WorldWideScience

Sample records for case community analysis

  1. Using Analysis of Governance to Unpack Community-Based Conservation: A Case Study from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lance W; Makupa, Enock

    2015-11-01

    Community-based conservation policies and programs are often hollow with little real devolution. But to pass a judgment of community-based or not community-based on such initiatives and programs obscures what is actually a suite of attributes. In this paper, we analyze governance around a specific case of what is nominally community-based conservation-Ikona Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania-using two complementary sets of criteria. The first relates to governance "powers": planning powers, regulatory powers, spending powers, revenue-generating powers, and the power to enter into agreements. The second set of criteria derive from the understanding of governance as a set of social functions: social coordination, shaping power, setting direction, and building community. The analysis helps to detail ways in which the Tanzanian state through policy and regulations has constrained the potential for Ikona WMA to empower communities and community actors. Although it has some features of community-based conservation, community input into how the governance social functions would be carried out in the WMA was constrained from the start and is now largely out of community hands. The two governance powers that have any significant community-based flavor-spending powers and revenue-generating powers-relate to the WMA's tourism activities, but even here the picture is equivocal at best. The unpacking of governance that we have done, however, reveals that community empowerment through the processes associated with creating and recognizing indigenous and community-conserved areas is something that can be pursued through multiple channels, some of which might be more strategic than others.

  2. Using Analysis of Governance to Unpack Community-Based Conservation: A Case Study from Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lance W.; Makupa, Enock

    2015-11-01

    Community-based conservation policies and programs are often hollow with little real devolution. But to pass a judgment of community-based or not community-based on such initiatives and programs obscures what is actually a suite of attributes. In this paper, we analyze governance around a specific case of what is nominally community-based conservation—Ikona Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania—using two complementary sets of criteria. The first relates to governance "powers": planning powers, regulatory powers, spending powers, revenue-generating powers, and the power to enter into agreements. The second set of criteria derive from the understanding of governance as a set of social functions: social coordination, shaping power, setting direction, and building community. The analysis helps to detail ways in which the Tanzanian state through policy and regulations has constrained the potential for Ikona WMA to empower communities and community actors. Although it has some features of community-based conservation, community input into how the governance social functions would be carried out in the WMA was constrained from the start and is now largely out of community hands. The two governance powers that have any significant community-based flavor—spending powers and revenue-generating powers—relate to the WMA's tourism activities, but even here the picture is equivocal at best. The unpacking of governance that we have done, however, reveals that community empowerment through the processes associated with creating and recognizing indigenous and community-conserved areas is something that can be pursued through multiple channels, some of which might be more strategic than others.

  3. Integrated community case management in Malawi: an analysis of innovation and institutional characteristics for policy adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Banda, Hastings; Namakhoma, Ireen

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, Malawi became an early adopter of integrated community case management for childhood illnesses (iCCM), a policy aimed at community-level treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia for children below 5 years. Through a retrospective case study, this article explores critical issues in implementation that arose during policy formulation through the lens of the innovation (i.e. iCCM) and of the institutions involved in the policy process. Data analysis is founded on a documentary review and 21 in-depth stakeholder interviews across institutions in Malawi. Findings indicate that the characteristics of iCCM made it a suitable policy to address persistent challenges in child mortality, namely that ill children were not interacting with health workers on a timely basis and consequently were dying in their communities. Further, iCCM was compatible with the Malawian health system due to the ability to build on an existing community health worker cadre of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) and previous experiences with treatment provision at the community level. In terms of institutions, the Ministry of Health (MoH) demonstrated leadership in the overall policy process despite early challenges of co-ordination within the MoH. WHO, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and implementing organizations played a supportive role in their position as knowledge brokers. Greater challenges were faced in the organizational capacity of the MoH. Regulatory issues around HSA training as well as concerns around supervision and overburdening of HSAs were discussed, though not fully addressed during policy development. Similarly, the financial sustainability of iCCM, including the mechanisms for channelling funding flows, also remains an unresolved issue. This analysis highlights the role of implementation questions during policy development. Despite several outstanding concerns, the compatibility between iCCM as a policy alternative and the local context laid the

  4. Integrated community case management in Malawi: an analysis of innovation and institutional characteristics for policy adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Banda, Hastings; Namakhoma, Ireen

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, Malawi became an early adopter of integrated community case management for childhood illnesses (iCCM), a policy aimed at community-level treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia for children below 5 years. Through a retrospective case study, this article explores critical issues in implementation that arose during policy formulation through the lens of the innovation (i.e. iCCM) and of the institutions involved in the policy process. Data analysis is founded on a documentary review and 21 in-depth stakeholder interviews across institutions in Malawi. Findings indicate that the characteristics of iCCM made it a suitable policy to address persistent challenges in child mortality, namely that ill children were not interacting with health workers on a timely basis and consequently were dying in their communities. Further, iCCM was compatible with the Malawian health system due to the ability to build on an existing community health worker cadre of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) and previous experiences with treatment provision at the community level. In terms of institutions, the Ministry of Health (MoH) demonstrated leadership in the overall policy process despite early challenges of co-ordination within the MoH. WHO, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and implementing organizations played a supportive role in their position as knowledge brokers. Greater challenges were faced in the organizational capacity of the MoH. Regulatory issues around HSA training as well as concerns around supervision and overburdening of HSAs were discussed, though not fully addressed during policy development. Similarly, the financial sustainability of iCCM, including the mechanisms for channelling funding flows, also remains an unresolved issue. This analysis highlights the role of implementation questions during policy development. Despite several outstanding concerns, the compatibility between iCCM as a policy alternative and the local context laid the

  5. A causal loop analysis of the sustainability of integrated community case management in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarriot, Eric; Morrow, Melanie; Langston, Anne; Weiss, Jennifer; Landegger, Justine; Tsuma, Laban

    2015-04-01

    Expansion of community health services in Rwanda has come with the national scale up of integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea. We used a sustainability assessment framework as part of a large-scale project evaluation to identify factors affecting iCCM sustainability (2011). We then (2012) used causal-loop analysis to identify systems determinants of iCCM sustainability from a national systems perspective. This allows us to develop three high-probability future scenarios putting the achievements of community health at risk, and to recommend mitigating strategies. Our causal loop diagram highlights both balancing and reinforcing loops of cause and effect in the national iCCM system. Financial, political and technical scenarios carry high probability for threatening the sustainability through: (1) reduction in performance-based financing resources, (2) political shocks and erosion of political commitment for community health, and (3) insufficient progress in resolving district health systems--"building blocks"--performance gaps. In a complex health system, the consequences of choices may be delayed and hard to predict precisely. Causal loop analysis and scenario mapping make explicit complex cause-and-effects relationships and high probability risks, which need to be anticipated and mitigated.

  6. Clinical data analysis of 19 cases of community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Xia; Zhao, Mao-Mao; Pu, Zeng-Hui; Wang, Yun-Qiang; Liu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and imaging changes of community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent adults. A retrospective study was performed on 19 adult community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia cases in Yantai, whereby the clinical data were collected and analyzed. Of 19 cases, 14 (73.68%) had fever and 17 (89.47%) had cough symptoms. Moreover, 14 cases (73.68%) had normal white blood cell counts, while 11 cases (57.89%) exhibited a reduction in lymphocyte proportion. Among the 19 cases, 17 cases exhibited lesions in a single lung, while 2 cases involved bilateral lungs. The lesions predominantly exhibited ground glass-like changes. The clinical manifestations of adult community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia patients with normal immune functions were mild, with such presenting symptoms as fever, cough, and sputum; most patients did not exhibit high levels of white blood cells or low lymphocyte counts, and the imaging features (ground glass-like effusion) were indicative of single-lung involvement.

  7. Exploring the Implications of Community Mural Arts: A Case Analysis of a 'Groundswell' Mural Project

    OpenAIRE

    Pontious, Jacquelyn Rae

    2014-01-01

    Groundswell, a New York-based nonprofit community arts organization, creates high quality public art with youth and artists throughout the five boroughs of the City. This study examines how the nonprofit utilizes mural making, a potentially democratic art form, to provide opportunities for individual and collective impact. I undertook key informant interviews and documents analysis to explore the complex model the nonprofit employs to create a collaborative and community-based art process fo...

  8. The Northwest Indiana Center for Data and Analysis: A Case Study of Academic Library Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Scott; Morris, Cele; Sutherland, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    This paper details community engagement activity of an academic library coordinated within a broader university strategic plan. The Anderson Library at Indiana University Northwest (IU-Northwest) supports a service called the Northwest Indiana Center for Data and Analysis. Created in 1996 with funding made available from the Indiana University…

  9. Influenza A (H1N1 in Victoria, Australia: a community case series and analysis of household transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Looker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We characterise the clinical features and household transmission of pandemic influenza A (pH1N1 in community cases from Victoria, Australia in 2009. METHODS: Questionnaires were used to collect information on epidemiological characteristics, illness features and co-morbidities of cases identified in the 2009 Victorian Influenza Sentinel Surveillance program. RESULTS: The median age of 132 index cases was 21 years, of whom 54 (41% were under 18 years old and 28 (21% had medical co-morbidities. The median symptom duration was significantly shorter for children who received antivirals than in those who did not (p = 0.03. Assumed influenza transmission was observed in 63 (51% households. Influenza-like illness (ILI developed in 115 of 351 household contacts, a crude secondary attack rate of 33%. Increased ILI rates were seen in households with larger numbers of children but not larger numbers of adults. Multivariate analysis indicated contacts of cases with cough and diarrhoea, and contacts in quarantined households were significantly more likely to develop influenza-like symptoms. CONCLUSION: Most cases of pH1N1 in our study were mild with similar clinical characteristics to seasonal influenza. Illness and case features relating to virus excretion, age and household quarantine may have influenced secondary ILI rates within households.

