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Sample records for case-matched lesion approach

  1. The benefits of a laparoscopic approach in ileal pouch anal anastomosis formation: a single institutional retrospective case-matched experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, J

    2010-06-01

    A laparoscopic approach to ileoanal pouch formation is novel. By using prospectively gathered data, laparoscopic and open restorative proctocolectomy procedures in mucosal ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients were compared using a case-matched design.

  2. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Del Grande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted.

  3. Neural network approach to radiologic lesion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An area of artificial intelligence that has gained recent attention is the neural network approach to pattern recognition. The authors explore the use of neural networks in radiologic lesion detection with what is known in the literature as the novelty filter. This filter uses a linear model; images of normal patterns become training vectors and are stored as columns of a matrix. An image of an abnormal pattern is introduced and the abnormality or novelty is extracted. A VAX 750 was used to encode the novelty filter, and two experiments have been examined

  4. How to approach breast lesions in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Recognize why the diagnostic approach to the developing breast differs from that to the adult breast. • Review of embryology, early breast development, and later pubescent breast development. • Learn the spectrum of common and uncommon pediatric breast lesions. • Develop an algorithm for diagnostic evaluation and management of pediatric breast lesions. - Abstract: Assessment of a pediatric breast lesion always starts with clinical evaluation. When imaging of a pediatric breast is indicated, ultrasound is the mainstay. The vast majority of pediatric breast complaints are of benign etiology, therefore the diagnostic/management approach emphasizes “first do no harm”. Correlation with age and clinical history helps to direct diagnosis. It is essential to be familiar with the imaging appearance of the normal developing breast at various Tanner stages, in order to diagnose physiologic breast findings and to minimize unnecessary biopsies in young breasts vulnerable to injury. Normal anatomic structures, developmental conditions, benign neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions are common causes of breast complaints in children. Uncommon benign masses and rarely, secondary more than primary malignancies may present in a pediatric breast. Chest wall masses such as Ewing's sarcoma or rhabdomyosarcoma occur in children and may involve the breast via contiguous growth or locoregional metastasis. In addition, special attention should be given to any breast lesion in a child with risk factors predisposing to breast cancer, such as known extramammary malignancy, genetic mutations, prior mantle irradiation, or strong family history of breast cancer, which usually requires biopsy to exclude the possibility of malignancy. Conclusion: The developing breast is vulnerable to injury, and because breast malignancy is uncommon in children, diagnostic and management approach emphasizes “first do no harm”. Understanding normal breast development and the

  5. How to approach breast lesions in children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yiming, E-mail: yiminggao@gmail.com [New York University Langone Medical Center, 221 Lexington Ave., New York, NY 10016 (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Saksena, Mansi A.; Brachtel, Elena F.; Meulen, Deborah C. ter; Rafferty, Elizabeth A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Recognize why the diagnostic approach to the developing breast differs from that to the adult breast. • Review of embryology, early breast development, and later pubescent breast development. • Learn the spectrum of common and uncommon pediatric breast lesions. • Develop an algorithm for diagnostic evaluation and management of pediatric breast lesions. - Abstract: Assessment of a pediatric breast lesion always starts with clinical evaluation. When imaging of a pediatric breast is indicated, ultrasound is the mainstay. The vast majority of pediatric breast complaints are of benign etiology, therefore the diagnostic/management approach emphasizes “first do no harm”. Correlation with age and clinical history helps to direct diagnosis. It is essential to be familiar with the imaging appearance of the normal developing breast at various Tanner stages, in order to diagnose physiologic breast findings and to minimize unnecessary biopsies in young breasts vulnerable to injury. Normal anatomic structures, developmental conditions, benign neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions are common causes of breast complaints in children. Uncommon benign masses and rarely, secondary more than primary malignancies may present in a pediatric breast. Chest wall masses such as Ewing's sarcoma or rhabdomyosarcoma occur in children and may involve the breast via contiguous growth or locoregional metastasis. In addition, special attention should be given to any breast lesion in a child with risk factors predisposing to breast cancer, such as known extramammary malignancy, genetic mutations, prior mantle irradiation, or strong family history of breast cancer, which usually requires biopsy to exclude the possibility of malignancy. Conclusion: The developing breast is vulnerable to injury, and because breast malignancy is uncommon in children, diagnostic and management approach emphasizes “first do no harm”. Understanding normal breast development and the

  6. A conservative approach to esthetically treat stained arrested caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Angari, Sarah S; Hara, Anderson T

    2016-01-01

    Esthetic treatment of stained arrested caries lesions (ACLs) has mostly been done using invasive restorative techniques. The aim of this paper was to propose and report the efficacy of a conservative approach based on dental bleaching to esthetically treat these lesions, both experimentally (extracted teeth) and clinically. In a laboratory experiment, ten extracted human teeth with stained ACLs in either pit and fissure or smooth surface were selected and treated with 15% carbamide peroxide gel, 4 h per day, for a total of 6 days. The second part of the paper reports a clinical case of pit and fissure-stained ACLs in four posterior teeth, which were treated with 40% hydrogen peroxide in-office bleaching. Digital photographs were taken in both parts to document the efficacy of the treatment. The lesions showed noticeable increase in color lightness indicating the efficacy and suitability of the proposed approach. By using the conservative clinical technique presented, the esthetics of most stained ACLs could be improved, eliminating the need for invasive restorative treatments. PMID:27092359

  7. Nonoperative biological treatment approach for partial Achilles tendon lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filardo, Giuseppe; Presti, Mirco Lo; Kon, Elizaveta; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2010-02-01

    Tendon injuries, especially those of the Achilles tendon, are major concerns in sports medicine. The clinical presentation can be acute or chronic and the pathologic findings can range from peritendonitis to full-thickness tendon rupture. Nonsurgical treatment is not always successful; in particular, significant partial ruptures seem to respond poorly to conservative measures and do not improve with time. Surgery is most often considered the favored treatment option for this kind of lesion to obtain pain relief and full functionality with long-standing effects.This article describes a case of a partial tear of the Achilles tendon in a 34-year-old competitive athlete where surgical treatment was avoided in favor of a new biological approach. We applied autologous platelet growth factors through multiple platelet-rich plasma injections; approximately 6.5 billion platelets were injected into the lesion 3 times, 7 days apart. The treatment with platelet-rich plasma and a progressive rehabilitation program allowed the patient to play for 20 minutes in a basketball game 64 days after the trauma and in a full game 75 days after the trauma. To date, 18 months later, he has participated regularly in all the season's games and received no further treatment for his tendon.The fast tissue repair, confirmed by magnetic resonance and ultrasound imaging, allowed a swift return to full functionality and competitive sports activity, suggesting a possible role of platelet growth factors in promoting rapid tendon healing with high-quality tissue. This biological approach may represent a less-invasive therapeutic option even in cases where severe tendon lesions are candidates for surgical treatment. PMID:20192152

  8. New approach to gallbladder ultrasonic images analysis and lesions recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzioch, Sławomir; Ogiela, Marek R

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a new approach to gallbladder ultrasonic image processing and analysis towards detection of disease symptoms on processed images. First, in this paper, there is presented a new method of filtering gallbladder contours from USG images. A major stage in this filtration is to segment and section off areas occupied by the said organ. In most cases this procedure is based on filtration that plays a key role in the process of diagnosing pathological changes. Unfortunately ultrasound images present among the most troublesome methods of analysis owing to the echogenic inconsistency of structures under observation. This paper provides for an inventive algorithm for the holistic extraction of gallbladder image contours. The algorithm is based on rank filtration, as well as on the analysis of histogram sections on tested organs. The second part concerns detecting lesion symptoms of the gallbladder. Automating a process of diagnosis always comes down to developing algorithms used to analyze the object of such diagnosis and verify the occurrence of symptoms related to given affection. Usually the final stage is to make a diagnosis based on the detected symptoms. This last stage can be carried out through either dedicated expert systems or more classic pattern analysis approach like using rules to determine illness basing on detected symptoms. This paper discusses the pattern analysis algorithms for gallbladder image interpretation towards classification of the most frequent illness symptoms of this organ. PMID:19124224

  9. A Contemporary Approach to Classify Ghost Cells Comprising Oral Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sumit Kumar; Narwal, Anjali; Devi, Anju

    2015-01-01

    Ghost cells are swollen eosinophilic epithelial cells that have lost their nuclei but retain the cellular and nuclear outline. Pathologic ghost cell formation could be the process of aberrant keratinization or the result of coagulative necrosis. Ghost cells have been described in several odontogenic lesions, which include calcifying epithelial odontogenic cysts or tumours like odontomas, ameloblastic fibro-odontomas, and ameloblastomas. This article present a view on the formation of ghost cells with proposal/introduction of a classification for ghost cell lesions of the oral cavity in an attempt to organize these lesions for the better understanding and academic purpose. PMID:26501039

  10. A Contemporary Approach to Classify Ghost Cells Comprising Oral Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Achla Bharti; Yadav, Sumit Kumar; Narwal, Anjali; Devi, Anju

    2015-09-01

    Ghost cells are swollen eosinophilic epithelial cells that have lost their nuclei but retain the cellular and nuclear outline. Pathologic ghost cell formation could be the process of aberrant keratinization or the result of coagulative necrosis. Ghost cells have been described in several odontogenic lesions, which include calcifying epithelial odontogenic cysts or tumours like odontomas, ameloblastic fibro-odontomas, and ameloblastomas. This article present a view on the formation of ghost cells with proposal/introduction of a classification for ghost cell lesions of the oral cavity in an attempt to organize these lesions for the better understanding and academic purpose. PMID:26501039

  11. A pixel-based approach to massive lesion detection in X-ray mammography

    CERN Document Server

    Gori, I; Gori, Ilaria; Retico, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    A system for the automated detection of massive lesions in mammograms is presented. The approach we adopted is a pixel-based and multi-level one. Each pixel in a mammogram is flagged with the appropriate class membership, e.g. massive lesions or normal breast tissue.

  12. Multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to pancreatic cystic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clores MJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Clores, Amar Thosani, Jonathan M BuscagliaDivision of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, USAAbstract: Pancreatic cystic lesions are commonly encountered today with the routine use of cross-sectional imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The majority of patients discovered to have a pancreatic cyst are completely asymptomatic; yet the presence of such a finding instills fear in the minds of both patient and physician, as the concern for malignant transformation to pancreatic cancer is great despite the relatively low overall likelihood of cyst progression. Not all cysts in the pancreas represent pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs, and not all PCNs have significant malignant potential. Mucinous PCNs are the most concerning, as these lesions have the greatest potential for cancerous transformation to adenocarcinoma. Within the group of mucinous PCNs, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs involving the main pancreatic duct are the most worrisome, and surgical resection should be pursued if the patient has appropriate operative risks. IPMN lesions involving the branch ducts, and mucinous cystadenomas, have a lower likelihood for malignancy, and they may be closely followed for the development of any worrisome or high-risk features. Surveillance of known PCNs is performed with a combination of CT, MRI and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA may be used to assess cyst fluid cytology, and also to detect cyst fluid amylase level, carcinoembryonic antigen level, and DNA molecular analysis in certain cases. The presence or absence of specific cyst morphological features, as well as the cyst fluid analysis, is what enables the physician to guide the patient towards continued surveillance, versus the pursuit of surgical resection.Keywords: endoscopic ultrasound, EUS-guided fine

  13. Various approaches for CT-guided percutaneous biopsy of deep pelvic lesions: anatomic and technical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay; Nguyen, Huan Luong; Morello, Frank A; Ahrar, Kamran; Wallace, Michael J; Madoff, David C; Murthy, Ravi; Hicks, Marshall E

    2004-01-01

    Access route planning for computed tomography-guided biopsy of deep pelvic masses remains challenging because vital structures often obstruct the projected needle path. The classical approach through the lower anterior abdominal wall allows access to lesions located anterior, superior, or lateral to the urinary bladder. However, this approach has limitations: Deep masses are difficult to reach because of intervening structures, the bowel or bladder may be unavoidably traversed, and peritoneal transgression is often painful. A transgluteal approach is useful for biopsy of presacral and perirectal lesions and lesions located posterolateral to the bladder. An anterolateral approach through the iliopsoas muscle allows safe extraperitoneal access to external and internal iliac nodes, masses located along the lateral pelvic sidewall, and adnexal lesions. A transosseous (transsacral or transiliac) approach can occasionally be used for otherwise inaccessible lesions. Use of a curved needle, change in patient position, or injection of saline solution to displace intervening structures may also be helpful. Familiarity with normal cross-sectional pelvic anatomy facilitates planning of a safe access route and helps avoid injury to adjacent structures. A thorough understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of each approach allows the clinician to choose the most appropriate approach in a given situation. PMID:14730045

  14. Now approaches to the treatment of articular cartilage lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Coviello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various approaches to the treatment of cartilage defects have been proposed in the literature; reparative and regenerative methods and, more recently, the Maioregen technique are currently available.

  15. Treatment of Large Periapical Cyst Like Lesion: A Noninvasive Approach: A Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Nikhil; Maheshwari, Neha; Gothi, Rajat; Sood, Niti

    2015-01-01

    Periapical lesions develop as sequelae to pulp disease. Periapical radiolucent areas are generally diagnosed either during routine dental radiographic examination or following acute toothache. Various methods can be used in the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions: the conservative root canal treatment, decompression technique, active nonsurgical decompression technique, aspiration-irrigation technique, method using calcium hydroxide, lesion sterilization and repair therapy and the apexum procedure. Monitoring the healing of periapical lesions is essential through periodic follow-up examinations. The ultimate goal of endodontic therapy should be to return the involved teeth to a state of health and function without surgical intervention. All inflammatory periapical lesions should be initially treated with conservative nonsurgical procedures. Surgical intervention is recommended only after nonsurgical techniques have failed. Besides, surgery has many drawbacks, which limit its use in the management of periapical lesions. How to cite this article: Sood N, Maheshwari N, Gothi R, Sood N. Treatment of Large Periapical Cyst Like Lesion: A Noninvasive Approach: A Report of Two Cases. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):133-137. PMID:26379382

  16. Approaches to anterior and anterolateral foramen magnum lesions: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Komotar, Ricardo J.; Zacharia, Brad E.; McGovern, Robert A.; Sisti, Michael B.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Anthony L D′Ambrosio

    2010-01-01

    Foramen magnum (FM) lesions represent some of the most complex cases for the modern neurosurgeon because of their location near vital brainstem structures, the vertebral arteries, and lower cranial nerves. In particular, anterior or anterolaterally located FM tumors have traditionally been most difficult to resect with high morbidity and mortality resulting from approaches through the posterior midline or transorally. For many neurosurgeons, the far lateral, extreme lateral approach, and more...

  17. Endoscopic endonasal skull base approach for parasellar lesions: Initial experiences, results, efficacy, and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigetoshi Yano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endoscopic surgery is suitable for the transsphenoidal approach; it is minimally invasive and provides a well-lit operative field. The endoscopic skull base approach through the large opening of the sphenoid sinus through both nostrils has extended the surgical indication for various skull base lesions. In this study, we describe the efficacy and complications associated with the endoscopic skull base approach for extra- or intradural parasellar lesions based on our experiences. Methods: Seventy-four cases were treated by an endoscopic skull base approach. The indications for these procedures included 55 anterior extended approaches, 10 clival approaches, and 9 cavernous approaches. The operations were performed through both the nostrils using a rigid endoscope. After tumor removal, the skull base was reconstructed by a multilayered method using a polyglactin acid (PGA sheet. Results: Gross total resection was achieved in 82% of pituitary adenomas, 68.8% of meningiomas, and 60% of craniopharyngiomas in anterior extended approach and in 83.3% of chordomas in clival approach, but only in 50% of the tumors in cavernous approach. Tumor consistency, adhesion, and/or extension were significant limitations. Visual function improvements were achieved in 37 of 41 (90.2% cases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leakage (9.5%, infections (5.4%, neural injuries (4.1%, and vascular injuries (2.7% were the major complications. Conclusions: Our experiences show that the endoscopic skull base approach is a safe and effective procedure for various parasellar lesions. Selection of patients who are unlikely to develop complications seems to be an important factor for procedure efficacy and good outcome.

  18. Update on nonsurgical, ultraconservative approaches to treat effectively non-cavitated caries lesions in permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra; de Souza Borges, Juliane; de Araujo, Larissa Sgarbosa Napoleao; Machado, Claudia Tavares; Dos Santos, Alex Jose Souza; de Assunçao Pinheiro, Isauremi Vieira

    2011-04-01

    Dental caries on tooth surfaces is still a problem in many industrialized countries. For many years, dentistry was influenced by a mechanical approach characterized by the use of high-speed rotary cutting instruments, and dentists predominantly used surgical methods to address caries. This included radical removal of diseased portions of the tooth, along with material-driven geometric extensions to areas that were assumed to be caries-resistant. This concept of extension for prevention was introduced by G. V. Black and influenced dentists for more than 120 years. Recently, a new paradigm of operative conservatism, sometimes referred to as "minimally invasive dentistry," has gained popularity. This paradigm is designed to promote maximum preservation of healthy dental structures over a lifetime. The aim of this review is to discuss the efficacy of current nonsurgical treatments for non-cavitated caries lesions in permanent teeth. Based on results obtained from clinical trials, this review evaluates treatments such as consumption of CPP-ACP added gums, resin infiltration and fissure sealing. Although in a few cases an invasive approach is needed to arrest caries progression, the non-surgical approach generally provides potential benefits that include conserving structure by delaying intervention or minimizing the operative procedure. All current non-invasive methods are effective in treating non-cavitated caries lesions. The adoption of non-invasive approaches in the management of these lesions can preserve dental tissues, thus increasing tooth longevity. PMID:21494394

  19. A white matter lesion-filling approach to improve brain tissue volume measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Valverde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis white matter (WM lesions can affect brain tissue volume measurements of voxel-wise segmentation methods if these lesions are included in the segmentation process. Several authors have presented different techniques to improve brain tissue volume estimations by filling WM lesions before segmentation with intensities similar to those of WM. Here, we propose a new method to refill WM lesions, where contrary to similar approaches, lesion voxel intensities are replaced by random values of a normal distribution generated from the mean WM signal intensity of each two-dimensional slice. We test the performance of our method by estimating the deviation in tissue volume between a set of 30 T1-w 1.5 T and 30 T1-w 3 T images of healthy subjects and the same images where: WM lesions have been previously registered and afterwards replaced their voxel intensities to those between gray matter (GM and WM tissue. Tissue volume is computed independently using FAST and SPM8. When compared with the state-of-the-art methods, on 1.5 T data our method yields the lowest deviation in WM between original and filled images, independently of the segmentation method used. It also performs the lowest differences in GM when FAST is used and equals to the best method when SPM8 is employed. On 3 T data, our method also outperforms the state-of-the-art methods when FAST is used while performs similar to the best method when SPM8 is used. The proposed technique is currently available to researchers as a stand-alone program and as an SPM extension.

  20. Evaluation of orofacial lesions relating child abuse, Esfahan, Iran: A quantitative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Firoozeh Nilchian; Leyli Sadri; Seyed Ebrahim Jabbarifar; Alireza Saeidi; Leila Arbab

    2012-01-01

    Background: Family violence, including child abuse, neglect, and domestic violence, is a public health problem. The aim of this study was to provide data on prevalence and factors of Orofacial lesions relating child abuse in Iran to lend evidence to support preventing child abuse. Materials and Methods: The overall approach was a case-note review of children having child abuse note, recording by personnel of social services. Research ethical approval was sought from the Central social serv...

  1. Large central lesions compressing the hypothalamus and brainstem. Operative approaches and combination treatment with radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major aim of minimally invasive neurosurgery is to preserve function in the brain and cranial nerves. Based on previous results of radiosurgery for central lesions (19 craniopharyngiomas, 46 pituitary adenomas, 9 meningeal tumors), combined micro- and/or radiosurgery was applied for large lesions compressing the hypothalamus and/or brainstem. A basal interhemispheric approach via superomedial orbitotomy or a transcallosal-transforaminal approach was used for these large tumors. Tumors left behind in the hypothalamus or cavernous sinus were treated with radiosurgery using a gamma unit. Preoperative hypothalamo-pituitary functions were preserved in most of these patients. Radiosurgical results were evaluated in patients followed for more than 2 years after treatment. All 9 craniopharyngiomas decreased in size after radiosurgery, although a second treatment was required in 4 patients. All 20 pituitary adenomas were stable or decreased in size and 5 of 7 functioning adenomas showed normalized values of hormones in the serum. All 3 meningeal tumors were stable or decreased in size after treatment. No cavernous sinus symptoms developed after radiosurgery. We conclude that combined micro- and radio-neurosurgery is an effective and less invasive treatment for large central lesions compressing the hypothalamus and brainstem. (author)

  2. Fast approach to evaluate MAP reconstruction for lesion detection and localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesion detection is an important task in emission tomography. Localization ROC (LROC) studies are often used to analyze the lesion detection and localization performance. Most researchers rely on Monte Carlo reconstruction samples to obtain LROC curves, which can be very time-consuming for iterative algorithms. In this paper we develop a fast approach to obtain LROC curves that does not require Monte Carlo reconstructions. We use a channelized Hotelling observer model to search for lesions, and the results can be easily extended to other numerical observers. We theoretically analyzed the mean and covariance of the observer output. Assuming the observer outputs are multivariate Gaussian random variables, an LROC curve can be directly generated by integrating the conditional probability density functions. The high-dimensional integrals are calculated using a Monte Carlo method. The proposed approach is very fast because no iterative reconstruction is involved. Computer simulations show that the results of the proposed method match well with those obtained using the tradition LROC analysis

  3. Approaches to anterior and anterolateral foramen magnum lesions: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J Komotar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Foramen magnum (FM lesions represent some of the most complex cases for the modern neurosurgeon because of their location near vital brainstem structures, the vertebral arteries, and lower cranial nerves. In particular, anterior or anterolaterally located FM tumors have traditionally been most difficult to resect with high morbidity and mortality resulting from approaches through the posterior midline or transorally. For many neurosurgeons, the far lateral, extreme lateral approach, and more recently, endoscopic endonasal approaches have become the preferred modern methods for the resection of anterior or anterolateral FM tumors. In this review, we examine both operative and non-operative approaches to FM tumors, including surgical anatomy, surgical technique, and indications for operative intervention in these complex cases. In addition, we compared outcomes from prior series.

  4. IMPST: A New Interactive Self-Training Approach to Segmentation Suspicious Lesions in Breast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Reza; Norozi, Narges; Anbiaee, Robab; Salehi, Leila; Amirzadi, Azardokht

    2011-05-01

    Breast lesion segmentation in magnetic resonance (MR) images is one of the most important parts of clinical diagnostic tools. Pixel classification methods have been frequently used in image segmentation with two supervised and unsupervised approaches up to now. Supervised segmentation methods lead to high accuracy, but they need a large amount of labeled data, which is hard, expensive, and slow to be obtained. On the other hand, unsupervised segmentation methods need no prior knowledge and lead to low performance. However, semi-supervised learning which uses not only a few labeled data, but also a large amount of unlabeled data promises higher accuracy with less effort. In this paper, we propose a new interactive semi-supervised approach to segmentation of suspicious lesions in breast MRI. Using a suitable classifier in this approach has an important role in its performance; in this paper, we present a semi-supervised algorithm improved self-training (IMPST) which is an improved version of self-training method and increase segmentation accuracy. Experimental results show that performance of segmentation in this approach is higher than supervised and unsupervised methods such as K nearest neighbors, Bayesian, Support Vector Machine, and Fuzzy c-Means. PMID:22606669

  5. Mineralization of Early Stage Carious Lesions In Vitro—A Quantitative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Deyhle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Micro computed tomography has been combined with dedicated data analysis for the in vitro quantification of sub-surface enamel lesion mineralization. Two artificial white spot lesions, generated on a human molar crown in vitro, were examined. One lesion was treated with a self-assembling peptide intended to trigger nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystals. We non-destructively determined the local X-ray attenuation within the specimens before and after treatment. The three-dimensional data was rigidly registered. Three interpolation methods, i.e., nearest neighbor, tri-linear, and tri-cubic interpolation were evaluated. The mineralization of the affected regions was quantified via joint histogram analysis, i.e., a voxel-by-voxel comparison of the tomography data before and after mineralization. After ten days incubation, the mean mineralization coefficient reached 35.5% for the peptide-treated specimen compared to 11.5% for the control. This pilot study does not give any evidence for the efficacy of peptide treatment nor allows estimating the necessary number of specimens to achieve significance, but shows a sound methodological approach on the basis of the joint histogram analysis.

  6. Various Tumor-Mimicking Lesions in the Musculoskeletal System: Causes and Diagnostic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sue Yon; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Jin, Wook; Park, So Young

    2011-01-01

    Tumor-mimicking lesions in the musculoskeletal system can be defined as lesions mistaken as tumors due to the presence of palpation upon physical examination or a tumor-like appearance upon radiological examination. Moreover, tumor-mimicking lesions show diverse etiologies and anatomic locations. We illustrated the various tumor-mimicking lesions involving bone and soft tissue. In this review, the tumor-mimicking lesions were classified into those based on clinical examination and those based...

  7. Step by step approach to rare breast lesions containing spindle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Betül; Erdoğan, Gülgün; Karaveli, Fatma Şeyda

    2015-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of spindle cell lesions of breast is challenging for certain reasons. The most important reason is the presence of cytological atypia and mitosis in all three conditions: reactive, benign, and malignant. Patients diagnosed with benign and malignant tumor/tumor-like lesions that had spindle cell components following the histopathological examination were included in the study. The patients' medical records were accessed to obtain the clinical history, follow-up notes, and radiological findings. Following histopathological, immunohistochemical, and clinical evaluations, the patients were diagnosed as follows: pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH), bilateral desmoid-type fibromatosis (FM), adenomyoepithelioma (AME), myofibroblastoma (MFB), malignant phyllodes tumor (MF), high-grade AS, post-chemotherapy osteosarcoma (OS) + Paget's disease, and metaplastic carcinoma (MC). An algorithmic approach should be used in the diagnosis; cellular structure, presence and grade of atypia, growth pattern, mitotic activity, immunohistochemical staining, and clinical and radiological features should be evaluated together. Detection of some molecular changes can be useful in differential diagnosis. PMID:26558181

  8. Treatment of Large Periapical Cyst Like Lesion: A Noninvasive Approach: A Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Nikhil; Maheshwari, Neha; Gothi, Rajat; Sood, Niti

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Periapical lesions develop as sequelae to pulp disease. Periapical radiolucent areas are generally diagnosed either during routine dental radiographic examination or following acute toothache. Various methods can be used in the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions: the conservative root canal treatment, decompression technique, active nonsurgical decompression technique, aspiration-irrigation technique, method using calcium hydroxide, lesion sterilization and repair therapy a...

  9. An Approach for registration method to find corresponding mass lesions in temporal mammogram pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay

    2010-01-01

    Radiologists generally use multiple mammographic views to detect and characterize suspiciousregions. When radiologists discover a suspicious lesion in one view, they try to find a corresponding lesion in the other views. Views from different projections, typically cranio caudal (CC) and medio lateral oblique (MLO) views, allow for a better realization of the lesion. Most current computer aided detection (CAD) systems differ considerably from radiologists in the way they use multiple views. Th...

  10. Mineralization of Early Stage Carious Lesions In Vitro—A Quantitative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Deyhle; Iwona Dziadowiec; Lucy Kind; Peter Thalmann; Georg Schulz; Bert Müller

    2015-01-01

    Micro computed tomography has been combined with dedicated data analysis for the in vitro quantification of sub-surface enamel lesion mineralization. Two artificial white spot lesions, generated on a human molar crown in vitro, were examined. One lesion was treated with a self-assembling peptide intended to trigger nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystals. We non-destructively determined the local X-ray attenuation within the specimens before and after treatment. The three-dimensional data was r...

  11. Simultaneously anterior decompression and posterior instrumentation by extrapleural retroperitoneal approach in thoracolumbar lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Anil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anterior decompression with posterior instrumentation when indicated in thoracolumbar spinal lesions if performed simultaneously in single-stage expedites rehabilitation and recovery. Transthoracic, transdiaphragmatic approach to access the thoracolumbar junction is associated with significant morbidity, as it violates thoracic cavity; requires cutting of diaphragm and a separate approach, for posterior instrumentation. We evaluated the clinical outcome morbidity and feasibility of extrapleural retroperitoneal approach to perform anterior decompression and posterior instrumentation simultaneously by single "T" incision outcome in thoracolumbar spinal trauma and tuberculosis. Patients and Methods: Forty-eight cases of tubercular spine (n = 25 and fracture of the spine (n = 23 were included in the study of which 29 were male and 19 female. The mean age of patients was 29.1 years. All patients underwent single-stage anterior decompression, fusion, and posterior instrumentation (except two old traumatic cases via extrapleural retroperitoneal approach by single "T" incision. Tuberculosis cases were operated in lateral position as they were stabilized with Hartshill instrumentation. For traumatic spine initially posterior pedicle screw fixation was performed in prone position and then turned to right lateral position for anterior decompression by same incision and approach. They were evaluated for blood loss, duration of surgery, superficial and deep infection of incision site, flap necrosis, correction of the kyphotic deformity, and restoration of anterior and posterior vertebral body height. Results: In traumatic spine group the mean duration of surgery was 269 minutes (range 215-315 minutes including the change over time from prone to lateral position. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 918 ml (range 550-1100 ml. The preoperative mean ASIA motor, pin prick and light touch score improved from 63.3 to 74.4, 86 to 94.4 and 86 to 96 at

  12. Universal and language-specific sublexical cues in speech perception: a novel electroencephalography-lesion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrig, Hellmuth; Mentzel, Julia; Rossi, Sonja

    2016-06-01

    SEE CAPPA DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW090 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE  : The phonological structure of speech supports the highly automatic mapping of sound to meaning. While it is uncontroversial that phonotactic knowledge acts upon lexical access, it is unclear at what stage these combinatorial rules, governing phonological well-formedness in a given language, shape speech comprehension. Moreover few studies have investigated the neuronal network affording this important step in speech comprehension. Therefore we asked 70 participants-half of whom suffered from a chronic left hemispheric lesion-to listen to 252 different monosyllabic pseudowords. The material models universal preferences of phonotactic well-formedness by including naturally spoken pseudowords and digitally reversed exemplars. The latter partially violate phonological structure of all human speech and are rich in universally dispreferred phoneme sequences while preserving basic auditory parameters. Language-specific constraints were modelled in that half of the naturally spoken pseudowords complied with the phonotactics of the native language of the monolingual participants (German) while the other half did not. To ensure universal well-formedness and naturalness, the latter stimuli comply with Slovak phonotactics and all stimuli were produced by an early bilingual speaker. To maximally attenuate lexico-semantic influences, transparent pseudowords were avoided and participants had to detect immediate repetitions, a task orthogonal to the contrasts of interest. The results show that phonological 'well-formedness' modulates implicit processing of speech at different levels: universally dispreferred phonological structure elicits early, medium and late latency differences in the evoked potential. On the contrary, the language-specific phonotactic contrast selectively modulates a medium latency component of the event-related potentials around 400 ms. Using a novel event-related potential-lesion

  13. Automated segmentation of MS lesions in FLAIR, DIR and T2-w MR images via an information theoretic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason E.; Matlock, Kevin; Pal, Ranadip; Nutter, Brian; Mitra, Sunanda

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a vital tool in the diagnosis and characterization of multiple sclerosis (MS). MS lesions can be imaged with relatively high contrast using either Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) or Double Inversion Recovery (DIR). Automated segmentation and accurate tracking of MS lesions from MRI remains a challenging problem. Here, an information theoretic approach to cluster the voxels in pseudo-colorized multispectral MR data (FLAIR, DIR, T2-weighted) is utilized to automatically segment MS lesions of various sizes and noise levels. The Improved Jump Method (IJM) clustering, assisted by edge suppression, is applied to the segmentation of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and MS lesions, if present, into a subset of slices determined to be the best MS lesion candidates via Otsu's method. From this preliminary clustering, the modal data values for the tissues can be determined. A Euclidean distance is then used to estimate the fuzzy memberships of each brain voxel for all tissue types and their 50/50 partial volumes. From these estimates, binary discrete and fuzzy MS lesion masks are constructed. Validation is provided by using three synthetic MS lesions brains (mild, moderate and severe) with labeled ground truths. The MS lesions of mild, moderate and severe designations were detected with a sensitivity of 83.2%, and 88.5%, and 94.5%, and with the corresponding Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 0.7098, 0.8739, and 0.8266, respectively. The effect of MRI noise is also examined by simulated noise and the application of a bilateral filter in preprocessing.

  14. To fine needle aspiration or not? An endosonographer's approach to pancreatic cystic lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.Y.-K. But (David Yiu-Kuen); J.-W. Poley Dr (Jan-Werner)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractEndoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an established diagnostic tool in the management of pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs). Due to the proximity to the target lesion, the fine diagnostic needle travels through only minimal normal tissues. The risks of bleedin

  15. Evaluation of orofacial lesions relating child abuse, Esfahan, Iran: A quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Nilchian

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Preliminary data suggest that there are strong evidence regarding the incidence of child abuse relating orofacial lesions which dentists should be aware of them. Future trials may draw on these useful baseline data to help their study design.

  16. Minilaparoscopic-assisted transvaginal approach in benign liver lesions Abordaje transvaginal asistido por minilaparoscopia en lesiones benignas del hígado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Castro-Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to report two benign liver lesions treatment under minilaparoscopic-assisted transvaginal approach. Patients and methods: females, 44 and 45 years old, respectively, were treated. Patient 1 showed a 1,2 cm Ø tumor located in the left liver lobe. In preoperative studies was not possible to discern the etiology, for what was decided surgical treatment. The patient 2 showed a symptomatic liver simple cyst, 8 cm Ø, located in the subsegment VI. She refused percutaneous treatment, it was recommended surgical treatment under general anesthesia. The surgical intervention offered was either the laparoscopic or the transvaginal approach, but this latter was accepted. Pneumoperitoneum with 15 mmHg was used. Two small trocars were inserted into the abdomen. The first one (5 mm Ø at the umbilical region, the second one (3 mm Ø near the lesion. One trocar 11 mm Ø, was placed in the posterior cul-de-sac. In patient 1 a large dissector was introduced adjacent to the trocar. In the patient 2, one second trocar 5 mm Ø was introduced in vagina for operative instruments. Both specimens were extracted through the vagina, protected in extractor bags. Variables studied: operating room time; analgesia required and post-operative complications. Results: the operating room times were 51 and 73 min, respectively. Only the patient with hepatic liver cyst required post-operative analgesia for pain at the right upper quadrant. Both patients were discharged before 24 hours. No postsurgical complications were found in the 6 months follow up. Conclusions: using transvaginal approach assisted with minilaparoscopy was possible to carry out surgical treatment in benign and non complex liver lesions located in outlying subsegments. It is a safe method with better aesthetic result than laparoscopic surgery. Nevertheless, will be necessary future studies that demonstrate the advantages of this approach in the hepatic lesions.Objetivo: reportar dos casos de lesiones

  17. Lesion detection in demoscopy images with novel density-based and active contour approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Sirakov Nikolay; Mete Mutlu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Automated assessment tools for dermoscopy images have become an important field of research mainly because of inter- and intra-observer variations in human interpretation. One of the most important steps in dermoscopy image analysis is the detection of lesion borders, since many other features, such as asymmetry, border irregularity, and abrupt border cutof...

  18. LESIONS OF THE MANDIBLE - A PATTERN BASED APPROACH TO DIAGNOSIS BY OPG

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Govind; Rajani Anil

    2015-01-01

    The present study of 95 orthopentograms focused on importance of OPG as a first line of investigation in the diagnosis of mandibular lesions and establish its role beyond doubt in some the conditions due to its pathognomonic appearance. It also narrows down the list of differential diagnosis. INTRODUCTION Mandibular lesions cause a variety of problems ranging from swelling, tooth mobility, displacement of adjacent teeth, mild sensitivity, root deformation of developin...

  19. Mass lesions in chronic pancreatitis: benign or malignant? An "evidence-based practice" approach.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gerstenmaier, Jan F

    2012-02-01

    The diagnosis of a pancreatic mass lesion in the presence of chronic pancreatitis can be extremely challenging. At the same time, a high level of certainty about the diagnosis is necessary for appropriate management planning. The aim of this study was to establish current best evidence about which imaging methods reliably differentiate a benign from a malignant lesion, and show how that evidence is best applied. A diagnostic algorithm based on Bayesian analysis is proposed.

  20. An Approach for registration method to find corresponding mass lesions in temporal mammogram pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Radiologists generally use multiple mammographic views to detect and characterize suspiciousregions. When radiologists discover a suspicious lesion in one view, they try to find a corresponding lesion in the other views. Views from different projections, typically cranio caudal (CC and medio lateral oblique (MLO views, allow for a better realization of the lesion. Most current computer aided detection (CAD systems differ considerably from radiologists in the way they use multiple views. These systems do not combine information from available views but instead analyse each view separately. Given the positive effect of multiview systems on radiologists' performance we expect that fusion of information from different views will improve CAD systems as well. Such multi-view CAD programs require regional registration methods to find corresponding regions in all available views. In this paper we concentrate on developing such a method for corresponding mass lesions in prior and In other words, starting from a current image containing a mass lesion, the method aims at locating the same mass lesion in the prior image. The method was tested on a set of 412 cancer cases. In each case a malignant mass, architectural distortion or asymmetry was annotated. In 92% of these cases the candidate mass detections by CAD included the cancer regions in both views. It was found that in 82% of the cases a correct link between the true. Positive regions in both views could be established by our method.Key words: Multiple View, Computer-Aided Detection, masses, mammography

  1. LESIONS OF THE MANDIBLE - A PATTERN BASED APPROACH TO DIAGNOSIS BY OPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Govind

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study of 95 orthopentograms focused on importance of OPG as a first line of investigation in the diagnosis of mandibular lesions and establish its role beyond doubt in some the conditions due to its pathognomonic appearance. It also narrows down the list of differential diagnosis. INTRODUCTION Mandibular lesions cause a variety of problems ranging from swelling, tooth mobility, displacement of adjacent teeth, mild sensitivity, root deformation of developing permanent teeth and potential to expand the bone causing fractures. Some of these mandibular lesions are silent in their progression and pose a challenge in early diagnosis for clinicians. Radiographic characteristics such as location, margin, density, relation to tooth, along with clinical notes is the first step in interpreting mandibular pathologies. Orthopentogram is a simple, accurate and cost effective technique commonly employed for diagnosing dental and maxillofacial lesions. We retrospectively evaluated spectrum of mandibular lesions from a database of groundwork diagnostic OPGs. METHODS We reviewed a total of 2690 orthopentograms of patients with tooth ache and/or swelling, referred to the radiologist for the preliminary diagnosis. All osteolytic lesions more than 10 mm. and having characteristics of root abscess were included for evaluation. OPG taken for orthodontic work up, showing dental abscess less than 10 mm and OPG of patients with Gingival and T.M. joint pathologies were excluded. RESULTS In our study, we found 0.35% (95/2690 of patients were having a spectrum of mandibular lesions. The frequency of appearance of mandibular lesions on OPG was buccal-neoplasm>dentigerous-cysts>dental-cyst>neoplastic=traumatic-bone-cyst= osteomyelitis >kerato-cyst. The most frequent sites of these lesions were 80/103(77.6% molars, 14/103(13.6% incisors, and 9/103(8.7% angle of mandibles. No lesions were found on condyles. CONCLUSION The present study proves that OPG is a first

  2. A unified approach to combine temperature estimation and elastography for thermal lesion determination in focused ultrasound thermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao-Li; Li, Meng-Lin; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Lin, Ming-Shi; Huang, Sheng-Min; Bai, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Sonogram-based temperature estimation and elastography have both shown promise as methods of monitoring focused ultrasound (FUS) treatments to induce thermal ablation in tissue. However, each method has important limitations. Temperature estimates based on echo delays become invalid when the relationship between sound speed and temperature is nonlinear, and are further complicated by thermal expansion and other changes in tissue. Elastography can track thermal lesion formation over a wider range of elasticity, but with low specificity and high noise. Furthermore, this method is poor at small lesion detection. This study proposes integrating the two estimates to improve the quality of monitoring FUS-induced thermal lesions. Our unified computational kernel is tested on three types of phantoms. Experiments with type I and type II phantoms were conducted to calibrate the thermal mapping and elastography methods, respectively. The optimal settings were then used in experiments with the type III phantom, which contains ex vivo swine liver tissue. Three different spatial-peak temporal-average intensities (Ispta; 35, 133 and 240 W cm-2) were delivered with a sonication time of 60 s. The new procedure can closely monitor heating while identifying the dimensions of the thermal lesion, and is significantly better at the latter task than either approach alone. This work may help improve the current clinical practice, which employs sonograms to guide the FUS-induced thermal ablation procedure.

  3. A unified approach to combine temperature estimation and elastography for thermal lesion determination in focused ultrasound thermal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonogram-based temperature estimation and elastography have both shown promise as methods of monitoring focused ultrasound (FUS) treatments to induce thermal ablation in tissue. However, each method has important limitations. Temperature estimates based on echo delays become invalid when the relationship between sound speed and temperature is nonlinear, and are further complicated by thermal expansion and other changes in tissue. Elastography can track thermal lesion formation over a wider range of elasticity, but with low specificity and high noise. Furthermore, this method is poor at small lesion detection. This study proposes integrating the two estimates to improve the quality of monitoring FUS-induced thermal lesions. Our unified computational kernel is tested on three types of phantoms. Experiments with type I and type II phantoms were conducted to calibrate the thermal mapping and elastography methods, respectively. The optimal settings were then used in experiments with the type III phantom, which contains ex vivo swine liver tissue. Three different spatial-peak temporal-average intensities (Ispta; 35, 133 and 240 W cm-2) were delivered with a sonication time of 60 s. The new procedure can closely monitor heating while identifying the dimensions of the thermal lesion, and is significantly better at the latter task than either approach alone. This work may help improve the current clinical practice, which employs sonograms to guide the FUS-induced thermal ablation procedure.

  4. Stem cell therapy: A novel treatment approach for oral mucosal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N Suma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have enormous potential to alleviate sufferings of many diseases that currently have no effective therapy. The research in this field is growing at an exponential rate. Stem cells are master cells that have specialized capability for self-renewal, potency and capability to differentiate to many cell types. At present, the adult mesenchymal stem cells are being used in the head and neck region for orofacial regeneration (including enamel, dentin, pulp and alveolar bone in lieu of their proliferative and regenerative properties, their use in the treatment of oral mucosal lesions is still in budding stages. Moreover, there is scanty literature available regarding role of stem cell therapy in the treatment of commonly seen oral mucosal lesions like oral submucous fibrosis, oral lichen planus, oral ulcers and oral mucositis. The present review will focus on the current knowledge about the role of stem cell therapies in oral mucosal lesions and could facilitate new advancements in this area (articles were obtained from electronic media like PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane and Medline etc., from year 2000 to 2014 to review the role of stem cell therapy in oral mucosal lesions.

  5. Stem cell therapy: A novel treatment approach for oral mucosal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, G N; Arora, Madhu Pruthi; Lakhanpal, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells have enormous potential to alleviate sufferings of many diseases that currently have no effective therapy. The research in this field is growing at an exponential rate. Stem cells are master cells that have specialized capability for self-renewal, potency and capability to differentiate to many cell types. At present, the adult mesenchymal stem cells are being used in the head and neck region for orofacial regeneration (including enamel, dentin, pulp and alveolar bone) in lieu of their proliferative and regenerative properties, their use in the treatment of oral mucosal lesions is still in budding stages. Moreover, there is scanty literature available regarding role of stem cell therapy in the treatment of commonly seen oral mucosal lesions like oral submucous fibrosis, oral lichen planus, oral ulcers and oral mucositis. The present review will focus on the current knowledge about the role of stem cell therapies in oral mucosal lesions and could facilitate new advancements in this area (articles were obtained from electronic media like PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane and Medline etc., from year 2000 to 2014 to review the role of stem cell therapy in oral mucosal lesions). PMID:25709329

  6. An Optimized Clustering Approach for Automated Detection of White Matter Lesions in MRI Brain Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anitha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Settings White Matter lesions (WMLs are small areas of dead cells found in parts of the brain. In general, it is difficult for medical experts to accurately quantify the WMLs due to decreased contrast between White Matter (WM and Grey Matter (GM. The aim of this paper is to
    automatically detect the White Matter Lesions which is present in the brains of elderly people. WML detection process includes the following stages: 1. Image preprocessing, 2. Clustering (Fuzzy c-means clustering, Geostatistical Possibilistic clustering and Geostatistical Fuzzy clustering and 3.Optimization using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. The proposed system is tested on a database of 208 MRI images. GFCM yields high sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 94% and overall accuracy of 93% over FCM and GPC. The clustered brain images are then subjected to Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. The optimized result obtained from GFCM-PSO provides sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 94% and accuracy of 95%. The detection results reveals that GFCM and GFCMPSO better localizes the large regions of lesions and gives less false positive rate when compared to GPC and GPC-PSO which captures the largest loads of WMLs only in the upper ventral horns of the brain.

  7. Repair of model compounds of photoinduced lesions in DNA. Electrochemical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this work is to better understand the repair mechanism of photoinduced lesions in DNA (cyclobutane dimers and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone adducts) by photolyase redox enzymes, using tools and concepts of molecular electrochemistry. Thanks to the study of model compounds of cyclobutane lesions by cyclic voltametry, we have been able to mimic the key step of the enzymatic repair (dissociative electron transfer) and to monitor the repair of model compounds by Escherichia coli DNA photolyase. From these results, we have discussed the repair mechanism, especially the stepwise or concerted character of the process. Repair mechanism of (6-4) adducts is not known now, but a possible pathway implies an electron transfer coupled to the cleavage of two bonds in the closed form of the lesions (oxetanes). Voltammetric study of reduction and oxidation of model oxetanes and their repair by E. coli DNA photolyase gave some experimental evidence confirming the proposed mechanism and allowing a better understanding of it. (author)

  8. MR-arterioportography: A new technical approach for detection of liver lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Rennert, Ernst-Michael Jung, Andreas G Schreyer, Patrick Hoffstetter, Peter Heiss, Stefan Feuerbach, Niels Zorger

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the benefit and effectiveness of MR-arterioportography (MR-AP to achieve the highest sensitivity for detection and evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC.METHODS: Twenty liver cirrhosis patients with suspected HCC were included before transarterial chemoembolization. In all patients double-enhanced Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed. A bolus of 10 mL Magnevist® was injected through a selectively placed catheter in the superior mesenteric artery and MRI of the liver was performed in arterioportographic phase. Two independent readers evaluated number, size and localization of detected lesions. Diagnostic quality was determined using a 4-point scale. Differences were analyzed for significance using a t-test. Interobserver variability was calculated.RESULTS: In all 20 patients (100%, MR-AP was feasible. Diagnostic quality was, in all cases, between 1 and 2 for both modalities and readers. MR-AP detected significantly more lesions than double-enhanced MRI (102.5 vs 61, respectively, P < 0.0024. The inter-observer variability was 0.881 for MRI and 0.903 for MR-AP.CONCLUSION: Our study confirmed that the MR-AP as an additional modality for detection of HCC is beneficial, as significantly more lesions were detected compared to MRI with liver-specific contrast.

  9. Meatoplasty keloid: a rare lesion treated with an unusual surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, N P; Lew, K

    2006-07-01

    Keloid scarring is a benign hyperproliferation of fibrous tissue occurring at a wound healing site. Keloid formation related to the ear is generally the result of ear-piercing, mainly causing cosmetic disfigurement. We present an unusual case of keloid formation at a previous meatoplasty incision scar in a 10-year-old Caucasian with a modified radical mastoid cavity. This lesion prevented the cavity from self-cleaning and obstructed microscopic evaluation of the cavity. Treatment was successfully performed by surgical excision, with closure of the defect using supra-keloid skin flaps, followed by serial steroid injection therapy. PMID:16834807

  10. Novel Approaches for Diagnosing Melanoma Skin Lesions Through Supervised and Deep Learning Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaladha, J; Ravichandran, K S

    2016-04-01

    Dermoscopy is a technique used to capture the images of skin, and these images are useful to analyze the different types of skin diseases. Malignant melanoma is a kind of skin cancer whose severity even leads to death. Earlier detection of melanoma prevents death and the clinicians can treat the patients to increase the chances of survival. Only few machine learning algorithms are developed to detect the melanoma using its features. This paper proposes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system which equips efficient algorithms to classify and predict the melanoma. Enhancement of the images are done using Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization technique (CLAHE) and median filter. A new segmentation algorithm called Normalized Otsu's Segmentation (NOS) is implemented to segment the affected skin lesion from the normal skin, which overcomes the problem of variable illumination. Fifteen features are derived and extracted from the segmented images are fed into the proposed classification techniques like Deep Learning based Neural Networks and Hybrid Adaboost-Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms. The proposed system is tested and validated with nearly 992 images (malignant & benign lesions) and it provides a high classification accuracy of 93 %. The proposed CAD system can assist the dermatologists to confirm the decision of the diagnosis and to avoid excisional biopsies. PMID:26872778

  11. Cutaneous metastasis of unknown primary presenting as massive and invasive abdominal lesion: an elective approach*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lido, Paolo; Paolino, Giovanni; Feliziani, Andrea; Santurro, Letizia; Montuori, Mauro; de Sanctis, Flavio; Rossi, Piero; Petrella, Giuseppe; Ricciardi, Edoardo; Fusano, Giuseppe; Augusto, Orlandi; Polisca, Patrizio

    2015-01-01

    We describe herein what is to our knowledge the first reported case of an invasive cutaneous metastasis with unknown primary, electively treated solely with electrochemotherapy. We describe a female patient with a large, invasive and painful lesion in her hypogastric region, extending up to the pubic area. The cutaneous biopsy and instrumental and laboratory analyses, all failed to reveal the primary site. A final diagnosis of cutaneous metastasis with unknown primary was made and treatment was performed with electrochemotherapy. Our case highlights the importance of interdisciplinary choices in clinical practice to cope with the lack of a primary site and to improve quality of life, since no standardized therapy exists for these classes of patients. PMID:26734871

  12. Initial experience with a synthetic sealant PleuraSeal™ after pulmonary resections: a prospective study with retrospective case matched controls

    OpenAIRE

    Hennings Ellen; Lin Rong; Dango Sebastian; Passlick Bernward

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate postoperative outcome and efficacy of a hydrogel tissue sealant for prevention of alveolar leakage after open lung resections. 20 consecutive patients were enrolled in the PleuraSeal™ sealant group (PSG) and case matched with 20 retrospective controls (CG) with standard treatment. Assessment of postoperative air leakage was performed until chest tube removal. Patients were followed until 30 days after discharge. At end of surgery, 100% in t...

  13. A spectroscopic approach to imaging and quantification of cartilage lesions in human knee joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously described a technology based on diffuse reflectance of broadband light for measuring joint articular cartilage thickness, utilizing that optical absorption is different in cartilage and subchondral bone. This study is the first evaluation of the technology in human material. We also investigated the prospects of cartilage lesion imaging, with the specific aim of arthroscopic integration. Cartilage thickness was studied ex vivo in a number of sites (n = 87) on human knee joint condyles, removed from nine patients during total knee replacement surgery. A reflectance spectrum was taken at each site and the cartilage thickness was estimated using the blue, green, red and near-infrared regions of the spectrum, respectively. Estimated values were compared with reference cartilage thickness values (taken after sample slicing) using an exponential model. Two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations were performed in a theoretical analysis of the experimental results. The reference cartilage thickness of the investigated sites was 1.60 ± 1.30 mm (mean ± SD) in the range 0-4.2 mm. Highest correlation coefficients were seen for the calculations based on the near-infrared region after normalization to the red region (r = 0.86) and for the green region (r = 0.80).

  14. Diagnostic strategy and differential therapeutic approach for cystic lesions of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cystic pancreatic lesions (CPL) are diagnosed with increasing frequency. Because up to 60 % of CPL are classified as malignant or premalignant, every CPL should be fully investigated and clarified. Serous CPL with low risk of malignancy must be differentiated from mucinous CPL with relevant potential malignancy (intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm IPMN) and mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) as well as from harmless pseudocysts. Cross-sectional imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a crucial role in the diagnostics of CPL. An algorithm for the differential diagnostic classification of CPL is presented. The connection to the pancreatic duct is the key diagnostic criterion to differentiate IPMN from all other CPL. An exception to this rule is that pseudocysts can also show a connection to the pancreatic duct. A further classification of CPL with no connection to the pancreatic duct can be made by morphological criteria and correlation of the radiological findings with patient age, sex, history and symptoms. Depending on the diagnosis and hence the malignant potential the indications for surgery or watch and wait have to be discussed in an interdisciplinary cooperation. Due to its higher soft tissue contrast MRI is often superior to CT for depiction of CPL morphology. (orig.)

  15. The Petro-Occipital Trans-Sigmoid Approach for Lesions of the Jugular Foramen

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzoni, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    This study's goals were twofold: (1) to analyze the author's experience with the petro-occipital trans-sigmoid (POTS) approach for the resection of tumors arising in or adjacent to the jugular foramen, and (2) to define the anatomical sites exposed by this approach. A retrospective review was conducted of 61 patients with jugular fossa tumors that included lower cranial nerve schwannomas, paragangliomas, meningiomas, chordomas, cholesteatomas, and other benign or low-grade malignant tumors. O...

  16. The extended retrosigmoid approach for neoplastic lesions in the posterior fossa: technique modification

    OpenAIRE

    Raza, Shaan M.; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Approaches to the cerebellar-pontine angle and petroclival region can be challenging due to intervening eloquent neurovascular structures and cerebellar retraction required to view this anatomic compartment with the standard retrosigmoid technique. As previously described [11], the extended retrosigmoid provides additional access to space ventral to the brainstem through mobilization of the sigmoid sinus. We report our further experience and modifications of this approach for neoplastic patho...

  17. Application of a global proteomic approach to archival precursor lesions: deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 and tissue transglutaminase 2 are upregulated in pancreatic cancer precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Wang; Darfler, Marlene M; Alvarez, Hector;

    2008-01-01

    of invasive cancer. Biomarker discovery in precursor lesions has been hampered by the ready availability of fresh specimens, and limited yields of proteins suitable for large scale screening. METHODS: We utilized Liquid Tissue, a novel technique for protein extraction from archival formalin-fixed material...... their overexpression in IPMNs. CONCLUSION: Global proteomics analysis using the Liquid Tissue workflow is a feasible approach for unbiased biomarker discovery in limited archival material, particularly applicable to precursor lesions of cancer....

  18. Repair of model compounds of photoinduced lesions in DNA. Electrochemical approaches; Reparation de modeles de lesions photoinduites de l'ADN. Approches electrochimiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussicault, F

    2006-09-15

    The goal of this work is to better understand the repair mechanism of photoinduced lesions in DNA (cyclobutane dimers and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone adducts) by photolyase redox enzymes, using tools and concepts of molecular electrochemistry. Thanks to the study of model compounds of cyclobutane lesions by cyclic voltametry, we have been able to mimic the key step of the enzymatic repair (dissociative electron transfer) and to monitor the repair of model compounds by Escherichia coli DNA photolyase. From these results, we have discussed the repair mechanism, especially the stepwise or concerted character of the process. Repair mechanism of (6-4) adducts is not known now, but a possible pathway implies an electron transfer coupled to the cleavage of two bonds in the closed form of the lesions (oxetanes). Voltammetric study of reduction and oxidation of model oxetanes and their repair by E. coli DNA photolyase gave some experimental evidence confirming the proposed mechanism and allowing a better understanding of it. (author)

  19. [New approaches in the study of neuroplasticity process in patients with central nervous system lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernikova, L A; Kremneva, E I; Cherviakov, A V; Saenko, I V; Konovalov, R N; Piramidov, M A; Kozlovskaia, I B

    2013-01-01

    Methods which on one hand can ensure the patient's mobility and on other hand activate afferents inputs are the main in rehabilitation treatment. Recent studies has shown that plasticity is structural base of recovery after central nervous system injury. Reorganization of cortical areas and increase of preserved structures functional effectiveness (intensification afferent input) are an anatomical basis of plasticity. However, sensory correction methods, without accounting of functional condition of patients, can lead to the formation of pathological symptoms: spasticity, hyperreflexia, etc. So the main aim is to study adequate management of the neuroplasticity process. This problem cannot be solving without modern methods of neuroimaging and brain mapping. The new approach for study cortical mechanisms of neuroplasticity, responsible for locomotion, was developed in the present study. This approach is complex use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and navigation transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS). It was showed that vast fMRI activation area in the first and the second sensorimotor area emerges with passive sensorimotor paradigm using that imitate backing load during walking. The mechanical stimulator footsteps backing zones "Corvit" uses for create this paradigm, nTMS examination, which used after fMRI, help localize the motor representation of muscles which control locomotion more accurately. We guess that new approach can be used for neuroplasticity process study and assessment of neuroplasticity changes during rehabilitation for restore and correct the walking. PMID:23885553

  20. Comparison of High-Dose Proton Radiotherapy and Brachytherapy in Localized Prostate Cancer: A Case-Matched Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report a case-matched analysis comparing high-dose external-beam radiation (EBRT) for prostate cancer delivered on Proton Radiation Oncology Group (PROG) 95-09, a randomized trial, with permanent prostate brachytherapy over the same era. Methods: From 1996 to 1999, 196 patients were accrued to the high-dose arm (79.2 Gray equivalent (GyE) using photons and protons) of PROG 95-09 at the Massachusetts General Hospital and Loma Linda University Medical Center. Entry criteria specified T1–2 and prostate-specific antigen ≤15 ng/mL. When Gleason score >7 was excluded, 177 men were left for case matching. At Massachusetts General Hospital, 203 similar patients were treated by a single brachytherapist from 1997 to 2002. Minimum follow-up was 3 years. Case matching, based on T stage, Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen, and age resulted in 141 matches (282 patients). Median follow-up was 8.6 and 7.4 years for EBRT and brachytherapy, respectively. The primary endpoint was biochemical failure (BF). Results: Using the Phoenix definition, the 8-year BF rates were 7.7% and 16.1% for EBRT and brachytherapy, respectively (p = 0.42). A stratified analysis was performed by risk group. In the EBRT group, 113 and 28 patients were low and intermediate risk, respectively. In the brachytherapy group, 118 and 23 were. When stratified by risk group, the BF rates were similar by either technique. Conclusions: High-dose EBRT and brachytherapy result in similar BF rates for men with localized prostate cancer. Comparative quality-of-life and cost-effectiveness studies are warranted.

