROPS AND SEGETAL WEEDS IN CATALONIA (NE OF SPAIN)

    OpenAIRE

    Chamorro, Lourdes; Armengot, Laura; José-María, Laura; Sans, F. Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The Area of Natural Interest of Gallecs (ANIG) is one of the largest areas of arable land managed organically in Catalonia. In 2005 a project was launched to convert fields to organic farming and recuperate traditional crop varieties. The aim of this work is to analyse the changes in diversity of the weed flora, including segetal and rare species, and of crops in 20 fields (ca. 50 ha) after the conversion to organic farming during 5 cropping periods (2005-2010). Number of cultivated crops has...

  8. Estimating an Ex Ante Cost Function for Belgian Arable Crop Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Kristiana; Baudry, Alexandre; De Blander, Rembert; Frahan, Bruno Henry de; Polome, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    We estimate a farm-level cost function for Belgian crop farms using FADN data over the study period 1996-2006. We rely on an estimation of farmers' expected yields at the time cropping decisions are made rather than actual yields observed in the FADN data. The use of an ex ante cost function improves the cost function estimation. We subsequently suggest how our cost function can be used in simulations to analyze farmer response to changes in output price risk.

  9. Organic farming practices for rice under diversified cropping systems in humid tropics.

    OpenAIRE

    Varughese, Kuruvilla Dr.; Rani, B Dr.; Abraham, Suja; John, Jacob Dr; M, Vijayan Dr

    2009-01-01

    In Asia rice farming is confined to small farmers who are compelled to obtain higher productivity for their livelihood. In general there is an increase in area and production of rice in India. In the humid tropical region of Kerala State the area has been drastically reduced inspite of the efforts of the local Government. Crop diversification is a practical means to enhance the crop output. In conventional rice farming the usage of plant protection chemicals is very high and can cause ...

  10. MARKETING AND CROP INSURANCE COMBINED TO MANAGE RISK ON A CASS COUNTY REPRESENTATIVE FARM

    OpenAIRE

    Clow, Aaron D.; Flaskerud, George K.

    2001-01-01

    This study analyzed the effects that the use of crop insurance products and marketing alternatives had on the gross revenue per acre for an individual farm in Cass County. Crop insurance products and marketing strategies were analyzed individually to determine if they were effective in minimizing down side risk, and combined to determine if integration created synergies. A whole farm scenario analysis was run that included integrated strategies that implemented the same insurance coverage and...

  11. The Regional Efficiency of Mixed Crop and Livestock Type of Farming and Its Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    J. Špička

    2014-01-01

    The mixed crop and livestock farming represents significant share in agricultural output in the Czech Republic. So, it raises questions about determinants of its production efficiency. The aim of the article is to evaluate production efficiency and its determinants of mixed crop and livestock farming among the EU regions. The DEA method with variable returns to scale (DEAVRS) reveals efficient and inefficient regions including the scale efficiency. In the next step, the two-sample t-test dete...

  12. Development of a farm-firm modelling system for evaluation of herbaceous energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete analysis is performed to simulate biomass production incorporated into a realistic whole farm situation, including or replacing a typical crop mix. Representative farms are constructed to accommodate such simulation. Four management systems are simulated for each firm, with each simulation depicting a different crop mix and/or use of different farming technologies and production methods. The first simulation was a base farm plan in which the operator would maintain the historical crop mix for the area, participate in all price support programs, and not participate in either a conservative reserve or a biomass production program. In the second simulation, the operator would again maintain the historical crop mix, would not participate in a conservation reserve or biomass production program, and would be ineligible to participate in any price support system. The third simulation introduced the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and included participation in all price support programs. The fourth simulation introduced a biomass crop production enterprise (switchgrass) as an alternative to enrolling highly erodible cropland in the CRP and allowed participation in price support programs. Simulations were made for three farms, two in West Tennessee and on in South Georgia. Results indicate that erosion is likely to be reduced more by the diversion of cropland to permanent vegetative cover on farms similar to the more highly erodible West Tennessee farms than on the less erodible Tift County, Georgia farm. Equivalent reductions in erosion rates result from entering highly erodible cropland in the CRP and from production of switchgrass as a biomass energy crop. Both switchgrass and CRP farm plans result in decreased net returns from the base plan, although the biomass farm plans are, in general, more profitable than the CRP plans

  13. Development of a farm-firm modelling system for evaluation of herbaceous energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, B.C.; Alexander, R.R.; Loewen, K.H.; Coady, S.A.; Cole, G.V.; Goodman, W.R. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology)

    1992-01-01

    A complete analysis is performed to simulate biomass production incorporated into a realistic whole farm situation, including or replacing a typical crop mix. Representative farms are constructed to accommodate such simulation. Four management systems are simulated for each firm, with each simulation depicting a different crop mix and/or use of different farming technologies and production methods. The first simulation was a base farm plan in which the operator would maintain the historical crop mix for the area, participate in all price support programs, and not participate in either a conservative reserve or a biomass production program. In the second simulation, the operator would again maintain the historical crop mix, would not participate in a conservation reserve or biomass production program, and would be ineligible to participate in any price support system. The third simulation introduced the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and included participation in all price support programs. The fourth simulation introduced a biomass crop production enterprise (switchgrass) as an alternative to enrolling highly erodible cropland in the CRP and allowed participation in price support programs. Simulations were made for three farms, two in West Tennessee and on in South Georgia. Results indicate that erosion is likely to be reduced more by the diversion of cropland to permanent vegetative cover on farms similar to the more highly erodible West Tennessee farms than on the less erodible Tift County, Georgia farm. Equivalent reductions in erosion rates result from entering highly erodible cropland in the CRP and from production of switchgrass as a biomass energy crop. Both switchgrass and CRP farm plans result in decreased net returns from the base plan, although the biomass farm plans are, in general, more profitable than the CRP plans.

  14. Impact of CAP Subsidies on Technical Efficiency of Crop Farms in Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xueqin Zhu, Xueqin; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the impacts of CAP reforms, particularly subsidies on technical efficiency of crop farms. An output distance function is employed and estimated together with an inefficiency effects model to capture the effects of CAP subsidies and farmer characteristics on farm efficiency. The m

  15. How do livestock and crop sciences represent evolutions of farming systems ? A review

    OpenAIRE

    Coquil, Xavier; Dedieu, Benoit; Beguin, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Farming systems have to evolve in order to face increasing uncertainty in their environment. In this review we analyse evolutions of farming systems over the long term as a double co-evolution : co-evolution of the farming system and its environment, and co-evolution of the farmer and his biotechnical system (farmer activity). We review literature from the livestock and crop sciences, and we deepen our analyse with some literature from management sciences, ergonomics, professional didactics t...

  16. NDICEA as a user friendly model tool for crop rotation planning in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Koopmans, Chris J.; van der Burgt, Geert-Jan

    2005-01-01

    For organic farming systems, the challenge is to become more specific in practices to maintain high standards in sustainability. Soil processes need to be clearly understood if rotations and manure applications are to become more precise. Simulation models like the NDICEA model help in the design and maintenance of these farming systems. These models play a key-role in the design of organic precision farming. The NDICEA model has been calibrated for a number of long-term crop rotation ex...

  17. On weed competition and population dynamics. Considerations for crop rotations and organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: organic farming, weeds, weed management, weed ecology, weed diversity, matrix population model, elasticity analysis, neighbourhood model, survey, crop row spacing, mechanical hoe, harrow, Polygonum convolvulus , Polygonum persicaria , Stellaria mediaExperiments, monitoring studies and modelling of weed population dynamics were carried out to investigate potential methods for reducing weed populations in farming systems where herbicides are not applied (organic farming). Six years o...

  18. Evaluating the benefits of organic farming in rice agroecosystems in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    Metadata only record Organic rice farming utilized only 33% (39 USD ha(-1)) of the cash capital required to grow a hectare of rice when compared with conventional farm which spent 118 USD ha(-1). This much reduced cash capital expense in organic rice farming relieved women from the burden of sourcing credit to finance crop establishment. Women are in-charge of family finances. Cooperation among members of the family (husband, wife, children) enabled them to cope with the increased labor re...

  19. Organization of crop and animal production in dairy farms localised in three chosen regions of lubelskie voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Bojarszczuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of organization of crop and animal production in dairy farms localised in three regions in Lubelskie voivodeship was presented in the paper. The data source was questionnaire research. The study was trained in 145 farms. The provided analysis showed that cereals had significantly share in pattern system in tested farms. Researched farms are differentiated of occupied differentiation of cropping pattern and density livestock between farms localised in different regions of Lubelskie voivodeship caused different level of intensity of organization animal and crops production. The differentiation of indicators was especially significant between farms in Krasnystaw and Ryki.

  20. A Simulation Software for the Analysis of Cropping Systems in Livestock Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Maggiore

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulation models can support quantitative and integrated analyses of agricultural systems. In this paper we describe VA.TE., a computer program developed to support the preparation and evaluation of nitrogen fertilising plans for livestock farms in the Lombardy region (northern Italy. The program integrates the cropping systems simulation model CropSyst with several regional agricultural databases, and provides the users with a simple framework for applying the model and interpreting results. VA.TE. makes good use of available data, integrating into a single relational database existing information about soils, climate, farms, animal breeds, crops and crop managements, and providing estimates of missing input variables. A simulation engine manages the entire simulation process: choice of farms to be simulated, model parameterisation, creation of model inputs, simulation of scenarios and analysis of model outputs. The program permits to apply at farm scale a model originally designed for the lower scale of homogeneous land parcel. It manages alternative simulation scenarios for each farm, helping to identify solutions to combine low nitrate losses and satisfactory crop yields. Example simulation results for three farms located on different soils and having varying levels of nitrogen surplus show that the integrated system (model + database can manage various simulations automatically, and that strategies to improve N management can be refined by analysing the simulated amounts and temporal patterns of nitrogen leaching.We conclude by discussing the issues regarding the integration of existing regional databases with simulation models.

  1. Simulation of the Agro-Energy Farm with the X-Farm Model: Calibration of the Crop Module for Sorghum Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Danuso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the X-farm model, a dynamic farm simulation model created to manage sustainable farming systems and to improve the planning capability of farms. X-farm considers an “agro-energy farm” where energy self-sufficiency results from the production, transformation and use of biomass obtained from the farm crops. The X-farm model is formed by different modules, integrated to describe the components of the agro-energy farm and grouped into management, production, soil and accountability (in terms of energy, environment and economy sections. The main farm productions are the field crop yields. The model simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk and meat can be sold or reused. A preliminary calibration of the crop module of X-farm has been performed using experimental data from Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench trials. X-farm has been implemented and calibrated using the SEMoLa language and simulation framework. Simulations of different cropping scenarios have been performed to test the X-farm capabilities to simulate complex farming systems, in order to be used as a decision-support tool.

  2. The Regional Efficiency of Mixed Crop and Livestock Type of Farming and Its Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Špička

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The mixed crop and livestock farming represents significant share in agricultural output in the Czech Republic. So, it raises questions about determinants of its production efficiency. The aim of the article is to evaluate production efficiency and its determinants of mixed crop and livestock farming among the EU regions. The DEA method with variable returns to scale (DEAVRS reveals efficient and inefficient regions including the scale efficiency. In the next step, the two-sample t-test determines differences of economic and structural indicators between efficient and inefficient regions. The research reveals that substitution of labor by capital/ contract work positively affects income indicator Farm Net Value Added per AWU. The significant economic determinants of production efficiency in mixed type of farming are crop output per hectare, livestock output per livestock unit, productivity of energy and capital. Agricultural enterprises in inefficient regions have more extensive structure and produce more non-commodity output (public goods.

  3. Species diversification in market-garden farms and consequences on crop management, labour organization and marketing at farm and territorial scales

    OpenAIRE

    Navarrete, Mireille; Dupre, Lucie; Lamine, Claire; Marguerie, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    Most market-garden farms which converted to organic farming (OF) in the last decades are small and diversified. Larger farms are usually specialised on few vegetable species and frequently face technical and economic problems when they convert to OF. Diversifying production on medium and large farms may be a way to increase their sustainability because of larger crop rotations and varied marketing outlets. The increase in the number of species has various implications on farm management and s...

  4. Transfer of Biogas Technology to Support Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Systems in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya

    Mixed crop and livestock (MCL) farming systems has been applied for many years to manage the limited resources owned by smallholder farmers. This farming practice is considered as the best practice to cultivate the limited resources by adopting an integrated life cycle approach within crop...... and livestock production. However, within this farming system, some externalities may appear because of the untreated livestock waste which may pollute air and the surrounding water environment at the farm. This may also affect greenhouse gas emission that potentially contributes to an increase of global...... such as reduction of air and water pollution and gas emission caused by manure. However, despite its multiple benefits, the biogas technology transfer is facing a slow rate of diffusion in most farm households in developing countries. This phenomenon calls for identification of reasons in order to develop solutions...

  5. Effect of vetch wheat mixture and broccoli as preceding crops on organic summer vegetables: on farm trial in western Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ASLAN, Burcay

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming requires the use of practices such as crop rotation, green manure and compost application instead of chemical compounds to enhance farm productivity. In this study, effects of two pre-crops (vetch-wheat mixture and broccoli) and additional fertilization (AF) strategy (compost and commercial fertilizer) were tested on organic production of two main crops (tomato and zucchini) and on soil fertility. The main aim of this on-farm trial is to evaluate the applicability of the resul...

  6. A Meta Analysis on Farm-Level Costs and Benefits of GM Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Finger, Robert; Benni, Nadja El; KAPHENGST Timo; Evans, Clive; Herbert, Sophie; Lehmann, Bernard; Morse, Stephen; Stupak, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence on the socio-economic impacts of GM crops and analyzes whether there are patterns across space and time. To this end, we investigate the effect of GM crops on farm-level costs and benefits using global data from more than one decade of field trials and surveys. More specifically, we analyze the effects of GM-crops on crop yields, seed costs, pesticide costs, and management and labor costs and finally gross margins. Based on collected data from studies on Bt cot...

  7. The role of catch crops in the ecological intensification of spring cereals in organic farming under Nordic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    common practices in organic farming. Measurements of dry matter (DM) and N content of grain cereals at harvest, above-ground biomass in catch crops and green manure crops in autumn and of the green manure crop at the first cutting were performed. The effect of catch crops on grain yield varied...... the nitrate leaching and increasing N retention, but also by improving yields. Management practices in relation to catch crops must be adapted to the specific soil and cropping systems....

  8. Energy balance of different organic biogas farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Helbig, S; Küstermann, B; Hülsbergen, K.-J.

    2008-01-01

    The ecological impact of biogas plants depends on their integration into a given farming system. Therefore only farm-specific and no general statements are possible. In this paper, two different concepts of biogas production for an organic cash crop farm have been energetically balanced using a model software. The analysis of input and efficient use of fossil energy carriers provides information on the environmental relevance of the farm operations. Apart from this, renewable energy productio...

  9. Effects of stored feed cropping systems and farm size on the profitability of Maine organic dairy farm simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshide, A K; Halloran, J M; Kersbergen, R J; Griffin, T S; DeFauw, S L; LaGasse, B J; Jain, S

    2011-11-01

    United States organic dairy production has increased to meet the growing demand for organic milk. Despite higher prices received for milk, organic dairy farmers have come under increasing financial stress due to increases in concentrated feed prices over the past few years, which can make up one-third of variable costs. Market demand for milk has also leveled in the last year, resulting in some downward pressure on prices paid to dairy farmers. Organic dairy farmers in the Northeast United States have experimented with growing different forage and grain crops to maximize on-farm production of protein and energy to improve profitability. Three representative organic feed systems were simulated using the integrated farm system model for farms with 30, 120, and 220 milk cows. Increasing intensity of equipment use was represented by organic dairy farms growing only perennial sod (low) to those with corn-based forage systems, which purchase supplemental grain (medium) or which produce and feed soybeans (high). The relative profitability of these 3 organic feed systems was strongly dependent on dairy farm size. From results, we suggest smaller organic dairy farms can be more profitable with perennial sod-based rather than corn-based forage systems due to lower fixed costs from using only equipment associated with perennial forage harvest and storage. The largest farm size was more profitable using a corn-based system due to greater economies of scale for growing soybeans, corn grain, winter cereals, and corn silages. At an intermediate farm size of 120 cows, corn-based forage systems were more profitable if perennial sod was not harvested at optimum quality, corn was grown on better soils, or if milk yield was 10% higher. Delayed harvest decreased the protein and energy content of perennial sod crops, requiring more purchased grain to balance the ration and resulting in lower profits. Corn-based systems were less affected by lower perennial forage quality, as corn silage

  10. Could Crop Height Affect the Wind Resource at Agriculturally Productive Wind Farm Sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2016-03-01

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. These considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  11. Nitrate leaching from arable crop rotations in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Jørgen E.; Askegaard, Margrethe; Berntsen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    Nitrate leaching from crop rotations for organic grain production were investigated in a field experiment on different soil types in Denmark from 1997 to 2002. Three experimental factors were included in the experiment in a factorial design: 1) proportion of grass-clover and pulses in the rotation, 2) cover crop (with and without), and 3) manure (with and without). Two four-course rotations were compared. They had one year of grass-clover as a green manure crop, either followed by spring whea...

  12. Safety Nets or Trampolines? Federal Crop Insurance, Disaster Assistance, and the Farm Bill

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Barry K.; Rejesus, Roderick M.

    2008-01-01

    We review the implications of the 2007 Farm Bill for the risk management dimensions of U.S. agriculture and policy. Legislative proposals suggest significant changes in risk management policy, including the introduction of state or national revenue insurance. We also pursue an empirical analysis of the interrelationships of crop insurance, disaster relief, and farm profitability. We find an inverse relationship between disaster assistance and insurance purchases. Our analysis also suggests th...

  13. Legume-based catch crops for ecological intensification in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoxi

    2015-01-01

    Overwintering legume-based catch crops (LBCCs) may play an important role in ecological intensification of agricultural production, especially in low-input systems like organic farming. The emerging concept of ecological intensification (or sustainable intensification) calls for new approaches to produce sufficient food with little environmental impact. Aimed at environment-friendly food production, organic farming may be a good candidate approach to meet the challenges of ecological intensif...

  14. Buton macaques (Macaca ochreata brunnescens): crops, conflict, and behavior on farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priston, Nancy E C; Wyper, Rebecca M; Lee, Phyllis C

    2012-01-01

    One consequence of anthropogenic habitat alteration is that many nonhuman primates are forced into conflict interactions with humans and their livelihood activities, especially through crop raiding. These problems are particularly acute for the endemic and threatened Buton Island macaque (Macaca ochreata brunnescens), in southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Our study investigated the crop raiding behavior of this species over time. Foods eaten and the behavioral repertoire exhibited by macaques during crop raiding at and inside farm perimeters were observed over a period of 8 years (2002-2009). Storage organ crops (e.g. sweet potato) were abundant and most frequently raided by macaques. Individual macaques were most commonly observed to raid close (0-10 m) to farm perimeters. Activities such as feeding, resting, moving, and social interaction varied significantly as a function of penetration distance into the farm, but only marginally between age-sex classes. The annual average raid frequency per farm decreased over the latter years of the study period, raising questions about changes in macaque foraging and ranging behavior over time and their response to farm management and mitigation strategies. PMID:22025206

  15. THE EFFECT OF OIL SPILLAGE ON CROP YIELD AND FARM INCOME IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoni ODJUVWUEDERHIE EMMANUEL

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation of the oil-rich Niger Delta region has been wanton and continuous with dire health, social and economic consequences for its peoples, for over three decades. Using a sample of 262 crop farmers drawn randomly from 10 communities and 5 LGAs in the oil producing agro-ecological zones of Delta State, the negative impact of oil spill on crop production was accentuated. Oil spill reduced crop yield, land productivity and greatly depressed farm income as a 10 percentage increase in oil spill reduced crop yield by 1.3 percent while farm income plummeted by 5 percent. In order to halt the continual degradation of the Niger Delta environment, the authors recommend the enactment and enforcement of stringent environmental laws to protect the area as well as the implementation of policies to reduce the crushing level of poverty and guarantee a better livelihood for the people.

  16. Cover crops effect on farm benefits and nitrate leaching: Linking economic and environmental analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Pérez, José Luis; Garrido Colmenero, Alberto; Quemada Saenz-Badillos, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Introducing cover crops (CC) interspersed with intensively fertilized crops in rotation has the potential to reduce nitrate leaching. This paper evaluates various strategies involving CC between maize and compares the economic and environmental results with respect to a typical maize?fallow rotation. The comparison is performed through stochastic (Monte-Carlo) simulation models of farms? profits using probability distribution functions (pdfs) of yield and N fertilizer saving fitted with data ...

  17. A Meta Analysis on Farm-Level Costs and Benefits of GM Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Stupak

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the evidence on the socio-economic impacts of GM crops and analyzes whether there are patterns across space and time. To this end, we investigate the effect of GM crops on farm-level costs and benefits using global data from more than one decade of field trials and surveys. More specifically, we analyze the effects of GM-crops on crop yields, seed costs, pesticide costs, and management and labor costs and finally gross margins. Based on collected data from studies on Bt cotton and Bt maize, statistical analyses are conducted to estimate the effect of GM crop adoption on these parameters. Our results show that, compared to conventional crops, GM crops can lead to yield increases and can lead to reductions in the costs of pesticide application, whereas seed costs are usually substantially higher. Thus, the results presented here do support the contention that the adoption of GM crops leads on average to a higher economic performance, which is also underlined by the high adoption rates for GM crops in a number of countries. However, the kind and magnitude of benefits from GM crops are very heterogeneous between countries and regions, particularly due to differences in pest pressure and pest management practices. Countries with poor pest management practices benefited most from a reduction in yield losses, whereas other countries benefited from cost reductions. However, our study also reveals limitations for meta-analyses on farm-level costs and benefits of GM crops. In particular, published data are skewed towards some countries and the employed individual studies rely on different assumptions, purposes and methodologies (e.g., surveys and field trials. Furthermore, a summary of several (often short-term individual studies may not necessarily capture long-term effects of GM crop adoption.

  18. No sex in fungus-farming ants or their crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himler, Anna G; Caldera, Eric J; Baer, Boris C; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2009-07-22

    Asexual reproduction imposes evolutionary handicaps on asexual species, rendering them prone to extinction, because asexual reproduction generates novel genotypes and purges deleterious mutations at lower rates than sexual reproduction. Here, we report the first case of complete asexuality in ants, the fungus-growing ant Mycocepurus smithii, where queens reproduce asexually but workers are sterile, which is doubly enigmatic because the clonal colonies of M. smithii also depend on clonal fungi for food. Degenerate female mating anatomy, extensive field and laboratory surveys, and DNA fingerprinting implicate complete asexuality in this widespread ant species. Maternally inherited bacteria (e.g. Wolbachia, Cardinium) and the fungal cultivars can be ruled out as agents inducing asexuality. M. smithii societies of clonal females provide a unique system to test theories of parent-offspring conflict and reproductive policing in social insects. Asexuality of both ant farmer and fungal crop challenges traditional views proposing that sexual farmer ants outpace coevolving sexual crop pathogens, and thus compensate for vulnerabilities of their asexual crops. Either the double asexuality of both farmer and crop may permit the host to fully exploit advantages of asexuality for unknown reasons or frequent switching between crops (symbiont reassociation) generates novel ant-fungus combinations, which may compensate for any evolutionary handicaps of asexuality in M. smithii. PMID:19369264

  19. Crop rotation and crop management effects on cereal yields in arable organic farming in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    J. E. Olesen; Askegaard, M.; Rasmussen, I. A.; K. Kristensen

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges in organic crop production is to ensure high and stable crop yields. In this study we used data from a 12 year old crop rotation experiment in Denmark to estimate the contribution of various management factors to yields of winter and spring cereals. The experiment included three factors in two replicates: 1) Grass-clover green manure crop (with and without), 2) catch crop (with and without), and 3) animal manure (with and without). Animal manure was the most importa...

  20. Crop production and N leaching in arable organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Jørgen E.; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    2003-01-01

    The possibilities for increasing grain yields and reducing N leaching losses in organic ce-real production through manipulation of crop rotation design were investigated in a field experiment on different soil types in Denmark from 1997 to 2000. Three experimental fac-tors were included in the experiment in a factorial design: 1) proportion of grass-clover and pulses in the rotation, 2) catch crop (with and without), and 3) manure (with and with-out). Three four-course rotations were compared...

  1. Relation between soil organic matter and yield levels of nonlegume crops in organic and conventional farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, Christopher; Fließbach, Andreas; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Schulz, Franz; Wiesinger, Klaus; Reinicke, Frank; Koch, Wernfried; Pallutt, Bernhard; Dittman, Bärbel; Zimmer, Jörg; Hülsbergen, Kurt-Jürgen; Leithold, Günter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between yield levels of nonleguminous crops and soil organic matter (SOM) under the specific conditions of organic and conventional farming, respectively, and to identify implications for SOM management in arable farming considering the farming system (organic vs. conventional). For that purpose, correlations between yield levels of nonlegume crops and actual SOM level (Corg, Nt, Chwe, Nhwe) as well as SOM-level development were examined i...

  2. Methodological Aspects of On-Farm Monitoring of Cropping Systems Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Castoldi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To conduct agro-environmental assessments at field and farm scale, detailed management data of crop and animal production systems are needed. However, this type of data is only rarely collected by public administrations. In the period 2005-2006, we made an experience of on-farm monitoring of cropping systems management, within a larger project aimed at assessing sustainability of agricultural systems in Italian Parks. In this paper, we describe and discuss the steps taken to carry out periodic face-to-face interviews in farms in the Sud Milano Agricultural Park (northern Italy. The first step was the selection of seven farms, which we identified by applying cluster analysis at a large database describing 733 farms of the Park. After having identified the most relevant agro-environmental issues in the studied area, we established a list of simple but sound indicators to evaluate the effects of agricultural management on the environment. The criteria used to select the indicators were that they should: be calculated on easily available data, not be based on direct measurements, make a synthesis of different aspects of reality, and be easily calculated and understood. The indicators selected evaluate nutrient management, fossil energy use, pesticide toxicity, soil management, and economic performance. Subsequently, we designed a data model to store input data used to calculate the indicators (farm configuration, flows of materials and money through the farm gate, animals and their rations, history of crop cultivation, crop management. The data model that we obtained is relatively complex, but adequate to store and analyse the large amount of data acquired during the two-year project. A questionnaire was developed to fully comply with the indicators selected and the data model. The questionnaire was used to carry out approximately six interviews per farm each year, with an investment of time of 1-2 hours per interview. Appropriate double checks of

  3. Methodological Aspects of On-Farm Monitoring of Cropping Systems Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bechini

    Full Text Available To conduct agro-environmental assessments at field and farm scale, detailed management data of crop and animal production systems are needed. However, this type of data is only rarely collected by public administrations. In the period 2005-2006, we made an experience of on-farm monitoring of cropping systems management, within a larger project aimed at assessing sustainability of agricultural systems in Italian Parks. In this paper, we describe and discuss the steps taken to carry out periodic face-to-face interviews in farms in the Sud Milano Agricultural Park (northern Italy. The first step was the selection of seven farms, which we identified by applying cluster analysis at a large database describing 733 farms of the Park. After having identified the most relevant agro-environmental issues in the studied area, we established a list of simple but sound indicators to evaluate the effects of agricultural management on the environment. The criteria used to select the indicators were that they should: be calculated on easily available data, not be based on direct measurements, make a synthesis of different aspects of reality, and be easily calculated and understood. The indicators selected evaluate nutrient management, fossil energy use, pesticide toxicity, soil management, and economic performance. Subsequently, we designed a data model to store input data used to calculate the indicators (farm configuration, flows of materials and money through the farm gate, animals and their rations, history of crop cultivation, crop management. The data model that we obtained is relatively complex, but adequate to store and analyse the large amount of data acquired during the two-year project. A questionnaire was developed to fully comply with the indicators selected and the data model. The questionnaire was used to carry out approximately six interviews per farm each year, with an investment of time of 1-2 hours per interview. Appropriate double checks of

  4. Biomass for biodiesel production on family farms in Brazil: promise or failure? : integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farms, policies and producer organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo Leite, Dal J.G.

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, a biodiesel policy was implemented as a way of reducing poverty among family farms. The objective of this thesis is to perform an integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farm types, biodiesel policies and producer organisations that reveals opportunities and limitations of family farmer

  5. Biomass for biodiesel production on family farms in Brazil: promise or failure? : integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farms, policies and producer organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Belo Leite, Dal, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, a biodiesel policy was implemented as a way of reducing poverty among family farms. The objective of this thesis is to perform an integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farm types, biodiesel policies and producer organisations that reveals opportunities and limitations of family farmers’ engagement in the biodiesel supply chain.

  6. ORGANIC FARMING FOR CROP IMPROVEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN THE ERA OF CLIMATE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Roychowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has caught the imagination and action of the world for more than a decade. Sustainable agriculture is necessary to attain the goal of sustainable development. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, sustainable agriculture is the successful management of resources to satisfy the changing human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of environment and conserving natural resources. All definitions of sustainable agriculture lay great emphasis on maintaining an agricultural growth rate, which can meet the demand for food of all living beings without draining the basic resources towards crop improvement. Organic farming is one of the several approaches found to meet the objectives of sustainable agriculture. Most of the techniques used in organic farming like inter-cropping, mulching and integration of crops and livestock are not alien to agriculture systems including the traditional agricultural practices. However, organic farming is based on various laws and certification programmes, which prohibit the use of almost all synthetic inputs and the central theme of this method is the health of soil. The adverse effects of modern agricultural practices on the farm and also on the health of living beings and thus on the environment has been well documented all over the world. Application of technology, particularly the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides all around us has persuaded people to think aloud. As a result of global climatic changes, their negative effects on the environment are manifested through soil erosion, water shortages, salination, soil contamination, genetic erosion, Organic farming is one of the widely used methods, which is thought as the best alternative to avoid the ill effects of chemical farming. It also has far more advantages over the conventional and other modern agricultural practices that are available today.

  7. Farm Crop Production Technology: Field and Forage Crop and Fruit and Vine Production Options. A Suggested 2-Year Post High School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Division of Vocational and Technical Education, BAVT.

    Prepared by a junior college under contract with the Office of Education, the curriculum materials are designed to assist school administrators, advisory committees, supervisors, and teachers in developing or evaluating postsecondary programs in farm crop production technology. Information was gathered by visits to the important farm regions and…

  8. Climate effects on crop yields in the Northeast Farming Region of China during 1961–2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Wang, M.;

    2016-01-01

    Crop production in the Northeast Farming Region of China (NFR) is affected considerably by variation in climatic conditions. Data on crop yield and weather conditions from a number of agro-meteorological stations in NFR were used in a mixed linear model to evaluate the impacts of climatic variables...... at each station, comprising pre-flowering (from sowing to just prior to flowering), flowering (20 days around flowering) and post-flowering (10 days after flowering to maturity). The climatic variables were mean minimum temperature, thermal time (which is used to indicate changes in the length of growth...... and soybean yield and HDD in the pre-flowering phase reduced rice yield. Such effects suggest that projected future climate change may have marked effects on crop yield through effects of several climatic variables, calling for adaptation measures such as breeding and changes in crop, soil and agricultural...

  9. Root Activity distribution of some annual crops under day farming condition using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of root activity of wheat and bean as well as olive trees were studied by 32P technique under dry farming condition. Injection of carrier free 32 P into soil at three depths from the soil surface around wheat and bean plants showed that about 72% and 98% of the active roots occurred within the depth of 20 cm, respectively. The results also indicated that the roots of the annual crops were sharing the roots of olive in the ploughing layer. Therefore, intensive inter cropping wheat or bean within the olive trees would lead to a water deficit which in turn, affect the growth and yield of olive

  10. Integrating Water Flow, Solute Transport and Crop Production Models At The Farm-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assinck, F. B. T.; de Vos, J. A.

    Minimising nitrate pollution of ground and surface water and optimising agricultural yields are problems which have to be addressed at the farm-scale. However, simulation models usually operate at the field-scale. We coupled the subsurface hydrology model SWAP with other existing deterministic (sub)models for solute transport, organic mat- ter dynamics, crop growth, and dairy farm management at the farm-scale, resulting in the model WATERPAS. The (sub)models are coupled in a Framework environment obeying the principles of object oriented modelling. Based on daily weather data, groundwater regimes, soil and farm characteristics WATERPAS is able to simulate the water and nutrient balances, grass production, economical benefits, nitrate leaching and greenhouse gas emissions at a farm. Problems of coupling, such as data-transfer, quality checks, over-parameterisation, complexity and sensitivity of the systems are discussed. Application of deducted simpler models and expert judgement can be use- ful for practical use. However, we believe that integrated models are a powerful tool to understand the complex relationships between the different processes. It also gives opportunities to perform scenario analysis for future boundary conditions, i.e. due to changing farm management, (sea) water levels and climate change.

  11. On Farm Agronomic and First Environmental Evaluation of Oil Crops for Sustainable Bioenergy Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Spugnoli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy crops, and in particular oil crops, could be an important occasion for developing new non food production rows for a new multi-functional agriculture in Italy. In this view, the use of local biomass is a fundamental starting point for the development of a virtuous energy chain that should pursue not only agricultural profitability, but also chain sustainability and that is less dependent on the global market, characterized by instability in terms of biomass availability and price. From this perspective, particular attention must be paid to crop choice on the basis of its rusticity and of its adaptability to local growing conditions and to low input cropping systems. In this context, alike woody and herbaceous biomasses, oil crops such as sunflower and rapeseed should be able to support local agricultural bioenergy chain in Italy. In addition, in a local bioenergy chain, the role of the farmers should not be limited just to grain production; but also grain processing should be performed at farm or consortium level in oilseed extraction plants well proportioned to the cropped surface. In this way, by means of a simple power generator, farmer could thus produce its own thermal and electric energy from the oil, maximizing his profit. This objective could also be achieved through the exploitation of the total biomass, including crop residues and defatted seed meals, that may be considered as fundamental additional economic and/or environmental benefits of the chain. This paper reports some results of three-years on-farm experiments on oil crop chain carried out in the framework of “Bioenergie” project, that was focused to enhance farmers awareness of these criteria and to the feasibility at open field scale of low-input cultivation of rapeseed, sunflower and Brassica carinata in seven Italian regions. In several on-farm experiences, these crops produced more than 800 kg ha-1 of oil with good energy properties. Defatted seed meals could be

  12. On Farm Agronomic and First Environmental Evaluation of Oil Crops for Sustainable Bioenergy Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lazzeri

    Full Text Available Energy crops, and in particular oil crops, could be an important occasion for developing new non food production rows for a new multi-functional agriculture in Italy. In this view, the use of local biomass is a fundamental starting point for the development of a virtuous energy chain that should pursue not only agricultural profitability, but also chain sustainability and that is less dependent on the global market, characterized by instability in terms of biomass availability and price. From this perspective, particular attention must be paid to crop choice on the basis of its rusticity and of its adaptability to local growing conditions and to low input cropping systems. In this context, alike woody and herbaceous biomasses, oil crops such as sunflower and rapeseed should be able to support local agricultural bioenergy chain in Italy. In addition, in a local bioenergy chain, the role of the farmers should not be limited just to grain production; but also grain processing should be performed at farm or consortium level in oilseed extraction plants well proportioned to the cropped surface. In this way, by means of a simple power generator, farmer could thus produce its own thermal and electric energy from the oil, maximizing his profit. This objective could also be achieved through the exploitation of the total biomass, including crop residues and defatted seed meals, that may be considered as fundamental additional economic and/or environmental benefits of the chain. This paper reports some results of three-years on-farm experiments on oil crop chain carried out in the framework of “Bioenergie” project, that was focused to enhance farmers awareness of these criteria and to the feasibility at open field scale of low-input cultivation of rapeseed, sunflower and Brassica carinata in seven Italian regions. In several on-farm experiences, these crops produced more than 800 kg ha-1 of oil with good energy properties. Defatted seed meals could be

  13. Mixed crop-livestock farming: an economical and environmental-friendly way to intensify production?

    OpenAIRE

    Ryschawy, Julie; Choisis, Jean Philippe; Choisis, Norma; Gibon, Annick

    2010-01-01

    Intensification and specialization of agriculture allowed increasing its productivity but also induced detrimental impacts on the environment and challenges for the economical viability of numerous farms. Association between livestock and crops, which was common in the past, is given consideration worldwide. It is regarded as a possible way for improving nutrient cycling while reducing chemical inputs, increasing sustainability of natural resources management, and also generating economies of...

  14. Economics of organic versus chemical farming for three crops in Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sudheer, P. Sri Krishna

    2013-01-01

    To tackle the challenge of food grain production and food security, chemical agriculture advocates call for the continuing or higher use of chemical fertilizers and synthetic pesticides. However, the continuous use and higher reliance on these inputs can lead to a reduction in crop productivity, deterioration in the quality of natural resources and the eco-system. Organic farming offers a solution for sustainable agricultural growth and safeguarding the ecosystem. A conversion from chemical...

  15. The role of engineering in organic farming – case energy crops

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Winfried

    2007-01-01

    Energy self-reliance and a closed nutrient cycle are basic principles of organic farming ever since. Engineering sciences methods in energy accounting may support efforts to introduce these principles into praxis. A method to calculate efficiency of energy crop production including sun energy, direct and indirect energy for cultivation, processing, and conversion into fuel is demonstrated using rape and derived fuels as an example. Every production and conversion step is a process and calcula...

  16. Economic analysis of stockless, horticultural crop rotations on a model farm in temperate zone organic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schmutz, Ulrich; Firth, Chris; Rayns, Francis

    2005-01-01

    Research draws on an organic research farm site in central England with a temperate zone climate - fairly common for the northern lowlands of Europe. The soil type is a sandy loam with 591 mm rainfall. Detailed economic and agronomic data have been collected since conversion began in 1995. The economic analysis discusses rotational gross and net margins of more than 30 different rotations with different fertility building and vegetable crops (potatoes, cabbages, onions, carrots, leeks and par...

  17. Mixed Crop Livestock Farming Incorporating Agroforestry Orchards Facing the New Cap

    OpenAIRE

    Ducros, Denis; Kephaliacos, Charilaos; Ridier, Aude

    2005-01-01

    In the context of the new CAP, decoupling subsidies from production should incite farmers to reorganize their production systems, particularly through diversification opportunities. In this paper we focus our analysis on the conditions that could permit the development of extensive orchards by modelling mixed crop livestock farms, which incorporate orchards. A mathematical programming model is built to simulate various intensification levels characterizing different technical pathways within ...

  18. Crop Insurance, the Backbone of Indian farming communityIssues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr Susil Kumar Sarangi,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamism of the farming sector, and its environment, is reflected in developments in the design of new insurance products. In the last decade two types of new products have been introduced. In some cases these have partially displaced existing covers; in others they have resulted in demand from new clients. Implementation of technology in farming usually involves investment. Such changes also frequently alter the risk profile of the enterprise. There are occasions when insurance can be a key component in a range of risk management strategies for the insurers. From an administrative point of view bank-insurer linkages make a lot of sense, since both these providers of financial services require similar client data. This type of link, crop insurance and loans, is already very common, both in developing and developed agriculture. The vast, heavily subsidized scheme in India is largely linked to bank lending. So instead of the usual policy wording, such as indemnity, or range of indemnity levels, or a per hectare basis for a given crop, for losses from specific causes, the coupon merely gives a monetary sum which becomes payable on certification that the named weather event, of specified severity, has occurred. Again the role of state is very important making available crop insurance on a large scale, as they are public good in nature. Recently in Odisha, for crops such as Niger, cotton, red grams, jute, turmeric, ginger and banana, the farmers of selected blocks in some district could take advantage of the scheme. Because indemnity claim is settled only on the basis of yield data furnished by the State government. Hence the criteria that is based on requisite number of crop cutting experiments conducted under general crop estimation surveys should be supported by State to offer desired result in crop insurance.