  10. A Case Study Analysis of a Constructionist Knowledge Building Community with Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Chee S.; Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Wilson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how activity theory can help research a constructionist community. We present a constructionist activity model called CONstructionism Through ACtivity Theory (CONTACT) model and explain how it can be used to analyse the constructionist activity in knowledge building communities. We then illustrate the model through its…

  11. Determinants of Performance of Drinking-Water Community Organizations: A Comparative Analysis of Case Studies in Rural Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Madrigal, Róger; Alpízar, Francisco; Schlüter, Achim

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an institutional analysis of the underlying factors affecting the performance of drinking-water community organizations in rural areas of Costa Rica. These organizations provide water to more than 60 percent of the total rural population. There is, however, a great disparity in their performance. This research tries to understand how a complex configuration of geophysical characteristics of watersheds and infrastructure as well as governance and socioeconomic attributes of...

  12. Navigating digital publics for playful production: A cross-case analysis of two interest-driven online communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia A. Korobkova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the set of skills and strategies associated with managing digital publics online represent an emergent literacy practice of importance to literacy researchers and educators. Drawing on two case studies of online communities popular with contemporary youth to learn, play, and socialize, we articulate how youth participants strategically negotiate multiple audiences online with varying levels of publicity in order to achieve learning outcomes. In one case, players of a popular production-centered video game share their content in ways that garner the specific kind of audience and feedback they need for their projects. In another, members of an online fan fiction community analyze and negotiate expectations of their audience in order to craft media that garners attention and sustains readership. Both examples identify how skills centered on navigating and managing publics – that is, multiple audiences that are permeable across a wider public online – constitute a recognizable and important “new literacy” in digitally mediated learning environments. We situate our empirical studies in sociocultural theories of learning and historicize the work in contemporary digital cultures and the general move from the writer-reader relationship to writer-audience relationships to more complex relationships within digital publics. The article ends with considerations for literacy researchers, policymakers, and practitioners interested in technology-mediated practices of today’s youth.

  13. University-Community Engagement: Case Study of University Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chile, Love M.; Black, Xavier M.

    2015-01-01

    Corporatisation of universities has drawn parallels between contemporary universities and business corporations, and extended analysis of corporate social responsibility to universities. This article reports on a case study of university-community engagement with schools and school communities through youth engagement programmes to enhance…

  14. Three Community College Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…

  15. Linking case management and community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Carol D; McClelland, Robert W; Gursansky, Di

    2006-01-01

    Case management, in various forms, is now institutionalized as a core part of policy and programs designed to deliver home- and community-based services to older adults. The case management role, in theory, requires attention to both client and system goals, although in practice the system goals that have received most attention have been gatekeeping and resource allocation. While case managers have been admonished to find and develop resources in the community, this has primarily taken the form of including informal services in individual client care plans. What has been missing is focused attention to the potential of the community as a nurturing environment with the capacity to support older adults and their caregivers. Sustainable care for older adults cannot be achieved by formal service and family support alone. This article proposes the creation of linkages between case managers, who build the service arrangements for older people, and community developers, who are responsible for building community capacity and social capital. It is argued that this linkage is essential for establishing the foundations of a caring community with the capacity to support older people.

  16. Chapter 11. Community analysis-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.

    2010-05-01

    Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.

  17. Final base case community analysis: Indian Springs, Nevada for the Clark County socioeconomic impact assessment of the proposed high- level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a base case description of the rural Clark County community of Indian Springs in anticipation of change associated with the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As the community closest to the proposed site, Indian Springs may be seen by site characterization workers, as well as workers associated with later repository phases, as a logical place to live. This report develops and updates information relating to a broad spectrum of socioeconomic variables, thereby providing a 'snapshot' or 'base case' look at Indian Springs in early 1992. With this as a background, future repository-related developments may be analytically separated from changes brought about by other factors, thus allowing for the assessment of the magnitude of local changes associated with the proposed repository. Given the size of the community, changes that may be considered small in an absolute sense may have relatively large impacts at the local level. Indian Springs is, in many respects, a unique community and a community of contrasts. An unincorporated town, it is a small yet important enclave of workers on large federal projects and home to employees of small- scale businesses and services. It is a rural community, but it is also close to the urbanized Las Vega Valley. It is a desert community, but has good water resources. It is on flat terrain, but it is located within 20 miles of the tallest mountains in Nevada. It is a town in which various interest groups diverge on issues of local importance, but in a sense of community remains an important feature of life. Finally, it has a sociodemographic history of both surface transience and underlying stability. If local land becomes available, Indian Springs has some room for growth but must first consider the historical effects of growth on the town and its desired direction for the future

  18. Final base case community analysis: Indian Springs, Nevada for the Clark County socioeconomic impact assessment of the proposed high- level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-06-18

    This document provides a base case description of the rural Clark County community of Indian Springs in anticipation of change associated with the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As the community closest to the proposed site, Indian Springs may be seen by site characterization workers, as well as workers associated with later repository phases, as a logical place to live. This report develops and updates information relating to a broad spectrum of socioeconomic variables, thereby providing a `snapshot` or `base case` look at Indian Springs in early 1992. With this as a background, future repository-related developments may be analytically separated from changes brought about by other factors, thus allowing for the assessment of the magnitude of local changes associated with the proposed repository. Given the size of the community, changes that may be considered small in an absolute sense may have relatively large impacts at the local level. Indian Springs is, in many respects, a unique community and a community of contrasts. An unincorporated town, it is a small yet important enclave of workers on large federal projects and home to employees of small- scale businesses and services. It is a rural community, but it is also close to the urbanized Las Vega Valley. It is a desert community, but has good water resources. It is on flat terrain, but it is located within 20 miles of the tallest mountains in Nevada. It is a town in which various interest groups diverge on issues of local importance, but in a sense of community remains an important feature of life. Finally, it has a sociodemographic history of both surface transience and underlying stability. If local land becomes available, Indian Springs has some room for growth but must first consider the historical effects of growth on the town and its desired direction for the future.

  19. Mobile Elderly Living Community (MELCO: The Development of the Social Community Model: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana Kouta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elderly prefer to be in their own homes rather than being in hospital or residential homes. Communication between elderly and community nurses is essential in caring and mutual interaction andmodern technologies like MELCO provides the elderly the feeling of independence and safety.Aim: The aim of this paper is to describe the development of the social community model within the objectives of the MELCO project and its application within the community.Methodology: Three axes were taken in consideration: a ontology, b ecological theory and c social network and information systems analyses for the development of the social community model. Fourelderly women participated as a case study in piloting the mobile virtual system. The participants also responded to a short closed ended questionnaire.Results: The analysis of the questionnaire and the discussions with the participants showed that elders found the mobile system useful, easy to use and expressed the actual use of this would help them maintain active. Participants concern of social isolation or dependency on others seems to be trounced through the use of the mobile technology.Conclusions: MELCO social community model is a centric network that enables effective management and collaboration of social and health care teams around the elderly in the community. The teams arevirtual, dynamic and collaborative.

  20. Ion Torrent PGM as tool for fungal community analysis: a case study of endophytes in Eucalyptus grandis reveals high taxonomic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kemler

    Full Text Available The Kingdom Fungi adds substantially to the diversity of life, but due to their cryptic morphology and lifestyle, tremendous diversity, paucity of formally described specimens, and the difficulty in isolating environmental strains into culture, fungal communities are difficult to characterize. This is especially true for endophytic communities of fungi living in healthy plant tissue. The developments in next generation sequencing technologies are, however, starting to reveal the true extent of fungal diversity. One of the promising new technologies, namely semiconductor sequencing, has thus far not been used in fungal diversity assessments. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 nuclear encoded ribosomal RNA of the endophytic community of the economically important tree, Eucalyptus grandis, from South Africa using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM. We determined the impact of various analysis parameters on the interpretation of the results, namely different sequence quality parameter settings, different sequence similarity cutoffs for clustering and filtering of databases for removal of sequences with incomplete taxonomy. Sequence similarity cutoff values only had a marginal effect on the identified family numbers, whereas different sequence quality filters had a large effect (89 vs. 48 families between least and most stringent filters. Database filtering had a small, but statistically significant, effect on the assignment of sequences to reference sequences. The community was dominated by Ascomycota, and particularly by families in the Dothidiomycetes that harbor well-known plant pathogens. The study demonstrates that semiconductor sequencing is an ideal strategy for environmental sequencing of fungal communities. It also highlights some potential pitfalls in subsequent data analyses when using a technology with relatively short read lengths.

  1. Analysis of gaming community using Soft System Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Hurych, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This diploma thesis aims to analyse virtual gaming community and it's problems in case of community belonging to EU server of the game called World of Tanks. To solve these problems, Soft System Methodology by P. Checkland, is used. The thesis includes analysis of significance of gaming communities for the gaming industry as a whole. Gaming community is then defined as a soft system. There are 3 problems analysed in the practical part of the thesis using newer version of SSM. One iteration of...

  2. Rural Action: A Collection of Community Work Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Paul, Ed.; Francis, David, Ed.

    This book contains 10 case studies of rural community development in England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and Catalonia, as seen from the perspective of community-work practitioners. Development projects encompassed such activities as promotion of tourism, establishment of community centers, vocational training for school dropouts, adult community…

  3. User fluctuation in communities: a forum case

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushyna, Zinayida

    2016-01-01

    Understanding fluctuation of users help stakeholders to provide a better support to communities. Below we present an experiment where we detect communities, their evolution and based on the data characterize users that stay, leave or join a community. Using a resulted feature set and logistic regression we operate with models of users that are joining and users that are staying in a community. In the related work we emphasize a number of features we will include in our future experiments to enhance train accuracy. This work represents a ?first from a series of experiments devoted to user fluctuation in communities.