  1. Revisiting the far lateral approach in the treatment of lesions located at the craniocervical junction—Experiences from West China hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Far lateral approach is a modification of the traditional lateral suboccipital approach that provides adequate exposure of the ventral craniocervical junction. Lesions located at ventral aspect of brainstem and foramen magnum areas like the lower clivus and premedullary area, intradural segment of the vertebral artery and its branches, including the posteroinferior cerebellar artery, the lower cranial and upper cervical nerves can be accessed through far lateral exposure. Between January 2011 and June 2014, 17 patients with lesions located at the ventral aspect of brainstem and foramen magnum areas were treated in our institution using a far lateral approach. We reviewed the nature of lesions, treatment strategy and outcomes in those 17 patients with the approval of institutional review board. There were 10 female and 7 male patients with age ranging from 6 to 58. Pathological entities comprised 11 meningiomas, 2 subarachnoid cyst, 2 epidermoid cysts, 1 vertebral aneurysm and 1 brainstem glioma. All patients recovered well after surgery without severe complications. In conclusion, far lateral approach provides an optimal exposure to the ventral aspect of brainstem and foramen magnum area which is sufficient for total removal of anteriorly placed well circumscribed lesions with zero retraction of neural axis.

  2. Case-matched Comparison of Robotic Versus Laparoscopic Proctectomy for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rencuzogullari, Ahmet; Gorgun, Emre; Costedio, Meagan; Aytac, Erman; Kessler, Hermann; Abbas, Maher A; Remzi, Feza H

    2016-06-01

    The present study reports an early institutional experience with robotic proctectomy (RP) and outcome comparison with laparoscopic proctectomy (LP) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Patients who underwent either RP or LP during proctocolectomy for IBD between January 2010 and June 2014 were matched (1:1) and reviewed. Twenty-one patients undergoing RP fulfilled the study criteria and were matched with an equal number of patients who had LP. Operative time was longer (304 vs. 213 min, P=0.008) and estimated blood loss was higher in the RP group (360 vs. 188 mL, P=0.002). Conversion rates (9.5% vs. 14.3%, P>0.99), time to first bowel movement(2.29±1.53 vs. 2.79±2.26, P=0.620), and hospital length stay(7.85±6.41 vs. 9.19±7.47 d, P=0.390) were similar in both groups. No difference was noted in postoperative complications, ileal pouch to anal canal anastomosis-related outcomes, Cleveland Global Quality of Life, and Short Form-12 health survey outcomes between RP and LP. Our good results with standard laparoscopy are unlikely to be improved with robotics in proctectomy cases. Potential benefits of robotic approach for completion proctectomy warrant further investigation as experience grows with robotics. PMID:27258914

  3. Initial experience with a synthetic sealant PleuraSeal™ after pulmonary resections: a prospective study with retrospective case matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennings Ellen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate postoperative outcome and efficacy of a hydrogel tissue sealant for prevention of alveolar leakage after open lung resections. 20 consecutive patients were enrolled in the PleuraSeal™ sealant group (PSG and case matched with 20 retrospective controls (CG with standard treatment. Assessment of postoperative air leakage was performed until chest tube removal. Patients were followed until 30 days after discharge. At end of surgery, 100% in the PSG and 0% in the CG were air leak free (p The study demonstrated a superior efficacy of PleuraSeal™ sealant compared with standard surgical treatment for sustained sealing of postoperative air leakage and causes shorter air leak chest tube duration.

  4. A multidrug cocktail approach attenuates ischemic-type biliary lesions in liver transplantation from non-heart-beating donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yilei; Zhao, Longshuan; Lu, Xu

    2016-06-01

    Ischemic-type biliary lesions (ITBL) are the most troublesome biliary complication after liver transplantation (LT) from non-heart-beating donors (NHBD) and frequently result in death or re-transplantation. In transplantation process, warm ischemia (WI) in the donor, cold ischemia and reperfusion injury in the recipient altogether inducing ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is strongly associated with ITBL. This is a cascading injury process, involving in a complex series of inter-connecting events causing variety of cells activation and damage associated with the massive release of inflammatory cytokines and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These damaged cells such as sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs), Kupffer cells (KCs), hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells (BECs), coupled with immunological injury and bile salt toxicity altogether contribute to ITBL in NHBD LT. Developed therapeutic strategies to attenuate IRI are essential to improve outcome after LT. Among them, single pharmaceutical interventions blocking a specific pathway of IRI in rodent models play an absolutely dominant role, and show a beneficial effect in some given controlled experiments. But this will likely prove ineffective in complex clinical setting in which more risk parameters are involved. Therefore, we intend to design a multidrug cocktail approach to block different pathways on more than one stage (WI, cold ischemia and reperfusion) of the process of IRI-induced ITBL simultaneously. This multidrug cocktail will include six drugs containing streptokinase, epoprostenol, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), hemin and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDC). These drugs show protective effects by targeting the different key events of IRI, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrosis, anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis and reduced bile salt toxicity. Ideally, the compounds, dosage, and method of application of drugs included in cocktail should not be definitive. We can consider

  5. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  6. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyet A; Krakowski, Andrew C; Naheedy, John H; Kruk, Peter G; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2015-12-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  7. A case of secondary somatosensory epilepsy with a left deep parietal opercular lesion: successful tumor resection using a transsubcentral gyral approach during awake surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesawa, Satoshi; Fujii, Masazumi; Futamura, Miyako; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Iijima, Kentaro; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2016-03-01

    Few studies have examined the clinical characteristics of patients with lesions in the deep parietal operculum facing the sylvian fissure, the region recognized as the secondary somatosensory area (SII). Moreover, surgical approaches in this region are challenging. In this paper the authors report on a patient presenting with SII epilepsy with a tumor in the left deep parietal operculum. The patient was a 24-year-old man who suffered daily partial seizures with extremely uncomfortable dysesthesia and/or occasional pain on his right side. MRI revealed a tumor in the medial aspect of the anterior transverse parietal gyrus, surrounding the posterior insular point. Long-term video electroencephalography monitoring with scalp electrodes failed to show relevant changes to seizures. Resection with cortical and subcortical mapping under awake conditions was performed. A negative response to stimulation was observed at the subcentral gyrus during language and somatosensory tasks; thus, the transcortical approach (specifically, a transsubcentral gyral approach) was used through this region. Subcortical stimulation at the medial aspect of the anterior parietal gyrus and the posterior insula around the posterior insular point elicited strong dysesthesia and pain in his right side, similar to manifestation of his seizure. The tumor was completely removed and pathologically diagnosed as pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. His epilepsy disappeared without neurological deterioration postoperatively. In this case study, 3 points are clinically significant. First, the clinical manifestation of this case was quite rare, although still representative of SII epilepsy. Second, the location of the lesion made surgical removal challenging, and the transsubcentral gyral approach was useful when intraoperative mapping was performed during awake surgery. Third, intraoperative mapping demonstrated that the patient experienced pain with electrical stimulation around the posterior insular point

  8. Evaluation of factors influencing child abuse leading to oro-facial lesions in Isfahan, Iran: A qualitative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Firoozeh Nilchian; Seyed Ebrahim Jabbarifar; Navid Khalighinejad; Leyli Sadri; Alireza Saeidi; Leila Arbab

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since child abuse and neglect are serious conditions which can potentially lead to inappropriate dental health, we conducted this qualitative study to define the factors influencing child abuse and neglect, which lead to oro-facial lesions. Materials and Methods: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted by social services employees. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants to capture a range of experiences such as the physical abuse, sexual abuse, role ...

  9. A useful immunohistochemical approach to evaluate intraductal proliferative lesions of the breast and to predict their prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Omi, Yoko; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Okamoto, Takahiro; Obara, Takao; KOBAYASHI, MAKIO

    2011-01-01

    An examination was performed on 16 intraductal proliferative breast lesions diagnosed as intraductal papillomas (IP) or usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH), which were followed up for more than 3 years. An immunohistochemical marker panel combining myoepithelial markers, high-molecular-weight keratin (HMWK) and neuroendocrine markers was used. Two of 11 IP cases were re-evaluated as atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). These cases develo...

  10. Effectiveness of see-and-treat for approaching pre-invasive lesions of uterine cervix Efectividad del abordaje "ver y tratar" en lesiones pre-invasivas en el colon uterino Efetividade da abordagem "ver e tratar" em lesões pré-invasivas no colo uterino

    OpenAIRE

    Aparecida Cristina Sampaio Monteiro; Fábio Russomano; Aldo Reis; Maria José de Camargo; Susana Aidé Fialho; Maria Aparecida Tristão; Thiers Soares

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness between the see-and-treat (S&T) approach and the conventional one (with prior biopsy) for squamous intraepithelial lesions of uterine cervix. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 900 nonpregnant women with cytology suggestive of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2004. The S&T approach consists of a large loop excision of the transformation zone procedure and is...

  11. Cutaneous metastasis of unknown primary presenting as massive and invasive abdominal lesion: an elective approach with electrochemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lido, Paolo; Paolino, Giovanni; Feliziani, Andrea; Santurro, Letizia; Montuori, Mauro; de Sanctis, Flavio; Rossi, Piero; Petrella, Giuseppe; Ricciardi, Edoardo; Fusano, Giuseppe; Augusto, Orlandi; Polisca, Patrizio

    2015-01-01

    We describe herein what is to our knowledge the first reported case of an invasive cutaneous metastasis with unknown primary, electively treated solely with electrochemotherapy. We describe a female patient with a large, invasive and painful lesion in her hypogastric region, extending up to the pubic area. The cutaneous biopsy and instrumental and laboratory analyses, all failed to reveal the primary site. A final diagnosis of cutaneous metastasis with unknown primary was made and treatment was performed with electrochemotherapy. Our case highlights the importance of interdisciplinary choices in clinical practice to cope with the lack of a primary site and to improve quality of life, since no standardized therapy exists for these classes of patients. PMID:26734871

  12. An Improved Approach to External Beam Radiation Therapy for Intra-Abdominal Cavity Lesions for Rural Cancer Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy of abdominal lesions is problematic at best. The proximity of highly critical structures, tumor locations, and necessary margins combine to make prescription dose delivery with conventional 3-dimensional (3D) conformal techniques difficult. Others have tried to overcome these hurdles with newer modalities including intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and heavy particle irradiation. These techniques have had moderate success but are not readily available and are therefore limited in application. These factors have lead to the development of a modified, noncoplanar 4-field box technique that demonstrates significant improvement in critical structure sparing, i.e., kidney(s), bowel, and liver doses reduced while simultaneously improving isodose coverage to the target

  13. An original approach in the diagnosis of early breast cancer: use of the same radiopharmaceutical for both non-palpable lesions and sentinel node localisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose the use of a single nanocolloid tracer which is labelled with technetium-99m for simultaneous performance of ROLL and sentinel node indentification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of this approach, which should be easier and more practical than the dual-tracer injection method. We have employed this new technique in 73 patients with non-palpable, cytologically diagnosed breast cancer and non-palpable axillary lymph nodes. In all patients the radiocolloid, in a total volume of 0.3-0.4 cc, was injected under sonographic or stereotactic guidance. Half of the dose was injected intratumourally and half superficially, but very close to the tumour. Because of the slow lymphatic flow in the breast, Nanocoll must be injected some time before surgery in order to enable adequate migration to the axilla. We injected colloid in the afternoon before surgery (16-23 h before the start of the operation, with an average interval of 18 h). An average dose of 130 MBq (range 110-150) was injected in order to have about 10 MBq of radioactivity when surgery commenced. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed after 15-19 h, with an average interval of 17 h. The procedure was always successful in permitting the localisation of occult breast lesions. Lesions were always localised at the first attempt, and were always contained within the surgical margins. Histological examination revealed all 73 resected lesions to be malignant: there were 64 cases of infiltrating carcinoma and nine of intraductal carcinoma. All breast lesions were therefore confirmed to be early breast cancer. We achieved sentinel node localisation in 71 out of 73, either at scintigraphy or with the intraoperative probe; in two patients, radiopharmaceutical migration was absent. Lymphoscintigraphy showed only axillary drainage in 52 cases, only internal mammary chain (IMC) drainage in nine cases, and combined axillary and IMC drainage in eight cases. In two cases, lymphoscintigraphy suggested the

  14. Minimally invasive approach for adrenal lesions: Systematic review of laparoscopic versus retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy and assessment of risk factors for complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conzo, G; Tartaglia, E; Gambardella, C; Esposito, D; Sciascia, V; Mauriello, C; Nunziata, A; Siciliano, G; Izzo, G; Cavallo, F; Thomas, G; Musella, M; Santini, L

    2016-04-01

    In the last decades, minimally invasive transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the standard of care for surgical resection of the adrenal gland tumors. Recently, however, adrenalectomy by a mininvasive retroperitoneal approach has reached increasingly popularity as alternative technique. Short hospitalization, lower postoperative pain and decrease of complications and a better cosmetic resolution are the main advantages of these innovative techniques. In order to determine the better surgical management of adrenal neoplasms, the Authors analyzed and compared the feasibility and the postoperative complications of minimally invasive adrenalectomy approaches. A systematic research of the English literature, including major meta-analysis articles, clinical randomized trials, retrospective studies and systematic reviews was performed, comparing laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy versus retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy. Many studies support that posterior retroperitoneal adrenalectomy is superior or at least comparable to laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy in operation time, pain score, blood loss, hospitalization, complications rates and return to normal activity. However, laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy is up to now a safe and standardized procedure with a shorter learning curve and a similar low morbidity rate, even for tumors larger than 6 cm. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to objectively evaluate these techniques, excluding selection bias and bias related to differences in surgeons' experiences with this approaches. PMID:26708860

  15. Canadian Optically-guided approach for Oral Lesions Surgical (COOLS trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poh Catherine F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral cancer is a major health problem worldwide. The 5-year survival rate ranges from 30-60%, and has remained unchanged in the past few decades. This is mainly due to late diagnosis and high recurrence of the disease. Of the patients who receive treatment, up to one third suffer from a recurrence or a second primary tumor. It is apparent that one major cause of disease recurrence is clinically unrecognized field changes which extend beyond the visible tumor boundary. We have previously developed an approach using fluorescence visualization (FV technology to improve the recognition of the field at risk surrounding a visible oral cancer that needs to be removed and preliminary results have shown a significant reduction in recurrence rates. Method/Design This paper describes the study design of a randomized, multi-centre, double blind, controlled surgical trial, the COOLS trial. Nine institutions across Canada will recruit a total of 400 patients with oral severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (N = 160 and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (N = 240. Patients will be stratified by participating institution and histology grade and randomized equally into FV-guided surgery (experimental arm or white light-guided surgery (control arm. The primary endpoint is a composite of recurrence at or 1 cm within the previous surgery site with 1 the same or higher grade histology compared to the initial diagnosis (i.e., the diagnosis used for randomization; or 2 further treatment due to the presence of severe dysplasia or higher degree of change at follow-up. This is the first randomized, multi-centre trial to validate the effectiveness of the FV-guided surgery. Discussion In this paper we described the strategies, novelty, and challenges of this unique trial involving a surgical approach guided by the FV technology. The success of the trial requires training, coordination, and quality assurance across multiple sites within Canada. The COOLS

  16. Canadian Optically-guided approach for Oral Lesions Surgical (COOLS) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral cancer is a major health problem worldwide. The 5-year survival rate ranges from 30-60%, and has remained unchanged in the past few decades. This is mainly due to late diagnosis and high recurrence of the disease. Of the patients who receive treatment, up to one third suffer from a recurrence or a second primary tumor. It is apparent that one major cause of disease recurrence is clinically unrecognized field changes which extend beyond the visible tumor boundary. We have previously developed an approach using fluorescence visualization (FV) technology to improve the recognition of the field at risk surrounding a visible oral cancer that needs to be removed and preliminary results have shown a significant reduction in recurrence rates. This paper describes the study design of a randomized, multi-centre, double blind, controlled surgical trial, the COOLS trial. Nine institutions across Canada will recruit a total of 400 patients with oral severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (N = 160) and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (N = 240). Patients will be stratified by participating institution and histology grade and randomized equally into FV-guided surgery (experimental arm) or white light-guided surgery (control arm). The primary endpoint is a composite of recurrence at or 1 cm within the previous surgery site with 1) the same or higher grade histology compared to the initial diagnosis (i.e., the diagnosis used for randomization); or 2) further treatment due to the presence of severe dysplasia or higher degree of change at follow-up. This is the first randomized, multi-centre trial to validate the effectiveness of the FV-guided surgery. In this paper we described the strategies, novelty, and challenges of this unique trial involving a surgical approach guided by the FV technology. The success of the trial requires training, coordination, and quality assurance across multiple sites within Canada. The COOLS trial, an example of translational research, may result in

  17. GeneYenta: a phenotype-based rare disease case matching tool based on online dating algorithms for the acceleration of exome interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Michael M; Arenillas, David J; Maithripala, Savanie; Maurer, Zachary D; Tarailo Graovac, Maja; Armstrong, Linlea; Patel, Millan; van Karnebeek, Clara; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2015-04-01

    Advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have helped reveal causal variants for genetic diseases. In order to establish causality, it is often necessary to compare genomes of unrelated individuals with similar disease phenotypes to identify common disrupted genes. When working with cases of rare genetic disorders, finding similar individuals can be extremely difficult. We introduce a web tool, GeneYenta, which facilitates the matchmaking process, allowing clinicians to coordinate detailed comparisons for phenotypically similar cases. Importantly, the system is focused on phenotype annotation, with explicit limitations on highly confidential data that create barriers to participation. The procedure for matching of patient phenotypes, inspired by online dating services, uses an ontology-based semantic case matching algorithm with attribute weighting. We evaluate the capacity of the system using a curated reference data set and 19 clinician entered cases comparing four matching algorithms. We find that the inclusion of clinician weights can augment phenotype matching. PMID:25703386

  18. Simulation of spiculated breast lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Alrehily, Faisal; Pinto, R. Ferrari; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Wells, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Virtual clinical trials are a promising new approach increasingly used for the evaluation and comparison of breast imaging modalities. A key component in such an assessment paradigm is the use of simulated pathology, in particular, simulation of lesions. Breast mass lesions can be generally classified into two categories based on their appearance; nonspiculated masses and spiculated masses. In our previous work, we have successfully simulated non-spiculated masses using a fractal growth process known as diffusion limited aggregation. In this new work, we have extended the DLA model to simulate spiculated lesions by using features extracted from patient DBT images containing spiculated lesions. The features extracted included spicule length, width, curvature and distribution. This information was used to simulate realistic looking spicules which were attached to the surface of a DLA mass to produce a spiculated mass. A batch of simulated spiculated masses was inserted into normal patient images and presented to an experienced radiologist for review. The study yielded promising results with the radiologist rating 60% of simulated lesions in 2D and 50% of simulated lesions in DBT as realistic.

  19. STUDY OF OVARIAN LESIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarjuna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : AIM: To study ovarian lesions in paediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All cases of ovarian lesions presenting to Niloufer Hospital during the study period spanning 7 years were included in the study. All cases were clinically examined and evaluated with serum markers like α-fetoprotein and β-HCG, ultrasonography of abdomen and pelvis and contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen and pelvis. The cases were managed either conservatively or surgically depending on the diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 36 cases of ovarian lesions presented to Niloufer Hospital during the study period. The age of the patients ranged from newborn to 14 years. The most common presenting symptom was an abdominal or pelvic mass. The most common ultrasound character of the non-neoplastic ovarian lesion was cystic whereas that of a neoplastic ovarian lesion was complex or mixed. Non neoplastic lesions were present in 22 patients. Neoplastic lesions were seen in 14 patients. CONCLUSION: Physiological or functional ovarian cysts are the commonest ovarian lesions seen in the paediatric age group. Ultrasonogram is accurate and very reliable in distinguishing neoplastic from non-neoplastic and malignant from benign ovarian lesions. Non-neoplastic lesions can be managed conservatively in about 40% of cases. Neoplastic lesions in children require a less radical approach in order to preserve ovarian function.

  20. Dosimetric advantages of intensity-modulated proton therapy for oropharyngeal cancer compared with intensity-modulated radiation: A case-matched control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Emma B; Kocak-Uzel, Esengul; Feng, Lei; Thaker, Nikhil G; Blanchard, Pierre; Rosenthal, David I; Gunn, G Brandon; Garden, Adam S; Frank, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    A potential advantage of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) over intensity-modulated (photon) radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) is lower radiation dose to several critical structures involved in the development of nausea and vomiting, mucositis, and dysphagia. The purpose of this study was to quantify doses to critical structures for patients with OPC treated with IMPT and compare those with doses on IMRT plans generated for the same patients and with a matched cohort of patients actually treated with IMRT. In this study, 25 patients newly diagnosed with OPC were treated with IMPT between 2011 and 2012. Comparison IMRT plans were generated for these patients and for additional IMRT-treated controls extracted from a database of patients with OPC treated between 2000 and 2009. Cases were matched based on the following criteria, in order: unilateral vs bilateral therapy, tonsil vs base of tongue primary, T-category, N-category, concurrent chemotherapy, induction chemotherapy, smoking status, sex, and age. Results showed that the mean doses to the anterior and posterior oral cavity, hard palate, larynx, mandible, and esophagus were significantly lower with IMPT than with IMRT comparison plans generated for the same cohort, as were doses to several central nervous system structures involved in the nausea and vomiting response. Similar differences were found when comparing dose to organs at risks (OARs) between the IMPT cohort and the case-matched IMRT cohort. In conclusion, these findings suggest that patients with OPC treated with IMPT may experience fewer and less severe side effects during therapy. This may be the result of decreased beam path toxicities with IMPT due to lower doses to several dysphagia, odynophagia, and nausea and vomiting-associated OARs. Further study is needed to evaluate differences in long-term disease control and chronic toxicity between patients with OPC treated with IMPT in comparison to those

  1. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  2. Arthroscopy in the diagnosis of meniscus lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Taser, Omer

    2004-01-01

    Approaches and their specialities in diagnostic arthroscopy have been presented. The things which should be noticed in the inspection of the menisci during arthroscopy have been put formend and indirect signs of meniscus lesion and their importance have been emphasized.

  3. Preclinical efficacy of a gastro-sparing novel thiazolidin-4-one in alleviating secondary lesions of polyarthritis: A multi-parametric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgal, Jayesh; Gowdra, Vasantharaju S; Mudgal, Piya P; Nayak, Pawan G; Kumar, Nitesh; Attari, Zenab; Rao, C Mallikarjuna; Nampurath, Gopalan K

    2016-08-25

    The promising role of thiazolidin-4-ones (TZOs) against inflammatory conditions has been reported. From our lab, one of the TZO derivatives, compound 4C, exerted anti-inflammatory potential via inhibition of locally released cytokines and prostaglandin. In continuance, a detailed study was undertaken for the preclinical profiling of this promising TZO derivative against polyarthritis in rats, along with assessment of risk associated with the treatment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model. Based on the development of secondary lesion, the animals were randomized into different treatment groups. To establish the efficacy of the test compound, parameters such as inflammation, pain, disease progression, cytokines and prostaglandin (PG)-E2 levels and complete blood cell profile were recorded along with radiological and histological examinations of joints. The study also focused on evaluating the side effect of test compound on gastric, liver, renal, blood and cardiovascular components. Compound 4C exerted promising therapeutic effect against secondary lesions in polyarthritis in rats. It limited the progression of chronic inflammation and associated pain in rats. Modulation of cytokine signalling and arachidonate metabolism by 4C was evident from inhibition of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and PGE2 generation in AIA rats. Comparatively, compound 4C was safer than diclofenac to cause gastric, liver, renal, blood and cardiovascular toxicities. These finding supports the efficacy and safety profile of 4C, a TZO derivative in limiting the progression of arthritis when administered orally. PMID:27283483

  4. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S;

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focusses on the probability of a caries lesion detected during a clinical examination being active (progressing) or arrested. Visual and tactile methods to assess primary coronal lesions and primary root lesions are considered. The evidence level is rated as low (R(w)), as there are...... response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee. The...... literature suggests that there is a fair agreement between visual/tactile external scripts of caries and the severity/depth of the lesion. The reproducibility of the different systems is, in general, substantial. No single clinical predictor is able to reliably assess activity. However, a combination of...

  5. A Population Approach to Characterize Interferon Beta-1b Effect on Contrast Enhancing Lesions in Patients With Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, A; Bagnato, F; Villoslada, P; Velez de Mendizabal, N

    2015-05-01

    In patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), interferon beta-1b (IFNβ-1b) reduces the occurrence of contrast enhancing lesions (CELs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Questions remain on the stability of IFNβ-1b effect over time and its action beyond the reduction of CELs. In this study, we described the IFNβ-1b effect by a mixed effects model, quantifying the interpatient variability associated with its parameters. Using a negative binomial distribution model as a natural history model, the effect of IFNβ-1b was evaluated using different mathematical functions of time. IFNβ-1b produced a decrease in the expected CEL numbers, inhibiting the formation of new CELs but did not promote the resolution of the already-formed ones. Based on the final selected model, simulations were carried out to optimize the combined IFNβ-1b-corticosteroid therapy as a proof-of-concept. In summary, we provide evidence on the dynamics of CELs under IFNβ-1b treatment that can be used to monitor the effects of therapies in MS. PMID:26225255

  6. IATROGENIC BILIARY LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Schiappa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic bile duct injury carries a high rate of morbidity. After the introduction of laparoscopiccholecystectomy the incidence of these injuries has at least doubled, and even after the learningcurve, the incidence has remained of about 0.5%. Etiology of the iatrogenic biliary injuries is theresult of the anatomical conditions (biliary or vascular anomalies, pathology (acute cholecystitis,adhesions, technical equipment, surgeon (the lerning curve. The type of the injuries, thediagnostic procedures and therapeutic approach are discussed. Most of the minor bile duct injuries,including cystic duct leaks and bile duct strictures, are well treatable with endoscopic techniques,whereas most of the major injuries require operative treatment, which at optimal circumstancesgives good results. Interdisciplinary cooperation and early referral to an experienced center iscrucial in the management of these iatrogenic lesions. The best „treatment” for this iatrogenicpathology is prevention: surgical access adapted to morphology, good exposure of the hepatoduodenalspace, good identification of structures before tying, appropriate dissection, selectivecholangiography, great care with the use of electrosurgery.

  7. Reversible focal splenial lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallucci, Massimo; Limbucci, Nicola [University of L' Aquila, Department of Radiology, S. Salvatore Hospital, L' Aquila (Italy); Paonessa, Amalia [Loreto Nuovo Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Napoli (Italy); Caranci, Ferdinando [Federico II University, Department of Neurological Sciences, Napoli (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    Reversible focal lesions in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) have recently been reported.They are circumscribed and located in the median aspect of the SCC. On MRI, they are hyperintense on T2-W and iso-hypointense on T1-W sequences, with no contrast enhancement. On DWI, SCC lesions are hyperintense with low ADC values, reflecting restricted diffusion due to cytotoxic edema. The common element is the disappearance of imaging abnormalities with time, including normalization of DWI. Clinical improvement is often reported. The most established and frequent causes of reversible focal lesions of the SCC are viral encephalitis, antiepileptic drug toxicity/withdrawal and hypoglycemic encephalopathy. Many other causes have been reported, including traumatic axonal injury. The similar clinical and imaging features suggest a common mechanism induced by different pathological events leading to the same results. Edema and diffusion restriction in focal reversible lesions of the SCC have been attributed to excitotoxic mechanisms that can result from different mechanisms; no unifying relationship has been found to explain all the pathologies associated with SCC lesions. In our opinion, the similar imaging, clinical and prognostic aspects of these lesions depend on a high vulnerability of the SCC to excitotoxic edema and are less dependent on the underlying pathology. In this review, the relevant literature concerning reversible focal lesions in the SCC is analyzed and hypotheses about their pathogenesis are proposed. (orig.)

  8. Triage of women with minor cervical lesions: data suggesting a "test and treat" approach for HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sveinung Wergeland Sørbye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV testing is included in the cervical cancer screening program in the triage of women with equivocal (ASC-US or low-grade (LSIL cytological lesions. These women have an increased risk for developing high grade dysplasia and cancer (CIN2+ compared to women with normal cytology. However, in order to avoid unnecessary follow-up, as well as overtreatment, a high positive predictive value (PPV of the triage test is important. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The HPV test PreTect HPV-Proofer, detecting E6/E7 mRNA from the HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45, is used as triage test together with repeat cytology. PPV data for HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing during the period from January 2006 up to June 2009 are reported. In total, 406 of 2099 women (19.3% had a positive HPV test result. Of the women with a positive test result and with a histological diagnosis (n = 347, 243 women had histological high-grade dysplasia or cancer (CIN2+, giving a PPV of 70.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65.2%-74.8%. For HPV 16 or HPV 33 positive women above 40 years of age, the PPV was 83.7% (95% CI, 73.3%-94.0% and 84.6% (95% CI, 65.0%-100.0% respectively. The PPV of test positive women with HSIL cytology was 94.2% (95% CI, 88.7%-99.7%. CONCLUSIONS: When the result in triage is HPV mRNA positive, our data suggest direct treatment for women above 40 years of age or for women with a concurrent cytological HSIL diagnosis, contributing to better clinical safety for these women. In addition, by decreasing the time to treatment, thereby reducing the number of recalls, the patient management algorithm will be considerably improved, in turn reducing follow-up costs as well as unnecessary psychological stress among patients.

  9. Diagnostic strategy and differential therapeutic approach for cystic lesions of the pancreas; Diagnostische Strategie und differenzialtherapeutisches Vorgehen bei zystischen Laesionen des Pankreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, P.; Klauss, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Tjaden, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Chirurgie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Cystic pancreatic lesions (CPL) are diagnosed with increasing frequency. Because up to 60 % of CPL are classified as malignant or premalignant, every CPL should be fully investigated and clarified. Serous CPL with low risk of malignancy must be differentiated from mucinous CPL with relevant potential malignancy (intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm IPMN) and mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) as well as from harmless pseudocysts. Cross-sectional imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a crucial role in the diagnostics of CPL. An algorithm for the differential diagnostic classification of CPL is presented. The connection to the pancreatic duct is the key diagnostic criterion to differentiate IPMN from all other CPL. An exception to this rule is that pseudocysts can also show a connection to the pancreatic duct. A further classification of CPL with no connection to the pancreatic duct can be made by morphological criteria and correlation of the radiological findings with patient age, sex, history and symptoms. Depending on the diagnosis and hence the malignant potential the indications for surgery or watch and wait have to be discussed in an interdisciplinary cooperation. Due to its higher soft tissue contrast MRI is often superior to CT for depiction of CPL morphology. (orig.) [German] Zystische Pankreaslaesionen (ZPL) werden zunehmend haeufiger diagnostiziert. Da bis zu 60 % der ZPL als praemaligne oder maligne einzustufen sind, sollte jede ZPL diagnostisch abgeklaert werden. Seroese ZPL mit geringem Entartungsrisiko (seroes zystische Neoplasien, SZN) muessen von muzinoesen ZPL mit relevantem Malignitaetspotenzial (intraduktale papillaer-muzinoese Neoplasien [IPMN] und muzinoes zystische Neoplasie [MZN]) und harmlosen Pseudozysten unterschieden werden. Die Schnittbildgebung mithilfe der CT und MRT spielt bei der Diagnostik von ZPL eine entscheidende Rolle. Vorgestellt wird ein Algorithmus zur differenzialdiagnostischen

  10. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  11. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L;

    2016-01-01

    The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental...... caries and control activity of existing cavitated lesions to preserve hard tissues and retain teeth long-term. Entering the restorative cycle should be avoided as far as possible. Controlling the disease in cavitated carious lesions should be attempted using methods which are aimed at biofilm removal or...... permanent teeth,selective removal to soft dentineshould be performed, although in permanent teeth,stepwise removalis an option. The evidence and, therefore, these recommendations support less invasive carious lesion management, delaying entry to, and slowing down, the restorative cycle by preserving tooth...

  12. Hypervascular liver lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaya, Aya; Maturen, Katherine E; Tye, Grace A; Liu, Yueyi I; Parti, Naveen N; Desser, Terry S

    2009-10-01

    Hypervascular hepatocellular lesions include both benign and malignant etiologies. In the benign category, focal nodular hyperplasia and adenoma are typically hypervascular. In addition, some regenerative nodules in cirrhosis may be hypervascular. Malignant hypervascular primary hepatocellular lesions include hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrolamellar carcinoma, and peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Vascular liver lesions often appear hypervascular because they tend to follow the enhancement of the blood pool; these include hemangiomas, arteriovenous malformations, angiosarcomas, and peliosis. While most gastrointestinal malignancies that metastasize to the liver will appear hypovascular on arterial and portal-venous phase imaging, certain cancers such as metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, carcinoid, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors) tend to produce hypervascular metastases due to the greater recruitment of arterial blood supply. Finally, rare hepatic lesions such as glomus tumor and inflammatory pseudotumor may have a hypervascular appearance. PMID:19842564

  13. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); The Children' s Hospital, Rick Wilson Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari [The Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Bourland, Wendy [Children' s Hospital at St. Francis, Warren Clinic, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  14. Automated detection of multiple sclerosis lesions in serial brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llado, Xavier; Ganiler, Onur; Oliver, Arnau; Marti, Robert; Freixenet, Jordi [University of Girona, Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Valls, Laia [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Girona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain); Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious disease typically occurring in the brain whose diagnosis and efficacy of treatment monitoring are vital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used in serial brain imaging due to the rich and detailed information provided. Time-series analysis of images is widely used for MS diagnosis and patient follow-up. However, conventional manual methods are time-consuming, subjective, and error-prone. Thus, the development of automated techniques for the detection and quantification of MS lesions is a major challenge. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the approaches which deal with the time-series analysis of brain MRI for detecting active MS lesions and quantifying lesion load change. We provide a comprehensive reference source for researchers in which several approaches to change detection and quantification of MS lesions are investigated and classified. We also analyze the results provided by the approaches, discuss open problems, and point out possible future trends. Lesion detection approaches are required for the detection of static lesions and for diagnostic purposes, while either quantification of detected lesions or change detection algorithms are needed to follow up MS patients. However, there is not yet a single approach that can emerge as a standard for the clinical practice, automatically providing an accurate MS lesion evolution quantification. Future trends will focus on combining the lesion detection in single studies with the analysis of the change detection in serial MRI. (orig.)

  15. Automated detection of multiple sclerosis lesions in serial brain MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious disease typically occurring in the brain whose diagnosis and efficacy of treatment monitoring are vital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used in serial brain imaging due to the rich and detailed information provided. Time-series analysis of images is widely used for MS diagnosis and patient follow-up. However, conventional manual methods are time-consuming, subjective, and error-prone. Thus, the development of automated techniques for the detection and quantification of MS lesions is a major challenge. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the approaches which deal with the time-series analysis of brain MRI for detecting active MS lesions and quantifying lesion load change. We provide a comprehensive reference source for researchers in which several approaches to change detection and quantification of MS lesions are investigated and classified. We also analyze the results provided by the approaches, discuss open problems, and point out possible future trends. Lesion detection approaches are required for the detection of static lesions and for diagnostic purposes, while either quantification of detected lesions or change detection algorithms are needed to follow up MS patients. However, there is not yet a single approach that can emerge as a standard for the clinical practice, automatically providing an accurate MS lesion evolution quantification. Future trends will focus on combining the lesion detection in single studies with the analysis of the change detection in serial MRI. (orig.)

  16. What affects detectability of lesion-deficit relationships in lesion studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kayo; Madhyastha, Tara; Rudrauf, David; Mehta, Sonya; Grabowski, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating the brain basis for psychological processes and behavior is a fundamental aim of cognitive neuroscience. The lesion method, using voxel-based statistical analysis, is an important approach to this goal, identifying neural structures that are necessary for the support of specific mental operations, and complementing the strengths of functional imaging techniques. Lesion coverage in a population is by nature spatially heterogeneous and biased, systematically affecting the ability of lesion-deficit correlation methods to detect and localize functional associations. We have developed a simulator that allows investigators to model parameters in a lesion-deficit study and characterize the statistical bias in lesion deficit detection coverage that will result from specific assumptions. We used the simulator to assess the signal detection properties and localization accuracy of standard lesion-deficit correlation methods, under a simple truth model - that a critical region of interest (CR), when damaged, gives rise to a deficit. We considered voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and proportional MAP-3 (PM3). Using regression analysis, we examined if the pattern of outcome statistics can be explained by simulation parameters, factors that are inherent to anatomic parcels, and lesion coverage of the population, which consisted of a representative sample of 351 subjects drawn from the Iowa Patient Registry. We examined the effect of using nonparametric versus parametric statistics to obtain thresholded maps and the effect of correcting for multiple comparisons using false discovery rate or cluster-based correction. Our results, which are derived from samples of realistic lesions, indicate that even a simple truth model yields localization errors that are systematic and pervasive, averaging 2 cm in the standard anatomic space, and tending to be directed towards areas of greater anatomic coverage. This displacement positions the center of mass of the detected

  17. Effectiveness of see-and-treat for approaching pre-invasive lesions of uterine cervix Efectividad del abordaje "ver y tratar" en lesiones pre-invasivas en el colon uterino Efetividade da abordagem "ver e tratar" em lesões pré-invasivas no colo uterino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Cristina Sampaio Monteiro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness between the see-and-treat (S&T approach and the conventional one (with prior biopsy for squamous intraepithelial lesions of uterine cervix. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 900 nonpregnant women with cytology suggestive of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2004. The S&T approach consists of a large loop excision of the transformation zone procedure and is recommended when cytology is suggestive of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, satisfactory colposcopy with abnormalities compatible with the suspected cytological results, and the lesion is limited to the ectocervix or extends up to one centimeter of the endocervical canal. A subgroup of 336 patients whose colposcopy was considered satisfactory was analyzed, and they were divided into two groups for comparison: patients treated without prior biopsy (n = 288 and patients treated after a biopsy showing high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (n = 48. Patients who were not treated or only treated more than a year later after recruitment at the colposcopy unit were considered dropouts. RESULTS: Of patients recruited during the study period, 71 were not treated or were only treated for at least a year. The overall dropout rate was 7.9% (95% CI: 6.1;9.7. Mean time elapsed between patient recruitment and treatment was 17.5 days in the S&T group and 102.5 days in the prior biopsy group. Dropout rates were 1.4% (95% CI: 0.04;2.7 and 5.% (95% CI: 0;12.3, respectively (p=0.07. The proportion of overtreated cases (negative histology in the S&T group was 2.0% (95% CI: 0.4;3.6. CONCLUSIONS: The difference in the mean time elapsed between patient recruitment and treatment indicates that S&T is a time-saving approach The proportion of negative cases from using the S&T approach can be regarded as low.OBJETIVO: Comparar la efectividad del método "ver-y-tratar" (V

  18. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching; Santiago Patiño Giraldo; Elkín Arango V.; Mónica Paola Clavijo Rodríguez; Jorge Alberto Osorio Ciro

    2007-01-01

    El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participa...

  19. Endoscopic management of orbital apex lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, D S; Lau, D P

    1997-01-01

    Lesions of the orbital apex often present a diagnostic dilemma. Clinical assessment and imaging studies are helpful but a tissue biopsy is often required. The morbidity associated with transcranial approaches to the orbital apex may outweigh the benefits of obtaining a biopsy by these routes. Fine needle aspiration cytology of orbital apex lesions can be performed but there are disadvantages with this method. We describe a transnasal endoscopic technique to biopsy the orbital apex. The technique was used successfully to obtain a tissue diagnosis in six patients with orbital apex lesions. This enabled commencement of definitive treatment. There were no significant complications. The transnasal approach to the orbital apex using the endoscopes is reliable. Endoscopes provide excellent illumination, magnification, and a panoramic view of the operative field. PMID:9438058

  20. Relations among traumatic subdural lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, K. S.; Doh, J. W.; Bae, H. G.; Yun, I. G.

    1996-01-01

    Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) and subdural hygroma (SDG) occur in the subdural space, usually after trauma. We tried to find a certain relationship among these three traumatic subdural lesions in 436 consecutive patients. We included all subdural lesions regardless of whether they were main or not. We evaluated the distribution, age incidence and interval from injury to diagnosis of these lesions, and the frequency of new subdural lesions in each lesion. ASD...

  1. Genital lesions following bestiality

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal A; Shenoi Shrutakirthi; Kumar K; Sharma PS

    2000-01-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  2. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  3. Morel-Lavallee lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hui; Zhang Fangjie; Lei Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity.Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses.It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice.Data sources A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords:Morel-Lavallee lesion,closed degloving injury,concealed degloving injury,Morel-Lavallee effusion,Morel-Lavallee hematoma,posttraumatic pseudocyst,posttraumatic soft tissue cyst.Study selection Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected.Their references were also reviewed.Results Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury.It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia.Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter,MLLs have been described in other parts of the body.The natural history of MLL has not yet been established.The lesion may decrease in volume,remain stable,enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern.Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed.Ultrasonography,computed tomography,and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL.Treatment of MLL has included compression,local aspiration,open debridement,and sclerodesis.No standard treatment has been established.Conclusions A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft,fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury.Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis.Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures,the condition of the lesion,symptom and desire of the patient.

  4. Theory of pairwise lesion interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison between repair time constants measured both at the molecular and cellular levels has shown that the DNA double strand break is the molecular change of key importance in the causation of cellular effects such as chromosome aberrations and cell inactivation. Cell fusion experiments provided the evidence that it needs the pairwise interaction between two double strand breaks - or more exactly between the two ''repair sites'' arising from them in the course of enzymatic repair - to provide the faulty chromatin crosslink which leads to cytogenetic and cytolethal effects. These modern experiments have confirmed the classical assumption of pairwise lesion interaction (PLI) on which the models of Lea and Neary were based. It seems worthwhile to continue and complete the mathematical treatment of their proposed mechanism in order to show in quantitative terms that the well-known fractionation, protraction and linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation effects are consequences of or can at least be partly attributed to PLI. Arithmetic treatment of PLI - a second order reaction - has also the advantage of providing a prerequisite for further investigations into the stages of development of misrepair products such as chromatin crosslinks. It has been possible to formulate a completely arithmetic theory of PLI by consequently applying three biophysically permitted approximations - pure first order lesion repair kinetics, dose-independent repair time constants and low yield of the ionization/lesion conversion. The mathematical approach will be summarized here, including several formulae not elaborated at the time of previous publications. We will also study an application which sheds light on the chain of events involved in PLI. (author)

  5. Demyelinative chiamal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, R H; Glaser, J S; Schatz, N J

    1980-12-01

    To clarify the clinical syndrome of demyelinative chiasmal involvement, six case histories were analyzed and the literature was reviewed. This entitity is characterized by especial predilection for women in the third to fifth decades; visual deficites of a chiasmal pattern that may be modest to marked, with a generallly good prognosis for functional recovery; and other signs and symptoms, not necessarily severe, of scattered lesions of the neuraxis. Neuroradiological studies, especially laminography of the sellar area and computerized tomography, must be employed to rule out a suprasellar mass lesion. The efficacy of systemic corticosteroid therapy is moot, but it seems reasonable to use such agents during acute stages, especially where vision is severely reduced on both sides. PMID:7447764

  6. Asymptomatic ischemic cerebral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of studying the incidence, pathomorphology and etiology of asymptomatic ischemic cerebral lesions, we carried out a brain MRI study on 65 patients with diabetes mellitus accompanied with hypertension who are thought to belong to a high risk group of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Excluding the abnormality of tendon reflex due to diabetic neuropathy, sixty percent of the total patients had some mild neurological signs and symptoms, most of them was discrepancy in tendon reflex. The percentage of the patients in whom MRI disclosed some abnormalities was as high as 70%, they were lacunar stroke, multiple lacunar state, cortical infarct, and patchy high signal lesions visible only in the T2 weighted image. Lacunes or these patchy high signal lesions (considered to be the dilatation of the perivascular space or true lacunes) tended to be found along the border zone or the terminal zone. These results indicate that asymptomatic patients in whom MRI discloses the abnormalities should be considered as candidates for the future onset of multi-infarct. (author)

  7. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo; Rocca, Mara A; Miller, Andrew David; Schmierer, Klaus; Frederiksen, Jette; Gass, Achim; Gama, Hugo; Tilbery, Charles P; Rocha, Antonio J; Flores, José; Barkhof, Frederik; Seewann, Alexandra; Palace, Jacqueline; Yousry, Tarek; Montalban, Xavier; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can be class...

  8. Achieving Control of Lesion Growth in CNS with Minimal Damage

    CERN Document Server

    Raja, Mathankumar

    2012-01-01

    Lesions in central nervous system (CNS) and their growth leads to debilitating diseases like Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's etc. We developed a model earlier which shows how the lesion growth can be arrested through a beneficial auto-immune mechanism. The success of the approach depends on a set of control parameters and their phase space was shown to have a smooth manifold separating the uncontrolled lesion growth region from the controlled. Here we show that an optimal set of parameter values exist which minimizes system damage while achieving control of lesion growth.

  9. Abfraction lesions: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Marcelle M; Dilbone, Deborah A; Pereira, Patricia NR; Duarte, Wagner R; Geraldeli, Saulo; Delgado, Alex J

    2016-01-01

    Abfraction is a type of noncarious cervical lesion (NCCL) characterized by loss of tooth tissues with different clinical appearances. Evidence supports that abfraction lesions, as any NCCLs, have a multifactorial etiology. Particularly, the cervical wear of abfraction can occur as a result of normal and abnormal tooth function and may also be accompanied by pathological wear, such as abrasion and erosion. The interaction between chemical, biological, and behavioral factors is critical and helps to explain why some individuals exhibit more than one type of cervical wear mechanism than others. In an era of personalized dentistry, patient risk factors for NCCLs must be identified and addressed before any treatment is performed. Marked variations exist in dental practice concerning the diagnosis and management of these lesions. The lack of understanding about the prognosis of these lesions with or without intervention may be a major contributor to variations in dentists’ management decisions. This review focuses on the current knowledge and available treatment strategies for abfraction lesions. By recognizing that progressive changes in the cervical area of the tooth are part of a physiologically dynamic process that occurs with aging, premature and unnecessary intervention can be avoided. In cases of asymptomatic teeth, where tooth vitality and function are not compromised, abfraction lesions should be monitored for at least 6 months before any invasive procedure is planned. In cases of abfraction associated with gingival recession, a combined restorative-surgical approach may be performed. Restorative intervention and occlusal adjustment are not indicated as treatment options to prevent further tooth loss or progression of abfraction. The clinical decision to restore abfraction lesions may be based on the need to replace form and function or to relieve hypersensitivity of severely compromised teeth or for esthetic reasons. PMID:27217799

  10. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  11. Petrous apex lesions outcome in 21 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekmatara M

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Petrous apex lesions of temporal bone progress slowly. Most of the time not only destruct this area but also involve neighbouring element. The symptoms of the neighbouring neuro-vasculare involvement we can recognize these lesions. The most common symptoms of involvement of the petrous apex are: headache, conductive hearing loss or sensorineural type, paresthesia and anesthesia of the trigeminal nerve, paresia and paralysis of the facial nerve, abducent nerve. In retrospective study which has been in the ENT and HNS wards of Amiralam hospital, 148 patients have been operated due to temporal bone tumor; from these numbers, 21 (13.6% patients had petrous apex lesions of temporal bone. Eleven (52.9% patients of these 21 persons were men and the remaining 10 (47-6% were women. The average age of the patients was 37 years. The common pathology of these patients were glomus jugulare tumors, hemangioma, schwannoma, meningioma, congenital cholesteatoma, giant cell granuloma. The kind of operations that have been done on these patients were: infratemporal, translabyrinthine and middle fossa approaches. The conclusion of this study shows that petrous apex area is an occult site. The symptoms of this lesion are not characteristic, meticulous attention to the history and physical examination are very helpful to recognition of these lesions and it's extention.

  12. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100

  13. Lesiones en corredores amateurs

    OpenAIRE

    Natale, Vanesa

    2011-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio tomando como muestra a 100 corredores amateurs de la ciudad de Mar del Plata, en la cual el objetivo general fue determinar cuáles son las patologías más frecuentes en corredores. Correr no es solo un deporte en si mismo sino que tiene elementos de otras actividades deportivas, es decir, que las lesiones de los corredores también son comunes en otros tipos de deportes. El número de deportistas aumenta diariamente y al mismo tiempo aumentan el número de per...

  14. Study of genital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.

  15. Mycetoma: Nonvenereal perineal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Shweta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is a chronic, granulomatous disease of the skin, and subcutaneous tissue, which sometimes involves muscle, bones, and neighboring organs. It is characterized by tumefaction, abscess formation, and fistulae with discharge of grains from sinuses. Mycetoma can be caused by various species of fungi (eumycetoma and aerobic actinomycetes (actinomycetoma, which occur as saprophytes in soil or plants. A tentative diagnosis sufficient to initiate treatment may be made on the basis of grain color. For instance, melanoid grains are always caused by fungi and ochroid or pale grains by actinomycetes. Although this is not the thumbrule, there are exceptional reports too. As trauma favors infection, most lesions are on the foot and lower leg but they may occur anywhere on the body mimicking actinomycosis. However, lab investigations and culture are important tool to differentiate apart from the clinical picture. We are reporting atypical case with unusual site of presentation (perineum and thigh of mycetoma.

  16. Pigmented Lesions of the Vulva

    OpenAIRE

    Gürol Açıkgöz; Çağlayan Çağdaş Demirci; Ercan Arca

    2012-01-01

    Pigmented lesions on the vulva are rare and their non specific features cause difficulties in their diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Because of their localization, it is difficult to follow up vulvar lesions, which are generally noticed coincidentally by patients. Vulvar pigmented lesions are classified clinically as macules/papules and patches/plaques to provide ease of the diagnosis. Nevi, angiokeratomas, seborrheic keratosis, melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma ...

  17. Cystic lesions of the liver

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado, E.; J Pereira; Bouchaibi, S; Bali, M

    2014-01-01

    LEARNING OBJECTIVES: To present the CT and MRI features of the cystic liver lesions, with emphasis on the differential diagnosis. BACKGROUND: Cystic liver lesions are a frequent finding in abdominal imaging and may represent a broad spectrum of entities, ranging from benign developmental cysts to malignant neoplasms. Radiological features of various cystic liver lesions frequently overlap. Therefore, it is necessary to integrate imaging with clinical and laboratorial findings. The most imp...

  18. Microbiological aspects of endoperiodontal lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Tokunaga; Bruno Monguilhott Crozeta; Mariangela Schmitt Bonato; Beatriz Serrato Coelho; Flares Baratto-Filho; Flávia Sens Fagundes Tomazinho

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The endoperiodontal lesion occurs when a tooth undergoing endodontic disease is united to a periodontal lesion with apical progression. Many times, the differential diagnosis between the endodontic and periodontal disease can be of difficult execution and the correct diagnosis and planing of the treatment is of main importance for a good prognosis Objective: To identify the main microorganisms within the lesion of endodontic and periodontal origin and correlate them with the en...

  19. Radio-induced brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgan Mircea Radu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Radiotherapy, an important tool in multimodal oncologic treatment, can cause radio-induced brain lesion development after a long period of time following irradiation.

  20. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  1. Detection of tumoral lesions in the posterior fossa, in brain computerized tomography scans for various conditions of acquiring a preliminary approach; Deteccion de lesiones tumorales en fosa posterior en imagenes de Tomografia Computarizada cerebral para diversas condiciones de adquisicion: un enfoque preliminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M.; Carvalho-Filho, A. E.; Khoury, H. J.; Casas, M. C.; Andrade, M. E.; Paz, J. E.

    2010-07-01

    The present work performs a study over 13 tomographic images, using an anthropomorphic head phantom. It contains small lesions in the posterior fossa. Tube current (I [mA]), slice thickness (E [mm]), were the parameters changed among studies, looking for the best acquisition conditions, which permit good lesion detectability, and applying the lowest dose. Air Kerma in air [mGy] was calculated. Image quality was analyzed by both expert criterion and some merit figures. Two of them were global: contrasts to noise ratio (RCR [dB]) and signal to noise ratio (RSR). The rest of the measures used were relatives to the maximum dose condition: The gain in signal to noise ratio (SNR [dB]) and the maximum signal to noise ratio (PSNR [dB]), the normalized mean squared error (NMSE) and the structural similarity index (SSIM). Objective and subjective results were correlated. It is shown that it is possible to reduce the dose using lower values of mAs without affecting lesion detectability and keeping good image quality for the scanner used. An optimized protocol is also proposed for the technology used. (Author) 27 refs.

  2. Skin lesion image segmentation using Delaunay Triangulation for melanoma detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Andrea; Bloisi, Domenico D; Nardi, Daniele; Giampetruzzi, Anna Rita; Mondino, Chiara; Facchiano, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Developing automatic diagnostic tools for the early detection of skin cancer lesions in dermoscopic images can help to reduce melanoma-induced mortality. Image segmentation is a key step in the automated skin lesion diagnosis pipeline. In this paper, a fast and fully-automatic algorithm for skin lesion segmentation in dermoscopic images is presented. Delaunay Triangulation is used to extract a binary mask of the lesion region, without the need of any training stage. A quantitative experimental evaluation has been conducted on a publicly available database, by taking into account six well-known state-of-the-art segmentation methods for comparison. The results of the experimental analysis demonstrate that the proposed approach is highly accurate when dealing with benign lesions, while the segmentation accuracy significantly decreases when melanoma images are processed. This behavior led us to consider geometrical and color features extracted from the binary masks generated by our algorithm for classification, achieving promising results for melanoma detection. PMID:27215953

  3. Automated measurement of local white matter lesion volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Lijn, F.; Verhaaren, B.F.J.; Ikram, M.A.;

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that white matter lesions at different locations may have different etiology and clinical consequences. Several approaches for the quantification of local white matter lesion load have been proposed in the literature, most of which rely on a distinction between lesions in a...... orientation and distance to the ventricles, which allows a more spatially detailed study of lesion load. The potential of the method was demonstrated by analyzing the effect of blood pressure on the regional white matter lesion volume in 490 elderly subjects taken from a longitudinal population study. The...... regions. It explains the associations found for both the periventricular and subcortical load computed for the same data, and that were reported in the literature. But the proposed method can localize the region of association with greater precision than techniques that distinguish between periventricular...

  4. Automated Detection of Lupus White Matter Lesions in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Eloy; Sarbu, Nicolae; Oliver, Arnau; Valverde, Sergi; González-Villà, Sandra; Cervera, Ricard; Bargalló, Núria; Lladó, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging provides detailed information which can be used to detect and segment white matter lesions (WML). In this work we propose an approach to automatically segment WML in Lupus patients by using T1w and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Lupus WML appear as small focal abnormal tissue observed as hyperintensities in the FLAIR images. The quantification of these WML is a key factor for the stratification of lupus patients and therefore both lesion detection and segmentation play an important role. In our approach, the T1w image is first used to classify the three main tissues of the brain, white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), while the FLAIR image is then used to detect focal WML as outliers of its GM intensity distribution. A set of post-processing steps based on lesion size, tissue neighborhood, and location are used to refine the lesion candidates. The proposal is evaluated on 20 patients, presenting qualitative, and quantitative results in terms of precision and sensitivity of lesion detection [True Positive Rate (62%) and Positive Prediction Value (80%), respectively] as well as segmentation accuracy [Dice Similarity Coefficient (72%)]. Obtained results illustrate the validity of the approach to automatically detect and segment lupus lesions. Besides, our approach is publicly available as a SPM8/12 toolbox extension with a simple parameter configuration. PMID:27570507

  5. Automated Detection of Lupus White Matter Lesions in MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Eloy; Sarbu, Nicolae; Oliver, Arnau; Valverde, Sergi; González-Villà, Sandra; Cervera, Ricard; Bargalló, Núria; Lladó, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging provides detailed information which can be used to detect and segment white matter lesions (WML). In this work we propose an approach to automatically segment WML in Lupus patients by using T1w and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Lupus WML appear as small focal abnormal tissue observed as hyperintensities in the FLAIR images. The quantification of these WML is a key factor for the stratification of lupus patients and therefore both lesion detection and segmentation play an important role. In our approach, the T1w image is first used to classify the three main tissues of the brain, white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), while the FLAIR image is then used to detect focal WML as outliers of its GM intensity distribution. A set of post-processing steps based on lesion size, tissue neighborhood, and location are used to refine the lesion candidates. The proposal is evaluated on 20 patients, presenting qualitative, and quantitative results in terms of precision and sensitivity of lesion detection [True Positive Rate (62%) and Positive Prediction Value (80%), respectively] as well as segmentation accuracy [Dice Similarity Coefficient (72%)]. Obtained results illustrate the validity of the approach to automatically detect and segment lupus lesions. Besides, our approach is publicly available as a SPM8/12 toolbox extension with a simple parameter configuration.

  6. Nonsurgical management of periapical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Marina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Periapical lesions develop as sequelae to pulp disease. They often occur without any episode of acute pain and are discovered on routine radiographic examination. The incidence of cysts within periapical lesions varies between 6 and 55%. The occurrence of periapical granulomas ranges between 9.3 and 87.1%, and of abscesses between 28.7 and 70.07%. It is accepted that all inflammatory periapical lesions should be initially treated with conservative nonsurgical procedures. Studies have reported a success rate of up to 85% after endodontic treatment of teeth with periapical lesions. A review of literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions. Various methods can be used in the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions: the conservative root canal treatment, decompression technique, active nonsurgical decompression technique, aspiration-irrigation technique, method using calcium hydroxide, Lesion Sterilization and Repair Therapy, and the Apexum procedure. Monitoring the healing of periapical lesions is essential through periodic follow-up examinations.

  7. Rare cystic liver lesions: a diagnostic and managing challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakoyiannis, Andreas; Delis, Spiros; Triantopoulou, Charina; Dervenis, Christos

    2013-11-21

    Cystic formations within the liver are a frequent finding among populations. Besides the common cystic lesions, like simple liver cysts, rare cystic liver lesions like cystadenocarcinoma should also be considered in the differential diagnosis. Thorough knowledge of each entity's nature and course are key elements to successful treatment. Detailed search in PubMed, Cochrane Database, and international published literature regarding rare cystic liver lesions was carried out. In our research are included not only primary rare lesions like cystadenoma, hydatid cyst, and polycystic liver disease, but also secondary ones like metastasis from gastrointestinal stromal tumors lesions. Up-to date knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of rare cystic liver lesions is provided. A diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm is also proposed. The need for a multidisciplinary approach by a team including radiologists and surgeons familiar with liver cystic entities, diagnostic tools, and treatment modalities is stressed. Patients with cystic liver lesions must be carefully evaluated by a multidisciplinary team, in order to receive the most appropriate treatment, since many cystic liver lesions have a malignant potential and evolution. PMID:24282350

  8. Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal "executive" dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. PMID:23850600

  9. Rare cystic liver lesions: A diagnostic and managing challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Dervenis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic formations within the liver are a frequent finding among populations. Besides the common cystic lesions, like simple liver cysts, rare cystic liver lesions like cystadenocarcinoma should also be considered in the differential diagnosis. Thorough knowledge of each entity’s nature and course are key elements to successful treatment. Detailed search in PubMed, Cochrane Database, and international published literature regarding rare cystic liver lesions was carried out. In our research are included not only primary rare lesions like cystadenoma, hydatid cyst, and polycystic liver disease, but also secondary ones like metastasis from gastrointestinal stromal tumors lesions. Up-to date knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of rare cystic liver lesions is provided. A diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm is also proposed. The need for a multidisciplinary approach by a team including radiologists and surgeons familiar with liver cystic entities, diagnostic tools, and treatment modalities is stressed. Patients with cystic liver lesions must be carefully evaluated by a multidisciplinary team, in order to receive the most appropriate treatment, since many cystic liver lesions have a malignant potential and evolution.