  19. Climate Change Adaptation Strategies and Farm-level Efficiency in Food Crop Production in Southwestern, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otitoju, MA.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food crop yields depend largely on prevailing climate conditions, especially in Africa, where rain-fed agriculture predominate. The extent to which climate impacts are felt depends principally on the adaptation measures used by farmers. This study focused on the effect of climate change adaptation strategies on farm-level technical efficiency. The study used primary data collected from 360 randomly selected farmers in Southwest Nigeria. Cobb-Douglass stochastic frontier production model was used to analyse the data. Multiple cropping, land fragmentation, multiple planting dates, mulching and cover cropping were the major climate change adaptation strategies employed by the farmers. While land fragmentation and multiple planting dates had significant positive relationships, years of climate change awareness and social capital had significant inverse relationships, with technical inefficiency. This may be because while land fragmentation may hinder farm mechanization, multiple planting dates may increase the monotonousness and drudgery of farming. On the other hand, social capital and climate change awareness could help ameliorate the effects of, particularly, land fragmentation through resource pooling. It is therefore recommended that the farmers be encouraged to form cooperative societies so as to leverage their resource status through collective efforts.

  20. Environmental evaluation and benchmarking of the traditional dryland Mediterranean crop farming system in the Alentejo region of Portugal.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado, Maria; Marques, Carlos; Fragoso, Rui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the effects of traditional Mediterranean crop farming system of the Alentejo region of Portugal on environment are evaluated and benchmarked. With this objective a typical farm of the region using a traditional system based on a crop-rotation of durum wheat with sunflower and peas was selected. Environmental indicators were used to evaluate production activities environmental effects. These include nitrogen balance and energy input determined using input and output processes ana...

  1. Returns to the Jersey Fresh Promotional Program: The Impacts of Promotional Expenditures on Farm Cash Receipts in New Jersey

    OpenAIRE

    Govindasamy, Ramu; Schilling, Brian J.; Sullivan, Kevin P.; Turvey, Calum G.; Brown, Logan; Puduri, Venkata S.

    2004-01-01

    In 1984, the Jersey Fresh program was implemented by the New Jersey Department of Agriculture and was the first state-funded marketing campaign for agricultural products produced in New Jersey. In an effort to spur demand for New Jersey farm products, this program was designed to increase consumer awareness of the state’s agricultural products as well as to encourage food retailers to promote Jersey Fresh products. With funding from the USDA’s Federal-State Marketing Improvement Program, the ...

  2. Development of a farm-firm modelling system for evaluation of herbaceous energy crops. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, B.C.; Alexander, R.R.; Loewen, K.H.; Coady, S.A.; Cole, G.V.; Goodman, W.R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology

    1992-01-01

    A complete analysis is performed to simulate biomass production incorporated into a realistic whole farm situation, including or replacing a typical crop mix. Representative farms are constructed to accommodate such simulation. Four management systems are simulated for each firm, with each simulation depicting a different crop mix and/or use of different farming technologies and production methods. The first simulation was a base farm plan in which the operator would maintain the historical crop mix for the area, participate in all price support programs, and not participate in either a conservative reserve or a biomass production program. In the second simulation, the operator would again maintain the historical crop mix, would not participate in a conservation reserve or biomass production program, and would be ineligible to participate in any price support system. The third simulation introduced the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and included participation in all price support programs. The fourth simulation introduced a biomass crop production enterprise (switchgrass) as an alternative to enrolling highly erodible cropland in the CRP and allowed participation in price support programs. Simulations were made for three farms, two in West Tennessee and on in South Georgia. Results indicate that erosion is likely to be reduced more by the diversion of cropland to permanent vegetative cover on farms similar to the more highly erodible West Tennessee farms than on the less erodible Tift County, Georgia farm. Equivalent reductions in erosion rates result from entering highly erodible cropland in the CRP and from production of switchgrass as a biomass energy crop. Both switchgrass and CRP farm plans result in decreased net returns from the base plan, although the biomass farm plans are, in general, more profitable than the CRP plans.

  3. Cover crops effect on farm benefits and nitrate leaching: linking economic and environmental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Vanclooster, Marnik; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Introducing cover crops interspersed with intensively fertilized crops in rotation has the potential to reduce nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of the technique is still limited because growing CC could lead to extra costs for the farm in three different forms: direct, indirect, and opportunity costs. Environmental studies are complex, and evaluating the indicators that are representative of the environmental impact of an agricultural system is a complicated task that is conducted by specialized groups and methodologies. Multidisciplinary studies may help to develop reliable approaches that would contribute to choosing the best agricultural strategies based on linking economic and environmental benefits. This study evaluates barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo) as cover crops between maize, leaving the residue in the ground or selling it for animal feeding, and compares the economic and environmental results with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. Nitrate leaching for different weather conditions was calculated using the mechanistic-deterministic WAVE model, using the Richards equation parameterised with a conceptual model for the soil hydraulic properties for describing the water flow in the vadose zone, combined with field observed data. The economic impact was evaluated through stochastic (Monte-Carlo) simulation models of farms' profits using probability distribution functions of maize yield and cover crop biomass developed fitted with data collected from various field trials (during more than 5 years) and probability distribution functions of maize and different cover crop forage prices fitted from statistical sources. Stochastic dominance relationships are obtained to rank the most profitable strategies from a farm financial perspective

  4. Soil, crop and emission responses to seasonal-controlled traffic in organic vegetable farming on loam soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Mosquera Losada, J.

    2009-01-01

    Some organic arable and vegetable farms in the Netherlands use cm-precise guidance of machinery to restrict wheel traffic to fixed traffic lanes and to achieve non-trafficked cropping zones with optimized soil structure in between the lanes. Contrary to controlled traffic farming (CTF) the traffic l

  5. Organic farming and cover crops as an alternative to mineral fertilizers to improve soil physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Cima, Diego; Luik, Anne; Reintam, Endla

    2015-10-01

    For testing how cover crops and different fertilization managements affect the soil physical properties in a plough based tillage system, a five-year crop rotation experiment (field pea, white potato, common barley undersown with red clover, red clover, and winter wheat) was set. The rotation was managed under four different farming systems: two conventional: with and without mineral fertilizers and two organic, both with winter cover crops (later ploughed and used as green manure) and one where cattle manure was added yearly. The measurements conducted were penetration resistance, soil water content, porosity, water permeability, and organic carbon. Yearly variations were linked to the number of tillage operations, and a cumulative effect of soil organic carbon in the soil as a result of the different fertilization amendments, organic or mineral. All the systems showed similar tendencies along the three years of study and differences were only found between the control and the other systems. Mineral fertilizers enhanced the overall physical soil conditions due to the higher yield in the system. In the organic systems, cover crops and cattle manure did not have a significant effect on soil physical properties in comparison with the conventional ones, which were kept bare during the winter period. The extra organic matter boosted the positive effect of crop rotation, but the higher number of tillage operations in both organic systems counteracted this effect to a greater or lesser extent.

  6. Uav Multispectral Survey to Map Soil and Crop for Precision Farming Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonaa, Giovanna; Passoni, Daniele; Pinto, Livio; Pagliari, Diana; Masseroni, Daniele; Ortuani, Bianca; Facchi, Arianna

    2016-06-01

    New sensors mounted on UAV and optimal procedures for survey, data acquisition and analysis are continuously developed and tested for applications in precision farming. Procedures to integrate multispectral aerial data about soil and crop and ground-based proximal geophysical data are a recent research topic aimed to delineate homogeneous zones for the management of agricultural inputs (i.e., water, nutrients). Multispectral and multitemporal orthomosaics were produced over a test field (a 100 m x 200 m plot within a maize field), to map vegetation and soil indices, as well as crop heights, with suitable ground resolution. UAV flights were performed in two moments during the crop season, before sowing on bare soil, and just before flowering when maize was nearly at the maximum height. Two cameras, for color (RGB) and false color (NIR-RG) images, were used. The images were processed in Agisoft Photoscan to produce Digital Surface Model (DSM) of bare soil and crop, and multispectral orthophotos. To overcome some difficulties in the automatic searching of matching points for the block adjustment of the crop image, also the scientific software developed by Politecnico of Milan was used to enhance images orientation. Surveys and image processing are described, as well as results about classification of multispectral-multitemporal orthophotos and soil indices.

  7. The Profitability of Animal Husbandry Activities on Farms in Dry Farming Areas and the Interaction between Crop Production and Animal Husbandry: The Case of Ankara Province in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Tanrıvermis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the linkages between livestock and crop farming activities and provides a comparative analysis of the profitability of different livestock activities in the highlands of Ankara. The data was collected from 52 sample farms in the Nallıhan, Aya¸s, Güdül and Beypazarı districts of Ankara by way of a questionnaire, where the farms have, on average, 20.7 ha of land and are thus regarded as small family farms. Insufficient irrigated land and working capital, weak market relations and the pressure of high population brings about a requirement to strengthen crop-livestock interaction. Production on the farms is generally carried out in extensive conditions, with goat, sheep and cattle husbandry in addition to crop production. Crop production makes up for 20.8% of the total gross production value on the farms. Of this figure, the entire yields of wheat, barley, pulses, straw and fodder crops are used for own consumption by the households, along with 74% of the wheat and 77% of the barley produced. The research results indicate that the current management systems may be defined as mixed farms in terms of crop–livestock linkages. The average total income of the households surveyed is 9,412.0 USD, of which 63.4% comes from farming activities. Every 1 USD invested in animal husbandry provides an income of 1.12 USD from dairy cattle breeding, 1.13 USD from Angora goat breeding, 1.16 USD from sheep breeding and 1.27 USD from ordinary goat breeding. It has been found that ordinary goat breeding, which provides the greatest relative profitability for the farms, offers many advantages, and that the transition from Angora goat breeding to ordinary goat breeding through the breeding of ordinary male goats into the Angora herd has occurred in recent years. The results of the survey indicate that supporting crop production with animal husbandry is considered a requirement in order to maintain economic and social sustainability in the farms

  8. Conversion of lowland tropical forests to tree cash crop plantations loses up to one-half of stored soil organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, Oliver; Corre, Marife D; Wolf, Katrin; Tchienkoua, Martin; Cuellar, Eloy; Matthews, Robin B; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-08-11

    Tropical deforestation for the establishment of tree cash crop plantations causes significant alterations to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Despite this recognition, the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tier 1 method has a SOC change factor of 1 (no SOC loss) for conversion of forests to perennial tree crops, because of scarcity of SOC data. In this pantropic study, conducted in active deforestation regions of Indonesia, Cameroon, and Peru, we quantified the impact of forest conversion to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforestry plantations on SOC stocks within 3-m depth in deeply weathered mineral soils. We also investigated the underlying biophysical controls regulating SOC stock changes. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we compared SOC stocks from paired forests (n = 32) and adjacent plantations (n = 54). Our study showed that deforestation for tree plantations decreased SOC stocks by up to 50%. The key variable that predicted SOC changes across plantations was the amount of SOC present in the forest before conversion--the higher the initial SOC, the higher the loss. Decreases in SOC stocks were most pronounced in the topsoil, although older plantations showed considerable SOC losses below 1-m depth. Our results suggest that (i) the IPCC tier 1 method should be revised from its current SOC change factor of 1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 for oil palm and cacao agroforestry plantations and 0.8 ± 0.3 for rubber plantations in the humid tropics; and (ii) land use management policies should protect natural forests on carbon-rich mineral soils to minimize SOC losses. PMID:26217000

  9. A Step towards Precision Farming of Rice Crop by Estimating Loss Caused by Leaf Blast Disease Using Digital Image Processing and Fuzzy Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Toran Verma, Susanta Kumar Satpathy, Lokesh Kumar Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Precision Farming (PF) is generally defined as an information and technology based farm management system to identify, analyze and manage variability within fields for optimum profitability, sustainability and protection of the land resource. In this mode of farming, new information technologies can be used to make better decision about many aspects of crop production. Timely estimation and diagnosis of crop diseases in fields is very critical for the production of the crop. Blast is the most...

  10. Farming system design for innovative crop-livestock integration in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraine, M; Duru, M; Nicholas, P; Leterme, P; Therond, O

    2014-08-01

    The development of integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS) is a major challenge for the ecological modernisation of agriculture but appears difficult to implement at a large scale. A participatory method for ICLS design has been developed and implemented in 15 case studies across Europe, representing a range of production systems, challenges, constraints and resources for innovation. Local stakeholders, primarily farmers, but also cooperatives, environmental-association representatives and natural-resource managers, were involved in the identification of challenges and existing initiatives of crop-livestock integration; in the design of new options at field, farm and territory levels; and then in qualitative multicriteria assessment of these options. A conceptual framework based on a conceptual model (crops, grasslands, animals) was developed to act as a boundary object in the design step and invite innovative thinking in 'metabolic' and 'ecosystemic' approaches. A diversity of crops and grasslands interacting with animals appeared central for designing sustainable farming systems at the territory level, providing and benefitting from ecosystem services. Within this diversity, we define three types of integrated systems according to their degrees of spatial and temporal coordination: complementarity, local synergy, territorial synergy. Moreover, the options for cooperation and collective organisation between farmers and other stakeholders in territories to organise and manage this diversity of land use revealed opportunities for smart social innovation. The qualitative multicriteria assessment identified farmer workload as the main issue of concern while demonstrating expected benefits of ICLS simultaneously for economic, agronomic, environmental and social criteria. This study concludes that participatory design of ICLS based on a generic multi-level and multi-domain framework and a methodology to deal with a local context can identify new systems to be tested

  11. Multi-farm economic analysis of perennial energy crops in Central Greece, taking into account the CAP reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyses farm level economic impacts of biomass production from perennial crops including Arundo donax L. (arundo), Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus), Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) and Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon). Regional biomass supply curves are estimated with a dynamic, multi-farm, mathematical programming model. Micro-economic data for the model are generated from farm surveys covering 52 farms containing a total of 400 parcels, in Central Greece. The study also examines the potential effects of the Common Agricultural Policy reform in 2003 on regional biomass supply. Simulations show that the policy reform toward decoupled subsidies lowers the cost of biomass between 15 and 25 euro per tonne. Switchgrass appears to be the most attractive option, followed by cardoon and miscanthus. Due to high specific machinery cost, arundo is never preferred. Relative to the agricultural policy setting of Agenda 2000, the biomass potential increases more for farms of small economic size and farms with a higher share of cotton. (author)

  12. Management of Yellowmargined Leaf Beetle Microtheca ochroloma (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Using Turnip as a Trap Crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balusu, Rammohan; Rhodes, Elena; Liburd, Oscar; Fadamiro, Henry

    2015-12-01

    The yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma Stål, is a major pest of cruciferous vegetable crops in organic production systems. Very few organically acceptable management options are currently available for this pest. Field studies were conducted at a research station in Alabama and at a commercial organic vegetable farm in Florida to investigate the effectiveness of turnip, Brassica rapa rapa, as a trap crop for M. ochroloma. In the research station trial with cabbage planted as the cash crop, perimeter planting of turnip as a trap crop effectively reduced beetle numbers and crop damage below levels recorded in the control. During the first season of our on-farm trial, with napa cabbage and mustard as the cash crops, using turnip as a trap crop effectively reduced both beetle numbers and cash crop damage below levels found in the control plots, but economic damage was still high. In the second season, beetle populations were too low for significant differences in damage levels to occur between the trap crop and control plots. Together, these results suggest that turnip planted as a trap crop can be an effective control tactic for cruciferous crops, like cabbage, that are much less attractive to M. ochroloma than turnip. In crops, like mustard and napa cabbage, that are equally or only slightly less attractive than turnip, planting turnip as a trap crop would have to be used in combination with other tactics to manage M. ochroloma. PMID:26470380

  13. Study of the degradation of mulch materials in vegetable crops for organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Moreno, Marta; Mancebo, Ignacio; Moreno, Carmen; Villena, Jaime; Meco, Ramón

    2014-05-01

    early but once they have fulfilled their functions, appearing as a good alternative to PE, especially in organic farming. Project INIA RTA2011-00104-C04-03. References: Kasirajan, S.; Ngouajio, M. 2012. Polyethylene and biodegradable mulches for agricultural applications: a review. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 32: 501-529. Martín-Closas, L.; Pelacho, A.M. 2011. Agronomic potential of biopolymer films. p. 277-299. In: Biopolymers. New materials for sustainable films and coating. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Moreno, M.M.; Moreno A. 2008. Effect of different biodegradable and polyethylene mulches on productivity and soil thermal and biological properties in a tomato crop. Sci. Hort. 116(3): 256-263.

  14. The Benefits and Challenges of Farming in Mixed Crop-Livestock Production Systems in Ala-Buka, Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Zhumanova, Munavar; Maharjan, Keshav Lall; Orozumbekov, Almazbek

    2014-01-01

    In Kyrgyzstan, the agrarian land reform has changed Soviet model of state-owned land with predominance of large-scale farm enterprises to a market-oriented model of privately owned land with predominance of small and medium-sized family farms. This study intends to analyze costs and benefits realized by farmers in producing major food crops, and to identify major challenges faced by these farmers in producing these crops. Field study was carried out in Baltagulov and 1-May Village Governments...

  15. Cross-Disciplinary Analysis of the On-Farm Transition from Conventional to Organic Vegetable Production

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Louise E; Smukler, Sean M.; Murphree, Liese; Yokota, Ron; Koike, Steve; Smith, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This farm-scale analysis of the three-year transition to organic from conventional vegetable production tracked the changes in crop, soil, pest and management on two ranches (40 and 47 ha) in the Salinas Valley, California. Many small plantings of a diverse set of cash crop and cover crop species were used, as compared to only a few species in large monocultures in conventional production. The general trends with time were: increase in soil biological indicators, low soil nitrate pools, adequ...

  16. Possibilities of carbon and nitrogen sequestration under conventional tillage and no-till cover crop farming (Mekong valley, Laos)

    OpenAIRE

    De Rouw, Anneke; Huon, S.; Soulileuth, B.; Jouquet, Pascal; Pierret, Alain; Ribolzi, Olivier; Valentin, Christian; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Chantharath, B.

    2010-01-01

    There is limited information, particularly in the tropics, of farming systems that loose or accumulate carbon in their soils. We compared no-till with a mulch-providing cover crop with conventional tillage without cover crop. Side effects were also investigated, weeds, surface crusting, soil macrofauna, infiltration, porosity and roots. The study site was a flat sandy clay loam. Treatments were maintained over five years; within this period, the time between the first and last soil sampling w...

  17. Effect of tillage and intercropping on crop productivity, profitability and soil fertility under tribal farming situations of India

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K.; Mishra, K.N.; Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Halbrendt, Jacqueline; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2013-01-01

    Low crop yields due to continuous monocropping and deteriorating soil health in smallholder farm fields of tribal villages in India have led to a quest for conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS). This objective of the study was to assess the combined effect of reduced tillage, intercropping and residue management on 1) crop yield, 2) farmer’s profitability, and 3) soil physico-chemical properties. Selected treatments included an introduction of intercropping of maize with cowpea (...

  18. Identifying a Potential Trap Crop for a Novel Insect Pest, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), in Organic Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Anne L; Dively, Galen; Pote, John M; Zinati, Gladis; Mathews, Clarissa

    2016-04-01

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, poses significant risk to organic farming systems because they rely on biological control, nonsynthetic inputs, and cultural tactics for pest management. This study evaluated the potential of five crop plants (sorghum, admiral pea, millet, okra, and sunflower) to be used as trap crops under organic production in four mid-Atlantic states. Stink bug (H. halys and endemic species) densities and host plant phenologies were recorded weekly (mid-June through September). Sorghum attracted significantly more H. halys than the other crops evaluated, followed by sunflower and okra. Seasonal average H. halys density was 1.5-4× higher on sorghum than the other crops (P crops except admiral pea. A significant effect of time was detected (P crops together provided a 5-wk attraction period coinciding with peak H. halys activity. The efficacies of pheromone-baited traps, flaming, applying OMRI-approved insecticides (Azera and Venerate), and vacuuming to removing stink bugs were evaluated as a management tactic. Flaming was the most effective treatment against H. halys and endemic stink bugs. Our results suggest that a trap crop composed of sorghum and sunflower may be an effective management tool for the mid-Atlantic stink bug complex, including H. halys. Future research should address the appropriate size and placement of trap crop within the farm. PMID:26916518

  19. Particulate concentrations during on-farm combustion of energy crops of different shapes and harvest seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournel, S.; Palacios, J. H.; Morissette, R.; Villeneuve, J.; Godbout, S.; Heitz, M.; Savoie, P.

    2015-03-01

    The increasing energy costs and environmental concerns of farms have motivated the growing interest of agricultural producers in using farm-grown biomass as a substitute to fossil fuels for heat production. However, the use of non-woody biomass is facing challenges due to variability regarding chemical composition and fuel properties that may induce problems during combustion such as particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to measure and compare total PM concentrations during on-farm combustion of wood and four agricultural crops: short-rotation willow, switchgrass, miscanthus and reed canary grass. In order to study the influence of physicochemical properties, different shapes (pellets, chips and chopped grasses) and harvest seasons (fall and spring) were also evaluated. In this context, a representative small-scale (29 kW), multi-fuel boiler for light commercial use was utilized. The boiler was also non-catalytic so that the burning took place in a single combustion chamber. Overall, twelve different biomass fuels were tested and each product was burned three times. Mean PM concentration of wood (416 mg Nm-3 at 7 vol% O2) was lower than that of the four dedicated energy crops (505-1417 mg Nm-3 at 7 vol% O2). However, because of the high variability between the experiments, no statistical significance was observed at P > 0.1 level except in one case. The PM amounts were high compared to literature data and Quebec's environmental regulation mainly because of the boiler system used. Except for willow, pelletized products decreased PM levels by 22-52% compared to chopped materials. Bulky biomass of low density was unable to reach steady-state conditions and produced compounds associated with incomplete combustion including PM. Spring-harvested biomass fuels showed a PM reduction up to 48% compared to fall-harvested crops. This was likely due to a 20-60% decrease of several chemical elements in the biomass, namely S, Cl, K and P which are the main

  20. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn–soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn–switchgrass system. A novel triticale–hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops. (letter)

  1. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, Robert K.; Hallam, Arne; Schulte, Lisa A.; Heaton, Emily A.; Gunther, Theo; Hall, Richard B.; Moore, Ken J.

    2013-09-01

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn-soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn-switchgrass system. A novel triticale-hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops.

  2. Impacts and adaptation of the cropping systems to climate change in the Northeast Farming Region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Wang, M.;

    2016-01-01

    The Northeast Farming Region of China (NFR) is a very important crop growing area, comprising seven sub-regions: Xing’anling (XA), Sanjiang (SJ), Northwest Songliao (NSL), Central Songliao (CSL), Southwest Songliao (SSL), Changbaishan (CB) and Liaodong (LD), which has been severely affected...... to become more severe for crop production under climate change. Adaptation measures that have already been implemented in recent decades to cope with current climatic limitations include changes in timing of cultivation, variety choice, soil tillage practices, crop protection, irrigation and use of plastic...

  3. Aggregating field-scale knowledge into farm-scale models of African smallholder systems: Summary functions to simulate crop production using APSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikowo, R.; Corbeels, M.; Tittonell, P.A.; Vanlauwe, B.; Whitbread, A.M.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency with which applied resources are utilized in sub-Saharan African cropping systems is especially critical as the resources are generally scarce. Research efforts to improve farm productivity increasingly focus on resource interactions and trade-offs operating at farm-scale. Farm-scale

  4. Effects of grass-clover management and cover crops on nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide emissions in a stockless organic crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brozyna, Michal Adam; Petersen, Søren O; Chirinda, Ngoni;

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) supply in stockless organic farming may be improved through use of grass-clover for anaerobic digestion, producing biogas and digested manure for use as fertilizer in the crop rotation. We studied the effects of grass-clover management on N cycling, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions...... and cash-crop yields in an organic arable crop rotation on a sandy loam soil in a cool temperate climate. The four-course crop rotation included spring barley (with undersown grass-clover), grass-clover, potato and winter wheat (with undersown cover crop). Two fertilization treatments were compared: “−M......” where plant material from grass-clover cuts was left in the field to decompose and no fertilizer or manure was applied to any crop in the rotation; and “+M” where plant material from grass-clover cuts was harvested and equivalent amounts of N in digested manure used for fertilization of cash crops...

  5. IMPACT OF EXPORT HORTICULTURE FARMING ON PER CAPITA CALORIE INTAKE OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL PROVINCES IN KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Wambui Chege

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In attempting to achieve household food security for smallholder farmers, synergies and tradeoffs exist between cash cropping, food cropping and food security. Available evidence on the impact of cash cropping on food security shows mixed results. The objective of this paper was to assess the impact of export horticulture farming on food security of smallholder farmers in Kenya in two provinces in different agro-ecological zones with different resource and infrastructural endowments, crop growing and marketing conditions. This was done using propensity score matching. The results indicate a positive impact on food security in high potential area and a negative impact in the arid area that is already food deficit. Encouraging export horticulture or cash cropping, aiming at achieving household food security, may not be a one size fit all. Regional differences and particular growing and marketing conditions as well as intra household income distribution patterns play a role and should be considered.

  6. Nitrogen cycling in organic farming systems with rotational grass-clover and arable crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Jørgen; Grant, Ruth; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak; Vinther, Finn Pilgaard; Mølgaard, Jens Peter; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    2006-01-01

    Organic farming is considered an effective means of reducing nitrogen losses compared with more intensive conventional farming systems. However, under certain conditions, organic farming may also be susceptible to large nitrogen (N) losses. This i especially the case for organic .....

  7. A Step towards Precision Farming of Rice Crop by Estimating Loss Caused by Leaf Blast Disease Using Digital Image Processing and Fuzzy Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toran Verma, Susanta Kumar Satpathy, Lokesh Kumar Sharma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Precision Farming (PF is generally defined as an information and technology based farm management system to identify, analyze and manage variability within fields for optimum profitability, sustainability and protection of the land resource. In this mode of farming, new information technologies can be used to make better decision about many aspects of crop production. Timely estimation and diagnosis of crop diseases in fields is very critical for the production of the crop. Blast is the most important fungal disease of rice and occurs in all ricegrowing regions. In this paper, we describe the application of Fuzzy C-Mean Clustering algorithm to estimate the loss caused by blast disease in rice crop. A digital image has been taken by digital camera of rice crop, which is further analyzed by taking RGB feature of that image and then classified using Fuzzy CMean Clustering algorithm. That clustered information can be used for precision farming by farmer for decision support system.

  8. The expansion of farm-based plantation forestry in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandewall, Mats; Ohlsson, Bo; Sandewall, R Kajsa; Viet, Le Sy

    2010-12-01

    This study targets plantation forestry by farm households (small holders), which is increasing globally and most rapidly in China and Vietnam. By use of an interdisciplinary approach on three study sites in Vietnam, we examined the trends in farmers' tree planting over time, the various pre-requisites for farm-based plantation forestry and its impact on rural people's livelihood strategies, socioeconomic status, income and security. The findings indicated a change from subsistence to cash-based household economy, diversification of farmers' incomes and a transformation of the landscape from mainly natural forests, via deforestation and shifting cultivation, to a landscape dominated by farm-based plantations. The trend of transformation, over a period of some 30 years, towards cash crops and forestry was induced by a combination of policy, market, institutional, infrastructural and other conditions and the existence of professional farming communities, and was most rapid close to the industrial market. PMID:21141776

  9. Crop-Cattle Integrated Farming System: An Alternative of Climatic Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munandar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An integrated farming system is one of the alternatives for climatic change mitigation. This paper reports the application of corn-cattle based integrated farming system in Agrotechno Park Center of Palembang, and discusses its impact on CO2 fixation and the reduction of methane emissions. The study was based on the data of the first 6 yr from 2003 until 2009. The CO2 fixed in the soil and plants was determined based on the content of organic C which was multiplied by the index of 3.67. The methane gas produced by Balinese cattle and its dung was observed and modified into feed rations. The results showed that soil organic C increased from 40.80 tons C/ha in the 1st yr to 66.40 tons C/ha in the 6th yr. In addition, there was organic C fixation equivalent to 93.95 tons of CO2e. Corn biomass increased from 6.67 tons/ha to 18.66 tons/ha, equivalent to an increase in the fixation of atmospheric CO2e as much as 19.80 tons CO2e/ha. The supplementation of 60%-80% grass fodder with concentrate lowered the concentration of methane gas in cattle breathing by 28.7%, from 617 ppm to 440 ppm, while the methane emissions from cattle manure decreased by 31%, from 1367 mL/head/d to 943 mL/head/d. Installing a bio digester that generates biogas served to accommodate methane gas emissions from cattle dung and used it for bioenergy. Composting reduced the formation of methane gas from cattle manure through a regular process of turning over that gives aeration and forms aerobic condition in the heap of cattle dung. Recycling produces a variety of organic products that store carbon for a longer period of time and slowed the conversion of organic C into CO2. This study showed that the diverse activities of an integrated crop-cattle farming could be an alternative solution to climatic change mitigation.

  10. Using remote sensing to calculate plant available nitrogen needed by crops on swine factory farm sprayfields in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Serre, Marc

    2015-10-01

    North Carolina (NC) is the second largest producer of hogs in the United States with Duplin county, NC having the densest population of hogs in the world. In NC, liquid swine manure is generally stored in open-air lagoons and sprayed onto sprayfields with sprinkler systems to be used as fertilizer for crops. Swine factory farms, termed concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), are regulated by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) based on nutrient management plans (NMPs) having balanced plant available nitrogen (PAN). The estimated PAN in liquid manure being sprayed must be less than the estimated PAN needed crops during irrigation. Estimates for PAN needed by crops are dependent on crop and soil types. Objectives of this research were to develop a new, time-efficient method to identify PAN needed by crops on Duplin county sprayfields for years 2010-2014. Using remote sensing data instead of NMP data to identify PAN needed by crops allowed calendar year identification of which crops were grown on sprayfields instead of a five-year range of values. Although permitted data have more detailed crop information than remotely sensed data, identification of PAN needed by crops using remotely sensed data is more time efficient, internally consistent, easily publically accessible, and has the ability to identify annual changes in PAN on sprayfields. Once PAN needed by crops is known, remote sensing can be used to quantify PAN at other spatial scales, such as sub-watershed levels, and can be used to inform targeted water quality monitoring of swine CAFOs.

  11. Cash Income Diversification in Rural Small Holder Cassava Producing Households of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achike, AI.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of poverty alleviation for the people of less developed nations of the world has currently assumed the status of a recurring decimal. This is particularly critical for sub-Saharan Africa, because, the region contains a growing share of the world's absolute poor, with most of these found among rural farm households. High variability in crop yield and thus income variability arising from the vagaries of weather makes income diversification important for these households in order to improve their economic status. This paper, based on primary data collected as part of the Collaborative Study of Cassava in Africa, identified factors that drive cash income diversification decisions among rural farm households of Nigeria. Using Heckman's two-stage model, it separates the first discrete decision of whether or not to engage in noncrop income activities from the continuous decision of how much non-crop income is needed by the household. While the level of formal education of the household head, good market access conditions and availability of initial liquidity stimulate the first decision to start non-crop income activities, only household characteristics (also including the level of formal education of the household head drive the extent of non-crop cash income earned by the household. These observations further underscore the need for investing in people – education, and in infrastructure – improving market access, as potent tools for economic empowerment.

  12. Cropping Intensity and Organic Amendments in Transitional Farming Systems: Effects on Soil Fertility, Weeds, Diseases and Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Wander, Michelle; Eastman, Catherine; Zaborski, Edmond; Eastburn, Darin; Masiunas, John; Engiseth, Nicki; Ugarte, Carmen; Marzano, Shinyi; Rosa, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    The Windsor Organic Research Trial (WORT) is a farming systems experiment initiated in 2003 to investigate alternative strategies for transitioning to certified organic vegetable production that compares the influence of transition schemes that differ in management intensity (cropping, tillage) and organic matter inputs on weeds; soil organic matter and nutrient availability; soil invertebrate communities; and the relationship between soil fertility, plant health and insect/disease pressure. ...

  13. Soil erosion potential of organic versus conventional farming evaluated by USLE modelling of cropping statistics for agricultural districts in Bavaria

    OpenAIRE

    Auerswald, Karl; Kainz, Max; Fiener, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Organic agriculture (OA) aims to identify a production regime that causes less environmental problems than conventional agriculture (CA). We examined whether the two systems differ in their susceptibility to soil erosion by water. To account for the large heterogeneity within the rotations practised on different farms, we chose a statistical evaluation which modelled erosion using the USLE method from the cropping statistics for 2056 districts in Bavaria (70 547 km2; 29.8% arable). Physical c...

  14. Environmental Assessment : Use of Row Crop Farming and Genetically-modified, Glyphosate-tolerant Corn and Soybeans on National Wildlife Refuges and Wetlands Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Midwest Region of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service uses row crop farming on lands within the National Wildlife Refuge System to achieve a variety of...

  15. Energy balance in rainfed herbaceous crops in a semiarid environment for a 15-year experiment. 1. Impact of farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M. M.; Moreno, C.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Meco, R.

    2012-04-01

    During the last years, agricultural practices have led to increase yields by means of the massive consumption on non-renewable fossil energy. However, the viability of a production system does not depend solely on crop yield, but also on its efficiency in the use of available resources. This work is part of a larger study assessing the effects of three farming systems (conventional, conservation with zero tillage, and organic) and four barley-based crop rotations (barley monoculture and in rotation with vetch, sunflower and fallow) on the energy balance of crop production under the semi-arid conditions over a 15 year period. However, the present work is focused on the farming system effect, so crop rotations and years are averaged. Experiments were conducted at "La Higueruela" Experimental Farm (4°26' W, 40°04' N, altitude 450 m) (Spanish National Research Council, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain). The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean, with an average seasonal rainfall of 480 mm irregularly distributed and a 4-month summer drought period. Conventional farming included the use of moldboard plow for tillage, chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Conservation farming was developed with zero tillage, direct sowing and chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Organic farming included the use of cultivator and no chemical fertilizers or herbicides. The energy balance method used required the identification and quantification of all the inputs and outputs implied, and the conversion to energy values by corresponding coefficients. The parameters considered were (i) energy inputs (EI) (diesel, machines, fertilizers, herbicides, seeds) (ii) energy outputs (EO) (energy in the harvested biomass), (iii) net energy produced (NE) (EI - EO), (iv) the energy output/input ratio (O/I), and (v) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI). EI was 3.0 and 3.5 times higher in conservation (10.4 GJ ha-1 year-1) and conventional (11.7 GJ ha-1 year-1) than in organic farming (3.41 GJ ha-1

  16. Crops use-efficiency of nitrogen from manures permitted in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, M.A.; Pereira, A.; Cabanas, J.E.; Dias, L. G.; Pires, Jaime; Arrobas, Margarida

    2006-01-01

    The current increase in the organic agriculture segment has created a new market for fertilisers permitted for use in organic farming. Off-farm N sources for organic farming are scarce, considering the restriction on the use of chemical fertilisers. Thus, when some products are permitted in organic agriculture, commercial opportunities become available. In this study we compare the performances of Vegethumus (Veg) and Phenix (Phe), two manures that are permitted in organic farming, with sever...

  17. CADMIUM EXPOSURE VIA FOOD CROPS: A CASE STUDY OF INTENSIVE FARMING AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raagheni Munisamy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is ubiquitous in environment and may enter food chain through intense application of phosphate fertilizers to agricultural crops. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Kuala Terla and Blue Valley farming villages, Cameron Highlands to determine cadmium concentration in vegetables and soil and to determine the health risks among respondents. A total of 87 respondents were selected based on inclusive and exclusive criteria. A set of pre-tested questionnaires utilized to obtain socio-demographic information and to predict health risks faced by the respondents based on their vegetable ingestion rate. The Average Daily Dose (ADD and Target Hazard Quotient (THQ were determined in this study. Convenient sampling method was employed to obtain 15 paired soil and vegetable samples. Cadmium concentration in the samples was acid digested prior analysis using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS. The mean ± standard deviation concentrations of Cd in vegetable samples were 0.13±0.082 mg kg-1, within the acceptable range specified by Malaysia Food Regulation 1985 (1 mg kg-1. For sol samples, the mean ± standard deviation concentration of Cd was 2.78±2.83 mg kg-1. Eight out of 11 soil samples exceed the permissible limit of Cd outlined by The Dutch Standard (1 mg kg-1. The findings on THQ demonstrated that all respondents are within the acceptable non-carcinogenic health risk (THQ<1. The results also exhibit that there is no correlation between cadmium in soils and vegetables. There are unlikely potential adverse health impacts arising from Cd through vegetables consumption in this study. Respondents are advised to have a medical check-up in order to determine Cd body burden thus eliminating the risks of acquiring cadmium related diseases.

  18. The Crowd-out Effect of Crop Insurance on Farm Survival and Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Kirwan, Barrett E.

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Crop Insurance program has expanded dramatically over the past two decades---from $140 million in subsidies and 84 million acres covered to nearly $10 billion in subsidies and 260 million acres covered. The effect this has had on farmers' overall risk exposure and profitability is unclear. Self-selection and market dynamics have masked the direct effect of crop insurance. This paper uses numerous changes to the crop insurance program to isolate crop insurance's direct effect on ri...

  19. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC CROP AND ANIMAL FARMS IN ROMANIA. COMPARATIVE EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The organic sector in our country, although as shown in continuous development, faces a multitude of problems: the climatic conditions of our country, characterized by periods of drought in many parts of the country, high input prices, the majority of which are imported; difficulties in identifying markets for products, reduced subsidies, standardized conditions difficult to meet, etc. The problems the sector is facing reflect in the organization of the production activity and hence the economic performance of farm production. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to analyze on the basis of annual financial and accounting information collected in the two vegetable farms and the two animal breeding farms, their efficiency / inefficiency, and the results were compared to identify the causes of the differences obtained in the efficiency at a farm level. The results obtained reveal a higher level of return on integrated vegetable farm in a joint recovery and a high efficiency for chain integrated animal farms.

  20. Cash Reconciliation Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CART is a cash reconciliation tool that allows users to reconcile Agency cash disbursements with Treasury fund balances; track open unreconciled items; and create...

  1. Cash Use in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Eden Hatzvi; Jessica Meredith; Rose Kenney

    2014-01-01

    This article uses results from the 2013 Survey of Consumers’ Use of Payment Methods and regression analysis to examine trends in cash use in Australia. The results show that cash remained the most common form of payment, though its use relative to other payment methods has declined over recent years. Older participants were more likely to use cash than younger participants and all participants were more likely to use cash for low-value transactions relative to other payment methods. In additi...