  4. Community Development Strategic Planning with a Focus on Social Variables, Case study: Tollab Community of Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mafi

    2012-01-01

    mashhad. Mashhad, IranBarghamdi, Hadi. (2008. Effect of clearance of Ghorbat Neighborhood on social capital. Social welfare quarterly, V28: 26-283Clark, david. (1996. Urban World/ Global City. London and New York: routledge pubclose, david. W. (2007. A model for strategic social planning in a fishng economy. vascos, pp:373-398. Dalir, Karim Hosseinzade. & Others. (2009. Analysis and Qualitative Assessment of Urban Sustainability Measures in the Tabriz City Journal of Urban - Regional Studies and Research, V 2: 1-18Danca, Anthony. C. (2010. What is SWOT Analysis, Downloaded from SWOT Analysis: http://www. stfrancis. edu/content/ba/ghkickul/stuwebs/btopics/works/swot. htmFellahat, Mohammad sadegh. (2006. Sence of place and Its indexes. HonarHaye Ziba. vol26: 57-66Foroozande dehkodi, Lotfollah. (2008. Strategic planning model. Management sience, vol 45: 97-111Friedman, john. (1993. Toward anon euclidion mode of planning. JAPA journal, Autumn, pp: 43-44. Fukuyama, Francis. (2000. The order end, review of social capital and maintaining it. translated by Gholam Abbas Tavassoli. Tehran: Jahan emruz pubGiddens, Anthony. (1999. The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy. translated by Manoochehr Saboori. TehranHaji poor, Khalil. (2006. Neighborhood Based planning. HonaHaye Ziba, vol6: 37-46.Hemati, Reza. (2007. Social capital, methodological challenges and measurment tools. Social capital and economic development conferranceIbrahim Poor, Eisa. (2009. The Analysis of Effective Factors in the Expansion of Coastal Region of Chabahar Tourism through SWOT Model. Journal of Urban - Regional Studies and Research, V 1:107-128Imani Jajarmi, Hossein. (2006. Neighborhood life and cultural development. Tehran. Tehran municipality.Imani Jajarmi, Hossein. (2008. Historic-cultural characteristic of community management of neighborhood in Iran. Iranian Journal of anthropology, V8.Khakpor, Baratali. & others. (2009. The role of capital in the regional stable development case study: Sajjad area

  5. Research partnerships with local communities: two case studies from Papua New Guinea and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almany, G. R.; Hamilton, R. J.; Williamson, D. H.; Evans, R. D.; Jones, G. P.; Matawai, M.; Potuku, T.; Rhodes, K. L.; Russ, G. R.; Sawynok, B.

    2010-09-01

    Partnerships between scientists and local communities can increase research capacity and data delivery while improving management effectiveness through enhanced community participation. To encourage such collaboration, this study demonstrates how these partnerships can be formed, drawing on two case studies in coral reef ecosystems in very different social settings (Papua New Guinea and Australia). In each case, steps towards successfully engaging communities in research were similar. These included: (1) early engagement by collaborating organizations to build trust, (2) ensuring scientific questions have direct relevance to the community, (3) providing appropriate incentives for participation, and (4) clear and open communication. Community participants engaged in a variety of research activities, including locating and capturing fishes, collecting and recording data (weight, length and sex), applying external tags, and removing otoliths (ear bones) for ageing and elemental analysis. Research partnerships with communities enhanced research capacity, reduced costs and, perhaps more importantly, improved the likelihood of long-term community support for marine protected areas (MPAs).

  6. Microbial Community Structure of Casing Soil During Mushroom Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Wei-Ming; YAO Huai-Ying; FENG Wei-Lin; JIN Qun-Li; LIU Yue-Yan; LI Nan-Yi; ZHENG Zhong

    2009-01-01

    The culturable bacterial population and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA)profile of casing soil were investigated at different mushroom (Agaricus bisporusI cropping stages.The change in soil bacterial PLFAs was always accompanied by a change in the soil culturable bacterial population in the first flush.Comparatively higher culturable bacterial population and bacterial PLFAs were found in the casing soil at the primordia formation stage of the first flush.There was a significant increase in the ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs during mushroom growth.Multivariate analysis of PLFA data demonstrated that the mushroom cropping stage could considerably affect the microbial community structure of the casing soil.The bacterial population increased significantly from casing soil application to the primordia formation stage of the first flush.Casing soil application resulted in an increase in the ratio of gram-negative bacterial PLFAs to gram-positive bacterial PLFAs,suggesting that some gram-negative bacteria might play an important role in mushroom sporophore initiation.

  7. Whole genome analysis of a community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST59 isolate from a case of human sepsis and severe pneumonia in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Qu

    Full Text Available We report a case of necrotizing pneumonia in a young patient caused by community acquired-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA in a teaching hospital in the People's Republic of China. The patient had a typical clinical presentation and was successfully treated with antibiotics and intravenous immunoglobulin. A CA-MRSA strain, named SA268, was isolated from the blood of the patient. The isolate was susceptible to most antimicrobial agents, except cephalosporins, penicillins, and β-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST assigned SA268 to ST59, a clone widely spread in eastern Asia. The strain was positive for Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL-encoding genes and SCCmec type V. We sequenced the complete genome of the SA268 isolate. The genome of SA268 was almost identical to that of the Taiwanese ST59 CA-MRSA strains M013 and SA957. However, we observed several differences in gene composition, which included differences in the SCCmec element and several lipoprotein genes that were present in the Taiwanese strains but absent from SA268.

  8. 324例产后抑郁症患者的发病因素分析及社区医疗干预效果%Etiology Analysis of Postpartum Depression and Community Health Care: Retrospective Analysis of 324 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡成珍; 陈志萍

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨产后抑郁症的相关发病因素,为社区干预性治疗提供理论依据.方法:对324例产妇采用Edinburgh产后抑郁量表(EPDS)及自行设计的调查表进行回顾性调查分析.结果:产后抑郁症的发生率为11.42%(37例),夫妻感情、家庭条件和亲人关怀是产后抑郁症发生的重要影响因素(P<0.05);分娩年龄、分娩方式和妊娠妇女的文化程度可能是产后抑郁症发病的相关因素,但无统计学意义;社区干预治疗28例患者(75.7%)抑郁症状明显改善.结论:社区医疗工作者为妊娠妇女提供产前产后的医疗干预以及有效的社会支持是预防和降低妊娠妇女产后抑郁发病率的重要手段.%Objective:To investigate the related risk factors of postpartum depression,and provide a theoretical basis for community health care.Methods:The retrospective analysis of 324 cases,with the maternal Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale(EPDS) and self-designed questionnaire,was done.Results:The occurrence of postpartum depression was 11.42%.The marital relations,family condition and care were important factors of postpartum depression (P<0.05),while the birth age,mode of delivery and maternal education level may be those relevant factors of postpartum depression(but P>0.05).The depressive symptoms were significantly improved in 28 patients with the community intervention therapy (the improved rate,75.7%).Conclusions:Community health workers can provide prenatal and postnatal care for pregnant women,as well as medical intervention and effective social support,which is important to prevent postpartum depression and reduce its incidence.

  9. Case Management in Community Corrections: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Andrew; Hardcastle, Lesley; Birgden, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Case management is commonly regarded as the foundation of effective service provision across a wide range of human service settings. This article considers the case management that is offered to clients of community corrections, identifying the distinctive features of case management in this particular setting, and reviewing the empirical evidence…

  10. A Comparative Case Study Analysis of Administrators Perceptions on the Adaptation of Quality and Continuous Improvement Tools to Community Colleges in the State of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattis, Ted B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether community college administrators in the state of Michigan believe that commonly known quality and continuous improvement tools, prevalent in a manufacturing environment, can be adapted to a community college model. The tools, specifically Six Sigma, benchmarking and process mapping have played a…

  11. RESEARCH AND INFESTATION OF CASES OF DENGUE IN RURAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Silva Oliveira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate to the infestation of Aedes aegypti and dengue cases that occurred in the rural communities covered by the municipality of Assis Chateaubriand – PR. The survey was conducted during 2009, divided into two stages, to survey the infestation was used to house infestation (IIP. Five communities were considered positive when the presence of Aedes aegypti infestation levels of communities was higher Charmed the West, Newfoundland, Nice. These data showed that higher rates will be higher infestation rate risk of people being affected by the mosquito. Dengue cases occurred more frequently in communities that had high rates of infestation. The population through prevention and awareness is one way to prevent the spread of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti in rural communities.

  12. Analysis of postnatal visits of 272 cases in Beihang community%北航社区272例产后访视情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳秀云

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨北航社区教工及居民对产后访视的需求、实际产后访视情况及其与纯母乳喂养的关系.方法:将2007年1月~2009年7月272例在北航社区医院建立的母子健康档案随机分为两组,即:接受产后访视1次或仅接受产后42天检查为A组,接受产后访视2次及以上为B组.通过对档案中登记的产妇文化程度、产后访视情况及纯母乳喂养情况进行分类、统计、电话回访,分析文化程度与保证首次访视时间(产后3~7天内)、保证产后访视2次以上以及自访、外访与纯母乳喂养之间的关系.结果:产妇文化程度与保证首次访视时间和产后访视2次以上无必然联系(P>0.05);保证首次访视时间及产后访视2次以上与纯母乳喂养存在正比例关系(P<0.05);自访、外访与纯母乳喂养之间无必然联系(P>0.05).结论:高校社区高文化程度人群也是围产保健宣教重点;保证产后访视至少2次和首次访视时间,增加访视内容及保证宣教到位,是达到产后访视效果、确保产妇康复、新生儿健康及母乳喂养的有力措施.%Objective: To explore the relationship between exclusive breasffeeding and the demand of faculty and residents and actual situation of post - natal visits in Beihang community. Methods: 272 cases who established mother and child health files from January 2007 to July 2009 at the Beihang University Community Hospital were randomly divided into two groups, namely: received postnatal visits one time or just acceptted the 42 day postnatal checks as A group, received postnatal visits 2 times and above, as B group. Through the mother -child health record on maternal education, postnatal visits, and exclusive breastfeeding, as the case of classification, statistics, telephone interview, maternal educational level and guarantee for the first time visiting time (3 to 7 days postpartum) and postnatal visits two or more times, self- access, foreign visits and

  13. Power, peasant communities and mining industry: community government and access to resources in Michiquillay’s case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Burneo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes changes in community governance in the contextof negotiations with a mining company. We focus on three issues:the role played by the community government on the regulation ofcommunity resources and territory, the diverse and complex intereststhat emerge in the presence of mining activity; and, the communityas a political institution confronting external pressures over its land.We develop a study case focusing on the negotiation process betweenthe Michiquillay peasant community and Anglo American MiningCompany in Cajamarca, Peru. This information was obtained doingfieldwork in the community in 2009. In our analysis we observe thatchanges on community resources regulation, its uses and valorization,as well as changes on the balance of power between economicand political actors, have created a greater level of complexity in thecommunity, creating new levels of community decision and spaces fordisputing resources’ control. At the same time, new inter communalconflicts emerge and fragmentation of community lands increases.In this context the community as an institution plays a central rolein the negotiation process over access productive resource and thedistribution of financial capital.