  10. A toolbox for multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roura, Eloy; Oliver, Arnau; Valverde, Sergi; Llado, Xavier [University of Girona, Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Cabezas, Mariano; Pareto, Deborah; Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Dept. of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Lesion segmentation plays an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of multiple sclerosis (MS). This task is very time-consuming and subject to intra- and inter-rater variability. In this paper, we present a new tool for automated MS lesion segmentation using T1w and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our approach is based on two main steps, initial brain tissue segmentation according to the gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) performed in T1w images, followed by a second step where the lesions are segmented as outliers to the normal apparent GM brain tissue on the FLAIR image. The tool has been validated using data from more than 100 MS patients acquired with different scanners and at different magnetic field strengths. Quantitative evaluation provided a better performance in terms of precision while maintaining similar results on sensitivity and Dice similarity measures compared with those of other approaches. Our tool is implemented as a publicly available SPM8/12 extension that can be used by both the medical and research communities. (orig.)

  11. A toolbox for multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesion segmentation plays an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of multiple sclerosis (MS). This task is very time-consuming and subject to intra- and inter-rater variability. In this paper, we present a new tool for automated MS lesion segmentation using T1w and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our approach is based on two main steps, initial brain tissue segmentation according to the gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) performed in T1w images, followed by a second step where the lesions are segmented as outliers to the normal apparent GM brain tissue on the FLAIR image. The tool has been validated using data from more than 100 MS patients acquired with different scanners and at different magnetic field strengths. Quantitative evaluation provided a better performance in terms of precision while maintaining similar results on sensitivity and Dice similarity measures compared with those of other approaches. Our tool is implemented as a publicly available SPM8/12 extension that can be used by both the medical and research communities. (orig.)

  12. Lesion Border Detection in Dermoscopy Images

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M Emre; Schaefer, Gerald; Stoecker, William V; 10.1016/j.compmedimag.2008.11.002

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, computerized analysis of dermoscopy images has become an important research area. One of the most important steps in dermoscopy image analysis is the automated detection of lesion borders. Methods: In this article, we present a systematic overview of the recent border detection methods in the literature paying particular attention to computational issues and evaluation aspects. Conclusion: Common problems with the existing approaches include the acquisition, size, and diagnostic distribution of the test image set, the evaluation of the results, and the inadequate description of the employed methods. Border determination by dermatologists appears to depend upon higher-level knowledge, therefore it is likely that the incorporation of domain knowledge in automated methods will enable them to perform better, especially in ...

  13. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: antonio.westphalen@ucsf.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  14. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Herr

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  15. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  16. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia, E-mail: mccollough.cynthia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  17. Artificial Neural Networks for differential diagnosis of breast lesions in MR-Mammography: A systematic approach addressing the influence of network architecture on diagnostic performance using a large clinical database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rationale and objectives: Differential diagnosis of lesions in MR-Mammography (MRM) remains a complex task. The aim of this MRM study was to design and to test robustness of Artificial Neural Network architectures to predict malignancy using a large clinical database. Materials and methods: For this IRB-approved investigation standardized protocols and study design were applied (T1w-FLASH; 0.1 mmol/kgBW Gd-DTPA; T2w-TSE; histological verification after MRM). All lesions were evaluated by two experienced (>500 MRM) radiologists in consensus. In every lesion, 18 previously published descriptors were assessed and documented in the database. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was developed to process this database (The-MathWorks/Inc., feed-forward-architecture/resilient back-propagation-algorithm). All 18 descriptors were set as input variables, whereas histological results (malignant vs. benign) was defined as classification variable. Initially, the ANN was optimized in terms of “Training Epochs” (TE), “Hidden Layers” (HL), “Learning Rate” (LR) and “Neurons” (N). Robustness of the ANN was addressed by repeated evaluation cycles (n: 9) with receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis of the results applying 4-fold Cross Validation. The best network architecture was identified comparing the corresponding Area under the ROC curve (AUC). Results: Histopathology revealed 436 benign and 648 malignant lesions. Enhancing the level of complexity could not increase diagnostic accuracy of the network (P: n.s.). The optimized ANN architecture (TE: 20, HL: 1, N: 5, LR: 1.2) was accurate (mean-AUC 0.888; P: <0.001) and robust (CI: 0.885–0.892; range: 0.880–0.898). Conclusion: The optimized neural network showed robust performance and high diagnostic accuracy for prediction of malignancy on unknown data.

  18. Computer-Aided Classification of Gastrointestinal Lesions in Regular Colonoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Mesejo, Pablo; Pizarro, Daniel; Abergel, Armand; Rouquette, Olivier; Beorchia, Sylvain; Poincloux, Laurent; Bartoli, Adrien

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a technique to study how good computers can be at diagnosing gastrointestinal lesions from regular (white light and narrow banded) colonoscopic videos compared to two levels of clinical knowledge (expert and beginner). Our technique includes a novel tissue classification approach which may save clinician's time by avoiding chromoendoscopy, a time-consuming staining procedure using indigo carmine. Our technique also discriminates the severity of individual lesions in patients...

  19. Removal of Selected Infralabyrinthine Lesions Without Facial Nerve Mobilization

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, CH; Prades, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The infralabyrinthine approach can be modified for the removal of certain lesions without facial nerve mobilization. This procedure is to be used for lesions falling under the three following categories: glomus jugulare tumors, infralabyrinthine cholesteatomas, and cholesterol cysts of the temporal bone. This report includes three glomus jugulare tumors (C1 Fisch type) and five infralabyrinthine cholesteatomas operated on with such a technique. Some anatomic data concerning access to the infr...

  20. Automated delineation of stroke lesions using brain CT images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline R. Gillebert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomographic (CT images are widely used for the identification of abnormal brain tissue following infarct and hemorrhage in stroke. Manual lesion delineation is currently the standard approach, but is both time-consuming and operator-dependent. To address these issues, we present a method that can automatically delineate infarct and hemorrhage in stroke CT images. The key elements of this method are the accurate normalization of CT images from stroke patients into template space and the subsequent voxelwise comparison with a group of control CT images for defining areas with hypo- or hyper-intense signals. Our validation, using simulated and actual lesions, shows that our approach is effective in reconstructing lesions resulting from both infarct and hemorrhage and yields lesion maps spatially consistent with those produced manually by expert operators. A limitation is that, relative to manual delineation, there is reduced sensitivity of the automated method in regions close to the ventricles and the brain contours. However, the automated method presents a number of benefits in terms of offering significant time savings and the elimination of the inter-operator differences inherent to manual tracing approaches. These factors are relevant for the creation of large-scale lesion databases for neuropsychological research. The automated delineation of stroke lesions from CT scans may also enable longitudinal studies to quantify changes in damaged tissue in an objective and reproducible manner.

  1. Factitious lesions of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kaempf de Oliveira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The presence of a lesion with atypical presentation, obscure clinical history, which does not improve with classic treatments, shall raise the red flag of the medical team. In such cases, the hypothesis of a factitious lesion shall be considered. Many times the correct diagnosis on the initial assessment may avoid high-cost diagnostic tests, unnecessary treatments, and time consumption of the medical team. We present here two classic cases of factitious lesions that, similar to those described in the literature, is difficult to diagnose and difficult to treat.

  2. Nerve lesioning with direct current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, E. Natalie; Shi Gan, Liu; Todd, Kathryn; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-02-01

    Spastic hypertonus (muscle over-activity due to exaggerated stretch reflexes) often develops in people with stroke, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Lesioning of nerves, e.g. with phenol or botulinum toxin is widely performed to reduce spastic hypertonus. We have explored the use of direct electrical current (DC) to lesion peripheral nerves. In a series of animal experiments, DC reduced muscle force by controlled amounts and the reduction could last several months. We conclude that in some cases controlled DC lesioning may provide an effective alternative to the less controllable molecular treatments available today.

  3. Differential diagnosis of sacral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reviewed the teaching files of Temple University Hospital and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and selected the best representative cases of various lesions of the sacrum. They selected the following lesions: metastasis, chondrosarcoma, chrodoma, plasmacytoma, giant cell tumor, osteogenic sarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, neuroblastoma, neurofibrosarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, osteoblastoma, ossifying fibroma, eosinophilic granuloma, aneurysmal bone cyst, sacrococcygeal teratoma, anterior meningocele, endodermal sinus tumor, and stress fracture. The authors illustrate, for each lesion, the likely age range, sights of predilection, likelihood of occurrence in the sacrum, and radiographic findings helpful in limiting the differential diagnosis. They demonstrate the value of bone scintigraphy in detecting, and CT in confirming, stress fractures of the sacrum

  4. PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS: CUTANEOUS, SUBCUTANEOUS, NASOPHARYNGEAL LESIONS

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    M. Rasoolinejad

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is an amalgam of clinical diseases caused by a wide variety of dematiaceous fungi. We are reporting on a 16 year-old patient from Amol with subcutaneous cervical nodes and nasopharyngeal lesions of phaeohypho"nmycosis that were confirmed by pathological examination, direct smear, and culture. After treatment with an oral triazole (Itraconazole for 4 months, all nodes and lesions disappeared and treatment was stopped A new lesion appeared on his chest wall 8 months, therapy with itraconazole was restarted and commuted for a long time.

  5. Post-radiotherapeutic heart lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heart structures have traditionally been considered radioresistant. In fact all tissues subjected to radiotherapy can develop lesions. Possible damage includes: - pericardiac fibrosis, the commonest and best individualized, associated with a constriction this leads to a stoppage pattern usually occurring late, around the 18th month. Its frequency depends directly on the total radiation dose; - fibrous myocarditis by direct damage to the heart muscle; - stenosis type lesions of the large coronary trunks; - in exceptional cases lesions of the aorta: hyperplastic degenerescence of the intima and adventitia or of the aortic sigmoid valvules and the mitral valves. Three observations are reported, concerning a coronary, a pericardiac and a coronary, myocardiac and pericardiac lesion. Following this account the irradiation techniques and main experimental data are reviewed and the prophylactic and therapeutic consequences to be derived from our observations and those of the literature are examined

  6. Traumatic lesions of pulmonary parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five cases of post-traumatic pulmonary lesions (contusion, laceration and hematoma) are presented. The pathophysiology, radiological aspects and differential diagnosis are reviewed. The benign evolution showing the absorption in short time, without medical interference is emphasized. (Author)

  7. MRI of Focal Liver Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiin, Nils

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI has more advantages than ultrasound, computed tomography, CT, positron emission tomography, PET, or any other imaging modality in diagnosing focal hepatic masses. With a combination of basic T1 and T2 weighted sequences, diffusion weighted imaging, DWI, and hepatobiliary gadolinium contrast agents, that is gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) and gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB), most liver lesions can be adequately diagnosed. Benign lesions, as cyst, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, FNH or adenoma, can be distinguished from malignant lesions. In a non-cirrhotic liver, the most common malignant lesions are metastases which may be hypovascular or hypervascular. In the cirrhotic liver hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC, is of considerable importance. Besides, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and other less common malignancies has to be assessed. In this review, the techniques and typical MRI features are presented as well as the new algorithm issued by American Association for the Study of the Liver Diseases (AASLD). PMID:23049491

  8. Rosacea with extensive extrafacial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, TM; Vieira, AP; Sousa-Basto, A.

    2008-01-01

    Rosacea is a very common skin disorder in the clinical practice that primarily affects the convex areas of the face. Extrafacial rosacea lesions have occasionally been described, but extensive involvement is exceptional. In the absence of its typical clinical or histological features, the diagnosis of extrafacial rosacea may be problematic. We describe an unusual case of rosacea with very exuberant extrafacial lesions, when compared with the limited involvement of the face.

  9. Cutaneous lesions of the nose

    OpenAIRE

    Altmeyer Peter; Paech Volker; Thrandorf Christina; Sand Daniel; Sand Michael; Bechara Falk G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Skin diseases on the nose are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, otorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners and general plastic and dermatologic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the nose. This article is the second part of a review series dealing with cutaneous lesions on the head and face, which are frequently seen in daily practice by a dermatologic surgeon. In this review, we focus on those skin diseases on the nose where su...

  10. Unusual lesions of the mediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Shamsuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study unusual lesions in the mediastinum, which do not originate from the thymus, lymph nodes, neural tissues or germ cells, and tissues that normally engender pathologic lesions in the mediastinum. Materials and Methods: Of the 65 cases seen, 12 unusual lesion were encountered in a 5½ year period from 2006 to 2011. Results: Two cases of nodular colloid goiter and one each of the mediastinal cyst, undifferentiated carcinoma, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH affected the anterosuperior mediastinum. In the middle mediastinum, one case each of the mesothelioma, malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, solitary fibrous tumor (SFT, and pleomorphic sarcoma (PS was seen. One case of meningeal melanocytoma (Mme and primary pleural liposarcoma (PL involved the posterior mediastinum. Persistent disease was seen in LCH after 2 years. Of all the cases with malignant lesions, only the patient with SCC was alive after 1 year. Conclusion: The cases of primary and SCC, LCH, melanocytoma, liposarcoma and PS, and GIST are unexpected and very rarely have paradigms in the mediastinum. Radiologic impression and knowledge of the compartment where these lesions arose from hardly assisted in arriving at a definitive opinion as the lesions were not typical of this location. A high index of suspicion and the immunohistochemical profile facilitated the final diagnosis.

  11. Space Occupying Lesions in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Ebrahimi Daryani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nRadiology (imaging plays a pivotal role for the diagnosis, staging, treatment planning, and follow-up of focal liver lesions. The differential diagnosis in patients presenting with a focal liver lesion is broad. "nThe size of the liver mass is an important consideration in guiding the evaluation. Lesions smaller than approximately 1.0 cm are commonly benign incidental findings on imaging studies, and in most cases represent small cysts, hemangiomas, or biliary hamartomas. Furthermore, they are frequently difficult to definitively characterize by imaging methods, due to their small size, and difficult to biopsy percutaneously. Often clinical follow-up is the only recourse for these lesions. "nTo formulate a practical approach to these patients, several factors must be incorporated into a clinical decision-making algorithm (figure below, including: the particular clinical setting (e.g., known co-morbidities, underlying cirrhosis or a known primary neoplasm, the presence of clinical signs and symptoms, the results of laboratory tests, and the critical information provided by imaging studies. "nDue to a combination of high spatial resolution and inherent soft-tissue contrast, lack of ionizing radiation, low cost, and wide availability, ultrasonography (US is frequently the first-line imaging modality for the study of the liver. "nMulti-detector row CT (MDCT has become the most commonly used modality in the preoperative diagnosis, staging, treatment planning, and follow-up of patients with known or suspected hepatic tumors. "nTo maximize the detection and characterization of liver tumors, the CT protocol must be designed according to the diagnostic task. To increase the attenuation difference (i.e., conspicuity between the hepatic parenchyma and liver tumors,3 several injection factors need to be optimized, including the volume and iodine concentration of contrast media, the injection rate (4-5mL/s, and the scanning delay from the start of contrast

  12. Cystic parotid gland lesion evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated differential diagnoses of cystic parotid gland lesions and the efficacy of preoperative diagnosis. Of 191 parotid gland nodules resected between January 2003 and October 2008, 167 (87%) were benign and 24 (13%) malignant. Thirty-five parotid gland nodules whose components were almost cystic were enrolled in this study. All cystic lesions were retrospectively evaluated with respect to preoperative diagnostic examinations and histopathological confirmed diagnosis. Cystic components in surgical specimens were also evaluated histopathologically. The relationships with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and histopathological confirmed diagnosis were studied. Of 35 cystic lesions, 11 were complete cystic masses and had no mural nodules, while remaining 24 were incomplete and had mural nodules. Histopathological examinations showed that 5 were nonneoplastic, 27 were cystic degenerations of benign tumors, and 3 were cystic degenerations of malignant tumors. In the 11 complete cysts, preoperative diagnosis could not be made using any modality, whether with fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), salivary scintigraphy, or 67-gallium citrate scintigraphy. Of 24 incomplete cysts, only 9 cystic Warthin tumors were diagnosed correctly before surgery. Studies of cystic components in MRI and histopathology suggested that hemorrhagic degeneration of malignant tumors should be kept in mind for cystic lesions showing hemorrhagic portions. Cystic parotid gland lesions are difficult to diagnose correctly before surgery, but the evaluation of cystic components by MRI and FNAC is helpful in differentiating between benign and malignant tumors. (author)

  13. Radiological Appearance of Extrapulmonary Lesions in Rradiography (CT scan-MRI

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    A. Soltani Shirazi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: To make the diagnosis of chest lesions in chest radiography or CT scan easier, lesions are divided into three main groups: lesions of lung parenchyma, lesions of the heart and mediasti-num and lesions with origins of the protective tissues in the chest. Extrapulmonary lesions have various origins ranging from hard tissues like the bone, to soft tissues such as bone marrow or fatty tissue; they usu-ally present with diverse and sometimes misleading signs and symptoms. Knowledge about the radiologic semiolology of these instances helps to prevent mis-taking these lesions with lesions of pulmonary origin. Consequently timely and appropriate treatment can be provided. Here a study of five thousand chest radi-ographies of extrapulmonary lesions with primary diagnosis of pulmonary lesions is presented and the approach to diagnosis is discussed. According to the present study, 56% of extrapulmonary lesions are de-tectable by means of simple primary radiography and by considering radiologic semiology. We reached definite diagnosis by means of lung CT scan. Other lesions were diagnosed after performing biopsy or surgery.

  14. Abordagem estereotáxica guiada por imagem de lesões do sistema nervoso central: precisão diagnóstica, morbidade, mortalidade Image guided stereotactic approach of central nervous system lesions: accuracy, morbidity, mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO KEN-ITI HISATUGO

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Analisamos 75 pacientes com lesões do sistema nervoso central submetidos a biópsia estereotáxica no período de março de 1993 a dezembro de 1998 na Universidade Federal de São Paulo - Escola Paulista de Medicina. As três lesões mais frequentes foram: metástase, astrocitoma de baixo grau e glioblastoma multiforme. O índice de morbidade foi 2,66% decorrente de: infecção de ferida operatória em uma paciente portadora de cisto talâmico; e de um paciente com linfoma que apresentou crise convulsiva parcial motora durante a cirurgia. A mortalidade foi 1,33% decorrente de piora intensa de edema perilesional, falecendo o paciente após uma semana. O índice de diagnóstico foi 89,33%.We studied seventy-five patients with brain lesions biopsied by stereotaxis from March 1993 to December 1998 at Universidade Federal de São Paulo - Escola Paulista de Medicina. The three most frequent lesions were: metastasis, low grade astrocytomas and glioblastoma multiforme. The morbidity rate was 2.66% due to: one case of scalp infection in a patient with thalamic cyst; and a partial seizure during surgery in a patient with lynphoma. The mortality rate was 1.33% due to increasing of cerebral edema after biopsy and the patient died after one week. The diagnostic accuracy was 89.33%.

  15. Renal lesions of nondomestic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, K M; Newman, S J; White, L A; Rohrbach, B W; Ramsay, E C

    2011-05-01

    To comprehensively evaluate the occurrence of renal lesions in a variety of nondomestic felids, necropsy cases from 1978 to 2008 were reviewed from a municipal zoo and a large cat sanctuary for those in which the kidneys were examined histologically. Seventy exotic felids were identified (25 tigers, 18 lions, 6 cougars, 5 leopards, 3 snow leopards, 3 clouded leopards, 3 Canadian lynx, 2 ocelots, 2 bobcats, 2 cheetahs, 1 jaguar), and their histologic renal lesions were evaluated and compared. The most common lesion was tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN); 36 of 70 (51%) cats were affected to some degree. Lymphocytic interstitial nephritis was the most common lesion in the tigers (9 of 25, 36%) and was rarely seen in other species. Although the renal pelvis was not available for all cats, 28 of 47 (60%) had some degree of lymphocytic pyelitis. There was no significant association between the presence of pyelitis and that of TIN. Only 1 cat had pyelonephritis. Renal papillary necrosis was present in 13 of 70 (19%) cats and was significantly associated with historical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment (odds ratio, 7.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 26.8). Only 1 cat (lion) had amyloid accumulation, and it was restricted to the corticomedullary junction. Primary glomerular lesions were absent in all cats. Intraepithelial pigment was identified in many of the cats but was not correlated with severity of TIN. Despite several previous reports describing primary glomerular disease or renal amyloidosis in exotic felids, these lesions were rare to absent in this population. PMID:20876911

  16. Lesions of juxtacortical origin (surface lesions of bone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenan, S. (Dept. of Orthopaedics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)); Abdelwahab, I.F. (Dept. of Radiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)); Klein, M.J. (Dept. of Pathology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)); Hermann, G. (Dept. of Radiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)); Lewis, M.M. (Dept. of Orthopaedics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States))

    1993-01-01

    A large variety of tumor and tumor-like conditions have been shown to originate from the surface of bone. Most surface lesions are associated with periosteal reaction. The periosteum is a multipotential membrane. Its cellular composition may give rise to a variety of both neoplasms and tumor-like conditions. To avoid misinterpretation, the orthopedist, radiologist, and pathologist should be familiar with the entire spectrum of surface lesions. A better understanding of the natural history and biological behavior at different lesional maturity stages and correlation of the history with the radiographic and pathological findings is essential to establish the correct diagnosis. A history of injury of blunt trauma is very important. A stress fracture may produce a periosteal reaction acd callus that can be difficult to distinguish from osteosarcoma. In this review article, the authors wish to describe and define each term by its anatomy and radiographic features while discussing the entire spectrum of surface lesions. All the illustrative cases in this review article have been proven histologically. (orig.)

  17. Flexibilidad y lesiones de futbolistas

    OpenAIRE

    Gocebate, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Cabe destacar que en deporte se requiere de una correcta preparación física y el caso del fútbol no es diferente a cualquier otro. Este es un deporte en equipo que genera un desgaste físico y mental en cada partido en el cual se pueden sufrir diferentes lesiones. Son varios los factores que predisponen a que se produzcan lesiones, por lo que es importante un correcto entrenamiento diario. Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre los niveles de flexibilidad de la cadena muscula...

  18. Lesion detectability in digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Robert M.; Boswell, Jonathan S.; Myers, Kyle J.; Peter, Guillaume

    2001-06-01

    The usefulness of Fourier-based measures of imaging performance has come into question for the evaluation of digital imaging systems. Figures of merit such as detective quantum efficiency are relevant for linear, shift-invariant systems with stationary noise. However, no digital imaging system is shift invariant, and realistic images do not satisfy the stationarity condition. Our methods for task- based evaluation of imaging systems, based on lesion detectability, do not require such assumptions. We have computed the performance of Hotelling and nonprewhitening matched-filter observers for the task of lesion detection in digital radiography.

  19. The Essex-Lopresti lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, K.; Dargel, J; Burkhart, K. J.; Brüggemann, G. P.; Müller, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    The Essex-Lopresti lesion represents a severe injury of the forearm unit. In the 1940s, it’s pathology and consequences have already been mentioned by several authors. Over the course of time, the pathophysiology of the lesion was displayed in more detail. Therefore, an intensive analysis of the involved anatomic structures was done. The interosseous membrane was shown to play a major role in stabilising the forearm unit, in the situation of a fractured radial head, which is the primary stabi...

  20. Localized lesions in secondary syphillis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical manifestations of secondary syphilis are variable and can mimic many skin diseases, mostly being generalized and symmetrical in distribution. Localized lesions of secondary syphilis are rarely seen in dermatology clinics. We report an unusual presentation wherein a patient had localized lesions over face and soles only. There is a need for increased awareness on the part of physicians to recognize new patterns of syphilitic infection, together with a willingness to consider the diagnosis of syphilis in patients with unusual clinical features. (author)

  1. Lesiones frecuentes en atletas profesionales

    OpenAIRE

    Doyel, Crevecoer

    2015-01-01

    Durante la práctica del atletismo frecuentemente ocurren lesiones, afectando principalmente a los miembros inferiores. Las causas que las originan son muy diversas y tienen diferentes características de acuerdo al tipo de modalidad realizada dentro del atletismo. Objetivo: Analizar las características de las lesiones más frecuentes en miembros inferiores, en atletas corredores profesionales, de diferentes distancias, de ambos sexos, de entre 18 y 40 años de edad, que practican atletismo en...

  2. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis based on oral lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Preto Webber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a deep mycosis with primary lung manifestations that may present cutaneous and oral lesions. Oral lesions mimic other infectious diseases or even squamous cell carcinoma, clinically and microscopically. Sometimes, the dentist is the first to detect the disease, because lung lesions are asymptomatic, or even misdiagnosed. An unusual case of PCM with 5 months of evolution presenting pulmonary, oral, and cutaneous lesions that was diagnosed by the dentist based on oral lesions is presented and discussed.

  3. Imaging inflammatory acne: lesion detection and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2010-02-01

    It is known that effectiveness of acne treatment increases when the lesions are detected earlier, before they could progress into mature wound-like lesions, which lead to scarring and discoloration. However, little is known about the evolution of acne from early signs until after the lesion heals. In this work we computationally characterize the evolution of inflammatory acne lesions, based on analyzing cross-polarized images that document acne-prone facial skin over time. Taking skin images over time, and being able to follow skin features in these images present serious challenges, due to change in the appearance of skin, difficulty in repositioning the subject, involuntary movement such as breathing. A computational technique for automatic detection of lesions by separating the background normal skin from the acne lesions, based on fitting Gaussian distributions to the intensity histograms, is presented. In order to track and quantify the evolution of lesions, in terms of the degree of progress or regress, we designed a study to capture facial skin images from an acne-prone young individual, followed over the course of 3 different time points. Based on the behavior of the lesions between two consecutive time points, the automatically detected lesions are classified in four categories: new lesions, resolved lesions (i.e. lesions that disappear completely), lesions that are progressing, and lesions that are regressing (i.e. lesions in the process of healing). The classification our methods achieve correlates well with visual inspection of a trained human grader.

  4. Altered serial position learning after frontal lobe lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslinger, P J; Grattan, L M

    1994-06-01

    The serial position function is a powerful and highly reliable feature of human learning, with well-described primacy and recency effects. We tested the hypothesis that frontal lobe lesions in patients would disrupt the serial position function since such patients are known to have disturbed temporal ordering, learning in the presence of interference, encoding and organizational approaches to learning. Performance was compared in patients with focal, acquired lesions of frontal and non-frontal cortices, using a standardized paradigm of verbal list learning. Results indicated a similar pattern of performance on first trial learning for the two groups. However, across learning trials, frontal lesion subjects failed to maintain significant primacy and recency effects. Non-frontal lesion subjects consistently showed the expected U-shaped serial position curve across all trials. Subjective organization in learning was particularly deficient in the dorsolateral frontal lesion subjects. We propose that serial position effects are qualitatively different after frontal lobe lesion, being transitory and prone to alteration by the cumulative effects of disturbed temporal-spatial processing across learning trials. PMID:8084427

  5. Odontogenic lesions in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qi-Gen; Shi, Shuang; Sun, Chang-Fu

    2014-05-01

    The purpose was to evaluate our 20-year experience of pediatric odontogenic lesions. Pediatric patients with a diagnosis of odontogenic lesion were identified. Three hundred ten patients were odontogenic; dentigerous cyst was seen in 62.0% of the cases. Most (70.2%) of them occurred in mixed dentition period, and it had a male preponderance. Odontogenic keratocystic tumor occurred in the permanent dentition period. It had an equal site distribution. Odontoma was seen in 20.0% of the cases. Its site of predilection was the mandible. Ameloblastoma was the most common odontogenic tumor. Most of the cases occurred in the permanent dentition period. It affected the male and female equally. Calcifying epithelioma odontogenic tumor was seen in 11.8% of the cases. All the lesions occurred in the primary dentition period. It had no sex or site preponderance. Myxoma was seen in 3.6% of the cases. It was most common in the permanent dentition period, and it was more frequent in the male. Iliac crest bone graft was successfully performed in 28 patients, postoperative infection occurred in 2 patients, and no donor-site dysfunctions were reported. The observed differences in lesion type and distribution in this study compared with previous researches may be attributable to genetic and geographic variation in the populations studied. Iliac crest bone graft was suggested for pediatric mandible reconstruction. PMID:24785745

  6. Pigmented Lesions of the Vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürol Açıkgöz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented lesions on the vulva are rare and their non specific features cause difficulties in their diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Because of their localization, it is difficult to follow up vulvar lesions, which are generally noticed coincidentally by patients. Vulvar pigmented lesions are classified clinically as macules/papules and patches/plaques to provide ease of the diagnosis. Nevi, angiokeratomas, seborrheic keratosis, melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are classified under the macules/papules, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, physiological hyperpigmentation, melanosis and acanthosis nigricans are classified under the patch/plaque. Dermatoscopic examination, which is increasing recently, is very valuable for avoiding possible cosmetic and functional complications of surgical procedures. However, epidermal pigmentations such as vulvar melanosis and vulvar intraepitelyal neoplazi are dermatoscopically indistinguishable. It may also be difficult to diagnose vulvar melanoma clinically and dermatoscopically. Histological examination is the gold standard for the diagnosis of pigmented vulvar lesions, which are clinically and dermatoscopically indistinguishable. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 39-44

  7. Stereotactic lesioning for mental illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report stereotactically created lesioning by radiofrequency or Cyberknife radiosurgery for patients with mental illness. Since 1993, thirty-eight patients have undergone stereotactic psychosurgery for medically intractable mental illnesses. Two patients had aggressive behavior. Twenty-five patients suffered from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and ten patients had depression. Another patient suffered from atypical psychosis. Bilateral amygdalotomy and subcaudate tractotomy were done for aggressive behavior. Limbic leucotomy or anterior cingulotomy was done for CCD and subcaudate tractotomy with or without cingulotomy was done for depression. In twenty-three patients, the lesions were made by a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator. In fifteen cases, the lesions were made with Cyberknife Radiosurgery (CKRS). The Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) declined from 8 to 2 with clinical improvement during follow up period. With long-term follow up (meaning 57 months) in 25 OCDs, the mean Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Score (YBOCS) declined from 34 to 13 (n = 25). The Hamilton Depression scale (HAMD) for ten patients with depression declined from 38.5 to 10.5 (n = 10). There was no operative mortality and no significant morbidity except one case with transient urinary incontinence. Authors suggest that stereotactic psychosurgery by RF and CKRS could be a safe and effective means of treating some medically intractable mental illnesses. (author)

  8. Microbiological aspects of endoperiodontal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Tokunaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The endoperiodontal lesion occurs when a tooth undergoing endodontic disease is united to a periodontal lesion with apical progression. Many times, the differential diagnosis between the endodontic and periodontal disease can be of difficult execution and the correct diagnosis and planing of the treatment is of main importance for a good prognosis Objective: To identify the main microorganisms within the lesion of endodontic and periodontal origin and correlate them with the endoperiodontal lesion. Literature review: The search strategy comprised the electronic studies of databases such as PubMed and Cochrane on the microbiology of the endodontic and periodontal systems through employing the following keywords: microbiology, endodontics, periodontal pocket. Results: There were similarities in the endodontic and periodontal microflora. However, the number of microorganisms within the cross infection is limited, including Bacteroides, Eubacteria, Fusobacteria, spirochaetes, Wolinella. The bacterias forming the red complex are closely related to the severity of the periodontal disease and can also participate in the pathogenesis of the periradicular abscesses. Conclusion: There are many communication routes between the periodontium and pulpal tissue, therefore the contamination from um tissue to another can occur, existing a microbiological inter-relationship between these tissues.

  9. Secondary syphilis lesions resembling pityriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case report describes a male patient who presented with generalized, centrally-ulcerated papules with crusts and hypopigmented macules. Initially, differential diagnostic considerations included pityriasis lichenoides but the serology for syphilis was positive and there was a rapid response to penicillin with clearing of the lesions at the end of three weeks treatment. (author)

  10. [Application of Interventional Bronchoscopy in Pulmonary Peripheral Lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Huang, Linian

    2016-08-20

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. A low cure rate of lung cancer is not only attributed to intrinsic aggressive biological behavior, but also little attention to lung cancer screening. With lung screening methods continuous progress, peripheral pulmonary lesions detection rate gradually increased. Currently, a transbronchial approach using a bronchoscope or computed tompgraphy (CT) guided transthoracic needle aspiration/biopsy have been the most generally accepted methods for diagnosing peripheral pulmonary lesions. However, conventional bronchoscopy has a poor diagnostic yield and CT-guided approach has high rates of pneumothorax for such peripheral pulmonary lesions. Therefore, clinicians will be challenged with the task of providing the means to provide a safe and minimally invasive method of obtaining accurate tissue diagnostics for the pulmonary peripheral lesions. New bronchoscopic interventional diagnosis technologies have recommended in clinical gradually. They can effectively improve the peripheral pulmonary lesions diagnosis rate, shorten the time of diagnosis, and make the patients get timely and effective treatment. In this paper, we reviewed briefly available technologies to aid clinicians in attempts at minimally invasive techniques. PMID:27561808

  11. Surgical management of metastatic lesions at the cervicothoracic junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph F Baker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The cervicothoracic junction (CTJ represents a transition from the semirigid thoracic spine to the mobile subaxial cervical spine. Pathologic lesions are prone to kyphotic deformity. The aim of this study was to review our experience with surgical stabilization of metastatic lesions affecting the CTJ (C7-T2. Materials and Methods: We reviewed all surgical stabilizations of metastatic spine lesions over the preceding 4 years in our institution. A total of 14 patients with CTJ lesions were identified. Case notes and radiology were reviewed to determine the presentation, outcomes, and specific complications. Results: The mean survival was 405 days (standard deviation [s.d.] 352. 8/14 died at a mean time from surgery of 193 days (s.d. 306. Most cases were a result of either lung or breast primary tumors. Half were stabilized with an anterior only approach and two had staged anterior-posterior. There were no cases of neurologic deterioration in this cohort as a result of surgery. There were two cases of deep surgical site infection and two documented cases of pulmonary embolus. There were no reported construct failures over the follow-up period. Conclusion: Patients with cervicothoracic metastatic lesions can be treated with either anterior or posterior approaches or a combination after considering each individual′s potential instability and disease burden.

  12. Imaging of Chest Wall Lesions in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hekmatnia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chest wall lesions in childhood include a wide range of pathologies; Benign lesions include lipoma, neurofibroma, lymphangioma, hemangioma, and mesenchymal hamartoma."nMalignant lesions include Neuroblastoma, Rhabdo-myosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and Askin tumor."nSystemic diseases such as leukemia, lymphoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and also infections such as tuberculosis, and actinomycosis may also cause chest wall lesions."nThe imaging characteristics of these lesions are re-viewed, but only a minority of the lesions shows diagnostic imaging features, and most of lesions re-quire biopsy and histopathological examination for "ndefinitive diagnosis."nThe role of different modalities is discussed with an emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging for demonstrating lesion morphology and local spread. Computed tomography and neuclear medicine being used mainly to assess remote disease."nIn this lecture, we discuss about imaging of chest wall lesions in children.

  13. Petrous apex lesions in the pediatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Son, Hwa Jung [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-03-15

    A variety of abnormal imaging findings of the petrous apex are encountered in children. Many petrous apex lesions are identified incidentally while images of the brain or head and neck are being obtained for indications unrelated to the temporal bone. Differential considerations of petrous apex lesions in children include ''leave me alone'' lesions, infectious or inflammatory lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, neoplasms and neoplasm-like lesions, as well as a few rare miscellaneous conditions. Some lesions are similar to those encountered in adults, and some are unique to children. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and primary and metastatic pediatric malignancies such as neuroblastoma, rhabomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are more likely to be encountered in children. Lesions such as petrous apex cholesterol granuloma, cholesteatoma and chondrosarcoma are more common in adults and are rarely a diagnostic consideration in children. We present a comprehensive pictorial review of CT and MRI appearances of pediatric petrous apex lesions. (orig.)

  14. Lethal, potentially lethal lesion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, S.B.

    1983-07-01

    A theoretical framework to describe the formation of lethal mutations by radiation is presented. Lesions that are repaired (and misrepaired) in each type of experiment described (delayed plating and split dose) are assumed to be the same. In this model the same (potentially lethal) lesions cause both sublethal and potentially lethal damage. Potentially lethal damage is defined as damage which may be modified by alterations in postirradiation conditions. Sublethal damage is cellular damage whose accumulation may lead to lethality. A crucial consideration in the expression of the damage is the kind of medium in which the cells are placed during the repair period. Fresh or growth medium (F-medium) is assumed to cause fixation of damage after about 3 hours, while no fixation (only misrepair) occurs in conditioned medium (C-medium).

  15. Cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Esther Diana; Mulè, Antonino; Maggiore, Claudia; Miraglia, Antonella; Lauriola, Libero; Vecchio, Fabio Maria; Fadda, Guido

    2004-01-01

    The major types of cytologic preparations used in most laboratories to detect the lesions of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) are examined. These methods include sputum, bronchial washing, bronchial brushing, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Sputum represents the simplest and most cost-effective sampling method even though fiberoptic bronchoscopy and radiologic guided FNAB are superseding it as the first diagnostic choice in most cases. There are advantages and disadvantages associated with each technique:bronchial brushing and FNABs tend to preserve both the cellular details and their architectural arrangement whereas sputum and bronchial washing often cause a variable degree of cellular degeneration and fragmentation. As a result, most pulmonary lesions may be detected and correctly diagnosed if multiple techniques are used to acquire diagnostic material. CT-guided FNAB represents the most effective method to achieve a correct diagnosis in pulmonary tumors. PMID:15852720

  16. Identifying Lesions on Structural Brain Images-Validation of the Method and Application to Neuropsychological Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, E.A.; Tyler, L.K.

    2005-01-01

    The study of neuropsychological disorders has been greatly facilitated by the localization of brain lesions on MRI scans. Current popular approaches for the assessment of MRI brain scans mostly depend on the successful segmentation of the brain into grey and white matter. These methods cannot be used effectively with large lesions because lesions…

  17. Implant periapical lesion. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Venetis, Fotis Iordanidis, Paraskevi Giovani, Lambros Zouloumis

    2011-01-01

    Ιmplant periapical lesion (IPL) is probably not a uniform entity in all cases presented in the literature. Asseptic bone necrosis may be a cause for some of the IPLs, whilst the presence of microorganisms is not always detectable with conventional methods. A case of IPL in a male patient who underwent an extraction of 12 tooth and an immediate implantation at this site is presented. Eight months postoperatively, an IPL was revealed on radiologic examination. After surgical exploration, the IP...

  18. Cystic Lesions in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gompertz, Macarena; Morales, Claudia; Aldana, Hernán; Castillo, Jaime; Berger, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) can be chronic or recurrent, but frequently completely reversible after steroid treatment. A cystic lesion in AIP is a rare finding, and it can mimic a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Difficulties in an exact diagnosis interfere with treatment, and surgery cannot be avoided in some cases. We report the history of a 63-year-old male presenting with jaundice and pruritus. AIP was confirmed by imaging and elevated IgG4 blood levels, and the patient completely recovered ...

  19. Symmetrical thalamic lesions in infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Eicke, M.; Briner, J; Willi, U; Uehlinger, J; Boltshauser, E

    1992-01-01

    Clinical observations and findings on imaging are reported in six newborns with symmetrical thalamic lesions (STL). In three cases the diagnosis was confirmed by postmortem examination. Characteristic observations in this series and 17 previously reported cases include no evidence of perinatal asphyxia, high incidence of polyhydramnios, absent suck and swallow, absent primitive reflexes, appreciable spasticity at or within days of birth, lack of psychomotor development, and death within days ...

  20. Incidental benign parotid lesions on FDG-PET: prevalence and clinico-pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incidental parotid lesions on F-18 FDG-PET can mimic distant metastasis of underlying malignancy. The prevalence and the clinico-pathologic findings of PET positive parotid lesions have not been known. We investigated how often incidental parotid lesions are found on clinical FDG-PET studies and what the clinico-pathologic characteristics of those parotid lesions are in the present study. We retrospectively reviewed 3,344 cases of FDG-PET which had been obtained in our hospital from May 2003 to Dec 2006. The indications of FDG-PET were: evaluation of known/suspected cancer (n = 3,212) or screening of cancer in healthy subjects (n = 132). Incidental parotid lesion on FDG-PET was defined as an un-expected FDG uptake in one of parotid glands which was not primary target lesion of current FDG/PET. FDG uptake was represented by maximum standardized uptake value (maxSUV). Final diagnosis was made by pathologic analysis or clinical follow-up assessment. Fifteen (0.45% = 15/3,344) incidental parotid lesions were found and they were all benign lesions. The maxSUV ranged from 1.7 to 8.6 (mean ± s.d. = 3.7 ± 1.9). Final diagnoses of the incidental parotid lesions were; Warthin's tumor (n = 2), pleomorphic adenoma (n = 1), other un-specified benign lesion (n 1), and benign lesions under bases of imaging studies (n = 3) and of clinical follow-up (n = 8). All of incidentally found parotid lesions in clinical FDG-PET studies were confirmed as benign lesions with prevalence of 0.45%. Close follow up using PET or CT might be a reasonable approach for determining the nature of incidentally found parotid lesions

  1. Radiological diagnosis of adrenal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among all the radiological examination techniques, CT is today, besides scintigraphy, the method of choice as far as the detection of functional adrenal lesions is concerned. In primary aldosteronism, CT classification of the syndrome is based on the detection of an adenoma which can be reliably detected in adenoma sizes up to 8-10 mm. Thus, 70 to 80% of Conn's syndromes can be classified. In adrenal Cushing's syndrome, the distinction between adenoma and carcinoma of the adrenal gland is up to CT and can usually be easily made due to the characteristic morphology of each type of lesion. In case of a typcial adrenal or juxtaadrenal tumor location, detection of a pheochromocytoma is likewise easy. In ectopic and multiple pheochromocytomas or such as occur as part of a MEN-syndrome, the situation is quite different. If lesions of the adrenal gland are found by accident in examinations otherwise indicated, the question arises whether the process is malignant or benign. In this respect, all the traditional imaging methods, including CT, involve a considerable factor or uncertainity, especially if a malignant tumor is anamnestically known and the question of metastases arises. According to recent information, MR-imaging seems to be advantageous concerning this difficult differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Feasibility evaluation of applying the first stage posterior lateral approach lesion clearance bone grafting operation for elderly patients with thoracic spinal tuberculosis%老年胸椎结核患者应用一期后外侧入路病灶清除植骨融合术的可行性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟鸿波

    2016-01-01

    目的:评价探讨老年胸椎结核患者应用一期后外侧入路病灶清除植骨融合术的可行性和临床疗效。方法回顾性分析我院2014年5月至2015年5月收治的40例老年胸椎结核患者的临床资料,按照不同的手术方法将患者分为观察组和对照组各20例患者,观察组患者使用一期后外侧入路病灶清除植骨融合术,对照组患者使用一期前路病灶清除植骨融合术,治疗结束后观察对比两组患者的治疗效果。结果观察组的术后复发率5%显著低于对照组的45%,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义,观察组的手术时间、术中出血量、住院时间等治疗指标均优于对照组 P <0.05。结论将一期后外侧入路病灶清除植骨融合术应用于老年胸椎结核患者的治疗中,可明显缩短患者的住院时间,减小手术过程中造成的创伤,具有优良的疗效,有效改善患者预后提高患者的生活治疗,值得在临床工作中推广使用。%Objective to evaluate feasibility and clinical effect of applying the first stage posterior lateral approach lesion clearance bone grafting operation for elderly patients with thoracic spinal tuberculosis. Method review and analyze clinical data of 40 cases elderly patients with thoracic spinal tuberculosis in our hospital from May 2014 to May 2015.According to different surgical methods divide them into observation and control group, 20 cases in each. Observation group were treated with the first stage posterior lateral approach lesion clearance bone grafting operation, and control group with the first stage anterior lateral approach lesion clearance bone grafting operation, compare and observe two groups with therapeutic effect after treatment. Result postoperative recurrence rate of observation group was 5%, significantly lower than 45% of control group, P < 0.05, difference showed statistical significance. And operation time, blood loss, hospitalization time and

  3. Surgical treatment of gallbladder polypoid lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Pejić Miljko A.; Milić Dragan J.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder can be divided into benign and malignant categories. Malignant polypoid lesions include carcinomas of the gallbladder, which is the fifth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract and the most common malignancy of the biliary tract. Benign polypoid lesions of the gallbladder are divided into true tumors and pseudotumors. Pseudotumors account for most of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder, and include polyps, hyperplasia, and other m...

  4. Quantification of osteolytic bone lesions in a preclinical rat trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fränzle, Andrea; Bretschi, Maren; Bäuerle, Tobias; Giske, Kristina; Hillengass, Jens; Bendl, Rolf

    2013-10-01

    In breast cancer, most of the patients who died, have developed bone metastasis as disease progression. Bone metastases in case of breast cancer are mainly bone destructive (osteolytic). To understand pathogenesis and to analyse response to different treatments, animal models, in our case rats, are examined. For assessment of treatment response to bone remodelling therapies exact segmentations of osteolytic lesions are needed. Manual segmentations are not only time-consuming but lack in reproducibility. Computerized segmentation tools are essential. In this paper we present an approach for the computerized quantification of osteolytic lesion volumes using a comparison to a healthy reference model. The presented qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the reconstructed bone volumes show, that the automatically segmented lesion volumes complete missing bone in a reasonable way.

  5. PROLIFERATIVE INFLAMMATORY ATROPHY: POTENTIAL PRECURSOR LESION FOR PROSTATIC ADENOCARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetti-Padrón Inés

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostatic Intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN is currently considered as the only precursor lesion of prostate cancer (PCa; nevertheless, some years ago, it has been suspected that the atrophic lesions also might be involved in its carcinogenesis. In 1999, De Marzo prospered, the expression Proliferative Inflammatory Atrophy (PIA to denominate a lesion located in the peripheral area of the gland, with epithelial cells with high proliferative potential, frequently accompanied of inflammation that has been postulated as possible precursor lesion of PIN and PCa. Objective: To review the concepts about Proliferative Inflammatory Atrophy (PIA, its morphological, genetics and molecular characteristics and to explain the precursor capacity of PIN and PCa. Methods: Databases Pubmed, Sciencedirect, EBSCOhost and OvidSP were reviewed in search of studies, systematic reviews, consensus and meta-analyses with keywords: Proliferative Inflammatory Atrophy, Prostatic Atrophy, Prostatic Carcinoma, using as due date December of 2012. Results: Molecular disorders described in PIA support the beginning of these lesions in a context of oxidative stress, possibly caused by the surrounding inflammatory cells, which induce the expression of defense gene against the oxidative damage of the genome in some epithelial cells, while those that fail in the expression of these gene become vulnerable to oxidants and electrophiles, which do them prone to develop genetic disorders that will benefit their transformation in cells of PIN and PCa. The morphological association PIA-PIN/PCa points to a progressive relationship between these lesions.Conclusion: Topographic association and morphological transition of PIA with PIN and PCa have been observed. Besides, genetic, somatic and molecular disorders have been reported in PIA, similar to those observed in PIN and PCa due to it has been postulated as possible precursor lesion of both. Nevertheless, this approach is

  6. CLASSIFYING NODULAR LESIONS OF ORAL CAVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Bhateja

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of many lesions of the oral cavity is challenging to most cliniciansbecause of their uncommon prevalence. A number of cystic, osteodystrophic,microbial, tumor and tumor like lesions of the oral cavity are present withcharacteristic exophytic/raised surface; which makes their diagnosis and studysimpler. The present article is attempted at classifying the common nodular lesions ofthe oral cavity.

  7. Lytic clavicular lesions in fibromatosis colli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two patients with fibromatosis colli (congenital torticollis) presented with lytic lesions in the clavicle at the insertion of the fibrosed clavicular head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Biopsy of one lesion showed intraosseous fibrosis. These lesions are probably not uncommon but radiographs are rarely performed in uncomplicated cases. (orig.)

  8. Lytic clavicular lesions in fibromatosis colli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartoris, D.J.; Parker, B.R.; Mochizuki, R.M.

    1983-06-01

    Two patients with fibromatosis colli (congenital torticollis) presented with lytic lesions in the clavicle at the insertion of the fibrosed clavicular head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Biopsy of one lesion showed intraosseous fibrosis. These lesions are probably not uncommon but radiographs are rarely performed in uncomplicated cases.

  9. Activities of daily living and lesion position among multiple sclerosis patients by Bayes network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifang Pan; Hongtao Lu; Qi Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a highly sensitive approach for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, and T2-weighted images can reveal lesions in the cerebral white matter, gray matter, and spinal cord. However, the lesions have a poor correlation with measurable clinical disability. In this study, we performed a large-scale epidemiological survey of 238 patients with multiple sclerosis in eleven districts by network member hospitals in Shanghai, China within 1 year. The involved patients were scanned for position and size of lesions by MRI. Results showed that lesions in the cerebrum, spinal cord, or supratentorial position had an impact on the activities of daily living in multiple sclerosis patients, as assessed by the Bayes network. On the other hand, brainstem lesions were very unlikely to influence the activities of daily living, and were not associated with the position of lesion, patient's gender, and patient's living place.

  10. Application of Intraoperative Ultrasonography for Guiding Microneurosurgical Resection of Small Subcortical Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jia; Duan, Yun You; Liu, Xi; Wang, Yu; Gao, Guo Dong; Qin, Huai Zhou; Wang, Liang [Tangdu Hospital of the Fourth Military Medicine University, Xi an (China)

    2011-10-15

    We wanted to evaluate the clinical value of intraoperative ultrasonography for real-time guidance when performing microneurosurgical resection of small subcortical lesions. Fifty-two patients with small subcortical lesions were involved in this study. The pathological diagnoses were cavernous hemangioma in 25 cases, cerebral glioma in eight cases, abscess in eight cases, small inflammatory lesion in five cases, brain parasite infection in four cases and the presence of an intracranial foreign body in two cases. An ultrasonic probe was sterilized and lightly placed on the surface of the brain during the operation. The location, extent, characteristics and adjacent tissue of the lesion were observed by high frequency ultrasonography during the operation. All the lesions were located in the cortex and their mean size was 1.3 {+-} 0.2 cm. Intraoperative ultrasonography accurately located all the small subcortical lesions, and so the neurosurgeon could provide appropriate treatment. Different lesion pathologies presented with different ultrasonic appearances. Cavernous hemangioma exhibited irregular shapes with distinct margins and it was mildly hyperechoic or hyperechoic. The majority of the cerebral gliomas displayed irregular shapes with indistinct margins, and they often showed cystic and solid mixed echoes. Postoperative imaging identified that the lesions had completely disappeared, and the original symptoms of all the patients were significantly alleviated. Intraoperative ultrasonography can help accurately locate small subcortical lesions and it is helpful for selecting the proper approach and guiding thorough resection of these lesions.

  11. Experimental osteoarthritis in rabbits: lesion progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma N.S. Campos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the progression of lesions in different stages of osteoarthritis (OA experimental by radiography (RX, computed tomography (CT, macroscopic and histopathology, linking these different diagnostic methods, helped to provide information that helps the best time for the therapeutic approach. Four experimental periods were delineated at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks after induction of OA, known as PI, PII, PIII and PIV, respectively, each with six animals. We evaluated the five compartments of the femorotibial joint: medial femoral condyle (MFC, lateral femoral condyle (LFC, medial tibial plateau (MTP, lateral tibial plateau (LTP and femoral trochlea (FT. Therefore we established an index by compartment (IC and by adding such an index was estimated joint femorotibial (IFT. It was observed that the CFM was the compartment with the highest IC also differed significantly (p0.05 between the PI and PII, however contrary fact occurred between the PII and PIII (p 0.05 between the PI and PII. In the variation of the average interval between periods, there was a higher value between the PIII PIV and for the other intervals of time periods (PI, PII, and PIII-PII. However, these intervals showed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05. Through the RX, CT, macroscopic and histopathological findings, we found similar patterns among individuals within the same period demonstrating a gradual progression of the disease. These results show that between 3 and 6 weeks progression of the lesion is slower and probably also can be reversed in comparison to other ranges where proved further progression between 9 and 12 weeks after induction of trauma OA. These results may provide a better therapeutic approach aimed at reversing the lesions in early stages of OA. We conclude that the interconnection of the four diagnostic methods individually classified into scores, which were unified in both indices in the evaluation by the femorotibial

  12. Segmentation of multiple sclerosis lesions in MR images: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that the parts of the nervous system through the lesions generated in the white matter of the brain. It brings about disabilities in different organs of the body such as eyes and muscles. Early detection of MS and estimation of its progression are critical for optimal treatment of the disease. For diagnosis and treatment evaluation of MS lesions, they may be detected and segmented in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of the brain. However, due to the large amount of MRI data to be analyzed, manual segmentation of the lesions by clinical experts translates into a very cumbersome and time consuming task. In addition, manual segmentation is subjective and prone to human errors. Several groups have developed computerized methods to detect and segment MS lesions. These methods are not categorized and compared in the past. This paper reviews and compares various MS lesion segmentation methods proposed in recent years. It covers conventional methods like multilevel thresholding and region growing, as well as more recent Bayesian methods that require parameter estimation algorithms. It also covers parameter estimation methods like expectation maximization and adaptive mixture model which are among unsupervised techniques as well as kNN and Parzen window methods that are among supervised techniques. Integration of knowledge-based methods such as atlas-based approaches with Bayesian methods increases segmentation accuracy. In addition, employing intelligent classifiers like Fuzzy C-Means, Fuzzy Inference Systems, and Artificial Neural Networks reduces misclassified voxels. (orig.)

  13. Segmentation of multiple sclerosis lesions in MR images: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortazavi, Daryoush; Kouzani, Abbas Z. [Deakin University, School of Engineering, Geelong, Victoria (Australia); Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid [Henry Ford Health System, Image Analysis Laboratory, Radiology Department, Detroit, MI (United States); University of Tehran, Control and Intelligent Processing Center of Excellence (CIPCE), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Cognitive Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that the parts of the nervous system through the lesions generated in the white matter of the brain. It brings about disabilities in different organs of the body such as eyes and muscles. Early detection of MS and estimation of its progression are critical for optimal treatment of the disease. For diagnosis and treatment evaluation of MS lesions, they may be detected and segmented in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of the brain. However, due to the large amount of MRI data to be analyzed, manual segmentation of the lesions by clinical experts translates into a very cumbersome and time consuming task. In addition, manual segmentation is subjective and prone to human errors. Several groups have developed computerized methods to detect and segment MS lesions. These methods are not categorized and compared in the past. This paper reviews and compares various MS lesion segmentation methods proposed in recent years. It covers conventional methods like multilevel thresholding and region growing, as well as more recent Bayesian methods that require parameter estimation algorithms. It also covers parameter estimation methods like expectation maximization and adaptive mixture model which are among unsupervised techniques as well as kNN and Parzen window methods that are among supervised techniques. Integration of knowledge-based methods such as atlas-based approaches with Bayesian methods increases segmentation accuracy. In addition, employing intelligent classifiers like Fuzzy C-Means, Fuzzy Inference Systems, and Artificial Neural Networks reduces misclassified voxels. (orig.)

  14. New Fully Automated Method for Segmentation of Breast Lesions on Ultrasound Based on Texture Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Flores, Wilfrido; Ruiz-Ortega, Bedert Abel

    2016-07-01

    The study described here explored a fully automatic segmentation approach based on texture analysis for breast lesions on ultrasound images. The proposed method involves two main stages: (i) In lesion region detection, the original gray-scale image is transformed into a texture domain based on log-Gabor filters. Local texture patterns are then extracted from overlapping lattices that are further classified by a linear discriminant analysis classifier to distinguish between the "normal tissue" and "breast lesion" classes. Next, an incremental method based on the average radial derivative function reveals the region with the highest probability of being a lesion. (ii) In lesion delineation, using the detected region and the pre-processed ultrasound image, an iterative thresholding procedure based on the average radial derivative function is performed to determine the final lesion contour. The experiments are carried out on a data set of 544 breast ultrasound images (including cysts, benign solid masses and malignant lesions) acquired with three distinct ultrasound machines. In terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, the one-way analysis of variance test (α=0.05) indicates that the proposed approach significantly outperforms two published fully automatic methods (ptexture features to accurately segment breast lesions. In addition, the proposed approach can potentially be used for automated computer diagnosis purposes to assist physicians in detection and classification of breast masses. PMID:27095150

  15. Efficacy of endoport-guided endoscopic resection for deep-seated brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Kwang-Wook; Shin, Hyung Jin; Nam, Do-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Il; Park, Kwan; Kim, Jong Hyun; Kong, Doo-Sik

    2011-10-01

    Surgery for deep-seated brain lesions without causing significant trauma to the overlying cortex is difficult because brain retraction is required to approach these lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of endoport-guided endoscopic or microscopic removal for deep-seated lesions using the neuronavigation system. Between October 2008 and December 2009, 21 patients (17 men and 4 women; average age, 40.8 years) underwent endoport-guided endoscopic tumor removal. We adapted the transparent tubular conduit, so-called "endoport," to target the lesions under the guidance of neuronavigation. We then determined the efficacy and limitations of this technique with fully endoscopic removal, compared with standard approaches using a spatula retractor. Gross total resection of the lesions was achieved in 14 of 21 patients (66%), and partial removal occurred in four (19%) patients. However, there was failure to remove the lesion through the endoport in three patients (14.3%), requiring the use of blade spatula retractors. In reviewing the seven cases with either failure or partial removal, it was found that a large tumor size (≥ 3 cm) and calcified lesions were the major factors limiting the application of this technique. Endoport-guided endoscopic surgery facilitated an accurate and minimally invasive technique for removal of these deep-seated brain lesions. This procedure required a protracted learning curve although, when successful, this approach can minimize brain retraction and provide satisfactory visualization. PMID:21614427

  16. Structure and mechanism for DNA lesion recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yang

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental question in DNA repair is how a lesion is detected when embedded in millions to billions of normal base pairs. Extensive structural and functional studies reveal atomic details of DNA repair protein and nucleic acid interactions. This review summarizes seemingly diverse structural motifs used in lesion recognition and suggests a general mechanism to recognize DNA lesion by the poor base stacking. After initial recognition of this shared struc-tural feature of lesions, different DNA repair pathways use unique verification mechanisms to ensure correct lesion identification and removal.