  2. Improve your CASH flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Christopher; Loidl, Hans-Wolfgang; Berthold, Jost;

    2010-01-01

    symbolic computation. In this paper we describe a new component of SymGrid-Par known as CASH: the C omputer Algebra SH ell. CASH is a system that allows direct access to SymGrid-Par via GHCi. CASH thus allows Haskell programmers to exploit high-performance parallel computations using a system designated...

  3. Regional crop productivity and greenhouse gas emissions from Swiss soils under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juhwan; Necpalova, Magdalena; Six, Johan

    2016-04-01

    There is worldwide concern about the increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG) and their impact on climate change and food security. As a sustainable alternative, organic cropping in various forms has been promoted to minimize the environmental impacts of conventional practices. However, relatively little is known about the potential to reduce GHG emissions while maintaining crop productivity through the large-scale adoption of organic practices. Therefore, we simulated and compared regional crop production, soil organic carbon status, and net soil GHG emissions under organic and conventional practices. Grid-level (2.2 km by 2.2 km) simulation was performed using previously validated DailyDayCent by considering typical crop rotations. Regional model estimates are presented and discussed specifically with the focus on Swiss organic and conventional cropping systems, which differ by type and intensity of manuring, tillage, and cover crop.

  4. Organic and conventional crop production in the corn belt: a comparison of economic performance and energy use for selected farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockeretz, W.; Klepper, R.; Commoner, B.; Gertler, M.; Fast, S.; O' Leary, D.

    1976-06-01

    A two year study is described of fourteen pairs of crop-livestock farms in the Corn Belt, in which one member of each pair used only organic fertilization methods and no pesticides, while the other used conventional fertilizers and pesticides. Data are presented on the yields, production costs, and energy consumption for crop production in 1974 and 1975. The organic group had an overall production level an average of 10% below that of the conventional group in terms of market value of output per acre of cropland. Their operating costs were also lower, so that returns to crop production were equal for the two groups. The conventional group was 2.3 times more energy intensive, primarily because of the energy needed to produce conventional fertilizers. The organic group required 12% more labor per unit of market value of crops produced. Whereas the input and removal of P and K were in balance on the conventionally managed cropland, the organic farmers were drawing somewhat on pre-existing reservoirs of these nutrients. (auth)

  5. Weed suppressive ability in sole and intercrops of pea and oat and its interaction with ploughing depth and crop interference in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Gronle, Annkathrin; Heß, Jürgen; Böhm, Herwart

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of weak weed competitive pea sole crops after reduced ploughing depth may result in weed problems in organic farming. Intercropping peas and cereals is one option to manage weed problems. However, little evidence exists on the weed suppressive ability of pea-cereal intercrops after differing ploughing depths. The effect of crop stand (pea sole crop, pea-oat intercrop and oat sole crop) and ploughing depth (10–12 vs. 25–27 cm) on the annual weed infestation, PAR transmission an...

  6. Tillage and cropping sequence impacts on nitrogen cycling in dryland farming in eastern Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on N cycling in dryland crops and soils as influenced by long-term tillage and cropping sequence is needed to quantify soil N sequestration, mineralization, and N balance to reduce N fertilization rate and N losses through soil processes. We evaluated the 21-yr effects of combinations of...

  7. Socioeconomic and environmental assessment of biodiesel crops on family farming systems in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo Leitea, Dal J.G.; Barbosa Justino, F.; Nunes Vieira da Silva, J.V.; Florin, M.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, local agricultural research agendas are increasingly challenged by the search for sustainable biodiesel crop options for family farmers, especially under semi-arid conditions. The aim of this paper is to explore the suitability of different biodiesel crops (i.e. soybean, castor bean and s

  8. Energy balances of bioenergy crops (Miscanthus, maize, rapeseed) and their CO2-mitigation potential on a regional farm scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felten, D.; Emmerling, C.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing cultivation of energy crops in agriculture reveals the progressive substitution of fossil fuels, such as crude oil or brown coal. For the future development of renewable resources, the efficiency of different cropping systems will be crucial, as energy crops differ in terms of the energy needed for crop cultivation and refinement and the respective energy yield, e.g. per area. Here, balancing is certainly the most suitable method for the assessment of cropping system efficiency, contrasting energy inputs with energy outputs and the related CO2 emissions with potential CO2 credits due to substitution of fossil fuels, respectively. The aim of the present study was to calculate both energy and CO2 balances for rapeseed and maize, representing the recently most often cultivated energy crops in Germany, on a regional farm scale. Furthermore, special emphasis was made on perennial Miscanthus x giganteus, which is commonly used as a solid fuel for combustion. This C4-grass is of increasing interest due to its high yield potential accompanied by low requirements for soil tillage, weed control, and fertilization as well as long cultivation periods up to 25 years. In contrast to more general approaches, balances were calculated with local data from commercial farms. The site-specific consumption of diesel fuel was calculated using an online-based calculator, developed by the German Association for Technology and Structures in Agriculture (KTBL). By balancing each of the aforementioned cropping systems, our research focused on (i) the quantification of energy gains and CO2 savings due to fossil fuel substitution and (ii) the assessment of energy efficiency, expressed as the ratio of energy output to input. The energy input was highest for maize sites (33.8 GJ ha-1 yr-1), followed by rapeseed (18.2 GJ ha-1 yr-1), and Miscanthus (1.1 GJ ha-1 yr-1); corresponding energy yields were 129.5 GJ ha-1 yr-1 (maize), 83.6 GJ ha-1 yr-1 (rapeseed), and 259.7 GJ ha-1 yr-1

  9. Measurements of Heat Flux Differences Within a Large Wind Farm During the 2013 Crop/Wind-Energy Experiment (CWEX-13)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajewski, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Wind farms are an important resource for electrical generation in the Central U.S., however with each installation there are many poorly documented interactions with the local and surrounding environment. The impact of wind farms on surface microclimate is largely understood conceptually using numerical or wind tunnel models or ex situ satellite-detected changes. Measurements suitable for calibration of numerical simulations are few and of limited applicability but are urgently needed to improve parameterization of wind farm aerodynamics influenced by the diurnal evolution of the boundary layer. Among large eddy simulations of wind farm wakes in thermally stable stratification, there are discrepancies on the influence of turbine-induced mixing on the surface heat flux. We provide measurements from seven surface flux stations, vertical profiling LiDARs located upwind and downwind of turbines, and SCADA measurements from turbines during the 2013 Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX-13) as the best evidence for the variability of turbine induced heat flux within a large wind farm. Examination of ambient conditions (wind direction, wind veer, and thermal stratification) and on turbine operation factors (hub-height wind speed, normalized power) reveal conditions that lead to the largest modification of heat flux. Our results demonstrate the highest flux change from the reference station to be where the leading few lines of turbines influence the surface. Under stably stratified conditions turbine-scale turbulence is highly efficient at bringing warmer air aloft to the surface, leading to an increase in downward heat flux. Conversely we see that the combination of wakes from several lines of turbines reduces the flux contrast from the reference station. In this regime of deep wind-farm flow, wake turbulence is similar in scale and intensity to the reference conditions. These analysis tools can be extended to other turbine SCADA and microclimate variables (e.g. temperature

  10. On-farm tillage trials for rice-wheat cropping system in Indo-Gangetic plains of Eastern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demonstration plots of deep summer ploughing (DSP) with rice followed by wheat and other winter crops and fields of zero tilled wheat have been established and monitored at head, middle and tail sections of RP distributory Channel - 5 of Patna Canal during kharif (wet) and rabi (winter) seasons of 2001 and 2002, respectively at four different villages. The DSP plots were large (6 acres, 2.42 ha) in each village enabling farmers and researchers to see and assess a new practice at a farming scale. Zero tillage of wheat has involved a total of 181 farmers and total area of 50.4 ha. The plots were not only monitored but also information from farmers on how they view the ploughing/tillage practices was gathered. This information indicates that farmers are assessing the practices from a range of view points relative to their usual practices including land preparation and sowing costs, quality of crop establishment, weed growth and species composition, pest and disease incidence. Main findings are that DSP does not significantly only alter the yield of rice, wheat, lentil and gram and but also reduces the weed burden. Participatory budgeting indicated cost savings for land preparation and crop management costs. Over 60 percent of farmers in a total sample of 86 farmers had a positive reaction to practice during wet season. Similarly farmers recognized cost savings and potential yield gains (due to early and good crop establishment) in zero tilled wheat. After the harvest of winter crops like wheat, lentil and gram in May 2002, farmers dropped their reservation about DSP and there was a change in their attitude from reluctance to partial agreement and now they are ready for tillage operations on self-payment. For both practices, there are some limitations in respect of availability of implements and suitable tractor couplings. Findings indicate that if tractor owners perceive a demand, they would take steps to offer these new practices as land preparation services. (author)

  11. Promoting Cassava as an Industrial Crop in Ghana: Effects on Soil Fertility and Farming System Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Owuraku Sakyi-Dawson

    2012-01-01

    Cassava is an important starchy staple crop in Ghana with per capita consumption of 152.9 kg/year. Besides being a staple food crop, cassava can be used as raw material for the production of industrial starch and ethanol. The potential of cassava as an industrial commercial crop has not been exploited to a large extent because of perceptions that cassava depletes soils. Recent finding from field studies in the forest/savannah transitional agroecological zone of Ghana indicates that when integ...

  12. Biogas production from crop residues on a farm-scale level: is it economically feasible under conditions in Sweden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, L M; Christensson, K; Björnsson, L

    2005-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion would enable the energy potential of agricultural crop residues such as sugar beet tops and straw to be harnessed. Sweden is so spread out that full utilisation of this potential by centralised slurry-based technology is difficult. It appears that simple but effective high-solids reactor systems have a better chance of being economically viable on a farm-scale level (50-500 kW). In the present study, the financial prospects of high-solids digestion, using either single-stage fed-batch or two-stage batch reactor systems, are compared on a farm-scale level (50 kW) with those of conventional slurry digestion, on the basis of experimental results and observations on a laboratory- and pilot-scale. The gas produced can be used for heat, combined heat and power or as vehicle fuel. The results indicate high-solids single-stage fed-batch operations to stand the best chances of being competitive, particularly in connection with organic farming. The methane yield, degree of gas utilisation, and operational costs were found to have the strongest impact on the financial success of the process. PMID:16172872

  13. The interactions of human mobility and farming systems and impacts on biodiversity and soil quality in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Tankou, Christopher Mubeteneh

    2013-01-01

    Population growth and the drop in the returns from the major cash crop (coffee) for small farmers are the main drivers that have influenced the farming systems and mobility of farmers in the Western Highlands of Cameroon (WHC). The main objective of this research activity was to determine the interactions between farming systems and human mobility in the WHC. A comparative study was conducted through household and field surveys in three villages and conceptualized based on the systems approac...

  14. Is it possible to improve the yield and grain protein concentration of organically-farmed wheat using cover crops or intercrops?

    OpenAIRE

    JUSTES, J.; BEDOUSSAC, L.; Prieur, L

    2009-01-01

    The objective of our work was to investigate innovative sustainable cropping systems to produce regular yields of wheat with a satisfactory grain protein concentration in organic farming systems. Achieving good production levels in stockless French organic farming systems is a major challenge due to strong N limitation. Our approach is mainly based on a better valorisation of the natural nitrogen resources from soil mineralisation and symbiotic fixation of legumes, and not by an increase in t...

  15. Climate Change, farm level adaption measures and Impacts on Crop productivity and market participation: Implications for sustainable synergy between African and European Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Olarinde, Luke O.; Adepoju, Adebusola A.; Jabaru, Muritala O.

    2014-01-01

    It is widely known that climate change and agriculture are interrelated process, both of which take place on a global scale. In effect, crop and animal farming, fisheries, forestry, with the resultant access to food and fibre in many continents and regions of the world are projected to be severely compromised by climate variability and change. Several strategies aimed at reducing climate variability induced hazards abound. These include cultural and conventional food and farming systems to cl...

  16. Matching farm crops with waterfowl needs on Holla Bend, Wapanocca and White River National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the agricultural crop programs on Holla Bend, Wapanocca and White River refuges are producing a quantity of...

  17. Energy farming in multiple land use : An opportunity for energy crop introduction in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Londo, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Concerns about climate change related to fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions require the development of alternative energy resources. In most scenario studies on future energy supply, bio-energy is one of the dominant renewable alternatives foreseen. Apart from the use of residues and wastes, the cultivation of dedicated ‘energy crops’ will be necessary. Especially in densely populated regions such as the Netherlands, energy crop introduction is strongly hampered by lack of available land, r...

  18. Groundwater-soil-crop relationship with respect to arsenic contamination in farming villages of Bangladesh - A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, Kiyoshi [Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi -Ku, Fukuoka 812 8581 (Japan)], E-mail: kurosawa@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Egashira, Kazuhiko [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812 8581 (Japan); Tani, Masakazu [Faculty of Design, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 815 8540 (Japan); Jahiruddin, M.; Moslehuddin, Abu Zofar Md. [Department of Soil Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Zulfikar Md. [Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202 (Bangladesh)

    2008-11-15

    To clarify the groundwater-soil-crop relationship with respect to arsenic (As) contamination, As concentration was measured in tubewell (TW) water, surface soil from farmyards and paddy fields, and fresh taro (Colocasia esculenta) leaves from farmyards in the farming villages of Bangladesh. The As concentration in TW water from farmyards was at least four times higher than the Bangladesh drinking water standard, and the concentration in fresh taro leaves was equal to or higher than those reported previously for leafy vegetables in Bangladesh. As concentration of surface soils in both farmyards and paddy fields was positively correlated with that of the TW water. Further, the concentration in surface soil was positively correlated with levels in fresh taro leaves in the farmyard. This study, therefore, clarified the groundwater-soil-crop relationship in farmyards and the relationship between groundwater-soil in paddy fields to assess the extent of As contamination in Bangladeshi villages. - By extracting arsenic contaminated groundwater from a well, surface soil surrounding the well and crops planted in the surface soil became contaminated with arsenic.

  19. Is electronic cash possible?

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Max; Schunter, Matthias; Weber, Arnd

    1998-01-01

    Cash-like payments in electronic commerce and at the traditional point of sale are expected to be beneficial, e.g., because of privacy protection, low transaction costs, and irrevocability. Therefore, we discuss how to design electronic cash in a way that it both mirrors the most important characteristics of raditional cash, but also fulfils the expectations which arise towards electronic means of payment. We analyse the problems and trade-offs between the different characteristics to be impl...

  20. Farm Household Economic Model of The Integrated Crop Livestock System: Conceptual and Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach to enhance rice production in Indonesia is very prospectus throughout the implementation of adapted and liable integrated program. One of the challenges in rice crop sub sector is the stagnation of its production due to the limitation of organic matter availability. This provides an opportunity for livestock development to overcome the problems on land fertility through the use of manure as the source of organic fertilizer. Ministry of Agriculture had implemented a program on Increasing Integrated Rice Productivity with an Integrated Crop Livestock System as one of the potential components since 2002. Integrated crop livestock system program with special reference to rice field and beef cattle is an alternative to enhance the potential development of agriculture sector in Indonesia. The implementation on this integrated program is to enhance rice production and productivity through a system involving beef cattle with its goal on increasing farmers’ income. Household economic model can be used as one of the analysis to evaluate the success of the implemented crop livestock system program. The specificity of the farmers is that rationality behavior of the role as production and consumption decision making. In this case, farmers perform the production to meet home consumption based on the resources that used directly for its production. The economic analysis of farmers household can be described to anticipate policy options through this model. Factors influencing farmers’ decisions and direct interrelations to production and consumption aspects that have complex implications for the farmers’ welfare of the integrated crop livestock system program.

  1. Farm-level constraints on the domestic supply of perennial energy crops in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of estimates of the land area that could potentially be dedicated to perennial energy crops such as short rotation coppice (SRC) willow and miscanthus in the UK, but little is known about how farmers will respond to the opportunities presented by these relatively novel crops. Perennial energy crops face competition from other, arguably more flexible, uses of farmland, and if not seen as attractive propositions to individual farmers, they will not be grown. Farmers' decisions are therefore a key constraint on potential supply. This paper reviews the policy background and considers whether policy is based on any consideration of likely supply response, before presenting outcomes of focus groups composed of farmers who already grow or are considering growing perennial energy crops. There appear to be a number of barriers to adoption. In addition to concerns over the security of contracts, the current high wheat price increases the opportunity cost of committing land to perennial energy crops. There are also worries about the impact of willow roots on field drains and the cost of returning the land to other uses. This paper outlines a number of issues of importance to policy makers and suggests future research needs. (author)

  2. Farm-level constraints on the domestic supply of perennial energy crops in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of estimates of the land area that could potentially be dedicated to perennial energy crops such as short rotation coppice (SRC) willow and miscanthus in the UK, but little is known about how farmers will respond to the opportunities presented by these relatively novel crops. Perennial energy crops face competition from other, arguably more flexible, uses of farmland, and if not seen as attractive propositions to individual farmers, they will not be grown. Farmers' decisions are therefore a key constraint on potential supply. This paper reviews the policy background and considers whether policy is based on any consideration of likely supply response, before presenting outcomes of focus groups composed of farmers who already grow or are considering growing perennial energy crops. There appear to be a number of barriers to adoption. In addition to concerns over the security of contracts, the current high wheat price increases the opportunity cost of committing land to perennial energy crops. There are also worries about the impact of willow roots on field drains and the cost of returning the land to other uses. This paper outlines a number of issues of importance to policy makers and suggests future research needs

  3. Carbon Farming as a Carbon Negative Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.; Laird, D.; Hayes, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon farms have a pivotal role in national and international efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change. A carbon farm in its broadest sense is one that reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or captures and holds carbon in vegetation and soils. Their capacity to remove carbon from the air and store it safely and permanently, while providing additional human and ecosystem benefits, means they could contribute significantly to national efforts to stabilize or reduce GHGs. We examine carbon farms in the context of corn and soybean production agriculture. We illustrate, using Iowa data but with relevance across United States corn and soybean production, the potential for carbon farms to reduce human GHG emissions and sequester carbon permanently at a rate that has meaningful impact on global greenhouse gas concentration. Carbon has been viewed as a next generation cash crop in Iowa for over a decade. The carbon farm perspective, however, goes beyond carbon as cash crop to make carbon the center of an entire farm enterprise. The transformation is possible through slight adjustment crop practices mixed with advances in technology to sequester carbon through biochar. We examine carbon balance of Iowa agriculture given only the combination of slight reduction in fertilizer and sequestration by biochar. We find the following. Iowa carbon farms could turn Iowa agriculture into a carbon sink. The estimated range of GHG reduction by statewide implementation of carbon farms is 19.46 to 90.27 MMt CO2-equivalent (CO2-e), while the current agricultural CO2-e emission estimate is 35.38 MMt CO2-e. Iowa carbon farm GHG reduction would exceed Iowa GHG reduction by wind energy (8.7 MMt CO2-e) and could exceed combined reductions from wind energy and corn grain ethanol (10.7 MMt CO2-e; 19.4 MMt CO2-e combined). In fact, Iowa carbon farms alone could exceed GHG reduction from national corn grain ethanol production (39.6 MMt CO2-e). A carbon price accessible to agricultural

  4. Direct control of perennial weeds between crops - Implication for organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, Bo; Holst, Niels; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær;

    2012-01-01

    Perennial weeds can be a major constraint to organic crop production and direct control actions applied between crops can then be necessary to reduce the problems. We conducted two experiments, one on a sandy loam and one on a sandy soil in Denmark, with the aim of studying the efficacy of...... ending the strategy with mouldboard ploughing in the succeeding spring. Grain yields did not differ among the treatments in the two experiments as a result of the generally high effectiveness exerted by the control strategies. Especially post-harvest control strategies based on rotating weed devices and...... mouldboard ploughing appear to be effective solutions against mixed stands of perennials on sandy soils but they do not comply with optimal nutrient management in organic cropping. Therefore, intensive autumn cultivation is only relevant where a perennial weed problem is uncontrollable by other means....

  5. Effects of compost fertilization in organic farming on micronutrients and heavy metals in soil and crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Eva; Sager, Manfred; Bonell, Marion; Fuchs, Katrin; Haas, Dieter; Ableidinger, Christoph; Hartl, Wilfried

    2015-04-01

    For organic stockless and vegetable farms using biowaste compost is a way to sustain soil humus content. At the same time compost use in agriculture closes local nutrient cycles. Besides organic matter and main nutrients, biowaste compost also imports micronutrients and heavy metals in amounts determined by the compost input material. The aim of this work was to assess total and plant-available contents of micronutrients B, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Zn, beneficial elements Co and Se and heavy metals Cd, Cr and Pb in the soil and in crops after 20 years of fertilization with compost produced from source-separated organic waste. Topsoil and wheat grain samples were collected from the long-term field experiment 'STIKO' situated near Vienna on a Molli-gleyic Fluvisol. Between 1992 and 2012 the organic treatments C1, C2 and C3 had received 5, 10 and 14 t ha-1 yr-1 (wet wt.) biowaste compost on average. They were compared with the unfertilized organic control treatment and with three mineral fertilization treatments, which had received 20, 32 and 44 kg N ha-1 yr 1, respectively, plus 40 kg P and 68 kg K ha-1 yr-1 on average. Total soil element contents of B, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn were measured in aqua regia digestion. Immediately water-soluble elements were analysed in soil saturation extract, elements in exchangeable form in LiCl extract following Husz (2001), and long-term available elements in 0.5 N HCl extract. Wheat grains were dehulled, milled and subjected to microwave digestion with HNO3 and H2O2. Wheat was analyzed for Cd and Pb with ICP-MS. All other elements in wheat and all soil extracts were analyzed using ICP-AES. Total soil concentrations of micronutrients, heavy metals and beneficial elements were in the range of usual soil contents and lower than the Austrian background values for arable land with comparable pH and carbonate concentration (Schwarz and Freudenschuss, 2004) in all treatments (all mg kg-1: B 14-19, Fe 16000-18000, Mn

  6. Are consumers cashing out?

    OpenAIRE

    Paul W. Bauer; Daniel A. Littman

    2007-01-01

    The information age has led to many new forms of payment, including credit cards, debit cards, and online banking. In many ways, these new mechanisms seem preferable to cash. While the disappearance of cash is a very long way off, it seems people are starting to use it less.

  7. Improve your CASH flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Chris; Loidl, Hans-Wolfgang; Berthold, Jost;

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes CASH (the Computer Algebra SHell), a new interface that allows Haskell programmers to access the complete functionality of a number of computer algebra systems directly and interactively. Using CASH, Haskell programmers can access previously-unavailable mathematical software....

  8. Effect of cropping systems in no-till farming on the quality of a Brazilian Oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio de Freitas Seben Junior

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The no-till system with complex cropping sequences may improve the structural quality and carbon (C sequestration in soils of the tropics. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cropping sequences after eight years under the no-till system on the physical properties and C sequestration in an Oxisol in the municipality of Jaboticabal, Sao Paulo, Brazil. A randomized split-block design with three replications was used. The treatments were combinations of three summer cropping sequences - corn/corn (Zea mays L. (CC, soybean/soybean (Glycine max L. Merryll (SS, and soybean-corn (SC; and seven winter crops - corn, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L., pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp, grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.. Soil samples were taken at the 0-10 cm depth after eight years of experimentation. Soil under SC and CC had higher mean weight diameter (3.63 and 3.55 mm, respectively and geometric mean diameter (3.55 and 2.92 mm of the aggregates compared to soil under SS (3.18 and 2.46 mm. The CC resulted in the highest soil organic C content (17.07 g kg-1, soil C stock (15.70 Mg ha-1, and rate of C sequestration (0.70 Mg ha-1 yr-1 among the summer crops. Among the winter crops, soil under pigeon pea had the highest total porosity (0.50 m³ m-3, and that under sunn hemp had the highest water stable aggregates (93.74 %. In addition, sunn hemp did not differ from grain sorghum and contained the highest soil organic C content (16.82 g kg-1 and also had the highest rate of C sequestration (0.67 Mg ha-1 yr-1. The soil resistance to penetration was the lower limit of the least limiting water range, while the upper limit was air-filled porosity for soil bulk densities higher than 1.39 kg dm-3 for all cropping sequences. Within the SC sequence, soil under corn and pigeon pea increased least limiting water

  9. THE NUTRIENTS BALANCE OF CROP ROTATION AS AN INDICATOR OF SUSTAINABLE FARMING ON ARABLE LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hanáčková

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient balance of five crop rotation systems under conventional and minimal tillage with interaction of different fertilization treatments was investigated at the experimental station of Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra Dolná Malanta, during 2004-2005. The five-field crop rotation of maize (Zea mays L. - winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. - spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. underseeded with red clover - red clover (Trifolium pratense - common pea (Pisum sativum L. and mustard as catch crop was used. The most serious deficit of nitrogen (- 62.2 kg.ha-1.yr-1, phosphorus (- 24.0 kg.ha-1.yr-1 and potassium (- 89.2 kg.ha-1.yr-1 was on control treatments. Deficit of nitrogen was also found-out in treatments with mineral fertilizers application. However higher deficit of nitrogen (- 25.4 kg.ha-1.yr- 1 was registered under conventional tillage. In treatment fertilized with mineral fertilizers together with by - product of pre - crop incorporation into soil (PZ, small balance surplus of nitrogen (8 kg.ha-1.yr-1 - B1, 11.5 kg. ha-1.yr-1 - B2, respectively was calculated. The positive balance of phosphorus achieved in treatments with into soil incorporated by - products of pre - crops (in both systems of soil cultivation amounting value of 3.9 kg.ha-1.yr-1 can contribute to good supply of phosphorous in soil. The negative balance of potassium fluctuating from - 89.2 kg.ha-1.yr-1 (control treatment to - 22 kg.ha-1.yr-1 (PZ is acceptable owing to high content of available potassium in soil of experimental stand.

  10. The impact of crop diversification management on weed communities in summer cereals on organic farms in Northern Europe. An introduction to the study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmeijer, Merel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is a component of the CORE Organic Plus PRODIVA project, a collaboration between international weed research institutions, which aims to improve utilization of crop diversification for weed management in northern European organic arable cropping systems. The overall goal is to maintain a diversified and manageable weed flora that can support beneficial organisms. The objective of this specific research conducted by the Group Crop Health of the University Rostock is to identify challenges in weed control, to investigate the role of crop diversification management for weed management in the field and to cluster weed species into groups according to susceptibility for crop diversity management. In order to reach this objective a diversity of methods are proposed. Data collection takes place on organic arable farms in five countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Latvia and Germany over the course of two years (2015-2016. Existing information and literature on weed occurrence and control challenges from all regions are compiled into an Ex-ante database and literature review. A two year on-farm weed survey is carried out in spring-sown cereals and combined with the collection of the field history with a focus on the implementation of crop diversification measures. All data is collected at the University of Rostock for processing and analysing; the weed survey data will be compared with the Ex-ante database and analysed for interactions with the crop diversification measures. Results will both be communicated towards the stakeholders, as well as serve for scientific publications.

  11. From forest to farm: systematic review of cultivar feeding by chimpanzees--management implications for wildlife in anthropogenic landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockings, Kimberley J; McLennan, Matthew R

    2012-01-01

    Crop-raiding is a major source of conflict between people and wildlife globally, impacting local livelihoods and impeding conservation. Conflict mitigation strategies that target problematic wildlife behaviours such as crop-raiding are notoriously difficult to develop for large-bodied, cognitively complex species. Many crop-raiders are generalist feeders. In more ecologically specialised species crop-type selection is not random and evidence-based management requires a good understanding of species' ecology and crop feeding habits. Comprehensive species-wide studies of crop consumption by endangered wildlife are lacking but are important for managing human-wildlife conflict. We conducted a comprehensive literature search of crop feeding records by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), a ripe-fruit specialist. We assessed quantitatively patterns of crop selection in relation to species-specific feeding behaviour, agricultural exposure, and crop availability. Crop consumption by chimpanzees is widespread in tropical Africa. Chimpanzees were recorded to eat a considerable range of cultivars (51 plant parts from 36 species). Crop part selection reflected a species-typical preference for fruit. Crops widely distributed in chimpanzee range countries were eaten at more sites than sparsely distributed crops. We identified 'high' and 'low' conflict crops according to their attractiveness to chimpanzees, taking account of their importance as cash crops and/or staple foods to people. Most (86%) high conflict crops were fruits, compared to 13% of low conflict crops. Some widely farmed cash or staple crops were seldom or never eaten by chimpanzees. Information about which crops are most frequently consumed and which are ignored has enormous potential for aiding on-the-ground stakeholders (i.e. farmers, wildlife managers, and conservation and agricultural extension practitioners) develop sustainable wildlife management schemes for ecologically specialised and protected species in

  12. From forest to farm: systematic review of cultivar feeding by chimpanzees--management implications for wildlife in anthropogenic landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley J Hockings

    Full Text Available Crop-raiding is a major source of conflict between people and wildlife globally, impacting local livelihoods and impeding conservation. Conflict mitigation strategies that target problematic wildlife behaviours such as crop-raiding are notoriously difficult to develop for large-bodied, cognitively complex species. Many crop-raiders are generalist feeders. In more ecologically specialised species crop-type selection is not random and evidence-based management requires a good understanding of species' ecology and crop feeding habits. Comprehensive species-wide studies of crop consumption by endangered wildlife are lacking but are important for managing human-wildlife conflict. We conducted a comprehensive literature search of crop feeding records by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, a ripe-fruit specialist. We assessed quantitatively patterns of crop selection in relation to species-specific feeding behaviour, agricultural exposure, and crop availability. Crop consumption by chimpanzees is widespread in tropical Africa. Chimpanzees were recorded to eat a considerable range of cultivars (51 plant parts from 36 species. Crop part selection reflected a species-typical preference for fruit. Crops widely distributed in chimpanzee range countries were eaten at more sites than sparsely distributed crops. We identified 'high' and 'low' conflict crops according to their attractiveness to chimpanzees, taking account of their importance as cash crops and/or staple foods to people. Most (86% high conflict crops were fruits, compared to 13% of low conflict crops. Some widely farmed cash or staple crops were seldom or never eaten by chimpanzees. Information about which crops are most frequently consumed and which are ignored has enormous potential for aiding on-the-ground stakeholders (i.e. farmers, wildlife managers, and conservation and agricultural extension practitioners develop sustainable wildlife management schemes for ecologically specialised and

  13. Managing Phenol Contents in Crop Plants by Phytochemical Farming and Breeding—Visions and Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Treutter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Two main fields of interest form the background of actual demand for optimized levels of phenolic compounds in crop plants. These are human health and plant resistance to pathogens and to biotic and abiotic stress factors. A survey of agricultural technologies influencing the biosynthesis and accumulation of phenolic compounds in crop plants is presented, including observations on the effects of light, temperature, mineral nutrition, water management, grafting, elevated atmospheric CO2, growth and differentiation of the plant and application of elicitors, stimulating agents and plant activators. The underlying mechanisms are discussed with respect to carbohydrate availability, trade-offs to competing demands as well as to regulatory elements. Outlines are given for genetic engineering and plant breeding. Constraints and possible physiological feedbacks are considered for successful and sustainable application of agricultural techniques with respect to management of plant phenol profiles and concentrations.

  14. Does Agritourism Enhance Farm Profitability?

    OpenAIRE

    Schilling, Brian J.; Attavanich, Witsanu; Jin, Yanhong

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of agritourism on farm profitability are poorly understood. Using Census of Agriculture records, we employ propensity score matching to estimate the effects of agritourism on the net cash income per acre of New Jersey farms. We find that agritourism has statistically significant and positive effects on farm profitability. Profit impacts are highest among small farms operated by individuals primarily engaged in farming. Positive but smaller effects are observed for lifestyle farms....

  15. FINANCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NORTH DAKOTA FARMS, 1993-1995

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, Andrew L.; Gustafson, Cole R.

    1996-01-01

    The performance of over 500 North Dakota farms, 1993-1995, is summarized using 16 financial measures. Farms are categorized by geographic region, farm type, farm size, gross cash sales, farm tenure, net farm income, debt-to-asset, and age of farmer to analyze relationships between financial performance and farm characteristics.

  16. FINANCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NORTH DAKOTA FARMS, 1994-1996

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, Andrew L.

    1996-01-01

    The performance of over 500 North Dakota farms, 1994-1996, is summarized using 16 financial measures. Farms are categorized by geographic region, farm type, farm size, gross cash sales, farm tenure, net farm income, debt-to-asset, and age of farmer to analyze relationships between financial performance and farm characteristics.

  17. APPLICATION OF THE IMITATION MODELING FOR OPTIMIZATION OF CONSISTENCE OF THE CULTIVATION AGGREGATES FOR CROP FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osykin S. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The main indicators of efficiency of a cultivation machine are the following: productiveness and fuel consumption, which depend on complexity of work, operating depth and structure of the machine (type of the tractor and plough. The optimal structure of cultivation aggregate for the needs of each exact farm is complicated to do due to different determined and stochastic factors. In this case, Monte Carlo imitation modeling is proposed to use. As a result of models’ analysis, it is defined that all aggregates could be divided onto 4 groups of efficiency. Curves demonstrating dependence of fuel costs, compensation of losses caused by breakdown of agricultural terms and soil compaction caused by quantity of aggregates are built. After integration of the whole amount of aggregates into a common traditional technology of cultivation and after selection of its characteristics (quantity of aggregates, general fuel costs and losses costs, including fuel costs it was proposed to split it onto 3 category modes: hard (according to technological mode – 2 or 5 shifts, normal (4-10 shifts, mild (6-15 shifts. The obtained models can be successfully applied in software of on-board computers in tractors and PCs of the engineers as well. Dynamical models for other technological processes in plant breeding could be obtained in the same way. All developed models allow us to make one more step towards precision farming and reduce costs for manufacture of end products

  18. Prediction of Efficient Water Use in Crop Farming of Hebei Province

    OpenAIRE

    Shbi, Chen-yang; Li, Yun-chao; Pu, Na-na; Liang, Ai-guo; Wang, Hui-Jun

    2012-01-01

    In order to alleviate the grim situation of groundwater overexploitation in Hebei Province, using the expert interview method and law of large numbers, we predict the water consumption and amount of water saving concerning 7 different crops in 3 schemes ("low", "medium", "high") under economical irrigation in different ecological areas during the period 2011—2015, and the period 2016—2020 in Hebei Province. (i) During the period 2011—2015, in "low" scheme, the water consumption will be ...

  19. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF ANIMAL MANURE – IMPLICATIONS FOR CROP YIELDS AND SOIL BIOTA IN ORGANIC FARMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun; Riely, Hugh;

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of farmyard manures may help farmers to produce bioenergy instead of using fossil fuels, support cycling of nutrients and reduce greenhouse gas emission. However, compared to pristine slurry, digested slurry has a reduced content of organic carbon which may impact the soil biota...... of digestates affects crop yields, soil characteristics and soil biota (earthworms, springtails, microbiota). The grass-clover system showed comparable yield levels over 3 years when digested slurry was compared to untreated slurry. Digested slurries had no influence on soil nutrient concentrations or on soil...... and microorganisms seemed only little affected by application of digested slurry....

  20. Cultivation Potentials of Wild Vegetables: Their Role as Cash or Subsistence Crops in Farming Systems of Sarawak, Malaysia. Ph.d.-thesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole

    1997-01-01

    Natural Resource Managment, Non-Timber Forest Products, Shifting Cultivation, Indigenous knowledge......Natural Resource Managment, Non-Timber Forest Products, Shifting Cultivation, Indigenous knowledge...

  1. Integrated approach in improving livestock-crop farming using indigenous resources and conserving the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On station trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of cattle feed composition on the quality of manure and the effects of manure storage systems on crop yield. Statistical analysis showed that there were significant increases in soil organic matter and soil porosity in manured plots over the control. In the second trial, porosity decreased due to the increase in bulk density. The results also showed that there were increases in the soil aggregate stability in the manured plots but the increases were not significant over the non-manured plots. The first experiment showed that dry matter yield of plants in the manured-plots and in plots fertilized with inorganic fertilizer was not significantly higher than the non fertilized control treatment. No significant increases were obtained in the grain yield of corn with the treatments imposed beyond that achieved by the non-fertilized control during the first experiment. In the second experiment (residual), the same trends were observed in dry matter yield as in the first experiment with non significant increases in the dry matter yield in treated plots. In sub-plot b1 (with supplemental N) application of manure with improved manure management resulted in the highest N yield in stover of the treatments measured. Results obtained from inorganic fertilizer application and conventional storage were comparable. In corn grain, the treatment receiving organic fertilizers alone had the highest N yields but was not significantly different from the manure treatment with improved manure management or conventional manure storage. A similar trend was observed for Ndff, FN yield and Fertilizer Nitrogen Use Efficiency. The highest plant N-yield was obtained in the treatment with best feeding and manure management practices (T6) although the N-yield was not significantly higher than for the other treatments. Similar trends in yield were observed in the first and second experiments. Using the isotope technique, nitrogen derived from

  2. Impacts of projected climate change on productivity and nitrogen leaching of crop rotations in arable and pig farming systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    The effects of projected changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration on productivity and nitrogen (N) leaching of characteristic arable and pig farming rotations in Denmark were investigated with the FASSET simulation model. The LARS weather generator was used to provide climatic data for...... locations in Denmark, differing in soil and climate, and representative of the selected production systems. The CO2 effects were modelled using projected CO2 concentrations for the A1B emission scenario. Crop rotations were irrigated (sandy soil) and unirrigated (sandy loam soil), and all included systems...... with and without catch crops, with field operation dates adapted to baseline and future climate change. Model projections showed an increase in the productivity and N leaching in the future that would be dependent on crop rotation and crop management, highlighting the importance of considering the...

  3. La quinoa en Bolivie : une culture ancestrale devenue culture de rente "bio-équitable" = Quinoa in Bolivia : an ancestral crop changed to a cash crop with "organic fair-trade" labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Del Castillo, Carmen; Mahy, G.; Winkel, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the litterature on the physiology and diversity of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Since about 15 years, this Andean crop experiences a great commercial success in the organic and fair-trade food networks. Selected and cultivated for thousands of years in the Andean highlands, quinoa shows a remarkable tolerance to environmental stresses, particularly to drought and cold. The present knowledges on quinoa physiology, though fragmentary, show a high cold resi...

  4. The possibility of crop cultivation and utilization of edible gum from herb (Dorema ammoniacum D. Don in dryland farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholami Barat Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gum ammoniacum (Dorema ammoniacum D. Don is one of the most important food, industrial and medicinal plants of Iran which is mainly distributed in semi-arid and desert areas. It is endangered due to superfluous and unsustainable harvesting methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of crop cultivation in terms of dryland farming and the best operation method for collecting gum resin. For this purpose, the effects of different scarification methods (traditional, concave and staircase and cut-off frequencies (5, 10 and 13 times on gum yield of the five-year-old plants were studied at Toroq farm in Mashhad. The treatments were studied under a split plot structure in time experiment which was arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. The rate of the root gum production and the rate of plant survival in the years after the withdrawal were measured, and finally the data were analyzed. Results showed no significant differences among cutting methods at p<0.05. The yield of gum was affected by times of harvesting and the highest yield was observed (p<0.01 in 13 cut-off times with 31.67 g/plant. The lowest gum yields were seen in 5 cut-off times with 5.84 g/plant. The traditional cutting method destroyed crown buds and caused the death of the plant (p<0.01. Reasonable gum yields and plant regeneration rates were obtained with the use of stairs method which is an easy method to be applied by the farmers or beneficiaries.