  14. “An Analysis of the Farmers’ Community Perception and Awareness About Crop Insurance as a Risk Coping Strategy”: A case from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Ghazanfar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the awareness and perception of farmers of Pakistan about the crop insurance. This study was conducted in two tehsils of RajanPur district of Punjab province of Pakistan. Using various statistical tools like arithmetic mean, standard deviation, counting, percentage and analysis of variance, the collected data was analyzed using SPSS. A five-point Likert scale was also used to measure different variables. The findings revealed that majority of the respondents i.e. 64.17% respondents were aware with the term “crop insurance” while the understanding level with crop insurance varied among those who had general awareness about crop insurance i.e. only 29.87 % respondents among those who were aware claimed that they understand well about crop insurance. The major sources of awareness about crop insurance were found to be friends/coworkers and financial institutes. Climatic risk and crop diseases were declared as the most important risks faced by respondents in the study area. There were found considerable misperceptions about crop insurance among farmers i.e. majority of the farmers declared the crop insurance as a scheme which does not compensate their losses as it should be and as well as a kind of a tax which can reduce their income as well as they believed that it is only designed for a specific group of farmers i.e. large scale farmers. Farmers believed that a crop insurance plan with low premium and offering maximum compensation against losses can be acceptable to them. Using ANOVA and CHI SQUARE test, it was found that education and landholdings were significant with the level of awareness while age was not found to be significant with awareness. Before launching crop insurance plans in Pakistan and to make such scheme more successful, government institutes related to agriculture can create awareness among farmers about crop insurance and take steps to reduce the misunderstandings and misperception

  15. Innovation technological energetics in rural communities. Case of study community of “Manantiales”, Villa Clara, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Olalde Font

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is framed in the analysis of impacts in the local development starting from the taking of decisions on projects of rural energy in Cuban communities that have as economic main activity the agricultural sector, illustrated the results of a case study where the technological most viable options are selected under the optics of the improvement of indicators of community resources. The methods and used materials are characteristic of a field work with application model are characterized for the taking of decisions in the energy area and their sources SURE, as geographical region the community isolated rural “Manantiales” linked to the agrarian sector in the republic of Cuba and the present period review in the thematic one approached. The main indicators are sketched in each resource of the rural community under the optics of the SURE in their version 3.0, as well the characterization of the prediction of the impacts at each technological option on the resources, is exhibited a mean of impacts and the classification of the technologies according to the level of achievements contribute to the indicators of community resources, obtaining as a result that the hydro energy technology is the most viable option with a value of 100 points in the scale from 0 to 100, followed by the GRID with 91.11 and of the photovoltaic systems based on silicon panels with 90.57, in this case all technologies contribute a significant level of achievements to the local community development.

  16. Two energy system analysis - cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Antonoff, Jayson; Andersen, Anders N.

    2004-01-01

    The chapter presents tow cases of energy system analysis, illustrating the types of tools and methodologies presently being used for these studies in Denamrk and elsewhere.......The chapter presents tow cases of energy system analysis, illustrating the types of tools and methodologies presently being used for these studies in Denamrk and elsewhere....

  17. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission in households of infected cases : a pooled analysis of primary data from three studies across international settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knox, J; Van Rijen, M; Uhlemann, A-C; Miller, M; Hafer, C; Vavagiakis, P; Shi, Q; Johnson, P D R; Coombs, G; Kluytmans-Van Den Bergh, M; Kluytmans, J; Bennett, C M; Lowy, F D

    2015-01-01

    Diverse strain types of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cause infections in community settings worldwide. To examine heterogeneity of spread within households and to identify common risk factors for household transmission across settings, primary data from studies conducted in New

  18. Evolutionary conceptual analysis: faith community nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebarth, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to report an evolutionary concept analysis of faith community nursing (FCN). FCN is a source of healthcare delivery in the USA which has grown in comprehensiveness and complexity. With increasing healthcare cost and a focus on access and prevention, FCN has extended beyond the physical walls of the faith community building. Faith communities and healthcare organizations invest in FCN and standardized training programs exist. Using Rodgers' evolutionary analysis, the literature was examined for antecedents, attributes, and consequences of the concept. This design allows for understanding the historical and social nature of the concept and how it changes over time. A search of databases using the keywords FCN, faith community nurse, parish nursing, and parish nurse was done. The concept of FCN was explored using research and theoretical literature. A theoretical definition and model were developed with relevant implications. The search results netted a sample of 124 reports of research and theoretical articles from multiple disciplines: medicine, education, religion and philosophy, international health, and nursing. Theoretical definition: FCN is a method of healthcare delivery that is centered in a relationship between the nurse and client (client as person, family, group, or community). The relationship occurs in an iterative motion over time when the client seeks or is targeted for wholistic health care with the goal of optimal wholistic health functioning. Faith integrating is a continuous occurring attribute. Health promoting, disease managing, coordinating, empowering and accessing health care are other essential attributes. All essential attributes occur with intentionality in a faith community, home, health institution and other community settings with fluidity as part of a community, national, or global health initiative. A new theoretical definition and corresponding conceptual model of FCN provides a basis for future nursing

  19. Cuban communities of educational research: exchange or ignorance? A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Paúl A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the levels of exchange established between Cuban scientific communities in the field of educational research. A case study was conducted with three scientific communities of Cuban educational researchers with a considerable level of scientific output in three different geographical regions of influence. A critical assessment and recommendations are made on the basis of the body of references they generate and the citation they made of them and sources of the ...

  20. A community of practice: a case study exploring safety and quality through professional leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis-Smith, Alison

    2013-01-01

    This research reports an emerging Community of Practice (CoP), informing how knowledge, understanding and learning were shared through professional leaders using stories to influence change and improve the safety and quality of services. The research focused on generating knowledge and dramatising leadership experiences in integrated community health and social care services. A case study design and multiple qualitative data collection methods were used. The analysis of all data sources revea...

  1. Case Study of Capacity Building for Smoke-Free Indoor Air in Two Rural Wisconsin Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Mahon, MS

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDespite national declines in smoking prevalence, disparities that pose challenges to tobacco control efforts exist among rural manufacturing populations. This community case study sought to better understand the dynamics and nuances that facilitate or impede capacity-building efforts in rural communities.ContextTwo rural manufacturing communities in Wisconsin with similar demographic characteristics were chosen for study. One represented farming communities with close proximity to a metropolitan area, and the other represented more isolated communities.MethodsThe qualitative case study used a collaborative approach to collect data in four areas of research: 1 community context, 2 coalition functioning, 3 partnerships, and 4 strategy implementation. Data were analyzed using standard content analysis and triangulated for clarity and consistency.ConsequencesAlthough not all the factors found to influence capacity-building efforts were unique to rural environments, the effects were impacted by rural isolation, small population sizes, local attitudes and beliefs, and lack of diversity and resources. Differences in coalition leadership and strategy implementation influenced the effectiveness of the capacity-building efforts in each community, bringing attention to the unique nature of individual contexts.InterpretationImplementing capacity-building efforts in rural communities requires skilled and dedicated local leaders who have ready access to training and support (i.e., technical, emotional, and financial. Pairing of rural communities with greater use of distance technologies offers a cost-effective approach to reduce isolation and the constraints of financial and human resources.

  2. Reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation gender analysis of REDD+ and its potential impact on community resources system : case of Angai Villages Land Forest Reserve, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Akatama, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is the greatest development challenge of the generation. The anthropogenic origins of the phenomenon are mainly in industrialized countries, while people living in poverty in developing countries are the most affected by the negative impacts and have the least capacity to adapt to the changing conditions. The majority of these people are women. Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus (REDD+) is a climate change policy that enables forest communities...

  3. Engineering Hybrid Learning Communities: The Case of a Regional Parent Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Strickroth

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach (and a corresponding system design for supporting regionally bound hybrid learning communities (i.e., communities which combine traditional face-to-face elements with web based media such as online community platforms, e-mail and SMS newsletters. The goal of the example community used to illustrate the approach was to support and motivate (especially hard-to-reach underprivileged parents in the education of their young children. The article describes the design process used and the challenges faced during the socio-technical system design. An analysis of the community over more than one year indicates that the hybrid approach works better than the two separated “traditional” approaches separately. Synergy effects like advertising effects from the offline trainings for the online platform and vice versa occurred and regular newsletters turned out to have a noticeable effect on the community.