  17. Pancreatic Lesion: Malignancy or Abscess?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulik, Oleg; Cavanagh, Yana; Grossman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pancreatic abscesses are rare. They may be seen in patients with pancreatic inflammation or pancreatitis. Patients with pancreatic abscesses may have abdominal pain, fever, chills, and nausea/vomiting or an inability to eat. Presentation with alternate symptomatology is extremely unusual. CASE REPORT A 67-year-old Asian male presented with painless, afebrile obstructive jaundice and a CA 19-9 of 1732 IU. He was found to have a 3.1×2.4 cm low-density lesion in the head of the pancreas and the right lobe of the liver, suggesting malignancy. Surgical management was considered, however additional diagnostic workup, including an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), was performed to complete staging of the presumed mass. A smooth, 3-cm-long, tapering stricture was found it the common bile duct. It was stented from the common hepatic duct to the duodenum. Subsequent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) evaluation of the pancreatic head lesion revealed a drainable fluid collection that was aspirated and found to contain pyogenic material on pathology. The patient's symptoms resolved, and he was subsequently managed conservatively. A repeat ERCP confirmed complete resolution of the previously visualized cystic lesion. Interestingly, laboratory values showed concomitant normalization of CA 19-9 to 40 IU. CONCLUSIONS EUS-guided biopsy is not widely regarded as a required step before surgery, in the management of patients with pancreatic masses. It is generally reserved for determination of resectability or staging, and only utilized when clinically indicated. However, this practice may be associated with an inherently significant risk of misdiagnosis and subsequent unnecessary surgery, as illustrated by this case. Malignancy was initially suspected in our patient and surgical resection was recommended. Endoscopic measures were only pursued to complete staging. We propose that EUS-guided biopsy may be a crucial diagnostic step in the management algorithm

  18. Self-inflicted skin lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Smith, Matthias Nybro; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2014-01-01

    The current literature on the management of self-inflicted skin lesions points to an overall paucity of treatments with a high level of evidence (randomized controlled trials, controlled trials, or meta-analyses). In order to improve the communication between dermatologists and mental health...... professionals, the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry (ESDaP) recently proposed a classification of psychodermatological terms in order to establish a coherent use of terms across the medical fields involved. We reviewed current and previous psychodermatological diagnoses in order to clarify how...

  19. Breast ultrasound lesions classification: a performance evaluation between manual delineation and computer segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Moi Hoon; Yap, Chuin Hong

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is a threat to women worldwide. Manual delineation on breast ultrasound lesions is time-consuming and operator dependent. Computer segmentation of ultrasound breast lesions can be a challenging task due to the ill-defined lesions boundaries and issues related to the speckle noise in ultrasound images. The main contribution of this paper is to compare the performance of the computer classifier on the manual delineation and computer segmentation in malignant and benign lesions classification. This paper we implement computer segmentation using multifractal approach on a database consists of 120 images (50 malignant lesions and 70 benign lesions). The computer segmentation result is compared with the manual delineation using Jaccard Similarity Index (JSI). The result shows that the average JSI of 0.5010 (+/-0.2088) for malignant lesions and the average JSI of 0.6787 (+/-0.1290) for benign lesions. These results indicate lower agreement in malignant lesions due to the irregular shape while the higher agreement in benign lesions with regular shape. Further, we extract the shape descriptors for the lesions. By using logistic regression with 10 fold cross validation, the classification rates of manual delineation and computer segmentation are computed. The computer segmentation produced results with sensitivity 0.780 and specificity 0.871. However, the manual delineation produced sensitivity of 0.520 and specificity of 0.800. The results show that there are no clear differences between the delineation in MD and CS in benign lesions but the computer segmentation on malignant lesions shows better accuracy for computer classifier.

  20. Dieulafoy's lesion of duodenum: a case report

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    Wagholikar Gajanan D

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dieulafoy's lesion is an uncommon but important cause of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Extragastric location of Dieulafoy's lesion is rare. We report two cases of Dieulafoy's lesion of the duodenum and discuss the management of this extremely uncommon entity. Case presentation Two cases of massive upper gastro-intestinal bleeding in young adults due to Dieulafoy's lesion of the duodenum are reported. Endoscopic diagnosis was possible in both cases. Hemostasis was achieved successfully by endoscopic adrenaline injection. The endoscopic appearance, pitfalls in the diagnosis and management of this rare lesion are discussed. Conclusions Endoscopic diagnosis of extragastric Dieulafoy's lesion can be difficult because of the small size and obscure location of the lesion. Increased awareness and careful and early endoscopic evaluation following the bleeding episode are the key to accurate diagnosis. Adrenaline injection is one of the important endoscopic modalities for control of bleeding.

  1. Transcerebellar stereotactic biopsy for brainstem lesions in children

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    Purav Patel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain stem lesions are pathologically heterogeneous. Pre-operative radiological diagnoses prove to be wrong in 10 to 20% of cases. It is therefore imperative to have a tissue diagnosis for appropriate therapeutic measures. We report a series of 24 patients (14 males, ten females, age range: 6-17 years CT guided stereotactic biopsy for brain stem lesions approached via the suboccipital transcerebellar route in semi sitting position with principle used to violate only one pial plane with the biopsy probe not entering the ventral surface of the cerebellum. The inclusion and exclusion criteria with detailed material and method are discussed. Histological diagnosis was established in 23 patients (96% with no procedure-related mortality. Our results indicate that stereotaxic approach to brain-stem lesions provides a high yield of positive histological diagnoses with a low incidence of morbidity. Awake CT-guided stereotactic biopsy via the suboccipital transcerebellar route in a semi-sitting position is a safe, reliable, and effective method for brainstem lesions that can obtain adequate tissue for histological diagnosis, thus providing each patient with the best available treatment.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA mutations in preneoplastic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract: A biomarker for the early detection of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery Elizabeth A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA are common in many human cancers. We have described an oligonucleotide microarray ("MitoChip" for rapid sequencing of the entire mitochondrial genome (Zhou et al, J Mol Diagn 2006, facilitating the analysis of mtDNA mutations in preneoplastic lesions. We examined 14 precancerous lesions, including seven Barrett esophagus biopsies, with or without associated dysplasia; four colorectal adenomas; and three inflammatory colitis-associated dysplasia specimens. In all cases, matched normal tissues from the corresponding site were obtained as germline control. MitoChip analysis was performed on DNA obtained from cryostat-embedded specimens. Results A total of 513,639 bases of mtDNA were sequenced in the 14 samples, with 490,224 bases (95.4% bases assigned by the automated genotyping software. All preneoplastic lesions examined demonstrated at least one somatic mtDNA sequence alteration. Of the 100 somatic mtDNA alterations observed in the 14 cases, 27 were non-synonymous coding region mutations (i.e., resulting in an amino acid change, 36 were synonymous, and 37 involved non-coding mtDNA. Overall, somatic alterations most commonly involved the COI, ND4 and ND5 genes. Notably, somatic mtDNA alterations were observed in preneoplastic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract even in the absence of histopathologic evidence of dysplasia, suggesting that the mitochondrial genome is susceptible at the earliest stages of multistep cancer progression. Conclusion Our findings further substantiate the rationale for exploring the mitochondrial genome as a biomarker for the early diagnosis of cancer, and confirm the utility of a high-throughput array-based platform for this purpose from a clinical applicability standpoint.

  3. Automated Bayesian Segmentation of Microvascular White-Matter Lesions in the ACCORD-MIND Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Automatic brain-lesion segmentation has the potential to greatly expand the analysis of the relationships between brain function and lesion locations in large-scale epidemiologic studies, such as the ACCORD-MIND study. In this manuscript we describe the design and evaluation of a Bayesian lesion-segmentation method, with the expectation that our approach would segment white-matter brain lesions in MR images without user intervention. Materials and Methods: Each ACCORD-MIND subject has T1-weighted, T2-weighted, spin-density-weighted, and FLAIR sequences. The training portion of our algorithm first registers training images to a standard coordinate space; then, it collects statistics that capture signal-intensity information, and residual spatial variability of normal structures and lesions. The classification portion of our algorithm then uses these statistics to segment lesions in images from new subjects, without the need for user intervention. We evaluated this algorithm using 42 subjects with primarily white-matter lesions from the ACCORD-MIND project. Results: Our experiments demonstrated high classification accuracy, using an expert neuro radiologist as a standard. Conclusions: A Bayesian lesion-segmentation algorithm that collects multi-channel signal-intensity and spatial information from MR images of the brain shows potential for accurately segmenting brain lesions in images obtained from subjects not used in training. (authors)

  4. Spinal focal lesion detection in multiple myeloma using multimodal image features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fränzle, Andrea; Hillengass, Jens; Bendl, Rolf

    2015-03-01

    Multiple myeloma is a tumor disease in the bone marrow that affects the skeleton systemically, i.e. multiple lesions can occur in different sites in the skeleton. To quantify overall tumor mass for determining degree of disease and for analysis of therapy response, volumetry of all lesions is needed. Since the large amount of lesions in one patient impedes manual segmentation of all lesions, quantification of overall tumor volume is not possible until now. Therefore development of automatic lesion detection and segmentation methods is necessary. Since focal tumors in multiple myeloma show different characteristics in different modalities (changes in bone structure in CT images, hypointensity in T1 weighted MR images and hyperintensity in T2 weighted MR images), multimodal image analysis is necessary for the detection of focal tumors. In this paper a pattern recognition approach is presented that identifies focal lesions in lumbar vertebrae based on features from T1 and T2 weighted MR images. Image voxels within bone are classified using random forests based on plain intensities and intensity value derived features (maximum, minimum, mean, median) in a 5 x 5 neighborhood around a voxel from both T1 and T2 weighted MR images. A test data sample of lesions in 8 lumbar vertebrae from 4 multiple myeloma patients can be classified at an accuracy of 95% (using a leave-one-patient-out test). The approach provides a reasonable delineation of the example lesions. This is an important step towards automatic tumor volume quantification in multiple myeloma.

  5. Detection of atherosclerotic lesions and intimal macrophages using CD36-targeted nanovesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shufang; Zhang, Jia; Martinez-Zaguilan, Raul; Sennoune, Souad; Hossen, Md Nazir; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Cao, Jun; Meyerrose, Gary E; Paone, Ralph; Soontrapa, Suthipong; Fan, Zhaoyang; Wang, Shu

    2015-12-28

    Current approaches to the diagnosis and therapy of atherosclerosis cannot target lesion-determinant cells in the artery wall. Intimal macrophage infiltration promotes atherosclerotic lesion development by facilitating the accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) and increasing inflammatory responses. The presence of these cells is positively associated with lesion progression, severity and destabilization. Hence, they are an important diagnostic and therapeutic target. The objective of this study was to noninvasively assess the distribution and accumulation of intimal macrophages using CD36-targeted nanovesicles. Soy phosphatidylcholine was used to synthesize liposome-like nanovesicles. 1-(Palmitoyl)-2-(5-keto-6-octene-dioyl) phosphatidylcholine was incorporated on their surface to target the CD36 receptor. All in vitro data demonstrate that these targeted nanovesicles had a high binding affinity for the oxLDL binding site of the CD36 receptor and participated in CD36-mediated recognition and uptake of nanovesicles by macrophages. Intravenous administration into LDL receptor null mice of targeted compared to non-targeted nanovesicles resulted in higher uptake in aortic lesions. The nanovesicles co-localized with macrophages and their CD36 receptors in aortic lesions. This molecular target approach may facilitate the in vivo noninvasive imaging of atherosclerotic lesions in terms of intimal macrophage accumulation and distribution and disclose lesion features related to inflammation and possibly vulnerability thereby facilitate early lesion detection and targeted delivery of therapeutic compounds to intimal macrophages. PMID:26450668

  6. Cutaneous lesions in new born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdeva Meenakshi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred unselected newborn babies delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II of SGBT Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar during April 2000 to October 2000 were examined for cutaneous lesions daily for the first five days after birth. Different cutaneous lesions were seen in 474(94. 8% newborns. The physiological skin changes observed in order of frequency were Epstein pearls in 305(61%, Mongolian spot in 301(60. 2%, superficial cutaneous desquamation in 200(40%, icterus in 128(25. 6%, milia in 119(23. 8%, sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 107 (21. 4%, occipital alopecia in 94(18. 8%, lanugo in 72(14. 4%, peripheral cyanosis in 47(9. 4%, breast hypertrophy in 29(5. 8% and miniature puberty in 28(5. 6% newborns. Of the transient non-infective skin diseases, erythema toxicum neonatorum was observed most commonly in 105(21 %, followed by miliaria rubra in 103(20. 6% and acne neonatorum in 27(5. 4% newborns. The naevi and other developmental defects in the descending order were salmon patch in 69(13. 8%, congenital melanocytic noevi in 10(2%, accessory tragi in 3(0.6%, spina bifida in 2(0.4%, hydrocephalus in 1(0.2% and poliosis in 1(0.2% newborns. Cradle cap was the only dermatitis observed in 50(10% newborns. One (0.2% case each of Harlequin ichthyosis and labial cyst was seen.

  7. Radiologic aspects of the Galeazzi lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In lesions of the forearm that included a fracture of the distal two thirds of the radial shaft, a concomitant disruption of the distal radio-ulnar joint was found in 20 out of 38 cases. In 15 cases a typical Galeazzi lesion was present. Dislocation of the distal radio-ulnar joint frequently goes unrecognized. The clinical significance of a lesion in the distal radio-ulnar joint is related to its prognostic value. (orig.)

  8. Benign Lesions of The Vocal Fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Benign lesions of vocal folds are common disorders. Fifty percent of patients who have sound complaints are found to have these lesions after endoscopic and stroboscopic examinations. Benign vocal fold diseases are primarily caused by vibratory trauma. However they may also occur as a result of viral infections and congenital causes. These lesions are often presented with the complaints of dysphonia. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 86-95

  9. Management of Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda, Carlos E.; Welton, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions include both low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and are caused by chronic infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). The disease is increasing in both incidence and prevalence, especially among patients with the following risk factors: homosexual men, acquired or iatrogenic immunosuppression, and presence of other HPV-related diseases. Although the natural history of the disease is ...

  10. Metatranscriptomics reveals overall active bacterial composition in caries lesions

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    Aurea Simón-Soro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying the microbial species in caries lesions is instrumental to determine the etiology of dental caries. However, a significant proportion of bacteria in carious lesions have not been cultured, and the use of molecular methods has been limited to DNA-based approaches, which detect both active and inactive or dead microorganisms. Objective: To identify the RNA-based, metabolically active bacterial composition of caries lesions at different stages of disease progression in order to provide a list of potential etiological agents of tooth decay. Design: Non-cavitated enamel caries lesions (n=15 and dentin caries lesions samples (n=12 were collected from 13 individuals. RNA was extracted and cDNA was constructed, which was used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene. The resulting 780 bp polymerase chain reaction products were pyrosequenced using Titanium-plus chemistry, and the sequences obtained were used to determine the bacterial composition. Results: A mean of 4,900 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene with an average read length of 661 bp was obtained per sample, giving a comprehensive view of the active bacterial communities in caries lesions. Estimates of bacterial diversity indicate that the microbiota of cavities is highly complex, each sample containing between 70 and 400 metabolically active species. The composition of these bacterial consortia varied among individuals and between caries lesions of the same individuals. In addition, enamel and dentin lesions had a different bacterial makeup. Lactobacilli were found almost exclusively in dentin cavities. Streptococci accounted for 40% of the total active community in enamel caries, and 20% in dentin caries. However, Streptococcus mutans represented only 0.02–0.73% of the total bacterial community. Conclusions: The data indicate that the etiology of dental caries is tissue dependent and that the disease has a clear polymicrobial origin. The low proportion of mutans streptococci

  11. SPECTRUM OF BENIGN BREAST LESIONS : A CYTOLOGIC STUDY

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    Nirmala

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Open biopsy is widely considered to be the procedure of choice for diagnostic tissue sampling of bone tumors. However, associated disadvantages include in - patient procedure requiring hospitalization, risk of infection, hematoma formation and pathological fractures. As an alternative FNA cytology is increasingly used as a diagnostic modality. It is a challenging technique due to difficulties in approaching bone lesions and obtaining adequate material. AIMS: 1. To study the prevalence and distribution of various breast lesions in women of various age groups. 2. To classify the smears into C1 - C5 category . 3. To enumerate the difficulties encountered in this study. 4. To emphasize the role of FNAC in diagnostic workup in breast lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: FNAC was done on 208 cases of breast lesions from September 2011 to July 2012 in department of Pathology, Bowring hospital, BMC&RI, Bangalore. Cases presenting to the OPD with b r east lumps were subjected for FNAC. Aspirations were carried out with 10ml disposable syringe with a 22guage needle, materi al was obtained. Aspirates were smeared and few of them were immediately fixed with methanol and stained with H&E, rest of the smears were air dried for MGG staining. The diagnostic criteria C1 - C5 as recommended by NHS breast screening program has been inc orporated for reporting the slides along with pathological diagnosis wherever possible. RESULTS : 1. In countries with limited resources like India, FNAC may be used as the first line of diagnostic tool for evaluating breast lesions. 2. Breast FNA continues its monopoly over core biopsy and open excision biopsy. Benign conditions of breast can be diagnosed easily on FNA if done accurately. The current usage of C1 - C5 categories in typing the breast lesions gives a wide scope for pathologist to place the doubt ful lesions freely in the categories. However a disease specific diagnosis was preferred by the clinicians. 3. In

  12. Thermophysical lesions caused by HZE particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with a type of damage caused by heavy particles that may occur in subcellular structures. These lesions are called thermophysical radiation injury and are similar to damage produced in solids by HZE particles. This chapter summarizes some of the experimental evidence for the presence of these lesions in certain mammalian tissues including the retina, brain, cornea, lens of mice and seeds of corn. Of all tissues examined, only the cornea exhibited a type of lesion which would fulfill the criteria of thermophysical lesions

  13. Spectral lesion characterization on a photon-counting mammography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, Klaus; Fredenberg, Erik; Homann, Hanno; Roessl, Ewald

    2014-03-01

    Spectral X-ray imaging allows to differentiate between two given tissue types, provided their spectral absorption characteristics differ measurably. In mammography, this method is used clinically to determine a decomposition of the breast into adipose and glandular tissue compartments, from which the glandular tissue fraction and, hence, the volumetric breast density (VBD) can be computed. Another potential application of this technique is the characterization of lesions by spectral mammography. In particular, round lesions are relatively easily detected by experienced radiologists, but are often difficult to characterize. Here, a method is described that aims at discriminating cystic from solid lesions directly on a spectral mammogram, obtained with a calibrated spectral mammography system and using a hypothesis-testing algorithm based on a maximum likelihood approach. The method includes a parametric model describing the lesion shape, compression height variations and breast composition. With the maximum likelihood algorithm, the model parameters are estimated separately under the cyst and solid hypothesis. The resulting ratio of the maximum likelihood values is used for the final tissue characterization. Initial results using simulations and phantom measurements are presented.

  14. Gastrointestinal Polypoid Lesions: The Albanian Reality

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    Gentiana Cekodhima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastrointestinal polypoid lesions are a well-known cause of possible future malignant lesions. Screening for these lesions, especially for colon polyps, has reduced morbidity and mortality from malignant tumors. To our best knowledge, no screening program on gastrointestinal polypoid lesions exists in Albania and no former study has been performed to check the distribution of these lesions. Therefore, our aim was to study the distribution of gastrointestinal polypoid lesions in a symptomatic outpatient population. Methods: This study included five hundred seventy five consecutive patients referred to perform an endoscopic examination, regardless of their specific complains and of their possible diagnosis, to one of the two Endoscopy Centers in Tirana in the period between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2013. At least one polyp was resected and histologically examined in all included patients. Results: A total of 575 patients, of which 345 males (60.0%, aged 51.9 years (standard deviation 16.97 years, were examined and their data inserted in the statistical analysis. In total, 88 cases were identified with malignant pathologies of which 50 cases (56.8% were males. No case of malignancy was diagnosed among the nine esophageal specimens, but among the specimens resected from the stomach, small intestine and large intestine, were respectively diagnosed 21 (20.0%, 9 (40.9% and 58 (13.2% malignant lesions. Patients with malignant lesions were older (57.4 ± 16.8 years old in contrast to those with benign lesions (50.5 ± 17.0 years old (p = 0.004. Conclusion: Our study is the first one to offer figures on the polypoid lesions distribution and characteristics in the Albanian population. Large intestine is the main site where such lesions occur, but anyhow the small intestine presented a larger proportion of malignancy.

  15. Simulating the mammographic appearance of circumscribed lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimization performance of digital image post-processing techniques in mammography requires controlled conditions of data sets permitting quantitative representation of image characteristics of pathological findings. Digital test objects, although objective and quantitative, do not mimic mammographic appearance and clinical data sets do not provide adequate sets of values of the various pathological finding characteristics. This can be overcome by digital simulation of pathological findings and superimposition on mammographic images. A simple method for simulation of mammographic appearance of radiopaque and/or radiolucent circumscribed lesions is presented. Circumscribed lesions are simulated using grey-level transformation functions which shift and compress the range of the initial pixel grey-level values in a region of interest (ROI) of a digitized mammographic image, according to grey-level analysis in 200 ROIs of real circumscribed lesions from digitized mammographic images. Simulation addresses lesion image characteristics, such as elliptical shape, orientation, halo sign for radiopaque lesions and capsule for radiolucent lesions, and is implemented in a user-driven PC-based interactive application. The appearance of the lesions is evaluated by six radiologists on a sample of 60 real and 60 simulated radiopaque lesions with the use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The area under the ROC curve, pooling the responses of the observers, was 0.55±0.03 indicating no statistically significant difference between real and simulated lesions (p>0.05). The method adequately simulates the mammographic appearance of circumscribed lesions and could be used to generate circumscribed lesion data sets for performance evaluation of image processing techniques, as well as education purposes. (orig.)

  16. Localization of lesions in aphasia, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between the focus and the extent of the lesions and the various symptoms was investigated. 1. Broca aphasics: More than 80% of the group with obvious anarthric components had lesions of the third frontal gyrus involving Broca's area and the lower part of the precental gyrus as well as opercular and insular regions. The size of the lesions of this group was significantly larger than that of the group without marked anarthric components, and the latter was proved to have little localizing value. 2. Wernicke aphasics: The group with poor reading comprehension had cortical and/or subcortical lesions, involving posterior parts of both superior and middle temporal gyri as well as the supramarginal gyrus. On the other hand, lesions of the group with poor auditory comprehension were more anteriorly located and localized in the deep structures. Lesions of the group with poor Token test scores were large and scattered more anteriorly and/or posteriorly compared with those of the group with good Token test scores. 3. Amnestic aphaiscs: The group with poor naming scores had somewhat larger lesions than the group with good naming scores, and the lesions were scattered about the left hemisphere. The finding has proved that both groups had little localizing value. 4. Conduction aphasics: Lesions of the non-fluent type were significantly larger than those of the fluent type and distributed more anteriorly. However, highly involved lesions were located in the supramarginal gyrus and posterior parts of superior and/or middle temporal gyri. 5. Global aphasics: Lesions of the group with good articulation and prosody were observed to distribute more posteriorly in comparison with those of the other global aphasics. (J.P.N.)

  17. Lesiones del ligamento cruzado anterior

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    Alejandro Álvarez López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el ligamento cruzado anterior desempeña un papel muy importante en la estabili-dad de la rodilla. La incidencia de esta afección es alta en pacientes que practican deportes de contacto y de no ser tratados de forma adecuada, los resultados son desfavorables. Objetivo: profundizar en los factores necesarios para el tratamiento adecuado de enfermos con esta lesión y evitar las complicaciones. Método: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de un total de 300 artículos publicados en Pubmed, Hinari y Medline mediante el localizador de información Endnote, de ellos se utilizaron 52 citas selecciona-das para realizar la revisión, 48 de ellas de los últimos cinco años donde se incluyeron seis libros. Desarrollo: se discuten los aspectos relacionados con el diagnóstico clínico e imaginológico. Se aborda la clasificación de esta lesión en cuanto a varios aspectos como: tiempo, lesión de ligamentos u ósea, aislada o combinada y parcial o total. Se mencionan los parámetros para obtener resultados satisfac-torios al considerar factores como la edad del enfermo, lesiones asociadas y tiempo de la lesión. Se relacio-nan los requisitos para la selección del implante y se mostró las ventajas y desventajas de cada tipo de in-jerto. Las complicaciones de esta cirugía están relacionadas con la técnica quirúrgica y médicas. Conclusiones: las lesiones del ligamento son entidades traumáticas que afectan por lo general a pacientes jóvenes. Para lograr un resultado satisfactorio en el tratamiento es necesario el conocimiento de su anatomía, clasificación, tipo de injerto a emplear según sus ventajas y desventajas.

  18. Percutaneous vertebroplasty for metastatic lesions of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the safety and effectiveness of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) performed via three different routes for the treatment of osteolytic metastatic lesions of the cervical spine. Methods: A total of 36 patients with osteolytic cervical metastases (57 cervical vertebrae involved) received the treatment of the PVP. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The WHO standards and visual analogue scale (VAS) were assessed before and after the operation, and the application of three operative accesses (anterolateral approach, lateral approach and anterolateral approach through disc space) was discussed. Results: The puncturing accesses used in three groups were anterolateral approach, lateral approach and anterolateral approach through disc space. The whole procedure, including puncturing and injection of bone cement, was successfully accomplished for all diseased cervical vertebral bodies. All patients were followed up for three months. Of 32 patients who had complete clinical data, complete remission (CR) was obtained in 11, partial remission (PR) in 20, mild remission (MR) in one and no remission (NR) in zero. The clinical effectiveness (CR + PR) was 97%. The VAS scores before operation as well as 24 hours, one week and 3 months after the operation were separately determined, and four groups of data were obtained. Statistically significant difference in VAS scores existed between each other of the above four data groups (P<0.05). A little bone cement leakage was observed in 17 vertebral bodies (29.82%), however, no serious clinical complications occurred. Conclusion: Percutaneous vertebroplasty via anterolateral approach is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of osteolytic metastases located at lower cervical vertebrae (C4-C7). While in treating metastatic lesions invaded the vertebra of C1, PVP via lateral approach should be employed. For C2 and C3 vertebral involvement, PVP via anterolateral approach through disc space should

  19. Cerebral CT of ischaemic lesions

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    Aulich, A.

    1981-11-25

    The diagnosis of stroke must first be established by clinical examination. CT has proved useful for confirmation of the diagnosis and provides a global intracranial picture of morphological changes in cerebral vascular diseases. A hemorrhage can be recognized with certainty at the first CT examination as the cause of the stroke, but in the detection of a lesion due to ischemia an important role is played by the correct choice of the time of examination, and in some cases also of the check-up with contrast medium. The differential diagnosis between infarct in the acute stage and encephalitis or gliomas of low-grade malignity can be difficult. A decision can often only be made after a series of examinations. Postmalacial conditions are often difficult to differentiate from defects due to other causes, such as hemorrhage, head injury, postoperative states and after encephalitis. A knowledge of the anamnesis and the clinical findings is indispensable for CT evaluation. In assessing the prognosis before vascular surgery on the extracranial brain-supplying vessels the performance of a CT examination should be advised. A warning is given against the use of CT as a screening method.

  20. Transarterial chemoembolization of liver lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: TACE is an image-guided, non-surgical procedure that is used to treat malignant lesions in the liver (mostly hepatocellular carcinoma). the procedure uses a catheter to deliver both chemotherapy medication and embolization materials into the blood vessels that lead to the tumor. This allows doctors to treat tumors that are not accessible using conventional surgery or radiation treatments. TACE derives its beneficial effect by two primary mechanisms. Most tumors within the liver are supplied by the proper hepatic artery, so arterial embolization preferentially interrupts the tumor’s blood supply and stalls growth until neovascularization. Secondly, focused administration of chemotherapy allows for delivery of a higher dose to the tissue while simultaneously reducing systemic exposure, which is typically the dose limiting factor. this effect is potentiated by the fact that the chemotherapeutic drug is not washed out from the tumor vascular bed by blood flow after embolization. Effectively, this results in a higher concentration of drug to be in contact with the tumor for a longer period of time. We are presenting our experience with TACE

  1. [Mandibular lesions in multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutellari, P N; Orzincolo, C

    1992-03-01

    A review was made of 237 cases of multiple myeloma seen at the Institute of Radiology and Hematology of the Ferrara University from 1984 through 1990. The results showed skeletal involvement of the mandible to be present in 25 patients (10.54%). The diagnosis of multiple myeloma was based on the following criteria: 1) increased number of abnormal, atypical or immature plasma cells in the bone marrow; 2) the presence of a monoclonal protein in the serum or urine; 3) bone lesions consistent with those of myeloma. Symptoms include pain and swelling of the oral cavity, tooth mobility and loss, numbness along the inferior dental nerve, and paresthesia of the lower lip. The typical radiographic appearance is a well-defined "punched-out" lytic defect, solitary or multiple; sometimes, the defect enlarges and appears "bubbly" or septated. Permeative lytic areas, with blurred outlines, are a rare pattern, which is radiologically indistinguishable from skeletal metastases. The involvement of the oral cavity and jaw in multiple myeloma has been often reported in literature: nevertheless, if radiographs of the jaws had been systematically taken in all the cases, its incidence would probably have been much higher than previously suspected. PMID:1579669

  2. White Matter Lesion Progression in LADIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Berghold, Andrea; Jokinen, Hanna; Gouw, Alida A; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; Petrovic, Katja; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana; Ferro, Jose M; Waldemar, Gunhild; Wallin, Anders; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Poggesi, Anna; Pantoni, Leonardo; Inzitari, Domenico; Fazekas, Franz; Erkinjuntti, Timo

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression has been advocated as a surrogate marker in intervention trials on cerebral small vessel disease. We assessed the rate of visually rated WML progression, studied correlations between lesion progression and cognition, and estimated samp...

  3. Cathepsin Protease Inhibition Reduces Endometriosis Lesion Establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kristi M; Wieser, Friedrich A; Wilder, Catera L; Sidell, Neil; Platt, Manu O

    2016-05-01

    Endometriosis is a gynecologic disease characterized by the ectopic presence of endometrial tissue on organs within the peritoneal cavity, causing debilitating abdominal pain and infertility. Current treatments alleviate moderate pain symptoms associated with the disorder but exhibit limited ability to prevent new or recurring lesion establishment and growth. Retrograde menstruation has been implicated for introducing endometrial tissue into the peritoneal cavity, but molecular mechanisms underlying attachment and invasion are not fully understood. We hypothesize that cysteine cathepsins, a group of powerful extracellular matrix proteases, facilitate endometrial tissue invasion and endometriosis lesion establishment in the peritoneal wall and inhibiting this activity would decrease endometriosis lesion implantation. To test this, we used an immunocompetent endometriosis mouse model and found that endometriotic lesions exhibited a greater than 5-fold increase in active cathepsins compared to tissue from peritoneal wall or eutopic endometrium, with cathepsins L and K specifically implicated. Human endometriosis lesions also exhibited greater cathepsin activity than adjacent peritoneum tissue, supporting the mouse results. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting cathepsin activity could block endometriosis lesion attachment and implantation in vivo. Intraperitoneal injection of the broad cysteine cathepsin inhibitor, E-64, significantly reduced the number of attached endometriosis lesions in our murine model compared to vehicle-treated controls demonstrating that cathepsin proteases contribute to endometriosis lesion establishment, and their inhibition may provide a novel, nonhormonal therapy for endometriosis. PMID:26482207

  4. Imaging granulomatous lesions with optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2012-01-01

    To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors.......To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors....

  5. Pediatric multifocal liver lesions evaluated by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed Almotairi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to present our experience with MRI evaluation of multifocal liver lesions in children and describe the MRI characteristics of these lesions. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of consecutive MRI exams performed for the evaluation of multiple liver lesions between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2012 was done to note the number of lesions, the size of the largest lesion, MR signal characteristics, and background liver. Final diagnosis was assigned to each case based on pathology in the available cases and a combination of clinical features, imaging features, and follow-up in the remaining cases. Results: A total of 48 children (22 boys, 26 girls; age between 3 months and 18 years with average age 10.58 years and median age 11 years were included in the study. Totally 51 lesion diagnoses were seen in 48 children that included 17 focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH, 8 hemangiomas, 7 metastases, 6 regenerative nodules, 3 adenomas, 3 abscesses, and one each of angiomyolipoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, focal fatty infiltration, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic infarction, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and hepatic cyst. Background liver was normal in 33, cirrhotic in 10, fatty in 3, and siderotic in 2 children. Most FNH, hemangiomas, and regenerative nodules showed characteristic MRI features, while metastases were variable in signal pattern. Conclusion: Many commonly seen multifocal liver lesions in children have characteristic MRI features. MRI can help to arrive at reasonable differential diagnoses for multifocal liver lesions in children and guide further investigation and management.

  6. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J;

    2012-01-01

    significant differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant...... difference was seen between infiltration and sealing (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01417832)....

  7. Principal component analysis of psoriasis lesions images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    A set of RGB images of psoriasis lesions is used. By visual examination of these images, there seem to be no common pattern that could be used to find and align the lesions within and between sessions. It is expected that the principal components of the original images could be useful during future...

  8. Cystic ovarian lesions in SSFP diffusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR assessments of ovarian cystic lesions are usually based on morphological features, signal intensities and enhancement with contrast media. This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of the steady-state free precession (SSFP) diffusion imaging of cystic ovarian lesions for analyzing cystic contents. Sixty-one ovarian cystic lesions in 37 patients were examined. The diffusion-related coefficient (DRC) and the ratio of the relative apparent diffusion coefficient of the lesion to that of subcutaneous fat tissue (rADCL/rADCF) were calculated from SSFP diffusion images. The DRCs and the rADCL /rADCF ratios in endometrial cysts and in the fatty parts of dermoid cysts were significantly lower than in other cystic tumors. SSFP diffusion imaging can be included in clinical practice to analyze ovarian cystic lesions within a short scan time; the DRC and the rADCL /rADCF ratio are useful for evaluating cystic contents. (author)

  9. Depiction and characterization of liver lesions in whole body [18F]-FDG PET/MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To assess the value of PET/MRI with [18F]-FDG using a whole body protocol for the depiction and characterization of liver lesions in comparison to PET/CT. Methods: 70 patients (31 women, 39 men) with solid tumors underwent [18F]-FDG PET/CT and followed by an additional PET/MRI using an integrated scanner. Two readers rated the datasets (PET/CT; PET/MRI) regarding conspicuity of hepatic lesions (4-point ordinal scale) and diagnostic confidence (5-point ordinal scale). Median scores for lesion conspicuity and diagnostic confidence were compared using Wilcoxon's rank sum test. Prior examinations, histopathology and clinical follow-up (116 ± 54 days) served as standard of reference. Results: 36 of 70 (51%) patients showed liver lesions. Using PET/CT and PET/MRI all patients with liver metastases could correctly be identified. A total of 97 lesions were found (malignant n = 26; benign n = 71). For lesion conspicuity significantly higher scores were obtained for PET/MRI in comparison to PET/CT (p < 0.001). Significantly better performance for diagnostic confidence was observed in PET/MRI, both for malignant as for benign lesions (p < 0.001). Conclusions: PET/MRI, even in the setting of a whole body approach, provides higher lesion conspicuity and diagnostic confidence compared to PET/CT and may therefore evolve as an attractive alternative in oncologic imaging

  10. Diagnosing breast lesions by fine needle aspiration cytology or core biopsy: which is better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Gary M; Tan, Puay-Hoon

    2010-08-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB) are widely used in diagnosing breast lesions, with both achieving high sensitivity and specificity. Whether FNAC or CNB is better remains highly controversial. In this review, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these methods are discussed, especially in relation to specific problematic groups of breast lesions. In general, CNB has a slight advantage with lower inadequate and suspicious rates, allowing easier grade assessment and ancillary testings (hormome receptors, HER2) in cases of cancers. FNAC cannot reliably predict invasion in a malignant aspirate, whereas CNB, although useful in confirming invasion in carcinomas, has a much lower efficacy in predicting invasion when only in situ carcinoma is detected. The other problematic areas are papillary breast lesions and fibroepithelial lesions, notably phyllodes tumors. In papillary lesions, FNAC diagnosis is inaccurate, but with CNB, one can confidently diagnose papillary lesion, although there is still significant false positive and false negative rates, even with immunohistochemistry. For fibroepithelial lesions, using either FNAC or CNB to differentiate between a phyllodes tumor from fibroadenoma is also inaccurate. As management of breast diseases necessitates the triple approach (clinical, imaging and pathological), an awareness of the limitations of these very useful diagnostic modalities by all specialists is prudent, especially when dealing with these specific groups of breast lesions. PMID:20526738

  11. An interdisciplinary approach for the management of noncarious lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushotham, Sahana; Manjunath, Nandini; D’Souza, Melba Lisa; Shetty, Roshan

    2016-01-01

    Miller's class III gingival recession is a common entity observed in individuals, posing a difficult situation for the clinicians to treat. Large fenestration defects with cervical abrasion compromise the esthetics resulting in poor prognosis. Obtaining predictable and esthetic root coverage has become an integral part of periodontal therapy. The present case report describes a situation where class III gingival recession with cervical abrasion was seen in the lower central incisors. The patient was successfully treated with a combination of restorations (Filtek Z350® composite resin) to fill the defect, followed by fenestration procedure to increase the vestibular depth and subsequently with grafting procedure (soft tissue autograft with bovine-derived xenograft collagen [Bio-oss]). Though the results were not tangible esthetically, it was functionally successful as evidenced during the follow-up period. PMID:27143838

  12. Ultrasonography and arthrography in rotator cuff lesions: algorithmic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Jong; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Lee, Sun Wha; Lim, Jae Hoon; Rhee, Yong Girl [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Pil Mun [Dankuk University College of Medicine, Chenona (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-11-15

    Twenty-six patients with chief complaint of shoulder pain who underwent both ultrasonographic examination and arthrography of the shoulder were analyzed. Ten out of 12 cases with clinical impression of frozen shoulder, showed normal findings on the ultrasonographic examination of the shoulder. Among these ten cases, nine cases showed adhesive capsulitis and one case showed rotator cuff tear on arthrography. Among six cases with the clinical impression of rotator cuff tear, five cases showed rotator cuff tear and one case showed combined calcific tendinitis and adhesive capsulitis on ultrasonographic examination. In arthrography, four cases of rotator cuff tear, one case of calcific tendinitis and biceps tendinitis and one case of normal finding were diagnosed. For the remaining eight cases in the ultrasonographic examination, normal finding or biceps tendinitis were found and for the remaining of the cases in arthrography adhesive capsulitis were found. With the above results, we recommend that the shoulder ultrasonography as the first line diagnostic modality for a patient with chief complaint of shoulder pain.

  13. A New Approach Regarding the Legal Contract Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sache Neculaescu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Why not agreeing upon a contract based on misbalanced services: because the party benefiting from an excessive service unlawfully exploited the precarious situation of the other party as a result of whom came to accept an unfair contract, or because contractual balance must be an essential feature of which and every contract with clearly established services? Which of the two reasons mentioned above is more important in terms of current contractual discipline? These are two questions which, no matter what answers will get, will involve an important matter of choice, in relation to which it will be possible to assess correctly the solutions proposed by the new Romanian Civil Code, as well as by the main bills on Europeancodification of contract law. The present study upholds the idea of misbalanced services only if it constitutes rather a remedy for a contractual problem, if it is oriented towards the legitimate interests of the most vulnerable party of that contract and less interested in sanctioning the guilty conduct of the person who tookadvantage from an excessive service. As a consequence, we support the objective perspective in what misbalanced services are concerned, a reason for which we shall be making a few comments on some of thenew legal provisions, by referring to the main bills on the European codification of contract law, and stating later on a few de lege ferenda proposals, in terms of contracts based on misbalanced services.

  14. Ultrasonography and arthrography in rotator cuff lesions: algorithmic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-six patients with chief complaint of shoulder pain who underwent both ultrasonographic examination and arthrography of the shoulder were analyzed. Ten out of 12 cases with clinical impression of frozen shoulder, showed normal findings on the ultrasonographic examination of the shoulder. Among these ten cases, nine cases showed adhesive capsulitis and one case showed rotator cuff tear on arthrography. Among six cases with the clinical impression of rotator cuff tear, five cases showed rotator cuff tear and one case showed combined calcific tendinitis and adhesive capsulitis on ultrasonographic examination. In arthrography, four cases of rotator cuff tear, one case of calcific tendinitis and biceps tendinitis and one case of normal finding were diagnosed. For the remaining eight cases in the ultrasonographic examination, normal finding or biceps tendinitis were found and for the remaining of the cases in arthrography adhesive capsulitis were found. With the above results, we recommend that the shoulder ultrasonography as the first line diagnostic modality for a patient with chief complaint of shoulder pain

  15. Hearing results in surgery for primary petrous apex lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoli, G J; Amedee, R G

    1994-09-01

    Hearing preservation is a frequently mentioned phrase in the growing field of skull base surgery. Many authors have attempted to identify prognostic factors for successful hearing preservation, and many have suggested alternative procedures for preserving serviceable hearing. Few have mentioned hearing improvement with skull base surgical procedures. In this article we present the hearing results of 25 surgical procedures for primary petrous apex lesions. These include 13 cholesterol granulomas, 5 cholesteatomas, 4 mucoceles, and 3 eosinophilic granulomas. Surgical approaches included 14 transmastoid/infralabyrinthine, 6 transphenoid, 3 suboccipital, and 2 transmastoid/translabyrinthine. Hearing was maintained in 14 patients (56%), improved in 9 patients (36%), and worse in 1 patient with nonserviceable hearing before surgery (4%); 1 patient had profound hearing loss before surgery (4%). Results of this review should have significant implications on the choice of surgical approach for petrous apex lesions. Additionally, the standard method of determining salvageable hearing for most skull base procedures may not apply for this specific group of lesions. Implications for future treatment plans will be discussed in detail. PMID:8084633

  16. Major similarities in the bacterial communities associated with lesioned and healthy Fungiidae corals

    KAUST Repository

    Apprill, Amy

    2013-03-21

    Cultivation-based studies have demonstrated that yellow-band disease (YBD), a lesion-producing ailment affecting diverse species of coral, is caused by a consortium of Vibrio spp. This study takes the first cultivation-independent approach to examine the whole bacterial community associated with YBD-like lesioned corals. Two species of Fungiidae corals, Ctenactis crassa and Herpolitha limax, displaying YBD-like lesions were examined across diverse reefs throughout the Red Sea. Using a pyrosequencing approach targeting the V1-V3 regions of the SSU rRNA gene, no major differences in bacterial community composition or diversity were identified between healthy and lesioned corals of either species. Indicator species analysis did not find Vibrio significantly associated with the lesioned corals. However, operational taxonomic units belonging to the Ruegeria genus of Alphaproteobacteria and NS9 marine group of Flavobacteria were significantly associated with the lesioned corals. The most striking trend of this dataset was that reef location was found to be the most significant influence on the coral-bacterial community. It is possible that more pronounced lesion-specific bacterial signatures might have been concealed by the strong influence of environmental conditions on coral-bacteria. Overall, this study demonstrates inconsistencies between cultivation-independent and cultivation-based studies regarding the role of specific bacteria in coral diseases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. detecting multiple sclerosis lesions with a fully bioinspired visual attention model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalon-Reina, Julio; Gutierrez-Carvajal, Ricardo; Thompson, Paul M.; Romero-Castro, Eduardo

    2013-11-01

    The detection, segmentation and quantification of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions on magnetic resonance images (MRI) has been a very active field for the last two decades because of the urge to correlate these measures with the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment. A myriad of methods has been developed and most of these are non specific for the type of lesions and segment the lesions in their acute and chronic phases together. On the other hand, radiologists are able to distinguish between several stages of the disease on different types of MRI images. The main motivation of the work presented here is to computationally emulate the visual perception of the radiologist by using modeling principles of the neuronal centers along the visual system. By using this approach we are able to detect the lesions in the majority of the images in our population sample. This type of approach also allows us to study and improve the analysis of brain networks by introducing a priori information.

  18. Remoción de terceros molares mandibulares con asistencia endoscópica: Nota técnica de un nuevo procedimiento quirúrgico para prevenir lesiones del NAI y formación de defectos óseos Removal of mandibular third molars with endoscopic approach: Technical note of a new surgical procedure to avoid IAN damage and bone defect formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Fuentes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La variada posición anatómica de los terceros molares mandibulares presenta importantes desafíos asociados a su profundidad y grado de inclinación. Las complicaciones más habituales del procedimiento quirúrgico convencional de extracción se relacionan con la extensa osteotomía y poca visualización del sitio quirúrgico, que pueden generar consecuencias post-quirúrgicas como inflamación, dolor, trismus, lesiones reversibles e irreversibles del nervio alveolar inferior (NAI o nervio lingual, riesgo de fractura y formación de defectos periodontales del segundo molar. La implementación de soportes rígidos en la óptica endoscópica ha permitido utilizar esta tecnología para realizar abordajes mínimamente invasivos para remover terceros molares mediante accesos flapless con una mínima osteotomía de la zona oclusal, conservando la pared bucal y lingual a través de la visualización directa y magnificada del sitio quirúrgico, adaptable a los movimientos del paciente durante la intervención. En este reporte se presenta un nuevo procedimiento quirúrgico mínimamente invasivo a través de asistencia endoscópica para la conservación ósea en la remoción de terceros molares mandibulares con riesgo de lesión del nervio alveolar inferior.Anatomic variability of the position of mandibular third molars represents significant challenges associated with its depth and angulation. The most common complications of conventional surgical procedure are related to extensive osteotomy and poor visualization, which can cause postsurgical effects such as inflammation, pain, trismus, reversible and irreversible lesions of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN or lingual nerve, fracture risk and formation of a deep periodontal defect on the distal aspect of the second molar. The implementation of rigid endoscopy in optics has allowed to use this technology via a minimally invasive approach to remove third molars by a minimally occlusal flapless ostectomy

  19. Treatment of a Periodontic-Endodontic Lesion in a Patient with Aggressive Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Case Description. This case report describes the successful management of a left mandibular first molar with a combined periodontic-endodontic lesion in a 35-year-old Caucasian woman with aggressive periodontitis using a concerted approach including endodontic treatment, periodontal therapy, and a periodontal regenerative procedure using an enamel matrix derivate. In spite of anticipated poor prognosis, the tooth lesion healed. This case report also discusses the rationale behind different treatment interventions. Practical Implication. Periodontic-endodontic lesions can be successfully treated if dental professionals follow a concerted treatment protocol that integrates endodontic and periodontic specialties. General dentists can be the gatekeepers in managing these cases. PMID:27418983

  20. Treatment of a Periodontic-Endodontic Lesion in a Patient with Aggressive Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina D. Fahmy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case Description. This case report describes the successful management of a left mandibular first molar with a combined periodontic-endodontic lesion in a 35-year-old Caucasian woman with aggressive periodontitis using a concerted approach including endodontic treatment, periodontal therapy, and a periodontal regenerative procedure using an enamel matrix derivate. In spite of anticipated poor prognosis, the tooth lesion healed. This case report also discusses the rationale behind different treatment interventions. Practical Implication. Periodontic-endodontic lesions can be successfully treated if dental professionals follow a concerted treatment protocol that integrates endodontic and periodontic specialties. General dentists can be the gatekeepers in managing these cases.

  1. Treatment of lesions of the rotator cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggini, R; Cavezza, T; Di Pancrazio, L; Pisciella, V; Saladino, G; Zuccaro, M C; Bellomo, R G

    2010-01-01

    The impingement syndrome and tendinopathy of the rotator cuff are the most common causes (complaints) of pain and disability of the shoulder. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a specific rehabilitative protocol, integrated with the administration of a nutritional supplement, in the conservative rehabilitative treatment, as well as in post-surgery, of patients with lesions of the rotator cuff. Two groups with syndrome of the rotator cuff were formed to follow different therapeutic courses, in relation to the choice of each subject to undergo the conservative treatment (Arm A) or the surgical one (Arm B). In Arm A the study included the association of therapy with ESWT (shock waves) with the proprioceptive Multi Joint System, for rehabilitating joint movement and muscle strength of the shoulder, and a specific nutritional supplement to reduce the pain and conserve the cartilage tissue. Between February 2009 and June 2009, we enrolled 30 subjects (randomized into three homogenous groups A1, A2, A3), average age 45±10 years, with rotator cuff syndrome with calcification of the shoulder, diagnosed through clinical examination and investigative instruments (X-ray, echography or NMR). In Arm B, from September 2009 to January 2010, we enrolled 50 patients (randomized into two groups, B1 and B2), 24 male (average age 58.4: min 28 and max 78) and 26 females (average age 59.5: min 30 and max 80), who had undergone rotator cuff operations and acromionplasty for non-massive lesions without important gleno-humeral instability, with either open or arthroscopic procedures. The analysis of the results of Arm A highlights that in terms of reducing pain the main benefits were found in Group A1 where the supplement was given. From the analysis of the data of Arm B, in both groups an improvement of the first 4 items evaluated was evident. In Group B1, 84 percent of the patients declared to be satisfied and improved and 16 percent were dissatisfied; in Group B2

  2. Treatment of a Periodontic-Endodontic Lesion in a Patient with Aggressive Periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Fahmy, Mina D.; Luepke, Paul G.; Ibrahim, Mohamed S.; Guentsch, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    Case Description. This case report describes the successful management of a left mandibular first molar with a combined periodontic-endodontic lesion in a 35-year-old Caucasian woman with aggressive periodontitis using a concerted approach including endodontic treatment, periodontal therapy, and a periodontal regenerative procedure using an enamel matrix derivate. In spite of anticipated poor prognosis, the tooth lesion healed. This case report also discusses the rationale behind different tr...

  3. Preoperative MR-guided wire localization for suspicious breast lesions: Comparison of manual and automated software calculated targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) guided wire localization is a frequently used tool to target MR-only visible breast lesions. Different techniques are available. Targeting can be performed using automated software or a manual approach. Aim of this study therefore was to compare manually and automated software assisted wire localization of suspicious breast lesions regarding to image time and accurate positioning. Methods: 60 females with suspicious breast lesions underwent MR-guided wire localization. In 30 patients a manual target calculation and in another 30 patients a software calculated approach was used. Time measurements for MR imaging as well as calculation of the target coordinates were performed. Furthermore size measurements of (i) lesions, (ii) distance to wire anchor as well as, (iii) distance to skin were performed. A Mann-Whitney-test was used for statistical evaluation. Results: Total imaging time was shorter for the automated software calculated approach but failed to show a statistical significant difference (p = 0.13). Time for localization of the lesions was significantly shorter for the software based method (p < 0.001). Lesion sizes, distances to wire anchor and skin showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusions: Preoperative MR-guided wire localization of suspicious lesions that are accessible horizontally, a manually or automated software generated target calculation can be used. As MR guided wire localization of breast lesions needs its time in total, a minimal time consuming approach and therefore an automated software calculated targeting (if available) should be preferred

  4. Nora's lesion, a distinct radiological entity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the radiological findings of ''Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation''(BPOP) - otherwise known as Nora's lesion, to describe the natural evolution of BPOP and to assess radiologically if BPOP is indeed part of a spectrum of reactive lesions including florid reactive periostitis and turret exostosis. Four experienced musculoskeletal radiologists studied plain radiographs and other imaging documents of histologically-proven Nora's lesions, looking for soft-tissue changes, periosteal reaction/calcification and calcified/ossified pseudotumours, and compared those findings with findings on pathology reviewed by a peer group of pathologists. Twenty-four Nora's lesions originating from a series of 200 consecutive, histologically-verified bone (pseudo)tumours of the hand, seen by the ''Netherlands Committee on Bone Tumours'' for review and second opinion. Nora's lesions have a recognised presentation on radiographs without specific MR characteristics. Natural evolution could be assessed retrospectively in four cases. Recurrent lesions were seen in seven cases and are difficult to differentiate from primary Lesions. (orig.)

  5. MRI examination on microcalcification lesions on mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a recent increase of patients who are pointed out microcalcification on mammography (MMG) but otherwise normal, we have increasingly difficulties in making diagnosis. In this paper we examined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and diagnosis of microcalcification lesions. Out of consecutive patients who visited our hospital for close exploration of calcification on MMG from July 2006 to March 2009, 124 patients who were performed MRI were enrolled in this study. The morphology and enhancement kinetics of their lesions visualized by MRI were classified with reference to the breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS)-MRI and were compared with outcomes of histological diagnoses. As a result, all lesions in which no abnormal enhancement was seen on MRI were benign. Malignant lesions accounted for about 80.0% in mass patterns, and about more than half in non-mass like enhancement. About 30% of the lesions were malignant in the Focus/Foci pattern which designates lesions with the size of less than 5 mm. MRI is capable of predicting whether the microcalcification lesion is malignant or benign in some degree in patients with positive findings, and we can omit Stereotactic Mammotome biopsy (ST-MTB) in those with negative findings. Accordingly MRI is considered to be an extremely useful modality. (author)

  6. Pediatric soft tissue oral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Andres; Haberland, Christel M; Baker, Suher

    2014-04-01

    This article provides an overview of common color changes and soft tissue oral nodular abnormalities in children and adolescents. The clinical presentation and treatment options to address these conditions are presented in a concise approach, highlighting key features relevant to the oral health care professional. PMID:24655531

  7. Sport lesions caused by athletics practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernandes Feitoza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Being a highly physical demanding sports, athletics depends on efficient training to overcome all physical demands without lesions. The aim of the present study was to analyze the types of lesions and their causes. The sample was constituted by forty-three athletes, sixteen males and twenty-seven females, 23.2 years of average age. A questionnaire containing five open questions and five closed questions was used as an instrument to determine the major lesions caused by athletics practice. The results showed that 84% of the athletes had already had some kind of lesions: 77% of which occurred during training and 23% during contest. The most frequent lesions were distension, tendinitis, twisting, contraction and inflammation. Legs were the most affected parts: 85% for jumpers, 85% for runners and 60% for throwers. When the lesions occurred, 76% of the jumpers, 84% of the runners and 85% of the throwers had no other health problem, but 52.7% of the athletes were in a state of anxiety before the contest and 13.8% had difficulties in concentrating on the contest. As for treatment 55.5% went to see a physiotherapist, and 16.6% went to see the medical doctor and the physiotherapist. The consequences of the lesions for the athletes’ performance were the following: 75% missed important contest events and 70% missed training for several months while they recuperated from their lesions. The results led to the conclusion that the best means to prevent lesions is to use adequate sites and equipments, efficient and individualized training coached by qualified specialists.

  8. Macromolecular lesions and cellular radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our studies of the interaction of densely ionizing particles with macromolecules in the living cell may be divided into four parts: characterization of lesions to cellular DNA in the unmodified Bragg ionization curve; characterization of lesions to cellular DNA in the spread Bragg curve as used in radiation therapy; elucidation of the cellular radiation chemistry characteristic of high vs. low LET radiation qualities; and the introduction of novel techniques designed to give a better understanding of the fundamental properties of induction of lesions and their repair potentials in high LET radiation

  9. Lesion Contrast Enhancement in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Sommer, F.G.; Macovski, A.

    1997-01-01

    Methods for improving the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of low-contrast lesions in medical ultrasound imaging are described. Differences in the frequency spectra and amplitude distributions of the lesion and its surroundings can be used to increase the CNR of the lesion relative to the background....... Automated graylevel mapping is used in combination with a contrast-weighted form of frequency-diversity speckle reduction. In clinical studies, the techniques have yielded mean CNR improvements of 3.2 dB above ordinary frequency-diversity imaging and 5.6 dB over sharper conventional images, with no post...

  10. Acquired CNS lesions in fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquired central nervous system (CNS) lesions are often subtle; therefore, the prenatal diagnosis of these lesions is extremely important. The fetal ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are two important imaging methods that give an insight into these types lesions. The method of choice during pregnancy is still fetal ultrasound; however, fetal MRI is important when there are certain pathologies, e.g. periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) or malformations of the vein of Galen. In this manner clinicians can plan further therapy after childbirth in advance (e.g. cerebral angiography or embolization). (orig.)

  11. Multiple sclerosis with caudate lesions on MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, S; Ogasawara, N; Mine, H; Kawachi, Y

    2001-04-01

    A 31-year-old woman displayed sleepiness and impairment of recent memory. T2-weighted MRI revealed high signal intensity lesions in the bilateral basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainstem. Although remission was achieved with corticosteroid therapy, she again displayed memory dysfunction and emotional disturbance one year later, at which time MRI disclosed new lesions in the right caudate nucleus and left frontal white matter. Corticosteroid therapy lead to improvement, and she suffered no recurrence on maintenance steroid therapy. These findings suggest that caudate lesions do occur in multiple sclerosis, the manifestations of which can be abulia and memory dysfunction, as in the present case. PMID:11334400

  12. Tibial cortical lesions: A multimodality pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, P.A., E-mail: philippa.tyler@rnoh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Mohaghegh, P., E-mail: pegah1000@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Foley, J., E-mail: jfoley1@nhs.net [Department of Radiology, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, 16 Alexandra Parade, Glasgow G31 2ES (United Kingdom); Isaac, A., E-mail: amandaisaac@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, King' s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Zavareh, A., E-mail: ali.zavareh@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, North Bristol NHS Trust, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1LE (United Kingdom); Thorning, C., E-mail: cthorning@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, East Surrey Hospital, Canada Avenue, Redhill, Surrey RH1 5RH (United Kingdom); Kirwadi, A., E-mail: anandkirwadi@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Pressney, I., E-mail: ipressney@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Amary, F., E-mail: fernanda.amary@rnoh.nhs.uk [Department of Histopathology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Rajeswaran, G., E-mail: grajeswaran@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London SW10 9NH (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Multimodality imaging plays an important role in the investigation and diagnosis of shin pain. • We review the multimodality imaging findings of common cortically based tibial lesions. • We also describe the rarer pathologies of tibial cortical lesions. - Abstract: Shin pain is a common complaint, particularly in young and active patients, with a wide range of potential diagnoses and resulting implications. We review the natural history and multimodality imaging findings of the more common causes of cortically-based tibial lesions, as well as the rarer pathologies less frequently encountered in a general radiology department.

  13. Pulmonary lesions mimicking pericardial effusion on ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two children with right middle lobe lesions mimicking pericardial effusion on ultrasonography are presented. They were admitted with fever and chest radiographs showed atelectasis or consolidation of the middle lobe of the right lung along the right heart border. A low-echogenic layer suggesting pericardial fluid was seen on ultrasonography, but with a spatial distribution closely corresponding to the lesions seen on the chest radiographs. If the possibility that a lung lesion adjacent to the heart can simulate pericardial fluid on ultrasonography is kept in mind, the correct diagnosis should not be difficult to make. (orig.)

  14. Tibial cortical lesions: A multimodality pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Multimodality imaging plays an important role in the investigation and diagnosis of shin pain. • We review the multimodality imaging findings of common cortically based tibial lesions. • We also describe the rarer pathologies of tibial cortical lesions. - Abstract: Shin pain is a common complaint, particularly in young and active patients, with a wide range of potential diagnoses and resulting implications. We review the natural history and multimodality imaging findings of the more common causes of cortically-based tibial lesions, as well as the rarer pathologies less frequently encountered in a general radiology department

  15. Oncocytic lesions of the ophthalmic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jens; Prause, Jan U; Heegaard, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to make a nationwide clinicopathological study of oncocytic lesions in the ophthalmic region and to characterize their cytokeratin (CK) expression. Methods: All histologically diagnosed oncocytic lesions in the ophthalmic region registered in Denmark over a 25-year period...... expression. Basal-type oncocytic cells reacted with antibodies against CK 5/6, CK 7, CK 8, CK 13, CK 14, CK 17, CK 18 and CK 19, and suprabasal cells with CK 4, CK 7, CK 8, CK 18 and CK 19. Antibodies against CK 1+10 and CK 20 showed no reaction. Conclusions: Oncocytic lesions of the ophthalmic region most...