  5. Role of biological nitrogen fixation in legume based cropping systems; a case study of West Africa farming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen (N) has been gradually depleted from West African soils and now poses serious threats to food production. Many ways of increasing N supply (e.g. judicious use of inorganic fertilizers and nitrogen-fixing plants) have been tried in West African farming systems. Herbaceous and woody legumes commonly contribute 40-70 kg N ha-l season. This represents about 30% of the total N applied as residues. Nevertheless and despite repeated demonstrations of the usefulness of green manures in enhancing soil fertility, their practices and adoption are still limited. Promiscuous soya beans are being used to develop sustainable cropping systems in the moist savannah. Reliable estimates of N2 fixed by soya beans and their residual N benefits to subsequent cereal crops in the savannah zone of southern Guinea have only infrequently been made. The actual amounts measured varied between 38 and 126 kg N ha-l assuming that only seeds of soya beans are removed from the plots, the net N accrual of soil nitrogen ranges between minus 8 kg N ha-l and plus 47 kg N ha-l depending on the soyabean cultivar. Residual soyabean N values of 10-24 kg N ha-l (14-36% of the total N in maize) were obtained in a soyabean-maize rotation. Although cereal yields following legume cultivation have been attributed to greater N accumulation, our data show that the relative increase in maize N was smaller than the relative increase in dry-matter yield. Hence, the increased yields of maize following soy beans are not entirely due to the carry-over of N from soyabean residues (as well as to conservation of soil N) but to other rotational effects as well. It is thus clear that the N benefit of grain legumes to non-legumes is small compared to the level of N fertilizer use in more intensive cereal production systems but is nevertheless significant in the context of the low amounts of input in subsistence farming. (author)

  6. FINANCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NORTH DAKOTA FARMS, 1993-1995

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, Andrew L.; Gustafson, Cole R.

    1996-01-01

    The performance of over 500 North Dakota farms, 1993-1995, is summarized using 16 financial measures. Farms are categorized by geographic region, farm type, farm size, gross cash sales, farm tenure, net farm income, debt-to-asset, and age of farmer to analyze relationships between financial performance and farm characteristics. Keywords: Farm financial management, farm management, farm income, liquidity, solvency, profitability, repayment capacity, financial efficiency, financial benchmarks, ...

  7. FINANCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NORTH DAKOTA FARMS, 1994-1996

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, Andrew L.

    1996-01-01

    The performance of over 500 North Dakota farms, 1994-1996, is summarized using 16 financial measures. Farms are categorized by geographic region, farm type, farm size, gross cash sales, farm tenure, net farm income, debt-to-asset, and age of farmer to analyze relationships between financial performance and farm characteristics. Keywords: Farm financial management, farm management, farm income, liquidity, solvency, profitability, repayment capacity, financial efficiency, financial benchmarks, ...

  8. Repeated evolution of crop theft in fungus-farming ambrosia beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulcr, Jiri; Cognato, Anthony I

    2010-11-01

    Ambrosia beetles, dominant wood degraders in the tropics, create tunnels in dead trees and employ gardens of symbiotic fungi to extract nutrients from wood. Specificity of the beetle-fungus relationship has rarely been examined, and simple vertical transmission of a specific fungal cultivar by each beetle species is often assumed in literature. We report repeated evolution of fungal crop stealing, termed mycocleptism, among ambrosia beetles. The mycocleptic species seek brood galleries of other species, and exploit their established fungal gardens by tunneling through the ambient mycelium-laden wood. Instead of carrying their own fungal sybmbionts, mycocleptae depend on adopting the fungal assemblages of their host species, as shown by an analysis of fungal DNA from beetle galleries. The evidence for widespread horizontal exchange of fungi between beetles challenges the traditional concept of ambrosia fungi as species-specific symbionts. Fungus stealing appears to be an evolutionarily successful strategy. It evolved independently in several beetle clades, two of which have radiated, and at least one case was accompanied by a loss of the beetles' fungus-transporting organs. We demonstrate this using the first robust phylogeny of one of the world's largest group of ambrosia beetles, Xyleborini. PMID:20633043

  9. Cover crops and N credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops often provide many short- and long-term benefits to cropping systems. Legume cover crops can significantly reduce the N fertilizer requirement of non-legume cash crops that follow. The objectives of this presentation were to: I) educate stakeholders about the potential benefits of cover ...

  10. Prediction of Efficient Water Use in Crop Farming of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Chen-yang; LI Yun-chao; PU Na-na; LIANG Ai-guo; WANG Hui-jun

    2012-01-01

    In order to alleviate the grim situation of groundwater overexploitation in Hebei Province, using the expert interview method and law of large numbers, we predict the water consumption and amount of water saving concerning 7 different crops in 3 schemes ("low", "medium", "high") under economical irrigation in different ecological areas during the period 2011-2015, and the period 2016-2020 in Hebei Province. (i) During the period 2011-2015, in "low" scheme, the water consumption will be about 12.9 billion m3, and the amount of water saving is about 1.4 billion m3; in "medium" scheme, the water consumption will be about 12.2 billion m3, and the amount of water saving will be about 2.1 billion m3; in "high" scheme, the water consumption will be about 11.5 billion m3, and the amount of water saving will be 2.8 billion m3. (ii) During the period 2016-2020, in "low" scheme, the water consumption will be about 12.3 billion m3, and the amount of water saving will be about 0.7 billion m3; in "medium" scheme, the water consumption will be about 11.2 billion m3, and the amount of water saving will be about 1 billion m3; in "high" scheme, the water consumption will be about 10.2 billion m3, and the amount of water saving will be 1.2 billion m3. We can find that each "medium" scheme is ideal, having the greatest feasibility, which can provide a theoretical basis for solving some problems in Hebei Province in the next 5 to 10 years, such as serious water resources shortage and overexploitation.

  11. Operating Cash Surplus Determinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor HADA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper defines the concept of operating surplus. Then, it is compared to thegross operating surplus and the differences are identified. The two calculationmethods are presented next: (1 operating revenue less operating charges and(2 the gross operating surplus less ΔWCN (Working capital needs lessimmobilised production less stored production less other operating revenues.Then, a three year study is presented (2005-2007 and the results areinterpreted. Then, there is a correlation between the operating cash flow surplusand the operating cash flows.

  12. Taxable Cash Dividends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Raaballe, Johannes

    financed by the issuance of new shares. Taxable cash dividends financed by the issuance of new shares then can be considered a positive kind of money burning whose role is to signal a firm's high quality. The implications of the models are consistent with several important empirical facts about dividends......Firms pay out cash using both dividends and share repurchases. In many aspects these twomeans are similar, but one important difference is that dividends are generally taxed more heavily than share repurchases. Nevertheless firms persist in paying out large amounts in dividends. This paper provides...

  13. Sustainable Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, David

    2009-01-01

    Marketing organic vegetables completes production achievements. The Pfenning family is no newcomer to organic and biodynamic vegetable farming. Using these farming methods since 1981, they helped to develop standards for the Ontario Crop Improvement Association (OCIA). The Pfenning's farming practices have aroused the attention of curious farmers and researchers; equally as important, local consumers intereste in changing their diet to include more organically-grown produce are also findi...

  14. Impact of SPDC-Bomu Manifold Oil Pipe Explosion Fire on Crop Yield and Farm Income in Gokana LGA, Rivers State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.E. Weli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation of the oil-rich Gokana Local government area has been wanton and continuous with dire health, social and economic consequences for its peoples, for over three decades. The study was based on the result of environmental impact studies conducted on the SPDC-Bomu manifold oil pipe explosion of 12th April, 2009 and its impact on agricultural production in K-dere, Deken, Kpor and Biara communities. Using a sample of 400 crop farmers drawn randomly from the 4 communities, the negative impact of hydrocarbon fire on crop production was accentuated. Hydrocarbon fire caused acid rain that reduced crop yield, land productivity and greatly depressed farm income as a 10 percentage increase in hydrocarbon fire reduced crop yield by 13% while farm income plummeted by 25.5%. In order to halt the continual degradation of the Niger Delta environment, the authors recommend enactment and enforcement of stringent environmental laws to protect the area as well as the implementation of policies to reduce the crushing level of poverty and guarantee a better livelihood for the people.

  15. Interplanting Patterns of Cash Crops under Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renjie; DU; Yuejun; QU; Hu; JIN; Haibo; JIANG; Yunchang; DU; Dongyue; ZHOU; Jing; FU; Ping; SHI

    2014-01-01

    At the same time of tending forests,it is necessary to explore the under-forest economic development mode,bring into play production function of economic plants,establish cultivation mode of edible fungus,wild vegetables and medicinal plants under forest,to obtain certain economic benefit in short period. This paper made a preliminary study on significance and existing problems of the under-forest economy,and came up with several interplanting patterns,in the hope of providing a comprehensive operation and cultivation approach for developing the under-forest economy.

  16. 中国草田耕作制度研究进展%The progress of research in pasture-crop farming systems of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 师尚礼; 曹文侠

    2012-01-01

    With the development of animal husbandry in recent years, the pasture-crop farming systems de veloped rapidly in China. Stylosanthes and annual China, and alfalfa, ryegrass and milkvetch were the ryegrass were the most important forages planting in South most important forages planting in North China. The pas ture-crop farming systems were commonly recommended for improving soil organic and soil physical properties, and sustaining soil nitrogen content and keeping soil nutrients balance, and reducing soil and water erosion. The pasture-crop farming systems was one of the great approach to improve land use efficiency tainable agricultural development and ecological environmental improvement in China. Y U and good for the sus tilization and enrich ment of farmland could be combined in the pasture-crop farming systems with the conversing of the traditional agriculture planting of crops and economical to modern agriculture planting of crops, forage and economical crops. The pasture-crop farming system had a high productivity and a high utilization of light,energy,water and land resources. Also it could provide grain yields for human and protein forage for animals. And the systems of legums intercropped or mixed with crops or pastures had complementary effects on each others.%随畜牧业发展,草田耕作制度在中国北方和南方发展迅速,我国南方逐步形成柱花草和一年生黑麦草为主的种植模式,我国北方呈现紫花苜蓿、黑麦草及沙打旺为主的种植模式。草田耕作具有提高土壤有机质、增加氮素供给、改善土壤物理特性、维持土壤养分平衡和防止土壤侵蚀等作用。草田耕作对合理利用土地资源和实现农牧业可持续发展具有重要意义。草田耕作使用地和养地结合,实现由传统粮食/经济作物二元结构向粮食/牧草/经济作物三元结构过渡,有利于提高光、热、水和土地资源利用,提高系统生产力,达到既提高粮食产量,又

  17. AGRONOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF TROPICAL COVER CROPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are important components of a sustainable crop production system. They can be planted with plantation crops such as cacao, coffee, banana, rubber and oil palm or in rotation with cash crops. Their use in a cropping system is mainly beneficial for soil and water conservation, recycling of...

  18. Marketing Farm Grain Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, Harlan E.

    This vocational agriculture curriculum on grain marketing contains three parts: teacher guide, student manual, and student workbook. All three are coordinated and cross-referenced. The course is designed to give students of grain marketing a thorough background in the subject and provide practical help in developing grain marketing strategies for…

  19. Cash-Flow Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Parthasarathi Shome; Christian Schutte

    1993-01-01

    The cash-flow tax has been proposed as an alternative to corporate income tax on grounds of clarity and simplicity in defining the tax base in the face of widespread departures from the comprehensive income tax in actual practice. Variants of the tax, with their advantages and disadvantages, demonstrate that it would require careful design. Simplicity is not an obvious property because of expectable administration problems related to tax avoidance and evasion through transfer pricing; to infl...

  20. Root pruning reduces root competition in living mulch cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Båth, B.; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    In intercropping systems with a cash crop and a living mulch intercrop, competition between the cash crop and the intercrop (the living mulch) often reduces the yield of the cash crop. This project investigated (1) the influence of root pruning of living mulches on aboveground biomass of white cabbage. Below-ground growth and competition were examined by measuring (2) root distribution in minirhizotrons and (3) uptake of 15N placed at different soil depths. Two field experiments were carried ...

  1. Associations between soil bacterial community structure and nutrient cycling functions in long-term organic farm soils following cover crop and organic fertilizer amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Adria L; Sheaffer, Craig C; Wyse, Donald L; Staley, Christopher; Gould, Trevor J; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural management practices can produce changes in soil microbial populations whose functions are crucial to crop production and may be detectable using high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA. To apply sequencing-derived bacterial community structure data to on-farm decision-making will require a better understanding of the complex associations between soil microbial community structure and soil function. Here 16S rRNA sequencing was used to profile soil bacterial communities following application of cover crops and organic fertilizer treatments in certified organic field cropping systems. Amendment treatments were hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), winter rye (Secale cereale), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), beef manure, pelleted poultry manure, Sustane(®) 8-2-4, and a no-amendment control. Enzyme activities, net N mineralization, soil respiration, and soil physicochemical properties including nutrient levels, organic matter (OM) and pH were measured. Relationships between these functional and physicochemical parameters and soil bacterial community structure were assessed using multivariate methods including redundancy analysis, discriminant analysis, and Bayesian inference. Several cover crops and fertilizers affected soil functions including N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and β-glucosidase activity. Effects, however, were not consistent across locations and sampling timepoints. Correlations were observed among functional parameters and relative abundances of individual bacterial families and phyla. Bayesian analysis inferred no directional relationships between functional activities, bacterial families, and physicochemical parameters. Soil functional profiles were more strongly predicted by location than by treatment, and differences were largely explained by soil physicochemical parameters. Composition of soil bacterial communities was predictive of soil functional profiles. Differences in soil function were

  2. Applying CSM-CERES-Maize to define a sowing window for irrigated maize crop - The Riacho´s Farm case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Freitas Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation use constitutes an alternative to improve maize production in Central Minas Gerais State, Brazil. However, even under adequate water supply conditions, other environmental factors may influence maize crop growth and development and may, ultimately, affect grain yield. This study aimed to establish a sowing window for irrigated maize crop, based on simulation results obtained with the decision support model CSM-CERES-Maize. Simulations were made for crop management conditions of Riacho´s Farm, located in Matozinhos, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. It was employed the model´s seasonal tool, along with a data set containing 46 years of weather data records, to simulate maize yield for weekly sowing scenarios, starting on August 1st and ending on July 24th of each year. One defined an irrigated maize sowing window, taking into account the yield break risk that a farmer would be willing to take. The model proved to be an interesting tool to assist in decision making, regarding crop and irrigation management, for an irrigated maize production system. Assuming a 10% yield break in the expected average maximum maize yield, it was defined as sowing window, the period from January 23rd to March 6th, with February 20th as the best sowing date. Other sowing windows may be established according to the risk that the farmer would be willing to take.

  3. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of Salmonella serovars in integrated crop-livestock farms and their products sold in local markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mengfei; Salaheen, Serajus; Almario, Jose Alejandro; Tesfaye, Bezait; Buchanan, Robert; Biswas, Debabrata

    2016-05-01

    Major concern in the Mixed Crop-Livestock (MCL) farms, in which livestock and vegetables grown closely in the same facility, is cross-contamination of zoonotic bacterial pathogens especially Salmonella. To investigate the distribution of Salmonella serovars in MCL and their products, a total of 1287 pre-harvest samples from various farms and 1377 post-harvest samples from retail supermarkets in Maryland and Washington D.C. areas were collected and analysed. A total of 315 Salmonella isolates were recovered, with 17.44% and 5.88%, from MCL and conventional farms samples (P post-harvest level, the prevalence of Salmonella was 30.95%, 19.83%, and 8.38% in chicken meat (P < 0.001) from farmers, organic, and conventional retail markets respectively, and 16.81% and 6.06% in produce products (P < 0.001) from farmers and organic retail markets, but none from conventional retail markets. From the isolated Salmonella, 34.50% was confirmed S. Typhimurium, followed by S. Heidelberg (10.86%) and S. Enteritidis (9.90%). The overall multi-antibiotic resistance in recovered Salmonella was 23.81% versus 4.55% in conventional and MCL farms (P = 0.004) and 66.67% versus 7.76% in conventional and farmers markets (P < 0.001). Overall the data reveals higher Salmonella risks in MCL farms' environment and their products sold in farmers markets and warrants taking necessary measures to limit Salmonella transmission. PMID:26914740

  4. Effects of different on-farm management on yield and water use efficiency of Potato crop cultivated in semiarid environments under subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazouani, Hiba; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Rallo, Giovanni; Mguidiche, Amel; Douh, Boutheina; Boujelben, Abdelhamid

    2016-04-01

    In Tunisia the amount of water for irrigated agriculture is higher than about 80% of the total resource.The increasing population and the rising food demand, associated to the negative effects of climate change,make it crucial to adopt strategies aiming to improve water use efficiency (WUE). Moreover, the absence of an effective public policy for water management amplifies the imbalance between water supply and its demand. Despite improved irrigation technologies can enhance the efficiency of water distribution systems, to achieve environmental goals it is also necessaryto identify on-farm management strategies accounting for actual crop water requirement. The main objective of the paper was to assess the effects of different on-farm managementstrategies (irrigation scheduling and planting date) on yield and water use efficiency of Potato crop (Solanumtuberosum L.) irrigated with a subsurface drip system, under the semi-arid climate of central Tunisia. Experiments were carried out during three growing seasons (2012, 2014 and 2015) at the High Agronomic Institute of ChottMariem in Sousse, by considering different planting dates and irrigation depths, the latter scheduled according to the climate observed during the season. All the considered treatments received the same pesticide and fertilizer management. Experiments evidenced that the climatic variability characterizing the examined seasons (photoperiod, solar radiation and average temperature) affects considerably the crop phenological stages, and the late sowing shortens the crop cycle.It has also been demonstrated that Leaf Area Index (LAI) and crop yield resulted relatively higher for those treatments receiving larger amounts of seasonal water. Crop yield varied between 16.3 t/ha and 39.1 t/ha, with a trend linearly related to the ratio between the seasonal amount of water supplied (Irrigation, I and Precipitation, P) and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ETm). The maximum crop yield was in particular

  5. Farming Practices Correctness Indicator for Family Farms in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Majewski, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine the state of affairs in farming practices in the sector of commercial farms in Polish Agriculture. Analysis of farming practices and farmers opinions on their appropriateness was based on the results of the survey in the sample of 721 farms from different regions of the country. Farming practices related to crop production, animal husbandry, farm management and environment were measured against the ideal model drawn from the Integrated Farming System guideli...

  6. Cash or Condition? Evidence from a Cash Transfer Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, Sarah; Mcintosh, Craig; Ozler, Berk

    2010-01-01

    Conditional Cash Transfer programs are "...the world's favorite new anti-poverty device," (The Economist, July 29 2010) yet little is known about the specific role of the conditions in driving their success. In this paper, we evaluate a unique cash transfer experiment targeted at adolescent girls in Malawi that featured both a conditional (CCT) and an unconditional (UCT) treatment arm. We ...

  7. Adapting to climate change in the mixed crop and livestock farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Philip K.; Herrero, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Mixed crop-livestock systems are the backbone of African agriculture, providing food security and livelihood options for hundreds of millions of people. Much is known about the impacts of climate change on the crop enterprises in the mixed systems, and some, although less, on the livestock enterprises. The interactions between crops and livestock can be managed to contribute to environmentally sustainable intensification, diversification and risk management. There is relatively little information on how these interactions may be affected by changes in climate and climate variability. This is a serious gap, because these interactions may offer some buffering capacity to help smallholders adapt to climate change.

  8. Investigating the water balance of on-farm techniques for improved crop productivity in rainfed systems: A case study of Makanya catchment, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makurira, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Rockström, J.; Senzanje, A.

    Water scarcity is a perennial problem in sub-Saharan agricultural systems where extreme rainfall events dominate agricultural seasons. Dry spell occurrences between and during seasons negatively impact on crop yields especially if such dry spells exceed 14 days. The impact of dry spells is felt more at smallholder farming scales where subsistence farming is the only source of livelihood for many households. This paper presents results from on-going research to improve rainfed water productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. The study site is the Makanya catchment in northern Tanzania where rainfall rarely exceeds 400 mm/season. Rainwater alone is not sufficient to support maize which is the preferred crop. The research introduced new soil and water conservation measures to promote water availability into the root zone. The introduced techniques include deep tillage, runoff diversion, fanya juus (infiltration trenches with bunds) and infiltration pits. The research aims at understanding the effectiveness of these interventions in increasing moisture availability within the root zone. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) was used to measure soil moisture twice weekly at 10 cm depth intervals up to depths of 2 m. Soil moisture fluctuated in the range 5-25% of volume with the beginning of the season recording the driest moisture levels and periods after good rainfall/runoff events recording the highest moisture levels. From the field observations made, a spreadsheet model was developed to simulate soil moisture variations during different maize growth stages. The results obtained show that the zones of greatest soil moisture concentrations are those around the trenches and bunds. Soil moisture is least at the centre of the plots. The study confirms the effectiveness of the introduced techniques to help concentrate the little available rainfall into green water flow paths. Indirect benefits from these improved techniques are the creation of fertile and moist zones around

  9. Effect of straw mulch residues of previous crop oats on the weed population in direct seeded faba bean in Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massucati, Luiz Felipe Perrone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of Organic Farming, we investigated whether direct seeding of faba bean (Vicia faba L. into straw mulch from residues of precrop oats used for weed control enables at least occasional/opportunistic direct seeding in Organic Agriculture. Eight field trials were carried out at different study sites in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Direct seeding (DS was performed into mulch layers of 0,4 and 6 t ha-1 of straw residues applied to the remaining stubble, simulating different yield levels of the precrop oats. LBS was used as a reference treatment, where straw was harvested, stubble tillage performed and seedbed prepared in fall and oil radish (Raphanus sativus grown as winter cover crop. Mouldboard ploughing combined with conventional seedbed preparation was performed in early spring to V. faba. Compared with LBS, straw mulch with subsequent direct seeding suppressed especially dicotyledonous annuals significantly. DS treatments with straw reduced the abundance of this group by 81 and 85% compared with LBS. Straw mulch resulted in effective suppression of photosensitive weeds such as Matricaria spp. and late germinating Chenopodium album. Grasses and perennial species occurred independent of the amount of straw. Compared with DS, the abundance of these weeds was reduced by 64 and 82% in LBS treatment. The shoot dry matter production of faba bean was retarded by DS compared with LBS, but significant yield losses could be avoided with straw residues of at least 4 t ha-1. Sufficient amount of straw of from the previous crop is a key criterion to facilitate organic no-till farming of faba bean in a suitable crop sequence when pressure of perennials and grasses is low.

  10. Assessing managerial performance using non-parametric distance functions compared to technical and accounting ratio analysis: an application to French farms in Nord-Pas-de-Calais specialized in field crops

    OpenAIRE

    Blancard, Stéphane; Boussemart, Jean-Philippe; Debruyne, Michel; Université des Sciences et Technologies (Bordeaux 1)

    2006-01-01

    This paper highlights the operational possibilities of applying non-parametric distance functions to diagnose farm performance. An empirical application on 178 farms in the Pas de Calais region specialized in field crops and observed over the period 1994-2001 establishes the coherence of this method compared to the usual approaches based on technical and accounting ratios. In addition, our results highlight the relevance of the additional information which is being generated by dissociating t...

  11. Evaluating a core germplasm collection of the cover crop hairy vetch for use in sustainable farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding linkage between genotype and agronomically important phenotypes (early flowering, hard seed and winter hardiness) will facilitate cultivar selection and inform breeding programs concerned with the cover crop hairy vetch (Vicia villosa). . We used molecular and biochemical techniques to...

  12. Whole-rotation dry matter and nitrogen grain yields from the first course of an organic farming crop rotation experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Jørgen E.; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankær; Askegaard, Margrethe; K. Kristensen

    2002-01-01

    The possibilities for increasing total grain yield in organic cereal production through manipulation of crop rotation design were investigated in a field experiment on different soil types in Denmark from 1997 to 2000. Three experimental factors were included in the experiment in a factorial design: 1) proportion of grass-clover and pulses in the rotation, 2) catch crop (with and without), and 3) manure (with and without). Three four-course rotations were compared. Two of the rotations had on...

  13. The need to breed crop varieties suitable for organic farming, using wheat, tomato and broccoli as examples: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Jones, S.S.; Tamm, L.; Murphy, K M; Myers, J.R.; Leifert, C.; Messmer, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 95% of organic production is based on crop varieties that were bred for the conventional high-input sector. Recent studies have shown that such varieties lack important traits required under organic and low-input production conditions. This is primarily due to selection in conventional breeding programmes being carried out in the background of high inorganic fertilizer and crop protection inputs. Also, some of the traits (e.g., semi-dwarf genes) that were introd...

  14. Determinants of crop diversity and composition in Enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Abebe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Households in much of the tropics depend for their livelihoods on the variety and continued production of food and other products that are provided by their own farms. In such systems, maintenance of agrobiodiversity and ensuring food security are important for the well being of the population. The enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia that are dominated by two native perennial crops, Coffee (Coffea arabica L. and Enset (Enset ventricosum Welw. Cheesman, are examples of such agricultural systems. This study was conducted in Sidama administrative zone of Southern Ethiopia to determine the factors that influence the diversity and composition of crops in the systems. Data were collected from 144 sample homegardens selected from four districts. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to relate indices of crop diversity and area share of major crops with the physical and socioeconomic factors. The study revealed that socioeconomic factors, mainly proximity to markets, affected negatively crop species richness. The production area of the main crops enset and coffee decreased with increasing proximity to market and road while that of maize and khat increased. At household level, farm size had a significant effect on area share of enset and coffee. As farm size increased the share of the cash crop, coffee increased but that of the staple, enset declined. Enset, which is the backbone of the system in terms of food security, is declining on small farms and the share of monoculture maize system is increasing. The trend towards declining agrobiodiversity, and reduction in the production area of the main perennial crops and their gradual replacement with monoculture fields could make the systems liable to instability and collapse. As these sites are high potential agricultural areas, intensification can be achieved by integrating high-value and more productive crops, such as fruits, spices and vegetables, while maintaining the

  15. Cash transfers and child labor

    OpenAIRE

    de Hoop, Jacobus; Rosati, Furio C.

    2014-01-01

    Cash transfer programs are widely used in settings where child labor is prevalent. Although many of these programs are explicitly implemented to improve children's welfare, in theory their impact on child labor is undetermined. This paper systematically reviews the empirical evidence on the impact of cash transfers, conditional and unconditional, on child labor. The authors find no evidenc...

  16. Cash Transfers and Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    de Hoop, Jacobus; Rosati, Furio C.

    2014-01-01

    Cash transfer programs are widely used in settings where child labor is prevalent. Although many of these programs are explicitly implemented to improve children's welfare, in theory their impact on child labor is undetermined. This paper systematically reviews the empirical evidence on the impact of cash transfers, conditional and unconditional, on child labor. The authors find no evidenc...

  17. Accounting for the Corporate Cash Increase

    OpenAIRE

    Jake Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Why do U.S. firms hold much more cash now than they did 30 years ago? Prior empirical studies have discovered a statistically significant positive relationship between firm cash holdings and cash flow volatility. Such findings, however, are subject to endogeneity problems. In this paper, I construct a structural model of firm dynamics where cash provides a buffer against cash-flow shortfalls in the presence of costly external finance. My model finds that 63% of the increase in corporate cash ...

  18. E-Cash Payment Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Srivastava

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available E-cash is a payment system designed and implemented for making purchases over open networks such as the Internet. Need of a payment system which enables the electronic transactions are growing at the same time that the use of Internet is growing in our daily life. Present days electronic payment systems have a major problem, they cannot handle the security and the users anonymity and at the same time these systems are secure on the cost of their users anonymity. This paper shows the payment protocols for digital cash and discusses how a digital cash system can be formed by presenting a few of the present days digital cash systems in details. We also provide a comparison and determine them together to see which one of them fulfils the properties for digital cash and the required security level.

  19. Capacity Building on Food-Crop Farming to Improve Food Production and Food Security in Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waridin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the capacity of food-crop production for improving regional food security in Central Java, Indonesia. It is also identify crops which have high and prospective economic-values. The results of the study might help in formulating a proposed model to improve food crops production in supporting food security. The case study was conducted in districts which play the important roles on agriculture (rice production in Central Java, Indonesia. These are Klaten and Magelang districts. Data were collected from farmers and officers from agriculture-related institutions. The results show that Central Java Province has the capacity on food crop (rice production for securing food availability, distribution, and accessibility for people in the region. It has a moderate on food security for the products, and surplus of production have distributed to other regions within the country. However, other food crops still facing shortage of supply since lack of productions. It requires a commitment from government and stakeholders for improving capacity building on agricultural development.

  20. Assessment of Field-Grown Cucurbit Crops and Weeds within Farms in South-West Nigeria for Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Ibitaiyewa AYO-JOHN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbits are economic crops in Nigeria which serve as additional nutritional supplements and also good sources of income for farmers. Viral diseases are a worldwide problem of cucurbits and a major limiting factor for cucurbit production. A survey of farmer’s fields where cucurbit crops were grown was carried out to assess the incidence and severity of virus symptoms and viruses associated with the crops and weeds in selected locations in Ogun and Osun, in southwest Nigeria, in June, 2012. In all, 38 leaf samples were collected in Ogun state and 52 in Osun state from cucurbit crops and weeds. Leaf samples were tested against  Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV,Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV using Double Antibody Sandwich (DAS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. All the fields surveyed had virus symptom incidences of 100% except for melon fields in Osun state with incidences of between 10 and 30%. In Ogun state, the occurrence of CMV was 5/31 (16.1% while MNSV was detected in Lagenaria siceraria and T. occidentalis and it occurred in 6.5% of the leaf samples. In Osun state, CMV was detected in watermelon, melon and weeds found in all locations surveyed. The occurrence of CMV was 9/38 (23.7% in the cucurbit crops and in 78.6% (11/14 of the weeds. PRSV and WMV also occurred in mixed infection with CMV in 7.1% respectively. CMV was the most widespread and prevalent virus infecting cucurbit crops and weeds.Cucurbits are economic crops in Nigeria which serve as additional nutritional supplements and also good sources of income for farmers. Viral diseases are a worldwide problem of cucurbits and a major limiting factor for cucurbit production. A survey of farmer’s fields where cucurbit crops were grown was carried out to assess the incidence and severity of virus symptoms and viruses associated with the crops

  1. Evaluation of surface energy and carbon fluxes within a large wind farm during the CWEX-10/11 Crop Wind-energy EXperiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajewski, D. A.; Takle, E. S.; Prueger, J. H.; Oncley, S.; Horst, T. W.; Pfeiffer, R.; Hatfield, J.; Spoth, K. K.; Doorenbos, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Crop Wind-energy EXperiment conducted in summer 2010 (very moist conditions) and summer 2011 (abnormally dry) included measurements of wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, turbulence kinetic energy, H2O, and CO2 at stations north and south of a line of turbines at the southwest edge of a large-scale 200-turbine wind farm (prevailing wind from the south). In contrast to previous studies that have reported turbine influences on surface wind speed and temperature, this report focuses on scalar fluxes of heat, H2O, and CO2. From previous measurements in agricultural fields we recognize the importance of non-turbine factors in analysis of the flux differences: variability of soil characteristics, moisture content, crop cultivar, management practices, planting dates, etc., which can create differences in what looks like a uniform field of maize (corn). We conceptualize the influences of turbines at canopy height at a given location in the field to arise from (1) wakes of reduced wind speed and turbulence conditions different from ambient that intersect the surface, (2) wakes that are passing overhead and interrupt the ambient turbulence that scales with height, or (3) changes in static pressure upwind and downwind of lines of turbines that create small-scale pressure gradients, localized flows, and changes to the vertical exchange of scalar variables. The turbine SCADA wind speed and wind direction provided by the wind farm operator facilitated our comparison of surface fluxes upwind and downwind as wakes moved laterally throughout the day and night. We report multiple levels of evidence that wind turbines increase vertical exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor over the canopy. Latent heat and carbon fluxes are responsive to slight changes in the turbine wake position, and the flux differences are maximized when the periphery of the wake edge is above the station. The flux stations north of the turbine line report a larger net ecosystem exchange

  2. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50. PMID:24010026

  3. Modeling the Effects of Cap and Trade and a Carbon Offset Policy on Crop Allocations and Farm Income

    OpenAIRE

    Nalley, Lawton Lanier; Popp, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    A static, producer profit maximization framework is used to capture county level land use choice on the basis of profitability, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to the farm gate as well as soil carbon sequestration as affected by tillage and soil type. Policy scenarios of a 5% GHG cap on agricultural emissions in conjunction with a carbon offset payment system, designed to provide producer payments for net carbon footprint (GHG emissions – soil carbon sequestration) reductions compared to a bas...

  4. Cash efficiency for bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks’ branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank ...

  5. Community perspectives: Community check cashing

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Leibsohn

    2011-01-01

    In May of 2009, Community Development Finance (CDF) opened the first nonprofit, full-service check cashing store in the country in Fruitvale, California. The project is designed to provide low-income households with the financial services they need, without the asset-stripping characteristics common to the fringe banking industry. In addition to providing affordable check cashing services and a payday loan product, CDF also provides financial coaching and literacy training, small business ass...

  6. Understanding the Cash Flow-Fundamental Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Chyi-Lun Chiou

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the use of cash flow-fundamental ratio in forecasting stock market return and examines implications behind this ratio. By presuming the dynamics of cash flow-fundamental ratio I identify the relationship between economic uncertainty and risk premium. The evidence shows that cash flow-fundamental ratio is procyclical and is a predictor of cash flow growth and excess returns. The cash flow-fundamental ratio is proved to be negatively associated with risk premium. I als...

  7. An Investigation into Cash Flow Forecasts Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Kum, Chi Leng

    2010-01-01

    Cash flow forecasts are the most important step in the capital budgeting process in terms of planning effectively to finance for cash deficit and invest cash surplus for capital expenditure decisions. Despite its importance, little progress has been made in its estimation process, due to the difficulty of producing accurate cash flow numbers for the analysis of capital budgeting decisions. This management project details the investigation of the cash flow forecasts practices and highlights so...

  8. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  9. Measurements in support of wind farm simulations and power forecasts: The Crop/Wind-energy Experiments (CWEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takle, E. S.; Rajewski, D. A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Gallus, W. A., Jr.; Sharma, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Midwest US currently is experiencing a large build-out of wind turbines in areas where the nocturnal low-level jet (NLLJ) is a prominent and frequently occurring feature. We describe shear characteristics of the NLLJ and their influence on wind power production. Reports of individual turbine power production and concurrent measurements of near-surface thermal stratification are used to turbine wake interactions and turbine interaction with the overlying atmosphere. Progress in forecasting conditions such as wind ramps and shear are discussed. Finally, the pressure perturbation introduced by a line of turbines produces surface flow convergence that may create a vertical velocity and hence a mesoscale influence on cloud formation by a wind farm.

  10. Measurements in support of wind farm simulations and power forecasts: The Crop/Wind-energy Experiments (CWEX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Midwest US currently is experiencing a large build-out of wind turbines in areas where the nocturnal low-level jet (NLLJ) is a prominent and frequently occurring feature. We describe shear characteristics of the NLLJ and their influence on wind power production. Reports of individual turbine power production and concurrent measurements of near-surface thermal stratification are used to turbine wake interactions and turbine interaction with the overlying atmosphere. Progress in forecasting conditions such as wind ramps and shear are discussed. Finally, the pressure perturbation introduced by a line of turbines produces surface flow convergence that may create a vertical velocity and hence a mesoscale influence on cloud formation by a wind farm

  11. A Review of Children's Literature about Farming and Rural Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Nancy L.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews children's books suitable for preschool to secondary students concerning life on a farm, farm animals, various crops, regional differences, farming methods, farm machinery, livestock care, veterinary science, the history of farming, difficulties with farm life, and poetry about farm life. (KS)

  12. Integrated Bioenergy and Food Production—A German Survey on Structure and Developments of Anaerobic Digestion in Organic Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Blumenstein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rising global energy needs and limited fossil fuel reserves have led to increased use of renewable energies. In Germany, this has entailed massive exploitation of agricultural biomass for biogas generation, associated with unsustainable farming practices. Organic agriculture not only reduces negative environmental impacts, organic farmers were also prime movers in anaerobic digestion (AD in Germany. This study’s aim was to identify the structure, development, and characteristics of biogas production associated with organic farming systems in order to estimate further development, as well as energetic and associated agronomic potentials. Surveys were conducted among organic farms with AD technology. 144 biogas plants could be included in the analysis. Total installed electrical capacity was 30.8 MWel, accounting for only 0.8% of the total installed electrical capacity in the German biogas sector. Recently, larger plant types (>250 kWel with increased use of (also purchased energy crops have emerged. Farmers noticed increases in yields (22% on average and quality of cash crops in arable farming through integrated biogas production. In conclusion, although the share of AD in organic farming is relatively small it can provide various complementary socio-ecological benefits such as the enhancement of food output through digestate fertilization without additional need for land, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emissions from livestock manures and soils. However, to achieve this eco-functional intensification, AD systems and their management have to be well adapted to farm size and production focus and based primarily on residue biomass.

  13. Linear Programming in the economic estimate of livestock-crop integration: application to a Brazilian dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Hauber Gameiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A linear programming mathematical model was applied to a representative dairy farm located in Brazil. The results showed that optimization models are relevant tools to assist in the planning and management of agricultural production, as well as to assist in estimating potential gains from the use of integrated systems. Diversification was a necessary condition for economic viability. A total cost reduction potential of about 30% was revealed when a scenario of lower levels of diversification was contrasted to one of higher levels. Technical complementarities proved to be important sources of economies. The possibility of reusing nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium present in animal waste could be increased to 167%, while water reuse could be increased up to 150%. In addition to economic gains, integrated systems bring benefits to the environment, especially with reference to the reuse of resources. The cost dilution of fixed production factors can help economies of scope to be achieved. However, this does not seem to have been the main source of these benefits. Still, the percentage of land use could increase up to 30.7% when the lowest and the highest diversification scenarios were compared. The labor coefficient could have a 4.3 percent increase. Diversification also leads to drastic transaction cost reductions.

  14. Learning in Organic Farming An Application on Finnish Dairy Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Sipilainen, Timo; Oude Lansink, Alfons G. J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Organic farming technology may be relatively unknown to farmers at the time when they switch from conventional into organic farming. Therefore, experience gained over time and learning by doing may be important determinants in the efficiency of organic farming. It may also take time to reach the optimal nutrient stock of soil and optimal nutrient supply for arable crops under organic farming. Thus, efficiency of organic farming can either grow or decrease over time depending on the nature of ...

  15. Revenue Crop Protection Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, William M.; Hofstrand, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Insurance against poor crop yields has been available for many years. But income from crop production can be low even when yields are not. A new risk management tool known as crop revenue insruance addresses this problem. Revenue insurance guarantees a certain level of revenue rather than just production. It protects you from declines in both crop prices and yields. The guarantee is based on market prices and the actual yield on your farm.