  4. Cohorts and community: a case study of community engagement in the establishment of a health and demographic surveillance site in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Allotey

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community engagement is an increasingly important requirement of public health research and plays an important role in the informed consent and recruitment process. However, there is very little guidance about how it should be done, the indicators for assessing effectiveness of the community engagement process and the impact it has on recruitment, retention, and ultimately on the quality of the data collected as part of longitudinal cohort studies. Methods: An instrumental case study approach, with data from field notes, policy documents, unstructured interviews, and focus group discussions with key community stakeholders and informants, was used to explore systematically the implementation and outcomes of the community engagement strategy for recruitment of an entire community into a demographic and health surveillance site in Malaysia. Results: For a dynamic cohort, community engagement needs to be an ongoing process. The community engagement process has likely helped to facilitate the current response rate of 85% in the research communities. The case study highlights the importance of systematic documentation of the community engagement process to ensure an understanding of the effects of the research on recruitment and the community. Conclusions: A critical lesson from the case study data is the importance of relationships in the recruitment process for large population-based studies, and the need for ongoing documentation and analysis of the impact of cumulative interactions between research and community engagement.

  5. Social network analysis community detection and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Missaoui, Rokia

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to recent progress in social network analysis with a high focus on community detection and evolution. The eleven chapters cover the identification of cohesive groups, core components and key players either in static or dynamic networks of different kinds and levels of heterogeneity. Other important topics in social network analysis such as influential detection and maximization, information propagation, user behavior analysis, as well as network modeling and visualization are also presented. Many studies are validated through real social networks such as Twitter. This edit

  6. Community-Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Transmission among Households of Infected Cases: a Pooled Analysis of Primary Data from Three Studies across International Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, J.; Van Rijen, M.; Uhlemann, A.-C.; Miller, M.; Hafer, C.; Vavagiakis, P.; Shi, Q.; Johnson, P. D. R.; Coombs, G.; Van Den Bergh, M. Kluytmans; Kluytmans, J.; Bennett, C. M.; Lowy, F. D.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Diverse strain types of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cause infections in community settings worldwide. To examine heterogeneity of spread within households and to identify common risk factors for household transmission across settings, primary data from studies conducted in New York, US, Breda, NL, and Melbourne, AU were pooled. Following MRSA infection of the index patient, household members completed questionnaires and provided nasal swabs. Swabs positive for S. aureus were genotyped by spa-sequencing. Poisson regression with robust error variance was used to estimate prevalence odds ratios for transmission of the clinical isolate to non-index household members. Great diversity of strain types existed across studies. Despite differences between studies, the index patient being colonized with the clinical isolate at the home visit (p<.01) and the percent of household members <18 years (p<.01) were independently associated with transmission. Targeted decolonization strategies could be used across geographic settings to limit household MRSA transmission. PMID:24763185

  7. [A phylogenetic analysis of plant communities of Teberda Biosphere Reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulakov, A A; Egorov, A V; Onipchenko, V G

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of communities is based on the comparison of distances on the phylogenetic tree between species of a community under study and those distances in random samples taken out of local flora. It makes it possible to determine to what extent a community composition is formed by more closely related species (i.e., "clustered") or, on the opposite, it is more even and includes species that are less related with each other. The first case is usually interpreted as a result of strong influence caused by abiotic factors, due to which species with similar ecology, a priori more closely related, would remain: In the second case, biotic factors, such as competition, may come to the fore and lead to forming a community out of distant clades due to divergence of their ecological niches: The aim of this' study Was Ad explore the phylogenetic structure in communities of the northwestern Caucasus at two spatial scales - the scale of area from 4 to 100 m2 and the smaller scale within a community. The list of local flora of the alpine belt has been composed using the database of geobotanic descriptions carried out in Teberda Biosphere Reserve at true altitudes exceeding.1800 m. It includes 585 species of flowering plants belonging to 57 families. Basal groups of flowering plants are.not represented in the list. At the scale of communities of three classes, namely Thlaspietea rotundifolii - commumties formed on screes and pebbles, Calluno-Ulicetea - alpine meadow, and Mulgedio-Aconitetea subalpine meadows, have not demonstrated significant distinction of phylogenetic structure. At intra level, for alpine meadows the larger share of closely related species. (clustered community) is detected. Significantly clustered happen to be those communities developing on rocks (class Asplenietea trichomanis) and alpine (class Juncetea trifidi). At the same time, alpine lichen proved to have even phylogenetic structure at the small scale. Alpine (class Salicetea herbaceae) that

  8. "E-tivities from the Front Line”: A Community of Inquiry Case Study Analysis of Educators’ Blog Posts on the Topic of Designing and Delivering Online Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phemie Wright

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Designing and implementing successful online learning has been at the forefront of institutional agendas since digital learning increased in market demand over the last decade. However there is still ongoing debate as to the “how” of this arduous task. The Community of Inquiry (CoI is one learning design method that has seen potential in the field, but practical implementation of designing for the important components of Social, Cognitive and Teaching Presence have yet to be fully realised. This paper researches an e-learning design strategy called E-tivities as a suggested possible method for designing for CoI components. The research explored recent online blog posts of experienced learning designers’ and educators’ experience in designing successful online learning using E-tivities. Results suggest the E-tivities do have the potential to cater for all Presences of CoI. Specifically when using E-tivities to design online learning Affective Expression was the highest reported Social Presence design factor. All four components of Cognitive Presence appeared to be present in E-tivities design. The most important component for adequate Teaching Presence factors was the initial Design and Organisation of the course. E-tivities and the 5-Stage Model provides a solid framework for this to occur.

  9. Urban Community, poverty and corruption: the case of Annaba, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadji KAHOUA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The population in the most Mediterranean countries, particularly in Algeria, is concentrated to the urban communities, cities with more or less importance, urban and coastal regions. This trend of rapid growth of the urban communities leads to multiple consequences both economically and socially on the use of resources and their distribution. The urban is the area where cross the resources, the population and the production activities and yours management. To analyze the corruption as a phenomenon triple (economic, social and institutional through an urban community (as Annaba’s case in this research it may well prove very fruitful in terms of lessons on this central phenomenon and its impacts in the North African countries.

  10. Metagenomic analysis of microbial communities and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Lars

    2014-01-01

    From small clone libraries to large next-generation sequencing datasets – the field of community genomics or metagenomics has developed tremendously within the last years. This chapter will summarize some of these developments and will also highlight pitfalls of current metagenomic analyses....... It will illustrate the general workflow of a metagenomic study and introduce the three different metagenomic approaches: (1) the random shotgun approach that focuses on the metagenome as a whole, (2) the targeted approach that focuses on metagenomic amplicon sequences, and (3) the function-driven approach that uses...... heterologous expression of metagenomic DNA fragments to discover novel metabolic functions. Lastly, the chapter will shortly discuss the meta-analysis of gene expression of microbial communities, more precisely metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics....

  11. A Community "Hub" Network Intervention for HIV Stigma Reduction: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsloo, Catharina D; Greeff, Minrie

    2016-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a community "hub" network intervention to reduce HIV stigma in the Tlokwe Municipality, North West Province, South Africa. A holistic case study design was used, focusing on community members with no differentiation by HIV status. Participants were recruited through accessibility sampling. Data analyses used open coding and document analysis. Findings showed that the HIV stigma-reduction community hub network intervention successfully activated mobilizers to initiate change; lessened the stigma experience for people living with HIV; and addressed HIV stigma in a whole community using a combination of strategies including individual and interpersonal levels, social networks, and the public. Further research is recommended to replicate and enhance the intervention. In particular, the hub network system should be extended, the intervention period should be longer, there should be a stronger support system for mobilizers, and the multiple strategy approach should be continued on individual and social levels. PMID:26627447

  12. Developing a Sustainable Community via Community Enterprise: Approaches and Case Studies in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sumalee Santipolvut

    2015-01-01

    This action research project started from an analysis of the competitiveness potential of community enterprises based on Porter’s Diamond Model. The SWOT analysis and TOWS Matrix are employed to determine the development plans including strategies, programmes, and details of various projects for all targeted enterprises in the five Southern border provinces of Thailand. The performances of the selected pilot projects are in line with the key performance indicators. Furthermore, all the target...

  13. Stakeholders' perceptions of integrated community case management by community health workers: a post-intervention qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L Buchner

    Full Text Available Integrated community case management (iCCM involves delivery of simple medicines to children with pneumonia, diarrhea and/or malaria by community health workers (CHWs. Between 2010 and 2012, an iCCM intervention trial was implemented by Healthy Child Uganda. This study used qualitative tools to assess whether project stakeholders perceived that iCCM improved access to care for children under five years of age.The intervention involved training and equipping 196 CHWs in 98 study villages in one sub-county in Uganda in iCCM. During the eight-month intervention, CHWs assessed sick children, provided antimalarials (coartem for fever, antibiotics (amoxicillin for cough and fast breathing, oral rehydration salts/zinc for diarrhea, and referred very sick children to health facilities. In order to examine community perceptions and acceptability of iCCM, post-intervention focus groups and key respondent interviews involving caregivers, health workers, CHWs and local leaders were carried out by experienced facilitators using semi-structured interview guides. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis techniques.Respondents reported increased access to health care for children as a result of iCCM. Access was reportedly closer to home, available more hours in a day, and the availability of CHWs was perceived as more reliable. CHW care was reported to be trustworthy and caring. Families reported saving money especially due to reduced transportation costs, and less time away from home. Respondents also perceived better health outcomes. Linkages between health facilities and communities were reportedly improved by the iCCM intervention due to the presence of trained CHWs in the community.iCCM delivered by CHWs may improve access to health care and is acceptable to families. Policymakers should continue to seek opportunities to implement and support iCCM, particularly in remote communities where there are health worker shortages.