  16. Correlation between model observer and human observer performance in CT imaging when lesion location is uncertain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between model observer and human observer performance in CT imaging for the task of lesion detection and localization when the lesion location is uncertain.Methods: Two cylindrical rods (3-mm and 5-mm diameters) were placed in a 35 × 26 cm torso-shaped water phantom to simulate lesions with −15 HU contrast at 120 kV. The phantom was scanned 100 times on a 128-slice CT scanner at each of four dose levels (CTDIvol = 5.7, 11.4, 17.1, and 22.8 mGy). Regions of interest (ROIs) around each lesion were extracted to generate images with signal-present, with each ROI containing 128 × 128 pixels. Corresponding ROIs of signal-absent images were generated from images without lesion mimicking rods. The location of the lesion (rod) in each ROI was randomly distributed by moving the ROIs around each lesion. Human observer studies were performed by having three trained observers identify the presence or absence of lesions, indicating the lesion location in each image and scoring confidence for the detection task on a 6-point scale. The same image data were analyzed using a channelized Hotelling model observer (CHO) with Gabor channels. Internal noise was added to the decision variables for the model observer study. Area under the curve (AUC) of ROC and localization ROC (LROC) curves were calculated using a nonparametric approach. The Spearman's rank order correlation between the average performance of the human observers and the model observer performance was calculated for the AUC of both ROC and LROC curves for both the 3- and 5-mm diameter lesions.Results: In both ROC and LROC analyses, AUC values for the model observer agreed well with the average values across the three human observers. The Spearman's rank order correlation values for both ROC and LROC analyses for both the 3- and 5-mm diameter lesions were all 1.0, indicating perfect rank ordering agreement of the figures of merit (AUC) between the

  17. Lesion Expansion in Experimental Demyelination Animal Models and Multiple Sclerosis Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Große-Veldmann, René; Becker, Birte; Amor, Sandra; van der Valk, Paul; Beyer, Cordian; Kipp, Markus

    2016-09-01

    Gray matter pathology is an important aspect of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis and disease progression. In a recent study, we were able to demonstrate that the higher myelin content in the white matter parts of the brain is an important variable in the neuroinflammatory response during demyelinating events. Whether higher white matter myelination contributes to lesion development and progression is not known. Here, we compared lesion size of intra-cortical vs. white matter MS lesions. Furthermore, dynamics of lesion development was compared in the cuprizone and lysophosphatidylcholine models. We provide clear evidence that in the human brain, white matter lesions are significantly increased in size as compared to intra-cortical gray matter lesions. In addition, studies using the cuprizone mouse model revealed that the autonomous progression of white matter lesions is more severe compared to that in the gray matter. Focal demyelination revealed that the application of equal amounts of lysophosphatidylcholine results in more severe demyelination in the white compared to the gray matter. In summary, lesion progression is most intense in myelin-rich white matter regions, irrespective of the initial lesion trigger mechanism. A better understanding of myelin debris-triggered lesion expansion will pave the way for the development of new protective strategies in the future. PMID:26363796

  18. Approximate Lesion Localization in Dermoscopy Images

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M Emre; Schaefer, Gerald; Stoecker, William V; 10.1111/j.1600-0846.2009.00357.x

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, automated analysis of dermoscopy images has become an important research area. Border detection is often the first step in this analysis. Methods: In this article, we present an approximate lesion localization method that serves as a preprocessing step for detecting borders in dermoscopy images. In this method, first the black frame around the image is removed using an iterative algorithm. The approximate location of the lesion is then determined using an ensemble of thresholding algorithms. Results: The method is tested on a set of 428 dermoscopy images. The localization error is quantified by a metric that uses dermatologist determined borders as the ground truth. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the method presented here achieves both fast and accurate localization of lesions in dermoscopy images.

  19. Keloidal granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Rajesh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma faciale (GF is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extrafacial lesions are uncommon. A 52-year-old lady with multiple asymptomatic, variously sized brownish-black colored, firm, sharply circumscribed plaques resembling keloids on both cheeks and extrafacial lesions on the right arm and the right breast is presented for its unusual keloidal appearance and typical histopathological findings. She failed to respond to oral dapsone 100 mg daily administered for 3 months. Local infiltration of triamcinolone combined with cryotherapy led to only partial flattening of the lesions. All the skin lesions were excised surgically followed by flap transfer grafting on both cheeks. The cosmetic outcome was highly satisfactory.

  20. Keloidal granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh; Das, A L; Vaishampayan, S S; Vaidya, Sachin

    2005-01-01

    Granuloma faciale (GF) is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extrafacial lesions are uncommon. A 52-year-old lady with multiple asymptomatic, variously sized brownish-black colored, firm, sharply circumscribed plaques resembling keloids on both cheeks and extrafacial lesions on the right arm and the right breast is presented for its unusual keloidal appearance and typical histopathological findings. She failed to respond to oral dapsone 100 mg daily administered for 3 months. Local infiltration of triamcinolone combined with cryotherapy led to only partial flattening of the lesions. All the skin lesions were excised surgically followed by flap transfer grafting on both cheeks. The cosmetic outcome was highly satisfactory. PMID:16394461

  1. Common Adult Skin and Soft Tissue Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Jeffrey G; Applebaum, Danielle S; Orengo, Ida

    2016-08-01

    A strong foundational knowledge of dermatologic disease is crucial for a successful practice in plastic surgery. A plastic surgeon should be able to identify and appreciate common dermatologic diseases that may require medical and/or surgical evaluation and management. In this article, the authors describe epidermal/dermal, infectious, pigmented, and malignant cutaneous lesions that are commonly encountered in practice. Descriptions include the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and management options for each type of lesion. PMID:27478418

  2. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Parathyroid Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Heo, Ilyeong; Park, Sunhoo; Jung, Chang Won; Koh, Jae Soo; Lee, Seung-Sook; Seol, Hyesil; Choi, Hee Seung; Cho, Soo Youn

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in the use of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for the diagnosis of parathyroid lesions (PLs). Differentiation between a thyroid lesion and a PL is not easy because of their similar features. We reviewed parathyroid aspirates in our institution and aimed to uncover trends in diagnostic criteria. Methods We selected 25 parathyroid aspirates (from 6 men and 19 women) confirmed surgically or immunohistochemically from 2006 to 2011. Results Major archit...

  3. FNAC ACCURACY IN DIAGNOSIS OF BREAST LESIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Venugopal; Pratap; Nikshita

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malignancy of breast imposes significant reduction in life span. The prognosis of breast cancer is primarily dependent on the extent of disease and also early diagnosis in important. FNAC is a widely accepted cytological technique in the early diagnosis of palpable breast lesions. There have been many studies of accuracy of FNAC, which has been shown to be high in many centres. AIMS: To compare cytological and histopathological diagnosis of breast lesions and to ...

  4. Laser Treatment of Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Patrick D.; Sonabend, Michael L.; Levy, Moise L.

    2007-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1967, laser therapy has benefited patients and physicians alike. After the first clinical application by Goldman (Anderson RR, Parrish JA. Science 1983;220:524–527), laser therapy has become indispensable in the management of vascular birthmarks. In selecting a proper balance of wavelength, pulse duration, and energy density (fluence), the physician can mold laser energy to effectively manage lesions once considered untreatable. Now, the vast array of lesions amenabl...

  5. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  6. The enigma of reversible spinal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalendra Kumar Misser

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Focal reversible lesions of the splenium of the corpus callosum have been described in a number of clinical paradigms. Epilepsy and related conditions are the most commonly reported underlying clinical association. Sudden anti-epileptic therapy withdrawal or seizure activity may be presumed to be the predisposing cause, however an individual susceptibility must also be considered. Herein, we present the findings in two patients with similar, completely reversible splenial lesions.

  7. Photoacoustic Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchard, Richard; Dana, Nicholas; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) procedures are used to destroy abnormal electrical pathways in the heart that can cause cardiac arrhythmias. Current methods relying on fluoroscopy, echocardiography and electrical conduction mapping are unable to accurately assess ablation lesion size. In an effort to better visualize RFA lesions, photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasonic (US) imaging were utilized to obtain co-registered images of ablated porcine cardiac tissue. The left ventricular free wall of fresh ...

  8. STUDY OF OVARIAN LESIONS IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarjuna; Srinivas,; Ramesh Reddy; Lavanya; Inugala

    2015-01-01

    : AIM: To study ovarian lesions in paediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All cases of ovarian lesions presenting to Niloufer Hospital during the study period spanning 7 years were included in the study. All cases were clinically examined and evaluated with serum markers like α-fetoprotein and β-HCG, ultrasonography of abdomen and pelvis and contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen and pelvis. The cases were managed either conservatively or surgically depending on...

  9. Keloidal granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Verma Rajesh; Das A; Vaishampayan S.; Vaidya Sachin

    2005-01-01

    Granuloma faciale (GF) is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extrafacial lesions are uncommon. A 52-year-old lady with multiple asymptomatic, variously sized brownish-black colored, firm, sharply circumscribed plaques resembling keloids on both cheeks and extrafacial lesions on the right arm and the right breast is presented for its unusual keloidal appearance and typical histopathol...

  10. Focal hepatic lesions. Differentiation of malignant tumours and benign lesions by means of combination non-enhanced MR imaging and superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to differentiate malignant tumors from benign lesions by clarifying the characteristic signal-intensity pattern of each lesion using superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO). SPIO-enhanced MRI was performed using a 1.5-T system in 49 patients who had 117 focal hepatic lesions (39 metastatic tumors, 37 hepatocellular carcinomas, 28 cysts, 13 hemangiomas). The combined approach used SPIO-enhanced and non-enhanced short TE T1-weighted gradient echo (GRE) images, and SPIO-enhanced long TE GRE images. These lesions were presented to two readers who were asked to assess the characteristics of the lesions using a five-point confidence scale according to a flowchart. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed for evaluation. The Az values of the two readers were 0.909 and 0.969, and the κ value was 0.7540. Combined analysis with SPIO-enhanced and non-enhanced short TE T1-weighted GRE images together with SPIO-enhanced long TE GRE images was useful to characterize focal hepatic lesions. (author)

  11. Computerized lesion detection on breast ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukker, Karen; Giger, Maryellen L; Horsch, Karla; Kupinski, Matthew A; Vyborny, Carl J; Mendelson, Ellen B

    2002-07-01

    We investigated the use of a radial gradient index (RGI) filtering technique to automatically detect lesions on breast ultrasound. After initial RGI filtering, a sensitivity of 87% at 0.76 false-positive detections per image was obtained on a database of 400 patients (757 images). Next, lesion candidates were segmented from the background by maximizing an average radial gradient (ARD) index for regions grown from the detected points. At an overlap of 0.4 with a radiologist lesion outline, 75% of the lesions were correctly detected. Subsequently, round robin analysis was used to assess the quality of the classification of lesion candidates into actual lesions and false-positives by a Bayesian neural network. The round robin analysis yielded an Az value of 0.84, and an overall performance by case of 94% sensitivity at 0.48 false-positives per image. Use of computerized analysis of breast sonograms may ultimately facilitate the use of sonography in breast cancer screening programs. PMID:12148724

  12. Texture feature based liver lesion classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Yeela; Mayer-Wolf, Nitzan; Diamant, Idit; Greenspan, Hayit

    2014-03-01

    Liver lesion classification is a difficult clinical task. Computerized analysis can support clinical workflow by enabling more objective and reproducible evaluation. In this paper, we evaluate the contribution of several types of texture features for a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system which automatically classifies liver lesions from CT images. Based on the assumption that liver lesions of various classes differ in their texture characteristics, a variety of texture features were examined as lesion descriptors. Although texture features are often used for this task, there is currently a lack of detailed research focusing on the comparison across different texture features, or their combinations, on a given dataset. In this work we investigated the performance of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Local Binary Patterns (LBP), Gabor, gray level intensity values and Gabor-based LBP (GLBP), where the features are obtained from a given lesion`s region of interest (ROI). For the classification module, SVM and KNN classifiers were examined. Using a single type of texture feature, best result of 91% accuracy, was obtained with Gabor filtering and SVM classification. Combination of Gabor, LBP and Intensity features improved the results to a final accuracy of 97%.

  13. Skin conditions: benign nodular skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tam; Zuniga, Ramiro

    2013-04-01

    Benign subcutaneous lesions are a common reason that patients visit family physicians. Lipomas are the most common of these lesions; they most often occur on the trunk and proximal extremities. Recent data show that as many as half of the fat cells in lipomas are atypical. Ultrasound is used increasingly to confirm lipoma diagnosis, but deep lesions should be evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging study or computed tomography scan to exclude involvement of underlying structures and/or liposarcoma. Small lesions can sometimes be managed with serial injections of midpotency steroids. Larger lesions (larger than 5 cm), those compressing other structures, or those suspicious for malignancy should be excised using standard surgical excision or, when possible, the newer minimal-scar segmental extraction technique. Ganglion cysts are another common lesion, the presence of which often is confirmed with ultrasound if the diagnosis is not clinically apparent. Management includes splinting, aspiration, and/or injection of steroids, with or without hyaluronidase. Epidermal inclusion cysts, also called sebaceous cysts, typically are asymptomatic unless they become infected. Ultrasound can aid in diagnosis. The only definitive management is surgical excision with complete removal of the cyst wall or capsule, using minimal-scar segmental extraction or conventional surgical removal. PMID:23600336

  14. Papillary lesions of the breast diagnosed using core needle biopsies

    OpenAIRE

    TOKINIWA, HIDEAKI; Horiguchi, Jun; TAKATA, DAISUKE; Kikuchi, Mami; ROKUTANDA, NANA; NAGAOKA, RIN; Sato, Ayako; Odawara, Hiroki; TOZUKA, KATSUNORI; Oyama, Tetsunari; Takeyoshi, Izumi

    2011-01-01

    Papillary lesions of the breast include a broad spectrum of lesions, from benign papillomas to papillary carcinomas. It is difficult to determine whether a lesion is benign or malignant based on the fragmented material of a core needle biopsy (CNB). This study evaluated patients with papillary lesions examined using CNB. We retrospectively reviewed 31 papillary lesions diagnosed using CNB between 2004 and 2007. The clinical findings of benign and malignant papillary lesions were compared. The...

  15. Percutaneous coaxial transpedicular biopsy of vertebral body lesions during vertebroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the safety and histological results of percutaneous transpedicular biopsy in patients undergoing vertebroplasty for vertebral collapse. Over a 6 year period, we carried out biopsies in 46 patients who underwent percutaneous injection of acrylic surgical cement for 57 collapsed vertebrae, because the diagnosis was not clearly established on clinical or imaging grounds. All procedures were performed under fluoroscopic guidance via a coaxial bitranspedicular approach used for vertebroplasty. We performed a clinical examination and CT after every procedure and approximately 6 months thereafter. Biopsies contributed to in 55 (96.5 %) of the 57 vertebral lesions. Biopsy material was inadequate in one case (1.7 %) and one biopsy was a false-negative (1.7 %). The accuracy of the histological results was 98.2 %, allowing a correct diagnosis in 55 of the 56 procedures. Of the 37 lesions in 28 patients with a history of a tumour, the final diagnosis was osteoporotic collapse in 25 (67.6 %), metastasis in nine (24.3 %), and myeloma in three (8.1 %). The final diagnosis in the 19 lesions in 17 patients without a known tumour was osteoporotic collapse in 12 (63.2 %), metastasis in five (26.3 %), and amyloidosis in two (10.5 %), the latter in one patient. No complications were observed. (orig.)

  16. The HDAC Inhibitor Phenylbutyrate Reverses Effects of Neonatal Ventral Hippocampal Lesion in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eSandner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms play a role in psychiatric diseases. In this study, we considered rats with neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions (NVHL that are currently used for modeling neurodevelopmental aspects of schizophrenia. Contribution of epigenetic regulation to the effects of the lesion was investigated, using a histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor. Lesioned or sham-operated rats were treated with the general HDAC inhibitor phenylbutyrate, which was injected daily from the day after surgery until adulthood. Changes in the volume of the lesion were monitored by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Anxiety was analyzed in the Plus Maze Test. Hypersensitivity of the dopaminergic system was evaluated by measuring the locomotor response to apomorphine. An associative conditioning test rewarded with food was used to evaluate learning abilities. The volume of the lesions expanded long after surgery, independently of the treatment, as assessed by MRI. Removal of the ventral hippocampus reduced anxiety, and this remained unchanged when animals were treated with phenylbutyrate. In contrast, NVHL rats’ hypersensitivity to apomorphine and deterioration of the associative learning were reduced by the treatment. Global HDAC activity, which was increased in the prefrontal cortex of lesioned non-treated rats, was found to be reversed by HDAC inhibition. The study provides evidence that chromatin remodeling may be useful for limiting behavioral consequences due to lesioning of the ventral hippocampus at an early age. This represents a novel approach for treating disorders resulting from insults occurring during brain development.

  17. Vertebral locking lesion following cervical spine fracture in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroiwa, Tomoyuki; Yoshii, Toshitaka; Sakaki, Kyohei; Inose, Hiroyuki; Tomizawa, Shoji; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Kawabata, Shigenori; Shinomiya, Kenichi; Okawa, Atsushi

    2012-06-01

    Spine fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis frequently extend to all 3 columns, which can lead to displacement and deformity with severe instability. Cervical spine fractures occasionally cause severe kyphotic deformities, such as chin-on-chest deformities. In such cases, the patients typically exhibit a chronic progression of hyperkyphosis after the traumatic event. This article describes a unique case of ankylosing spondylitis associated with an acute chin-on-chest deformity following a spine fracture due to a vertebral locking lesion.A 60-year-old man fell while walking and sustained a compression fracture of the C6 vertebra. Two weeks later, the patient acutely developed an inability to raise his head, difficulties with chewing and swallowing, and a horizontal gaze. Radiographs demonstrated a severe kyphosis in the cervical spine with a locking lesion between the anterior wall of the C5 and C6 vertebrae. The patient also presented with neurological impairment in his hands. Because the anterior approach to the spine was anatomically impossible, halo traction was initially applied under a close observation of neurological symptoms. Three days after halo traction, release of the vertebral locking lesion and realignment of the spine were seen. The patient subsequently underwent spinal fusion using a combined anterior-posterior approach.Postoperatively, neurological dysfunction improved, and solid fusion was confirmed at 6 months. In cases of acute kyphotic deformity following cervical spine fracture in ankylosing spondylitis patients, halo traction followed by circumferential spine fusion is a safe and effective approach for improving the alignment and stability of the spine. PMID:22691645

  18. Bizarre Parosteal Osteochondromatous Proliferation (Nora’s Lesion) of the Mandible. A Rare Bony Lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Dashti, H. M.; Reith, J. D.; Schlott, B. J.; Lewis, E L; Cohen, D M; Bhattacharyya, I.

    2011-01-01

    Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP) also eponymically called “Nora’s lesion”, is a rare benign reactive bone lesion first reported in 1983. BPOP occurs classically on the bones of the hands and feet and long bones. This lesion can easily be confused, both clinically and microscopically, with other benign and malignant lesions of bone, including osteochondroma, parosteal osteosarcoma, myositis ossificans and reactive periostitis. BPOP has been reported to have a high rate...

  19. The microbiological signature of human cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions exhibits restricted bacterial diversity compared to healthy skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Vanessa R; de Queiroz, Artur TL; Sanabani, Sabri S; de Oliveira, Camila I; Carvalho, Edgar M; Costa, Jackson ML; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina

    2016-01-01

    Localised cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) is the most common form of cutaneous leishmaniasis characterised by single or multiple painless chronic ulcers, which commonly presents with secondary bacterial infection. Previous culture-based studies have found staphylococci, streptococci, and opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in LCL lesions, but there have been no comparisons to normal skin. In addition, this approach has strong bias for determining bacterial composition. The present study tested the hypothesis that bacterial communities in LCL lesions differ from those found on healthy skin (HS). Using a high throughput amplicon sequencing approach, which allows for better populational evaluation due to greater depth coverage and the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology pipeline, we compared the microbiological signature of LCL lesions with that of contralateral HS from the same individuals.Streptococcus, Staphylococcus,Fusobacterium and other strict or facultative anaerobic bacteria composed the LCL microbiome. Aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria found in HS, including environmental bacteria, were significantly decreased in LCL lesions (p < 0.01). This paper presents the first comprehensive microbiome identification from LCL lesions with next generation sequence methodology and shows a marked reduction of bacterial diversity in the lesions. PMID:27074253

  20. Cystic and Cavitary Lung Lesions in Children: Radiologic Findings with Pathologic Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Odev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of diseases produce focal or multiple thin-walled or thick-walled air- or fluid-containing cysts or cavitary lung lesions in both infants and children. In infants and children, there is a spectrum of focal or multifocal cystic and cavitary lung lesions including congenital lobar emphysema, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, pleuropulmonary blastoma, bronchogenic cyst, pulmonary sequestration, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, airway diseases, infectious diseases (bacterial infection, fungal infection, etc., hydatid cysts, destroid lung, and traumatic pseudocyst. For the evaluation of cystic or cavitary lung lesion in infants and children, imaging plays an important role in accurate early diagnosis and optimal patient management. Therefore, a practical imaging approach based on the most sensitive and least invasive imaging modality in an efficient and cost-effective manner is paramount. We reviewed the conventional radiographs and computed tomography findings of the most common cystic and cavitary lung lesions in infants and children.

  1. Radiologic appearance of primary jaw lesions in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The jaw (an unusual site of primary tumors in children and adolescents) has lesions often found incidentally by dentists on routine panoramic radiographs or during examination of a child who has swelling or tooth pain. Objective: This pictorial seeks to familiarize pediatric radiologists with the radiographic appearance of a variety of primary jaw lesions. Materials and methods: We retrospectively searched institutional records for cases of primary jaw lesions in children and adolescents. Jaw lesions were characterized as: I, well-circumscribed radiolucent lesions; II, lesions with mixed or variable appearance; III, poorly circumscribed radiolucent lesions; and IV, radiopaque lesions. Results: Although most oral and maxillofacial lesions in children are benign, a broad spectrum of tumors was identified; lesions may occur in patients with unrelated prior malignancy. Conclusion: Because radiologic studies may identify jaw lesions and direct further care, familiarity with the appearance of these entities is prudent. (orig.)

  2. Radiologic appearance of primary jaw lesions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Malini; Kaste, Sue C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Hopkins, Kenneth P. [Department of Surgery, Division of Dentistry, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Background: The jaw (an unusual site of primary tumors in children and adolescents) has lesions often found incidentally by dentists on routine panoramic radiographs or during examination of a child who has swelling or tooth pain. Objective: This pictorial seeks to familiarize pediatric radiologists with the radiographic appearance of a variety of primary jaw lesions. Materials and methods: We retrospectively searched institutional records for cases of primary jaw lesions in children and adolescents. Jaw lesions were characterized as: I, well-circumscribed radiolucent lesions; II, lesions with mixed or variable appearance; III, poorly circumscribed radiolucent lesions; and IV, radiopaque lesions. Results: Although most oral and maxillofacial lesions in children are benign, a broad spectrum of tumors was identified; lesions may occur in patients with unrelated prior malignancy. Conclusion: Because radiologic studies may identify jaw lesions and direct further care, familiarity with the appearance of these entities is prudent. (orig.)

  3. Fluoride-Releasing Materials to Prevent White Spot Lesions around Orthodontic Brackets: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Patrícia Layane de Menezes Macêdo; Fernandes, Micaelle Tenório Guedes; Figueiredo, Fabricio Eneas Diniz de; Faria-E-Silva, André Luis

    2016-02-01

    The relation between orthodontic fixed appliances use and enamel demineralization is well established. Different preventive approaches have been suggested to this problem, but controversy remains about which is the best. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of clinical trials that investigated the effectiveness of materials containing fluorides to lute brackets or cover the bonding interface in order to inhibit the development and progression of white spot lesions. The null hypothesis was that fluoride materials do not affect the incidence of white spot lesions around brackets. A MEDLINE search was conducted for randomized clinical trials evaluating the development of white spot lesions in patients using fixed orthodontic appliances, followed by meta-analysis comparing the results for patients for whom dental materials containing fluorides were used (experimental group) to those for whom these materials were not used (control group). The pooled relative risk of developing white spot lesions for the experimental group was 0.42 (95% confidence interval: 0.25 to 0.72); hence, when fluoride-releasing materials are used, the patient has 58% less risk of white spot lesion development. Regarding white spot lesion extent, the pooled mean difference between the experimental and control groups was not statistically significant (-0.12; 95% confidence interval: -0.29 to 0.04). In conclusion, the results of the present systematic review suggest that fluoride-releasing materials can reduce the risk of white spot lesions around brackets. However, when white spot lesions had already occurred, there is no evidence that fluoride-releasing materials reduce the extent of these lesions. PMID:27007355

  4. Frequency of glenoid chondral lesions on MR arthrography in patients with anterior shoulder instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, J., E-mail: juliemobrien@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia Hospital, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2B5 (Canada); Grebenyuk, J., E-mail: julia.grebenyuk@utoronto.ca [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia Hospital, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2B5 (Canada); Leith, J., E-mail: jleith@shaw.ca [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of British Columbia Hospital, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2B5 (Canada); Forster, B.B., E-mail: Bruce.Forster@vch.ca [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia Hospital, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2B5 (Canada)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To describe the frequency of glenoid chondral abnormalities in relation to Hill Sachs (HS) lesions in MR arthrograms of patients with anterior shoulder instability versus controls. Such glenoid lesions can directly impact surgical decision-making and approach, and potentially negatively impact outcome if missed. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of direct MR shoulder arthrograms in 165 subjects, (101 with anterior instability/64 controls) was performed independently by 2 blinded musculoskeletal radiologists. Outcome measures were the presence of a HS, anterior labral pathology and glenoid chondral injury. Kappa statistic, Pearson Chi-square and Mann-Whitney analysis were employed for analysis. Results: Inter-observer variability for the presence of HS, labral and chondral lesions was 0.964, 0.965 and 0.858 respectively, with intra-observer variability of 1.0, 0.985 and 0.861 for the principle reader. 58% of patients and 8% of controls had HS (p < 0.001). 72% of patients and 25% of controls had anterior labral injury (p < 0.001). 36% of instability patients and 10% controls had glenoid chondral lesions (p < 0.001). 46% of anterior instability patients with HS defects had chondral injury as opposed to 21% of patients without HS defects (p = 0.009). Depth of the HS lesion did not increase the likelihood of a glenoid chondral lesion (p = 0.7335). Conclusion: In the clinical anterior instability cohort, we demonstrated a statistically significant higher number of HS and glenoid chondral lesions than in controls. In anterior instability patients, the presence of a HS lesion confers a statistically significant greater likelihood of having a glenoid chondral lesion when compared to patients with instability and no HS.

  5. Frequency of glenoid chondral lesions on MR arthrography in patients with anterior shoulder instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe the frequency of glenoid chondral abnormalities in relation to Hill Sachs (HS) lesions in MR arthrograms of patients with anterior shoulder instability versus controls. Such glenoid lesions can directly impact surgical decision-making and approach, and potentially negatively impact outcome if missed. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of direct MR shoulder arthrograms in 165 subjects, (101 with anterior instability/64 controls) was performed independently by 2 blinded musculoskeletal radiologists. Outcome measures were the presence of a HS, anterior labral pathology and glenoid chondral injury. Kappa statistic, Pearson Chi-square and Mann–Whitney analysis were employed for analysis. Results: Inter-observer variability for the presence of HS, labral and chondral lesions was 0.964, 0.965 and 0.858 respectively, with intra-observer variability of 1.0, 0.985 and 0.861 for the principle reader. 58% of patients and 8% of controls had HS (p < 0.001). 72% of patients and 25% of controls had anterior labral injury (p < 0.001). 36% of instability patients and 10% controls had glenoid chondral lesions (p < 0.001). 46% of anterior instability patients with HS defects had chondral injury as opposed to 21% of patients without HS defects (p = 0.009). Depth of the HS lesion did not increase the likelihood of a glenoid chondral lesion (p = 0.7335). Conclusion: In the clinical anterior instability cohort, we demonstrated a statistically significant higher number of HS and glenoid chondral lesions than in controls. In anterior instability patients, the presence of a HS lesion confers a statistically significant greater likelihood of having a glenoid chondral lesion when compared to patients with instability and no HS.

  6. Automatic segmentation of lesions for the computer-assisted detection in fluorescence urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kage, Andreas; Legal, Wolfgang; Kelm, Peter; Simon, Jörg; Bergen, Tobias; Münzenmayer, Christian; Benz, Michaela

    2012-03-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in the western world. The diagnosis in Germany is based on the visual inspection of the bladder. This inspection performed with a cystoscope is a challenging task as some kinds of abnormal tissues do not differ much in their appearance from their surrounding healthy tissue. Fluorescence Cystoscopy has the potential to increase the detection rate. A liquid marker introduced into the bladder in advance of the inspection is concentrated in areas with high metabolism. Thus these areas appear as bright "glowing". Unfortunately, the fluorescence image contains besides the glowing of the suspicious lesions no more further visual information like for example the appearance of the blood vessels. A visual judgment of the lesion as well as a precise treatment has to be done using white light illumination. Thereby, the spatial information of the lesion provided by the fluorescence image has to be guessed by the clinical expert. This leads to a time consuming procedure due to many switches between the modalities and increases the risk of mistreatment. We introduce an automatic approach, which detects and segments any suspicious lesion in the fluorescence image automatically once the image was classified as a fluorescence image. The area of the contour of the detected lesion is transferred to the corresponding white light image and provide the clinical expert the spatial information of the lesion. The advantage of this approach is, that the clinical expert gets the spatial and the visual information of the lesion together in one image. This can save time and decrease the risk of an incomplete removal of a malign lesion.

  7. Evaluation of various hepatic lesions with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a liver lesion is found in a PET image, differential diagnosis and analysis of the lesion is very important. We tried to analyze hepatic lesions found in PET. 53 patients with focal liver lesions (13 patients with HCC, 8 patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), 20 patients with liver metastasis, 5 patients with hemangioma, 7 patients with liver abscess, including 1 patient with liver candidiasis) were examined. Definitely high FDG uptake pattern were observed in 54% (7/13) of HCC, 100% (8/8) of CC, 95% (19/20) of metastatic liver cancer and 100% (7/7) of liver abscess. Therefore, PET was partially useful in the diagnosis of HCC, but it was very useful in the diagnosis of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess. The contrast between lesions and surrounding liver background was very conspicuous in PET images of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess, which suggests that PET might be used for the follow up and assessment of treatment response of these diseases

  8. [Pigmented lesions of the oral cavity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocheriou, C; Kuffer, R; Verola, O

    1985-01-01

    Pigmented lesions of the oral cavity are of multiple origin. They can be subdivided as follows: non tumoral pigmentations, non melanin pigmented tumors or tumor-like lesions, benign melanin pigmented tumors and malignant melanomas. Among non tumoral pigmented lesions, some of them show melanin deposits: they can be associated with a systemic disease (Peutz Jeghers syndrome, Addison's disease) or have a medicamentous origin, or belong to a lichen migricans. Non tumoral and non melanin pigmentations are principally due to a heavy metal accumulation or an accidental tatoo arising after tooth treatment. Peripheral giant cell granuloma, so-called giant cell epulis is the major non pigmented non melanin pseudotumoral lesion; pigmentation is due to hemosiderin deposits. In the oral cavity nevi are principally of the intramucosal type. Blue nevus, the second type in frequency, is usually located on the hard palate. Primary malignant melanomas are rare in the oral cavity, but it is--because its very bad prognosis--the most important lesion. In order to improve the survival it is necessary to do the diagnosis as early as possible. PMID:3833244

  9. Venocentric lesions: an MRI marker of MS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Quinn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available From the earliest descriptions of MS, the venocentric characteristic of plaques was noted. Recently, numerous MRI studies have proposed this finding as a prospective biomarker for MS, which might aid in differentiating MS from other diseases with similar MRI findings. High field MRI studies have shown that penetrating veins can be detected in most MS lesions using T2* weighted or susceptibility weighted imaging. Future studies must address the feasibility of imaging such veins in a clinically practical context. The specificity of this biomarker has been studied only in a limited capacity. Results in microangiopathic lesions are conflicting, whereas asymptomatic white matter hyperintensities as well as lesions of NMO are less frequently venocentric compared to MS plaques. Prospective studies have shown that the presence of venocentric lesions at an early clinical presentation is highly predictive of future MS diagnosis. This is very promising, but work remains to be done to confirm or exclude lesions of common MS mimics, such as ADEM, as venocentric. A number of technical challenges must be addressed before the introduction of this technique as a complementary tool in current diagnostic procedures.

  10. Computer detection of stellate lesions in mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegelmeyer, W. Philip, Jr.

    1992-06-01

    The three primary signs for which radiologists search when screening mammograms for breast cancer are stellate lesions, microcalcifications, and circumscribed lesions. Stellate lesions are of particular importance, as they are almost always associated with a malignancy. Further, they are often indicated only by subtle architectural distortions and so are in general easier to miss than the other signs. We have developed a method for the automatic detection of stellate lesions in digitized mammograms, and have tested them on image data where the presence or absence of malignancies is known. We extract image features from the known images, use them to grow binary decision trees, and use those trees to label each pixel of new mammograms with its probability of being located on an abnormality. The primary feature for the detection of stellate lesions is ALOE, analysis of local oriented edges, which is derived from an analysis of the histogram of edge orientations in local windows. Other features, based on the Laws texture energy measures, have been developed to respond to normal tissue, and so improve the false alarm performance of the entire system.

  11. Producing Uniform Lesion Pattern in HIFU Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yufeng; Kargl, Steven G.; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2009-04-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as a modality for treatment of solid tumors. The temperature at the focus can reach over 65° C denaturing cellular proteins resulting in coagulative necrosis. Typically, HIFU parameters are the same for each treated spot in most HIFU control systems. Because of thermal diffusion from nearby spots, the size of lesions will gradually become larger as the HIFU therapy progresses, which may cause insufficient treatment of initial spots, and over-treatment of later ones. It is found that the produced lesion pattern also depends on the scanning pathway. From the viewpoint of the physician creating uniform lesions and minimizing energy exposure are preferred in tumor ablation. An algorithm has been developed to adaptively determine the treatment parameters for every spot in a theoretical model in order to maintain similar lesion size throughout the HIFU therapy. In addition, the exposure energy needed using the traditional raster scanning is compared with those of two other scanning pathways, spiral scanning from the center to the outside and from the outside to the center. The theoretical prediction and proposed algorithm were further evaluated using transparent gel phantoms as a target. Digital images of the lesions were obtained, quantified, and then compared with each other. Altogether, dynamically changing treatment parameters can improve the efficacy and safety of HIFU ablation.

  12. Evaluation of various hepatic lesions with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chul Ju

    2000-12-01

    When a liver lesion is found in a PET image, differential diagnosis and analysis of the lesion is very important. We tried to analyze hepatic lesions found in PET. 53 patients with focal liver lesions (13 patients with HCC, 8 patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), 20 patients with liver metastasis, 5 patients with hemangioma, 7 patients with liver abscess, including 1 patient with liver candidiasis) were examined. Definitely high FDG uptake pattern were observed in 54% (7/13) of HCC, 100% (8/8) of CC, 95% (19/20) of metastatic liver cancer and 100% (7/7) of liver abscess. Therefore, PET was partially useful in the diagnosis of HCC, but it was very useful in the diagnosis of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess. The contrast between lesions and surrounding liver background was very conspicuous in PET images of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess, which suggests that PET might be used for the follow up and assessment of treatment response of these diseases.

  13. Rare Infraglottic Lesions in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary pathological laryngeal lesions occur rarely in infraglottic space. Modern possibilities of diagnostic imaging of infraglottic space include computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR). Diagnostic imaging was performed in potential lesions in this area: inflammatory process – cicatrical pemphigoid, benign neoplastic process – chondroma, malignant neoplastic – squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of the paper is to present clinical and radiographical characteristics of selected lesions located in infraglottic space in MRI examination. Three patients examined at the Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging of University Hospital No. 1 in Lodz (SPZOZ USK nr 1) from 2010–2011 with a pathological mass in infraglottic space. Standard imaging protocol for MRI of the neck was used in all patients: field of 1.5 T, slice thickness 3 mm, the distance between the scans 10–20%, FOV – 3 mm, sequences: T1 (TR/TE 455/9, 7 ms, T2 (TR/TE 5300/67 ms), T1 + Gd-DTPA (contrast agent Gd-DTPA at 0.2 mmol/kg). 1. It is possible to determine characteristic signal pattern for rare lesions of the infraglottic space in MRI. 2. MRI is a valuable complementary modality for the diagnostics and differentiation of lesions in infraglottic space, the evaluation of their advancement and treatment planning

  14. Oral White Lesions: Presentation and Comparison of Oral Submucous Fibrosis with Other Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare oral submucous fibrosis with other white oral lesions for presentation and associated factors. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Departments of Oral Medicine and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ibad Institute of Oral Health Sciences (DIKIOHS), Karachi, from May 2008 to May 2009. Methodology: Patients presenting with oral white lesions were selected by consecutive non-purposive sampling and clinico-demographic data was collected. For patients with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), additional information like duration of habits, maximal incisal opening (MIO), presence of any other associated lesion were noted. OSF was compared with other white lesions for any association between characteristic of subjects. Chi-square and independent t-tests for determining the statistical significance at p < 0.05. Results: OSF was present in 59.6% (n = 106) of the 178 patients; other white lesions were 40.4% (n = 72). The mean age of patients with OSF was 34 +- 12.7 years and 45.81 +- 16.2 years in patients with other white lesions, (p < 0.0001). Items containing areca nut were consumed more by patients with OSF, with a significant (p < 0.0001) compared to patients with other white lesions. Conclusion: OSF was the predominant white lesion in patients examined at DIKIOHS. Areca nut was found to be chewed more by patients with OSF and still longer by patients with SCC. (author)

  15. Lesions in nerves and plexus after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from the typical, radiation-induced changes in the skin, common secondary findings were oedemas, radiation-induced ulceration, fibroses of the mediastinum and lungs, pleura adhesions, and osteoradionecroses. In one patient with radiogenic paresis of the plexus brachialis, irradiation of the spinal cord because of epidural metastases of a mammary carcinoma resulted in radiation myelopathy which was verified by laminectomy. Observations of radiogenic lesions of the plexus brachialis show that the usual site of the lesion in the vasomotoric nerve bundle is the axilla. The lesion is assumed to be caused mainly by an overlapping of the axillary, infraclavicular and supraclavicular fields of irradiation which results in a dose peak in the axilla. (orig./AJ) 891 AJ/orig.- 892 MKO

  16. Morgellons Disease Presenting As an Eyelid Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Rasanamar K; Steele, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Morgellons disease is characterized by complaints of uncomfortable skin sensations and fibers emanating from nonhealing skin lesions. Morgellons disease is well-known in the dermatology and psychiatry literature, where it is typically considered a subtype of delusional parasitosis, but it has not yet been described in the ophthalmology literature. A patient with self-reported Morgellons disease is presented, who was referred for evaluation of left lower eyelid ectropion. She reported that her skin was infested with fibers that were "trying to get down into the eyelid." On examination, she had ectropion of the left lower eyelid, broken cilia, and an ulcerated left upper eyelid lesion concerning for carcinoma. Biopsy of the lesion was consistent with excoriation. Treatment of her ectropion was deferred out of concern for wound dehiscence, given the patient's aggressive excoriation behavior. This case is presented to make the ophthalmologist aware of this disorder and to highlight the appropriate clinical management. PMID:25192328

  17. Blue light hazards for ocular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blue light range (400-500 nm) of visible radiation stimulates specifically cones and rods of the retina. The carried energy by these wavelengths is absorbed and transferred to specific pigments. Their energy is sufficient to produce free radicals and singlet form of oxygen. Intense sources, rich in blue light radiation, may induce, in the retina, photo-toxic lesions either limited or short-lived or photothermal lesions more or less definitive. Repeated photo-toxic lesions should be the root for the age-related maculo-pathy (A.R.M.) also called late macular degeneration (A.M.D.). As a consequence, the attention should be drawn on the potential risk linked to modern lighting as 'daylight' lamp, compact fluorescent lamps, energy saving (C.F.L.) and light-emitting diodes (L.E.D.) for which a specific vigilance should be enforced. (author)

  18. Imaging of Retrosternal Space Lesions – A Pictorial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekhara, S.H.; Rahul, Kumar; Handa, Nayha; Panda, Ananya

    2016-01-01

    Summary The retrosternal region (RSS) can be involved by diverse lesions. The RSS is the region behind the sternum and anterior to the ascending aorta. It normally is less than 3 cm deep. Chest X-ray is usually the first imaging modality to raise a suspicion of RSS pathology; however computed tomography is the mainstay to delineate and characterize lesions in this location. Lesions in this location include thyroid, thymic and lymph node lesions; germ cell tumors and vascular lesions. Lesions arising from the sternum, lungs as well as the pleura can also involve this space. The pictorial review depicts the diverse spectrum of lesions in this location. PMID:27504144

  19. Imaging of Retrosternal Space Lesions - A Pictorial Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekhara, S H; Rahul, Kumar; Handa, Nayha; Panda, Ananya

    2016-01-01

    The retrosternal region (RSS) can be involved by diverse lesions. The RSS is the region behind the sternum and anterior to the ascending aorta. It normally is less than 3 cm deep. Chest X-ray is usually the first imaging modality to raise a suspicion of RSS pathology; however computed tomography is the mainstay to delineate and characterize lesions in this location. Lesions in this location include thyroid, thymic and lymph node lesions; germ cell tumors and vascular lesions. Lesions arising from the sternum, lungs as well as the pleura can also involve this space. The pictorial review depicts the diverse spectrum of lesions in this location. PMID:27504144

  20. Treatment of calcified coronary artery lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed; Costopoulos, Charis; Gorog, Diana A; Prasad, Abhiram; Srinivasan, Manivannan

    2016-06-01

    Heavily calcified coronary plaques represent a complex lesion subset and a challenge to the interventional cardiologist, as they are often resistant to simple plaque modification with conventional balloon angioplasty. Inadequate plaque modification can lead to stent underdeployment, which itself predisposes to in-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis. Over the years, a number of mechanical devices ranging from modified angioplasty balloons to atherectomy devices have become available in order to tackle such lesions. Here we review these devices concentrating on the evidence behind their use. PMID:26924773

  1. CT diagnosis of cystic ovarian lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT was undertaken and CT numbers were measured in 47 patients with cystic ovarian lesions. CT features particularly for chocolate cyst revealed the uniform thickness of the whole cystic wall, findings suggesting adhesion to the surrounding organs, circular or oval shape, and higher CT numbers within the cyst than those in the other cystic ovarian lesions. However, because these features are not always observed in cases of chocolate cyst, one should not rely solely on CT findings in the diagnosis of chocolate cyst. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Post-traumatic contrast enhancing brain lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Hyun Sook; Jeong, Min Sun; Kim, Deok Ryeong; Cho, Young Kwon; Choi, Yun Sun [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Only a few studies have been reported on the MR contrast enhancement and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) findings of the post-traumatic lesion of the brain. We report a case of the venous ischemia in the left frontal lobe observed in the MRI obtained one day after the incidence of trauma. Considering the presented slight increase in the ADC, the vasogenic edema was thought to be the major mechanism of the venous ischemia and excitotoxic injury. In spite of a slight increase in the ADC, the hyperintensity in the diffusion weighted imaging and contrast-enhanced areas eventually changed into hemorrhagic lesions.

  3. Non-infectious inflammatory genital lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassi, Lucio; Bilenchi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The genitalia may be the site of non-infectious inflammatory lesions that are generally manifested as balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis. In men, these forms constitute 50% of all balanoposthitis forms, and in women, vulvovaginitis frequency is even higher. They consist of genital locations of general skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, and other clinical entities with their own physiognomy, such as Zoon's balanitis-vulvitis. Diagnosis of genital non-infectious inflammatory lesions is usually made on clinical criteria. A biopsy is only necessary for the identification of clinical conditions that may simulate inflammatory form but are actually premalignant processes. PMID:24559568

  4. MR findings of the spinal epidural lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hun; Lee, Ho Kyu; Shin, Ji Hoon; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul; Shin, Myung Jin; Rhim, Seung Chul [Ulsan Univ. College of Midicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Tae [Dongguk Univ. College of Midicine, Kyungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    The spinal canal takes the form of a series of cylinders designated by their relationship to the meninges and is divided by the dura mater into the epidural or extradural space and intradural space. The epidural space is composed of spinal ligaments, connective and areolar tissue, the epidural venous plexus, lymphatic channels and supporting elements, and various pathologic entities are found there. MR imaging can accurately depict the extent and characteristics of lesions, and in some cases specific diagnosis is possible. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate a variety of spinal epidural lesions and their MR findings.

  5. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions Virus papiloma humano en lesiones orales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín V. Gónzalez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases; the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell samples from normal oral mucosa were used as controls. HPV detection and typing were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using primers MY09, 11, combined with RFLP or alternatively PCR using primers GP5+, 6+ combined with dot blot hybridization. HPV was detected in 91.0% of HPV- associated benign lesions, 14.3% of non-HPV associated benign lesions, 51.5% of preneoplasias and 60.0% of cancers. No control sample tested HPV positive. In benign HPV- associated lesions, 30.0% of HPV positive samples harbored high-risk types, while in preneoplastic lesions the value rose to 59.9%. In cancer lesions, HPV detection in verrucous carcinoma was 88.9% and in squamous cell carcinoma 43.8%, with high-risk type rates of 75.5% and 85.6%, respectively. The high HPV frequency detected in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions supports an HPV etiological role in at least a subset of oral cancers.Crecientes evidencias sugieren que el virus Papiloma humano (HPV tiene un rol en el cáncer oral; sin embargo su participación es todavía controvertida. Este estudio evalúa la frecuencia de ADN de HPV en una variedad de lesiones orales de pacientes de Argentina. Se seleccionaron 77 muestras de tejido oral de 66 pacientes (casos; el diagnóstico histo-patológico correspondió a: 11 lesiones benignas asociadas a HPV, 8 lesiones benignas no asociadas a HPV, 33 lesiones premalignas y 25 cánceres. Como controles se usaron 60 muestras de células exfoliadas de mucosa oral normal. La

  6. Benign Proliferative Breast Lesions and Risk of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Serap Erel

    2010-01-01

    Benign breast lesions (BBL) includes a wide variety of histologic entities, which have been broadly classified into non-proliferative lesions, proliferative lesions without atypia, and hyperplasia with atypia. With the increased use of mammography, more benign lesions are being detected, and in order to estimate the risk of breast cancer for specific histologic categories is of great importance to guide clinical management. Women with proliferative lesions without atypia are at slightly incre...

  7. The wide spectrum of hyperechoic lesions of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda, A., E-mail: annalinda33@gmail.co [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Zuiani, C.; Lorenzon, M.; Furlan, A.; Londero, V. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Machin, P. [Institute of Pathology, Ospedale De Gironcoli, Conegliano (Italy); Bazzocchi, M. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    Although breast lesions are commonly detected because of their hypoechogenicity, some lesions may present with hyperechogenicity due to their histological components. Hyperechogenicity has been shown to be highly predictive of benignity; however, hyperechoic lesions can occasionally be malignant. This article reviews hyperechoic lesions of the breast, describes the underlying histological causes associated with hyperechogenicity, and the sonographic features useful for the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant hyperechoic lesions.

  8. The comparison of excisionel biopsies between wire-guided and radioguided occult lesion localization in nonpalpable breast lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Kağan Karabulut

    2011-01-01

    The development of breast imaging methodsincreased frequent of nonpalpable breast lesions.Consequently, diagnosis of early breast cancer increasedand breast cancer mortality decreased. Several techniqueswere described for excisional biopsy of nonpalpablebreast lesions. Wire guided localization is currentlythe most commonly used localization method for nonpalpablebreast lesions. ROLL is a possible alternative tothe commonly used wire guided localization of non palpablebreast lesions and ROLL i...

  9. Surgical treatment of gallbladder polypoid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Miljko A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder can be divided into benign and malignant categories. Malignant polypoid lesions include carcinomas of the gallbladder, which is the fifth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract and the most common malignancy of the biliary tract. Benign polypoid lesions of the gallbladder are divided into true tumors and pseudotumors. Pseudotumors account for most of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder, and include polyps, hyperplasia, and other miscellaneous lesions. Adenomas are the most common benign neoplasms of the gallbladder. Cholesterol polyps are the most common pseudotumors of the gallbladder. The polyps can be single or multiple, usually less than 10 mm in size. They have no predilection for any particular gallbladder site, and usually are attached to the gallbladder wall by a delicate, narrow pedicle. No malignant potential has been identified for this type of pseudotumor. Adenomas are the most common benign neoplasms of the gallbladder. They have no predilection site in the gallbladder, and may also be associated with gallstones or cholecystitis. The premalignant nature of adenomas remains controversial. Ultrasonography (US has been demonstrated to be significantly better in detecting polypoid lesions of the gallbladder as compared with computed tomography and cholecystography. A mass fixed to the gallbladder wall of normal thickness, without shadowing, is seen in case of gallbladder polyp. Since gallbladder cancers usually present as polypoid lesions, differentiation between benign polypoid lesion and malignant lesion can be very difficult, even with high-resolution imaging techniques. PATIENTS AND METHODS Retrospectively we have analyzed 38 patients with ultrasonographicaly detected gallbladder polyps during the period from January 1995 to December 2000, who were treated at surgical department of Health Centre in Uzice and at Surgical clinic of Clinical Centre in Nis. We have analyzed

  10. Classification of breast lesions presenting as mass and non-mass lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Ortiz, Cristina; Martel, Anne L.

    2014-03-01

    We aim to develop a CAD system for robust and reliable di erential diagnosis of breast lesions, in particular non-mass lesions. A necessary prerequisite for the development of a successful CAD system is the selection of the best subset of lesion descriptors. But an important methodological concern is whether the selected features are in uenced by the model employed rather than by the underlying characteristic distribution of descriptors for positive and negative cases. Another interesting question is how a particular classi er exploits the relationships between descriptors to increase the accuracy of the classi cation. In this work we set to: (1) Characterize kinetic, morphological and textural features among mass and non-mass lesions; (2) Examine feature spaces and compare selection of subset of features based on similarity of feature importance across feature rankings; (3) Compare two classi er performances namely binary Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Random Forest (RF) for the task of di erentiating between positive and negative cases when using binary classi cation for mass and non-mass lesions separately or when employing a multi-class classi cation. Breast MRI datasets consists of 243 (173 mass and 70 non-mass) lesions. Results show that RF variable importance used with RF-binary based classi cation optimized for mass and non-mass lesions separately o ers the best classi cation accuracy.

  11. Multispectral imaging and artificial neural network: mimicking the management decision of the clinician facing pigmented skin lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrara, M [Department of Medical Physics, Fondazione IRCSS ' Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori' , Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Bono, A [Melanoma and Sarcoma Unit, Fondazione IRCSS ' Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori' , Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Bartoli, C [Day Surgery Unit, Fondazione IRCSS ' Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori' , Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Colombo, A [Department of Medical Physics, Fondazione IRCSS ' Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori' , Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Lualdi, M [Department of Medical Physics, Fondazione IRCSS ' Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori' , Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Moglia, D [Melanoma and Sarcoma Unit, Fondazione IRCSS ' Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori' , Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Santoro, N [Melanoma and Sarcoma Unit, Fondazione IRCSS ' Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori' , Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Tolomio, E [Melanoma and Sarcoma Unit, Fondazione IRCSS ' Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori' , Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Tomatis, S [Department of Medical Physics, Fondazione IRCSS ' Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori' , Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Tragni, G [Department of Pathology and Cytopathology, Fondazione IRCSS ' Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori' , Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Santinami, M [Melanoma and Sarcoma Unit, Fondazione IRCSS ' Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori' , Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Marchesini, R [Department of Medical Physics, Fondazione IRCSS ' Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori' , Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy)

    2007-05-07

    Various instruments based on acquisition and elaboration of images of pigmented skin lesions have been developed in an attempt to in vivo establish whether a lesion is a melanoma or not. Although encouraging, the response of these instruments, e.g. epiluminescence microscopy, reflectance spectrophotometry and fluorescence imaging, cannot currently replace the well-established diagnostic procedures. However, in place of the approach to instrumentally assess the diagnosis of the lesion, recent studies suggest that instruments should rather reproduce the assessment by an expert clinician of whether a lesion has to be excised or not. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a spectrophotometric system to mimic such a decision. The study involved 1794 consecutively recruited patients with 1966 doubtful cutaneous pigmented lesions excised for histopathological diagnosis and 348 patients with 1940 non-excised lesions because clinically reassuring. Images of all these lesions were acquired in vivo with a multispectral imaging system. The data set was randomly divided into a train (802 reassuring and 1003 excision-needing lesions, including 139 melanomas), a verify (464 reassuring and 439 excision-needing lesions, including 72 melanomas) and a test set (674 reassuring and 524 excision-needing lesions, including 76 melanomas). An artificial neural network (ANN{sub 1}) was set up to perform the classification of the lesions as excision-needing or reassuring, according to the expert clinicians' decision on how to manage each examined lesion. In the independent test set, the system was able to emulate the clinicians with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 80%. Of the 462 correctly classified as excision-needing lesions, 72 (95%) were melanomas. No major variations in receiver operating characteristic curves were found between the test and the train/verify sets. On the same data set, a further artificial neural network (ANN{sub 2}) was then

  12. Multispectral imaging and artificial neural network: mimicking the management decision of the clinician facing pigmented skin lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various instruments based on acquisition and elaboration of images of pigmented skin lesions have been developed in an attempt to in vivo establish whether a lesion is a melanoma or not. Although encouraging, the response of these instruments, e.g. epiluminescence microscopy, reflectance spectrophotometry and fluorescence imaging, cannot currently replace the well-established diagnostic procedures. However, in place of the approach to instrumentally assess the diagnosis of the lesion, recent studies suggest that instruments should rather reproduce the assessment by an expert clinician of whether a lesion has to be excised or not. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a spectrophotometric system to mimic such a decision. The study involved 1794 consecutively recruited patients with 1966 doubtful cutaneous pigmented lesions excised for histopathological diagnosis and 348 patients with 1940 non-excised lesions because clinically reassuring. Images of all these lesions were acquired in vivo with a multispectral imaging system. The data set was randomly divided into a train (802 reassuring and 1003 excision-needing lesions, including 139 melanomas), a verify (464 reassuring and 439 excision-needing lesions, including 72 melanomas) and a test set (674 reassuring and 524 excision-needing lesions, including 76 melanomas). An artificial neural network (ANN1) was set up to perform the classification of the lesions as excision-needing or reassuring, according to the expert clinicians' decision on how to manage each examined lesion. In the independent test set, the system was able to emulate the clinicians with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 80%. Of the 462 correctly classified as excision-needing lesions, 72 (95%) were melanomas. No major variations in receiver operating characteristic curves were found between the test and the train/verify sets. On the same data set, a further artificial neural network (ANN2) was then architected to perform

  13. DEGENERATED SOFT TISSUE LESION RESEMBLING A CHONDROMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A 42 year old male fisherman presented with a tender mass in the right side groin/root of the thigh. The entire episode followed a trauma. A biopsy specimen revealed a chondroma like lesion with necrosis. The final diagnosis made was Necrosis of Tendon.

  14. International Consensus for ultrasound lesions in gout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Marwin; Schmidt, Wolfgang A; Thiele, Ralf G;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To produce consensus-based definitions of the US elementary lesions in gout and to test their reliability in a web-based exercise. METHODS: The process consisted of two steps. In the first step a written Delphi questionnaire was developed from a systematic literature review and expert ...

  15. Assessing Elementary Lesions in Gout by Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terslev, Lene; Gutierrez, Marwin; Christensen, Robin;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the reliability of the consensus-based ultrasound (US) definitions of elementary gout lesions in patients. METHODS: Eight patients with microscopically proven gout were evaluated by 16 sonographers for signs of double contour (DC), aggregates, erosions, and tophi in the first...

  16. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images

  17. Circumscribed lytic lesions of the thalassaemic skull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orzincolo, C.; Corcione, S.; Castaldi, G.; Bariani, L.; Franceschini, F.; Scutellari, P.N.

    1988-07-01

    Solitary or multiple circumscribed osteolytic areas are described in seven patients, selected from 250 patients with homozygous ..beta..-thalassaemia (Cooley's anaemia). On X-ray examinations, these areas appear as purely osteolytic lesions with well-defined margins not associated with sclerosis. The possible mechanisms are discussed.

  18. Scoliosis secondary to an unusual rib lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, N G

    2012-04-01

    Tumours of the chest wall are uncommon and are usually malignant. A bone haemangioma is a rare benign vascular neoplasm, which more commonly occurs in middle-aged patients. We present the case of a scoliosis caused by a rib haemangioma in an adolescent male. Other causes of scoliosis secondary to rib lesions are discussed.

  19. Roentgenologic diagnostics of capsular ligament lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, C.J.; Jaeger, M.

    1981-10-01

    The X-ray diagnostic is of obvious importance and relevance in the detection of acute or old capsular ligament lesions of the limb joint. On the one hand it serves as the plain radiograph (roentgenogram without contrast medium) for the assessment of osseous secondary lesions, for the documentation of luxationary positions of the joint partners, and in old capsular ligament lesions for the detection of an already existing arthrosis. On the other hand the X-ray images are of main importance, which are made from the hand-held limb in order to permit a comparison of the two sides, and which beyond the clinical detection of a joint instability indicate the extent and the direction of this instability and which also document it, and which allow in adolescents to recognize a separation of the epiphysis as an alternative to the capsular ligament rupture. Only in particular cases arthrography can provide some additional information, so for example in the case of an isolated syndesmosis rupture, ruptures of the rosette of the rotator muscle or of a damaged triangular disk in the hand. Angiography is only required in cases of traumatic luxations of the knee in order to exclude an intimal lesion of the popliteal artery.

  20. Precancerous Lesions of the Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Gürbüz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review of oral precancerous lesions, leukoplakia, erythroleukoplakia/erythroplakia and the least common variant proliferative verrucous leukoplakia will be focused with their clinical characteristics and their potential to develop oral squamous cell carcinoma and related factors will be discussed.

  1. Lesion mapping of social problem solving

    OpenAIRE

    Aron K Barbey; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J.; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H.

    2014-01-01

    Barbey et al. investigate the neurobiology of social problem solving and its relation to psychometric intelligence, emotional intelligence, and personality in 144 patients with focal lesions. Results reveal the neural architecture of social problem solving and provide an integrative framework for understanding the social, psychometric, and emotional foundations of human intelligence.

  2. IDUS for Biliary and Pancreatic Duct Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takao ltoi

    2008-01-01

    @@ In the recent decade, wire-guided intraductal US(IDUS), which can be passed through the working channel of standard duodenoscopes to provide high-frequency ultrasound images, has been developed as a newly diagnostic tool for biliary and pancreatic duct lesions.

  3. Laser treatment of first degree carious lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Pilgrim, Christian G.; Hennig, Thomas

    2001-04-01

    The therapy of initial carious lesions aims in a minimal invasive removal of infected dental hard tissue. Typically standard preparation instruments bear the risk of removing a big amount of sound structures as a result of access. On the other hand the competence of Er:YAG lasers for caries removal has been repeatedly proven.