  16. An Analysis on the Development Trend of Chinese Crop Farms%我国种植业经营主体发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周应恒; 张晓恒; 耿献辉

    2015-01-01

    通过对欧美日等3种不同人地禀赋国家农业经营实践经验的总结,结合我国保障粮食安全和农民增收的政策目标以及人地禀赋特征,认为我国农业将呈现分化发展的趋势,表现为既有适度规模经营主体结合社会化服务组织经营粮棉油等土地利用型作物,降低成本,应对国际市场竞争;又有小规模农户利用合作组织经营蔬菜、水果等劳动密集型产品,挖掘农产品附加价值,提高收入水平。基于2007年和2012年全国农产品成本收益数据研究表明:土地利用型产品的单产和价格上升空间有限,提高经营规模是降低产品单位成本、增加农民收入的重要途径;劳动密集型产品在无法提高经营规模的情况下,通过产后商品化处理、品牌化建设,提高产品附加值的潜力较大。%Based on the observation of farm numbers at the extremes (small and large)in three countries with different resources endowment in America,Europe and East Asia,we argue that Chinese agriculture will develop in two different paths under the constraints to guarantee food security,increase farmers’in-come and the ratio of people and land.Land intensive crops such as rice,wheat and maize,will operate by farms at suitable size to decrease the average cost and to respond to the international market competi-tion;meanwhile,labor intensive crops such as vegetables and fruits will operate by small scale farms joined up through the cooperation groups and committed to increase the added value of agricultural prod-ucts and to increase farmers’income.Based on the data from China Agricultural Product Cost-Benefit Compilation in 2007 and 2012,the results show that,little room has been left for the rises of yield and price of land intensive products,and increasing the operation scale is the most important method to de-crease the unit cost and to improve farmers’income.At the same time,There is great potential to im

  17. Management of Agricultural Enterprise Cash Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Kucherenko; Inna Tkachuk

    2014-01-01

    Cash is the only kind of company resource which can be transformed directly and with minimum time lag into any other kind of resources, their movement servicing all management operational processes. The article is covers the development of cash management algorithm in agricultural enterprise. The author has worked out the algorithm for determining the efficiency of cash management in agricultural enterprise. As the basis of the algorithm the income approach and discounted cash flow method has...

  18. EVOLUTION OF SOIL CHEMICAL VARIABLES IN AN ORGANIC CELERY CROP DURING THE CONVERSION PERIOD TO ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Sanchez-Romero

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For this study two fertilisation assays were carried out in an experimental field. The first assay (F1 used a sheep manure amendment, following the stipulations of European regulations concerning organic agriculture practices, and the second assay (F2 followed conventional agricultural practices of the area using inorganic fertilizers (313; 37 and 566 kgha-1 of N, P and K, respectively. Over a three-year period, samples of the arable soil layer were taken monthly in order to analyse the soil properties as indicators of soil quality (organic carbon, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, C:N ratio, Olsen P, electrical conductivity, pH in water and 1M KCl, cation exchangeable capacity, and exchangeable bases (Mg, K and Na. The experimental plot managed using organic agriculture techniques showed significantly better conditions for crop development than the conventionally managed plot: higher quantities of organic matter (22.4 and 17.4 gkg-1, respectively and nitrogen ( 3.0 and 2.5 gkg-1, respectively, a higher cation exchange capacity(14.4 and 12.2 cmol(+kg-1, respectively and greater availability of phosphorus ( 45.4 and 27.1 mgkg- 1. No significant differences were observed as regards pH (8.0 in both plots or the C/N ratio (7.7 and 7.1, respectively. Despite the short trial period of only three years, these results suggest that the agronomic model based on organic agriculture has a beneficial effect on soil properties and contributes to the function of soil as C sink.

  19. Financial structures for wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a summary of the structures used to finance wind farms. It takes into account the impact of the 3rd tranche of the NFFO and provides an evaluation of cash returns using Ernst and Young's wind energy model. Suggestions for further developments in financing include the use of specialist financial instruments and tax planning techniques. (author)

  20. Farm and Ranch Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Israelsen, Clark; Feuz, Dillon

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet is a brief overview of the financial statements and budgeting tools that are likely a part of most farm financial record keeping systems. Links are provided for additional detail on any one financial report or topic. A brief description of a Balance Sheet, a Profit Loss Statement or Income Statement, Statement of Cash Flows and Enterprise Analysis is included.

  1. Converting accounts receivable into cash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, M D; Roest, P R

    1995-09-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of healthcare providers have converted their accounts receivable into cash through a process called securitization. This practice has gained popularity because it provides a means to raise capital necessary to healthcare organizations. Although securitization transactions can be complex, they may provide increased financial flexibility to providers as they prepare for continuing change in the healthcare industry. PMID:10145096

  2. Pawn Shop,Cash Cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An expat in Beijing once wrote these words on his blog,"If you are anxious to exchange your valuables for cash,or want to collect some treasures in Beijing,you may visit Bao Rui Tong Pawn Shop which features agreeable environment,reliable credit,guaranteed quality and profes- sional service."That releases the com-

  3. Rx for low cash yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, Chris

    2003-10-01

    Certain strategies can offer not-for-profit hospitals potentially greater investment yields while maintaining stability and principal safety. Treasury inflation-indexed securities can offer good returns, low volatility, and inflation protection. "Enhanced cash" strategies offer liquidity and help to preserve capital. Stable value "wrappers" allow hospitals to pursue higher-yielding fixed-income securities without an increase in volatility. PMID:14560584

  4. Presentation of Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows under IAS 7, Statement of Cash Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor; Calota Traian-Ovidiu

    2013-01-01

    The consolidated financial statements must includ a specific statement, regarding cash flows from all activities of the entity, called „consolidated statement of cash flow”. Information for preparing cash flow statements can be found in all other components of the financial statements, such as financial position, statement of comprehensive income and statement of changes in equity. The cash flow statement shall report cash flows during the period classified by operating, investing and financi...

  5. 78-Impact of Export Horticulture Farming on Food Security of Smallholder Farmers in Mbooni and Kirinyaga counties, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Chege, Jane; Mburu, John I.; Nyikal, Rose; Muriithi, Beatrice W.

    2013-01-01

    Production of horticultural products for export is a major cash cropping practice in Kenya which is ranked third in terms of foreign exchange earnings after tourism and tea. Available evidence in the debate of the impact of cash cropping systems on food security however shows mixed results. Different potential negative and positive impacts can be identified which vary with choice of cash crops and the situation in which they are being grown and marketed. To assess impact, food security was me...

  6. Integration of Multisensor Remote Sensing Data for the Retrieval of Consistent Times Series of High-Resolution NDVI Images for Crop Monitoring in Landscapes Dominated By Small-Scale Farming Agricultural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, F.; Kempeneers, P.

    2014-12-01

    There is a need for timely and accurate information of food supply and early warnings of production shortfalls. Crop growth models commonly rely on information on vegetation dynamics from low and moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery. While the short revisit period of these sensors captures the temporal dynamics of crops, they are not able to monitor small-scale farming areas where environmental factors, crop type and management practices often vary at subpixel level. Although better suited to retrieve fine spatial structure, time series of higher resolution imagery (circa 30 m) are often incomplete due to larger revisit periods and persistent cloud coverage. However, as the Landsat archive expands and more fine resolution Earth observation sensors become available, the possibilities of multisensor integration to monitor crop dynamics with higher level of spatial detail are expanding. We have integrated remote sensing imagery from two moderate resolution sensors (MODIS and PROBA-V) and three medium resolution platforms (Landsat 7- 8; and DMC) to improve the characterization of vegetation dynamics in agricultural landscapes dominated by small-scale farms. We applied a data assimilation method to produce complete temporal sequences of synthetic medium-resolution NDVI images. The method implements a Kalman filter recursive algorithm that incorporates models, observations and their respective uncertainties to generate medium-resolution images at time steps for which only moderate-resolution imagery is available. The results for the study sites show that the time series of synthetic NDVI images captured seasonal vegetation dynamics and maintained the spatial structure of the landscape at higher spatial resolution. A more detailed characterization of spatiotemporal dynamics of vegetation in agricultural systems has the potential to improve the estimates of crop growth models and allow a more precise monitoring and forecasting of crop productivity.

  7. On farm evaluation of the effect of low cost drip irrigation on water and crop productivity compared to conventional surface irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisiri, N.; Senzanje, A.; Rockstrom, J.; Twomlow, S. J.

    This on-farm research study was carried out at Zholube irrigation scheme in a semi-arid agro tropical climate of Zimbabwe to determine how low cost drip irrigation technologies compare with conventional surface irrigation systems in terms of water and crop productivity. A total of nine farmers who were practicing surface irrigation were chosen to participate in the study. The vegetable English giant rape ( Brassica napus) was grown under the two irrigation systems with three fertilizer treatments in each system: ordinary granular fertilizer, liquid fertilizer (fertigation) and the last treatment with no fertilizer. These trials were replicated three times in a randomized block design. Biometric parameters of leaf area index (LAI) and fresh weight of the produce, water use efficiency (WUE) were used to compare the performance of the two irrigation systems. A water balance of the inflows and outflows was kept for analysis of WUE. The economic profitability and the operation, maintenance and management requirements of the different systems were also evaluated. There was no significant difference in vegetable yield between the irrigation systems at 8.5 ton/ha for drip compared to 7.8 ton/ha in surface irrigation. There were significant increases in yields due to use of fertilizers. Drip irrigation used about 35% of the water used by the surface irrigation systems thus giving much higher water use efficiencies. The leaf area indices were comparable in both systems with the same fertilizer treatment ranging between 0.05 for surface without fertilizer to 6.8 for low cost drip with fertigation. Low cost drip systems did not reflect any labour saving especially when manually lifting the water into the drum compared to the use of siphons in surface irrigation systems. The gross margin level for surface irrigation was lower than for low cost drip irrigation but the gross margin to total variable cost ratio was higher in surface irrigation systems, which meant that surface

  8. Fair Electronic Cash Based on Double Signatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓峰; 王常杰; 王育民

    2002-01-01

    In order to decrease crimes such as money laundering, blackmailing etc. inelectronic cash systems, fair electronic cash has been a major focus of academic research inelectronic commence. When a bank finds some dubious cash or owner, the trusted entity ortrustee can help him to revoke the anonymity of the cash. In the previous protocols, the trusteeknows all the information of the cash whether he is trusted or not, that is, he can trace the useror cash unconditionally. Furthermore, the dishonest trustee may deceive a user, which meansthat he may withdraw cash while tracing other users. Such cases are unfair to the honest users.A new fair electronic cash protocol based on untrustworthy trustees is proposed in thispaper. The key idea is that the coin structure should include the signatures of both the trusteeand the bank so that the trustee shares the information of the cash with the bank, while we donot use the secret sharing scheme. In contrast with the previous protocols, neither the trusteenor the bank can trace the money without the help of the other entity. In this way, the privacyof the user is protected furthest. Also, the trustee is off-line in the protocol, which meansthat he will not be involved in withdrawing the cash. Therefore, the protocol is efficient forimplementation.

  9. Equivalence of ten different discounted cash flow valuation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that ten methods of company valuation using discounted cash flows (WACC; equity cash flow; capital cash flow; adjusted present value; residual income; EVA; business's risk-adjusted equity cash flow; business's risk-adjusted free cash flow; risk-free-adjusted equity cash flow; and risk-free-adjusted free cash flow) always give the same value when identical assumptions are used. This result is logical, since all the methods analyze the same reality using the same assumptions; t...

  10. Genetically Engineered Crops and Certified Organic Agriculture for Improving Nutrition Security in Africa and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pray, Carl; Ledermann, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    In Africa and South Asia, where nutrition insecurity is severe, two of the most prominent production technologies are genetically modified (GM) crops and certified organic agriculture. We analyze the potential impact pathways from agricultural production to nutrition. Our review of data and the literature reveals increasing farm-level income from cash crop production as the main pathway by which organic agriculture and GM agriculture improve nutrition. Potential secondary pathways include reduced prices of important food crops like maize due to GM maize production and increased food production using organic technology. Potential tertiary pathways are improvements in health due to reduced insecticide use. Challenges to the technologies achieving their impact include the politics of GM agriculture and the certification costs of organic agriculture. Given the importance of agricultural production in addressing nutrition security, accentuated by the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, the chapter concludes by stressing the importance of private and public sector research in improving the productivity and adoption of both GM and organic crops. In addition, the chapter reminds readers that increased farm income and productivity require complementary investments in health, education, food access and women's empowerment to actually improve nutrition security. PMID:27197837

  11. Analysis of cash holding for measuring the efficiency of cash management: A study on IT sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For measuring the efficiency of management of cash, cash holding is one of the most important financial decisions that the manager of the concerned organization, has to make in the organization. Basically, it is observed that the organization hold cash for future purposes is very negligible. If the organization invested cash in profitable securities then there is some flexibility but when it relates to the capital market holding cash is not advantageous. Generally two contradictory theories such as Trade-off theory and the Pecking order theory are considered for measuring the efficiency of cash management. In this study we generally observed measured the efficiency of Cash Management influenced by Cash Holding. We also measured whether cash holding of the organization is affected with the degree of financial leverage, size of the organization, investment and profitability. This study helps us to understand the influence of DFL, Investment and Size of the organization on Cash holding. Proper holding of cash in cash management can prevent the bankruptcy of any organization and also increases the efficiency of Cash or Liquidity management.

  12. Precision Farming. A Comprehensive Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Alley, Mark M.; McClellan, Phil; Brann, Daniel Edward, 1945-; Donohue, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    Precision Farming (PF), also referred to as precision agriculture or variable rate technology, is the process used to vary management of crop production across a field. This publication introduces the principles and terminology used in PF. Crop producers can use this information to gain a working knowledge of PF and develop the ability to implement PF technologies in traditional crop production.

  13. 新泰市气候变化及其对种植业的影响%Climate Change and Its Influence on Crop Farming in Xintai City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉河; 王承军

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究新泰市气候变化特征及其对种植业的影响.[方法]利用新泰市1957 ~2009年逐年、月平均气温、降水量、初霜日、终霜日、无霜期、日照时数等气象资料,分析了新泰市近53年的气候变化特征及其对种植业的影响.[结果]新泰市气温在波动中上升,暖冬现象突出,≥0℃积温逐年增多,近10年来初霜推迟、终霜提前、作物生长季延长;年降水量在波动中减少,年日照时数总体呈减少趋势.由于积温的增加,无霜期的延长,使新泰市主要农作物的播种期、耕作制度发生变化,冬季气温的升高,有利于温室大棚等设施农业的发展,复种指数有所提高,特色种植优势突出;气候变暖使黄姜、黄花菜种植面积扩大,种植界限北移,小麦、花生播种期推迟,黄姜播种期提前,生长期延长.同时,气候变化也使得新泰病虫害加重、春季冻害加剧,极端气候事件增多引起的极端天气对果树产量和品质的影响更为剧烈,黄姜和黄花菜种植风险加大.[结论]该研究为促进新泰经济社会可持续发展提供科学依据.%[Objective] The research aimed to study the climate variation characteristic and its influence on the crop fanning in Xintai City. [Method] By using the yearly and monthly average temperature, rainfall, first and last frost dates, frost-free period, sunshine hours, etc. in Xintai City during 1957 -2009, the climate variation characteristic and its influence on the crop farming in Xintai City in recent 53 years were analyzed. [ Result] The temperature rose in the fluctuation in Xintai City. The warm winter phenomenon was prominent, and ≥0 ℃ accumulated temperature increased yearly. In recent 10 years, the first frost postponed, and the last frost advanced. The growth season of crop prolonged. The annual rainfall decreased in the fluctuation, and the annual sunshine hours presented the decrease trend as a whole. For the accumulated

  14. An Internet Based Anonymous Electronic Cash System

    OpenAIRE

    Israt Jahan; Mohammad Zahidur Rahman; K M Akkas Ali; Israt Jerin

    2015-01-01

    There is an increase activity in research to improve the current electronic payment system which is parallel with the progress of internet. Electronic cash system is a cryptographic payment system which offers anonymity during withdrawal and purchase. Electronic cash displays serial numbers which can be recorded to allow further tracing. Contrary to their physical counterparts, e-cash have an inherent limitation; they are easy to copy and reuse (double-spending). An observer is a tamper-resis...

  15. Corporate Cash Holdings, National Culture, and Multinationality

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Ramirez; Solomon Tadesse

    2007-01-01

    We examine the relations between national cultures, the multinationality of the firm and its holdings of cash. We develop several hypotheses from well known corporate finance theories and theories of the multinational firm, positing that cultural factors as well as the degree of multinationality of firms influence their decisions to hold cash. In particular, firms in countries with high uncertainty avoidance, as a national culture, hold more cash as a way to hedge against undesired states of ...

  16. Analysis and Accounting of Total Cash Flow

    OpenAIRE

    MELANIA ELENA MICULEAC

    2012-01-01

    In order to reach the objective of supplying some relevant information regarding the liquidity inflows and outflows during a financial exercise, the total cash flow analysis must include the analysis of result cashable from operation, of payments and receipts related to the investment and of financing decisions of the last exercise, as well as the analysis of treasury variation (of cash items). The management of total cash flows ensures the correlation of current liquidness flows as consequen...

  17. The Market for Electronic Cash Cards

    OpenAIRE

    Shy, Oz; Tarkka , Juha

    1998-01-01

    We develop a theoretical framework aimed to model the pricing of electronic money (electronic cash cards) and the market domain in which it will be used. We first calculate the fee structures of electronic cash- and charge-card industries for the monopoly and competitive cases. We show that the different market structures do not affect the domain of electronic cash cards and the displacement of currency in daily transactions. We provide a welfare analysis to determine whether a market equilib...

  18. Date attachable offline electronic cash scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chun-I; Sun, Wei-Zhe; Hau, Hoi-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cash (e-cash) is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling. PMID:24982931

  19. Cash Transfers, Basic Income and Community Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn L. Forget

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The austerity movement in high-income countries of Europe and North America has renewed calls for a guaranteed Basic Income. At the same time, conditional and unconditional cash transfers accompanied by rigorous impact evaluations have been conducted in low- and middle-income countries with the explicit support of the World Bank. Both Basic Income and cash transfer programs are more confidently designed when based on empirical evidence and social theory that explain how and why cash transfers to citizens are effective ways of encouraging investment in human capital through health and education spending. Are conditional cash transfers more effective and/or more efficient than unconditional transfers? Are means-tested transfers effective? This essay draws explicit parallels between Basic Income and unconditional cash transfers, and demonstrates that cash transfers to citizens work in remarkably similar ways in low-, middle- and high-income countries. It addresses the theoretical foundation of cash transfers. Of the four theories discussed, three explicitly acknowledge the interdependence of society and are based, in increasingly complex ways, on ideas of social inclusion. Only if we have an understanding of how cash transfers affect decision-making can we address questions of how best to design cash transfer schemes.

  20. E-Cash Payment Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Shweta Srivastava; Vandana Saraswat

    2012-01-01

    E-cash is a payment system designed and implemented for making purchases over open networks such as the Internet. Need of a payment system which enables the electronic transactions are growing at the same time that the use of Internet is growing in our daily life. Present days electronic payment systems have a major problem, they cannot handle the security and the users anonymity and at the same time these systems are secure on the cost of their users anonymity. This paper shows the payment p...

  1. Gantry technology in organic crop production

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Dr. Winfried

    2002-01-01

    Gantry technology in organic crop production Winfried Schäfer Agrifood Research Finland, Agricultural Engineering Research, Objectives: Costs of agricultural machinery and farm buildings are substantial, comprising about 40% of production costs also in organic farming. What are the tasks of agricultural machinery and agricultural engineering research in organic farming? Which agricultural engineering results support the basic principles of organic farming? ...

  2. Transition to Organic Cropping Systems under Risk

    OpenAIRE

    David W Archer; Kludze, Hillarius

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the risks, returns and optimal adoption strategies for a representative Minnesota farm switching from conventional to organic cropping systems. The EPIC simulation model was calibrated based on the yields observed in a farming systems field study. A farm-level simulation model was constructed using the EPIC simulated crop yields and historical prices. Results were compared for an expected utility maximizing farm under a range of risk aversion levels, with and without management lea...

  3. 23 CFR 140.612 - Cash management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cash management. 140.612 Section 140.612 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Reimbursement for Bond Issue Projects § 140.612 Cash management. By July 1 of each year the SHA will...

  4. Lessons about Cash and Manager Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mong, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Experienced managers know that cash affects virtually every aspect of a company's strategy and operations. Business students and new managers, however, sometimes lose sight of the importance of cash amidst the details of accrual-based accounting courses, formula-based finance courses, and production-based management courses. We therefore use…

  5. Secure Electronic Cash Scheme with Anonymity Revocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyuan Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a popular electronic cash scheme, there are three participants: the bank, the customer, and the merchant. First, a customer opens an account in a bank. Then, he withdraws an e-cash from his account and pays it to a merchant. After checking the electronic cash’s validity, the merchant accepts it and deposits it to the bank. There are a number of requirements for an electronic cash scheme, such as, anonymity, unforgeability, unreusability, divisibility, transferability, and portability. Anonymity property of electronic cash schemes can ensure the privacy of payers. However, this anonymity property is easily abused by criminals. In 2011, Chen et al. proposed a novel electronic cash system with trustee-based anonymity revocation from pairing. On demand, the trustee can disclose the identity for e-cash. But, in this paper we point out that Chen et al.’s scheme is subjected to some drawbacks. To contribute secure electronic cash schemes, we propose a new offline electronic cash scheme with anonymity revocation. We also provide the formally security proofs of the unlinkability and unforgeability. Furthermore, the proposed scheme ensures the property of avoiding merchant frauds.

  6. 12 CFR 220.8 - Cash account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CREDIT BY...; cancellation or liquidation—(1) Full cash payment. A creditor shall obtain full cash payment for customer... additional payment period. (4) Cancellation; liquidation; minimum amount. A creditor shall promptly cancel...

  7. Szacowanie podstawy opodatkowania w przypadku umowy cash poolingu

    OpenAIRE

    Witczak, Radosław

    2013-01-01

    In the article the tax effects of cash pooling were presented. The scope and types of cash pooling contract were presented. The rules concerning the VAT and tax on civil law transactions and cash pooling were described. The tax effects of cash pooling caused by corporate income tax were discussed. The areas of tax risk concerning the use of cash pooling in respect of transfer pricing were given. The possibility of tax assessment in case of cash pooling was discussed.

  8. From farm scale synergies to village scale trade-offs: Cereal crop residues use in an agro-pastoral system of the Sudanian zone of Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrieu, N.; Vayssières, J.; Corbeels, M.; Blanchard, M.; Vall, E.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, cereal crop harvest residues are communally grazed by the ruminant herds of villagers and transhumant pastoralists in the agro-pastoral systems which predominate in the savannah zone of West Africa. We analysed the impact of the private use of crop residues by individual farmers on cr

  9. Assets Expropriation via Cash Dividends?Free Cash Flow or Tunneling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeng-Ren Chiou; Yenn-Ru Chen; Ting-Chiao Huang

    2010-01-01

    This study solves the dispute between the free cash flow and tunneling hypotheses in explaining the role of cash dividends on asset expropriation of the controlling shareholders in Chinese listed firms. Investors value more the cash dividends and the cash holdings of firms with lower ownership control than those of firms with higher ownership control. This is more consistent with the tunneling hypothesis. However, when investment opportunities are considered, the free cash flow hypothesis better explains firms’ dividend policy. Investors value more the cash dividends of firms with fewer investment opportunities and higher probability of expropriation. This study indicates that investors are concerned with the potential asset expropriation through cash payouts, unless firms possess high growth opportunities.

  10. An Internet Based Anonymous Electronic Cash System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israt Jahan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is an increase activity in research to improve the current electronic payment system which is parallel with the progress of internet. Electronic cash system is a cryptographic payment system which offers anonymity during withdrawal and purchase. Electronic cash displays serial numbers which can be recorded to allow further tracing. Contrary to their physical counterparts, e-cash have an inherent limitation; they are easy to copy and reuse (double-spending. An observer is a tamper-resistant device, issued by the Internet bank, which is incorporated with the Internet user’s computer that prevents double-spending physically, i.e., the user has no access to her e-cash and therefore he cannot copy them. In this paper, we shall present an anonymous electronic cash scheme on the internet which incorporates tamper-resistant device with user-module.

  11. Solar energy, a cash machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first article outlines that the solar energy sector attracts investors which are looking for secure returns. It is notably the case in the United States where companies are undergoing spectacular growth: solar installations are perceived as cash flow factories. A second article comments the consequences of this evolution of investments: the photovoltaic sector is now competitive and thus enters a new dimension with a mass development (indicators of installed power as it is in 2014 and will be 2019 are given for the main markets which are USA, Chile, Europe, South Africa, India, China, Japan and Australia). A third article comments this increase of investors who decide to invest in industries related to energy transition as they perceive these investments less risky on the long term, notably in relationship with climate. The success of crowd-funding practices is briefly evoked for projects related to sustainable development

  12. Analysis of Price Risk Management Strategies in Dairy Farming Using Whole-Farm Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Neyhard, James; Tauer, Loren; Gloy, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Combinations of futures and options contracts on milk and feed were simulated to determine their influence on a representative dairy farm’s ability to meet cash flow requirements and reduce the variance of net income. Compared with the reference scenario of selling milk and procuring inputs on a monthly cash basis, the risk management activities did not result in a significant change in either the level or variance of net farm income. The results suggest that on average the current marketin...

  13. BoBB, software to assess soil erosion risk - introduction of the tool and its use to evaluate appropriate crops and farming practices on endangered field plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devátý, Jan; Dostál, Tomáš; Hösl, Rosemarie; Strauss, Peter; Novotný, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    BoBB (Bodenerosion, Beratung, Berechnung) is simple software to support instant assessment of soil erosion hazard on agricultural fields. The program is profile-oriented, implementing the RUSLE model with slight changes allowing it to assess and compare different farming practices especially the soil-conservation field management. The input parameters datasets are supplied with necessary data for territory and natural conditions of Upper Austria but are generally usable for Central Europe. The software was developed on Federal Agency for Water Management, Petzenkirchen, Austria in 2011 - 2012. BAW and CTU in Prague are recently cooperating on validation and practical applicability approval of the model. Basic validation was done by comparing the outputs of the BoBB software with outputs of the original RUSLE model calculated by the RUSLE1 (USDA, 1998) and RUSLE2 (USDA, 2005) softwares. Further evaluation was performed to test the possibilities of BoBB to reveal field plots endangered by soil erosion. First, testing areas were selected out of a map of soil erosion risk, which had been calculated for the whole territory of the Czech Republic using a combination of the USLE approach and a GIS approach referring to the best available data set. This map in 10x10 meters resolution is used as basic source for assessment of soil erosion hazard and for necessity of GAEC requirements (Good agricultural practices assessment for agricultural subsidy policy) and is therefore accepted as standard at state level. Characteristic profiles were selected within defined testing areas and soil erosion hazard, determined by the USLE approach and BoBB have then been compared. Second, a comparison of BoBB outputs and database of soil erosion events (http://me.vumop.cz) was carried out. The database is created and maintained by the Czech Institute of Soil Conservation as a unique tool for soil erosion mapping and documentation. It was launched in 2010 and recently contains approximately

  14. Is There Any Chance for Crop and Livestock Integration in Indonesia?

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang R Prawiradiputra

    2009-01-01

    The integration of livestock and crops, especially food crops, or recently known as crop-livestock systems is very familiar in Indonesia as well as in South-East Asia. The system has been practiced for decades and still carrying out until now. In Indonesian traditional farming system, livestock plays an important role in the system. In Indonesia, there are five types of farming system namely extensive farming, non-intensive farming, intensive farming, very intensive farming and conservation f...

  15. Climate change, cash transfers and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pega, Frank; Shaw, Caroline; Rasanathan, Kumanan; Yablonski, Jennifer; Kawachi, Ichiro; Hales, Simon

    2015-08-01

    The forecast consequences of climate change on human health are profound, especially in low- and middle-income countries and among the most disadvantaged populations. Innovative policy tools are needed to address the adverse health effects of climate change. Cash transfers are established policy tools for protecting population health before, during and after climate-related disasters. For example, the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Programme provides cash transfers to reduce food insecurity resulting from droughts. We propose extending cash transfer interventions to more proactive measures to improve health in the context of climate change. We identify promising cash transfer schemes that could be used to prevent the adverse health consequences of climatic hazards. Cash transfers for using emission-free, active modes of transport - e.g. cash for cycling to work - could prevent future adverse health consequences by contributing to climate change mitigation and, at the same time, improving current population health. Another example is cash transfers provided to communities that decide to move to areas in which their lives and health are not threatened by climatic disasters. More research on such interventions is needed to ensure that they are effective, ethical, equitable and cost-effective. PMID:26478613

  16. ANALYSIS AND ACCOUNTING OF TOTAL CASH FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELANIA ELENA MICULEAC

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reach the objective of supplying some relevant information regarding the liquidity inflows and outflows during a financial exercise, the total cash flow analysis must include the analysis of result cashable from operation, of payments and receipts related to the investment and of financing decisions of the last exercise, as well as the analysis of treasury variation (of cash items. The management of total cash flows ensures the correlation of current liquidness flows as consequence of receipts with the payments ’flows, in order to provide payment continuity of mature obligations.

  17. Anonymous Fingerprinting Based on Electronic Cash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXiaofeng; ZHANGFangguo; WANGJilin; WANGYumin

    2003-01-01

    A new anonymous fingerprinting protocol based on the principle of electronic cash is proposed in this paper.Redistributing a data item is equal to doublespending electronic cash.Contrasting with the previous coin-based anonymous fingerprinting protocol,we use the real electronic cash to trace traitors instead of the "coins" which serve only as a cryptographic primitive and have no monetary value,so it is easily understood and the bank does not need key-distribution and registration to prepare the "coina".

  18. Comparison of Soil Fauna (Oribatids and Enchytraeids)Between Conventional and Organic (Tillage and No—Tillage Practices)Farming Crop Fields in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.FUJITA; S.FUJIYAMA

    2001-01-01

    The major soil animal groups,enchyraeid worms and oribatid mites,were compared in the abundance and diversity between conventional fields(CT)and organic farming fields with tillage(OT) or no-tillage(ON)practices,The values of abundance,species richness,diversity and evenness were significantly larger in OT and ON than in CT,indicating that the abundance and diversity in organic farming fields were greater than those in conventional farming,The community structure of enchytraeid genera was different between OT and ON,Enchytraeus was the most abundant in OT ,while Fridericia in ON,The abundance of oribatids in OT was similar th that in ON,while the species richness and diversity in the former were smaller,These results suggeste that no-tilage practice under organic management might comtribute to the improvement in quality of soil mesofauna.

  19. Comparison of Soil Fauna (Oribatids and Enchytraeids){1mm BetweenConventional and Organic (Tillage and No-1mm TillagePractices) Farming Crop Fields in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The major soil animal groups, enchytraeid worms and oribatid mites,were compared in the abundance and diversity between conventionalfields (CT) and organic farming fields with tillage (OT) or no-tillage(ON) practices. The values of abundance, species richness, diversityand evenness were significantly larger in OT and ON than in CT,indicating that the abundance and diversity in organic farming fieldswere greater than those in conventional farming. The communitystructure of enchytraeid genera was different between OT and ON.{ Enchytraeus was the most abundant in OT, whileFridericia in ON. The abundance of oribatids in OT was similarto that in ON, while the species richness and diversity in the formerwere smaller. These results suggested that no-tillage practice underorganic management might contribute to the improvement in quality ofsoil mesofauna.

  20. Precision Farming for Small Agricultural Farm: Indian Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, Subrata Kr.; Maity, Atanu

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Precision farming becomes more and more an accepted way of crop production and helps to achieve a sustainable environmental friendly agriculture. Furthermore, growing interest in automated data acquisition and information processing is going to form another milestone towards improved farm management and an overall trace ability in agricultural food production. The benefit and effectiveness of using precision farming techniques is highly dependent on the capabilities of the utilized tech...

  1. 47 CFR 36.182 - Cash working capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cash working capital. 36.182 Section 36.182 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES JURISDICTIONAL SEPARATIONS... Cash Working Capital § 36.182 Cash working capital. (a) The amount for cash working capital, if...

  2. Does direct cash flow presentation help in predicting future operating cash flow?

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Flavio Manuel Vilas-Boas

    2012-01-01

    Research literature and regulators are unconditional in pointing the disclosure of operating cash flow through direct method a section of unique information. Besides the intuitive facet, it is also consistent in forecasting future operating cash flows and a cohesive piece to financial statement puzzle. Bearing this in mind, I produce an analysis on the usefulness and predictive ability on the disclosure of gross cash receipts and payments over the disclosure of reconciliation between net inco...

  3. 25 CFR 141.19 - Check cashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... may give a fully negotiable check in addition to U.S. currency when cashing a draft, check or money... or any other obligation the customer owes to the business, but in no event may the owner or...

  4. Uue kunsti muuseumis laulab Johnny Cash

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Pärnu uue kunsti muuseumis linastub portreefilm ameerika kantri- ja folklauljast Johnny Cashist "Johnny Cash Folsomi vanglas", mis kirjeldab 1968. a. Folsomi vanglas karistust kandnud laulja albumi "Folsom Prison Blues" lindistamist

  5. Low-cost economic and environmental performance assessment of farm households systems: Application to mixed crop-livestock systems in the Ethiopian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rufino, M.C.; Verhagen, J.; Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.H.; Ruben, R.; Dixon, J.M.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    The farm household system (FHS) is one of the main entry points for interventions for rural development. To identify appropriate interventions, it is necessary to assess a priori potential impacts of these interventions on the livelihoods and environment of rural households. This study presents an a

  6. Low-cost Economic and Environmental Performance Assessment of Farm Households Systems: Application to Mixed Crop-Livestock Systems in the Ethiopian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rufino, M.C.; Verhagen, A.; Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.; Ruben, R.; Dixon, J.M.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    The farm household system (FHS) is one of the main entry points for interventions for rural development. To identify appropriate interventions, it is necessary to assess a priori potential impacts of these interventions on the livelihoods and environment of rural households. This study presents an a

  7. Crop/Wind-energy Experiment (CWEX): Observations of surface-layer, boundary-layer and mesoscale interactions with a wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perturbations of mean and turbulent wind characteristics by large wind turbines modify fluxes between the vegetated surface and the lower boundary layer. While simulations have suggested that wind farms could significantly change surface fluxes of heat, momentum, moisture, and CO2 over hundreds of s...

  8. CWEX: Crop/wind-energy experiment: Observations of surface-layer, boundary-layer and mesoscale interactions with a wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large wind turbines perturb mean and turbulent wind characteristics, which modify fluxes between the vegetated surface and the lower boundary layer. While simulations have suggested that wind farms could create significant changes in surface fluxes of heat, momentum, moisture, and CO2 over hundreds ...

  9. Cash flow forecasting in startup companies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines cash flow forecasting practices in the context of the startup company phenomenon in Finland. The first objective of this study is to investigate that how cash flow forecasting has been practiced in startup companies. A startup company is a young innovative organization founded to seek a scalable and repeatable business model, in this sense growth has become the most important topic for startup companies. Therefore, secondary objective of this study is to investigate how a ...

  10. THE CARD - CURRENCY WITH AND WITHOUT CASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoara Mihaela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Use by individuals and businesses resulting in reduced cash cards in circulation, the corresponding increase in transfer payments and payments accounts also limit exchange risks and make effective use of currency. As a result, we have the effect of reducing cash in circulation. These advantages are also available for businesses and for banks and leads to favorable effects on import-export business. Following this, banks can diversify our products, so to meet customers' new products.

  11. Forecasting Daily Demand in Cash Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Wagner

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Previous studies focused on explaining the long run determinants of currency demand offering limited insight into the short-run determinants and co-variability of daily demand in cash supply chains. Approach: This study contrasted competing techniques of forecasting daily demand in cash supply chains in order to determine the overall performance and the potential of joint forecasting for integrated planning. A joint forecasting approach was compared with...

  12. Cash Holdings and Finance Constraints in Indian Manufacturing Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Vikash Gautam; Ashish Singh; Sarthak Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the effect of finance constraints by examining the propensity of firms to save cash out of cash flows. Drawing on cash-cash flow sensitivity (CCFS), we overcome the errors in attributing information in cash flows to real and financial components. We employ endogenous regime switching model for our empirical exercise. This model allows for multiple sorting variables, does not require finance constraints to increase monotonically with the sorting variables and ena...

  13. Determination of Optimal Cash Position of Mutual Fund

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈铭新; 张世英

    2003-01-01

    Cash position, held by mutual fund with purpose to satisfy investors′ redemption, will inevitably generate certain amount of cost. In this paper, the total cost caused by cash position is divided into opportunity cost and shortage cost, and a model is constructed to describe the relationship between total cost and cash position along with investors′ purchase and redemption, from which the formula of optimal cash position is deduced. Finally, the adjustment of optimal cash position in different market situations is discussed.

  14. Comparison of Conventional and Ecological Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Svobodová, Adéla

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on the development of organic farming in the Czech Republic. It defines principles and aims of organic farming. It defines the main principles of crop and livestock production through option of crop rotation, type of varieties, soil treatment, protective means, etc. It describes various methods of organic farming. It also shows the two main types of organic labeling, national and European markings, which must be placed on all biofoodstuff in the Czech Republic...

  15. Annual maize and perennial grass-clover strip cropping for increased resource use efficiency and productivity using organic farming practice as a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Anders; Carter, Mette Sustmann;

    2013-01-01

    A cropping system was designed to fulfill the increasing demand for biomass for food and energy without decreasing long term soil fertility. A field experiment was carried out including alternating strips of annual maize (Zea mays L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) – clover (Trifolium...

  16. Strip cropping of alternating perennial grass–clover and annual rye–vetch intercrops when grown within an organic farming system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, A.; Carter, Mette Sustmann;

    2012-01-01

    interactions. Less soil water content below the perennial strip indicated greater water uptake, than below the annual strips. Unfortunately, the present strip cropping system did not possess the right balance of co-existence and complementarity. However, from a practical point of view the system was manageable...

  17. Genetically Modified Crops and Labor Savings in US Crop Production

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Justin G.; Nelson, Carl H.

    2007-01-01

    In spite of widespread adoption there is mixed evidence as to whether or not adopting Genetically Modified (GM) crops increase farm welfare. One possible reason for widespread adoption is labor savings. Using a treatment effect model we estimate the labor savings associated with adopting a GM crop.

  18. Whole Farm Management to Reduce Nutrient Losses From Dairy Farms: A Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rotz, C.A.; Oenema, J.; Keulen, van, S.

    2006-01-01

    Whole-farm simulation provides a tool for evaluating long-term impacts of nutrient conservation technologies and strategies on dairy farms. A farm simulation model was verified to predict the production and nutrient flows of the De Marke experimental dairy farm in the Netherlands. On this farm, technologies such as a low ammonia emission barn floor, enclosed manure storage, manure injection into the soil, and intraseeding of a grass cover crop on corn land were used to reduce nitrogen loss an...

  19. To what extent does organic farming rely on nutrient inflows from conventional farming?

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, Benjamin; Nesme, Thomas; David, Christophe; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Organic farming is increasingly recognized as a prototype for sustainable agriculture. Its guidelines ban the use of artificial fertilizers. However, organic farms may import nutrients from conventional farming through material exchanges. In this study, we aimed at estimating the magnitude of these flows through the quantification of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inflows from conventional farming to organic farming. Material inflows and outflows were collected for two cropping years on 6...