  14. Exploring the conceptualization of program theories in Dutch community programs: a multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, Janneke; van Assema, Patricia

    2011-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate whether the limited effectiveness of most community programs intended to prevent disease and promote health should be attributed to the quality of the conceptualization of their program theories. In a retrospective multiple case study we assessed the program theories of 16 community programs (cases) in the Netherlands (1990-2004). Methods were a document analysis, supplemented with member checks (insider information from representatives). We developed a community approach reference framework to guide us in reconstructing and evaluating the program theories. On the whole, programs did not clearly spell out the process theories (enabling the implementation of effective interventions), the program components (interventions) and/or the impact theories (describing pathways from interventions to ultimate effects). Program theories usually turned out to be neither specific nor entirely plausible (complete and valid). The limited effectiveness of most community programs should most probably be attributed to the limited conceptualization of program theories to begin with. Such a failure generally also precludes a thorough examination of the effectiveness of the community approach as such.

  15. Study on Yunnan Province minority community tourism development and the construction of harmonious community---Based on the analysis of some typical cases%云南省少数民族社区旅游开发与和谐社区建设的研究--基于几个典型案例的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兵

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,in research and development work in the community tourism,development of minority community tourism is an important research content,but only consider the community tourism development is far from enough,community construction is a must consider the research content. Therefore,development of minority community tourism and the construction of harmonious community combined research,emphasizing community participation,community residents benefit assignment problem,the construction of a harmonious community has more practical value and significance. An empirical study on the typical case of community tourism development and construction of harmonious community based,is to focus on these problems.%近年来,在社区旅游的开发研究中,少数民族社区旅游开发是一个重要的研究内容,但仅仅考虑社区旅游开发是远远不够的,社区建设也是一个必须考虑的研究内容。因此,将少数民族社区旅游开发与和谐社区建设结合起来进行研究,强调社区参与、社区居民利益分配问题、和谐社区建设更具有现实的价值和意义。基于典型案例的社区旅游开发与和谐社区建设的实证研究,就是围绕这些问题进行的。

  16. Initial Impressions of Community-Dwelling Older Adults and Case Managers about Community-Based Telehealth Kiosks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Karen L.; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Mecca, Laurel Person; Garlock, Laurie A.; Schulz, Richard; Dick, Andrew W.; Olshansky, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Community-based (multi-user) telehealth interventions may be beneficial for older adults, but there is little research regarding community-based telehealth. We used a qualitative descriptive approach to examine the acceptability and perceived value of community-based telehealth kiosks with regard to current health self-management practices of community-dwelling older adults as a first step in feasibility assessment. Participants included residents (n=6) and community agency case managers (n=3) of a HUD-subsidized senior apartment building. Both positive impressions and concerns of each group are presented. Findings helped guide the plans for future telehealth kiosk implementation and training. PMID:20509594

  17. Refugee community organisations: a social capital analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kellow, Alexa

    2011-01-01

    This thesis considers how refugee-led community organisations generate social capital for their service users. The concept of social capital has become popular in policy debates in recent years, and previous research has attributed social capital creation for their service users to refugee community organisations (RCOs). This research aimed to analyse the process by which social capital is created by refugee community organisations, and what this means for the members of these organisations i...

  18. Acceptability by community health workers in Senegal of combining community case management of malaria and seasonal malaria chemoprevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tine, Roger Ck; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndour, Cheikh T;

    2013-01-01

    Community case management of malaria (CCMm) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) are anti-malarial interventions that can lead to substantial reduction in malaria burden acting in synergy. However, little is known about the social acceptability of these interventions. A study was undertaken...... to assess whether combining the interventions would be an acceptable approach to malaria control for community health workers (CHWs)....

  19. Case Study: Parramore. Needle-Moving Community Collaboratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldon, Willa; Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Communities face powerful challenges that require powerful solutions: a high-school dropout epidemic, youth unemployment, teen pregnancy. In an era of limited resources, those solutions must help communities to achieve more with less. A new kind of community collaborative--an approach that aspires to significant community-wide progress by…

  20. Case Study: Chicago. Needle-Moving Community Collaboratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldon, Willa; Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Communities face powerful challenges that require powerful solutions: a high-school dropout epidemic, youth unemployment, teen pregnancy. In an era of limited resources, those solutions must help communities to achieve more with less. A new kind of community collaborative--an approach that aspires to significant community-wide progress by…

  1. Case Study: Nashville. Needle-Moving Community Collaboratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldon, Willa; Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Communities face powerful challenges that require powerful solutions: a high-school dropout epidemic, youth unemployment, teen pregnancy. In an era of limited resources, those solutions must help communities to achieve more with less. A new kind of community collaborative--an approach that aspires to significant community-wide progress by…

  2. Case Study: Philadelphia. Needle-Moving Community Collaboratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldon, Willa; Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Communities face powerful challenges that require powerful solutions: a high-school dropout epidemic, youth unemployment, teen pregnancy. In an era of limited resources, those solutions must help communities to achieve more with less. A new kind of community collaborative--an approach that aspires to significant community-wide progress by…

  3. Community hoarding task forces: a comparative case study of five task forces in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratiotis, Christiana

    2013-05-01

    During the past decade, many community task forces have formed to address hoarding problems that come to public attention. Such task forces provide a societal-level intervention to assist people with the most severe cases of hoarding, who do not voluntarily seek or want help for their hoarding behaviour. This qualitative study of five U.S. hoarding task forces included sites selected for their diversity of purpose, approaches to hoarding intervention and community geography, composition and resources. Data were collected during the period of September 2007-March 2008. The case study methodology used multiple forms of data, including semi-structured interviews, analysis of documents, small group interviews and investigator observation. This study captured the perspectives of public and private sector service providers such as mental health, housing, social service, public health agencies and community enforcement organisations (fire, police, legal, animal control) to examine how task forces organise and operate and the emerging practice and policy changes. Study findings suggest that structural factors (e.g. leadership, purpose, funding and membership) impact hoarding task force viability, that participation on a task force influences practice and policy decisions about hoarding, and that social work can expand its role in task force leadership. Task forces may be a mechanism for improving community policies about hoarding and mechanisms for addressing other social problems across multiple sectors.

  4. Community hoarding task forces: a comparative case study of five task forces in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratiotis, Christiana

    2013-05-01

    During the past decade, many community task forces have formed to address hoarding problems that come to public attention. Such task forces provide a societal-level intervention to assist people with the most severe cases of hoarding, who do not voluntarily seek or want help for their hoarding behaviour. This qualitative study of five U.S. hoarding task forces included sites selected for their diversity of purpose, approaches to hoarding intervention and community geography, composition and resources. Data were collected during the period of September 2007-March 2008. The case study methodology used multiple forms of data, including semi-structured interviews, analysis of documents, small group interviews and investigator observation. This study captured the perspectives of public and private sector service providers such as mental health, housing, social service, public health agencies and community enforcement organisations (fire, police, legal, animal control) to examine how task forces organise and operate and the emerging practice and policy changes. Study findings suggest that structural factors (e.g. leadership, purpose, funding and membership) impact hoarding task force viability, that participation on a task force influences practice and policy decisions about hoarding, and that social work can expand its role in task force leadership. Task forces may be a mechanism for improving community policies about hoarding and mechanisms for addressing other social problems across multiple sectors. PMID:23199135

  5. Analysis of the Community Benefit Standard in Texas Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, James Corbett; Anderson, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    The federal government provides special tax-exemption status, known as the community benefit standard, to some nonprofit hospitals. It is not known if hospitals that claim the community benefit standard provide more or different services from those provided by hospitals that do not claim the community benefit status. Guided by the socioecological model, this quantitative study investigated 95 hospitals serving 52 counties in South Texas--43 that claimed a community benefit and 52 that did not. The independent variables were hospitals that claimed the community benefit standard versus hospitals that did not. The dependent variables were the three essential criteria and the 13 reported services used to meet the community benefit standard. The study results show that all hospitals that claimed the community benefit standard met two of the three required criteria. However, only 22 of 43 hospitals had a full-time emergency department (ED), the third criterion. Χ² analysis showed statistically significant differences for only two of the five common services: having an ED and community education for community benefit hospitals versus noncommunity benefit hospitals. On average, hospitals that claimed the community benefit spent 100 times more money on community services than hospitals that did not claim the community benefit. Further investigation is needed to determine the reasons for the gap in services pertaining to EDs, trauma care, neonatal intensive care, free-standing clinics, collaborative efforts, other medical services, education of patients, community health education, and other education services. PMID:27111928

  6. Análise espacial dos casos humanos de esquistossomose em uma comunidade horticultora da Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, Brasil Spatial analysis of schistosomiasis human cases in the horticultural community of Zona da Mata of Pernambuco state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onicio Batista Leal Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a distribuição espacial da esquistossomose na comunidade horticultora de Natuba, Vitória de Santo Antão, Pernambuco. Foi conduzido um inquérito parasitológico, onde foi examinado o material fecal de 310 moradores da comunidade. Os casos positivos para Schistosoma mansoni foram georreferenciados e incluídos no croqui da localidade, gerando os mapas de distribuição espacial com estimadores de kernel. Os resultados apresentaram uma alta prevalência para esquistossomose, com 28,4% da população parasitada. Outros parasitos foram encontrados em 25,8% da população. O uso das ferramentas de geoprocessamento permitiu mapear e compreender a distribuição dos casos de esquistossomose no espaço ocupado pela comunidade, destacando e relacionando locais de menor altitude (passíveis de alagamento, com uma maior frequência de casos humanos. Estudos como este fornecem informações para que os serviços de saúde local possam intervir e promover mudanças para que indivíduos residentes em áreas com baixas condições habitacionais minimizem sua exposição ao risco de contrair a esquistossomose.The objective of this study was to describe the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis in horticultural community of Natuba, district of Vitória de Santo Antão, Pernambuco state. It was conducted a parasitological survey, examined the fecal material of 310 community residents. The cases positive for Schistosoma mansoni were geocoded and included in the computerized template of the community, generating maps of spatial distribution with kernel estimators. The results showed a high prevalence of schistosomiasis, with 28.4% of the parasites. Other parasites were found in 25.8% of the population. The use of GIS tools to map and understand the possible distribution of cases of schistosomiasis in the space occupied by the community highlighting and listing locations of lower elevation (able to flooding, with a

  7. Data Producers Courting Data Reusers: Two Cases from Modeling Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Wallis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Data sharing is a difficult process for both the data producer and the data reuser. Both parties are faced with more disincentives than incentives. Data producers need to sink time and resources into adding metadata for data to be findable and usable, and there is no promise of receiving credit for this effort. Making data available also leaves data producers vulnerable to being scooped or data misuse. Data reusers also need to sink time and resources into evaluating data and trying to understand them, making collecting their own data a more attractive option. In spite of these difficulties, some data producers are looking for new ways to make data sharing and reuse a more viable option. This paper presents two cases from the surface and climate modeling communities, where researchers who produce data are reaching out to other researchers who would be interested in reusing the data. These cases are evaluated as a strategy to identify ways to overcome the challenges typically experienced by both data producers and data reusers. By working together with reusers, data producers are able to mitigate the disincentives and create incentives for sharing data. By working with data producers, data reusers are able to circumvent the hurdles that make data reuse so challenging.