  4. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  5. Multispectral recordings and analysis of psoriasis lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2006-01-01

    An objective method to evaluate the severeness of psoriasis lesions is proposed. In order to obtain objectivity multi-spectral imaging is used. The multi-spectral images give rise to a large p, small n problem which is solved by use of elastic net model selection. The method is promising for...

  6. Vascular lesions secondary to osteotomy by corticotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Francesco; Spinelli, Renato; Stilo, Francesco; De Caridi, Giovanni; Mirenda, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Management of vascular traumas is frequently delayed. Vascular injuries after elective operation for bone lengthening or correction of a deformity are very'rare situations. We describe 3 cases. Case 1: male, aged 22, undergoing corticotomy for bone lengthening; immediately presented acute limb ischaemia due to a partial lesion of the popliteal artery, documented by U.S. After 7 h, direct reconstruction of the artery and fasciotomies were performed. Case 2: male, aged 27, undergoing directional osteotomy for genu varus correction. For 30 days, constant increase in leg volume and decrease in function. US showed an important haematoma at the popliteal level; arteriography documented a partial lesion of the infra-genicular popliteal artery and a voluminous false aneurysm. Direct correction of the artery and fasciotomies were performed. Case 3: male, aged 22, undergoing corticotomy for leg lengthening; immediately presented leg pain with decreased distal pulses. After 4h, there was an increase in leg volume, and arteriography showed a total lesion of the infra-genicular popliteal artery and an arteriovenous fistula. Popliteo-tibial bypass with the contralateral greater saphenous vein and fasciotomies were performed. After 1 month endovascular closure of the fistula was obtained. All patients had recovered after two months with only minor leg insufficiency. Patency of the bypass and absence of infections or delayed false aneurysms were achieved. Vascular injuries after elective orthopaedic procedures are very rare situations. Such lesions are caused by an osteotomy via corticotomy performed percutaneously. The variety of clinical presentations accounts for the difficulty in diagnosing such lesions and for the delays in implementing treatment. It is very important to obtain an early diagnosis complete with an arteriography. PMID:17966782

  7. Supratentorial cystic intracranial lesions: MR imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Joo; Son, Young Bo; Choi, Kyu Ho; Chun, Kyung Ah; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Seog Hee; Shinn, Kyung Sub [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    To describe MR findings and differential points of supratentorial cystic intracranial lesions. We retrospectively reviewed and analyzed the MR findings of 59 patients with supratentorial cystic intracranial lesions, and classified them as follows : tumor-associated cyst, infectious cyst, ex-vacuo type cyst, and congentital/developmental cyst. Among 59 patients, 47 tumor-associated cysts were seen in 17, 42 infectious cysts in 13, 17 ex-vacuo type cysts in 10, and 19 congenital/developmental cysts in 19. In 44 of 47 tumor-associate cysts, increased or inhomogeneous internal signal intensity was seen on T1-weighted image, 37 of 47 showed thick uneven walls ; 37 of 47 had enhancing solid components and there was variable perifocal edema and mass effect. Infectious cysts were multiple (11 of 13). In cases of brain abscess, increased internal signal intensity on T1-weighted image, low signal intensity of abscess wall on T2-weighted image, thick even enhancing wall, and marked perifocal edema (4 of 4) were seen in all four cases. Cysts in cysticercosis were variable in appearance depending on the stage, but were smaller than other cystic lesions. Ex vacuo type cysts were of uniform CSF signal intensity in all pulse sequences and there was no identifiable wall or enhancement associated with enlarged adjacent ventricle and encephalomalacia (17 of 17). Congenital/developmental cysts showed a single lesion (19 of 19), a signal intensity similar to CSF in all pulse sequences (15 of 19), no identifiable wall (16 of 19), no enhancement (17 of 19), and no perifocal edema (19 of 19). MR was used to categorize supratentorial cystic intracranial lesions into four groups on the basis of their number, size, internal homogeneity of signal intensity on T1-weighted image, enhancing pattern, perifocal edema and mass effect, thereby improving diagnostic specificity and patient management.

  8. CAROTID ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESION IN YOUNG PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Pizova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence of atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid and vertebral arteries of young patients from Doppler ultrasound data and to compare the quantitatively assessed traditional risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD with severe extracranial artery atherosclerotic lesion.Subjects and methods. Doppler ultrasound was carried out evaluating structural changes in the aortic arch branches in 1563 railway transport workers less than 45 years of age. A separate sample consisted of 68 young people with carotid atherosclerotic changes, in whom traditional risk factors for CHD were studied, so were in a control group of individuals without atherosclerotic changes (n = 38.Results. Among the examinees, carotid atherosclerotic lesion was detected in 112 (7.1 % cases, the increase in the rate of atherosclerotic plaques in patients aged 35–45 years being 9.08 %; that in the rate of local intima-media thickness in those aged 31–40 years being 5.1 %. Smoking (particularly that along with hypercholesterolemia and a family history of cardiovascular diseases, obesity (along with low activity, and emotional overstrain were defined as important risk factors in the young patients. Moreover, factor analysis has shown that smoking,hypertension, and early cardiovascular pathology in the next of kin makes the greatest contribution to the development of carotid atherosclerotic lesion.Conclusion. Among the patients less than 45 years of age, carotid and vertebral artery atherosclerotic changes were found in 112 (7.1 % cases, which were more pronounced in male patients. Smoking, particularly along with hypercholesterolemia and genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases, was a risk factor that had the highest impact on the degree of atherosclerotic lesion in the aortic arch branches of the young patients.

  9. Photoacoustic characterization of radiofrequency ablation lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Richard; Dana, Nicholas; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2012-02-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) procedures are used to destroy abnormal electrical pathways in the heart that can cause cardiac arrhythmias. Current methods relying on fluoroscopy, echocardiography and electrical conduction mapping are unable to accurately assess ablation lesion size. In an effort to better visualize RFA lesions, photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasonic (US) imaging were utilized to obtain co-registered images of ablated porcine cardiac tissue. The left ventricular free wall of fresh (i.e., never frozen) porcine hearts was harvested within 24 hours of the animals' sacrifice. A THERMOCOOLR Ablation System (Biosense Webster, Inc.) operating at 40 W for 30-60 s was used to induce lesions through the endocardial and epicardial walls of the cardiac samples. Following lesion creation, the ablated tissue samples were placed in 25 °C saline to allow for multi-wavelength PA imaging. Samples were imaged with a VevoR 2100 ultrasound system (VisualSonics, Inc.) using a modified 20-MHz array that could provide laser irradiation to the sample from a pulsed tunable laser (Newport Corp.) to allow for co-registered photoacoustic-ultrasound (PAUS) imaging. PA imaging was conducted from 750-1064 nm, with a surface fluence of approximately 15 mJ/cm2 maintained during imaging. In this preliminary study with PA imaging, the ablated region could be well visualized on the surface of the sample, with contrasts of 6-10 dB achieved at 750 nm. Although imaging penetration depth is a concern, PA imaging shows promise in being able to reliably visualize RF ablation lesions.

  10. Automatic ultrasound image enhancement for 2D semi-automatic breast-lesion segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kongkuo; Hall, Christopher S.

    2014-03-01

    Breast cancer is the fastest growing cancer, accounting for 29%, of new cases in 2012, and second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States and worldwide. Ultrasound (US) has been used as an indispensable tool for breast cancer detection/diagnosis and treatment. In computer-aided assistance, lesion segmentation is a preliminary but vital step, but the task is quite challenging in US images, due to imaging artifacts that complicate detection and measurement of the suspect lesions. The lesions usually present with poor boundary features and vary significantly in size, shape, and intensity distribution between cases. Automatic methods are highly application dependent while manual tracing methods are extremely time consuming and have a great deal of intra- and inter- observer variability. Semi-automatic approaches are designed to counterbalance the advantage and drawbacks of the automatic and manual methods. However, considerable user interaction might be necessary to ensure reasonable segmentation for a wide range of lesions. This work proposes an automatic enhancement approach to improve the boundary searching ability of the live wire method to reduce necessary user interaction while keeping the segmentation performance. Based on the results of segmentation of 50 2D breast lesions in US images, less user interaction is required to achieve desired accuracy, i.e. < 80%, when auto-enhancement is applied for live-wire segmentation.

  11. Rehabilitation of children with lesions of the proximal humeral metaepiphysis using transosseous distraction osteosynthesis technique

    OpenAIRE

    Yuriy Evgenievich Garkavenko; Alim Albiyanovich Lamerdonov; Bagaudin Khavashevich Dolgiev

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the treatment of 39 children with a shortening of the humerus after sustained osteomyelitis. Variants of lesions of the proximal humerus metaepiphysis are highlighted, and the differentiated approach to therapeutic measures depending on the identified changes resulted in a positive outcome.

  12. Rehabilitation of children with lesions of the proximal humeral metaepiphysis using transosseous distraction osteosynthesis technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Evgenievich Garkavenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of the treatment of 39 children with a shortening of the humerus after sustained osteomyelitis. Variants of lesions of the proximal humerus metaepiphysis are highlighted, and the differentiated approach to therapeutic measures depending on the identified changes resulted in a positive outcome.

  13. Measuring the lesion load of multiple sclerosis patients within the corticospinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jan; Hanken, Katrin; Koceva, Jasna; Hildebrandt, Helmut; Hahn, Horst K.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present a framework for reliable determination of the lesion load within the corticospinal tract (CST) of multiple sclerosis patients. The basis constitutes a probabilistic fiber tracking approach which checks possible parameter intervals on the fly using an anatomical brain atlas. By exploiting the range of those intervals, the algorithm is able to resolve fiber crossings and to determine the CST in its full entity although it can use a simple diffusion tensor model. Another advantage is its short running time, tracking the CST takes less than a minute. For segmenting the lesions we developed a semi-automatic approach. First, a trained classifier is applied to multimodal MRI data (T1/FLAIR) where the spectrum of lesions has been determined in advance by a clustering algorithm. This leads to an automatic detection of the lesions which can be manually corrected afterwards using a threshold-based approach. For evaluation we scanned 46 MS patients and 16 healthy controls. Fiber tracking has been performed using our novel fiber tracking and a standard defection based algorithm. Regression analysis of the old and new version of the algorithm showed a highly significant superiority of the new algorithm for disease duration. Additionally, a low correlation between old and new approach supports the observation that standard DTI fiber tracking is not always able to track and quantify the CST reliably.

  14. 4D numerical observer for lesion detection in respiratory-gated PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorsakul, Auranuch [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Li, Quanzheng; Ouyang, Jinsong; El Fakhri, Georges, E-mail: elfakhri@pet.mgh.harvard.edu [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 and Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Trott, Cathryn M. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia and ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Redfem, NSW 2016 (Australia); Hoog, Christopher; Petibon, Yoann [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Laine, Andrew F. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Respiratory-gated positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography protocols reduce lesion smearing and improve lesion detection through a synchronized acquisition of emission data. However, an objective assessment of image quality of the improvement gained from respiratory-gated PET is mainly limited to a three-dimensional (3D) approach. This work proposes a 4D numerical observer that incorporates both spatial and temporal informations for detection tasks in pulmonary oncology. Methods: The authors propose a 4D numerical observer constructed with a 3D channelized Hotelling observer for the spatial domain followed by a Hotelling observer for the temporal domain. Realistic {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose activity distributions were simulated using a 4D extended cardiac torso anthropomorphic phantom including 12 spherical lesions at different anatomical locations (lower, upper, anterior, and posterior) within the lungs. Simulated data based on Monte Carlo simulation were obtained using GEANT4 application for tomographic emission (GATE). Fifty noise realizations of six respiratory-gated PET frames were simulated by GATE using a model of the Siemens Biograph mMR scanner geometry. PET sinograms of the thorax background and pulmonary lesions that were simulated separately were merged to generate different conditions of the lesions to the background (e.g., lesion contrast and motion). A conventional ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction (5 iterations and 6 subsets) was used to obtain: (1) gated, (2) nongated, and (3) motion-corrected image volumes (a total of 3200 subimage volumes: 2400 gated, 400 nongated, and 400 motion-corrected). Lesion-detection signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were measured in different lesion-to-background contrast levels (3.5, 8.0, 9.0, and 20.0), lesion diameters (10.0, 13.0, and 16.0 mm), and respiratory motion displacements (17.6–31.3 mm). The proposed 4D numerical observer applied on multiple-gated images was

  15. Penile lesion from gunshot wound: a 43-case experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalcanti Andre G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the main aspects of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of 43 patients with gunshot wounds to the penis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The location of the lesion, the presence of associated lesions, the performance of complementary exams, surgical treatment, postoperative complications and long term follow-up of 43 patients with penile lesions from gunshot wounds were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Of 43 cases assessed, 41 were submitted to surgical exploration (95.3% and 2 were submitted to conservative treatment (4.7%. We found penile lesions involving the corpus cavernosum in 37 cases; the remaining 4 patients presented no lesions involving the corpus cavernosum, urethra or testicles but did in the superficial structures. Ten cases presented an association with testicular lesions and 14 cases association with anterior urethral lesions. CONCLUSION: Penile lesions from gunshot wounds should be treated with immediate surgical intervention. In exceptional situations featuring superficial lesions only conservative treatment may be applied.

  16. ROLE OF FINE NEEDLE CYTOLOGY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF HEAD & NECK MASS LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Although head and neck masses are fairly common clinical presentation, it may be the only, or one of several nonspecific findings in serious illnesses like lymphoma or metastatic cancer. Thus, the need to efficiently differentiate patients with serious illness from those with self - limited disease arises. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC helps in the early and accurate diagnosis especially where approach for interventional biopsy is limited. AIMS: To diagnose various head and neck mass lesions via FNAC and correlating the results with clinical and histo pathological diagnosis. SETTINGS & DESIGN: The study was conducted in Shyam Shah Medical College and associated Sanjay Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Rewa ( MP, on 406 patients who presented with head and neck swellings . METHODS & MATERIAL: A complete general and systemic examination was carried out. FNAC was carried out on 406 subjects while biopsy was done for 123 lesions. The predictive value for FNAC was retrospectively correlated with biopsy results. RESULTS: In the current study, 372 diagnoses clinically correlated to 406 cytological diagnoses. The most common head and neck swellings were Cervical Lymph Node lesions (346 followed by Salivary Gland lesions(37, while the remaining 23 were other head and neck lesions. Out of the 123 biopsies performed, 111 were correctly diagnosed by FNAC itself. Inflammatory lesions ( 301 accounted for 86.99% of all cervical lymph node lesions. Demographic profile revealed a higher tendency of malignant lymph node lesions in Males (68.9% and in the older (>50years age group (55.6%; benign lesions were more common in the young (<20years [26.2%]. Similarly, Salivary Gland lesions ( 37 were mostly benign (32 and had a male predilection. 100% accuracy was achieved in the diagnosis of adenomas. Among other head and neck lesions, Lipomas were most common ( 30.4% achieving a cytological accuracy of 80%. Through this study, the Sensitivity ( 76

  17. Depiction and characterization of liver lesions in whole body [{sup 18}F]-FDG PET/MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiderwellen, Karsten, E-mail: karsten.beiderwellen@uk-essen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45147 Essen (Germany); Gomez, Benedikt, E-mail: Benedikt.gomez@uk-essen.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45147 Essen (Germany); Buchbender, Christian, E-mail: Christian.buchbender@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Dusseldorf, 40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Hartung, Verena, E-mail: Verena.hartung@uk-essen.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45147 Essen (Germany); Poeppel, Thorsten D., E-mail: Thorsten.Poeppel@uk-essen.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45147 Essen (Germany); Nensa, Felix, E-mail: felix.nensa@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45147 Essen (Germany); Kuehl, Hilmar, E-mail: Hilmar.Kuehl@uk-essen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45147 Essen (Germany); Bockisch, Andreas, E-mail: Andreas.bockisch@uk-essen.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45147 Essen (Germany); Lauenstein, Thomas C., E-mail: Thomas.Lauenstein@uk-essen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45147 Essen (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Objectives: To assess the value of PET/MRI with [{sup 18}F]-FDG using a whole body protocol for the depiction and characterization of liver lesions in comparison to PET/CT. Methods: 70 patients (31 women, 39 men) with solid tumors underwent [{sup 18}F]-FDG PET/CT and followed by an additional PET/MRI using an integrated scanner. Two readers rated the datasets (PET/CT; PET/MRI) regarding conspicuity of hepatic lesions (4-point ordinal scale) and diagnostic confidence (5-point ordinal scale). Median scores for lesion conspicuity and diagnostic confidence were compared using Wilcoxon's rank sum test. Prior examinations, histopathology and clinical follow-up (116 ± 54 days) served as standard of reference. Results: 36 of 70 (51%) patients showed liver lesions. Using PET/CT and PET/MRI all patients with liver metastases could correctly be identified. A total of 97 lesions were found (malignant n = 26; benign n = 71). For lesion conspicuity significantly higher scores were obtained for PET/MRI in comparison to PET/CT (p < 0.001). Significantly better performance for diagnostic confidence was observed in PET/MRI, both for malignant as for benign lesions (p < 0.001). Conclusions: PET/MRI, even in the setting of a whole body approach, provides higher lesion conspicuity and diagnostic confidence compared to PET/CT and may therefore evolve as an attractive alternative in oncologic imaging.

  18. Chronic ankle instability. Which tests to assess the lesions? Which therapeutic options?

    OpenAIRE

    TOURNE, Yves; Besse, Jean-Luc; MABIT, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper purpose is to suggest an in-depth approach to diagnose the causes and lesions associated with and consecutive to chronic ankle instability due to ankle collateral ligament laxity. The different therapeutic and medicosurgical options adapted to this diagnostic approach are identified. The diagnostic aim is to precisely locate the ligamentous injuries of the tibiofibular, subtalar, talar and calcanean system, to identify the predisposing factors such as the hindfoot morphology, and a...

  19. Meeting report on the first Iranian congress of electrodiagnosis in peripheral nerve lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrami Hasan M

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Department of Physical Medicine, Rehabilitation and Electrodiagnosis of Shaheed Beheshti Medical University in collaboration with the Iranian Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (ISPMR held the 1st Congress of Electrodiagnostic Medicine in Peripheral Nerve Lesions on December 21–22, 2006. Electrodiagnostic medicine is a specific branch of medicine used by specialist physicians in the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation and/or neurology to diagnose, prognosticate and plan treatment options of peripheral nerve lesions. This meeting was hold to discuss multidisciplinary approaches to this common and important topic in the medical field.

  20. Visual attention capacity after right hemisphere lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill

    2007-01-01

    whole report experiment for estimation of these two parameters in 22 patients with right side stroke. Psychophysical performance was analyzed using Bundesen's [Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review, 97, 523-547] Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and compared......Recently there has been a growing interest in visual short-term memory (VSTM) including the neural basis of the function. Processing speed, another main aspect of visual attention capacity, has received less investigation. For both cognitive functions human lesion studies are sparse. We used a...... both VSTM capacity and ipsilesional processing speed. The study also showed that lesions in a large region of the right hemisphere, including the putamen, insula, and inferior frontal cortex, do not lead to general deficits in the capacity of visual attention. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr-8...

  1. Isolated, relative aproverbia without focal lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cora; Smith-Benjamin, Sarah; Patira, Riddhi; Altschuler, Eric L

    2016-06-01

    We have seen a patient with a profound, isolated, and quite selective deficit in proverb interpretation-aproverbia. The patient presented to us after an anoxic brain injury with aproverbia. Interestingly, the aproverbia appeared to be premorbid to the presenting event. Furthermore, the patient had no brain lesion that has been associated or even proposed as a cause of deficit in proverb or metaphor interpretation. The patient did have acute bilateral hippocampi lesions and associated severe anterograde amnesia, but he retained good retrograde memory with which he is able to give good, logical but concrete explanations for proverbs. This case highlights the need, importance, and interest in further neuropsychologic, imaging and functional studies of proverb and interpretation in patients and normal subjects populations. PMID:26836570

  2. MAGE-A antigens in lesions of the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Eva; Rauthe, Stephan; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Reuther, Tobias; Kochel, Michael; Kriegebaum, Ulrike; Kübler, Alexander C; Müller-Richter, Urs D A

    2011-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma develops continuously out of predamaged oral mucosa. For the physician and pathologist, difficulties arise in distinguishing precancerous from cancerous lesions. MAGE-A antigens are tumor antigens that are found solely in malignant transformed cells. These antigens might be useful in distinguishing precancerous from cancerous lesions. The aim of this study was to verify this assumption by comparing MAGE-A expression in benign, precancerous, and cancerous lesions of the oral mucosa. Retrospectively, biopsies of different oral lesions were randomly selected. The lesions that were included are 64 benign oral lesions (25 traumatic lesions (oral ulcers), 13 dental follicles, and 26 epulis), 26 oral lichen planus, 123 epithelial precursor lesions (32 epithelial hyperplasia found in leukoplakias, 24 epithelial dysplasia found in leukoplakias, 26 erythroplasia with oral epithelial dysplasia, and 41 carcinomas in situ in erythroleukoplakias). The lesions were immunohistochemically stained with the poly-MAGE-A antibody 57B, and the results were compared. Biopsies of oral lichen planus, oral ulcers, dental follicles, epulis, and leukoplakia without dysplasia showed no positive staining for MAGE-A antigens. Leukoplakia with dysplasia, dysplasia, and carcinomata in situ displayed positive staining in 33%, 65%, and 56% of the cases, respectively. MAGE-A antigens were not detectable via immunohistochemistry in benign lesions of the oral mucosa. The staining rate of dysplastic precancerous lesions or malignant lesions ranged from 33% to 65%. The MAGE-A antigens might facilitate better differentiation between precancerous and cancerous lesions of the oral mucosa. PMID:20174843

  3. The use of platelet rich plasma in the treatment of immature tooth with periapical lesion: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Güven Polat, Günseli; Yıldırım, Ceren; AKGÜN, Özlem Martı; ALTUN, Ceyhan; Dinçer, Didem; Özkan, Cansel Köse

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the treatment of an immature permanent tooth with periapical lesion which was treated with regenerative approach using platelet rich plasma (PRP). The root canal of immature human permanent tooth with periapical lesion was gently debrided of necrotic tissue and disinfected with 2.5% NaOCl, and then medicated with triple antibiotic paste comprised of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and tetracycline. When the tooth was asymptomatic, PRP and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) we...

  4. Successful management of pulpo-periodontal lesion in maxillary lateral incisor with palatogingival groove using CBCT scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Rajput

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Palatogingival groove is a rare developmental anomaly involving the lingual surface of the maxillary incisor and resulting in severe endodontic and periodontal lesions. This case report describes a multidisciplinary approach for the combined management of the endodontic and periodontal problems for successful rehabilitation of the involved tooth. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT helped in correct diagnosis of the lesion and hence enabled effective treatment.

  5. A Rare Case of Aggressive Digital Adenocarcinoma of the Lower Extremity, Masquerading as an Ulcerative Lesion that Clinically Favored Benignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Vazales

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A rare case report of Aggressive Digital Adenocarcinoma (ADPCa is presented complete with a literature review encompassing lesions that pose potential diagnostic challenges. Similarities between basal cell carcinoma (BCC, marjolin’s ulceration/squamous cell carcinoma (MSCC and ADPCa are discussed. This article discusses potential treatment options for ADPCa and the need for early biopsy when faced with any challenging lesion. An algorithmic approach to ADPCa treatment based on the most current research is recommended.

  6. Vestibular perception following acute unilateral vestibular lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian Cousins

    Full Text Available Little is known about the vestibulo-perceptual (VP system, particularly after a unilateral vestibular lesion. We investigated vestibulo-ocular (VO and VP function in 25 patients with vestibular neuritis (VN acutely (2 days after onset and after compensation (recovery phase, 10 weeks. Since the effect of VN on reflex and perceptual function may differ at threshold and supra-threshold acceleration levels, we used two stimulus intensities, acceleration steps of 0.5°/s(2 and velocity steps of 90°/s (acceleration 180°/s(2. We hypothesised that the vestibular lesion or the compensatory processes could dissociate VO and VP function, particularly if the acute vertiginous sensation interferes with the perceptual tasks. Both in acute and recovery phases, VO and VP thresholds increased, particularly during ipsilesional rotations. In signal detection theory this indicates that signals from the healthy and affected side are still fused, but result in asymmetric thresholds due to a lesion-induced bias. The normal pattern whereby VP thresholds are higher than VO thresholds was preserved, indicating that any 'perceptual noise' added by the vertigo does not disrupt the cognitive decision-making processes inherent to the perceptual task. Overall, the parallel findings in VO and VP thresholds imply little or no additional cortical processing and suggest that vestibular thresholds essentially reflect the sensitivity of the fused peripheral receptors. In contrast, a significant VO-VP dissociation for supra-threshold stimuli was found. Acutely, time constants and duration of the VO and VP responses were reduced - asymmetrically for VO, as expected, but surprisingly symmetrical for perception. At recovery, VP responses normalised but VO responses remained shortened and asymmetric. Thus, unlike threshold data, supra-threshold responses show considerable VO-VP dissociation indicative of additional, higher-order processing of vestibular signals. We provide evidence of

  7. Cameron lesion: An unusual cause of anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Ivan; Alempijević Tamara; Popović Dragan; Kovačević Nada; Krstić Miodrag

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Cameron lesions are linear gastric ulcers or erosions positioned on the crests of mucosal folds at the diaphragmatic impression, in patients with large hiatal hernia, and can cause iron deficiency anaemia. Case report. We present a case of a 56-year-old woman who was referred to our institution for further investigation after she was examined in gastroenterology emergency room (GER) for signs and symptoms of severe hypochromic microcytic anemia without signs of acute gastr...

  8. Calcifying fibrous tumour: an unusual omental lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhakar, Sniya; Gibikote, Sridhar [Christian Medical College Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Mistry, Yogesh [Christian Medical College Hospital, Department of Pathology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Dastidar, Arindam; Sen, Sudipta [Christian Medical College Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-11-15

    Calcifying fibrous tumour (CFT) is a recently described distinct clinicopathological entity characterized by calcifying lesions usually occurring in soft tissue of the extremities, trunk, axilla, pleura, mediastinum and peritoneum of children and adults. Most reported cases involving the peritoneum have been in adults. We present the imaging, surgical and pathology findings of CFT in a 7-year-old child who presented with an incidental finding of a large omental mass. (orig.)

  9. Calcifying fibrous tumour: an unusual omental lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcifying fibrous tumour (CFT) is a recently described distinct clinicopathological entity characterized by calcifying lesions usually occurring in soft tissue of the extremities, trunk, axilla, pleura, mediastinum and peritoneum of children and adults. Most reported cases involving the peritoneum have been in adults. We present the imaging, surgical and pathology findings of CFT in a 7-year-old child who presented with an incidental finding of a large omental mass. (orig.)

  10. Cutaneous lesions of the external ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Benno

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skin diseases on the external aspect of the ear are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, othorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners, general and plastic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the ear. This article will focus on those diseases wherefore surgery or laser therapy is considered as a possible treatment option or which are potentially subject to surgical evaluation.

  11. Cervical premalignant lesions and their management

    OpenAIRE

    Köse, Faruk M.; Naki, Murat M.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the tenth most common cancer in women in developed countries that have national screening programs, while it is in the second line in underdeveloped countries. According to Ministry of Health registry data, cervical cancer is the eighth most common cancer among female cancers in Turkey. Today, the most effective screening for cervical cancer is to obtain smears from the cervix. Therefore, periodic screening programs are of great importance in identifying preinvasive lesions...

  12. Endometriosis: A Highly Unexpected Skin Lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Tolga Dinc

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis: A highly unexpected skin lesion Endometriosis is the presence of functional endometrium in anywhere outside of uterin cavity. This clinical entity is relatively common, that 10-15% of fertile women and 6% of post-menopausal women are affected [1,2] . Cutaneous endometriosis is a form of endometriosis and it usually occurs in the incision scar, after gynecological surgeries, cesarean sections and episiotomies [3]. Cutaneous endometriosis is characterized with painful, bluish ...

  13. The lesioned brain: still a small world?

    OpenAIRE

    Baayen, Johannes C; Martin Klein; Dimitri N Velis; Alpherts, Willem C. J.; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Cornelis Jan Stam

    2010-01-01

    The intra-arterial amobarbital procedure (IAP or Wada test) is used to determine language lateralization and contralateral memory functioning in patients eligible for neurosurgery because of pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. During unilateral sedation, functioning of the contralateral hemisphere is assessed by means of neuropsychological tests. We use the IAP as a reversible model for the effect of lesions on brain network topology. Three artifact free epochs (4096 samples) were selected from each...

  14. Implant periapical lesion: Diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Peñarrocha Diago, María; Maestre Ferrín, Laura; Cervera Ballester, Juan; Peñarrocha Oltra, David

    2012-01-01

    The implant periapical lesion is the infectious-inflammatory process of the tissues surrounding the implant apex. It may be caused by different factors: contamination of the implant surface, overheating of bone during drilling, preparation of a longer implant bed than the implant itself, and pre-existing bone disease. Diagnosis is achieved by studying the presence of symptoms and signs such us pain, swelling, suppuration or fistula; in the radiograph an implant periapical radiolucency may app...

  15. Encephalitis with Prolonged but Reversible Splenial Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Meleková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The splenium of the corpus callosum has a specific structure of blood supply with a tendency towards blood-brain barrier breakdown, intramyelinic edema, and damage due to hypoxia or toxins. Signs and symptoms of reversible syndrome of the splenium of the corpus callosum typically include disorientation, confusion, impaired consciousness, and epileptic seizures. Case report: A previously healthy 32-year-old man suffered from weakness, headache, and fever. Subsequently, he developed apathy, ataxia, and inability to walk, and therefore was admitted to the hospital. Cerebrospinal fluid showed protein elevation (0.9 g/l and pleocytosis (232/1 ul. A brain MRI showed hyperintense lesions in the middle of the corpus callosum. The patient was treated with antibiotics, and subsequently, in combination with steroids. Two months later, the hyperintense lesions in the splenium and the basal ganglia had disappeared. Almost seven months since his hospitalization in the Department of Neurology, the patient has returned to his previous employment. He now does not exhibit any mental changes, an optic edema and urological problems have improved. In addition, he is now actively engaged in sports. Conclusion: We have described a case of a 32-year-old man with confusion, ataxia, and inability to stand and walk. The man developed a febrile meningeal syndrome and a hyperintense lesion of the splenium, which lasted for two months. Neurological changes, optic nerve edema, and urinary retention have resolved over the course of seven months. We think that the prolonged but transient lesion of the splenium may have been caused by encephalitis of viral origin.

  16. Hyperdense lesions in CT of cerebral toxoplasmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with stage IV C1 AIDS who presented hyperdense CT images 13 days after beginning antitoxoplasma treatment. These lesions could be caused by calcifications or blood. The attenuation values lead us to believe that they are calcium. Intracranial calcification in adult cerebral toxoplasmosis is an uncommon finding. Its presence in AIDS patients should not suggest any etiology other than toxoplasmosis. (Author) 16 refs

  17. Tendon lesion and VEGF-111 injection

    OpenAIRE

    Kaux, Jean-François; Drion, Pierre; Libertiaux, Vincent; Pascon, Frédéric; Colige, Alain; Le Goff, Caroline; Lambert, Charles; Janssen, Lauriane; Nusgens, Betty; Gothot, André; CESCOTTO, Serge; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Rickert, Markus; Crielaard, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Tendon lesion is one of the most frequent pathology in sports and by physical workers. This pathology often becomes chronic. For this reason, it is of interest to develop new treatments. Injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) seems to be a promising one by releasing growth factors (GF) locally. Among all the GF released by activated platelets, the vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is known to induce positive effects on vascular function and angiogenesis, and could b...

  18. Benign focal hepatic lesions; Benigne fokale Leberlaesionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroud, S.; Bastati, N.; Prosch, H.; Ba-Ssalamah, A. [AKH, Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Schima, W. [Krankenhaus Goettlicher Heiland, Wien, Abteilung fuer Radiologie und Bildgebende Diagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2011-08-15

    A profound knowledge of the various benign focal hepatic lesions and selection of the most suitable radiological examination modality is essential for achieving an accurate characterization of a hepatic lesion and in turn will determine the further patient management. This will avoid unnecessary agitation to both patient and the referring clinician and limits time-consuming, costly and risky biopsies to an absolute minimum. The following article will discuss the typical and atypical appearances of the most frequent and clinically relevant benign focal hepatic lesions with ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.) [German] Eine genaue Kenntnis des breiten Spektrums benigner fokaler Leberlaesionen und der geeigneten radiologischen Untersuchungsmethode ist essenziell, um eine sichere Diagnose bzgl. der Dignitaet und damit das weitere Vorgehen bestimmen zu koennen. Damit wird eine unnoetige Verunsicherung des Patienten und des behandelnden Arztes vermieden, und invasive, eventuell mit Komplikationen assoziierte Biopsien sowie zeit- und kostenintensive Verlaufskontrollen koennen reduziert werden. Der folgende Artikel erlaeutert die haeufigsten und klinisch wichtigsten benignen fokalen Leberlaesionen und deren typisches und atypisches Erscheinen in den 3 haeufig verwendeten bildgebenden Verfahren Sonographie, Computertomographie und Magnetresonanztomographie. (orig.)

  19. Intracranial lesions in dogs with hemangiosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective analysis of 85 dogs with hemangiosarcoma (HSA) that underwent complete necropsy, including gross examination of the brain, was conducted. Grossly identifiable intracranial lesions were present in 17 dogs. Twelve of 85 dogs (14.2%) had brain metastases. Four of 85 dogs (4.7%) had hemorrhagic lesions and/or ischemic necrosis without identifiable tumor. One dog had a primary central nervous system tumor. Signs of intracranial disease were present in six of 85 dogs (7.1%) with HSA; four had brain metastases and two had nonneoplastic lesions. Metastases had a propensity for cerebrum and gray matter. Dogs with brain metastases had more widely disseminated disease than dogs without brain metastases (P less than 0.001). Dogs with pulmonary metastases were at greater risk for developing brain metastases than dogs without pulmonary metastases (odds ratio = 8.31). Although thoracic radiography accurately identified ten of 12 dogs (83%) with pulmonary metastases, too few cases were available to assess the applicability/accuracy of thoracic radiography in predicting the presence or absence of brain metastases in dogs with malignancy and signs of intracranial disease

  20. Radiological appearances of papillary breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review illustrates the varied appearances of benign and malignant papillary breast tumours, as identified by a breast cancer-screening programme. The commonest mammographic appearance of a papillary tumour is as a soft-tissue mass, with calcification present in less than half of cases. When calcification is present the pattern is variable, but clusters of pleomorphic calcification can occur, sometimes resembling the mammographic appearance of invasive ductal carcinoma. Ultrasonography of papillary lesions typically shows a solid, oval, intraductal mass, often associated with duct dilatation. A cystic component is also commonly seen, and lesions may appear hypervascular on colour Doppler ultrasound. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a high sensitivity, but low specificity for detecting papillary tumours, and is useful in establishing the extent and distribution of lesions in patients with multiple papillomatosis. Despite a benign histology on core biopsy, an argument exists for complete surgical excision of all papillary tumours, as a significant proportion of papillomas will contain foci of atypia or overt malignant change

  1. CT images of unilateral sinus lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomographic images of 49 cases of unilateral sinus lesions were examined, and 4 findings were obtained as follows; 1) On the C.T. images of malignant tumors, detection of bone destruction was easy, but its early erosion was difficult. 2) Fungus infections and papilloma of paranasal sinuses demonstrated bone thickness as well as destruction, and this finding would serve as a differential point from malignant diseases. 3) From the C.T. values of soft tissue shadows in the maxillary sinus, it was impossible to differentiate malignant from benign lesions. However, a calcified or non-homogenous soft tissue shadow was seen only in cases of fungus infections and maxillary adenocarcinoma in malignant tumors, and it would be clinically a very important differential point. 4) Many of the unilateral sinus lesions will prove to be indications for surgery, except acute and allergic sinusitis. The paranasal C.T. examinations should be performed if the case does not respond to a conservative therapy over a month, and a case showing bone destruction by the C.T. images would require an exploratory Caldwell-Luc operation. (author)

  2. Lesion mapping of social problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511

  3. Diverse Imaging characteristics of a mandibular intraosseous vascular lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region are rare, and the differential diagnosis of intraosseous vascular malformations from other jaw lesions can be challenging. In the present case, magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was used for diagnosis, and the lesion was treated with surgical excision. Diverse characteristics such as the 'honeycomb' and 'sunburst' radiographic appearances and the absence of major peripheral feeder vessels in the CTA were noted. Intraosseous vascular malformations have a varied radiographic appearance, and the nomenclature of these lesions is equally diverse, with several overlapping terms. Pathologists do not generally differentiate among intraosseous vascular lesions on the basis of histopathology, although these lesions may present with contrasting immunohistochemical and clinical behaviors requiring varied treatment strategies. This case report highlights the need for multiple imaging modalities to differentiate among vascular lesions, as well as to better understand the behaviors of these unique lesions.

  4. Diverse Imaging characteristics of a mandibular intraosseous vascular lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handa, Hina; Naidu, Giridhar S.; Dara, Balaji Gandhi Babu; Deshpande, Ashwini; Raghavendra, Raju [Peoples Dental Academy, Bhopal (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region are rare, and the differential diagnosis of intraosseous vascular malformations from other jaw lesions can be challenging. In the present case, magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was used for diagnosis, and the lesion was treated with surgical excision. Diverse characteristics such as the 'honeycomb' and 'sunburst' radiographic appearances and the absence of major peripheral feeder vessels in the CTA were noted. Intraosseous vascular malformations have a varied radiographic appearance, and the nomenclature of these lesions is equally diverse, with several overlapping terms. Pathologists do not generally differentiate among intraosseous vascular lesions on the basis of histopathology, although these lesions may present with contrasting immunohistochemical and clinical behaviors requiring varied treatment strategies. This case report highlights the need for multiple imaging modalities to differentiate among vascular lesions, as well as to better understand the behaviors of these unique lesions.

  5. Orbital space-occupying lesions in Denmark 1974-1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sven; Heegaard, Steffen; Bøgeskov, Lars;

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, orbit, neoplasm, tumor, Denmark, histopathology, SNOMED codes, prevalence-database, space-occupying lesion......ophthalmology, orbit, neoplasm, tumor, Denmark, histopathology, SNOMED codes, prevalence-database, space-occupying lesion...

  6. Experimental osteoarthritis in rabbits: lesion progression Osteoartrite experimental em coelhos: progressão lesional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma N.S. Campos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the progression of lesions in different stages of osteoarthritis (OA experimental by radiography (RX, computed tomography (CT, macroscopic and histopathology, linking these different diagnostic methods, helped to provide information that helps the best time for the therapeutic approach. Four experimental periods were delineated at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks after induction of OA, known as PI, PII, PIII and PIV, respectively, each with six animals. We evaluated the five compartments of the femorotibial joint: medial femoral condyle (MFC, lateral femoral condyle (LFC, medial tibial plateau (MTP, lateral tibial plateau (LTP and femoral trochlea (FT. Therefore we established an index by compartment (IC and by adding such an index was estimated joint femorotibial (IFT. It was observed that the CFM was the compartment with the highest IC also differed significantly (p0.05 between the PI and PII, however contrary fact occurred between the PII and PIII (p 0.05 between the PI and PII. In the variation of the average interval between periods, there was a higher value between the PIII PIV and for the other intervals of time periods (PI, PII, and PIII-PII. However, these intervals showed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05. Through the RX, CT, macroscopic and histopathological findings, we found similar patterns among individuals within the same period demonstrating a gradual progression of the disease. These results show that between 3 and 6 weeks progression of the lesion is slower and probably also can be reversed in comparison to other ranges where proved further progression between 9 and 12 weeks after induction of trauma OA. These results may provide a better therapeutic approach aimed at reversing the lesions in early stages of OA. We conclude that the interconnection of the four diagnostic methods individually classified into scores, which were unified in both indices in the evaluation by the femorotibial

  7. INTRA LESIONAL TRIAMCINOLONE FOR SOLITARY AND MULTIPLE CHALAZIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnana Jyothi C

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chalazion is a common ophthalmic condition characterized by chronic lipogranulomatous inflammations of the eyelid caused by plugged meibomian glands. It causes local eye symptoms such as irritation, inflammation and cosmetic disfigurement, mechanical ptosis and corneal astigmatism.30 patients of the age group between 15 to 40 years having solitary and multiple chalazia present in upper or and lower lids were included in the study. Triamcinolone acetonide 0.1 ml - 0.2ml (4-8mg was injected from conjunctival approach using a tuberculin syringe. Our results suggest that intra lesional injection of corticosteroid is one the ideal treatment for chalazion especially multiple, bilateral and those near the punctum. In majority of cases one injection is sufficient for complete resolution of the chalazion within a period of a week’s time. Injection can be repeated after a week in cases having residual swelling.

  8. Automated Dermoscopy Image Analysis of Pigmented Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Baldi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy, epiluminescence microscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic technique for the in vivo observation of pigmented skin lesions (PSLs, allowing a better visualization of surface and subsurface structures (from the epidermis to the papillary dermis. This diagnostic tool permits the recognition of morphologic structures not visible by the naked eye, thus opening a new dimension in the analysis of the clinical morphologic features of PSLs. In order to reduce the learning-curve of non-expert clinicians and to mitigate problems inherent in the reliability and reproducibility of the diagnostic criteria used in pattern analysis, several indicative methods based on diagnostic algorithms have been introduced in the last few years. Recently, numerous systems designed to provide computer-aided analysis of digital images obtained by dermoscopy have been reported in the literature. The goal of this article is to review these systems, focusing on the most recent approaches based on content-based image retrieval systems (CBIR.

  9. Incidentally Detected Enhancing Breast Lesions on Chest Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Wen-Chiung; Hsu, Hsian-He; Li, Chao-Shiang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Chang, Tsun-Hou; Huang, Guo-Shu

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the nature and imaging appearance of incidental enhancing breast lesions detected on a routine contrast-enhanced chest CT. Materials and Methods Twenty-three patients with incidental enhancing breast lesions on contrast-enhanced chest CT were retrospectively reviewed. The breast lesions were reviewed by unenhanced and enhanced CT, and evaluated by observing the shapes, margins, enhancement patterns and backgrounds of breast lesions. A histopathologic diagnosis or long-te...

  10. Imaging of Soft Tissue Lesions of the Foot and Ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi

    2010-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of soft tissue lesions of the foot may be narrowed with imaging. The cystic nature of ganglia, synovial cysts, and bursitis can be confirmed with MR imaging or sonography. Location and signal characteristics of noncystic lesions may suggest Morton's neuroma, giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath and plantar fibromatosis. Synovial-based lesions of the foot and ankle can be differentiated based on presence or absence of mineralization, lesion density, signal intensit...

  11. Morel-Lavallee lesion in the knee: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitrez, Eduardo Hennemann, E-mail: epitrez@terra.com.b [Clinica Radiologica Osorio Lopes, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pellanda, Roberto Campos; Silva, Mariana Eltz; Holz, Gustavo Garcia; Hertz, Felipe Teixeira [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital Sao Lucas; Hoefel Filho, Joao Rubiao [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Center of Imaging Diagnosis

    2010-09-15

    Morel-Lavallee lesion is a degloving injury of the interface between the subcutaneous fat and the underlying fascia. This lesion is characterized by the development of a fluid collection that, although originally described in the thigh, it has also been described in other anatomical sites. The authors report the case of a patient with Morel-Lavallee lesion in the knee after trauma and describe the main characteristics of the lesion. (author)

  12. A new venture with sclerotherapy in an oral vascular lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Sitra, G.; Kayalvizhi, E. B.; Sivasankari, T.; Vishwanath, R.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular malformations are one of the most common lesions of the oral cavity. The lesion may be a congenital malformation observed in neonates or arteriovenous malformation observed in adults. Various surgical and medical managements are possible for vascular lesions which include surgical excision, laser therapy, cryotherapy, selective embolization, intralesional sclerosing agents, β-blockers and steroid therapy. Here we report a case of oral vascular lesion where intralesional injection wit...

  13. Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture. (paper)

  14. Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deana, A. M.; Jesus, S. H. C.; Koshoji, N. H.; Bussadori, S. K.; Oliveira, M. T.

    2013-07-01

    Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture.

  15. Statistical analysis of post mortem DNA damage-derived miscoding lesions in Neandertal mitochondrial DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vives, Sergi; Gilbert, M Thomas; Arenas, Conchita;

    2008-01-01

    the Heavy strand could explain the observed bias, a phenomenon that could be further tested with non-PCR based approaches. The characterization of the HVS1 hotspots will be of use to future Neandertal mtDNA studies, with specific regards to assessing the authenticity of new positions previously......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We have analysed the distribution of post mortem DNA damage derived miscoding lesions from the datasets of seven published Neandertal specimens that have extensive cloned sequence coverage over the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region 1 (HVS1). The analysis was......-->A miscoding lesions (observed ratio of 67:2 compared to an expected ratio of 7:2), implying that the mtDNA Light strand molecule suffers proportionally more damage-derived miscoding lesions than the Heavy strand. CONCLUSION: The clustering of Cs in the Light strand as opposed to the singleton pattern of Cs in...

  16. Treatment of bifurcation lesions with drug-coated balloons: A review of currently available scientific data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Bernardo; Piraino, Davide; Buccheri, Dario; Alfonso, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Bifurcation lesion management still represents a challenge for interventional cardiologists and currently there is a number of different approaches/techniques involving coronary stents. The use of a drug-coated balloon for native coronary vessel management is emerging as an alternative treatment, although in selected patient populations only. In particular, this technology has been tested for the treatment of bifurcations, both for the main vessel and the side branches. Several studies have evaluated this treatment as an alternative or as a therapeutic option complementary to stents, with conflicting and debatable results. However, the perspective of leaving lower metallic burden in this type of lesions is highly appealing and should be deeply investigated. We review here the currently available scientific data and future perspectives on drug-coated balloon use for bifurcation lesions. PMID:27390995

  17. Partly segregated cortico-subcortical pathways support phonologic and semantic verbal fluency: A lesion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouiter, Leila; Holmberg, Josefina; Manuel, Aurelie L; Colombo, Françoise; Clarke, Stephanie; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Spierer, Lucas

    2016-08-01

    Verbal fluency refers to the ability to generate as many words as possible in a limited time interval, without repetition and according to either a phonologic (each word begins with a given letter) or a semantic rule (each word belongs to a given semantic category). While current literature suggests the involvement of left fronto-temporal structures in fluency tasks, whether the same or distinct brain areas are necessary for each type of fluency remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis for an involvement of partly segregated cortico-subcortical structures between phonologic and semantic fluency by examining with a voxel-based lesion symptom mapping approach the effects of brain lesions on fluency scores corrected for age and education level in a group of 191 unselected brain-damaged patients with a first left or right hemispheric lesion. There was a positive correlation between the scores to the two types of fluency, suggesting that common mechanisms underlie the word generation independent of the production rule. The lesion-symptom mapping revealed that lesions to left basal ganglia impaired both types of fluency and that left superior temporal, supramarginal and rolandic operculum lesions selectively impaired phonologic fluency and left middle temporal lesions impaired semantic fluency. Our results corroborate current neurocognitive models of word retrieval and production, and refine the role of cortical-subcortical interaction in lexical search by highlighting the common executive role of basal ganglia in both types of verbal fluency and the preferential involvement of the ventral and dorsal language pathway in semantic and phonologic fluency, respectively. PMID:27217213

  18. Sonographic Findings of Morel-Lavalle'e Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Yu Jin; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Woo, Ji Young; Hong, Hye Suk; Jung, Ah Young; Jeh, Su Kyung [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We reviewed the sonographic features of Morel-Lavalle'e lesions by correlating the US image findings with a lesion's age. We obtained the sonography reports of 20 Morel-Lavalle'e lesions of the hip and extremities from 18 patients with a history of trauma. The US images were reviewed to characterize the echogenicity, shape, homogeneity, margins, location and size of the lesions. The results were correlated with the age of the lesions and the clinical histories. All the Morel-Lavalle'e lesions were hypoechoic or anechoic fluid collections located between the subcutaneous fat and the underlying fascia. Regarding the shape of the fluid collections, the lobular shaped lesions were all less than 21 days for the lesion's age, and the flat fluid collections were all greater than 1 month of age. Regarding the homogeneity, the heterogeneous fluid collections were all less than 25 days of age, and the homogeneous fluid collections were all greater than 1 month of age. A Morel-Lavalle'e lesion is seen as a posttraumatic fluid collection in the potential space between the subcutaneous fat and the underlying fascia on an ultrasound examination. Acute Morel-Lavalle'e lesions tended to be heterogeneous and lobular, and they became more homogeneous and flat in shape as the lesions evolved. Awareness of these imaging findings will help us to properly diagnose Morel- Lavalle'e lesions

  19. Multidetector computed tomography of jaw lesions in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Jaw lesions in paediatric and adolescent population are uncommon and can arise in odontogenic or non-odontogenic tissues. With the advent of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), algorithm for imaging jaw lesions has changed dramatically. This pictorial essay describes the imaging appearance of commonly encountered jaw lesions in children and adolescents with emphasis on MDCT findings

  20. A residual cystic lesion in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, T. [Otsu Red Cross Hospital, Nagara (Japan). Dept. of Paediatrics; Imai, T. [Kyoto Univ. School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Paediatrics

    2000-09-01

    We report a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) with a residual cystic lesion on MRI. This seemed to be induced by Japanese encephalitis vaccination. Despite complete clinical improvement with high-dose steroid therapy, the cystic lesion has persisted for 3 years on MRI. There have been no previous reports of residual cystic lesions in ADEM. (orig.)

  1. Skin lesions in renal transplant recipients: A single center analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Leni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The chronic use of immunosuppressants in renal transplant recipients (RTRs predisposes them to a variety of skin manifestations. Studies on skin lesions in RTRs from India have been limited. Aim: To study the prevalence and clinical spectrum of skin diseases in RTR in patients attending the Nephrology clinic of a tertiary care hospital in South India. Methods: Between October 2002 and June 2003, 365 RTRs were evaluated for skin lesions, including 280 examined after renal transplant (group A and 85 examined once before and then monthly after transplant for a period of 6 months (group B. Results: A total of 1163 skin lesions were examined in 346 RTRs (94.7% including lesions of aesthetic interest (LAI [62.3%] followed by infections [27.3%]. All LAI were drug-related manifestations, making it the most common skin lesion, while fungal (58.7% and viral (29.3% infections constituted majority of lesions caused by infection. Lesions related to neoplasms were relatively uncommon (2.1% and all lesions were benign. Miscellaneous lesions constituted 8.3% of skin lesions, which included vaccine-induced necrobiotic granulomas at the site of Hepatitis B vaccination and acquired perforating dermatoses. Conclusion: Skin lesions among RTRs from India consist predominantly of drug-related LAI and infections and are different from the West in view of the paucity of neoplastic lesions.

  2. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha in periapical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The balance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic periapical lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of TNF-α in tissue homogenates of periapical lesions and analyze its levels in relation to the symptomatology and the size of lesions. Materials and Methods. 93 samples of chronic periapical lesions were obtained after extraction of teeth. Samples were classified according to the clinical presentation as symptomatic and asymptomatic, and according to the size as large and small. The concentration of TNF-α was analyzed using ELISA. Results. The results showed increased production of TNF-α in symptomatic lesions compared to asymptomatic. Higher concentration of TNF-α was demonstrated in large lesions compared to small. Large symptomatic lesions showed greater concentration of TNF-α compared to small symptomatic lesions, while bigger asymptomatic lesions demonstrated higher amount of the cytokines compared to small asymptomatic lesions. Conclusion. Higher concentration of TNF-α in large symptomatic lesions indicates that TNF-α is an important factor responsible for the progression of lesions.

  3. 21 CFR 882.5500 - Lesion temperature monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lesion temperature monitor. 882.5500 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5500 Lesion temperature monitor. (a) Identification. A lesion temperature monitor is a device used to monitor the...

  4. Detection of Atherosclerotic Lesion with 99mTc-LDL Scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic approaches such as angiography, ultrasound, computed tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance have limitation for contributing to the early clinical diagnosis of atherosclerosis. Recently, 99mTc-labelled low density lipoprotein was developed to detect early atherosclerotic lesion by external imaging with gamma camera. To determine whether 99mTc- LDL scintigraphy can visualize the active atherosclerotic lesion, rabbits were injected with 99mTc-LDL, 3 months after feeding dietary fat (lanolin) and we obtained following results. 1) Labelling efficiency of 99mTc-LDL was 79 ∼ 88%. 2) Biodistribution study of normal rabbits with 99mTc-LDL revealed the high activities in spleen, adrenal gland, liver, kidney which are major organs of high metabolic rate of LDL. 3) Three months after feeding lanolin, serum cholesterol was markedly increased from 74 ± 17 mg/dl to 979 ± 153 mg/dl and histologic study of aorta after sacrificing the rabbit demonstrated marked atherosclerotic changes. 4) Atherosclerotic lesion of abdominal aorta which was confirmed with histologic study could be demonstrated in 99mTc-LDL scintigraphy after feeding lanolin for 3 months. In conclusion, the results of this preliminary investigation suggest that it may be possible to image active atheromatous lesion with 99mTc-LDL. It is anticipated that this promising agent may allow the in vive monitoring of preclinical atherosclerotic lesions and may be useful to evaluate the metabolic path way of LDL in humans.

  5. Detection of Atherosclerotic Lesion with {sup 99m}Tc-LDL Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Deog Yoon; Koh, Eun Mi; Woo, Jeong Taek; Kim, Sung Woon; Yang, In Myung; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Young Seol; Kim, Kwang Won; Choi, Young Kil [Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    Diagnostic approaches such as angiography, ultrasound, computed tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance have limitation for contributing to the early clinical diagnosis of atherosclerosis. Recently, {sup 99m}Tc-labelled low density lipoprotein was developed to detect early atherosclerotic lesion by external imaging with gamma camera. To determine whether {sup 99m}Tc- LDL scintigraphy can visualize the active atherosclerotic lesion, rabbits were injected with {sup 99m}Tc-LDL, 3 months after feeding dietary fat (lanolin) and we obtained following results. 1) Labelling efficiency of {sup 99m}Tc-LDL was 79 approx 88%. 2) Biodistribution study of normal rabbits with {sup 99m}Tc-LDL revealed the high activities in spleen, adrenal gland, liver, kidney which are major organs of high metabolic rate of LDL. 3) Three months after feeding lanolin, serum cholesterol was markedly increased from 74 +- 17 mg/dl to 979 +- 153 mg/dl and histologic study of aorta after sacrificing the rabbit demonstrated marked atherosclerotic changes. 4) Atherosclerotic lesion of abdominal aorta which was confirmed with histologic study could be demonstrated in {sup 99m}Tc-LDL scintigraphy after feeding lanolin for 3 months. In conclusion, the results of this preliminary investigation suggest that it may be possible to image active atheromatous lesion with {sup 99m}Tc-LDL. It is anticipated that this promising agent may allow the in vive monitoring of preclinical atherosclerotic lesions and may be useful to evaluate the metabolic path way of LDL in humans.

  6. Theoretical evaluation of the detectability of random lesions in bayesian emission reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detecting cancerous lesion is an important task in positron emission tomography (PET). Bayesian methods based on the maximum a posteriori principle (also called penalized maximum likelihood methods) have been developed to deal with the low signal to noise ratio in the emission data. Similar to the filter cut-off frequency in the filtered backprojection method, the prior parameters in Bayesian reconstruction control the resolution and noise trade-off and hence affect detectability of lesions in reconstructed images. Bayesian reconstructions are difficult to analyze because the resolution and noise properties are nonlinear and object-dependent. Most research has been based on Monte Carlo simulations, which are very time consuming. Building on the recent progress on the theoretical analysis of image properties of statistical reconstructions and the development of numerical observers, here we develop a theoretical approach for fast computation of lesion detectability in Bayesian reconstruction. The results can be used to choose the optimum hyperparameter for the maximum lesion detectability. New in this work is the use of theoretical expressions that explicitly model the statistical variation of the lesion and background without assuming that the object variation is (locally) stationary. The theoretical results are validated using Monte Carlo simulations. The comparisons show good agreement between the theoretical predications and the Monte Carlo results

  7. Controlling viral immuno-inflammatory lesions by modulating aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Veiga-Parga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocular herpes simplex virus infection can cause a blinding CD4⁺ T cell orchestrated immuno-inflammatory lesion in the cornea called Stromal Keratitis (SK. A key to controlling the severity of SK lesions is to suppress the activity of T cells that orchestrate lesions and enhance the representation of regulatory cells that inhibit effector cell function. In this report we show that a single administration of TCDD (2, 3, 7, 8- Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, a non-physiological ligand for the AhR receptor, was an effective means of reducing the severity of SK lesions. It acted by causing apoptosis of Foxp3⁻ CD4⁺ T cells but had no effect on Foxp3⁺ CD4⁺ Tregs. TCDD also decreased the proliferation of Foxp3⁻ CD4⁺ T cells. The consequence was an increase in the ratio of Tregs to T effectors which likely accounted for the reduced inflammatory responses. In addition, in vitro studies revealed that TCDD addition to anti-CD3/CD28 stimulated naïve CD4⁺ T cells caused a significant induction of Tregs, but inhibited the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells. Since a single TCDD administration given after the disease process had been initiated generated long lasting anti-inflammatory effects, the approach holds promise as a therapeutic means of controlling virus induced inflammatory lesions.

  8. Significance of computed tomography in the diagnosis of the mediastinal mass lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Masanori; Takashima, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Masayuki; Itoh, Hiroshi; Hirose, Jinichiro; Choto, Shuichi (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-08-01

    Thirty cases of the mediastinal mass lesions were examined by computed tomography and diagnostic ability of CT was retrospectively evaluated. We devided them into two major groups: cystic and solid lesions. Cysts and cystic teratomas were differentiated on the thickness of their wall. Pericardial cysts were typically present at the cardiophrenic angle. In the solid mediastinal lesions, the presence of calcific and/or fatty components, the presence of necrosis, the irregularity of the margin and the obliteration of the surrounding fat layer were the clues to differential diagnosis and of evaluation for their invasiveness. Although differential diagnosis of the solid anterior mediastinal tumors was often difficult, teratomas with calcific and fatty componets were easily diagnosed. Invasiveness of the malignant thymoma and other malignant lesions were successfully evaluated to some extent. Neurogenic posterior mediastinal tumors were easily diagnosed because of the presence of the spine deformity and typical dumbbell shaped appearance. We stress that our diagnostic approach is useful to differentiate the mediastinal mass lesions.