  20. How effective are slurry storage, cover or catch crops, woodland creation, controlled trafficking or break-up of compacted layers, and buffer strips as on-farm mitigation measures for delivering an improved water environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Nicola P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agriculture has intensified over the last 50 years resulting in increased usage of fertilizers and agrochemicals, changes in cropping practices, land drainage and increased stocking rates. In Europe, this has resulted in declines in the quality of soils and waters due to increased run off and water pollution. Fifty percent of nitrates in European rivers are derived from agricultural sources in the UK this value is as high as 70%, where agriculture also contributes to approximately 28% of phosphates and 76% of sediments recorded in rivers. Catchments dominated by agricultural land use have increased levels of pesticides and bacterial pathogens. European member states have a policy commitment to tackle water pollution through the Water Framework Directive. An analysis of the effectiveness of water pollution mitigation measures should enable decision makers and delivery agencies to better facilitate catchment planning. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of slurry storage, cover/catch crops, woodland creation, controlled trafficking/break-up of compacted layers and buffer strips, as on farm mitigation measures, for delivering an improved water environment. Methods The systematic review will consist of a searchable systematic map database for all the named interventions. Where possible, quantitative analysis will be used to assess the effectiveness of interventions. Electronic databases, the internet, and organisational websites will be searched, and stakeholders will be contacted for studies that investigate the impact of the on-farm mitigation measures on water quality. All studies found will be assessed for suitability for inclusion in the next stage. Inclusion criteria will be based on subject, intervention, comparator and outcome. The details of included studies will be incorporated into the systematic map database, and studies scored for effectiveness of intervention and study design. Where

  1. THE ECONOMICS OF COVER CROP BIOMASS FOR CORN AND COTTON

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inclusion of cover crops into cropping systems brings both direct and indirect costs and benefits to the farm. A myriad of studies have examined the economic benefits of cover crops in multiple cropping systems by comparing them to systems without cover crops. To date, economic research pertaini...

  2. Cover crops as a gateway to greater conservation in Iowa?: Integrating crop models, field trials, economics and farmer perspectives regarding soil resilience in light of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-McNally, G. E.; Basche, A.; Tyndall, J.; Arbuckle, J. G.; Miguez, F.; Bowman, T.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists predict a number of climate changes for the US Midwest with expected declines in crop productivity as well as eco-hydrological impacts. More frequent extreme rain events particularly in the spring may well increase saturated soils thus complicating agronomic interests and also exacerbate watershed scale impairments (e.g., sediment, nutrient loss). In order to build more resilient production systems in light of climate change, farmers will increasingly need to implement conservation practices (singularly or more likely in combination) that enable farmers to manage profitable businesses yet mitigate consequential environmental impacts that have both in-field and off-farm implications. Cover crops are empirically known to promote many aspects of soil and water health yet even the most aggressive recent estimates show that only 1-2% of the total acreage in Iowa have been planted to cover crops. In order to better understand why farmers are reluctant to adopt cover crops across Iowa we combined agronomic and financial data from long-term field trials, working farm trials and model simulations so as to present comprehensive data-driven information to farmers in focus group discussions in order to understand existing barriers, perceived benefits and responses to the information presented. Four focus groups (n=29) were conducted across Iowa in four geographic regions. Focus group discussions help explore the nuance of farmers' responses to modeling outputs and their real-life agronomic realities, thus shedding light on the social and psychological barriers with cover crop utilization. Among the key insights gained, comprehensive data-driven research can influence farmer perspectives on potential cover crop impacts to cash crop yields, experienced costs are potentially quite variable, and having field/farm benefits articulated in economic terms are extremely important when farmers weigh the opportunity costs associated with adopting new practices. Our work

  3. Early evidence on conservation farming in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, S.; Tembo, G

    2003-01-01

    Conservation farming practices such as minimium tillage, crop residue retention, precision input application, and nitrogen-fixing crop rotations offer some sustainable farming methods for Zambian smallholder farmers. These methods improve soil structure and water retention while increasing crop yields. In 2002/3 about 75,000 Zambian smallholder farmers implemented some of these methods and of these about 15,000 are spontaneous adopters. The remaining 60,000 practice the conservation methods a...

  4. RATE OF RETURN ON INVESTMENT IN A DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING FARM IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Tsvetana HARIZANOVA

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyses the rate of return on investment in a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria. To achieve the aim, it was investigated a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria first category with average number of 83 cows in the main herd. Based on information collected from the farm in 2012 and on own calculations it was defined the different types of investments necessary to create a farm. It was calculated also the rate of return of cash inflows, rate of return of cash outflows and inves...

  5. Impact of Agricultural Credit on Production of Wheat Crop: A Case Study of District Faisalabad-Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Asghar , Muhammad Waqas Chughtai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture sector plays an important role in the economic development of Pakistan. Wheat is an important and most cultivated crop because it is an essential ingredient of food commodities. Credit plays a vital role in agricultural farming by indirectly participating in purchasing of agricultural inputs i.e. seed, fertilizer, irrigation, machinery and labor etc. Majority of the farmers are poor and they are not able to fulfill the cash requirement of farming, therefore credit has become their dire need. Due to credit farmers can timely purchase the agricultural inputs which resulting a bumper crop. The objective of this study is to depict the impact of credit on the production of wheat crop. Survey was conducted and random sampling technique was used to select the sample borrowers. The collected data was interpreted through “Cobb Douglas Production Function” by using statistical software (SPSS 16.0. The results showed that credit has positive and significant impact on wheat production. The values of R2 and F-statistics are found significant which represented that all selected variables are highly significant. The study not only shares the importance of credit to perform any agriculture activity but also helpful for economists and policy makers for designing agri financing policies.

  6. Combinable protein crop production

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Isobel

    2008-01-01

    This research topic review aims to summarise research knowledge and observational experience of combinable protein crop production in organic farming systems for the UK. European research on peas, faba beans and lupins is included; considering their role in the rotation, nitrogen fixation, varieties, establishment, weed control, yields, problems experienced and intercropping with cereals.

  7. To what extent does organic farming rely on nutrient inflows from conventional farming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic farming is increasingly recognized as a prototype for sustainable agriculture. Its guidelines ban the use of artificial fertilizers. However, organic farms may import nutrients from conventional farming through material exchanges. In this study, we aimed at estimating the magnitude of these flows through the quantification of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inflows from conventional farming to organic farming. Material inflows and outflows were collected for two cropping years on 63 farms. The farms were located in three French agricultural districts distributed over a gradient of farming activity defined by both the stocking rate and the ratio of the farm area under arable crops. Our results showed that on average, inflows from conventional farming were 23%, 73% and 53% for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively. These inflows were strongly determined by the farm production systems. However, for farms similar in terms of production systems, the inflows also depended on the local context, such as the proximity of organic livestock farms: the reliance of organic farming on conventional farming was lower in mixed than in specialized districts. These results highlight the necessity to quantify the contribution of nutrient inflows from conventional farming when assessing organic farming and development scenarios. (letter)

  8. To what extent does organic farming rely on nutrient inflows from conventional farming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Benjamin; Nesme, Thomas; David, Christophe; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2013-12-01

    Organic farming is increasingly recognized as a prototype for sustainable agriculture. Its guidelines ban the use of artificial fertilizers. However, organic farms may import nutrients from conventional farming through material exchanges. In this study, we aimed at estimating the magnitude of these flows through the quantification of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inflows from conventional farming to organic farming. Material inflows and outflows were collected for two cropping years on 63 farms. The farms were located in three French agricultural districts distributed over a gradient of farming activity defined by both the stocking rate and the ratio of the farm area under arable crops. Our results showed that on average, inflows from conventional farming were 23%, 73% and 53% for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively. These inflows were strongly determined by the farm production systems. However, for farms similar in terms of production systems, the inflows also depended on the local context, such as the proximity of organic livestock farms: the reliance of organic farming on conventional farming was lower in mixed than in specialized districts. These results highlight the necessity to quantify the contribution of nutrient inflows from conventional farming when assessing organic farming and development scenarios.

  9. Production of potato crisps and chips in organic farming: Effect of sprinkler irrigation, manure and preceeding crop management of clover grass on yield and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Tanja; Böhm, Herwart; Loges, Ralf; Taube, Friedrich; Haase, Norbert U.

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to conventional agriculture the nutrient supply in organic potato production must be secured by preceding crop or organic fertilization. On lighter sites nitrogen mineralisation of organic fertilisation depends highly on water supply. Over two years field experiments with sprinkler irrigation relating to different manure fertilization and varied clover grass management systems (mulching, cut mowing) has been conducted and effects on yield, grading and qualitative properties of pr...

  10. A Fair E-Cash Payment Scheme Based on Credit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new fair e-cash payment scheme based on credit is present in this paper. In the scheme, an overdraft credit certificate is issued to user by bank. Using the overdraft credit certificate, user can produce e-cash himself to pay in exchanges. Merchant can verify the e-cash received from user. Bank can make a fair dispute resolution when there is a dissension between user and merchant. It can avoid the problem of partition e-cash for changes, prevent from reusing e-cash and faking e-cash. It fits justice, anonymity, non-deny and impartiality.

  11. INFORMATION AND THE ADOPTION OF PRECISION FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Daberkow, Stan G.; McBride, William D.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between precision farming information sources and precision farming adoption. The analysis accounts for the fact that not all farmers are aware of precision farming techniques and that those who are aware may not be a random sample. Results indicate that many information sources increase adoption relative to information only from the media, but contact with crop consultants has had the greatest impact on the adoption of precision farming technologies.

  12. Current status of shrimp farming in the southwestern coast (Manroe Island, Kollam of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shakir

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey on 58 shrimp farms (42 operational and 16 non-operational was conducted within the Manroe island over 12 weeks. The black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon was the main species cultured. Presently, small-scale farmers carry out 90% shrimp aquaculture in Manroe Island. The farming is characterized by modified extensive and semi-intensive production systems, largely dependent on small ponds of less than 1 ha. These farms account for ~90% of the total area utilized for shrimp culture. The stocking densities range between 4 to 6 post larvae /m2 and average shrimp yields after 90-120 days is 320-400 kg.ha-1. As per our survey the average production cost for shrimp per hectare is at least 1,50,000 per cycle. During the 1990s, shrimp was cash crop in the Kollam with an average production of 900 kg.ha-1. Currently, the unsustainable practices and devastating outbreaks of disease has forced the industry to shut down.

  13. VAT Cash Accounting Scheme in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUNEA-BONTAS Cristina Aurora

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available VAT cash accounting enables the small enterprises to account for VAT on the basis of payments received and made, instead of on tax invoices issued and received. Accordingly, the VAT payable or repayable for each accounting period is the difference between the total amount of VAT included in payments received from the customers and the total amount of VAT included in payments made to the suppliers. The VAT cash accounting scheme, recently introduced for the Romanian companies by Government Ordinance no. 15/2012, entered into force on January 1st, 2013. This article reviews the basic principles of VAT cash accounting and highlights its benefits and disadvantages. It also discusses the impact and the challenges for the Romanian companies, due to the particularities of the system.

  14. Developing Process of Tropical Crop Machinery Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ General Situation Tropical crop machinery is a new special mechanical profession, which began to develop from 1950s to 1960s in China. Because the weather, soil and farm crops varieties in tropical region are greatly different from those in the other regions, most of the traditional farm machinery can't be directly used in tropical region or on the tropical crops. Tropical crop machinery needs a special design and manufacture. So some professional research institutes and education units were set up and some enterprises were built at that time, and the profession of tropical crop machinery was formed.

  15. Farm household allocative efficiency : a multi-dimensional perspective on labour use in Western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kamau, M.

    2007-01-01

    The economy in western Kenya, like most of the other regions in Kenya is agriculture based with smallholder farm households forming the bulk of the population. While all smallholder households engage in agricultural production to meet their food and cash needs, income earned outside the farm forms a significant component of household income. For these households, labour is the main input in both farm and off-farm activities. This study was motivated by three reasons: Firstly, there are contra...

  16. 75 FR 66201 - Biomass Crop Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... production. While BCAP is fundamentally a crop cultivation program, other considerations such as wildlife and... achievements in the cultivation of biomass crops. Section 9001 of the 2008 Farm Bill (Pub. L. 110-246... established, large-scale energy crop source must exist if commercial-scale biomass facilities are to...

  17. An Efficient Fair Electronic Cash System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Tao(郭涛); Li Zhitang; Tan Yunmeng; Wu Shizhong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient fair e-cash system is presented. Based on the improved Brands' e-cash scheme, it is expanded by adding two roles, government and judges. The user can keep unconditionally anonymous in normal transactions. Authorized by the judges, the government can remove the identity of an illegal user with the help of the bank. So such misuse as blackmailing or money laundering can be prevented. Therefore, this scheme is more efficient, more suitable for adopting pre-processing and post-processing and more practical. In the paper, the details of the scheme are described, its security is proved, and its efficiency is analyzed.

  18. Effect of cover crop extracts on cotton and radish radicle elongation

    OpenAIRE

    Randy L. Raper; Ted S. Kornecki; Kipling S. Balkcom; Arriaga, Francisco J.; Bergtold, Jason S.; Maria E. Stoll; Price, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that some cover crops are allelopathic and can inhibit weed germination and growth. Additionally, negative allelopathic effects have been documented in cash crops planted into cover crop residue. However, little literature exists comparing relative the allelopathic potential of cover crops producers utilize in conservation-agriculture systems. This study assessed the effects of twelve cover crop extracts on radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) rad...

  19. Impact of SPDC-Bomu Manifold Oil Pipe Explosion Fire on Crop Yield and Farm Income in Gokana LGA, Rivers State

    OpenAIRE

    V.E. Weli; S.B. Arokoyu

    2014-01-01

    Environmental degradation of the oil-rich Gokana Local government area has been wanton and continuous with dire health, social and economic consequences for its peoples, for over three decades. The study was based on the result of environmental impact studies conducted on the SPDC-Bomu manifold oil pipe explosion of 12th April, 2009 and its impact on agricultural production in K-dere, Deken, Kpor and Biara communities. Using a sample of 400 crop farmers drawn randomly from the 4 communities, ...

  20. Utilization of tropical crop residues and agroindustrial by-products in animal nutrition. Constraints and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of by-products and crop residues as animal feeds is increasing steadily. This is a consequence of the increasing demand for cereal grains as both human and animal (chiefly poultry) food, and the increasing demand for energy coupled with decreasing availability of fossil fuels. The effects of these two trends are that primary use of land for livestock production (usually grazing systems) will steadily diminish; at the same time, sources of biomass will increase in importance as renewable energy sources, and greater emphasis will be placed on draught animal power. Most by-products and crop residues are fibrous and therefore of only low to moderate nutritive value, or have special physical and chemical characteristics making them difficult to incorporate in conventional ''balanced'' rations. Such feed raw materials may need special processing and/or special forms of supplementation if they are to be used efficiently. It is hypothesized that industrial by-products and crop residues will be more efficiently utilized if they are incorporated in diversified and integrated production systems, i.e. (a) livestock production is integrated with production of cash crops both for food and fuel; (b) different livestock species are utilized in the same enterprise in a complementary way; (c) livestock feeding is based on crop residues (energy) supplemented with protein-rich forages and aquatic plants; and (d) animal wastes are recycled and used for food, fertilizer and fuel. This strategy is particularly suitable for the conditions in (i) tropical countries, whose climate favours high crop/biomass yields per unit area and ease of fermentation of organic wastes, and (ii) family farms, for which diversification means greater opportunity for self-sufficiency and increased possibilities for use of family resources. (author)

  1. Project Evaluation and Cash Flow Forecasting by Stochastic Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd A. Asbjørnsen

    1983-10-01

    Full Text Available The net present value of a discounted cash flow is used to evaluate projects. It is shown that the LaPlace transform of the cash flow time function is particularly useful when the cash flow profiles may be approximately described by ordinary linear differential equations in time. However, real cash flows are stochastic variables due to the stochastic nature of the disturbances during production.

  2. Project Evaluation and Cash Flow Forecasting by Stochastic Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Odd A. Asbjørnsen

    1983-01-01

    The net present value of a discounted cash flow is used to evaluate projects. It is shown that the LaPlace transform of the cash flow time function is particularly useful when the cash flow profiles may be approximately described by ordinary linear differential equations in time. However, real cash flows are stochastic variables due to the stochastic nature of the disturbances during production.

  3. How Do Debit Cards Affect Cash Demand? Survey Data Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Stix

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes how EFT-POS payments and ATM withdrawals affect purse cash demand. In particular, survey data about Austrian individuals are employed to estimate a cash demand equation which takes account of sample selection effects. The results reveal that purse cash demand is significantly affected by debit card usage and that there are significant differences in cash demand for individuals with different debit card usage frequencies. For example, the point estimates imply that individu...

  4. How Do Firms Finance Large Cash Flow Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Zhangkai; Mayer, Colin; Sussman, Oren

    2008-01-01

    How do firms finance large cash flow requirements? We examine this in the context of firms that are subject to substantial cash flow requirements. We find that trade credit, inventory and cash stock reductions are all important in the short term for mild requirements. Larger and longer cash flow shortages give rise to more equity than debt finance. After the shocks, firms gradually adjust their leverage back to pre-shock levels by retiring debt and issuing equity. Financing pat...

  5. Intangible Capital and Corporate Cash Holdings: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Dalida Kadyrzhanova; Antonio Falato; Jae Sim

    2012-01-01

    The rise in intangible capital is a fundamental driver of the secular trend in US corporate cash holdings over the last decades. We construct a new measure of intangible capital and show that intangible capital is the most important firm-level determinant of corporate cash holdings. Our measure accounts for almost as much of the secular increase in cash since the 1980s as all other standard determinants together. We then develop a new model of corporate cash holdings that introduces intangibl...

  6. FREE CASH FLOW AS PART OF VOLUNTARY REPORTING. LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Negrea Laura Georgeta; Matis Dumitru; Mustata V. Razvan

    2011-01-01

    The present study has as main objective to reflect the state of literature regarding free cash flow, and to withdraw the main pro's and con's in order to create an objective image upon this indicator. The main idea generating this research was the growing interest on cash flow reporting. As many say, "Cash Flow is King", while in Anglo Saxon countries the interest of investors and analysts in concentrated on operating cash flow, as the most important indicator of the probability of bankruptcy...

  7. Easy come-easy go divisible cash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, A.; Tsiounis, Y. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Coll. of Computer Science; Frankel, Y. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-10-16

    Recently, there has been an interest in making electronic cash protocols more practical for electronic commerce by developing e-cash which is divisible (e.g., a coin which can be spent incrementally but total purchases are limited to the monetary value of the coin). In Crypto`95, T. Okamoto presented the first practical divisible, untraceable, off-line e-cash scheme, which requires only O(log N) computations for each of the withdrawal, payment and deposit procedures, where N = (total coin value)/(smallest divisible unit). However, Okamoto`s set-up procedure is quite inefficient (on the order of 4,000 multi-exponentiations and depending on the size of the RSA modulus). The authors formalize the notion of range-bounded commitment, originally used in Okamoto`s account establishment protocol, and present a very efficient instantiation which allows one to construct the first truly efficient divisible e-cash system. The scheme only requires the equivalent of one (1) exponentiation for set-up, less than 2 exponentiations for withdrawal and around 20 for payment, while the size of the coin remains about 300 Bytes. Hence, the withdrawal protocol is 3 orders of magnitude faster than Okamoto`s, while the rest of the system remains equally efficient, allowing for implementation in smart-cards. Similar to Okamoto`s, the scheme is based on proofs whose cryptographic security assumptions are theoretically clarified.

  8. Cash Management Yields Many Maximum Returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynham, William W., Jr

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the cash management program developed by the Orangeburg School District (SC) for the district's funds. They take bids from banks before deciding which bank to use for all their services, including an investment program. This new system has saved $30,000 in the first year. Sidebars tell how to shop for bank services and list technical…

  9. CASH ACCOUNTING STANDARDIZATION IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Cenar Iuliana

    2010-01-01

    An important component of public institutions’ accounting is represented by cashaccounting. At the same time, the normalization, harmonization and convergence of accounting arethe chronological stages generated by globalization. The paper approaches aspects regarding therole of the budget within public institutions’ accounting, the management of public financialresources, the cohabitation need between cash accounting and accrual accounting, the provisionsof international accounting referentia...

  10. Reserves and cash flows under stochastic retirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Kamille Sofie Tågholt; Nielsen, Jeppe Woetmann

    2015-01-01

    guarantees provided. Stochastic retirement creates a need to rethink the construction of disability products for high ages and ways to handle this are discussed. We show how to calculate market reserves and how to use modified transition probabilities to calculate expected cash flows without significantly...

  11. 34 CFR 668.166 - Excess cash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... funds that an institution receives from the Secretary under the just-in-time payment method. (b) Excess...; and (2) Providing funds to the institution under the reimbursement payment method or cash monitoring payment method described in § 668.163(d) and (e), respectively. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1094)...

  12. Why Cash "Doesn't" Motivate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2011-01-01

    If money is the root of all evil, is it also the root of all motivation? When talking about workplace performance and training, the experts' consensus is a resounding "No." This article discusses why cash doesn't motivate everyone all the time when it comes to workplace performance and training and takes a look at what does.

  13. Developing a planning model to estimate future cash flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenbaum, L; Monahan, T F

    1988-03-01

    Financial managers are discovering that net income and other traditional measures of cash flow may not provide them with the flexibility needed for comprehensive internal planning and control. By using a discretionary cash flow model, financial managers have a forecasting tool that can help them measure anticipated cash flows, and make better decisions concerning financing alternatives, capital expansion, and performance appraisal. PMID:10302282

  14. 18 CFR 154.306 - Cash working capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cash working capital... Changes § 154.306 Cash working capital. A natural gas company that files a tariff change under this part may not receive a cash working capital adjustment to its rate base unless the company or...

  15. 12 CFR 952.5 - Community Investment Cash Advance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Community Investment Cash Advance Programs. 952.5 Section 952.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT CASH ADVANCE PROGRAMS § 952.5 Community Investment Cash Advance Programs. (a) In general. (1) Each...

  16. A FINANCIAL PROFILE OF INDEBTED FARM OPERATORS IN NEBRASKA - 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Bruce B.

    1984-01-01

    The farming sector continues in an extended period of economic stress. Some have described it as the most serious and prolonged period of financial stress in more than 40 years [2]. Real net farm income of farm families during the current decade has been less than two-thirds the average for the 1970's. Farm cash flows have followed a similar pattern. Present economic stress has been further aggravated by rapid expansion of indebtedness during the last half of the 1970's when total debt of the...

  17. FarmLime: Low-cost lime for small-scale farming

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, C. J.

    2005-01-01

    FarmLime (Low-cost lime for small-scale farming) is a multidisciplinary research project that aims to increase the food security of small-scale farmers by improving their access to agricultural lime which neutralises soil acidity and adds nutrients. This project focused on farming districts in northern Zambia that have highly acidic soils with poor crop yields. The aim was to locate suitable carbonate rocks in these farming districts and produce agricultural lime using a low cost method, elim...

  18. Farm household allocative efficiency : a multi-dimensional perspective on labour use in Western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamau, M.

    2007-01-01

    The economy in western Kenya, like most of the other regions in Kenya is agriculture based with smallholder farm households forming the bulk of the population. While all smallholder households engage in agricultural production to meet their food and cash needs, income earned outside the farm forms a

  19. 77 FR 51751 - Information Collection Request; Farm Loan Programs, Direct Loan Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology. All comments received in response... cash flow projections are based on actual production history, a loan is adequately secured, the... Farm Service Agency Information Collection Request; Farm Loan Programs, Direct Loan Making AGENCY:...

  20. Comparison of Czech Organic Farming with Chosen European Country

    OpenAIRE

    Martincová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is becoming a trend, which looks increasingly large numbers of people. the aim of bachelor‘s work is to compare organic farming in the Czech Republic with selected European Union countries, Great Britain and the Netherlands. They compared organic farms, livestock, crops grown, organic food market and subsidies. All data on organic farming come from statistical surveys collected at 2009 and the literature. Organically farmed agricultural land in the Czech Republic in 2009 wa...

  1. Exploration of agro-ecological options for improving maize-based farming systems in Costa Chica, Guerrero, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Sanchez, D.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: farm diagnosis, farming systems, soil degradation, intercropping, maize, roselle, legumes, nutrient management, vermicompost, crop residues, decomposition, explorations.   In the Costa Chica, a region of Southwest Mexico, farming systems are organized in smallholder units. The dominant cropping systems are based on maize (Zea mays L.), either as monocrop or intercropped with roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Continuous cropping, and unbalanced fertilizer management systems with...

  2. Exploration of agro-ecological options for improving maize-based farming systems in Costa Chica, Guerrero, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Sanchez, D.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: farm diagnosis, farming systems, soil degradation, intercropping, maize, roselle, legumes, nutrient management, vermicompost, crop residues, decomposition, explorations.   In the Costa Chica, a region of Southwest Mexico, farming systems are organized in smallholder

  3. Money matters: cash transfers for adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Rachel Godfrey

    2011-04-15

    Developed countries have pledged billions of dollars a year to help poor nations adapt to climate change. But how should the money be spent? For the world's poor, who are both the most vulnerable to climate change and the most in need of social protection, the best answer may be cash transfer programmes. Giving money out in this way has a strong track record in reaching the poor and helping them improve their nutrition, education and incomes — all of which are vital for building their long-term capacity to adapt to climate change. Cash transfers are also well accepted at the local level and, given the right political backing, can be implemented on a broad scale.

  4. Prudency reviews, cash management issues emerge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-06-01

    Utility management is paying increasing attention to the broadening of regulatory commission prudency reviews to cover operating generating plants as well as those under construction. Utilities can expect a prudency review after a major outage, and should investigate the possibility for legal action against a third party or be prepared to defend itself. The Shoreham nuclear plant serves as a warning to utilities of the need for on-going documentation of cost-benefit analyses conducted during the construction period. Utility managers should demand a prudency standard from their regulators, and minority owners in large projects should make independent prudency findings. There is also a growing need for utilities to develop intelligent strategies for handling excess cash. Methods for handling cash flow include the financial investment, grid refurbishment, dividend payout, decapitalization, and diversification.

  5. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essayfirst introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  6. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  7. Farm Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Described are activities using ants. Ant hunting, a list of books on the topic, information, and ant farming are included. The procedures for assembling and maintenance of an ant farm are presented. (KR)

  8. Farming Management in Pakistan: Suggested Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Herani, Gobind; Wasim, Mohammad Pervez; Rajar, Allah Wasayo; Shaikh, Riaz Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper an attempt has been made to identify types of farming in deserted district Tharparkar, Pakistan and suggest the techniques for improvement. Study reveals that in Tharparkar farming is of three types: rain-fed agriculture (crops), livestock and use of rangeland (no-crops). Situation of rain-fed agriculture is very bad because of fluctuation in amount of rainfall year to year. Livestock is sustainable source of income generation and use of rangeland is also beneficial. F...

  9. Cash flow management in construction firms

    OpenAIRE

    Mutti, Cristine do Nascimento; Hughes, Will

    2002-01-01

    The level of insolvencies in the construction industry is high, when compared to other industry sectors. Given the management expertise and experience that is available to the construction industry, it seems strange that, according to the literature, the major causes of failure are lack of financial control and poor management. This indicates that with a good cash flow management, companies could be kept operating and financially healthy. It is possible to prevent failure. Although there ...

  10. Buybacks in Treasury cash and debt management

    OpenAIRE

    Garbade, Kenneth D.; Rutherford, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the use of buybacks in Treasury cash and debt management. We review the mechanics and results of the buyback operations conducted in 2000-01, during a time of budget surpluses, and assess the prospective use of buybacks in the absence of a surplus. Possible future applications include (i) managing the liquidity of the new-issue markets when deficits are declining (by allowing Treasury officials to postpone a decision to discontinue a series without also being compelled to ...

  11. Immigration and welfare state cash benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.

    2013-01-01

    policy programs and to extend the analysis to cover the period including the financial crisis years. Social implications – The paper has a potential to influence public attitudes in this area and to inform further public policy regarding benefit programs. Originality/value – The main new result is the...... finding, at a disaggregate level, of how changes in immigration policy and cyclical changes interact, influencing the assimilation into or out of dependence on cash benefit programs....

  12. Estimating yield of food crops grown by smallholder farmers: A review in the Uganda context

    OpenAIRE

    Fermont, Anneke; Benson, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Precise agricultural statistics are essential for planning and evaluation of agricultural investments to improve the productivity and profitability of smallholder farming systems. However, accurately estimating crop yields is never easy and is even more of a challenge in the context of African farming systems that are characterized by smallholder farms that produce a wide range of diverse crops. With specific reference to yield estimation for food crops under smallholder farming conditions in...

  13. Poker Cash Game: a Thermodynamic Description

    CERN Document Server

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Poker is one of the most popular card games, whose rational investigation represents also one of the major challenges in several scientific areas, spanning from information theory and artificial intelligence to game theory and statistical physics. In principle, several variants of Poker can be identified, although all of them make use of money to make the challenge meaningful and, moreover, can be played in two different formats: tournament and cash game. An important issue when dealing with Poker is its classification, i.e., as a `skill game' or as gambling. Nowadays, its classification still represents an open question, having a long list of implications (e.g., legal and healthcare) that vary from country to country. In this study, we analyze Poker challenges, considering the cash game format, in terms of thermodynamics systems. Notably, we propose a framework to represent a cash game Poker challenge that, although based on a simplified scenario, allows both to obtain useful information for rounders (i.e., ...

  14. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  15. Contract Farming: Problems, Prospects and its Effect on Income and Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Jagdish; Kumar K., Prakash

    2008-01-01

    This farm-level study conducted in the Tumkur district of Karnataka state has reported the effect of contract farming on income and employment generation and has identified constraints in and prospects of contract farming. Both income and employment generation have been found higher, almost double, on contract than non-contract farms. The study has observed dominance of female labour on both types of farms. Delayed payment for crop produce, lack of credit for crop production, scarcity of wate...

  16. Shifting Cultivation on the Farm? Degrading Farm Practices and Optimal Long Term Land Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Schilizzi, Steven; Mueller, Ute

    1997-01-01

    If farming practices are degrading the land by enhancing salinsation and soil erosion, and the appropriate way to deal with the problem is by planting trees or regenerating native brush, farmers are faced with several questions. Assuming a rather homogenous area where cropping yields have been decreasing, when should a farmer stop cropping and start planting? Conversely, when should cropping be resumed? On a long term basis, what is the economically optimal pattern between cropping and land r...

  17. Catch crops have little effect on P and K availability of depleted soils

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Pedersen, Anders; Magid, Jakob; Nielsen, Niels Erik

    2005-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that catch crops have a significant effect on availability and loss of soil inorganic nitrogen (Thorup-Kristensen et al., 2003) and recently marked effects on soil inorganic sulphur dynamics have also been shown (Eriksen and Thorup-Kristensen 2002; Eriksen et al., 2004). However, we know much less about the effect of catch crops on phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) mobilisation and availability for the next crop. After several years of organic cash crop production,...

  18. Utilization of Natural Farm Resources for Promoting High Energy Efficiency in Low-Input Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Arthurson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Both organic and conventional farming processes require energy input in the form of diesel fuel for farming equipment, animal feed, and fertilizer compounds. The most significant difference between the two methods is the use in conventional farming of mineral fertilizers and pesticides that are minimally employed in organic management. It is argued that organic farming is more environmentally friendly, given that synthetic fertilizers mainly used at conventional farms are replaced with animal manure and cover crops. Nutrient uptake by plants is additionally enhanced by the effective use of rhizobia and other types of plant growth-promoting bacteria, in combination with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. This article aims to compare the amounts and/or types of energy and nutrients required for both farming systems and provide feasible suggestions for the sustainable use of farm resources in combination with good crop yields.

  19. Precision Farming and Conservation Advances Agricultural Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    To many, Precision Farming, more formally termed Precision Agriculture, seems like an oxymoron. Yet site-specific management makes sense to an exponentially growing number of farmers. So where is Precision Farming headed? The short answer is that it is being extended from a focus on crop productio...

  20. Organic Food and Farming in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kledal, Paul Rye; Oyiera, Habwe Florence; Njoroge, John Wanjau; Kiarii, Eustace

    2009-01-01

    The organic farm sector itself is basically organized around a minor number of large farm enterprises, or various supply organizations, based on purely commercial, community, faith or simply farmer cooperation involved in packaging, domestic or export sales. 35 farm enterprises covered the organic production in Kenya’s eight provinces. More than half are concentrated in the Central Province, where also most of the outgrowers are connected in relation to the labour intensive crop production wi...

  1. Viable Small Scale Farming in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Heie, Knut

    2003-01-01

    Norway, on Europe's northern fringe, is characterised by small-scale farming. The choice of crops and their yields are limited by the Nordic climate. Farm policies promote decentralisation and a varied farm structure in order to secure rural settlement, food security, food safety, environmental quality and sustainability. Agriculture receives substantial public support, and domestic production is largely protected from foreign competition. The author has a smallholding of 5 ha farmland and 15...

  2. Cash Flow Forecasting : Proposal for New Long-Term Cash Flow Forecast in the Case Company

    OpenAIRE

    Pitkänen, Annika

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a cash flow forecast model for the case company. The case company in this thesis was a Finnish building construction company. The group controlling set a target to improve the corporate treasury’s current long-term cash flow forecast because it was inaccurate and it often had outstanding deficiencies between actual and forecasted figures. A project team was set up to investigate on this issue and this research and development project is documented in t...

  3. Crop Damage by Primates: Quantifying the Key Parameters of Crop-Raiding Events

    OpenAIRE

    Graham E Wallace; Hill, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict often arises from crop-raiding, and insights regarding which aspects of raiding events determine crop loss are essential when developing and evaluating deterrents. However, because accounts of crop-raiding behaviour are frequently indirect, these parameters are rarely quantified or explicitly linked to crop damage. Using systematic observations of the behaviour of non-human primates on farms in western Uganda, this research identifies number of individuals raiding and ...

  4. A Divisible E-cash System Using Secret Sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kai; XIAO Guozhen

    2001-01-01

    Divisibility of an e-cash is an impor-tant requirement for a practical e-cash system but hasno practical solution up to now.In this paper,a divis-ible e-cash system for some special applications is pro-posed using the secret sharing scheme.A verifiable se-cret sharing scheme based on the intractable discretelogarithm problem is put forward as the building blockin constructing the e-cash system.The e-cash systemis smart-card oriented and the card is denoted as thehonest dealer to divide the coin in the payment proto-col.The security of the divisible e-cash system can bederived directly from the security of the well-knownSchnorr identification and signature schemes and thesecurity of intractable discrete logarithm problem.

  5. Precision Farming Tools. Yield Monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Alley, Mark M.; McClellan, Phil

    2005-01-01

    Using yield monitors is the first step many producers take in precision farming. A yield monitor, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, is an electronic tool that collects data on crop performance for a given year. To have accurate data for yield map interpretation, the yield monitor must be properly operated and calibrated.

  6. Determinants of technology usage in outsourced cash flow forecasting service

    OpenAIRE

    Kangas, Antti-Jussi

    2011-01-01

    Cash flow forecasting is an emerging cash management function and business tool that hasn’t received much scientific attention outside the finance and accounting field. Recent technological development of business process automation and networked services has enabled accounting companies to better service their clientele, focusing more towards value-added services. The purpose of this study is to examine the cash flow forecasting services offered by the accounting companies in the SME sect...

  7. Corporate governance and cash policies of multinational corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Beuselinck, C.; DELOOF, M; Vanstraelen, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates cash policies of multinational corporations (MNCs) for a large sample of European MNCs and their subsidiaries in the period 1998-2004. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that cash holdings depend on a trade-off between the superior knowledge of the subsidiary over headquarters and the agency costs of discretionary behavior by the subsidiary’s management. We find that foreign subsidiaries hold more cash than domestic subsidiaries, although geographical dista...

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ACCOUNTING MODELS "CASH" AND "ACCRUAL"

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Danescu; Luminita Rus

    2013-01-01

    Accounting, as a source of information, can recognize the economic transactionstaking into account the time of payment or receipt thereof, as soon as they occur. There are twobasic models of accounting: accrual basis and cash basis. In the cash accounting method thetransactions are recorded only when cash is received or paid, shall not make the difference betweenthe purchase of an asset and the payment of expenditure - both of which are considered"payments". Accrual accounting achieves this d...

  9. Aplikace Business Intelligence pro vyhodnocení cash flow organizace

    OpenAIRE

    Ekart, Radim

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with the design and implementation of Business Intelligence solution for evaluation of cash flow in organization. In the theoretical part, author introduces the reader with theoretical knowledge of Business Intelligence, cash flow and analysis of enterprise information system Helios Green. In the practical part is description of the design and implementation of data warehouse and ana-lytic database. In the part of implementation is explained strategic planning of cash flow, e...

  10. THE STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS USING FINANCIAL STATEMENT EQUATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Harold Fletcher; Thomas Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses one of the more difficult topics in teaching MBA level financial management, the statement of cash flows. By employing financial statement equations in preparing the statement of cash flows, students: (1) are employing tools that they are more familiar and comfortable with which mitigates their anxiety and enhances their understanding, (2) are better able to understand the logic of the statement of cash flows and the relationships that exist between it and the income stat...

  11. From cash transfers to basic income: An unfolding Indian Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Standing, Guy

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a review of the arguments for and against cash transfers in India, taking care to distinguish between different types of cash transfer schemes, which include a universal unconditional basic income as well as conditional schemes. The article sets out some principles by which any social policy should be judged and goes on to discuss cash transfers alongside other instruments of social policy, namely the Public Distribution System (PDS) and the Mahatma Gandhi National Ru...

  12. Ranking of States and Commodities by Cash Receipts, 1991

    OpenAIRE

    Strickland, Roger P., Jr.; Johnson, Cheryl; Williams, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    This publication identifies the 25 leading agricultural commodities produced in each State and the United States, ranked by the value of cash receipts. The major producing States, ranked by cash receipts, for each of the 25 leading commodities in the United States and for several major commodity groups are also identified. The information is derived from U.S. Department of Agriculture's cash receipts statistics for the marketing of agricultural commodities within States. The ranking of commod...

  13. Less cash on the counter: Forecasting Finnish payment preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Jyrkönen, Hanna

    2004-01-01

    Finnish payment methods have changed rapidly as payment cards have gained increasing popularity and have, to an extent, replaced cash. This article examines this phenomenon and the trends in cash and electronic payment methods in Finland. It starts with an introduction to the statistical data on different payment methods used at points of sale and their electronification, after which learning curve and dynamic regression models are employed to analyse changes in the share of cash payments. Fi...

  14. CASH FLOW PLANNING AND OPTIMIZATION THROUGH GENETIC ALGRORITMS

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Aurelio Pacheco; Mara Noronha; Marley Vellasco; Carlos Lopes

    2000-01-01

    This article describes an intelligent system for financial planning and cashflow optimization named ICF: Intelligent Cash Flow. ICF is a computational tool for decision support which provides short-term and long-term financial managing strategies, considering financial products of the market. The ICF system makes use of Genetic Algorithms to elaborate cash flow projections which improve the company's profit for a specific period. ICF helps to deal with the complex aspects of cash flow plannin...