  8. The virtual group identification process: a virtual educational community case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Ping; Young, Mei-Lein

    2008-02-01

    Because the Internet provides an alternative forum for the social interaction of professional groups, understanding how these groups form as virtual communities (VCs) in cyberspace is crucial. In this study, we observe the social interactions of teachers belonging to the largest VC in Taiwan and analyze discourse on an important educational policy, using content analysis to ascertain how virtual group identity is established. Our primary findings show that among the seven identity categories characterizing professional virtual group identity, both alliance and kinship types of identities are the main forces behind the formation of a virtual group. In contrast, the affection, attachment, bonding, closeness, and nostalgia types of identities show minimal effect. Moreover, leadership of the virtual group plays a critical role in the group setting, and participants play a part in restoring a positive sense of self or in shaping the group identity as they encounter threats in this dynamic environment.

  9. Interspecific associations and community structure: A local survey and analysis in a grass community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific associations in the plant community may help to understand the self-organizing assembly and succession of the community. In present study, Pearson correlation, net correlation, Spearman rank correlation, and point correlation were used to detect the interspecific (inter-family associations of grass species (families using the sampling data collected in a grass community of Zhuhai, China. We found that most associations between grass species (families were positive associations. The competition/interference/niche separation between grass species (families was not significant. A lot of pairs of grass species and families with statistically significant interspecific (inter-family associations based on four correlation measures were discovered. Cluster trees for grass species/families were obtained by using cluster analysis. Relationship among positive/negative associations, interspecific relationship and community succession/stability/robustness was discussed. I held that species with significant positive or negative associations are generally keystone species in the community. Although both negative and positive associations occur in the community succession, the adaptation and selection will finally result in the successful coexistence of the species with significant positive associations in the climax community. As the advance of community succession, the significant positive associations increase and maximize in climax community, and the significant negative associations increase to a maximum and then decline into climax community. Dominance of significant positive associations in the climax community means the relative stablility and equilibrium of the community. No significant associations usually account for the majority of possible interspecific associations at each phase of community succession. They guarantee the robustness of community. They are candidates of keystone species. Lose of some existing keystone species might be

  10. ANALYSIS OF VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvena DENCHEVA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet has changed the way companies interact with customers. Customers have become the active part of the communication with business. Virtual communities are the most popular implication of the usage of Internet into business world. The article presents the nature of virtual communities and how they are functioning in the hospitality industry. The web site of hotel Dobruzda-Dobrich has been analyzed regarding its Internet presence. Internet marketing strategy for improving its internet presence is presented in the paper.

  11. Community health psychology : promoting analysis and action for social change

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Catherine; Murray, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Community health psychology is concerned with the theory and method of working with communities to combat disease and to promote health. This introductory article outlines key assumptions and debates underlying this area of research and practice – in the interests of framing the papers in this special edition of the Journal of Health Psychology. Attention is given to the value of emphasising the community level of analysis and action; the role of collective action in improving health; psycho-...

  12. Community-Based Case Management, Hospital Utilization, and Patient-Focused Outcomes in Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jee Young

    2014-07-01

    There is limited research about the impact of community-based case management (CBCM) services and its outcomes with longitudinal analysis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a CBCM intervention on patient outcomes in Medicare beneficiaries with chronic illness in a CBCM service in the rural Midwest. A descriptive, repeated-measures design was used, and a secondary analysis of a data set containing longitudinal CBCM data, originally collected from 2002 to 2007, was conducted. Two years of case management (CM) interventions, three health-service utilization outcomes, and three patient-focused outcomes were examined. The study findings showed that a CBCM had significant effect on reducing patients' number of hospitalizations and increasing patients' symptom control and quality of life. The impact of CM on length of stay and emergency department visits was indeterminate. Findings suggest that CBCM can be used as an effective intervention program for Medicare beneficiaries. PMID:24335076

  13. Using correspondence analysis in multiple case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, N.H.H.; van der Heijden, P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  14. Using Correspondence Analysis in Multiple Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, Natascha; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  15. Rural Governance, Community Empowerment and the New Institutionalism: A Case Study of the Isle of Wight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David; Southern, Rebekah; Beer, Julian

    2007-01-01

    This article compares two different institutional models--state-sponsored rural partnerships and community-based development trusts--for engaging and empowering local communities in area-based regeneration, using the Isle of Wight as a case study. Following a critical review of the literature on community governance, we evaluate the effectiveness…

  16. Enhancing voluntary participation in community collaborative forest management: a case of Central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Sri; Kotani, Koji; Kakinaka, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines voluntary participation in community forest management, and characterizes how more participation may be induced. We implemented a survey of 571 respondents and conducted a case study in Central Java, Indonesia. The study's novelty lies in categorizing the degrees of participation into three levels and in identifying how socio-economic factors affect people's participation at each level. The analysis finds that voluntary participation responds to key determinants, such as education and income, in a different direction, depending on each of the three levels. However, the publicly organized programs, such as information provision of benefit sharing, are effective, irrespective of the levels of participation. Overall, the results suggest a possibility of further success and corrective measures to enhance the participation in community forest management.

  17. Vegetative community control of freshwater availability: Phoenix Islands case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, M.; Heinse, R.

    2014-12-01

    On small low islands with limited freshwater resources, terrestrial plant communities play a large role in moderating freshwater availability. Freshwater demands of vegetative communities are variable depending on the composition of the community. Hence, changes to community structure from production crop introductions, non-native species invasions, and climate change, may have significant implications for freshwater availability. Understanding how vegetative community changes impact freshwater availability will allow for better management and forecasting of limited freshwater supplies. To better understand these dynamics, we investigated three small tropical atolls in the Phoenix Island Protected Area, Kiribati. Despite their close proximity, these islands receive varying amounts of rainfall, are host to different plant communities and two of the islands have abandoned coconut plantations. Using electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar, soil samples, climate and satellite data, we present preliminary estimates of vegetative water demand for different tropical plant communities.

  18. Cultural Relevance for Rural Community Development in China: A Case Study in Bai, Jingpo and Huyaodai Communities of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Kui; Du Juan; Dai Cong; Hu Huabin

    2007-01-01

    A three-year study over the Bai, Jingpo and Huayaodai communities in Yunnan Province reveals that the community development is significantly influenced in various ways by such cultural factors as the concepts of development; concepts and traditions of inter-community relationships, consumption, marriage and gender; patterns of decision-making and production, resource and income allocation; as well as the role of information dissemination systems, religion and ritual. Based on the analysis over the interactive relevance between each factor and community development, some strategies and methods for dealing with such a cultural relevance in development projects are recommended.

  19. Worst-case analysis of heap allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Huber, Benedikt; Schoeberl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In object oriented languages, dynamic memory allocation is a fundamental concept. When using such a language in hard real-time systems, it becomes important to bound both the worst-case execution time and the worst-case memory consumption. In this paper, we present an analysis to determine...... the worst-case heap allocations of tasks. The analysis builds upon techniques that are well established for worst-case execution time analysis. The difference is that the cost function is not the execution time of instructions in clock cycles, but the allocation in bytes. In contrast to worst-case execution...

  20. Emergence of Virtual Communities as Means of Communication: A Case Study on Virtual Health Care Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argan, Mehpare Tokay; Argan, Metin; Suher, Idil K.

    2011-01-01

    Like in all areas, virtual communities make their presence felt in the area of healthcare too. Virtual communities play an important role in healthcare in terms of gathering information on healthcare, sharing of personal interests and providing social support. Virtual communities provide a way for a group of peers to communicate with each other.…

  1. Power, peasant communities and mining industry: community government and access to resources in Michiquillay’s case

    OpenAIRE

    María Luisa Burneo; Anahí Chaparro Ortiz de Zevallos

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes changes in community governance in the contextof negotiations with a mining company. We focus on three issues:the role played by the community government on the regulation ofcommunity resources and territory, the diverse and complex intereststhat emerge in the presence of mining activity; and, the communityas a political institution confronting external pressures over its land.We develop a study case focusing on the negotiation process betweenthe Michiquillay peasant commu...