  9. Multimodal ultrasonographic characterisation of parotid gland lesions-A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knopf, Andreas, E-mail: a.knopf@lrz.tum.de [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hals-Nasen-Ohrenklinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Mansour, Naglaa; Chaker, Adam; Bas, Murat [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hals-Nasen-Ohrenklinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Stock, Konrad [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Abteilung fuer Nephrologie der II. Medizinischen Klinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: Lesions of the major salivary glands represent a heterogeneous group comprising infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. The reliable pre-operative assessment of the lesional dignity might reduce patient's morbidity preventing re-surgery. To date, there exists no imaging technique which reliably distinguishes tumour entities. Methods: 35 parotid lesions were analysed in this study. B-mode ultrasound, colour duplex imaging and contrast enhanced ultrasound were applied for all patients. After fractionated boli of 4.8 ml SonoVue{sup Registered-Sign} perfusion kinetics, time to peak (TP) and mean transit time (MTT), were analysed for intraparotideal lesion and were normalised by circumjacent parotid tissue. Ultrasonographic data was structured in a multimodal diagnostic pathway. Results: B-mode ultrasound identifies six lymphoepithelial lesions due to Sjoegren's syndrome (p: 0.0001). CDS further differentiates hypovascularised pleomorphic adenoma from hypervascularised Warthin's tumours, monomorphic adenomas, and carcinomas (p < 0.0001). Application of CEUS detected Warthin's tumours being significantly hypervascularised compared to monomorphic adenomas (MTT, p < 0.05) and carcinomas (MTT, p < 0.02). Conclusions: A multimodal diagnostic pathway unifies different ultrasonographic techniques and identifies pleomorphic adenomas, Warthin's tumours and carcinomas with sensitivities of 100%. Further studies have to be performed to validate this diagnostic approach and to specify monomorphic adenomas.

  10. Radiopaque Tagging Masks Caries Lesions following Incomplete Excavation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, F; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Schulz, M; Dörfer, C E; Paris, S

    2014-06-01

    One-step incomplete excavation seals caries-affected dentin under a restoration and appears to be advantageous in the treatment of deep lesions. However, it is impossible to discriminate radiographically between intentionally left, arrested lesions and overlooked or active lesions. This diagnostic uncertainty decreases the acceptance of minimally invasive excavation and might lead to unnecessary re-treatment of incompletely excavated teeth. Radiopaque tagging of sealed lesions might mask arrested lesions and assist in discrimination from progressing lesions. Therefore, we microradiographically screened 4 substances (SnCl2, AgNO3, CsF, CsCH3COO) for their effect on artificial lesions. Since water-dissolved tin chloride (SnCl2×Aq) was found to stably mask artificial lesions, we then investigated its radiographic effects on progressing lesions. Natural lesions were incompletely excavated and radiopaque tagging performed. Grey-value differences (△GV) between sound and carious dentin were determined and radiographs assessed by 20 dentists. While radiographic effects of SnCl2×Aq were stable for non-progressing lesions, they significantly decreased during a second demineralization (p < .001, t test). For natural lesions, tagging with SnCl2×Aq significantly reduced △GV (p < .001, Wilcoxon). Tagged lesions were detected significantly less often than untagged lesions (p < .001). SnCl2×Aq was suitable to mask caries-affected dentin and discriminate between arrested and progressing lesions in vitro. Radiopaque tagging could resolve diagnostic uncertainties associated with incomplete excavation. PMID:24718110

  11. Relationship between tail lesions and lung health in slaughter pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staaveren, Nienke; Vale, Ana P; Manzanilla, Edgar G; Teixeira, Dayane L; Leonard, Finola C; Hanlon, Alison; Boyle, Laura A

    2016-05-01

    Tail lesions are associated with poor health either because they serve as a point of entry for pathogens or because of shared risk factors. This study investigated the relationship between carcass tail lesion and lung lesion severity scores in slaughter pigs. Carcasses were scored after scalding/dehairing for tail lesion severity (0-4). Lungs were scored according to an adapted version of the BPEX pig health scheme. Severity of enzootic pneumonia (EP-like lesions) was recorded on a scale of 0-50. Severity of pleurisy was scored on a 0-2 scale with score 2 equating to severe pleurisy or those lungs that remained attached to the chest wall ('lungs in chest'). The database for assessing pleurisy lesions contained all pleurisy scores (n=5628). Lungs with a score of 2 for pleurisy were excluded from the analysis of all other lung lesions as such lungs could not be assessed for other lesions (n=4491). Associations between tail lesions and different lung lesion outcomes were analysed using generalized linear mixed models (PROC GLIMMIX) with random effect for batch. Males were more affected by moderate (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.51-2.34) and severe (OR=5.8, 95% CI 3.45-9.70) tail lesions than females. EP-like lesions and pleurisy were most commonly observed. Pigs with severe tail lesions tended to have more 'lungs in chest' than pigs with moderate tail lesions (P=0.1). No other associations between tail lesions and lung lesions were found. Males had higher odds of having EP-like lesions (OR=1.2, 95% CI 1.05-1.36) than females. Tail lesions on the carcass may not be an accurate predictor of lung health. However, tail lesions are important welfare indicators and respiratory disease is a significant infectious condition affecting pigs. Thus, recording of tail and lung lesions at meat inspection provides valuable information regarding on-farm health and welfare of pigs. PMID:27094136

  12. Clinical correlations of brain lesion distribution in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vellinga, M M; Geurts, J J G; Rostrup, E;

    2009-01-01

    status scale (EDSS) and MS functional composite (MSFC) subdomain scores and demographic characteristics of 325 MS patients. To identify statistically significant locations, a cluster-forming threshold of 3.1 was used. RESULTS: In clusters in the periventricular region, lesion probability correlated...... significantly (P correlate with lesion probability in any location, and did...... not influence correlations with disability when included in its analyses. CONCLUSION: Periventricular lesions were related to disability. LL influenced relations between disability and lesion probability throughout the brain, suggesting interplay between lesional burden and its location in determining...

  13. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive

  14. Lesiones bucales vistas en la embarazada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leira Lárez

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudiar los problemas bucales y los factores individuales, ambientales y sociales que influyen en la salud bucal durante el embarazo. Método: Se estudiaron 251 embarazadas vistas en el Servicio de Odontología de la Maternidad "Concepción Palacios" de Caracas, que presentaban una o más lesiones bucales. Ambiente: Servicio de Odontología de la Maternidad "Concepción Palacios" de Caracas, Distrito Capital. Resultados: De las 251 pacientes estudiadas, 153 (60,96% presentaron gingivitis como la lesión bucal más frecuente vista en la embarazada, seguida por 15 casos (5,98% de úlceras inespecíficas y en tercer lugar 14 casos (5,58% de agrandamientos gingivales y estomatitis subprotésicas respectivamente. Conclusiones: Debido a que las embarazadas presentan alteraciones en su sistema inmunológico y un desequilibrio hormonal, son propensas a padecer lesiones bucales durante su condición de gestantes.Objective: To study the oral problems, as well as the individual, environmental, and social factors, that may have an impact on oral health during pregnancy. Method: 251 pregnant women were studied, who were treated at the Odontology Service of the "Concepción Palacios" Maternity Hospital in Caracas and presented one or more oral injuries. Setting: Odontology Service of the "Concepción Palacios" Maternity Hospital, Caracas, Capital District. Results: Of the 251 patients studied, 153 (60,96% presented gingivitis, which was the most frequently found oral injury, followed by 15 cases (5,98% of unspecified ulcers and in third place 14 cases (5,58% of gingival enlargement and 14 other cases (5,58% of subprothesic stomatitis. Conclusions: Since pregnant women have alterations in their immunological systems and hormonal imbalances, they are prone to suffer from buccal lesions during their pregnancies.

  15. Imaging Granulomatous Lesions with Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Banzhaf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors. Methods: Two patients with granulomas, tophi and granuloma annulare (GA, respectively, were photographed digitally, OCT-scanned and biopsied in the said order. Normal skin was OCT-scanned for comparison, but not biopsied. The OCT images from each lesion were compared with their histologic images as well as with OCT images with similar characteristics obtained from nonmelanoma skin tumors. Results: The OCT images of the tophi showed hyperreflective, rounded cloud-like structures in dermis, their upper part sharply delineated by a hyporeflective fringe. The deeper areas appeared blurred. The crystalline structures were delineated by a hyporeflective fringe. OCT images of GA showed two different structures in dermis: a hyporeflective rounded one, and one that was lobulated and wing-like. Conclusion: Granulomatous tissue surrounding urate deposits appeared as a clear hyporeflective fringe surrounding a light, hyperreflective area. The urate crystals appeared as hyperreflective areas, shielding the deeper part of dermis, meaning OCT could only visualize the upper part of the lesions. The lobulated, wing-like structure in GA may resemble diffuse GA or a dense lymphocytic infiltrate as seen on histology. The rounded structure in GA may represent an actual granuloma or either diffuse GA or a dense lymphocytic infiltrate as described above. This case suggests that OCT images granulomatous tissue as absorbent, hyporeflective areas, and urate crystals appear as reflective areas, obscuring the underlying tissue. In GA a new image shape looking like a wing has been found. The frequency, specificity and sensitivity of this new pattern in OCT imaging will require further studies.

  16. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika, E-mail: m.figatowska@mp.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Mierzewska, Hanna, E-mail: h.mierzewska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology of Children and Adolescents, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta, E-mail: e-jurkiewicz@o2.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive.

  17. Remoción de terceros molares mandibulares con asistencia endoscópica: Nota técnica de un nuevo procedimiento quirúrgico para prevenir lesiones del NAI y formación de defectos óseos Removal of mandibular third molars with endoscopic approach: Technical note of a new surgical procedure to avoid IAN damage and bone defect formation

    OpenAIRE

    R Fuentes; Beltrán, V.; M. Cantín; Engelke, W.

    2012-01-01

    La variada posición anatómica de los terceros molares mandibulares presenta importantes desafíos asociados a su profundidad y grado de inclinación. Las complicaciones más habituales del procedimiento quirúrgico convencional de extracción se relacionan con la extensa osteotomía y poca visualización del sitio quirúrgico, que pueden generar consecuencias post-quirúrgicas como inflamación, dolor, trismus, lesiones reversibles e irreversibles del nervio alveolar inferior (NAI) o nervio lingual, ri...

  18. Automated segmentation of chronic stroke lesions using LINDA: Lesion identification with neighborhood data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustina, Dorian; Coslett, H Branch; Turkeltaub, Peter E; Tustison, Nicholas; Schwartz, Myrna F; Avants, Brian

    2016-04-01

    The gold standard for identifying stroke lesions is manual tracing, a method that is known to be observer dependent and time consuming, thus impractical for big data studies. We propose LINDA (Lesion Identification with Neighborhood Data Analysis), an automated segmentation algorithm capable of learning the relationship between existing manual segmentations and a single T1-weighted MRI. A dataset of 60 left hemispheric chronic stroke patients is used to build the method and test it with k-fold and leave-one-out procedures. With respect to manual tracings, predicted lesion maps showed a mean dice overlap of 0.696 ± 0.16, Hausdorff distance of 17.9 ± 9.8 mm, and average displacement of 2.54 ± 1.38 mm. The manual and predicted lesion volumes correlated at r = 0.961. An additional dataset of 45 patients was utilized to test LINDA with independent data, achieving high accuracy rates and confirming its cross-institutional applicability. To investigate the cost of moving from manual tracings to automated segmentation, we performed comparative lesion-to-symptom mapping (LSM) on five behavioral scores. Predicted and manual lesions produced similar neuro-cognitive maps, albeit with some discussed discrepancies. Of note, region-wise LSM was more robust to the prediction error than voxel-wise LSM. Our results show that, while several limitations exist, our current results compete with or exceed the state-of-the-art, producing consistent predictions, very low failure rates, and transferable knowledge between labs. This work also establishes a new viewpoint on evaluating automated methods not only with segmentation accuracy but also with brain-behavior relationships. LINDA is made available online with trained models from over 100 patients. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1405-1421, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26756101

  19. Aorta Atherosclerosis Lesion Analysis in Hyperlipidemic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Sarajo; Yin, Changjun; Weber, Christian; Hu, Desheng; Habenicht, Andreas JR

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of large and medium-sized arteries. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice are used as experimental models to study human atherosclerosis. ApoE-/- mice are constitutively hyperlipidemic and develop intima plaques that resemble human plaques. Various issues including experimental design for lesion analysis, dietary conditions, isolation of the aorta, staining methods, morphometry, group size, age, the location within the arterial tree, and statistical analyses are important parameters that need to be addressed to obtain robust data. Here, we provide detailed methods to quantify aorta atherosclerosis. PMID:27366759

  20. Hematolymphoid lesions of the sinonasal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Genevieve M; Duffield, Amy S

    2016-03-01

    Various hematolymphoid lesions involve the sinonasal tract, including aggressive B, T, and NK-cell neoplasms; myeloid sarcoma; low-grade lymphomas; indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferations; and Rosai-Dorfman disease. Differentiating aggressive lymphomas from non-hematopoietic neoplasms such as poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, olfactory neuroblastoma, or sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma may pose diagnostic challenges. In addition, the necrosis, vascular damage, and inflammatory infiltrates that are associated with some hematolymphoid disorders can result in misdiagnosis as infectious, autoimmune, or inflammatory conditions. Here, we review hematolymphoid disorders involving the sinonasal tract including their key clinical and histopathologic features. PMID:26472692

  1. Standardization of lesions of external bone ligaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the time from March 1978 until September 1978, 100 patients having a lesion of the capsular ligament at the upper ankle joint immediately after an accident were examined. The manual X-ray diagnosis was compared with a diagnosis using a newly-created holding apparatus. This way of diagnosing was carried out at the same time on the same patient; this gave an optimal possibility of comparing the two ways of examination. Generally seen, apparative X-ray diagnosis achieved higher values thus giving the possibility of more exact classification as to the diagnosis and therapy. (orig./MG)

  2. Alteraciones posturales y lesiones en ciclistas amateurs

    OpenAIRE

    Bourguigne, Valentín

    2012-01-01

    El pedaleo es un gesto de naturaleza simétrica y por ello el ciclismo no es un deporte que provoque lesiones de columna salvo en solicitaciones excesivas por una bicicleta inadecuada que puede determinar a largo plazo algún tipo de alteración en la columna. Esta situación, es la que justifica que nuestro trabajo se refiera al ciclismo, con el propósito de hacer un aporte a este deporte, a las personas que lo practican, como así también, a la comunidad de los trabajadores de la salud, que p...

  3. A lesion stabilization method for coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, Normand; Komljenovic, Philip T; Grant, Ryan; Sussman, Marshall S; Rowlands, J A [Sunnybrook and Women' s Health Science Centre, University of Toronto, Room S632, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2005-03-21

    A method to make a coronary artery segment of interest appear stationary when viewing a sequence of angiographic images is proposed. The purpose of this method is to facilitate the assessment of lesions caused by coronary artery disease by improving detectability. A description of the stabilization algorithm based on template matching is given. Stabilization was performed on 41 clinical coronary angiograms exhibiting various stenoses and was successful in 39/41 cases. A quantitative analysis of stabilization errors was performed by introducing simulated moving vessels of decreasing contrast into sequences of clinical images.

  4. A lesion stabilization method for coronary angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Normand; Komljenovic, Philip T.; Grant, Ryan; Sussman, Marshall S.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2005-03-01

    A method to make a coronary artery segment of interest appear stationary when viewing a sequence of angiographic images is proposed. The purpose of this method is to facilitate the assessment of lesions caused by coronary artery disease by improving detectability. A description of the stabilization algorithm based on template matching is given. Stabilization was performed on 41 clinical coronary angiograms exhibiting various stenoses and was successful in 39/41 cases. A quantitative analysis of stabilization errors was performed by introducing simulated moving vessels of decreasing contrast into sequences of clinical images.

  5. Uncommon breast lesions. Radiologic and pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To illustrate the radiologic findings in several uncommon breast and infrequent diseases that present with unusual mammographic images. We reviewed the mammograms performed in our department between 1998 and 1995, selecting 16 patients (12 women and 4 men). Nine patients had benign breast lesions (adenomyoepithelioma, epidermal cyst, adenoid cystic carcinoma, myofibroblastoma, multiple hamartomas, intra cystic papillomas, lipoma, idiopathic granulomatous mastitis and fat necrosis) and 7 patients presented malignant breast diseases (malignant fibrous histiocytoma, intra cystic carcinoma, primary lymphoma of the breast, liposarcoma and metastasis). We present a review of the radiologic and pathologic findings in several uncommon breast diseases. (Author) 14 refs

  6. Cryotherapy for treatment of oral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, C S; Savage, N W

    2006-03-01

    Cryotherapy is the deliberate destruction of tissue by application of extreme cold. It is well received by patients due to a relative lack of discomfort, the absence of bleeding and minimal to no scarring after healing. It has many applications in oral medicine and clinical oral pathology, and is extremely usefu in patients for whom surgery is contra-indicated due to either age or medical history. In this paper we outline the principles, mechanisms of action, and current applications of cryotherapy in the treatment of oral lesions, and present some clinical cases. PMID:16669469

  7. Heterogeneity of mammary lesions represent molecular differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, histopathologically, molecularly and phenotypically. The molecular basis of this heterogeneity is not well understood. We have used a mouse model of DCIS that consists of unique lines of mammary intraepithelial neoplasia (MIN) outgrowths, the premalignant lesion in the mouse that progress to invasive carcinoma, to understand the molecular changes that are characteristic to certain phenotypes. Each MIN-O line has distinguishable morphologies, metastatic potentials and estrogen dependencies. We utilized oligonucleotide expression arrays and high resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to investigate whole genome expression patterns and whole genome aberrations in both the MIN-O and tumor from four different MIN-O lines that each have different phenotypes. From the whole genome analysis at 35 kb resolution, we found that chromosome 1, 2, 10, and 11 were frequently associated with whole chromosome gains in the MIN-Os. In particular, two MIN-O lines had the majority of the chromosome gains. Although we did not find any whole chromosome loss, we identified 3 recurring chromosome losses (2F1-2, 3E4, 17E2) and two chromosome copy number gains on chromosome 11. These interstitial deletions and duplications were verified with a custom made array designed to interrogate the specific regions at approximately 550 bp resolution. We demonstrated that expression and genomic changes are present in the early premalignant lesions and that these molecular profiles can be correlated to phenotype (metastasis and estrogen responsiveness). We also identified expression changes associated with genomic instability. Progression to invasive carcinoma was associated with few additional changes in gene expression and genomic organization. Therefore, in the MIN-O mice, early premalignant lesions have the major molecular and genetic changes required and these changes have important phenotypic significance. In contrast, the changes

  8. Automated, quantitative measures of grey and white matter lesion burden correlates with motor and cognitive function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Pagnozzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available White and grey matter lesions are the most prevalent type of injury observable in the Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs of children with cerebral palsy (CP. Previous studies investigating the impact of lesions in children with CP have been qualitative, limited by the lack of automated segmentation approaches in this setting. As a result, the quantitative relationship between lesion burden has yet to be established. In this study, we perform automatic lesion segmentation on a large cohort of data (107 children with unilateral CP and 18 healthy children with a new, validated method for segmenting both white matter (WM and grey matter (GM lesions. The method has better accuracy (94% than the best current methods (73%, and only requires standard structural MRI sequences. Anatomical lesion burdens most predictive of clinical scores of motor, cognitive, visual and communicative function were identified using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection operator (LASSO. The improved segmentations enabled identification of significant correlations between regional lesion burden and clinical performance, which conform to known structure-function relationships. Model performance was validated in an independent test set, with significant correlations observed for both WM and GM regional lesion burden with motor function (p < 0.008, and between WM and GM lesions alone with cognitive and visual function respectively (p < 0.008. The significant correlation of GM lesions with functional outcome highlights the serious implications GM lesions, in addition to WM lesions, have for prognosis, and the utility of structural MRI alone for quantifying lesion burden and planning therapy interventions.

  9. Asymptomatic cerebral lesions and risk factors in normal individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the relationship between asymptomatic ischemic lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and risk factors for stroke in 460 asymptomatic subjects. Focal lesions were classified into two groups according to their size. Periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) was graded from 0 to 3. We also evaluated equivocal deep white matter hyperintensity as a confluent lesion that was separate from PVH. The incidence of focal lesions below 2 mm in diameter (we regard them as etatcrible) was 5.7%, and that of lesions over 2 mm was 16.1%. Grade 2 PVH was observed in 12.6% and grade 3 PVH in 2.2%. The prevalence rate of confluent lesions was 8.7%. The age of the group which had white matter lesions was significantly higher than that of the group without lesions. Hypertension was the greatest risk factor for the occurrence of focal lesions, PVH, and confluent lesions. Diabetes mellitus was a significant risk factor only for focal lesions. Other risk factors did not display any relations to white matter abnormalities. (author)

  10. Incidence and significance of small focal liver lesions on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the frequency and significance of small focal liver lesions (≤ 2 cm) detected on MRI in the presence or absence of a history of malignancy. Methods: 628 MRI examinations of the liver performed during 1994 - 1996 were evaluated. The inclusion criterion into the study was the detection of a focal liver lesion with a size ≤ 2 cm. The frequency, the size, the diagnostic proof, and the differential diagnosis of the focal liver lesions were analysed with regard to the patients history of a known malignant tumor. Results: Overall, 179 of the 628 patients (28.5%) had focal liver lesions ≤ 2 cm (n = 338). 58.9% of the lesions could be classified based upon follow-up studies by ultrasound, CT or MRI, or by biopsy. The remaining 41.1% of the lesions could not be classified due to the absence of follow-up examinations. 57.3% of all proven lesions were benign and 42.7% were malignant. A history of a malignant tumor was present in 76.7% of all patients with small liver lesions; however, lesions were benign in these patients in 50.6% of the cases. In patients with no known history of a malignancy, 75% of the lesions were benign and 25% were malignant. However, these malignant lesions were in 10/11 cases hepatocellular carcinomas in patients with liver cirrhosis. (orig.)

  11. A histopathological study of non-malignant breast lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Pudale

    2015-10-01

    Results: 540 non-malignant breast lesions were studied out of total 759 breast biopsies, in the period of six years. The incidence of non-malignant breast lesions was found to be 71.15% of all breast lesions. The commonest non-malignant breast lesion was fibroadenoma, seen in 216 (40% cases; followed by fibrocystic disease, seen in 177 (32.78% cases. Conclusions: Thus, we came to a conclusion that benign breast lesions are complex of inflammatory lesions, tumour and pseudo tumour like hamartoma. Thus even if they may cause lump or not, the breast lesions remain enigma. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2672-2676

  12. Extrapleural Inner Thoracic Wall Lesions: Multidetector CT Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extrapleural space is external to the parietal pleura in the thorax. The structures within and adjacent to this region include the fat pad, endothoracic fascia, intercostal muscles, connective tissue, nerves, vessels, and ribs. Further, the space is divided into the inner and outer thoracic wall by the innermost intercostal muscle. Extrapleural lesions in the inner thoracic wall are classified as air-containing lesions, fat-containing lesions, and soft tissue-containing lesions according on their main component. Air-containing lesions include extrapleural air from direct chest trauma and extrapleural extension from pneumomediastinum. Prominent extrapleural fat is seen in decreased lung volume conditions, and can also be seen in normal individuals. Soft tissue-containing lesions include extrapleural extensions from a pleural or chest wall infection as well as tumors and extrapleural hematoma. We classify extrapleural lesions in the inner thoracic wall and illustrate their imaging findings

  13. Extrapleural Inner Thoracic Wall Lesions: Multidetector CT Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shik [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The extrapleural space is external to the parietal pleura in the thorax. The structures within and adjacent to this region include the fat pad, endothoracic fascia, intercostal muscles, connective tissue, nerves, vessels, and ribs. Further, the space is divided into the inner and outer thoracic wall by the innermost intercostal muscle. Extrapleural lesions in the inner thoracic wall are classified as air-containing lesions, fat-containing lesions, and soft tissue-containing lesions according on their main component. Air-containing lesions include extrapleural air from direct chest trauma and extrapleural extension from pneumomediastinum. Prominent extrapleural fat is seen in decreased lung volume conditions, and can also be seen in normal individuals. Soft tissue-containing lesions include extrapleural extensions from a pleural or chest wall infection as well as tumors and extrapleural hematoma. We classify extrapleural lesions in the inner thoracic wall and illustrate their imaging findings

  14. Remote optical configuration of pigmented lesion detection and diagnosis of bone fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozana, Nisan; Bishitz, Yael; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Garcia, Javier; Zalevsky, Zeev; Schwarz, Ariel

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present a novel approach of realizing a safe, simple, and inexpensive sensor applicable to bone fractures and pigmented lesions detection. The approach is based on temporal tracking of back-reflected secondary speckle pattern generated while illuminating the affected area with a laser and applying periodic pressure to the surface via a controlled vibration. The use of such a concept was already demonstrated for non-contact monitoring of various bio-medical parameters such as heart rate, blood pulse pressure, concentration of alcohol and glucose in the blood stream and intraocular pressure. The presented technique is a safe and effective method of detecting bone fractures in populations at risk. When applied to pigmented lesions, the technique is superior to visual examination in avoiding many false positives and resultant unnecessary biopsies. Applying a series of different vibration frequencies at the examined tissue and analyzing the 2-D speckle pattern trajectory in response to the applied periodic pressure creates a unique signature for each and different pigmented lesion. Analyzing these signatures is the first step toward detection of malignant melanoma. In this paper we present preliminary experiments that show the validity of the developed sensor for both applications: the detection of damaged bones as well as the classification of pigmented lesions.

  15. A subtraction pipeline for automatic detection of new appearing multiple sclerosis lesions in longitudinal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganiler, Onur; Oliver, Arnau; Diez, Yago; Freixenet, Jordi; Llado, Xavier [University of Girona, VICOROB Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Beltran, Brigitte [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain); Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-05-15

    Time-series analysis of magnetic resonance images (MRI) is of great value for multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis and follow-up. In this paper, we present an unsupervised subtraction approach which incorporates multisequence information to deal with the detection of new MS lesions in longitudinal studies. The proposed pipeline for detecting new lesions consists of the following steps: skull stripping, bias field correction, histogram matching, registration, white matter masking, image subtraction, automated thresholding, and postprocessing. We also combine the results of PD-w and T2-w images to reduce false positive detections. Experimental tests are performed in 20 MS patients with two temporal studies separated 12 (12M) or 48 (48M) months in time. The pipeline achieves very good performance obtaining an overall sensitivity of 0.83 and 0.77 with a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.14 and 0.18 for the 12M and 48M datasets, respectively. The most difficult situation for the pipeline is the detection of very small lesions where the obtained sensitivity is lower and the FDR higher. Our fully automated approach is robust and accurate, allowing detection of new appearing MS lesions. We believe that the pipeline can be applied to large collections of images and also be easily adapted to monitor other brain pathologies. (orig.)

  16. Retrospective study of spontaneous bone regeneration after decompression of large odontogenic cystic lesions in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Marko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Surgical treatment of odontogenic cysts in childhood could be accompanied by injury of important anatomical structures. Even though enucleation is considered to be preferable treatment of odontogenic cysts, the specificities of pediatric age favor more conservative surgical approach. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of decompression as the uttermost treatment of odontogenic cysts in the pediatric age. Methods. This retrospective study included 22 patients, 7−16 years old, with a single jaw cystic lesion. The majority of these lesions were dentigerous cyst (14, and the rest belonged to keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT (8. All lesions were primarily treated with decompression; it was a final treatment (one-stage procedure in 13 dentigerous cysts, and it was followed by enucleation (twostage procedure in one dentigerous cyst and all the KCOT. Results. A total of 13 (59.1% dentigerous cysts were treated successfully only with decompression as one stage procedure, while the other 9 (40.9% cysts required enucleation (1 dentigerous and 8 KCOT, after decompression (p ≤ 0.001. Conclusion. Related to non-aggressive lesions, more conservative treatment approach, such as decompression as one-stage procedure, should be considered. On the other hand, KCOTs in children require a two-stage procedure for a successful treatment outcome. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175021

  17. A subtraction pipeline for automatic detection of new appearing multiple sclerosis lesions in longitudinal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-series analysis of magnetic resonance images (MRI) is of great value for multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis and follow-up. In this paper, we present an unsupervised subtraction approach which incorporates multisequence information to deal with the detection of new MS lesions in longitudinal studies. The proposed pipeline for detecting new lesions consists of the following steps: skull stripping, bias field correction, histogram matching, registration, white matter masking, image subtraction, automated thresholding, and postprocessing. We also combine the results of PD-w and T2-w images to reduce false positive detections. Experimental tests are performed in 20 MS patients with two temporal studies separated 12 (12M) or 48 (48M) months in time. The pipeline achieves very good performance obtaining an overall sensitivity of 0.83 and 0.77 with a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.14 and 0.18 for the 12M and 48M datasets, respectively. The most difficult situation for the pipeline is the detection of very small lesions where the obtained sensitivity is lower and the FDR higher. Our fully automated approach is robust and accurate, allowing detection of new appearing MS lesions. We believe that the pipeline can be applied to large collections of images and also be easily adapted to monitor other brain pathologies. (orig.)

  18. Early outcome of high energy Laser (Excimer) facilitated coronary angioplasty ON hARD and complex calcified and balloOn-resistant coronary lesions: LEONARDO Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosini, Vittorio; Sorropago, Giovanni; Laurenzano, Eugenio [Montevergine Clinic, Mercogliano (Italy); Golino, Luca, E-mail: lucagolino.jazz@alice.it [Montevergine Clinic, Mercogliano (Italy); Moriggia-Pelascini Hospital, Gravedona, Como (Italy); Casafina, Alfredo; Schiano, Vittorio [Montevergine Clinic, Mercogliano (Italy); Gabrielli, Gabriele [University Hospital Ospedali Riuniti, Ancona (Italy); Ettori, Federica; Chizzola, Giuliano [Spedali Civili University Hospital, Brescia (Italy); Bernardi, Guglielmo; Spedicato, Leonardo [University Hospital S. Maria Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Armigliato, Pietro [Istituto Italiano Ricerche Mediche, Verona (Italy); Spampanato, Carmine [Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine (TIGEM), Naples (Italy); Furegato, Martina [Istituto Italiano Ricerche Mediche, Verona (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Aim: An innovative xenon–chlorine (excimer) pulsed laser catheter (ELCA X80) has been recently used for the treatment of complex coronary lesions, as calcified stenosis, chronic total occlusions and non-compliant plaques. Such complex lesions are difficult to adequately treat with balloon angioplasty and/or intracoronary stenting. The aim of this study was to examine the acute outcome of this approach on a cohort of patients with coronary lesions. Methods and Results: Eighty patients with 100 lesions were enrolled through four centers, and excimer laser coronary angioplasty was performed on 96 lesions (96%). Safety and effectiveness data were compared between patients treated with standard laser therapy and those treated with increased laser therapy. Laser success was obtained in 90 lesions (93.7%), procedural success was reached in 88 lesions (91.7%), and clinical success in was obtained in 87 lesions (90.6%). There was no perforation, major side branch occlusion, spasm, no-reflow phenomenon, dissection nor acute vessel closure. Increased laser parameters were used successfully for 49 resistant lesions without complications. Conclusions: This study suggests that laser-facilitated coronary angioplasty is a simple, safe and effective device for the management of complex coronary lesions. Furthermore, higher laser energy levels delivered by this catheter improved the device performance without increasing complications. - Highlights: • We planned this multicenter study to examine the acute outcome of an innovative xenon–chlorine (excimer) pulsed laser catheter (ELCA X80) for treatment of complex coronary lesions. • We enrolled 80 patients with 100 lesions and performed excimer laser coronary angioplasty in 96 lesions (96%). • Laser success was obtained in 90 lesions (93.7%), procedural success was reached in 88 lesions (91.7%), and clinical success was obtained in 87 lesions (90.6%). • Increased laser parameters were used successfully for 49 resistant

  19. Gaze disorders: A clinical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulikottil Wilson Vinny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A single clear binocular vision is made possible by the nature through the oculomotor system along with inputs from the cortical areas as well their descending pathways to the brainstem. Six systems of supranuclear control mechanisms play a crucial role in this regard. These are the saccadic system, the smooth pursuit system, the vestibular system, the optokinetic system, the fixation system, and the vergence system. In gaze disorders, lesions at different levels of the brain spare some of the eye movement systems while affecting others. The resulting pattern of eye movements helps clinicians to localize lesions accurately in the central nervous system. Common lesions causing gaze palsies include cerebral infarcts, demyelinating lesions, multiple sclerosis, tumors, Wernicke's encephalopathy, metabolic disorders, and neurodegenerative disorders such as progressive supranuclear palsy. Evaluation of the different gaze disorders is a bane of most budding neurologists and neurosurgeons. However, a simple and systematic clinical approach to this problem can make their early diagnosis rather easy.

  20. Gaze disorders: A clinical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinny, Pulikottil Wilson; Lal, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    A single clear binocular vision is made possible by the nature through the oculomotor system along with inputs from the cortical areas as well their descending pathways to the brainstem. Six systems of supranuclear control mechanisms play a crucial role in this regard. These are the saccadic system, the smooth pursuit system, the vestibular system, the optokinetic system, the fixation system, and the vergence system. In gaze disorders, lesions at different levels of the brain spare some of the eye movement systems while affecting others. The resulting pattern of eye movements helps clinicians to localize lesions accurately in the central nervous system. Common lesions causing gaze palsies include cerebral infarcts, demyelinating lesions, multiple sclerosis, tumors, Wernicke's encephalopathy, metabolic disorders, and neurodegenerative disorders such as progressive supranuclear palsy. Evaluation of the different gaze disorders is a bane of most budding neurologists and neurosurgeons. However, a simple and systematic clinical approach to this problem can make their early diagnosis rather easy. PMID:26755003

  1. Prévention des TMS dans la durée : des acteurs institutionnels facilitent une démarche d’entreprise Sustainable prevention of musculoskeletal disorders: institutional actors make a company approach easier Prevención de las lesions músculo esqueléticas a largo plazo: los actors institucionales facilitan un proceso en la empresa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Tayar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Un projet départemental de prévention des TMS est né en 2003 à l’initiative du Service Médical Inter-entreprises de l’Anjou et de l’Action Régionale pour l’Amélioration des Conditions de Travail des Pays de Loire pour répondre aux difficultés des entreprises à mettre en place des projets efficaces et pérennes. Il réunit dans un engagement pour 5 ans, 6 entreprises volontaires qui en acceptent les exigences.Les acteurs institutionnels de prévention apportent, dans une approche pluridisciplinaire, une méthodologie de projet et la possibilité d’échanges et de retours d’expérience entre les entreprises. Cet accompagnement est orienté sur la constitution de groupes de travail animés par des consultants privés pour réfléchir sur des situations à risques de TMS et mettre en commun des décisions de changement.Après 3 ans de conduite du projet dans un abattoir de viande bovine, un processus d’appropriation est à l’œuvre. Les évaluations mettent en lumière des changements humains, organisationnels et techniques. Cette expérience interroge le rôle des acteurs institutionnels et l’intérêt de l’articulation entre les acteurs externes et internes à l’entreprise.A departmental musculoskeletal disorder (MSD prevention project was begun in 2003 on the initiative of the Anjou inter-company medical service and the Regional action for the improvement of working conditions in the Pays de Loire to respond to companies’ difficulties in establishing effective and ongoing projects. It brought together 6 volunteer companies in a commitment to a 5-year agreement.The institutional prevention actors provide, in a multi-disciplinary approach, a project methodology and the opportunity for exchanges and feedback between the companies. This accompanying action focused on the creation of working groups led by private consultants to consider situations that could lead to musculoskeletal disorders and to share decisions for

  2. Cameron lesion: An unusual cause of anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cameron lesions are linear gastric ulcers or erosions positioned on the crests of mucosal folds at the diaphragmatic impression, in patients with large hiatal hernia, and can cause iron deficiency anaemia. Case report. We present a case of a 56-year-old woman who was referred to our institution for further investigation after she was examined in gastroenterology emergency room (GER for signs and symptoms of severe hypochromic microcytic anemia without signs of acute gastrointestinal bleeding and with no obvious cause of chronic blood loss. Endoscopy showed linear ulceration at the level of diaphragm-Cameron lesions with large hiated hernia. She was treated with proton pump inhibitors and iron supplements. The laparoscopic fundoplication was done. Six months later she was asymptomatic. Conclusion. Large hiatus hernia may cause iron deficiency anemia due to occult bleeding from Cameron erosions. The current therapy concept includes the surgical reconstruction of the hiatus together with gastric fundoplication in combination with the proton pump inhibitor therapy.

  3. Structural brain lesions in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Can; Dolapcioglu; Hatice; Dolapcioglu

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system(CNS) complications or manifes-tations of inflammatory bowel disease deserve particular attention because symptomatic conditions can require early diagnosis and treatment, whereas unexplained manifestations might be linked with pathogenic me-chanisms. This review focuses on both symptomatic and asymptomatic brain lesions detectable on imaging studies, as well as their frequency and potential mecha-nisms. A direct causal relationship between inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) and asymptomatic structural brain changes has not been demonstrated, but several possible explanations, including vasculitis, thromboembolism and malnutrition, have been proposed. IBD is associated with a tendency for thromboembolisms; therefore, cerebro-vascular thromboembolism represents the most frequent and grave CNS complication. Vasculitis, demyelinating conditions and CNS infections are among the other CNS manifestations of the disease. Biological agents also represent a risk factor, particularly for demyelination. Identification of the nature and potential mechanisms of brain lesions detectable on imaging studies would shed further light on the disease process and could improve patient care through early diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Controversies in the treatment of patients with STEMI and multivessel disease: is it time for PCI of all lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Peter; Sechtem, Udo

    2016-06-01

    Several randomized trials have suggested a benefit for multivessel PCI in patients with STEMI and multivessel disease. However, none of the studies compared multivessel PCI with a staged PCI-approach which is the current guideline recommended approach. The results of the trials may overestimate the beneficial effect of the multivessel PCI approach because the control group did not receive any ischaemia testing for evaluation of the significance of remaining lesions. Thus, unfavourable aspects of the multivessel PCI approach such as overestimation of non-culprit lesions at the time of acute coronary angiography, complications associated with PCI of the non-culprit lesion (i.e. dissection, no-reflow, acute stent thrombosis) or increased risk for contrast induced nephropathy may have gone unnoticed as the comparative management pathway was unusual and likely inferior to the guideline recommended approach. We believe that culprit lesion only PCI and staged evaluation of remaining areas of myocardial ischaemia with subsequent PCI is still preferable in patients with STEMI and multivessel disease but a randomized study comparing this approach with multivessel PCI is needed. PMID:26850062

  5. DW-MRI of liver lesions: Can a single ADC-value represent the entire lesion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate whether focal liver lesions (FLLs) exhibit a homogeneous appearance on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps and whether there is inter-section variation in the calculated ADC values of FLLs (inter-section range). Materials and methods: Eighty-eight patients with 128 FLLs (70 benign, 58 malignant) who underwent abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI were included. Two observers evaluated variation of signal intensity of each FLL within each ADC map image (intra-section) and among different ADC map images through the lesion (inter-section). ADC values of each FLL and neighbouring liver parenchyma were measured on all sections. The inter-section range of FLLs was compared with the neighbouring liver parenchyma. Results: Intra-section inhomogeneity was noted in 39.8% (97/244 sections) and 38.9% (95/244) of benign lesions, and 61% (114/187 sections) and 61.5% (115/187) of malignant lesions, by observer 1 and observer 2, respectively. Inter-section inhomogeneity was noted in 25.7% (18/70) and 27.1% (19/70) of benign lesions, and 51.7% (30/58) and 50% (29/58) of malignant lesions, by observer 1 and observer 2, respectively. The inter-section range for both benign (0.28 × 10−3 mm²/s) and malignant (0.25 × 10−3 mm²/s) FLLs were significantly greater than that of liver parenchyma surrounding benign (0.16 × 10−3 mm²/s, p < 0.001) and malignant (0.14 × 10−3 mm²/s, p = 0.01) FLLs. Conclusion: Due to intra-/inter-section variations in ADC values of benign and malignant FLLs, a single ADC value may not reliably represent the entire lesion

  6. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping of stroke lesions underlying somatosensory deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Meyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between stroke lesion location and the resulting somatosensory deficit. We studied exteroceptive and proprioceptive somatosensory symptoms and stroke lesions in 38 patients with first-ever acute stroke. The Erasmus modified Nottingham Sensory Assessment was used to clinically evaluate somatosensory functioning in the arm and hand within the first week after stroke onset. Additionally, more objective measures such as the perceptual threshold of touch and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded. Non-parametric voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was performed to investigate lesion contribution to different somatosensory deficits in the upper limb. Additionally, structural connectivity of brain areas that demonstrated the strongest association with somatosensory symptoms was determined, using probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion tensor imaging data from a healthy age-matched sample. Voxels with a significant association to somatosensory deficits were clustered in two core brain regions: the central parietal white matter, also referred to as the sensory component of the superior thalamic radiation, and the parietal operculum close to the insular cortex, representing the secondary somatosensory cortex. Our objective recordings confirmed findings from clinical assessments. Probabilistic tracking connected the first region to thalamus, internal capsule, brain stem, postcentral gyrus, cerebellum, and frontal pathways, while the second region demonstrated structural connections to thalamus, insular and primary somatosensory cortex. This study reveals that stroke lesions in the sensory fibers of the superior thalamocortical radiation and the parietal operculum are significantly associated with multiple exteroceptive and proprioceptive deficits in the arm and hand.

  7. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping of stroke lesions underlying somatosensory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sarah; Kessner, Simon S; Cheng, Bastian; Bönstrup, Marlene; Schulz, Robert; Hummel, Friedhelm C; De Bruyn, Nele; Peeters, Andre; Van Pesch, Vincent; Duprez, Thierry; Sunaert, Stefan; Schrooten, Maarten; Feys, Hilde; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Thijs, Vincent; Verheyden, Geert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between stroke lesion location and the resulting somatosensory deficit. We studied exteroceptive and proprioceptive somatosensory symptoms and stroke lesions in 38 patients with first-ever acute stroke. The Erasmus modified Nottingham Sensory Assessment was used to clinically evaluate somatosensory functioning in the arm and hand within the first week after stroke onset. Additionally, more objective measures such as the perceptual threshold of touch and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded. Non-parametric voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was performed to investigate lesion contribution to different somatosensory deficits in the upper limb. Additionally, structural connectivity of brain areas that demonstrated the strongest association with somatosensory symptoms was determined, using probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion tensor imaging data from a healthy age-matched sample. Voxels with a significant association to somatosensory deficits were clustered in two core brain regions: the central parietal white matter, also referred to as the sensory component of the superior thalamic radiation, and the parietal operculum close to the insular cortex, representing the secondary somatosensory cortex. Our objective recordings confirmed findings from clinical assessments. Probabilistic tracking connected the first region to thalamus, internal capsule, brain stem, postcentral gyrus, cerebellum, and frontal pathways, while the second region demonstrated structural connections to thalamus, insular and primary somatosensory cortex. This study reveals that stroke lesions in the sensory fibers of the superior thalamocortical radiation and the parietal operculum are significantly associated with multiple exteroceptive and proprioceptive deficits in the arm and hand. PMID:26900565

  8. MULTISLICE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF INTRACRANIAL SPACE OCCUPYING LESIONS

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    Ramesh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : Introduction: The term intracranial space occupying lesions includes lesions which expand in volume to displace normal neural structures. They give rise to the various symptoms like focal seizures, paralysis, features of raised intracranial tension and false localizing signs. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of computed tomography in evaluation of space occupying lesions of brain, assessment of the site, nature and extent, age and sex prevalence of space occupying lesions. MATERIAL & METHODS: The present study was conducted on one hundred patients with space occupying lesions of the brain presenting with various neurologic symptoms or incidental findings. Patients of all age groups suspected to have intracranial space occupying lesions were included in the study. Results were expressed as mean ± SD and proportions as percentages. Results: Most of the cases of hyperdense lesions were intracerebral hemorrhages, meningioma, lymphoma and medulloblastoma. High grade astrocytomas were heterogenous hypodense lesions with irregular ring enhancement associated perilesional edema and mass effect. Low grade astrocytomas had minimal rim/ mural nodule enhancement. Intracranial tuberculoma and neurocysticercosis showed ring with nodular enhancing. Calcification was seen in tuberous sclerosis, neurocysticercosis, meningiomas, oligodendrogliomas, arteriovenous malformations and dermoid cyst. Congenital lesions had variable presentation ranging from cystic to mixed pattern lesions. CONCLUSIONS: In developing countries, CT imaging remains as a major diagnostic modality, with easy accessibility and technical ease as compared to MRI.

  9. Solid focal liver lesion characterisation with apparent diffusion coefficient ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-invasive characterisation of focal liver lesions using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been heavily investigated and has shown substantial overlap between benign and malignant lesions. We have calculated a ratio of lesion to normal liver to determine if it improves accuracy for correct categorisation. All hepatic MRI studies performed between 1st April 2009 and 26th September 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with solid focal liver lesions in whom a diagnosis could be established and had lesions over 10mm were included. Haemangiomas, cysts and patients with chronic liver disease were excluded. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated for each lesion and adjacent normal liver on breath hold DWI. Two hundred fifty-eight studies were performed and 206 were excluded leaving 52 scans and 58 lesions of which 47 were benign and 11 were malignant. The mean ADC value for benign lesions was 1196.6 (two standard deviations (2SD)=±399.9) and of benign liver 1101.5 (2SD=±329.8) with a ratio of benign lesion to benign liver of 1.1005 (2SD=±0.3783). The mean ADC of malignant lesions was 1153.0 (2SD=±604.9) and malignant liver of 1080.7 (2SD=±533.4) giving a malignant lesion to malignant liver ratio of 1.0890 (2SD=±0.4975). None of these results were statistically significant (all P>0.5). DWI is unable to reliably differentiate solid benign lesions from solid malignant lesions.

  10. Integrating Lesion-Symptom Mapping with Other Methods to Investigate Language Networks and Aphasia Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E Turkeltaub

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM has provided valuable insights into the neural underpinnings of various language functions. Integrating lesion mapping methods with other neuroscience techniques may provide new opportunities to investigate questions related both to the neurobiology of language and to plasticity after brain injury. For example, recent diffusion tensor imaging studies have explored relationships between aphasia symptomology and damage in specific white matter tracts (Forkel et al., 2014 or disruption of the white matter connectome (Bonilha, Rorden, & Fridriksson, 2014. VLSM has also recently been used to assess correlations between lesion location and response to transcranial direct current stimulation aphasia treatment (Campana, Caltagirone, & Marangolo, 2015. We have recently undertaken studies integrating VLSM with other techniques, including voxel-based morphometry (VBM and functional MRI, in order to investigate how parts of the brain spared by stroke contribute to recovery. VLSM can be used in this context to map lesions associated with particular patterns of plasticity in brain structure, function, or connectivity. We have also used VLSM to estimate the variance in behavior due to the stroke itself so that this lesion-symptom relationship can be controlled for when examining the contributions of the rest of the brain. Using this approach in combination with VBM, we have identified areas of the right temporoparietal cortex that appear to undergo hypertrophy after stroke and compensate for speech production deficits. In this talk, I will review recent advances in integrating lesion-symptom mapping with other imaging and brain stimulation techniques in order to better understand the brain basis of language and of aphasia recovery.

  11. Hock lesion epidemiology in cubicle housed dairy cows across two breeds, farming systems and countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenninkmeyer, Christine; Dippel, Sabine; Brinkmann, Jan; March, Solveig; Winckler, Christoph; Knierim, Ute

    2013-05-01

    This cross-sectional study examined various aspects of cubicle design and management in terms of their potential as risk factors for hock lesions, using an epidemiological approach. Cubicle dairy farms in Germany and Austria with Holstein Friesian or Simmental cows were visited during the winter housing season. 105 farms and 3691 cows were included in the analysis which consisted of three steps: bifactorial regression, regression trees and multiple linear regression. The mean farm prevalence of hock lesions, i.e. scabs, wounds, and swellings was 50%, with a range from 0 to 100%. The final model contained eight factors which were largely related to lying comfort and explained 75% of the variance. The presence of a curb turned out to be the most influential beneficial factor. Additionally, there were fewer hock lesions when cows were housed with deep bedded cubicles compared to cubicles without deep bedding. Other factors in the regression model were softness and length of the lying surface and height of free space under cubicle partitions, the proportion of overconditioned cows and a variable encoding three different combinations of region, husbandry system (organic and conventional) and breed. Independently from the risk factor model hock lesions were positively correlated with lameness at herd level as well as at animal level. This probably results from related risk factors for both conditions. It can be concluded that lying comfort of dairy cows should be improved in order to prevent hock lesions. In addition, preventive measures for hock lesions at the same time have a potential of reducing lameness and thus to improve cow welfare in several aspects. PMID:23174217

  12. Primary transpupillary thermotherapy of choroidal melanocytic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Gündüz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the role of primary transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT in the treatment of choroidal melanocytic lesions. Materials and Methods : Retrospective chart review of 24 patients (24 eyes with choroidal melanocytic lesions, including 20 choroidal melanoma and four choroidal nevus treated with primary TTT. Choroidal nevus cases treated with primary TTT either demonstrated risk factors for growth into an early melanoma or had overlying choroidal neovascularization. Results : The mean initial tumor basal diameter was 6.6 (3.0-10.0 mm and the mean initial tumor thickness was 3.0 (1.0-5.0 mm. The mean number of TTT sessions was 2.5 (1-6. The mean decrease in tumor thickness was 1.2 mm (from 3.0 to 1.8 mm at a mean follow-up of 22.7 (range 3-90 months. On the LogMar scale, visual acuity was stable at 1.0. Complications occurred in 50% of eyes. The most frequent complications were vitreous hemorrhage [5 patients (20.8%], focal cataract [5 patients (20.8%], iris atrophy [4 patients (16.6%] and posterior synechia [4 patients (16.6%]. There was no significant difference in the complication rate with respect to tumor thickness >3 mm versus tumor thickness ≤3 mm and juxtapapillary versus nonjuxtapapillary location (Fisher′s exact test, P>0.05. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that 9% of eyes develop recurrence by 1 year and 27% develop recurrence by 5 years after primary TTT. Two eyes (8.3% were enucleated because of neovascular glaucoma and one eye (4.1% was exenterated because of extraocular tumor recurrence. Globe salvage was achieved in 21 patients (87.5%. One patient (4.1% with extraocular tumor recurrence developed liver metastasis and expired. Conclusions : Although TTT may be useful in the treatment of small choroidal melanocytic lesions, the high complication and recurrence rates warrant close monitoring of patients after primary TTT even when a flat chorioretinal scar has been achieved.

  13. Computed tomography of the mediastinal lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Joon; Suh, Jung Hyek; Chun, Byung Hee; Suh, Soo Jhi [Kosin Mediacal College, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-09-15

    Authors retrospectively analyzed the CT findings of mediastinal lesions in surgically or clinically confirmed 37 cases at Kosin Medical College during recent 4 years from September 1979 to August 1983. 1. Among 37 caes, malignant lymphoma were 7 cases, thymoma and vascular lesion or anomaly were 5 cases respectively, benign teratoma and tuberculous mediastinal lymphadenitis and neurogenic tumor were 4 cases respectively, pericardial cyst were 2 cases, bronchogenic cyst, non-specific cyst, pancreatic pseudocyst, mesothelioma, Bochdalek hernia was 1 case respectively. 2. The sex ratio between male and female was about 1 : 1 and the majority of the patients with malignant lymphoma and teratoma was under 20 years old. 3. CT findings of the each mediastinal lesion. 1) Primary mediastinal malignant lymphoma. (1) A large, matted, continuous and midline-crossing mass was observed in the superior and the anterior mediastinums in all cases. (2) In 3 cases, irregular lower densities were seen in the center of the mass, representing the tumor necrosis. (3) CT was also able to show involvement of other mediastinal lymph nodes and adjacent structures such as pleura, anterior chest wall and lung parenchyma. (4) Involving pleura, homogeneous band-like shadows were seen along the pleura, appearing denser than the associated pleural effusion. (5) Involving lung parenchyma, irregular- shaped nodules and band-like densities were seen along the courses of the bronchi and the vessels. 2) Thyoma. (1) A discrete, soft tissue mass was seen in the superior and the anterior mediastinums (mainly posterior to manubrium and anterior to aortic arch) replacing the normal mediastinal fat. (2) In benign thymoma, the margin of the mass was smooth and the normal fat plane between the mass and the vascular structures was well preserved, but invasive thymoma showed obliteration of the normal fat plane, irregular and ragged tumor-lung interface, and irregular thickening of pleura and pericardium by

  14. Visualization of time-varying MRI data for MS lesion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tory, Melanie K.; Moeller, Torsten; Atkins, M. Stella

    2001-05-01

    Conventional methods to diagnose and follow treatment of Multiple Sclerosis require radiologists and technicians to compare current images with older images of a particular patient, on a slic-by-slice basis. Although there has been progress in creating 3D displays of medical images, little attempt has been made to design visual tools that emphasize change over time. We implemented several ideas that attempt to address this deficiency. In one approach, isosurfaces of segmented lesions at each time step were displayed either on the same image (each time step in a different color), or consecutively in an animation. In a second approach, voxel- wise differences between time steps were calculated and displayed statically using ray casting. Animation was used to show cumulative changes over time. Finally, in a method borrowed from computational fluid dynamics (CFD), glyphs (small arrow-like objects) were rendered with a surface model of the lesions to indicate changes at localized points.

  15. Treatment to sustain a Th17-type phenotype to prevent skewing toward Treg and to limit premalignant lesion progression to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M Rita I; Levingston, Corinne A; Johnson, Sara D

    2016-05-15

    While immune suppression is a hallmark of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HSNCC), the immunological impact of premalignant oral lesions, which often precedes development of HNSCC, is unknown. The present study assessed the changes in splenic and draining lymph node CD4(+) cell populations and their production of select cytokines that occur in mice with carcinogen-induced premalignant oral lesions and the changes that occur as lesions progress to oral cancer. These studies found skewing toward Th1 and Th17-type phenotypes in the spleen and lymph nodes of mice with premalignant oral lesions and a shift to Treg as lesions progress to cancer. Since the role of Th17 cells in the progression from premalignant lesions to cancer is not clear, studies determined the immunological and clinical effect of treating mice bearing premalignant oral lesions with a TGF-β type 1 receptor inhibitor plus IL-23 as an approach to sustain the Th17 phenotype. These studies showed that the treatment approach not only sustained the Th17 phenotype, but also increased distal spleen cell and regional lymph node cell production of other stimulatory/inflammatory mediators and slowed premalignant lesion progression to cancer. PMID:26756968

  16. Sclerosing lesions of the orbit: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Lokdarshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital sclerosing inflammation is a distinct group of pathologies characterized by indolent growth with minimal or no signs of inflammation. However, contrary to earlier classifications, it should not be considered a chronic stage of acute inflammation. Although rare, orbital IgG4-related disease has been associated with systemic sclerosing pseudotumor-like lesions. Possible mechanisms include autoimmune and IgG4 related defective clonal proliferation. Currently, there is no specific treatment protocol for IgG4-related disease although the response to low dose steroid provides a good response as compared to non-IgG4 sclerosing pseudotumor. Specific sclerosing inflammations (e.g. Wegener's disease, sarcoidosis, Sjogren's syndrome and neoplasms (lymphoma, metastatic breast carcinoma should be ruled out before considering idiopathic sclerosing inflammation as a diagnosis.

  17. Ameloblastomatous Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst: A Rare Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shojaei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC is a unique and uncommon odontogenic cyst classified into four groups of cystic, odontoma producing, ameloblastomatous proliferating and neoplastic ones. Case Presentation A 34-year-old Iranian man complaining of a painless facial and palatal swelling of the left side of the maxilla persisted for approximately three years was referred to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery, Hamadan University, Iran. Panoramic film revealed a well-defined multilocular mixed radiolucent and radioopaque lesion of the maxilla at the left side. An incisional biopsy was obtained. Based on the histopathologic findings, ameloblastomatous COC was diagnosed. Discussion We reported a rare case of COC. According to Praetorius et al. classification, this patient comes under the category of type 1C (ameloblastomatous proliferating. Many patients with ameloblastomatous COC should be reported to understand its biological behavior as possible.

  18. Visual attention capacity after right hemisphere lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill

    2007-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in visual short-term memory (VSTM) including the neural basis of the function. Processing speed, another main aspect of visual attention capacity, has received less investigation. For both cognitive functions human lesion studies are sparse. We used a...... whole report experiment for estimation of these two parameters in 22 patients with right side stroke. Psychophysical performance was analyzed using Bundesen's [Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review, 97, 523-547] Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and compared...... damage in the right middle frontal gyrus or leukoaraiosis. The storage capacity of VSTM was also normal for most patients, but deficits were found after severe leukoaraiosis or large strokes extending deep into white matter. Thus, the study demonstrated the importance of white-matter connectivity for...

  19. Toe scratches cause scabby hip syndrome lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargis, B M; Moore, R W; Sams, A R

    1989-08-01

    Scabs and scratches in the hip region of chicken carcasses have become the single most common cause of downgrading and required trimming at processing in some areas of the United States. Repeatable correlations with microbiological agents, environment, and nutrition have not been observed. The present report provides evidence that scabs and scratches, present at processing, are the result of injuries inflicted by toenails of birds as they climb on one another. Onychectomy (removal of approximately two-thirds of the distal phalanx) of all four digits of each foot prior to chick placement resulted in 3.7 and 4.8-fold reduction in subjective lesion scores and 7 to 10-fold increases in the percentage of USDA Grade A carcasses at a commercial processing plant. PMID:2780490

  20. Target lesions and other paintball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbicca, Jennifer A; Hatch, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    Paintball is a popular combat game, with more than 5 million participants per year. As it has increased in popularity, the incidence of paintball-related injuries also has increased. The most common injuries are classic, benign skin lesions that are easily recognized if one is aware of them. Devastating eye injuries also may occur if participants do not wear face masks. Other reported injuries include musculoskeletal injuries, solid organ injuries, and vascular pseudoaneurysms. Rarely, paintball-related deaths have been reported. This article is the first to review the full spectrum of paintball injuries; in addition, the article emphasizes the importance of encouraging participants to adhere to appropriate safety measures, particularly wearing an appropriate face mask at all times during the game. PMID:22218634

  1. Psoralen-UVA-treated psoriatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psoralen-ultraviolet light (PUVA)-treated psoriatic lesions were studied for ultrastructural changes. In early stages of treatment, sunburn cells in the epidermis and bizarre giant cells in the dermis were more frequently observed. When clinical improvement was apparent, these changes had subsided. Dermal abnormality in long-term therapy consisted of a thick perivascular cost of amorphous substance. No abnormality was found in the epidermal keratinocytes in long-term therapy, except a clustering and giant cell formation of melanocytes, a heavy melanization of keratinocytes, and hyperkeratosis. Low-dose initiation and slow increment of both 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA is probably a reasonable regimen for benign dermatoses such as psoriasis because it will allow enough time for the skin to become more protected, while the therapeutic results are as satisfactory as in a high-dose schedule

  2. Coexistence of pheochromocytoma with uncommon vascular lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas have been described to be associated with rare vascular abnormalities like renal artery stenosis. Coexistence of physiologically significant renal artery lesions is a compounding factor that alters management and prognosis of pheochromocytoma patients. Apart from individual case reports, data on such association in Indian population is not available. The aim of this study is to find the nature and prevalence of associated vascular abnormalities. Materials and Methods: From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50 patients were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas. Hospital charts of these patients were reviewed retrospectively to identify those with unusual vascular abnormalities. Available literature was also reviewed. Results: Of the 50 patients with pheochromocytoma, 7 (14% had coexisting vascular lesions including renal artery stenosis in 4, aortoarteritis in 1, aortic aneurysm in 1 and inferior vena cava thrombosis in 1. Pheochromocytoma was adrenal in 42 and extra adrenal in 8. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done in the patients. One patient with renal artery stenosis due to intimal fibrosis was subjected to percutaneous balloon angioplasty; the other three improved after adrenalectomy and lysis of fibrous adhesive bands. The patient with aortoarteritos was treated with oral steroids. Inferior vena cava thrombosis was reversed with anticoagulants. The patient with abdominal aortic aneurysm was advised for annual follow-up on account of its size of 4.5 cm and asymptomatic presentation. Conclusion: There are multiple mechanisms that can lead to renal artery stenosis and other vascular abnormalities in a case of pheochromocytoma. A high index of suspicion is necessary to enable both entities to be diagnosed preoperatively and allow proper planning of surgical therapy. Incomplete diagnosis may lead to persistent hypertension postoperatively in a case of associated renal artery stenosis.