  15. Cash Holdings, Corporate Governance Structure and Firm Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Kin-Wai Lee; Cheng-Few Lee

    2009-01-01

    Firms with higher board independence, smaller boards, and lower expected managerial entrenchment, have lower cash holdings. We find that the positive association between cash holdings and managerial entrenchment is mitigated by stronger board structures. Specifically, in firms with higher expected managerial entrenchment, those with higher proportion of outside director on the board and smaller board size have lower cash holdings. We also find that firm value is negatively associated with cas...

  16. AN ANALYSIS OF CASH WAQF PARTICIPATION AMONG YOUNG INTELLECTUALS

    OpenAIRE

    AMIRUL FAIZ OSMAN

    2014-01-01

    Considering the importance of cash waqf in developing waqf institutions and enhances the social economic of ummah. Yet, the literature that contributes to a social psychological understanding of the factors that underlie an individual's decision to donate to cash waqf has been extremely inadequate. This study therefore is aimed at examining the determinants of donor (waqif) intention to participate in giving cash waqf in the context of muslim in Malaysia particularly amongst young intellectua...

  17. Agro-ecological system analysis (AESA) and farm plannning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Nalunga, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Organic agriculture is based on knowledge, insight and whole farm approaches. The farming system must work for each farmer family. Crop rotation cycles must be based on planning ahead, sometimes more than 2 years, so that different elements of the farm can work together. Intercropping must be based...

  18. The Balanced Scorecard as a Management Tool for Arable Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Paustian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Management requirements for crop farming are high and will rise in the future. Arable farms are challenged by volatile markets, growing administrative burdens, increasing operating costs and growing competition for land. Management skills have become much more important for farmers in recent years and this trend will continue in the future. There are numerous instruments like accounting software or crop field cards integrated in daily management practice, but there is a deficiency of a fully integrated management system to give an overview of all areas of the farming business. This gap can be closed by the management tool Balanced Scorecard (BSC that provides an overview of all production and management activities on a farm. Therefore, with the aim to transfer the BSC concept to crop farming, German farmers and agricultural advisors were surveyed to get insights into the success factors and key performance indicators in the four BSC perspectives they consider most relevant for the operational success of arable farms. By the use of a cluster analysis, three different farm types were identified according to their visions and strategies. For the three farm types the key performance indicators that the respondents considered most relevant for farm performance were figured out. Implementation of the BSC to crop farming can result in a big benefit for management practice. The BSC focuses vision and long-term strategy with the main goal to ensure consistency of the farm and increase farm performance.

  19. Environmental variables affecting the success of conservation farming in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Gatere, Lydiah; Delve, R.; Hobbs, P; DeGloria, S.; Lehmann, J.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discusses conservation farming methods in Zambia. The research highlights how conservation farming methods may help to negate environmental variables that hinder crop production, such as lack of rainfall and poor soil quality. The study compares conservation farming practices with variable amendments, including cow manure, gliricidia leaves, biochar, and fertilizer applications. LTRA-2 (An Agricultural Markets Model for Biodiversity Conservation)

  20. Obstacles, levers and impacts of organic farming development in Camargue

    OpenAIRE

    Delmotte, Sylvestre; Lacombe, C.; Couderc, Vincent; Mailly, F; Mouret, J.C.; Lopez-Ridaura, S; Barbier, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    We are presenting an analysis of the obstacles and levers for the development of organic cropping systems in Camargue, documented with a multicriteria analysis of scenarios of organic farming (OF) development. This communication is built using results from on-farm agronomic monitoring, stakeholders and farmers’ interviews and the use of models for integrated assessment of scenarios. At the farm level, the obstacles are related to identification of profitable cropping systems and rotations tha...

  1. Organic rice–prawn farming yields 20 % higher revenues

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Chellappan; Salin, Krishna; Joseph, Juliet; Aneesh, Bahuleyan; Geethalakshmi, Vaidhyanathan; New, Michael

    2014-01-01

    International audience Rice–prawn farming in Asian countries is a sustainable practice using less fertilizers. Organic farming of rice and giant river prawns in rotational crops was tested in the waterlogged paddy fields of Kuttanad, Kerala as part of the Indian Organic Aquaculture Project. Rice was cultivated during November to February, followed by a crop of freshwater prawns in the same field from March to September. Here, we study the production of four certified farms growing organic ...

  2. Modelling price scenarios for sustainable collective action and farm production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sáenz-Segura, F.; Schipper, R.A.; Miranda, D.; Chaves, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is considered a non-traditional cash crop for enhancing local development in Costa Rica and a suitable activity for small farmers. Trade of pepper has been done by using contractual agreements between producers and processors, which provides at least three functions: insu

  3. Do Consumers Pay More Using Debit Cards than Cash?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runnemark, Emma; Hedman, Jonas; Xiao, Xiao

    We conduct an incentivized experiment to test whether the willingness to pay is higher for debit cards compared to cash for three consumer products. Our findings support this conjecture also after controlling for cash availability, spending type, price familiarity and consumption habits of the pr......We conduct an incentivized experiment to test whether the willingness to pay is higher for debit cards compared to cash for three consumer products. Our findings support this conjecture also after controlling for cash availability, spending type, price familiarity and consumption habits...

  4. Farming like we're here to stay : the mixed farming alternative for Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funes Monzote, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Crop-livestock, agro-diversity, mixed farming, dairy production, agro-ecological indicators, sustainability, energy efficiency, local development, Cuba Specialization, as opposed to diversification, and export orientation have been historically the basis for patterns of dependence on ext

  5. An Analysis of Profitability Factors for Selected Farming Types in the Minnesota Vocational Agriculture Farm Management Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleene, Marvin

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the impact profitability factors have on farm labor earnings for farms enrolled in the Minnesota Vocational Agriculture Farm Management Education Program. The most important predictors of labor earnings were size of business, gross return per cropped acre, and index return per $100 of feed fed. (LRA)

  6. THE EFFECTS OF RISK MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES WITH DIVERSIFIED HOG/CROP PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Nydene, Cory; Patrick, George F.; Baker, Timothy G.

    1999-01-01

    Risk management strategies were compared using a corn/soybean farm, a hog farm, and a diversified hog/crop farm. Results suggest risk management tools are more effective in combinations, hog/crop diversification shows limited risk reducing benefits, and the effects of choosing among risk management tools may be overemphasized.

  7. 26 CFR 1.263A-4 - Rules for property produced in a farming business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... farm; the raising or harvesting of trees bearing fruit, nuts, or other crops; the raising of ornamental... crop bearing tree, an ornamental tree, a vine, a bush, sod, and the crop or yield of a plant that will... farming business includes, but is not limited to, any stock, poultry or other bird, and fish or other...

  8. Computer-integrated crop production technologies for mechanized precision farming%精细农业机械化作物生产计算机集成技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何勇; 张勤; Alan Hansen; Noboru Noguchi; Beom-soo Shin

    2006-01-01

    介绍了一项适用于精细农业机械化的新技术:计算机集成作物生产技术(CCP).该技术融合信息采集、网络通讯、数据处理、过程决策、自动执行等功能,能有效地完成作物生产的精确机械化作业.计算机集成作物生产技术的3个主要功能是先根据需要实时采集传感数据,然后根据传感信息构建合理的行动决策,最后将传递上述决策并付诸实施.为了说明CCP的工作原理和结构设计,介绍了由伊利诺依大学机械电子系统实验室设计开发的CCP技术系统的关键功能.研究结果表明,在车辆自动导航,主从机械控制,在线式变量作业等利用农业机械实施田间作物生产作业的领域,有必要在农业机械上集成CCP技术,使机械自动地完成各项最优化项目作业.最后,根据以往工作中的经验,简要讨论了目前CPP技术发展所面临的问题和挑战.%This paper introduces a new production technology for mechanized precision farming: the computer-integrated crop production(CCP) technology. The CCP technology integrates information acquisition, data networking, data processing, operation planning and automated execution functions to support effective mechanized precision crop production. A CCP system should be capable of three main functions: collecting relevant observable data when it is needed, drawing appropriate actionable parameters from the observed data, and transmitting the actionable parameters for implementation.To illustrate the operational principle and architecture design of a CCP system, this paper explains the key functions developed from various projects at the Mechatronic Systems Laboratory of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In these projects, field operations in mechanized precision crop production, such as automated guidance, master-slave control and online variable-rate application, which performed using some types of mobile agricultural machinery, are essential to

  9. Mathematical Modeling of the Agriculture Crop Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Drucioc

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The organized structure of computer system for economic and ecological estimation of agriculture crop technologies is described. The system is composed of six interconnected blocks. The linear, non-linear and stochastic mathematical models for machinery sizing and selection in farm-level cropping system is presented in the mathematical model block of computer system.

  10. Innovation and Diffusion of Site-specific Crop Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2006-01-01

    Site-specific crop management or precision farming is a highly complex managementsystem for site-specific input application of lime, fertilizers and pesticides in arable farming. The Global Positioning System (GPS)is the backbone of the system. To conduct precision farming several technical syste...

  11. Determinants of crop rotation choices by pig farmers in Britany

    OpenAIRE

    Martel, Gilles; TERSIGUEL, Elodie; Giteau, Jean-Luc; Ramonet, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    Pig farms in Brittany have on average 65 ha of cultivated area (UAA), which is far from the image of battery farming commonly accepted. There is very little data on how pig farmers use this area and moreover on the links between crop rotations and production system. The aim of this study is to review the diversity of crop rotations of pig farms and to identify factors influencing their choice. A survey was carried out in 28 swine farms in Brittany. The farms were chosen to represent a diversi...

  12. Senior Research Connects Students with a Living Laboratory As Part of an Integrated Crop and Livestock System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturklu, Songul; Landblom, Douglas; Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    Soil, water, soil microbes, and solar energy are the main sources that sustain life on this planet. Without them working in concert, neither plants nor animals would survive. Considering the efficiency of animal production targets, soil must be protected and improved. Therefore, through our sustainable integrated crop and livestock research, we are studying animal and soil interactions from the soil to the plate. Integrating beef cattle systems into a diverse cropping system is providing a living laboratory for education beyond the traditional classroom setting. To establish the living learning laboratory at the Dickinson Research Extension Center, a five-crop rotation was established that included adapted cool and warm season grasses and broadleaf crops. The crop rotation is: sunflower > hard red spring wheat > fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (hay)/spring seeded 7-species cover crop > Corn (85-95 day varieties) > field pea-barley intercrop. Sunflower and spring wheat are harvested for cash crop income in the rotation. Livestock integration occurs when yearling steers that had previously grazed perennial pastures until mid-August graze field pea-barley and subsequently unharvested corn. Average grazing days for field pea-barley and unharvested corn is 30 and 70 days, respectively. At the end of the grazing period, the yearling steers average 499-544 kg and are moved to a feedlot and fed an additional 75 days until slaughter. Maximizing grazing days and extending the grazing season through integration with the cropping system reduces custom feeding costs and enhances animal profit. Beef cows do not require high quality feed after their calves have been weaned. Therefore, gestating beef cows are an ideal animal to graze cover crops and crop aftermath (residue) after yearling steer grazing and farming operations have been completed. Extending the grazing season for beef cows by grazing cover crops and residues reduces winter feed cost, which is one of the

  13. Crop productivity and economics during the transition to alternative cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing economic pressures and continued environmental concerns in agricultural production have heightened the need for more sustainable cropping systems. Research is needed to identify systems that simultaneously improve the economic and social viability of farms and rural communities while prot...

  14. ORGANOFINERY: FROM GREEN CROPS TO PROTEINS, ENERGY AND FERTILISER

    OpenAIRE

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Santamaria, Maria; Kiel, Pauli; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Lübeck,Mette

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties with the supply of organic protein feed; low crop yields and low value of leguminous forage crops and a lack of organic fertiliszers are nowadays threesome of the major challenges faced by farms with monogastric animals. Thus, forcing the organic farmers to import feed and manure forom conventional farms. The main idea of the OrganoFinery project is to develop a green biorefinery concept where the same organic crop is utilizsed for animal feed, fertilizser and energy production i...

  15. Prospects of Feed Crops in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya, Tunku Mahmud Bin Tunku; Sukir, Sarmin Bin

    2005-01-01

    The study was initiated with the objectives of elucidating and analyzing potentials, weaknesses, opportunities, constraints and policy options in the development of feed crop farming with an emphasis on secondary crops in Southeast Asian developing countries. In Malaysia, feed crops currently not much to employment, income generation, import substitution and export promotion because the sub-sector is small. The scope of the study is limited to the dominant non-ruminant sector of the livestock...

  16. Methods and Models for the Analysis of Cash Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin ANGHELACHE; Radu Titus MARINESCU; Alexandru MANOLE; Mitrut, Constantin

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the cash flow, as integrated into the manufacturing process of an enterprise. Incomes and expenses are recorded based on the principles of engagement accounting, the actual cash flow in the company treasury is different from the result from the profit and loss account.

  17. 7 CFR 273.20 - SSI cash-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SSI cash-out. 273.20 Section 273.20 Agriculture... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS § 273.20 SSI cash-out. (a) Ineligibility. No individual who receives supplemental security income (SSI) benefits and/or State...

  18. Why Cash Flow Is No Longer for Wimps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, John R.; Hutton, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Managing liquidity--a college or university's ability to access cash quickly or to easily convert assets to cash--is an increasingly crucial component of enterprise risk management. Liquidity risks lurk around nearly every corner--in the endowment portfolio, the debt portfolio, and in working-capital management. It also influences students'…

  19. 48 CFR 232.072-3 - Cash flow forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cash flow forecasts. 232.072-3 Section 232.072-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... liquidation of loans; and (8) Estimated amount and timing of cash receipt from other sources. (f)...

  20. Contract Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Minot, Nicholas; Ronchi, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    Contract farming involves production by farmers under agreement with buyers for their outputs. This arrangement can help integrate small-scale farmers into modern agricultural value chains, providing them with inputs, technical assistance, and assured markets. Critics contend that contract partners may subject farmers to abuses. The literature shows that in fact contract farming can raise ...

  1. Discounted cash flow valuation methods: Examples of perpetuities, constant growth and general case

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the discounted cash flow valuation methods. We start the paper with the simplest case: no-growth, perpetual-life companies. Then we will study the continuous growth case and, finally, the general case. The different concepts of cash flow used in company valuation are defined: equity cash flow (ECF), free cash flow (FCF), and capital cash flow (CCF). Then the appropriate discount rate is determined for each cash flow, depending on the valuation method used. Our starting poi...

  2. Modelling the economics of farm-based anaerobic digestion in a UK whole-farm context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) technologies convert organic wastes and crops into methane-rich biogas for heating, electricity generation and vehicle fuel. Farm-based AD has proliferated in some EU countries, driven by favourable policies promoting sustainable energy generation and GHG mitigation. Despite increased state support there are still few AD plants on UK farms leading to a lack of normative data on viability of AD in the whole-farm context. Farmers and lenders are therefore reluctant to fund AD projects and policy makers are hampered in their attempts to design policies that adequately support the industry. Existing AD studies and modelling tools do not adequately capture the farm context within which AD interacts. This paper demonstrates a whole-farm, optimisation modelling approach to assess the viability of AD in a more holistic way, accounting for such issues as: AD scale, synergies and conflicts with other farm enterprises, choice of feedstocks, digestate use and impact on farm Net Margin. This modelling approach demonstrates, for example, that: AD is complementary to dairy enterprises, but competes with arable enterprises for farm resources. Reduced nutrient purchases significantly improve Net Margin on arable farms, but AD scale is constrained by the capacity of farmland to absorb nutrients in AD digestate. -- Highlights: •Lack of empirical data on UK farm AD is barrier to investment and policy formulation. •A modelling approach used to assess economic viability of AD in whole-farm context. •AD increases dairy and arable farm net margin including by savings in nutrient costs. •AD margins better for a few crops than other uses, especially wheat and beet crops. •AD co-exists with dairy, but to obtain best margin displaces conventional cropping

  3. Organic Farming as an Innovative Farming System Development Model toward Sustainable Agriculture in Bali

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming has been promoted and developed in Bali since 2006 by the government in collaboration with private businesses and certification bodies. This research aimed to synthesize the development of Balinese organic production as an effort toward sustainable agriculture. Data from the in-depth interview and critical review were analyzed. As of 2012, the following have been certified as organic farms: 22 groups of food crop and horticulture farms such as rice/red rice, vegetables, flower...

  4. Farm Resilience in Organic and Nonorganic Cocoa Farming Systems in Alto Beni, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobi, Johanna; Schneider, Monika; Pillco Mariscal, María; Huber, Stephanie; Weidmann, Simon; Bottazzi, Patrick; Rist, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa production in Alto Beni, Bolivia, is a major source of income and is severely affected by climate change impacts and other stress factors. Resilient farming systems are, thus, important for local families. This study compares indicators for social–ecological resilience in 30 organic and 22 nonorganic cocoa farms of Alto Beni. Organic farms had a higher tree and crop diversity, higher yields and incomes, more social connectedness, and participated in more courses on cocoa cultivation. Re...

  5. Corporate Cash Holdings and Shareholder Risk : Investigating the relationship between corporate cash holdings and the risk of stocks listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Olausson, Jonas; Löfgren, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    Corporate cash holdings is a topic constantly under review, companies hoarding cash are criticized by shareholders who rather have companies using their cash for new investments or dividend payouts. Recent academic research has discovered that levels of cash holding are high in times when risk is deemed to be high and found that levels of corporate cash holdings are substantially higher than they used to, making more coverage and a better understanding of the phenomenon crucial. This thesis i...

  6. Actuarial evaluation of the EU proposed farm income stabilisation tool

    OpenAIRE

    Pigeon, Mathieu; Frahan, Bruno Henry de; Denuit, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the European Commission proposed to introduce several risk management tools in the rural development pillar 2 of the CAP. One of them consists in providing co-financing support to mutual funds compensating farmers who experience a severe drop in their farm income. This paper analyses this new farm income stabilization tool for the Walloon region in Belgium, considering separately three groups of farms (crop, dairy and cattle farms). Relying on FADN data from 1997 to 2007, this analy...

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON INTEGRATED FARMING IN BANGLADESH AND OTHER COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Mohammad Taj; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    This paper evaluates the different variations of integrated farming that are prevalent in developing countries in Asia. A cross-country comparison was done using productivity analysis on duck-fish integrated farming in India, poultry-fish in Thailand, rice-fish in the Philippines, and crop-livestock-fish-homestead integrated farming in Vietnam. The study findings indicate farmers in Bangladesh could add additional components to their on-going farming practices to increase not only the product...

  8. Long-Term Farming and Rural Demographic Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Anríquez, Gustavo; Bonomi, Genny

    2008-01-01

    Two general characteristics of rural populations are studied: farming operations at the global level and global rural demographic trends. Analysis of farming at the global level shows that agricultural land is expanding in Latin America and Africa, while expansion limits have been reached in South Asia. Roughly 90% of the world�s farms are small, defined as smaller than 2 hectares, especially in high density areas. While small farms tend to focus on staple crops, it is predicted that liberali...

  9. Internationalization and Corporate Cash Holdings: Evidence from Brazil and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Arata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research expands on previous studies of cash holdings and their determinants by studying the relationship between the degree of internationalization and the level of corporate cash holdings. We used a sample of nonfinancial, publicly traded companies from Brazil and Mexico for the period from 2006 to 2010. Our results suggest that the degree of internationalization is a determinant of cash, and that cash holding increases quadratically as the degree of company internationalization grows. Such behavior was different from the North American company studies in Chiang and Wang (2011. Similar to previous studies, both Trade-off and Pecking Order predictions are relevant control variables in our model. Finally, companies held less cash on their balance sheets during the precrisis period.

  10. FREE CASH FLOW AS PART OF VOLUNTARY REPORTING. LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrea Laura Georgeta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study has as main objective to reflect the state of literature regarding free cash flow, and to withdraw the main pro's and con's in order to create an objective image upon this indicator. The main idea generating this research was the growing interest on cash flow reporting. As many say, 'Cash Flow is King', while in Anglo Saxon countries the interest of investors and analysts in concentrated on operating cash flow, as the most important indicator of the probability of bankruptcy. In this context, voluntary additional reporting, like free cash flow may come either as an aid in providing the fair view or as an opportunistically reported figure. Throughout the paper, the intention was to provide answers to three main research questions: What are the definition and calculation method of free cash flow? Why is there an interest in free cash flow reporting? What is the impact of free cash flow on the agency theory? In order to provide relevant conclusions, four international data basis were used, and related articles and studies were extracted. The results proved that there is no generally accepted definition and computing method, while the format depends on the end-user of the report (shareholders, investors, analysts, bankers, a.s.o.. As stated below, this aspect generates confusion and lack of comparability, giving room to creative accounting techniques. Moreover, the interest on free cash flow reporting is connected mainly to liquidity assessment, company valuation and investors choice. Still, in the context of agency theory, results show that in presence of high free cash flow, managers tend to make investment choices that satisfy their personal interest and that generate low efficiency and profitability for the company. The contribution to current state of research is providing a literature review study, focused on a comparative approach, as well as on underlying an objective image upon a debatable financial indicator and

  11. India’s Agrarian Crisis and Corporate-Led Contract Farming: Socio-economic Implications for Smallholder Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Vijay Paul

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses India’s agrarian crisis and the role of corporate-led contract farming in addressing these crisis. A two-stage Heckman model was used to explain determinants of participation in contract farming, and whether participation in contract farming affects farm income. The results indicate that contract farming has a positive impact on crop productivity and farm income. The socio-economic factors that influenced participation in contract farming were education, age, farm size, ...

  12. Soil carbon dynamics estimation and dependence on farming system in a temperate climate

    OpenAIRE

    Kauer, Karin; Tein, Berit; Sanches De Cima, Diego; Talgre, Liina; Eremeev, Viacheslav; Loit, Evelin; Luik, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining or enhancing the stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) is a key factor in sustaining the soil resources of the world. The objective of this research was to study the effect of different farming systems (conventional farming with mineral fertilizers and crop specific fertilization vs. organic farming with organic fertilizers (catch crops and composted manure)) under the same 5-crop rotation (red clover, winter wheat, pea, potato, barley undersown with red clover) system on the SOC sto...

  13. Impact of perennial energy crops income variability on the crop selection of risk averse farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK Government policy is for the area of perennial energy crops in the UK to expand significantly. Farmers need to choose these crops in preference to conventional rotations for this to be achievable. This paper looks at the potential level and variability of perennial energy crop incomes and the relation to incomes from conventional arable crops. Assuming energy crop prices are correlated to oil prices the results suggests that incomes from them are not well correlated to conventional arable crop incomes. A farm scale mathematical programming model is then used to attempt to understand the affect on risk averse farmers crop selection. The inclusion of risk reduces the energy crop price required for the selection of these crops. However yields towards the highest of those predicted in the UK are still required to make them an optimal choice, suggesting only a small area of energy crops within the UK would be expected to be chosen to be grown. This must be regarded as a tentative conclusion, primarily due to high sensitivity found to crop yields, resulting in the proposal for further work to apply the model using spatially disaggregated data. - Highlights: ► Energy crop and conventional crop incomes suggested as uncorrelated. ► Diversification effect of energy crops investigated for a risk averse farmer. ► Energy crops indicated as optimal selection only on highest yielding UK sites. ► Large establishment grant rates to substantially alter crop selections.

  14. Piping cash out of provincial pockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vancouver Island Gas Pipeline Project (VIGAS) received funding in 1988, but the project ran into political delays, environmental impact studies and design changes. By the time it was finished in 1991 VIGAS was $110 million over its capital budget of $250 million. Furthermore, it was facing losses of as much as $449 million, a risk that the Province was unwilling to take on. Under a new agreement with Westcoast Energy Inc., the province will pay $120 million cash to Pacific Coast Energy Co., and cede future gas royalties to Centra Gas Inc. It will also defer repayment of $75 million in interest-free loans. The province will then phase out its subsidy for VIGAS customers over the next six years, at which point the pipeline will become an entirely commercial venture with prices based on the market rate

  15. 基于PRA的新疆三工河流域农户土地利用差异研究%Research on farm household's choice of land use type over the Sangong River Basin in Xinjiang based on PRA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱慧; 张新焕; 焦广辉; 王哲; 唐宏

    2012-01-01

    With the household survey in Sangong river basin,farm households~hoice of land use type, mclualng crops diversity and species, average water fees and so on, was studied based on Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Some conclusions can be distinguished as following : 1 ) Crops diversity is relatively small for low in come households, they always plant grain crops and oil beaning crops, while that of middle income and high income households have multi choice of crops, they plant cash crops and oil beaning crops. Smaller proportion of non farm income of farmers have more choice of crops diversity. 2) Planting structure of farm households who have large plots is relatively plant simply ,while that of farmers with small plots plant more diverse cropss. When land integrative quality is poor, farmers choose more drought crops, such as wheat, cotton;When it has good qual- ity, farmers choose more cash crops. 3 ) Sangong river has two systems Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps and local farmers, each of them has their own characteristics, which leads to different rights to run their own farm land, the crops diversity and input output of wheat are significant. 4 ) Because of crop tradition, land quality and water resource,the crops of riverg different positions and their water fees are totally distinct.%采用参与式调查方法(PRA),对新疆三工河流域农户进行实地调查,研究三工河流域农户土地利用现状,对比分析不同条件下农户土地利用差异的形成原因。结果表明:1)低收入农户种植多样性相对较小,中等收入和高收入农户种植多样性较大。非农收入比例越小的农户多选择多元化种植,比例越大越趋向于单一化种植。2)地块规模越大越趋向于单一化种植,地块规模越小越趋向于多元化种植。土地综合质量较差时,农户多选择种植抗旱抗碱的作物;土地综合质量较好时,农户多选择

  16. Nutrient management in organic farming and consequences for direct and indirect selection strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Messmer, Monika; Hildermann, Isabell; Thorup-kristensen, Kristian; Rengel, Zed

    2012-01-01

    The chapter deal with the fertilization practices in organic farming and how this affect the requirements for optimized crop genotypes for organic farming. Organic farming does not just lead to generally lower nutrient input, also nutrient sources and timing of nutrient availability is different from conventional farming, leading to different conditions for crop growth. This affects the optimal plant characteristics to breed for, and the way breeding should be performed.

  17. Is There Any Chance for Crop and Livestock Integration in Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang R Prawiradiputra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The integration of livestock and crops, especially food crops, or recently known as crop-livestock systems is very familiar in Indonesia as well as in South-East Asia. The system has been practiced for decades and still carrying out until now. In Indonesian traditional farming system, livestock plays an important role in the system. In Indonesia, there are five types of farming system namely extensive farming, non-intensive farming, intensive farming, very intensive farming and conservation farming system. However, there are some constraints in each system. This paper describes some constraints in Indonesian farming systems especially in crop-animal systems, such as land, manpower, money, technology, informations and farmer organization.

  18. Farm Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Nielsen, Niels Christian; Nissen, Kathrine Aae;

    2011-01-01

    particular, our study suggests that it is problematic to threat farm tourism enterprises as if they have much in common with both larger corporations and other types of SMTEs. Farm tourism enterprises seem to differ significantly from other enterprises as the hosts are not in the tourism business because it......This paper draws on a study of one specific type of small tourism enterprises (i.e. farm tourism enterprises) and argues that these enterprises differ from other enterprises in relation to a series of issues other than merely size. The analysis shows that enterprises such as these are characterized...

  19. Crop damage by primates: quantifying the key parameters of crop-raiding events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Graham E; Hill, Catherine M

    2012-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict often arises from crop-raiding, and insights regarding which aspects of raiding events determine crop loss are essential when developing and evaluating deterrents. However, because accounts of crop-raiding behaviour are frequently indirect, these parameters are rarely quantified or explicitly linked to crop damage. Using systematic observations of the behaviour of non-human primates on farms in western Uganda, this research identifies number of individuals raiding and duration of raid as the primary parameters determining crop loss. Secondary factors include distance travelled onto farm, age composition of the raiding group, and whether raids are in series. Regression models accounted for greater proportions of variation in crop loss when increasingly crop and species specific. Parameter values varied across primate species, probably reflecting differences in raiding tactics or perceptions of risk, and thereby providing indices of how comfortable primates are on-farm. Median raiding-group sizes were markedly smaller than the typical sizes of social groups. The research suggests that key parameters of raiding events can be used to measure the behavioural impacts of deterrents to raiding. Furthermore, farmers will benefit most from methods that discourage raiding by multiple individuals, reduce the size of raiding groups, or decrease the amount of time primates are on-farm. This study demonstrates the importance of directly relating crop loss to the parameters of raiding events, using systematic observations of the behaviour of multiple primate species. PMID:23056378

  20. Crop damage by primates: quantifying the key parameters of crop-raiding events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham E Wallace

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflict often arises from crop-raiding, and insights regarding which aspects of raiding events determine crop loss are essential when developing and evaluating deterrents. However, because accounts of crop-raiding behaviour are frequently indirect, these parameters are rarely quantified or explicitly linked to crop damage. Using systematic observations of the behaviour of non-human primates on farms in western Uganda, this research identifies number of individuals raiding and duration of raid as the primary parameters determining crop loss. Secondary factors include distance travelled onto farm, age composition of the raiding group, and whether raids are in series. Regression models accounted for greater proportions of variation in crop loss when increasingly crop and species specific. Parameter values varied across primate species, probably reflecting differences in raiding tactics or perceptions of risk, and thereby providing indices of how comfortable primates are on-farm. Median raiding-group sizes were markedly smaller than the typical sizes of social groups. The research suggests that key parameters of raiding events can be used to measure the behavioural impacts of deterrents to raiding. Furthermore, farmers will benefit most from methods that discourage raiding by multiple individuals, reduce the size of raiding groups, or decrease the amount of time primates are on-farm. This study demonstrates the importance of directly relating crop loss to the parameters of raiding events, using systematic observations of the behaviour of multiple primate species.

  1. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining meteorological risks and subsequently relating the risk to the cropping calendar will be demonstrated for major arable crops in Belgium. Physically based crop models assist in understanding the links between adverse weather events, sensitive crop stages and crop damage. Financial support was obtained from Belspo under research contract SD/RI/03A.

  2. Molecular farming

    OpenAIRE

    Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J M

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Farming is a new and emerging technology that promises relatively cheap and flexible production of large quantities of pharmaceuticals in genetically modified plants. Many stakeholders are involved in the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, which complicates the discussion on the possible benefits and disadvantages to a great extent. Discussions about Molecular Farming are often about technical and economic aspects, but other aspects like safety and ethical and societal aspects...

  3. The Quantitative Evaluation of Output Efficiency in Different Cropping Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu-hua; ZHANG Li-feng

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative indexes such as land equivalent ratio, yield equivalent and value of output equivalent were used to evaluate output efficiencies of different cropping patterns, i.e., sequential cropping, intercrops and crop rotation. Compared to single cropping, land use efficiencies under sequential cropping, intercrops and crop rotation were raised by 62, 38 and 21%, respectively. The unit area yield under sequential cropping, intercrops and crop rotation were raised by 63, 29 and 16%, respectively. The unit area value was also enhanced under sequential cropping and intercrops, 76 and 35% higher than that under single cropping. The paper provides a useful tool for comparing farm output efficiency and build up a theoretical basis for further research on output efficiency of various cropping patterns in the future.

  4. Cash flow forecasting model for nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash flow forecasting is very important for owners and contractors of nuclear power projects to arrange the capital and to decrease the capital cost. The factors related to contractor cash flow forecasting are analyzed and a cash flow forecasting model is presented which is suitable for both contractors and owners. The model is efficiently solved using a cost-schedule data integration scheme described. A program is developed based on the model and verified with real project data. The result indicates that the model is efficient and effective

  5. Money and Crime in a Cash-In- Advance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hyung Sun Choi

    2011-01-01

    A cash-in-advance model, in which holding money is risky, is constructed to study the coexistence of multiple means of payment and monetary policy implications. In steady-state equilibrium, the marginal rate of substitution of cash goods for credit goods depends on the crime rate as well as the nominal interest rate. Credit may be in use, although the return on money is not positive. With theft, a money injection reduces the crime rate and makes cash more preferable for a greater variety of g...

  6. Analysis of non-cash Transactions in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Boučková, Petra

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is focused on non-cash payments. It is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part describes the historical development of payment cards and forms that are accessible to the citizens. There are described current news and trends in non-cash payments. The practical part is focused on the development of non-cash transaction in the Czech Republic and comparison of the Member States of the European Union with Czech Republic. Attention is also given access to banks ...

  7. Atomic and efficient e-cash transaction protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茜; 杨德礼

    2004-01-01

    Atomicity is necessary for reliable and secure electronic commerce transaction and to guarantee the participants'interests. An atomic and efficient e-cash (electronic cash) transaction protocol based on the classical e-cash scheme is presented. The delivery of digital goods is incorporated into the process of payment in the protocol. Apart from ensuring all three levels of atomicity, the novel protocol features high efficiency and practicability with unfavorable strong assumption removed. Furthermore, the proposed protocol provides non-repudiation proofs for any future disputes. At last, analysis of the atomicity and efficiency is illustrated.

  8. A COMPARATIVE THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF THE FOOD STAMP PROGRAM AS OPPOSED TO CASH TRANSFERS ON THE DEMAND FOR FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Kathryn S.; Price, David W.

    1982-01-01

    Comparative analysis of food demand expansion of a cash program, as compared to the food stamp program, is important for measuring trade-offs between goals of raising farm income and increasing food expenditures of the poor. A theoretical basis for assessing food demand impacts under each program is presented. Two effects are analyzed: 1) The effect on food demand of the individual household and 2) The effect of food demand at the aggregate level. Both indifference curve analysis and psycholo...

  9. Leguminous cover crops: an important tool for improving resource use efficiency in organic arable cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    ANTICHI, DR. D.; MAZZONCINI, PROF. M.; BARBERI, PROF. P.; BIGONGIALI, DR. F.; CARPI, DR. G.

    2008-01-01

    Cover crops are one of the most effective tools for organic farmers to improve the efficiency of their agro-ecosystems, while also reducing economic costs and environmental problems. The choice and usefulness of a cover crop species strictly depend on its adaptability to specific climate and soil conditions, but also on its relationships with other species (crops and weeds) and on the quality of farm management. Nine different pure species and three species mixtures were cultivated for two ye...

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation And Agriculture, Trade-off Or Win-win Situation: Bioeconomic Farm Modelling In The Sudanian Area of Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, T. E.; Barbier, B.

    2015-12-01

    Climate changes talks regularly underline that developing countries' agriculture could play a stronger role in GHGs mitigation strategies and benefit from the Kyoto Protocol program of subsidies. Scientists explain that agriculture can contribute to carbon mitigation by storing more carbon in the soil through greener cropping systems. In this context, a growing number of research projects have started to investigate how developing countries agriculture can contribute to these objectives. The clean development mechanism (CDM) proposed in the Kyoto protocol is one particular policy instrument that can incite farmers to mitigate the GHG balance towards more sequestration and less emission. Some economists such as Michael Porter think that environmental regulation lead to a win-win outcome, in which case subsidies are not necessary. If it is a trade-off between incomes and the environment, subsidies are required. CDM can be mobilized to support the mitigation strategy. Agriculture implies the use of inputs. Reducing the emission implies the reduction of those inputs which will in turn imply a yield decrease. The study aims to assess whether this measure will imply a trade-off between environmental and economic objectives or a win-win situation. I apply this study to the case of small farmers in Burkina Faso through environmental instruments such as the emissions limits and agroforestry using a bioeconomic model, in which the farmers maximize their utility subject to constraints. The study finds that the limitation of emissions in annual crops production involves a trade-off. by impacting negatively their net cash come. By integrating perennial crops in the farming system, the farmers' utility increases. Around 6,118 kg are sequestrated individually. By computing the value on this carbon balance, farmers' net cash incomes go better. Then practicing agroforestry is a win-win situation, as they reach a higher level of income, and reduce emissions. Policymakers must

  11. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  12. Potential of controlled traffic farming with automatic guidance on an organic farm in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Mosquera, J.; Wel, van der, GK; Klooster, van der, A.; Steenhuizen, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Some organic farms in the Netherlands use RTK-DGPS guidance of machinery over fixed traffic lanes to achieve non-trafficked cropping zones with optimum soil structure. These lanes are not yet used for harvesting and primary tillage. The potential of such a seasonal controlled traffic farming (SCTF) system was evaluated. In an on-farm field experiment in green pea, spinach, onions and carrots, SCTF with traffic lanes at 3.15-m centres was compared with conventional random traffic farming (RTF)...

  13. Effect of dairy production system, breed and co-product handling methods on environmental impacts at farm level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T T H; Doreau, M; Corson, M S; Eugène, M; Delaby, L; Chesneau, G; Gallard, Y; van der Werf, H M G

    2013-05-15

    productivity reduced the amount of on-farm area required to produce a given amount of milk. Thus, the "liberated" on-farm area of Holstein systems was used to produce cash crops, and total impacts of these systems were lower than those of G-No (except for eutrophication and land occupation). PMID:23507252

  14. Cryptanalysis of One Fair E-cash System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-hua; SHEN Hao

    2006-01-01

    The security of Canard-Traore fair e-cash system scheme was believed to depend on the strong-RSA as sumption and the Decision Diffie-Hellman assumption in groups of unknown order. But it is not the case. The ryptanalysis on Canard-Traore fair e-cash system was presented. An algorithm was designed to show that Canard Traore fair e-cash system is insecure: It is forgeability. Further, two drawbacks on Canard-Traore fair e-cash system scheme were pointed out. One is that those integer intervals for si(i= 1,…, 9) are unappropriate. The other is that the datum s3 in signature data is redundant. Moreover, a minute description of the technique to shun the challenge in the scheme was presented. The technique is helpful for designing new group signature schemes in the future.

  15. 42 CFR 436.110 - Individuals receiving cash assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to individuals receiving cash assistance under OAA, AFDC, AB, APTD... the home is considered essential to the well-being of a recipient under the State's plan for OAA,...

  16. Crop growth

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dam; Diepen, van, MJ; Huygen, J.

    2003-01-01

    SWAP contains three crop growth routines: a simple model, a detailed model (WOFOST), and the same model attuned to simulate grass growth. The simple model describes crop development, independent of external stress factors. The main function is to provide proper upper boundary conditions for soil water movement

  17. Crop Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of crop biotechnology on outcomes of agricultural practices and economics is readily evidenced by the escalating acreage of genetically engineered crops, all occurring in a relatively short time span. Until the mid 1990s, virtually no acreage was planted with commercial genetically mo...

  18. A study on management of corporate cash in consumer durable sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Das

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cash plays essential role in modern business and economy and it is the life blood of all businesses. Therefore, cash management is the art of managing a company’s short-term resources for its ongoing activities, mobilizing funds and optimizing liquidity. Inefficient cash management may lead the company to bankruptcy. In this paper, we highlight different perspectives in which we can control the corporate cash including Cash Conversion Cycle, Cash Holding and Creditworthiness. The term Cash Conversion Cycle can be considered as a length of time between purchase of raw-materials and collection of cash from debtors. Cash holding is one of the most important financial decisions that the manager of the concerned organization has to make for the organizations. In this paper, we try to interlink among different items to control cash so that bankruptcy could be prevented and profitability would be improved by investigating on five companies from Consumer Durable sector.

  19. Cash Flow Prediction Using a Grey-Box Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Yang; Opong, Kwaku; Moutinho, Luia; Li, Yun

    2015-01-01

    This paper tackles the problem of financial forecasting by extending methods developed in automation, engineering and computing science. Current methods existing in the literature for firm-level cash flows are first analysed. Then a grey-box modelling method is developed to elevate the performance of cash-flow prediction. Linear panel data modelling is used as a benchmark model. Experiments with out-of-sample tests are used to validate the grey-box approach. Encouragingly, nonlinear grey-box ...

  20. Debit card and cash usage: a cross-country analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene Amromin; Sujit Chakravorti

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, debit card transactions grew rapidly in most advanced countries. While check usage declined and has almost disappeared in some countries, the stock of currency in circulation has not declined as fast. We use panel estimation techniques to analyze the change in transactional demand for cash resulting from greater usage of debit cards in 13 countries from 1988 to 2003. We are able to disentangle cash’s store of value function from its payment function by separating cash ...

  1. The Validity of Company Valuation Using Discounted Cash Flow Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Steiger

    2010-01-01

    This paper closely examines theoretical and practical aspects of the widely used discounted cash flows (DCF) valuation method. It assesses its potentials as well as several weaknesses. A special emphasize is being put on the valuation of companies using the DCF method. The paper finds that the discounted cash flow method is a powerful tool to analyze even complex situations. However, the DCF method is subject to massive assumption bias and even slight changes in the underlying assumptions of ...

  2. Anticipated Monetary Policy in a Cash-in-Advance Economy.

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit Carmichael

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of perfectly foreseen monetary policy within the framework of a standard cash-in-advance economy. Anticipated monetary policy is shown to have real effects by influencing inflationary expectations. In a cash-in-advance economy, an increase in the anticipated rate of inflation reduces the return to labor supply and induces a substitution away from time spent in the labor market. The paper analyzes the implication of this substitution for the time paths of output...

  3. Human Capital Investment, Cash Flow Risk and Capital Structure Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaolan

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation explores the financial effects of firms' growing reliance on intangible capital in their production technology. I examine the fundamental link between the cash flow risk, financial decision-making and the accumulation of firm-level intangible capital both in theory and in empirics. In Chapter one, I document that public firms in the United States that provide better insurance against productivity shocks to their workers experience higher cash flow volatility. Difference in i...

  4. How cash transfers promote the case for basic income

    OpenAIRE

    Standing, Guy

    2008-01-01

    There has long been a minority view that providing people with cash is an effective way of combating poverty and economic insecurity while promoting livelihoods and work. The mainstream view has nevertheless been that giving people money, without conditions or obligations, promotes idleness and dependency, while being unnecessarily costly. This paper reviews recent evidence on various types of schemes implemented in developing countries, including several pilot cash transfer schemes, assessin...

  5. Conditional cash transfers, adult work incentives, and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Skoufias, Emmanuel; Di Maro,Vincenzo

    2006-01-01

    Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs aim to alleviate poverty through monetary and in-kind benefits, as well as reduce future levels of poverty by encouraging investments in education, health, and nutrition. The success of CCT programs at reducing poverty depends on whether, and the extent to which, cash transfers affect adult work incentives. The authors examine whether the PROGRESA program of Mexico affects adult participation in the labor market and overall adult leisure time, and they...

  6. Looking forward : the role for government in regulating electronic cash

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey L. Schreft

    1997-01-01

    With the year 2000 rapidly approaching, stored-value cards are already popular in some countries and are being introduced into the United States by private companies. Stored-value cards are one form of electronic cash—electronic substitutes for paper currency. Digital cash (also known as cybercash or ecash) is the other form of electronic cash coming into use today. It consists of bits and bytes in cyberspace and substitutes for paper currency in transactions made over the Internet.> Someday ...

  7. ARE BRAZILIAN FIRMS SAVINGS SENSITIVE TO CASH WINDFALLS?

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Machado Costa; Lourenço Senne Paz

    2004-01-01

    One of the most studied topics in the corporate finance literature is the effect of financial constraints on firms' investments decisions. Trying to explain this issue, Almeida, Campello andWeisbach (2003) modeled the relationship between the financial constraints faced by firms and their demand for liquidity. They show that if one firm is financial constrained we must expect positive cash _ow sensitivity from cash windfalls, while for unconstrained firms this relation does not hold. The aim ...

  8. De determinanten van cash holdings bij Belgische KMO's

    OpenAIRE

    Vanbaelen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Deze eindverhandeling handelt over de determinanten die een invloed kunnen hebben op het niveau van cash holdings van Belgische KMO's. Dit werkstuk beslaat zeven hoofdstukken. Eerst en vooral wordt de probleemstelling uitgewerkt in hoofdstuk één gevolgd door een definiëring van het begrip KMO in hoofdstuk twee. Vervolgens komt in hoofdstuk drie een uitgebreide literatuurstudie aan bod. In hoofdstuk vier worden de determinanten van de cash holdings besproken, welke uit de literatuurstudie voor...

  9. Managerial discretion and optimal financing policies with cash flow uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Fiaschi

    2009-01-01

    Building on the work of Stulz (1990), this paper analyzes the impact of managerial discretion on optimal leverage within an agency cost model of corporate financing. Under the assumption that stockholders do not know with certainty the mean of the cash flow distribution, we argue that leverage fails to control for the amount of cash the manager can misappropriate in personal projects. We develop a model of a firm’s value maximization problem that predicts that as expected earnings uncertainty...

  10. Farm Business Review - "Woodrising", Cressy, Tasmania

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Robert; Henry, Kathy; Armstrong, David

    2003-01-01

    The Woodrising farming business has developed from a grazing operation based on a relatively small soldier settlement block in Northern Tasmania. The expansion and diversification has entailed: Purchase of additional land. Leasing land for cropping, for short (seasonal) and long (3-5 year) terms. Managing a nearby farm on behalf of a Board of Trustees. Developing and running smaller, opportunistic agricultural businesses. This paper describes a business review based on the Now, Where, How mod...

  11. Cash transfers for HIV prevention: considering their potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Heise

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cash payments to vulnerable households and/or individuals have increasingly garnered attention as a means to reduce poverty, improve health and achieve other development-related outcomes. Recent evidence from Malawi and Tanzania suggests that cash transfers can impact HIV-related behaviours and outcomes and, therefore, could serve as an important addition to HIV prevention efforts. Discussion: This article reviews the current evidence on cash transfers for HIV prevention and suggests unresolved questions for further research. Gaps include (1 understanding more about the mechanisms and pathways through which cash transfers affect HIV-related outcomes; (2 addressing key operational questions, including the potential feasibility and the costs and benefits of different models of transfers and conditionality; and (3 evaluating and enhancing the wider impacts of cash transfers on health and development. Conclusions: Ongoing and future studies should build on current findings to unpack unresolved questions and to collect additional evidence on the multiple impacts of transfers in different settings. Furthermore, in order to address questions on sustainability, cash transfer programmes need to be integrated with other sectors and programmes that address structural factors such as education and programming to promote gender equality and address HIV.

  12. A tax proposal for a cash flow corporate tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Jerez Barroso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Due to its advantages in terms of neutrality and simplicity, the aim of this paper is to design a tax base for corporation cash flows, as well as to develop its practical implementation.Design/Methodology: The conceptual aspects and the background of tax on corporation tax flows are reviewed and a tax base that levies a charge on the corporation’s economical activities’ cash flow is then proposed. In order to carry this out, a methodological procedure is developed on the basis of the accounting documents that companies must present and through which the stock variables and the accounting documents’ work flow is transformed into cash flow.Findings: An implementation on the basis of the accounting documents that Spanish companies must present. Practical Implications: This paper defines the procedure to follow in order to determine the tax base of a cash flow corporate income tax on the basis of its accounts, which would allow an estimation of this tax figure’s revenue impact.Originality/ Value: The design of a tax base of cash flows for companies. The accounting approximation carried out to determine the cash flows justifies the fact that the tax base proposal is technically possible.

  13. STRATEGIC DECISIONS OF FAMILY FIRMS ON CASH ACCUMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Belen Lozano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the particular strengths, weaknesses, and peculiarities of family firms as well as the importance of liquidity in today’s marketplace, we analyze the distinct characteristics and strategies of family businesses related to the amount of cash a firm holds. We look beyond the traditional factors that influence decisions related to cash management to examine factors that are particularly important for family firms. Specifically, we outline the relevance of strategic decisions guided by family firms’ conservatism, flexibility, long-term view, and the active control that they have over family members. To our knowledge, no prior studies exist regarding family firms and their strategic adjustment of cash holding. Therefore, we investigate whether the ownership structure of the firm (through the presence of a controlling family moderates decisions on cash holding. We found that family firms tend to accumulate cash for strategic reasons and as a result of their own idiosyncrasies. Thus, family firms can achieve optimal cash accumulation more efficiently than non-family firms.

  14. Construction and Operating Costs for Whitetail Deer Farms

    OpenAIRE

    DeVuyst, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Commercial whitetail deer farming is a growing industry in the U.S. The size of operations ranges from a few head to hundreds. Management ranges from small, part-time farmers to professionally-managed operations. There is, however, a lack of published information documenting investment costs, operating costs, cash flow, and profitability of whitetail deer enterprises. This article provides that information. Based on interviews with the Board of Directors for Whitetails of Oklahoma, small and ...

  15. Cash Flow Analysis Using Methods of Measuring Financial Flows by Type of Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Spineanu-Georgescu Luciana

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of financial balance through cash flows used to estimate future cash needs based on past situation, their knowledge would be useful to both shareholders interested in the existence of sufficient cash to pay dividends and creditors who are interested in recovering loans. Equally, knowledge of future cash flows of interest to potential investors updated cash flow method is a method of evaluation of the company.

  16. Analysing drought impacts and recovery options by adapting a dairy farming systems modelling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Dan P.; Ho, Christie K.M.; Doyle, Peter T.; Malcolm, Bill; Gibb, I; Brown, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    The dairy industry in northern Victoria faced dramatic changes between 2001/02 and 2002/03. Drought resulted in a substantial decrease in availability, and subsequent increase in price, of irrigation water and supplementary feed. Most farms recorded substantial net cash flow deficits. Prior to 2002/03, a project had been established using case studies and a spreadsheet model to examine potential futures for different farm types. This approach was successfully adapted to examine drought impact...

  17. FARM-LEVEL EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE POLICY APPROACHES TO REDUCE NITRATE LEACHING FROM MIDWEST AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Swinton, Scott M.; Clark, David S.

    1994-01-01

    Policies to reduce nitrate leaching are evaluated using a mixed integer linear programming model of a representative Michigan cash grain farm. At spring 1993 prices, elimination of the current deficiency payment program is found to be more efficient at reducing leaching than a nitrogen input tax, a tax credit on biologically fixed nitrogen, a rotation payment, or obligatory use of the Integrated Farm Management Program Option (IFMPO). However, elimination of the deficiency payment program wou...

  18. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AND ADOPTION OF ENERGY CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Gedikoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current study analyzes the socio-economic factors that impact farmers’ willingness to grow switchgrass and miscanthus in Missouri and Iowa. The results of the current study show that current level of farmers’ willingness to grow for either crop is low. Hence, there are barriers to accomplishing the goal of producing 21 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuel by 2022. It is also found that currently growing energy crops is more attractive to small farms as a source of crop diversification, rather than an alternative crop production system in the big scale by large farms.

  19. Challenging Small-scale Farming, A Non-parametric Analysis of the (Inverse) Relationship Between Farm Productivity and Farm Size in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    M. VERSCHELDE; M. D’HAESE; G. RAYP; Vandamme, E.

    2011-01-01

    We use a nonparametric estimation of the production function to investigate the relation- ship between farm productivity and farming scale in poor smallholder agricultural systems in the north of Burundi. Burundi is one of the poorest countries in the world, with a predominant small scale subsistence farming sector. A Kernel regression is used on data of mixed cropping systems to study the determinants of production including different factors that have been identified in literature as missin...

  20. Organic farming between professionalisation and conventionalisation - The need for a more discerning view of farmer practices

    OpenAIRE

    Darnhofer, Ika

    2006-01-01

    The recent changes in organic farming practices (e.g. larger farms, simplification of crop rotations, organic farms without animal husbandry) are sometimes seen as a first indication of conventionalisation of on-farm practices. Although conventionalisation is possible, changes in organic farming also need to be seen from an evolutionary perspective: change is necessary to adapt to a changing environment. It might thus be useful to take a closer look at the changes taking place, distinguishing...

  1. 2009 Annual Report of the Southwestern Minnesota Farm Business Management Association

    OpenAIRE

    Nordquist, Dale W.; Kurtz, James N.; Nitchie, Donald L.; Paulson, Garen J.; Froslan, Janet M.; Christensen, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Average net farm income was $69,787 in 2009 for the 95 farms included in this annual report of the Southwestern Minnesota Farm Business Management Association. Average earnings decreased by 63% from $190,901 in 2008. This continues the downward trend that began in 2008 after six years of steady increases. As expected, low incomes for virtually all types of livestock operations pulled the average down, and some livestock farms sustained large losses. Crop farms, on average, were profitable but...

  2. Biodiversity management of organic farming enhances agricultural sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Haitao Liu; Jie Meng; Wenjing Bo; Da Cheng; Yong Li; Liyue Guo; Caihong Li; Yanhai Zheng; Meizhen Liu; Tangyuan Ning; Guanglei Wu; Xiaofan Yu; Sufei Feng; Tana Wuyun; Jing Li

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming (OF) has been believed to be capable of curtailing some hazardous effects associated with chemical farming (CF). However, debates also exist on whether OF can feed a world with increasing human population. We hypothesized that some improvements on OF may produce adequate crops and reduce environmental pollutions from CF. This paper makes comparative analysis of crop yield, soil organic matter and economic benefits within the practice on Biodiversity Management of Organic Farmi...

  3. RATE OF RETURN ON INVESTMENT IN A DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING FARM IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetana HARIZANOVA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the rate of return on investment in a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria. To achieve the aim, it was investigated a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria first category with average number of 83 cows in the main herd. Based on information collected from the farm in 2012 and on own calculations it was defined the different types of investments necessary to create a farm. It was calculated also the rate of return of cash inflows, rate of return of cash outflows and investments per cow. It was found that the analyzed farm has implemented 12.5% rate of return on investment in 2012. Investments per cow are 4422 euros. The largest share of investments has the investments in productive animals (43.6%. 64.6% of the revenues are from the sale of milk. The largest share of the cash outflows have the purchase of feed and forage production - 58.3%. Subsidies play an important role for profitable operation of the analyzed farm.

  4. Amaranth farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Kjærgård, Bente

    2008-01-01

    natural resources that small-scale farmers have to combat the abovementioned problems. The study identified several local and regional barriers for increasing the level of farming, production, processing and consumption. A striking and paradoxical limitation is the monopolization practices developed...

  5. Farm Auditing for Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Measures, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Policy makers have now established sustainability as the new aim for UK farming. The development of the Farm Audit for Sustainability involved identifying the objectives of sustainable farming, based on the Principles of organic farming as set out by the International Federation of Organic Farming Movements (IFOAM) and establishment of indicators to assess the effectiveness of individual farms in meeting these objectives. On-farm use of the Farm Audit demonstrated that the tool was able to pr...

  6. Soil microbial functionality in response to the inclusion of cover crop mixtures in agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego N. Chavarría

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural systems where monoculture prevails are characterized by fertility losses and reduced contribution to ecosystem services. Including cover crops (CC as part of an agricultural system is a promising choice in sustainable intensification of those demanding systems. We evaluated soil microbial functionality in cash crops in response to the inclusion of CC by analyzing soil microbial functions at two different periods of the agricultural year (cash crop harvest and CC desiccation during 2013 and 2014. Three plant species were used as CC: oat (Avena sativa L., vetch (Vicia sativa L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L. which were sown in two different mixtures of species: oat and radish mix (CC1 and oat, radish and vetch mix (CC2, with soybean monoculture and soybean/corn being the cash crops. The study of community level physiological profiles showed statistical differences in respiration of specific C sources indicating an improvement of catabolic diversity in CC treatments. Soil enzyme activities were also increased with the inclusion of CC mixtures, with values of dehydrogenase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis up to 38.1% and 35.3% higher than those of the control treatment, respectively. This research evidenced that CC inclusion promotes soil biological quality through a contribution of soil organic carbon, improving the sustainability of agrosystems. The use of a CC mixture of three plant species including the legume vetch increased soil biological processes and catabolic diversity, with no adverse effects on cash crop grain yield.

  7. Net Benefits from Investing in Lucerne (Medicago sativa) Phase Farming Systems in the Mixed Farming Zone of Northern Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Trapnell, Lindsay N.; Ransom, Kieran P.; Hirth, Jeff R.; Naji, Riad; Clune, Tim S.R.; Crawford, Michael C.; Harris, Ron H.; Whale, James; Wilson, K.F.

    2005-01-01

    Increases in induced waterlogging and dryland salinization resulting from deep drainage to watertables have been predicted to occur across the mixed farming zone of northern Victoria. Consequently, deep-rooted perennials need to be introduced into farming systems. Lucerne (Medicago sativa) has been found to have a higher level of water extraction than annual crops and pastures. But one of the barriers to farmers adopting cropping with lucerne is that they fear their risk in production will in...

  8. ASSESSING ECONOMIC AND TECHNICAL IMPACTS OF NON EXPECTED WEATHER EVENTS ON FRENCH SUCKLER COW FARMS DYNAMICS: A DYNAMIC RECURSIVE FARM MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Mosnier, Claire; Agabriel, Jacques; Lherm, Michel; REYNAUD Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    Weather variability can threaten French suckler cow farms which rely on rather extensive forage production. However, flexibility of the production system can help farmer to face crop production shocks. This study aims at assessing how crop yield shocks impact on farms outcomes when adaptive capacity is taken into account. Our objectives are to develop a dynamic model which enables us 1) to predict the optimal mix of production adjustments to face crop yield shocks, 2) to quantify how far the ...

  9. The Navajo Agricultural Projects Industry: Subsistence Farming to Corporate Agribusiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tom

    1979-01-01

    Originally designed to create small farms for individual Navajos, the irrigation project has grown into a single 110,000-acre corporate agribusiness, the land's management has fallen out of the grasp of individual Navajos, and the idea of subsistence farming has been plowed under for the planting of major money-making crops. (NQ)

  10. Maintaining ecological soil functions - techniques in organic farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Beste, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    The ecological soil functions (e.g. habitat and living space, production and utilization, ecological regulation) have to be taken into account and maintained by farming systems. Organic farming systems can provide for this by using suitable crop rotations, manure management methods and tillage techniques.

  11. Ecologically sustainable development in dairy farms II: Nutrient cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Mexico, there is not a specific regulation dealing with manure and wastewater in confined livestock farms. In the case of dairy farms that have agricultural areas for the production of forage crops, there are some "Good Management Practices", focused on the use of manure as a source of nitrogen a...

  12. Preliminary process engineering evaluation of ethanol production from vegetative crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, A. R.; Linden, J. C.; Smith, D. H.; Villet, R. H.

    1982-12-01

    Vegetative crops show good potential as feedstock for ethanol production via cellulose hydrolysis and yeast fermentation. The low levels of lignin encountered in young plant tissues show an inverse relationship with the high cellulose digestibility during hydrolysis with cellulose enzymes. Ensiled sorghum species and brown midrib mutants of sorghum exhibit high glucose yields after enzyme hydrolysis as well. Vegetative crop materials as candidate feedstocks for ethanol manufacture should continue to be studied. The species studied so far are high value cash crops and result in relatively high costs for the final ethanol product. Unconventional crops, such as pigweed, kochia, and Russian thistle, which can use water efficiently and grow on relatively arid land under conditions not ideal for food production, should be carefully evaluated with regard to their cultivation requirements, photosynthesis rates, and cellulose digestibility. Such crops should result in more favorable process economics for alcohol production.

  13. Prices and tree planting on hillside farms in Palawan

    OpenAIRE

    Shively, Gerald E.

    1999-01-01

    Metadata only record This paper assesses the factors determining the adoption of tree crops on low-income farms in the Philippines. The author applies regression analysis to evaluate the influence of prices, price uncertainty and individual farm characteristics on decisions to plant mango on hillside farms, using data spanning 1981 to 1994. The quantified analysis revealed a positive correlation between tree planting and mango prices, and a negative correlation between mango tree planting ...

  14. Question 3. How can organic farming contribute to environmental conservation?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Methodological difficulty of comparing the environmental impact of organic and conventional farming Several hundred studies have attempted to assess the environmental impact of organic farming compared with conventional farming. They compare different types of production, under varied ecological conditions. However, each study covers a limited number of technical criteria and a particular cropping system in a given climatic zone. The results therefore cannot be generalised. Any comparison of ...

  15. Farming Exodus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yang

    2012-01-01

    AS millions of China's able-bodied farmers make their way into the cities in search of a better life. spurred on by low crop prices, they leave behind countless small plots of land tended by the village young and old.

  16. The dynamics of farm land allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    reform and environmental regulation. The model allows estimation of dynamic effects relating to price expectations adjustment, investment lags and crop rotation constraints. Estimation is based on micro-panel data from Danish farmers that includes acreage, output and variable input utilisation at the...... crop level. Results indicate that there are substantial differences between the shortrun and long-run land allocation behaviour of Danish farmers and that there are substantial differences in the time lags associated with different crops. Since similar farming conditions are found in northern Europe...

  17. Using the GENESYS model quantifying the effect of cropping systems on gene escape from GM rape varieties to evaluate and design cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colbach Nathalie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene flow in rapeseed is a process taking place both in space and over the years and cannot be studied exclusively by field trials. Consequently, the GENESYS model was developed to quantify the effects of cropping systems on transgene escape from rapeseed crops to rapeseed volunteers in neighbour plots and in the subsequent crops. In the present work, this model was used to evaluate the risk of rape harvest contamination by extraneous genes in various farming systems in case of co-existing GM, conventional and organic crops. When 50 % of the rape varieties in the region were transgenic, the rate of GM seeds in non-GM crop harvests on farms with large fields was lower than the 0.9 % purity threshold proposed by the EC for rape crop production (food and feed harvests, but on farms with smaller fields, the threshold was exceeded. Harvest impurity increased in organic farms, mainly because of their small field size. The model was then used to evaluate the consequences of changes in farming practices and to identify those changes reducing harvest contamination. The effects of these changes depended on the field pattern and farming system. The most efficient practices in limiting harvest impurity comprised improved set-aside management by sowing a cover crop in spring on all set-aside fields in the region, permanently banning rape crops and set-aside around seed production fields and (for non-GM farmers clustering farm fields to reduce gene inflow from neighbour fields.

  18. Futuristic Farming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Cross-strait agricultural relations look good judging by the founding of a Taiwanese-backed coffee farm in Hainan Lin Wen-ding's story is an ironic one. Once a leader of Taiwan's Democratic Progressive Party, which is often at odds with Chinese mainland policies, Lin Wen-ding now resides in south China's Hainan Province, a success story of better cross-strait relations. Lin Wen-ding, who dropped his politi-

  19. Canaryseed Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Cogliatti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L. is a graminaceous crop species with production practices and cycle similar to those of other winter cereal crops such as spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and oat (Avena sativa L.. Currently its grains are used almost exclusively as feed for birds, alone or mixed with other grains like millet, sunflower seed, and flaxseed. Canaryseed is a genuine cereal with a unique composition that suggests its potential for food use. P. canariensis is cultivated in many areas of temperate climates. Currently, its production is concentrated in the southwestern provinces of Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba and on a smaller scale in Argentina, Thailand and Australia. Globally it is considered to be a minor crop with regional relevance, with a production about of 250000 tonnes per year, which restricts private investment and public research on its genetic and technological improvement. For this reason, the type of crop management that is applied to this species largely depends on innovations made in other similar crops. This work provides an updated summary of the available information on the species: its requirements, distribution, genetic resources, cultivation practices, potential uses, marketing and other topics of interest to researchers and producers.

  20. Soil management practices under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Adel; Chami Ziad, Al; Hamdy, Atef

    2015-04-01

    Organic farming methods combine scientific knowledge of ecology and modern technology with traditional farming practices based on naturally occurring biological processes. Soil building practices such as crop rotations, intercropping, symbiotic associations, cover crops, organic fertilizers and minimum tillage are central to organic practices. Those practices encourage soil formation and structure and creating more stable systems. In farm nutrient and energy cycling is increased and the retentive abilities of the soil for nutrients and water are enhanced. Such management techniques also play an important role in soil erosion control. The length of time that the soil is exposed to erosive forces is decreased, soil biodiversity is increased, and nutrient losses are reduced, helping to maintain and enhance soil productivity. Organic farming as systematized and certifiable approach for agriculture, there is no surprise that it faces some challenges among both farmers and public sector. This can be clearly demonstrated particularly in the absence of the essential conditions needed to implement successfully the soil management practices like green manure and composting to improve soil fertility including crop rotation, cover cropping and reduced tillage. Those issues beside others will be fully discussed highlighting their beneficial impact on the environmental soil characteristics. Keywords: soil fertility, organic matter, plant nutrition

  1. Seaweed - a resource for organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Rebours, Celine; Friis Pedersen, Susanne; Øvsthus, Ingunn; Roleda, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, coastal communities worldwide have been using drift seaweed as soil amendment. The fertilizing effect of composted seaweed is dependent on their biochemical composition, mineralization pattern and the synchronization of nutrients with the crops' demand. Seaweed is commercially available, and considered as a resource for organic farming.

  2. Farming like we're here to stay : the mixed farming alternative for Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Funes Monzote, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Crop-livestock, agro-diversity, mixed farming, dairy production, agro-ecological indicators, sustainability, energy efficiency, local development, Cuba Specialization, as opposed to diversification, and export orientation have been historically the basis for patterns of dependence on external inputs and centralized decision-making in the Cuban agricultural model. Low autonomy in farmers’ decision-making (centrally-planned collective farms), scarcity of production inputs and extensiv...

  3. Learning challenges in organic vegetable farming : An activity theoretical study of on-farm practices

    OpenAIRE

    SeppÀnen, Laura

    2004-01-01

    The present work is an exploratory qualitative field study applying cultural-historical activity theory to organic vegetable farming. The methodology used consists of both ethnographic field work and systematic qualitative analyses of crop rotation planning sessions and organic inspections. The findings suggest that learning in organic vegetable farming is a continuous, dynamic process. What needs to be learned is partly created by the farmers and other participants. The activity theoreti...

  4. The Use of Cover Crops as Climate-Smart Management in Midwest Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basche, A.; Miguez, F.; Archontoulis, S.; Kaspar, T.

    2014-12-01

    The observed trends in the Midwestern United States of increasing rainfall variability will likely continue into the future. Events such as individual days of heavy rain as well as seasons of floods and droughts have large impacts on agricultural productivity and the natural resource base that underpins it. Such events lead to increased soil erosion, decreased water quality and reduced corn and soybean yields. Winter cover crops offer the potential to buffer many of these impacts because they essentially double the time for a living plant to protect and improve the soil. However, at present, cover crops are infrequently utilized in the Midwest (representing 1-2% of row cropped land cover) in particular due to producer concerns over higher costs and management, limited time and winter growing conditions as well as the potential harm to corn yields. In order to expand their use, there is a need to quantify how cover crops impact Midwest cropping systems in the long term and namely to understand how to optimize the benefits of cover crops while minimizing their impacts on cash crops. We are working with APSIM, a cropping systems platform, to specifically quantify the long term future impacts of cover crop incorporation in corn-based cropping systems. In general, our regional analysis showed only minor changes to corn and soybean yields (conservation practices, including cover crops, improve the resilience of Midwest agriculture to future change. Such collaborations can help better quantify long term impacts of conservation practices on the landscape that ultimately lead to more climate-smart management of such agricultural systems.

  5. Do cover crop mixtures have the same ability to suppress weeds as competitive monoculture cover crops?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brust, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of farmers use cover crop mixtures instead of monoculture cover crops to improve soil and crop quality. However, only little information is available about the weed suppression ability of cover crop mixtures. Therefore, two field experiments were conducted in Baden-Württemberg between 2010 and 2012, to compare growth and weed suppression of monoculture cover crops and cover crop mixtures. In the first experiment, heterogeneous results between yellow mustard and the cover crop mixture occurred. For further research, a field experiment was conducted in 2012 to compare monocultures of yellow mustard and hemp with three cover crop mixtures. The evaluated mixtures were: “MELO”: for soil melioration; “BETA”: includes only plant species with no close relation to main cash crops in Central Europe and “GPS”: for usage as energy substrate in spring. Yellow mustard, MELO, BETA and GPS covered 90% of the soil in less than 42 days and were able to reduce photosynthetically active radiation (PAR on soil surface by more than 96% after 52 days. Hemp covered 90% of the soil after 47 days and reduced PAR by 91% after 52 days. Eight weeks after planting, only BETA showed similar growth to yellow mustard which produced the highest dry matter. The GPS mixture had comparatively poor growth, while MELO produced similar dry matter to hemp. Yellow mustard, MELO and BETA reduced weed growth by 96% compared with a no cover crop control, while hemp and GPS reduced weeds by 85% and 79%. In spring, weed dry matter was reduced by more than 94% in plots with yellow mustard and all mixtures, while in hemp plots weeds were only reduced by 71%. The results suggest that the tested cover crop mixtures offer similar weed suppression ability until spring as the monoculture of the competitive yellow mustard.

  6. Financial Reporting Quality, Free Cash Flow, and Investment Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fusheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper based on the perspective of firm’s agency conflicts to examine the relationship between financial reporting quality and investment efficiency and to analyze the interaction effect between financial reporting and free cash flow on investment efficiency. We use 3,726 samples of Chinese listed firms during the period 2008–2012 to test the empirical models and find that financial reporting quality is negatively associated with both underinvestment and overinvestment. Further, we find that financial reporting quality is more strongly associated with overinvestment for firms with large free cash flow, which suggests that financial reporting quality can reduce information asymmetry arising from agency conflicts between the managers and investors. This paper extends the field of application of financial reporting quality and investment efficiency in the emerging capital markets in the world. Moreover, this is the first study that analyzes the interaction effect between financial reporting quality and free cash flow on investment efficiency.

  7. CASH-FLOW SENSITIVITY TO PAYMENTS FOR MATERIAL RESSOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Elena BRÎNDESCU OLARIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The financing decision is taken based on the expectations concerning the future cash-flows generated in the operating activity, which should provide coverage for the debt service and allow for an increase of the shareholders’ wealth. Still, the future cash-flows are affected by risk, which makes the sensitivity analysis a very important part of the decision process. The current research sets to evaluate the sensitivity of the payment capacity to variations of the payments for raw materials and consumables. The study employs 391 forecasted yearly cash-flow statements collected from 50 companies together with detailed information concerning the hypotheses of the forecasts. The results of the study allow for the establishment of benchmarks for the payment capacity’s sensitivity, the determination of the mechanisms through which the variation of payments for raw materials and consumables impacts the payment capacity, as well as the identification of the possible causes of such a variation.

  8. Do Firms Announcing Cash Refund Capital Reductions have Investment Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Yin Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cash refund capital reduction is a unique financial tool used by listed firms in Taiwan. This study investigates announcements of cash refund capital reductions to explore two topics. First, we examine the short-term, mid-term, and long-term buy-and-hold excess returns after the announcement. The results indicate that no excess returns are seen in the short and midterm,whereas long-term excess returns are positive and statistically significant. Second, we investigate the critical determinants of long-term excess return. The findings suggest that if a firm announces a cash refund capital reduction becomes more attractive to investors, the firm shall accompany with reduced firm size, reduced capital expenditure ratio, and improved return on equity (ROE and an increased debt ratio.

  9. Day care schemes and cash for-care at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eydal, Gudny; Rostgaard, Tine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to analyse and compare Nordic day-care policies, i.e. ECEC services as well as cash-for-care for children under school age. The chapter examines the legislative purpose behind the provision of the services and the cash benefits as well as the take-up rates. The review...... of day-care will also look at how the programmes are organised and funded, and at the quality indicators of the care provided. In this context, the Nordic countries will be compared with the EU average. The review of cash-for-care will assess the key elements of the programmes: the length of time...

  10. Evaluation energy balance of canola production under rain fed farming in north of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Azarpour

    2012-01-01

    Energy in agriculture is important in terms of crop production and agro processing for value adding. Canola is one of important rapeseed that it is tilled in dry farming systems in north of Iran. This method in an agricultural product system is the energy consuming in product operations and energy saving in produced crops. In this article, evaluation of energy indices under rain fed farming canola in north of Iran (Guilan province) was investigated. Data were collected from 72 farms by used a...

  11. EFFICIENCY OF PRODUCTION ON ARABLE LAND IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Moudry, Jan; Sramek, J; P. Konvalina; Moudry, J.; Kopta, D.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most evident difference between conventional and organic farming is yield height. Differences predominantly depend on the crop species and the major drop in yield when organic farming comes in the period of conversion, lower variability feature low-input species. Combination of factors defines overall yield distinction between conventionally and organically grown crops. Even if the organic farming reaches lower yields, differences in costs and prices of products have very strong po...

  12. Dry Rea Oasis Soil Sour Akalinity to Farm Crop Yield Influence Research——Shanshan County in XinJiang is example%干旱区绿洲土壤酸碱度对作物产量影响研究——以鄯善县为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙塔尔·司马义

    2011-01-01

    In the soil attribute sour akalinity most influence soil produce,nutrient utilization,plant of distribute etc..To research and contrast pass examination Shanshan county oasis soil sour akalinity and the main farm crop yield.Soil experiment data analysis manifestation that: 1)The soil present an alkalescence,dissimilarity of the soil layer 0~10 cm10~30 cm30~50 cm become alkalinity with deeper in size.2)Demand use great deal of organic fertility in the meantime,use acidity fertilizer,combine with times and deep method.The characteristic of and soil property,farm crop and reasonable apply fertilizer to combine.%土壤属性中酸碱性最为影响到土壤产力、养分利用率、植物的分布等.通过检验鄯善县绿洲土壤酸碱性与主要农作物产量做初步对比研究.土壤实验数据分析显示:1)土壤呈碱性,不同剖面0~10cm〈10~30cm〈30~50cm的碱度依次增大.2)需要大量施用有机肥的同时,要用酸性肥料并分次、多施、深施方法.土壤性质、作物的营养特性与合理施肥相结合.

  13. Soil Water Improvements with the Long Term Use of a Winter Rye Cover Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basche, A.; Kaspar, T.; Archontoulis, S.; Jaynes, D. B.; Sauer, T. J.; Parkin, T.; Miguez, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Midwestern United States, a region that produces one-third of maize and one-quarter of soybeans globally, is projected to experience increasing rainfall variability with future climate change. One approach to mitigate climate impacts is to utilize crop and soil management practices that enhance soil water storage, reducing the risks of flooding and runoff as well as drought-induced crop water stress. While some research indicates that a winter cover crop in a maize-soybean rotation increases soil water, producers continue to be concerned that water use by cover crops will reduce water for a following cash crop. We analyzed continuous in-field soil moisture measurements over from 2008-2014 at a Central Iowa research site that has included a winter rye cover crop in a maize-soybean rotation for thirteen years. This period of study included years in the top third of wettest years on record (2008, 2010, 2014) as well as years in the bottom third of driest years (2012, 2013). We found the cover crop treatment to have significantly higher soil water storage from 2012-2014 when compared to the no cover crop treatment and in most years greater soil water content later in the growing season when a cover crop was present. We further found that the winter rye cover crop significantly increased the field capacity water content and plant available water compared to the no cover crop treatment. Finally, in 2012 and 2013, we measured maize and soybean biomass every 2-3 weeks and did not see treatment differences in crop growth, leaf area or nitrogen uptake. Final crop yields were not statistically different between the cover and no cover crop treatment in any of the years of this analysis. This research indicates that the long-term use of a winter rye cover crop can improve soil water dynamics without sacrificing cash crop growth.

  14. Cash flow accounting and the cost of debt

    OpenAIRE

    Lari Dashtbayaz, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine why firms may manipulate not just their earnings but also their cash flows, and to investigate the effects of this behaviour in debt markets with respect to the cost of debt. This research addresses current concerns about accounting rules (both GAAP and IFRS) which allow companies discretion in the presentation of their operating cash flow in financial statements. Using a sample of 8,684 UK and 23,935 USA firm-years from 1998 to 2010, the reported operating...

  15. Preparing Statement of Cash Flows from Taoist Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Je Lee; Jie He; Mei-Fen Wu; Ying-Qing Li; Ching-Ho Chen

    2013-01-01

    The preparation of cash-flow statement under the indirect method involves adjustments of many items. This is a highly complex process prone to errors, due to a lack of philosophical guidance. This paper finds that the concept of natural equilibrium of Chinese Taoism “… is the way of heaven to take from what has in excess in order to make good what is deficient...” can lend intellectual support to the preparation of cash flows statement under the indirect method. This approach will greatly enh...

  16. A tax proposal for a cash flow corporate tax

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Jerez Barroso; Joaquín Texeira Quirós

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Due to its advantages in terms of neutrality and simplicity, the aim of this paper is to design a tax base for corporation cash flows, as well as to develop its practical implementation.Design/Methodology: The conceptual aspects and the background of tax on corporation tax flows are reviewed and a tax base that levies a charge on the corporation’s economical activities’ cash flow is then proposed. In order to carry this out, a methodological procedure is developed on the basis of the...

  17. Cash-Flow-at-Risk and Debt Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Jankensgård, Håkan

    2008-01-01

    Cash Flow-at-Risk (CFaR) is a risk measure that conveys information on the shortfall in cash flow, associated with a certain probability, a firm could experience over a certain time period. However, to provide information on outcomes that are identified as costly by the risk management literature, in particular underinvestment due to financing constraints, a risk measure needs to make explicit reference to the firm’s presumed access to external sources of funding. What is called for is thus a...

  18. Do Consumers Pay More Using Debit Cards than Cash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runnemark, Emma; Hedman, Jonas; Xiao, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    consumption habits of the products. The evidence thus suggests that different representations of money matters for consumer behavior. Such results further tease out the underlying mechanism of how payment methods influence spending behavior, which poses important implications for both consumers and merchants......We conduct an incentivized experiment to study the effect of the payment method on spending. We find that the willingness to pay is higher when subjects pay with debit cards compared to cash. The result is robust to controlling for cash-on-hand constraints, spending type, price familiarity and...

  19. Effect of three farming systems (bio-dynamic, bio-organic, conventional) on yield and quality of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. var. esculenta L.) in a seven year crop rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Mäder, P.; Pfiffner, L.; Niggli, U.; Balzer, U.; Balzer, F; Plochberger, A.; Velimirov, A.; Besson, J.-M.

    1993-01-01

    In a long-term field trial in Therwil, Switzerland, the bio-dynamic, bio-organic and conventional farming systems were compared (DOC trial). The present paper focuses on long-term yield development and on product quality of beetroot. Due to the favourable climate and soil, beetroot yields were generally high. The yield of beetroot in both biological systems was about 75 % that of the conventional system, but the input of nitrogen and potassium was about 60 % lower.

  20. AN EVALUATION OF RISK MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR DAIRY FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Darrell J.; Johnson, Christian J.

    1992-01-01

    Variability in feed prices and crop yields are important sources of risk to dairy farmers. A simulation model of a representative dairy farm was used to evaluate crop insurance and hedging as risk management strategies. These strategies lowered expected net returns but also reduced risk. The preferred set of strategies at lower levels of risk aversion included hedging and crop insurance, although a base scenario in which no risk management strategies were employed was also efficient. The pref...