  3. Biceps Lesion Associated With Rotator Cuff Tears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ho Yeon; Kim, Jung Youn; Cho, Nam Su; Rhee, Yong Girl

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various tenodesis methods are being used for long head of the biceps tendon lesions. However, there is no consensus on the most appropriate surgical method. Hypothesis: There are significant differences in incidence of cosmetic deformity and persistent bicipital pain between open subpectoral and arthroscopic intracuff tenodesis groups. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: This study included 72 patients who underwent biceps tenodesis and rotator cuff repair between January 2009 and May 2014 and who were followed for at least 1 year. Open subpectoral tenodesis was performed in 39 patients (group A), and arthroscopic intracuff tenodesis was performed in 33 patients (group B). Results: In group A, the mean visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain during motion and mean University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Constant scores significantly improved from 4.6, 18.6, and 64.5 preoperatively to 1.9, 30.5, and 86.5 at last follow-up, respectively (P < .001 for all). In group B, these scores significantly improved from 5.1, 17.6, and 62.9 preoperatively to 1.8, 31.5, and 85.9 at last follow-up, respectively (P < .001 for all). Popeye deformity was noted in 2 (5.2%) patients from group A and 5 (15.6%) patients from group B (P = .231). Additionally, persistent bicipital tenderness was noted in 1 (2.6%) patient from group A and 8 (24.2%) patients from group B (P = .012). Conclusion: Both open subpectoral tenodesis and arthroscopic intracuff tenodesis show good clinical outcomes for long head of the biceps tendon lesions. However, open subpectoral tenodesis may be more appropriate, considering the low incidence of Popeye deformity and tenderness. PMID:27231699

  4. Evaluation of the use of VEGF111 for the treatment of tendon lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Lauriane; Kaux, Jean-François; Drion, Pierre; Delcombel, Romain; Lambert, Charles; Denoël, Vincent; Libertiaux, Vincent; Colige, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Alterations of tendons are common pathologies resulting from repetitive or abnormal mechanical sollicitations. Very frequently lesions become chronic and may even lead to rupture. As there is no current efficient treatment for curing this type of diseases, new therapeutic approaches are being tested and developed. Injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) seems to be a promising treatment by local release of growth factors. Among these factors, VEGF-A is known to induce positive effects on vasc...

  5. MANIFOLD-CONSTRAINED EMBEDDINGS FOR THE DETECTION OF WHITE MATTER LESIONS IN BRAIN MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Kadoury, Samuel; Erus, Guray; Zacharaki, Evangelia; Paragios, Nikos; Davatzikos, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Brain abnormalities such as white matter lesions (WMLs) are not only linked to cerebrovascular disease, but also with normal aging, diabetes and other conditions increasing the risk for cerebrovascular pathologies. Obtaining quantitative measures which assesses the degree or probability of WML in patients is important for evaluating disease burden, and for evaluating its progression and response to interventions. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach for detecting the presence of WMLs ...

  6. Ultrasonic diagnosis of hepatic focal lesions; comparison with radioisotope scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors analyzed ultrasonographic findings and compared the detectability of ultrasonography and RI scintigraphy of the 140 hepatic focal lesion, provened histologically or clinically. The results were as follows: 1. Hepato ma cases were 69 cases. 2. Metastatic Ca cases were 42 cases most frequently originated from stomach and pancreas. Small multiple lesions with hyper echoic or mixed echo pattern was predominant finding with relatively even distribution in the both lobe. 3. There was no apparent association between sonographical echogenecity and angiographic vascularity. 4. Sensitivity of the sonography for the detection of focal lesions was 90%, while RI scintigraphy was 82%. False negative lesions in the ultrasonography were frequently located in right lobe lateral and peripheral aspect. While in the RI scintigraphy, those lesions were frequently in the right lobe central aspect with close correlation with size of the lesion

  7. The relationship between brain atrophy and asymptomatic cerebral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to clarify the relationship between brain atrophy and asymptomatic cerebral lesions, total of 235 subjects (130 males and 105 females), who had neither neurologic deficits nor organic lesions on cerebral computed tomography, were studied. The subjects' ages ranged from 40 to 86 years (mean 66). They were divided into two groups: 90 controls without hypertension or diabetes mellitus (Group C), and 145 patients with essential hypertension (Group H). Brain atrophy was diagnosed using the caudate head index (CHI). Asymptomatic cerebral lesions on magnetic resonance imaging were defined as asymptomatic lacunae and white matter lesions. Caudate head index was higher in Group H than it was in Group C, and CHI in both groups was significantly correlated with the number of asymptomatic lacunae and the severity of white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. These results indicate that brain atrophy may progress along with asymptomatic cerebral lesions. (author)

  8. Isolated lesions of gingiva: A case series and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathi, D. Radha; Sangamithra, S.; Arun, K. V.; Kumar, T.S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Isolated lesions of gingiva arise in succession to the hyperinflammatory reactions in response to the underlying local irritants. Despite their overlapping clinical and histological features, these lesions are distinctive regarding their biological behavior. Recurrence has been reported after surgical excision because of the incomplete removal of underlying local irritants. This article describes the clinical and histological features of four localized gingival lesions, adding a note on their molecular pathogenesis and surgical management. PMID:27307678

  9. Case Series: Cyclops lesion - extension loss after ACL reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Localized anterior arthrofibrosis (cyclops lesion) is the second most common cause of extension loss after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. We present and discuss two patients with prior ACL reconstructions, who presented with pain and loss of extension following surgery. MRI and arthroscopy of the knee revealed typical features of a cyclops lesion. The patients showed significant symptomatic improvement following arthroscopic resection of these lesions

  10. Neurological manifestations and PET studies of the thalamic vascular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We divided 38 patients with cerebrovascular disease of the thalamus into 5 groups according to the site of the thalamic lesions as confirmed by X-ray CT and/or MRI. In 16 patients, we examined the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) by positron emission tomography (PET). In the anteromedial thalamic lesion group, patients displayed disturbances of spontaneity, memory, reading and writing. CBF and CMRO2 were decreased in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the dorsolateral thalamic lesion group, ataxic hemiparesis was a characteristic symptom. CBF and CMRO2 were decreased in frontoparietal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the group with lesions confined to the nucleus ventralis posterioris thalami, the main symptoms were sensory disturbance, with cheiro-oral sensory syndrome being particularly evident. CBF and CMRO2 were decreased in the parietal lobe on the side of the lesion. In the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement, patients exhibited thalamic syndrome without thalamic pain. CBF and CMRO2 were decreased in the frontoparietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In contrast, in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions with pulvinar involvement, all patients showed thalamic pain. The decrease in CBF and CMRO2 extended to the inferomedial region of the temporal lobe in addition to the area of decreased CBF and CMRO2 observed in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement. Based on these results, we speculate that the neurological manifestations of thalamic vascular disease are associated with a decrease in cortical CBF and CMRO2 secondary to the thalamic lesions. (author)

  11. Cerebral white matter lesions and depressive symptoms in elderly adults

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, Jan Cees; de Leeuw, Frank; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Jolles, Jellemer; Breteler, Monique; Hofman, Albert

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: There is evidence for a vascular cause of late-life depression. Cerebral white matter lesions are thought to represent vascular abnormalities. White matter lesions have been related to affective disorders and a history of late-onset depression in psychiatric patients. Their relation with mood disturbances in the general population is not known. We investigated the relation between white matter lesions and the presence of depressive symptoms or a history of depression i...

  12. Rare cystic liver lesions: A diagnostic and managing challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Bakoyiannis, Andreas; DELIS, SPIROS; Triantopoulou, Charina; Dervenis, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Cystic formations within the liver are a frequent finding among populations. Besides the common cystic lesions, like simple liver cysts, rare cystic liver lesions like cystadenocarcinoma should also be considered in the differential diagnosis. Thorough knowledge of each entity’s nature and course are key elements to successful treatment. Detailed search in PubMed, Cochrane Database, and international published literature regarding rare cystic liver lesions was carried out. In our research are...

  13. Heroin-associated lesions within the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare patterns of heroin-associated lesions within the central nervous systems are described. In one case, magnetic resonance imaging revealed the combination of a border zone infarct within the thoracal spinal cord and a bilateral lesion within the globus pallidus. In a second case, cerebral border zone infarctions were observed which were attributed to a vasospasm of the basal cerebral arteries. Drug-abuse should be considered as a potential cause of these unusual manifestations of ischemic lesions in young patients. (orig.)

  14. Metastatic Breast Cancer or Multiple Myeloma? Camouflage by Lytic Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Hough; Adam Brufsky; Suzanne Lentzsch

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of a female with stage I infiltrating ductal carcinoma who received adjuvant therapy including trastuzumab. One year later she developed lytic lesions and was retreated with trastuzumab that was held after she developed symptomatic heart failure. Lytic lesions were attributed to relapse of breast cancer, and cardiac failure attributed to prior trastuzumab therapy. After complications necessitated multiple hospitalizations, a further workup revealed that the lytic lesions were...

  15. Malignant pulmonary lesion. Possible causes of CT misdiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to describe the radiological appearance of overlooked malignant pulmonary lesions at CT and to analyze the reasons of misdiagnosis. Ten patient with pulmonary lesion (PML) overlooked at forst CT examination were selected among patients with lung cancer. Endobronchial location of the tumors and their small size were the most frequent causes of misdiagnosis of PML at chest CT in the series. However, a systematic evaluation of CT scans can reduce the percentage of missed lesions

  16. Successful Treatment of Cutaneous Lesions of Dermatomyositis with Topical Pimecrolimus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Eun; Jeong, Myeong Gil; Lee, Ha Eun; Ko, Joo Yeon; Ro, Young Suck

    2011-01-01

    Dermatomyositis (DM) is an idiopathic inflammatory process characterized by proximal muscle weakness and cutaneous lesions, such as the Gottron's sign, heliotrope rash, and erythematous photosensitive rash. Administration of systemic agents for the treatment of underlying systemic diseases leads to remission of the cutaneous lesions in many cases. However, cutaneous lesions may remain refractory to treatment. Pimecrolimus is a calcineurin inhibitor with combined anti-inflammatory and immunomo...

  17. Isolated lesions of gingiva: A case series and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathi, D Radha; Sangamithra, S; Arun, K V; Kumar, T S S

    2016-01-01

    Isolated lesions of gingiva arise in succession to the hyperinflammatory reactions in response to the underlying local irritants. Despite their overlapping clinical and histological features, these lesions are distinctive regarding their biological behavior. Recurrence has been reported after surgical excision because of the incomplete removal of underlying local irritants. This article describes the clinical and histological features of four localized gingival lesions, adding a note on their molecular pathogenesis and surgical management. PMID:27307678

  18. Radiodiagnosis of pulmonary lesions in children with hemoblastoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theaper is concerned with analysis of X-ray signs of pulmonary lesions in children with malignant lymphomas basing on the observation of 250 patients with Hodgkin's disease and 69 with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The X-ray picture of pulmonary lesion looked varied and not strictly specific. However there are certain distinctions in the manifestations of pulmonary Hodgkin's disease and pulmonary lesion in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas

  19. Occipital bi-transtentorial/falcine approach for falcotentorial meningioma: case report Acesso occipital bitranstentorial-falcino para abordagem de meningioma falco-tentorial: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastião Gusmão; Marcelo Magaldi Oliveira; Aluízio Arantes; Tales Henrique Ulhoa; Eric Grossi Morato

    2006-01-01

    Lesions located in the bilateral posterior incisural space are difficult to treat due to limited exposure. The classical approaches to this area are limited for lesions located bilaterally and especially when the lesion extends also below the tentorium as it may occur with meningiomas. Kawashima et al. reported, in anatomic studies, a new occipital transtentorial approach: the occipital bi-transtentorial/falcine approach, to treat such lesions. We present a patient with a large falcotentorial...

  20. Adenoid basal lesions of the uterine cervix: evolving terminology and clinicopathological concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Michael J

    2006-08-01

    designation only be applied when the tumor in question is entirely evaluable e.g in a hysterectomy specimen or in an excisional biopsy with negative margins. Otherwise, the generic designation Adenoid Basal Tumor is preferable. This approach strikes an appropriate balance between the need to prevent over-treatment of pure lesions on one hand, and the need to ensure that the lesions are indeed pure on the other.

  1. Imaging of soft tissue lesions of the foot and ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Laura W; Peterson, Jeffrey J; Kransdorf, Mark J

    2008-11-01

    Differential diagnosis of soft tissue lesions of the foot can be narrowed with imaging. The cystic nature of ganglia, synovial cysts, and bursitis can be confirmed with MR imaging or sonography. Location and signal characteristics of noncystic lesions can suggest Morton's neuroma, giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, and plantar fibromatosis. Synovial-based lesions of the foot and ankle can be differentiated based on presence or absence of mineralization, lesion density, signal intensity, and enhancement pattern. Knowledge of the incidence of specific neoplasms of the foot and ankle based on patient age aids in providing a limited differential diagnosis. PMID:19038615

  2. Effect of the Spiroiminodihydantoin Lesion on Nucleosome Stability and Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norabuena, Erika M; Barnes Williams, Sara; Klureza, Margaret A; Goehring, Liana J; Gruessner, Brian; Radhakrishnan, Mala L; Jamieson, Elizabeth R; Núñez, Megan E

    2016-04-26

    DNA is constantly under attack by oxidants, generating a variety of potentially mutagenic covalently modified species, including oxidized guanine base products. One such product is spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp), a chiral, propeller-shaped lesion that strongly destabilizes the DNA helix in its vicinity. Despite its unusual shape and thermodynamic effect on double-stranded DNA structure, DNA duplexes containing the Sp lesion form stable nucleosomes upon being incubated with histone octamers. Indeed, among six different combinations of lesion location and stereochemistry, only two duplexes display a diminished ability to form nucleosomes, and these only by ∼25%; the other four are statistically indistinguishable from the control. Nonetheless, kinetic factors also play a role: when the histone proteins have less time during assembly of the core particle to sample both lesion-containing and normal DNA strands, they are more likely to bind the Sp lesion DNA than during slower assembly processes that better approximate thermodynamic equilibrium. Using DNase I footprinting and molecular modeling, we discovered that the Sp lesion causes only a small perturbation (±1-2 bp) on the translational position of the DNA within the nucleosome. Each diastereomeric pair of lesions has the same effect on nucleosome positioning, but lesions placed at different locations behave differently, illustrating that the location of the lesion and not its shape serves as the primary determinant of the most stable DNA orientation. PMID:27074396

  3. Small white matter lesion detection in cerebral small vessel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoorian, Mohsen; Karssemeijer, Nico; van Uden, Inge; de Leeuw, Frank E.; Heskes, Tom; Marchiori, Elena; Platel, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common finding on magnetic resonance images of elderly people. White matter lesions (WML) are important markers for not only the small vessel disease, but also neuro-degenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Volumetric measurements such as the "total lesion load", have been studied and related to these diseases. With respect to SVD we conjecture that small lesions are important, as they have been observed to grow over time and they form the majority of lesions in number. To study these small lesions they need to be annotated, which is a complex and time-consuming task. Existing (semi) automatic methods have been aimed at volumetric measurements and large lesions, and are not suitable for the detection of small lesions. In this research we established a supervised voxel classification CAD system, optimized and trained to exclusively detect small WMLs. To achieve this, several preprocessing steps were taken, which included a robust standardization of subject intensities to reduce inter-subject intensity variability as much as possible. A number of features that were found to be well identifying small lesions were calculated including multimodal intensities, tissue probabilities, several features for accurate location description, a number of second order derivative features as well as multi-scale annular filter for blobness detection. Only small lesions were used to learn the target concept via Adaboost using random forests as its basic classifiers. Finally the results were evaluated using Free-response receiver operating characteristic.

  4. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance in aggressive bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze and discuss the use of different magnetic resonance (MR) strategies with gadolinium administration in the study of bone tumors with involvement of accompanying soft tissue, and to assess the value of these techniques in the characterization of the lesions by analysing their enhanced digital images. Sixty-two bone tumors were studied by MR with Dg-DTPA-BMA using different spatial and temporal resolutions. A conventional MR study was performed in 14 lesions (10 malignant and 4 benign), a multiple-slice dynamic study in 21 (19 malignant and 2 benign) and a single-slice dynamic study in 27 (21 malignant and 16 benign). The dynamic studies afforded parametric images, calculating the uptake factors and maximum velocities. These data were related to the benign or malignant behavior of the lesions and the histological type. The conventional studies provided anatomic information on the lesion and the tumor volume. The parametric images from the dynamic studies provided data on the perfusion of the different lesions. There were no statistically significant differences between the different histological types or the uptake parameters. Nor were there significant differences in the uptake values of malignant and benign lesions. The contrast-enhanced dynamic uptake studies improved temporal resolution, providing information on the perfusion of the bone lesions. the use of parametric images makes it possible to assess the changes in the signals of the pixels over time. The benign lesions with aggressive behavior have uptake values similar to those of malignant lesions. (Author) 13 refs

  5. Computer aided detection of oral lesions on CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral lesions are important findings on computed tomography (CT) images. In this study, a fully automatic method to detect oral lesions in mandibular region from dental CT images is proposed. Two methods were developed to recognize two types of lesions namely (1) Close border (CB) lesions and (2) Open border (OB) lesions, which cover most of the lesion types that can be found on CT images. For the detection of CB lesions, fifteen features were extracted from each initial lesion candidates and multi layer perceptron (MLP) neural network was used to classify suspicious regions. Moreover, OB lesions were detected using a rule based image processing method, where no feature extraction or classification algorithm were used. The results were validated using a CT dataset of 52 patients, where 22 patients had abnormalities and 30 patients were normal. Using non-training dataset, CB detection algorithm yielded 71% sensitivity with 0.31 false positives per patient. Furthermore, OB detection algorithm achieved 100% sensitivity with 0.13 false positives per patient. Results suggest that, the proposed framework, which consists of two methods, has the potential to be used in clinical context, and assist radiologists for better diagnosis

  6. Imaging of Soft Tissue Lesions of the Foot and Ankle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Differential diagnosis of soft tissue lesions of the foot may be narrowed with imaging. The cystic nature of ganglia, synovial cysts, and bursitis can be confirmed with MR imaging or sonography. Location and signal characteristics of noncystic lesions may suggest Morton's neuroma, giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath and plantar fibromatosis. Synovial-based lesions of the foot and ankle can be differentiated based on presence or absence of mineralization, lesion density, signal intensity, and the enhancement pattern. Knowledge of the incidence of specific neoplasms of the foot and ankle based on patient age aids in providing a limited differential diagnosis

  7. Computer aided detection of oral lesions on CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galib, S.; Islam, F.; Abir, M.; Lee, H. K.

    2015-12-01

    Oral lesions are important findings on computed tomography (CT) images. In this study, a fully automatic method to detect oral lesions in mandibular region from dental CT images is proposed. Two methods were developed to recognize two types of lesions namely (1) Close border (CB) lesions and (2) Open border (OB) lesions, which cover most of the lesion types that can be found on CT images. For the detection of CB lesions, fifteen features were extracted from each initial lesion candidates and multi layer perceptron (MLP) neural network was used to classify suspicious regions. Moreover, OB lesions were detected using a rule based image processing method, where no feature extraction or classification algorithm were used. The results were validated using a CT dataset of 52 patients, where 22 patients had abnormalities and 30 patients were normal. Using non-training dataset, CB detection algorithm yielded 71% sensitivity with 0.31 false positives per patient. Furthermore, OB detection algorithm achieved 100% sensitivity with 0.13 false positives per patient. Results suggest that, the proposed framework, which consists of two methods, has the potential to be used in clinical context, and assist radiologists for better diagnosis.

  8. Diffusion-weighted imaging in characterization of cystic pancreatic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrasegaran, K., E-mail: ksandras@iupui.edu [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Akisik, F.M.; Patel, A.A.; Rydberg, M. [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Cramer, H.M.; Agaram, N.P. [Department of Pathology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Schmidt, C.M. [Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Aim: To evaluate whether apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can characterize or predict the malignant potential of cystic pancreatic lesions. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) database over a 2-year period revealed 136 patients with cystic pancreatic lesions. Patients with DWI studies and histological confirmation of cystic mass were included. In patients with known pancreatitis, lesions with amylase content of >1000 IU/l that resolved on subsequent scans were included as pseudocysts. ADC of cystic lesions was measured by two independent reviewers. These values were then compared to categorize these lesions as benign or malignant using conventional MRI sequences. Results: Seventy lesions were analysed: adenocarcinoma (n = 4), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN; n = 28), mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN; n = 9), serous cystadenoma (n = 16), and pseudocysts (n = 13). There was no difference between ADC values of malignant and non-malignant lesions (p = 0.06), between mucinous and serous tumours (p = 0.12), or between IPMN and MCN (p = 0.42). ADC values for low-grade IPMN were significantly higher than those for high-grade or invasive IPMN (p = 0.03). Conclusion: ADC values may be helpful in deciding the malignant potential of IPMN. However, they are not useful in differentiating malignant from benign lesions or for characterizing cystic pancreatic lesions.

  9. Measuring femoral lesions despite CT metal artefacts: a cadaveric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malan, Daniel F. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Department of Mediamatics, EEMCS, P.O. Box 5031, Delft (Netherlands); Botha, Charl P. [Delft University of Technology, Department of Mediamatics, EEMCS, P.O. Box 5031, Delft (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Kraaij, Gert; Heide, Huub J.L. van der; Nelissen, Rob G.H.H. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Joemai, Raoul M.S. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Valstar, Edward R. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-05-15

    Computed tomography is the modality of choice for measuring osteolysis but suffers from metal-induced artefacts obscuring periprosthetic tissues. Previous papers on metal artefact reduction (MAR) show qualitative improvements, but their algorithms have not found acceptance for clinical applications. We investigated to what extent metal artefacts interfere with the segmentation of lesions adjacent to a metal femoral implant and whether metal artefact reduction improves the manual segmentation of such lesions. We manually created 27 periprosthetic lesions in 10 human cadaver femora. We filled the lesions with a fibrotic interface tissue substitute. Each femur was fitted with a polished tapered cobalt-chrome prosthesis and imaged twice - once with the metal, and once with a substitute resin prosthesis inserted. Metal-affected CTs were processed using standard back-projection as well as projection interpolation (PI) MAR. Two experienced users segmented all lesions and compared segmentation accuracy. We achieved accurate delineation of periprosthetic lesions in the metal-free images. The presence of a metal implant led us to underestimate lesion volume and introduced geometrical errors in segmentation boundaries. Although PI MAR reduced streak artefacts, it led to greater underestimation of lesion volume and greater geometrical errors than without its application. CT metal artefacts impair image segmentation. PI MAR can improve subjective image appearance but causes loss of detail and lower image contrast adjacent to prostheses. Our experiments showed that PI MAR is counterproductive for manual segmentation of periprosthetic lesions and should be used with care. (orig.)

  10. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment...... process, additional methods could aid the dentist in reaching a more appropriate treatment decision in some cases. The ICDAS, including the activity assessment system or the Nyvad system, seems to be the best option to reach final diagnoses for managing lesions. The radiographic method is the most...

  11. Prevención de lesiones de isquiotibiales en futbolistas

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Villar, Rául

    2013-01-01

    Las lesiones en los isquiotibiales son el tipo de lesiones más frecuentes en el ámbito deportivo, sobre todo futbolístico. La mayoría de estas lesiones son producidas por el esfuerzo y producen una significativa pérdida de tiempo de entrenamiento y afecta a la calidad de vida de los deportistas lesionados El objetivo principal de esta revisión sistemática es verificar la eficacia de los métodos de entrenamiento a la hora de prevenir lesiones en los músculos isquiotibiales. ...

  12. INVERTED CONDYLOMA OF UTERINE CERVIX: A RARE CONDYLOMATOUS LESION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Charles

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is an epitheliotropic virus that can infect and cause disease of skin or mucosa at any site. HPV associated lesions can be broadly divided into cutaneous and mucous membrane lesions. Cutaneous lesions include: warts, Butcher’s wart and epidermodysplasia verruciformis. The anogenital diseases, include warts (condyloma, dysplasia (cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal, and squamous cell carcinoma. Here we are presenting a case report of a 27 year old female who was histologically diagnosed as inverted condyloma a rare condylomatous lesion involving the uterine cervix.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of intracranial lesions of tuberous sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six patients with tuberous sclerosis were evaluated with computed cranial tomography (CCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The results were assessed in comparison with the clinical severity of the disease. The brain lesions were shown by MRI as low-signal areas on IR images (T1 weighted sequences) and high-signal areas on SE images (T2 weighted sequences). Three patients, who had severe psychomotor retardation (DQ70) and epileptic seizures were well controlled, and small subependymal lesions were observed. Cortical lesions were rare. These results indicate that MRI can detect more precisely intracranial lesions in tuberous sclerosis. (author)

  14. Effect of applicator diameter on lesion size from high temperature interstitial ultrasound thermal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High temperature ultrasound thermal therapy using interstitial and external approaches is becoming increasingly acceptable as a minimally invasive clinical treatment for cancerous and benign disease. The diameter of an interstitial applicator can influence its clinical practicality and effectiveness as well as application site. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of larger ultrasound transducers and the inherent increase in applicator size could be justified by potentially producing larger lesion diameters. Four applicator configurations and sizes were studied using ex vivo tissue experiments in liver and beef and using acoustic and biothermal simulations. Catheter-cooled and internally cooled applicators with outer diameters between 2.2 and 4.0 mm produced 3.5 to 5.0 cm diameter lesions in ex vivo liver and 3.0 to 3.5 cm lesions in ex vivo beef muscle with 20-40 W/cm applied for 10 min. Larger applicators produced lesions with radial penetration depths superior to their smaller counterparts at power levels in the 20-40 W/cm range. The higher cooling rates along the outer surface of the larger diameter applicators due to their greater surface area was a dominant factor in increasing lesion size. The higher cooling rates pushed the maximum temperature farther from the applicator surface and reduced the formation of high acoustic attenuation tissue zones. Applicator configuration and frequency (6.7-8.2 MHz) had less influence on lesion size than diameter in the ranges studied. Acoustic and biothermal simulations matched the experimental data well and were applied to model these applicators within sites of clinical interest such as prostate, uterine fibroid, brain, and normal liver. Lesions of 3.9 to 4.7 cm diameter were predicted for moderately perfused tissues such as prostate and fibroid and 2.8 to 3.2 cm for highly perfused tissues such as normal liver. In sites such as uterine fibroid where larger applicators placed using an endoscopic

  15. New asymptomatic ischemic lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging after cerebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional cerebral angiography (CAG) is relatively low risk for neurological complications. However, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) after CAG occasionally reveal an asymptomatic ischemic lesion on the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of new asymptomatic or symptomatic DWI lesions after CAG and to clarify the factors associated with them. Fifty-six patients with acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack were prospectively enrolled. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies including DWI were studied twice, within 48 hours before and after CAG. The following factors were assessed; age, gender, history of stroke, history of ischemic heart disease, vascular risk factors, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score on admission, stroke subtype, treatment before stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) (antiplatelets or warfarin), approach for catheters (transbrachial or femoral artery), amount of contrast medium used, length of the angiographic procedure, and fluoroscophy time. We divided the patients into two groups according to the presence of new DWI lesions after CAG; Positive group had new DWI lesions, whereas the Negative group had none. After CAG, no patients had new neurological deficits. New asymptomatic DWI lesions were observed in 24 patients (42.9%). The significant differences observed between two groups were as follows; age (69.8±11.3 for the Positive group versus 61.9±11.3 for the Negative group, p=0.043), female (54% versus 28%, p=0.048), non-small vessel occlusion (100% versus 66%, p=0.009), catheter approach for transfemoral artery (63% versus 13%, p<0.001), mean length of the angiographic procedure (63.1±21.6 min versus 43.7±14.2 min, p<0.001), mean fluoroscopy time (26.5±13.0 min versus 14.9±5.9 mm, p<0.001). Sensitivity and specificity analysis to discriminate the positive and negative groups revealed 17 minutes to be the critical threshold point (sensitivity 66.6% and specificity 68

  16. Sensitive diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis by lesion swab sampling coupled to qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emily R; Gomez, Maria Adelaida; Scheske, Laura; Rios, Ruby; Marquez, Ricardo; Cossio, Alexandra; Albertini, Audrey; Schallig, Henk; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2014-12-01

    Variation in clinical accuracy of molecular diagnostic methods for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is commonly observed depending on the sample source, the method of DNA recovery and the molecular test. Few attempts have been made to compare these variables. Two swab and aspirate samples from lesions of patients with suspected CL (n = 105) were evaluated alongside standard diagnosis by microscopic detection of amastigotes or culture of parasites from lesion material. Three DNA extraction methods were compared: Qiagen on swab and aspirate specimens, Isohelix on swabs and Boil/Spin of lesion aspirates. Recovery of Leishmania DNA was evaluated for each sample type by real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of parasitic 18S rDNA, and the diagnostic accuracy of the molecular method determined. Swab sampling combined with Qiagen DNA extraction was the most efficient recovery method for Leishmania DNA, and was the most sensitive (98%; 95% CI: 91-100%) and specific (84%; 95% CI: 64-95%) approach. Aspirated material was less sensitive at 80% (95% CI: 70-88%) and 61% (95% CI: 50-72%) when coupled to Qiagen or Boil-Spin DNA extraction, respectively. Swab sampling of lesions was painless, simple to perform and coupled with standardized DNA extraction enhances the feasibility of molecular diagnosis of CL. PMID:25111885

  17. Functional MR imaging using sensory and motor task in brain tumors and other focal cerebral lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ok, Chul Su; Lim, Myung Kwan; Yu, Ki Bong; Kim, Hyung Jin; Suh, Chang Hae [College of Medicine, Inha Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To determine the usefulness of the functional MRI (fMRI) using motor and sensory stimuli in patients with brain tumors of focal cerebral lesions. This study involved five patients with brain tumors (n=2) or cerebral lesions (cysticercosis (n=1)), arteriovenous malformation (n=1), focal infarction (n=1) and seven normal controls. For MR examinations a 1.5T scanner was used, and during motor or sensory stimulation, the EPI BOLD technique was employed. For image postprocessing an SPM program was utilized. In volunteers, contralateral sensori-motor cortices were activated by both motor and sensory stimuli, while supplementary motor cortices were activated by motor stimuli and other sensory cortices by sensory stimuli. Preoperative evaluation of the relationship between lesions and important sensory and motor areas was possible, and subsequent surgery was thus successful, involving no severe complications. Activation of ipsilateral or other areas occurred in patients with destruction of a major sensory and/or motor area, suggesting compensatory reorganization. fMRI could be a useful supportive method for determining the best approach to surgery treatment in patients with brain tumors or focal cerebral lesions.

  18. Functional MR imaging using sensory and motor task in brain tumors and other focal cerebral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the usefulness of the functional MRI (fMRI) using motor and sensory stimuli in patients with brain tumors of focal cerebral lesions. This study involved five patients with brain tumors (n=2) or cerebral lesions (cysticercosis (n=1), arteriovenous malformation (n=1), focal infarction (n=1) and seven normal controls. For MR examinations a 1.5T scanner was used, and during motor or sensory stimulation, the EPI BOLD technique was employed. For image postprocessing an SPM program was utilized. In volunteers, contralateral sensori-motor cortices were activated by both motor and sensory stimuli, while supplementary motor cortices were activated by motor stimuli and other sensory cortices by sensory stimuli. Preoperative evaluation of the relationship between lesions and important sensory and motor areas was possible, and subsequent surgery was thus successful, involving no severe complications. Activation of ipsilateral or other areas occurred in patients with destruction of a major sensory and/or motor area, suggesting compensatory reorganization. fMRI could be a useful supportive method for determining the best approach to surgery treatment in patients with brain tumors or focal cerebral lesions

  19. Functional evaluation of arthroscopic treatment of SLAP lesions through the O’Brien portal☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Fabiano; Pereira, Bruno Cesar; Rocha, Ricardo Dantas; Filardi, Cantídio Salvador; da Costa, Miguel Pereira; Filho, Romulo Brasil; Junior, Antonio Carlos Tenor

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the functional results from arthroscopic repair of SLAP lesions through the portal described by O’Brien. Methods A retrospective evaluation was conducted on 19 shoulders in 18 patients who underwent arthroscopic repair of SLAP lesions through the O’Brien portal between November 2007 and January 2012. Results Nineteen shoulders in 18 patients were evaluated: 16 male patients (84.2%) and three female patients (15.7%). The patients’ ages ranged from 27 to 40 years (mean of 34.3 years). There were 12 patients (63.1%) with injuries on the right shoulder, six (31.5%) with injuries on the left shoulder and one (5.2%) with bilateral injury. In relation to dominance, 13 patients (68.4%) presented the injury on the dominant limb and five (26.3%) were affected on the non-dominant limb. We observed that nine cases (47.3%) had SLAP lesions alone and 10 cases (52.6%) were related to glenohumeral instability. There was one case (5.2%) of recurrence of glenohumeral dislocation, but this patient chose not to undergo a new surgical intervention. According to the UCLA and ASES scales translated and adapted to the Portuguese language, 96% of the results were good or excellent. Conclusion The approach for treating SLAP lesions through the portal described by O’Brien et al. is easy to reproduce, with a high rate of good and excellent results and a low complication rate. PMID:26229936

  20. Functional MRI of the brain: localisation of eloquent cortex in focal brain lesion therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dymarkowski, S.; Sunaert, S.; Oostende, S. van; Hecke, P. van; Wilms, G.; Demaerel, P.; Marchal, G. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Nuttin, B.; Plets, C. [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of functional MRI (fMRI) in a clinical environment on a large patient group, and to evaluate the pretherapeutic value of localisation of eloquent cortex. Forty patients with focal brain lesions of different origin were studied using fMRI. Functional information was obtained using motor, somatosensory, auditory and phonological stimuli depending on the localisation of the lesions. To obtain information about the spatial accuracy of fMRI, the results were compared with postoperative electrocortical stimulation. Two patients with secondary trigeminal neuralgia were scanned using a motor protocol and were implanted with an extradural plate electrode. Imaging was successful in 40 of 42 patients (including the 2 with trigeminal neuralgia). These patients were analysed for strength of activation, the relation of the lesion to activation sites and the presence of mass effect. The correlation between these data and surgical findings provided significant additional clinical information. Functional MRI can be accurately performed in patients with focal brain lesions using a dedicated approach. Functional MRI offers important clinical information as a contribution to a decrease in posttherapeutic morbidity. The accuracy of the technique can be confirmed by other modalities, including invasive cortical electrostimulation. (orig.) With 7 figs., 2 tabs., 25 refs.

  1. Reasoning by analogy requires the left frontal pole: lesion-deficit mapping and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Marika; Bréchemier, Marie-Laure; Garcin, Béatrice; Bendetowicz, David; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Foulon, Chris; Rosso, Charlotte; Clarençon, Frédéric; Dupont, Sophie; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Labeyrie, Marc-Antoine; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    SEE BURGESS DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW092 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE  : Analogical reasoning is at the core of the generalization and abstraction processes that enable concept formation and creativity. The impact of neurological diseases on analogical reasoning is poorly known, despite its importance in everyday life and in society. Neuroimaging studies of healthy subjects and the few studies that have been performed on patients have highlighted the importance of the prefrontal cortex in analogical reasoning. However, the critical cerebral bases for analogical reasoning deficits remain elusive. In the current study, we examined analogical reasoning abilities in 27 patients with focal damage in the frontal lobes and performed voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping and tractography analyses to investigate the structures critical for analogical reasoning. The findings revealed that damage to the left rostrolateral prefrontal region (or some of its long-range connections) specifically impaired the ability to reason by analogies. A short version of the analogy task predicted the existence of a left rostrolateral prefrontal lesion with good accuracy. Experimental manipulations of the analogy tasks suggested that this region plays a role in relational matching or integration. The current lesion approach demonstrated that the left rostrolateral prefrontal region is a critical node in the analogy network. Our results also suggested that analogy tasks should be translated to clinical practice to refine the neuropsychological assessment of patients with frontal lobe lesions. PMID:27076181

  2. Radiographic features of large cystic lesions of the jaws in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surgical approach to cystic lesions of the jaws is either marsupialisation or enucleation. The treatment of choice is dependent on the size of the lesion, the bony integrity of the cyst and its proximity to anatomical structures.Objectives. To assess large (>2.0 cm) cystic lesions of the jaws using plain film radiography (PFR), CT, multiplanar reconstruction program (MPR) and three-dimensional CT (3D-CT).Patients and methods. Twelve children aged 7-14 years.Results. The classic radiological feature was a unilocular radiolucent area surrounded by a well-defined radio-opaque margin adjacent to the root of a non-viable tooth or associated with the crown of an unerupted tooth. Malposition of teeth and root resorption were more common in dentigerous cysts. The features seen on CT were clear and more precise than those seen on PFR. MPR, by the three-dimensional visualisation of the jaw (axial, panoramic, and bucco-lingual), provided useful information for determining the outline of the cyst and its proximity to adjacent anatomical structures, such as teeth, nerves or maxillary sinus. 3-D CT further and more clearly demonstrated discontinuity in the buccal or palatal/lingual cortices of the jaw bone. PFR was very accurate in determining root resorption.Conclusions. CT with MPR and, ideally, 3-D CT should be used for the comprehensive diagnostic work-up and meticulous surgical management of large cystic lesions of the jaws in children. (orig.)

  3. Functional MRI of the brain: localisation of eloquent cortex in focal brain lesion therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of functional MRI (fMRI) in a clinical environment on a large patient group, and to evaluate the pretherapeutic value of localisation of eloquent cortex. Forty patients with focal brain lesions of different origin were studied using fMRI. Functional information was obtained using motor, somatosensory, auditory and phonological stimuli depending on the localisation of the lesions. To obtain information about the spatial accuracy of fMRI, the results were compared with postoperative electrocortical stimulation. Two patients with secondary trigeminal neuralgia were scanned using a motor protocol and were implanted with an extradural plate electrode. Imaging was successful in 40 of 42 patients (including the 2 with trigeminal neuralgia). These patients were analysed for strength of activation, the relation of the lesion to activation sites and the presence of mass effect. The correlation between these data and surgical findings provided significant additional clinical information. Functional MRI can be accurately performed in patients with focal brain lesions using a dedicated approach. Functional MRI offers important clinical information as a contribution to a decrease in posttherapeutic morbidity. The accuracy of the technique can be confirmed by other modalities, including invasive cortical electrostimulation. (orig.)

  4. Detection and classification of retinal lesions for grading of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman Akram, M; Khalid, Shehzad; Tariq, Anam; Khan, Shoab A; Azam, Farooque

    2014-02-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is an eye abnormality in which the human retina is affected due to an increasing amount of insulin in blood. The early detection and diagnosis of DR is vital to save the vision of diabetes patients. The early signs of DR which appear on the surface of the retina are microaneurysms, haemorrhages, and exudates. In this paper, we propose a system consisting of a novel hybrid classifier for the detection of retinal lesions. The proposed system consists of preprocessing, extraction of candidate lesions, feature set formulation, and classification. In preprocessing, the system eliminates background pixels and extracts the blood vessels and optic disc from the digital retinal image. The candidate lesion detection phase extracts, using filter banks, all regions which may possibly have any type of lesion. A feature set based on different descriptors, such as shape, intensity, and statistics, is formulated for each possible candidate region: this further helps in classifying that region. This paper presents an extension of the m-Mediods based modeling approach, and combines it with a Gaussian Mixture Model in an ensemble to form a hybrid classifier to improve the accuracy of the classification. The proposed system is assessed using standard fundus image databases with the help of performance parameters, such as, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and the Receiver Operating Characteristics curves for statistical analysis. PMID:24480176

  5. Vibrational mapping of sinonasal lesions by Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, Elisabetta; Sabbatini, Simona; Conti, Carla; Rubini, Corrado; Rocchetti, Romina; Re, Massimo; Vaccari, Lisa; Mitri, Elisa; Librando, Vito

    2015-12-01

    Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) is a powerful tool for analyzing biochemical changes in tumoral tissues. The head and neck region is characterized by a great variety of lesions, with different degrees of malignancy, which are often difficult to diagnose. Schneiderian papillomas are sinonasal benign neoplasms arising from the Schneiderian mucosa; they can evolve into malignant tumoral lesions (squamous cell carcinoma). In addition, they can sometimes be confused with the more common inflammatory polyps. Therefore, an early and definitive diagnosis of this pathology is mandatory. Progressing in our research on the study of oral cavity lesions, 15 sections consisting of inflammatory sinonasal polyps, benign Schneiderian papillomas, and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas were analyzed using FTIRI. To allow a rigorous description of these pathologies and to gain objective diagnosis, the epithelial layer and the adjacent connective tissue of each section were separately investigated by following a multivariate analysis approach. According to the nature of the lesion, interesting modifications were detected in the average spectra of the different tissue components, above all in the lipid and protein patterns. Specific band-area ratios acting as spectral markers of the different pathologies were also highlighted.

  6. Intraductal Proliferative Lesions of the Breast—Terminology and Biology Matter: Premalignant Lesions or Preinvasive Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Mauri; Lucio Fortunato; Leopoldo Costarelli; Domenico Campagna

    2012-01-01

    Morphological criteria for the diagnosis of intraductal proliferative lesions of the breast have been an object of research and much controversy, and its terminology is rather confusing. Knowledge of the molecular aspects of this disease probably necessitates further research to clarify if these entities can be identified as breast cancer precursors or as a malignant preinvasive disease. These issues are of great interest not only for their biological implications, but also to the clinician w...

  7. Preoperative evaluation of brain lesion with 201TI brain SPECT: is it useful to differentiate benign and malignant lesions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thallium-201 (201TI) brain SPECT, which can represent cellular activity of brain lesions, may provide more useful information in differentiating between benign and malignant brain lesions more so than CT or MRI, that merely represents anatomic changes or breakdown of blood brain barrier. We used 201TI brain SPECT prospectively to evaluate the utility of 201TI-indices as an indicator of benign or malignant lesions. We studied 28 patients. There were 13 cases of benign lesions (3: nonspecific benign lesion, 3: meningioma, 2: low grade glioma, 1: tuberculoma, central neurocytoma, hemangioblastoma, radiation necrosis, and choroid plexus papilloma) and 15 cases of malignant lesions (6: glioblastoma multiforme, 5: anaplastic glioma, 2: medulloblastoma, 1: metastasis and lymphoma). In all patients, CT and/or MRI were obtained and then 201TI brain SPECT was obtained with measuring mean 201TI index and peak 201TI index. An unpaired t-test was performed to compare the 201TI-indices and pathologic diagnoses to evaluate the utility of 201TI-indices as an indicator of benign or malignant lesions. There were no statistically significant difference in 201TI-indices between benign and malignant brain lesions (P>0.05). These results demonstrated that we could not use 201TI indices on brain SPECT alone as an indicator of benign or malignant brain lesions

  8. 3-D volume reconstruction of skin lesions for melanin and blood volume estimation and lesion severity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Brian; Dhawan, Atam P

    2012-11-01

    Subsurface information about skin lesions, such as the blood volume beneath the lesion, is important for the analysis of lesion severity towards early detection of skin cancer such as malignant melanoma. Depth information can be obtained from diffuse reflectance based multispectral transillumination images of the skin. An inverse volume reconstruction method is presented which uses a genetic algorithm optimization procedure with a novel population initialization routine and nudge operator based on the multispectral images to reconstruct the melanin and blood layer volume components. Forward model evaluation for fitness calculation is performed using a parallel processing voxel-based Monte Carlo simulation of light in skin. Reconstruction results for simulated lesions show excellent volume accuracy. Preliminary validation is also done using a set of 14 clinical lesions, categorized into lesion severity by an expert dermatologist. Using two features, the average blood layer thickness and the ratio of blood volume to total lesion volume, the lesions can be classified into mild and moderate/severe classes with 100% accuracy. The method therefore has excellent potential for detection and analysis of pre-malignant lesions. PMID:22829392

  9. Preoperative evaluation of brain lesion with {sup 201}TI brain SPECT: is it useful to differentiate benign and malignant lesions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Hyung Sun; Kim, Euy Neyng; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Yong An; Chung, Soo Kyo; Hong, Yong Gil; Lee, Youn Soo [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-10-01

    Thallium-201 ({sup 201}TI) brain SPECT, which can represent cellular activity of brain lesions, may provide more useful information in differentiating between benign and malignant brain lesions more so than CT or MRI, that merely represents anatomic changes or breakdown of blood brain barrier. We used {sup 201}TI brain SPECT prospectively to evaluate the utility of {sup 201}TI-indices as an indicator of benign or malignant lesions. We studied 28 patients. There were 13 cases of benign lesions (3: nonspecific benign lesion, 3: meningioma, 2: low grade glioma, 1: tuberculoma, central neurocytoma, hemangioblastoma, radiation necrosis, and choroid plexus papilloma) and 15 cases of malignant lesions (6: glioblastoma multiforme, 5: anaplastic glioma, 2: medulloblastoma, 1: metastasis and lymphoma). In all patients, CT and/or MRI were obtained and then {sup 201}TI brain SPECT was obtained with measuring mean {sup 201}TI index and peak {sup 201}TI index. An unpaired t-test was performed to compare the {sup 201}TI-indices and pathologic diagnoses to evaluate the utility of {sup 201}TI-indices as an indicator of benign or malignant lesions. There were no statistically significant difference in {sup 201}TI-indices between benign and malignant brain lesions (P>0.05). These results demonstrated that we could not use {sup 201}TI indices on brain SPECT alone as an indicator of benign or malignant brain lesions.

  10. Ultrasonography-guided mammotome biopsy of breast lesions : early experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To report some early experiences of ultrasonography-guided mammotome biopsy for solid breast lesions. Sixty seven solid breast lesions in 59 patients aged 25-77 (mean, 44.5) years were biopsied under ultrasound-guidance using an 11 gauge mammotome. The size and depth of the lesions, diagnostic accuracy achieved, complications, and merits and demerits of the device were evaluated. The lesions ranged in size from 0.5 to 8 (mean, 1.6)cm, and at their center the mean depth was 1.4cm. for every lesion at least seven biopsies were performed, and the mean weight of extracted tissue was 0.44gm. The lesions were located mainly at the at 12o'clock area and upper inner quadrant of the left breast(n=10 for each area); they were also found in other regions for both breasts, including subareloar areas. The histopathologic diagnosis was malignant in 26 lesions and benign in 39, and in one case, atypical ductal hyperplasia was diagnosed. One lesion contained no tumor cells. Twenty-four malignant lesions were surgically excised, and in 21 invasive ductal/lobular carcinomas and one ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (91.7%) the initial and subsequent diagnosis correlated. One lesion diagnosed as DCIS and one whose invasiveness could not be initially determined were confirmed as invasive ductal carcinomas (8.3%). Follow-up ultrasonography involved six benign lesion and showed that five of these had become smaller. The complications noted were severe pain in three patients and a moderate amount of bleeding in two, but in all cases good control was achieved by interrupting the procedure or applying compression. The merits of the mammotome biopsy compared with the conventional core biopsy technique are higher diagnostic accuracy due to the larger amount of tissue extracted by suction and the large caliber of the needle, multiple biopsies achieved by one needle insertion, and less possibility of server complications such as pneumothorax. Dry-tapping was a demerit of the device. Very small

  11. CT rim effects in various head and neck lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors evaluated various head and neck lesions seen from April 1988 through March 1990 both by plain and enhanced CT, examined the incidence of rim effect (or rim enhancement), classified these effects, and discussed underlying mechanisms. The subjects were 177 patients with primary tumors (28 benign and 49 malignant tumors), lymphadenopathy associated with malignancy (9), inflammatory lesions (20), cystic lesions (12), other lesions (7), and 22 without abnormal findings. Among these 177, rim effects were observed in 22 cases (12%). These effects were analyzed and classified. The incidences of rim effect according lesion type are as follows; cervical lymphadenopathy associated with malignancy 5/9 (56%), primary tumors 8/77 (10%), inflammatory lesions none, cystic lesions 7/12 (58%), and others 3/7 (43%). The highest incidence was seen with cystic lesions including mucoceles of the paranasal sinuses and cervical cysts. Rim effects were classified as follows; Type 1: cystic pattern, Type 2: parenchymatous pattern, Type 3: vascular pattern and Type 4: others. Type 1 was seen in 15 cases (68%), Type 2 in 3 cases (14%), Type 3 in 3 cases (14%), and Type 4 in 1 case (5%). Type 1 included 6 cystic lesions, 3 malignant lymphadenopathies, 3 benign tumors and others. Type 2 included 2 malignant lymphadenopathies and 1 benign tumor, and Type 3, 2 jugular thromboses and 1 carotid atheroma. There was only one Type 4, a cystic lesion. Of interest is the mode of incidences among cervical lymphadenopathies associated with malignancy. Accessory chains showed rim effects in 3/7, all Type 1, and jugular chains in 2/13, all Type 2. The mechanism underlying the rim effects was discussed and the vascularity of the peripheral rims of the lesions appeared to be the most important factor in addition to technical artifacts inherent in CT. (author)

  12. Lesion size is a major determinant of the mammographic features of ductal carcinoma in situ: findings from the Sloane project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A., E-mail: a.z.evans@dundee.ac.u [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Mailbox 4, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland (United Kingdom); Clements, K. [West Midlands Cancer Intelligence Unit, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Maxwell, A.; Bishop, H. [Breast Unit, Royal Bolton Hospital, Bolton (United Kingdom); Hanby, A. [Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, Leeds (United Kingdom); Lawrence, G. [West Midlands Cancer Intelligence Unit, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Pinder, S.E. [Kings College London, Guys and St Thomas' Hospitals, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Aim: To assess the radiological features of calcific ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in a large, multicentre dataset according to grade and size, and to investigate the possibility that DCIS has different mammographic features when small. Materials and methods: The dataset consisted of all Sloane Project DCIS cases where calcification was present mammographically and histological grade and size were available. The radiology data form classifies calcific DCIS as casting/linear, granular/irregular, or punctate. The pathology dataset includes cytonuclear grade and microscopic tumour size. Correlations were sought between the radiological findings and DCIS grade and size. The significance of differences was assessed using the chi-square test and chi-square test for trend. Results: One thousand, seven hundred and eighty-three cases were included in the study. Of these, 1128, 485, and 170 had high, intermediate, and low-grade DCIS, respectively. Casting calcification was more frequently seen the higher the grade of DCIS, occurring in 58% of high grade, 38% of intermediate grade, and 26% of low-grade cases, respectively (p < 0.001). Casting calcification was also increasingly common with increasing lesion size, irrespective of the histological grade (p < 0.001). Thus casting calcifications in small (<10 mm) high-grade DCIS lesions were seen with a similar frequency (50%) to those in moderate-sized (21-30 mm) intermediate-grade lesions (48%), and to those in large (>30 mm) low-grade lesions (46%). Conclusion: Lesion size has a strong influence on the radiological features of calcific DCIS; small, high-grade lesions often show no casting calcifications, whereas casting calcifications are seen in nearly half of large, low-grade lesions. As small clusters of punctate or granular calcifications may represent high-grade DCIS, an aggressive clinical approach to the diagnosis of such lesions is recommended as the adequate treatment of high-grade DCIS will prevent the occurrence

  13. A Generative Probabilistic Model and Discriminative Extensions for Brain Lesion Segmentation - With Application to Tumor and Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menze, Bjoern H.; Van Leemput, Koen; Lashkari, Danial;

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a generative probabilistic model for segmentation of brain lesions in multi-dimensional images that generalizes the EM segmenter, a common approach for modelling brain images using Gaussian mixtures and a probabilistic tissue atlas that employs expectation-maximization (EM), to estim...

  14. Anterior approach to the cervicothoracic junction: case series and literature review Acceso anterior de las lesiones de la unión cérvicotoracica: serie de casos y revisión de la literatura Acesso anterior das lesões da junção cérvicotorácica: série de casos e revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asdrubal Falavigna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: the authors report their experience with the anterior approach to the cervicothoracic junction at C7 to T4 vertebral bodies, how the radiological investigation was performed in order to define the need for manubriotomy, how was the surgical pitfalls and the clinical evaluation. METHODS: prospective cohort study with 14 patients who underwent an anterior approach to the cervicothoracic surgery during the period of January 1996 to January 2009. The patients underwent radiographic evaluation with computed tomography and magnetic resonance before surgery in order to identify when the manubriotomy was necessary. The surgery was usually performed from the left side through an anterior Smith-Robinson approach and manubriotomy when necessary. Mesh and cervical plate system were used for stabilization when corpectomy was performed. Nevertheless, in the cases with discal herniation C7-T1, the reconstruction was done with PEEK and cervical plate system. RESULTS: the mean age was 63 years old (range, 30-77 years and seven of the patients were men. The majority of cases had metastatic disease (n=8 or disc herniation (n=4. There were two complications related to the surgical procedures: one patient with dysphonia caused by a local hematoma and other one with lung infection. The mean surgical time, bleeding volume, pain intensity, medication intake and length of hospital stay were lower in the cases in which manubriotomy was not necessary. CONCLUSIONS: the anterior approach to the cervicothoracic junction is effective and presents low morbidity rate. In cases of injuries involving the C7 vertebral body and C7-T1 intervertebral disc herniation, a transcervical approach without the manubriotomy was indicated; when a T1 and/or T2 corpectomy was necessary, the transmanubrial approach usually was necessary in order to provide a good working space to perform a corpectomy and reconstruction. Performing manubriotomy increases surgical time, bleeding, pain

  15. Nuclear lesions produced by 125I decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I decay induced DNA damage was investigated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells which had incorporated 125I-iododeoxyuridine (125IUdR) into their DNA. 125I decays were accumulated in frozen cells. DNA strand breaks produced by low numbers (0--1,200 decays per cell) of 125I decays were assayed using the alkaline unwinding technique and the alkaline filter elution technique. Approximately 300 125I decays reduced the relative damage to 50%. DNA protein cross links were not detected after accumulation of 125I decay. The production of DNA double strand breaks by 125I decay was assayed by the neutral filter elution technique at pH 9.6 and 7.2 after accumulating 100--5,000 decays per cell. No alkali labile lesions were detected. Approximately 3,000 125I decays were required to reduce the mean value of the fractions to 50%. In all the assays, DNA damage induction data were fit to a straight line by regression analysis except at very low numbers of accumulated 125I decays where an initial drop in the fraction of DNA retained on the filter was observed. This drop suggests multiple chromatin fragmentation is produced by 125I decay

  16. Differential diagnosis of mesiotemporal lesions: case report of neurosyphilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Santos, A.; Matias, S.; Saraiva, P.; Goulao, A. [Garcia de Orta Hospital, Neuroradiology Department, Almada (Portugal)

    2005-09-01

    We report a clinical and imaging case of suspected herpes simplex encephalitis subsequently diagnosed as neurosyphilis based on positive antibodies in the CSF. MRI of the brain showed cortical and subcortical lesions in the mesial temporal region, septal area, insula and cingulated gyrus of the right cerebral hemisphere. Neurosyphilis should be included in the differential diagnosis of mesial temporal region lesions on MRI. (orig.)

  17. Dental prosthesis and buccal lesions in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz García Alpizar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: Buccal lesions in the elderly are very frequent and they constitute a problem of health due to the consequences that cause. Objective: to describe the characteristics of the removable prosthesis used by the population of 60 and more years age and their relationship with the lesions of the oral mucosa. Methods: We carried out a study descriptive of cross section in 125 elderly with oral prosthesis. The characteristics of the removable prosthesis were described and their relationship with the lesions of the oral mucosa. The square chi tests and the analysis of relative risk were use to determine the association between the variables, also we used a logistical regression model to determine the independent relationship of each factor with the presence of the lesions. Results: We was a 12% of the people with stomatitis sub prosthesis, 8% presented lesions growth hyperplasic and 5,6% they were have angular queilitis. The lesions in the oral mucosa increased in people with prosthesis in not well state, bad hygiene this and in the female sex. Conclusion: the chronic lesions were the more prevalence in this study and they were very related with factors like: state of the conservation the prosthesis, time use, hygiene this and sex of the individual; but when determining the independent influence from each factor with the presence lesions, we established that only the state of conservation of the prosthesis and their hygiene affected of the important way to the old men of this study.

  18. Temporal lobe lesions and psychosis in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, R; Zigmond, A S

    2010-01-01

    Lesions in the temporal lobe are associated with psychiatric manifestations in multiple sclerosis. The authors describe this case of a young man with multiple sclerosis who presented with first-episode psychosis and had acute lesions in the temporal lobe. He was successfully treated with olanzapine and β-interferon.

  19. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THYROID LESIONS IN WARDHA DISTRICT OF CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarth Shukla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To establish a significant predominance of thyroid lesions in and around Wardha district, and to establish specific etiological link for the predominance the thyroid lesions. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : This was a hospital based analytical prospective study, conducted in Acharya Vinobha Bhave Rural Hospital (A.V.B.R.H. involving 108 patients. The study was carried over a duration of 1 year January 2010 to December 2010. Patients attending endocrinological clinics and the newly detected cases of thyroid lesions, within set parameters of study, were the subjects of this study. OBSERVATION: Thyroid lesions which we came across in the course of the study were Thyrotoxicosis, Myxoedema, Thyroiditis, Diffuse goitre, Nodular Goitre and Carcinoma Thyroid . These were correlated with epidemiological factors like Age, Sex, Region, Diet and Iodine Intake. Significant relationship between thyroid function, age of patient, diet was seen in comparison to individual thyroid lesions. CONCLUSION : G oitre was the commest pathology encountered . Almost all of the thyroid lesions were of hypothyroid in their function with exception of thyrotoxicosis and carcinoma. Thyroid lesions were found predominantly in females, Age related lesion pathology was significant, and vegetarian and non - vegetarian diets along with low and high iodine salt uptake had obvious pathological effects on thyroid

  20. Human Lesion Studies in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2016-06-15

    The study of patients with brain lesions has made major historical contributions to cognitive neuroscience. Here I argue for an increased investment in modern lesion mapping, complementing fMRI studies and laying the conceptual and analytic foundations for future techniques that could experimentally manipulate human brain function. PMID:27311080