  2. Community owned solutions for fire management in tropical ecosystems: case studies from Indigenous communities of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Jayalaxshmi; Bilbao, Bibiana A; Berardi, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Fire plays an increasingly significant role in tropical forest and savanna ecosystems, contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and impacting on biodiversity. Emerging research shows the potential role of Indigenous land-use practices for controlling deforestation and reducing CO2 emissions. Analysis of satellite imagery suggests that Indigenous lands have the lowest incidence of wildfires, significantly contributing to maintaining carbon stocks and enhancing biodiversity. Yet acknowledgement of Indigenous peoples' role in fire management and control is limited, and in many cases dismissed, especially in policy-making circles. In this paper, we review existing data on Indigenous fire management and impact, focusing on examples from tropical forest and savanna ecosystems in Venezuela, Brazil and Guyana. We highlight how the complexities of community owned solutions for fire management are being lost as well as undermined by continued efforts on fire suppression and firefighting, and emerging approaches to incorporate Indigenous fire management into market- and incentive-based mechanisms for climate change mitigation. Our aim is to build a case for supporting Indigenous fire practices within all scales of decision-making by strengthening Indigenous knowledge systems to ensure more effective and sustainable fire management.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'.

  3. Community owned solutions for fire management in tropical ecosystems: case studies from Indigenous communities of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Jayalaxshmi; Bilbao, Bibiana A; Berardi, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Fire plays an increasingly significant role in tropical forest and savanna ecosystems, contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and impacting on biodiversity. Emerging research shows the potential role of Indigenous land-use practices for controlling deforestation and reducing CO2 emissions. Analysis of satellite imagery suggests that Indigenous lands have the lowest incidence of wildfires, significantly contributing to maintaining carbon stocks and enhancing biodiversity. Yet acknowledgement of Indigenous peoples' role in fire management and control is limited, and in many cases dismissed, especially in policy-making circles. In this paper, we review existing data on Indigenous fire management and impact, focusing on examples from tropical forest and savanna ecosystems in Venezuela, Brazil and Guyana. We highlight how the complexities of community owned solutions for fire management are being lost as well as undermined by continued efforts on fire suppression and firefighting, and emerging approaches to incorporate Indigenous fire management into market- and incentive-based mechanisms for climate change mitigation. Our aim is to build a case for supporting Indigenous fire practices within all scales of decision-making by strengthening Indigenous knowledge systems to ensure more effective and sustainable fire management.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. PMID:27216507

  4. Analysis of risk factors of nonspecific low back pain in a community population:a case-con-trol study%社区人群非特异性下腰痛的危险因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐新毅; 邱素均; 安胜利; 靳安民; 闵少雄

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析社区人群非特异性下腰痛的危险因素。方法采用病例-对照研究方法,以问卷调查的方式进行评价,项目包括年龄、性别、体质量、婚姻、教育程度、收入、职业、劳动强度、吸烟、饮酒和社会心理等,以人员中出现下腰痛的为病例组,无下腰痛的为对照组。数据用Logistic回归模型进行分析。结果共调查社区人群1747例,398人为病例组,1126人为对照组。下腰痛的危险因素中性别的危险性最高(OR=3.5522),其次是教育程度(OR=1.958)、劳动强度(OR=1.956)、婚姻(OR=1.612)、是否接触振动源(OR=1.491)、BMI(OR=1.127)、年龄(OR=1.060)。结论人群的性别、教育程度、劳动强度、婚姻、接触振动源、BMI为下腰痛发生的常见危险因素,业余运动以及心理状况可能有一定保护作用。%Objective To analyze the risk factors of nonspecific low back pain in community populations. Methods Two community populations were investigated using questionnaires in this case-control study. The questionnaire was designed to collect data including age, gender, body weight, marriage, education, income, occupation, labor intensity, smoking, alcohol drinking and social mental status. The subjects with low back pain constituted the case group and those without low back pain served as the control group, and the data was analyzed by a Logistic regression model. Results A total of 1747 community residents participated in this survey, among whom 398 subjects had low back pain and 1126 subjects without low back pain were selected as the control group. Of all the latent risk factors of low back pain in Logistic regression model, gender was the most relevant factor (OR=3.5522) followed by education (OR=1.958), labor intensity (OR=1.956), marital status (OR=1.612), vibration source exposure (OR=1.491), BMI (OR=1.127) and age (OR=1.060). Conclusion Gender, education, labor intensity

  5. Metagenomic analysis of soil microbial communities

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić Lidija; Savić M.; Narančić Tanja; Vasiljević Branka

    2010-01-01

    Ramonda serbica and Ramonda nathaliae, rare resurrection plants growing in the Balkan Peninsula, produce a high amount of phenolic compounds as a response to stress. The composition and size of bacterial communities in two rhizosphere soil samples of these plants were analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments together with DAPI staining showed that the metabolically active bacteria represent only a small fraction, approximately 5%, of total so...

  6. Problems of Resource Sharing with the Community: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piternick, Anne B.

    1979-01-01

    Explores the increasing demands on resources and services of one large university library by the external community which led to attempts to pass on to the community some of the costs involved in resource sharing, e.g., fees for or reduction of library services, and examines consequences of these changes. (CWM)

  7. From Homeschool to the Community College: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Benjamin G.

    2012-01-01

    The number of U.S. homeschooled students has steadily risen from the 1980's to the present, and many eventually choose to attend community colleges (Cogan, 2010; Mason, 2004; Ray, 2004a; Sorey & Duggan, 2008a). Homeschoolers who make community colleges their first structured educational setting outside the home do so for various reasons:…

  8. Community Analysis of Global Financial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Vodenska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the daily returns of stock market indices and currencies of 56 countries over the period of 2002–2012. We build a network model consisting of two layers, one being the stock market indices and the other the foreign exchange markets. Synchronous and lagged correlations are used as measures of connectivity and causality among different parts of the global economic system for two different time intervals: non-crisis (2002–2006 and crisis (2007–2012 periods. We study community formations within the network to understand the influences and vulnerabilities of specific countries or groups of countries. We observe different behavior of the cross correlations and communities for crisis vs. non-crisis periods. For example, the overall correlation of stock markets increases during crisis while the overall correlation in the foreign exchange market and the correlation between stock and foreign exchange markets decrease, which leads to different community structures. We observe that the euro, while being central during the relatively calm period, loses its dominant role during crisis. Furthermore we discover that the troubled Eurozone countries, Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain, form their own cluster during the crisis period.

  9. The Teacher and the Community: A Case Study of Teacher-Community Relations among the Zapotec and Mixtec Indians of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Kathleen

    1998-01-01

    Studies teacher-community relations in a community where teachers are becoming more involved in indigenous community issues. Argues that formal teacher education tends to emphasize modernity and consumer culture at the expense of distinct local customs. Draws connections between the case study and low-income minority communities in the United…

  10. Mobile Elderly Living Community (MELCO): The Development of the Social Community Model: a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Christiana Kouta; Charis Kaite; George Samaras

    2013-01-01

    Background: Elderly prefer to be in their own homes rather than being in hospital or residential homes. Communication between elderly and community nurses is essential in caring and mutual interaction andmodern technologies like MELCO provides the elderly the feeling of independence and safety.Aim: The aim of this paper is to describe the development of the social community model within the objectives of the MELCO project and its application within the community.Methodology: Three axes were t...

  11. Community resilience in resource-dependent communities: a comparative case study

    OpenAIRE

    David Matarrita-Cascante; Bernardo Trejos

    2013-01-01

    A limited number of studies have been conducted to better understand community resilience in the context of changing resource-dependent communities. This study is intended to start bridging this gap by empirically examining three key factors associated with community resilience: local ownership of resources, residents’ organizational capacities, and local institutional capacity to respond to change. Our objective is to deepen the understanding of such factors by uncovering the processes behin...

  12. Patients’ experiences of a multidisciplinary team-led community case management programme: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowing, Alice; Dickinson, Claire; Gorman, Tom; Robinson, Louise; Duncan, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the views and experiences of patients on the care they have received while enrolled on the Northumberland High Risk Patient Programme (NHRPP). This programme involved case finding of frail patients using a multidisciplinary team (MDT)-led community case management programme, and support of patients through care planning and regular reviews using primary, community, secondary and social care professionals. Design A qualitative study using semistructured interviews, which were digitally recorded, transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Setting Community patients receiving primary care in the county of Northumberland, England. Participants 23 participants took part, of which 16 were patients enrolled on the NHRPP, and 7 carers. GP practices were selected purposively by size, deprivation and location, and patients identified and invited by General Practitioners to participate. Results 4 main themes emerged from the data: awareness and understanding of the NHRPP, confidence in the primary healthcare team, limitations of home care and the active role of being a patient. Despite having a low level of awareness of the details of the NHRPP, participants did think that its broad aim made sense. Participants discussed their high level of satisfaction with their care and access to team members. However, some limitations of alternatives to hospital care were identified, including the need to consider psychological as well as medical needs, the importance of overnight care and the needs of those without informal carers. Finally, participants discussed the active nature of being a patient under the NHRPP if they were to contribute fully to planning and managing their own care. Conclusions This study has identified that a programme of MDT-led case management was generally very well received by patients and their families. However, a number of factors were identified that could improve the implementation of the programme and further research needs to be

  13. Online Communities: The Case of Immigrants in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaretou, Ioannis; Karousos, Nikos; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Foteinou, Georgia-Barbara; Pavlidis, Giorgos

    Immigrants in Greece are an increasing population, very often threatened by poverty and social exclusion. At the same time Greek government has no formal policy concerning their assimilation in Greek society and this situation generates multiple problems in both immigrants and native population. In this work we suggest that new technology can alleviate these effects and we present specific tools and methodologies adopted by ANCE, in order to support online communities and specifically immigrant communities in Greece. This approach has the potential to support immigrant communities' in terms of the organization of personal data, communication, and provision of a working space for dedicated use. The Information System's operational features are also presented, along with other characteristics and state-of-the-art features in order to propose a general direction to the design of online communities' mechanisms.

  14. Metagenomic analysis of soil microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Lidija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ramonda serbica and Ramonda nathaliae, rare resurrection plants growing in the Balkan Peninsula, produce a high amount of phenolic compounds as a response to stress. The composition and size of bacterial communities in two rhizosphere soil samples of these plants were analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH experiments together with DAPI staining showed that the metabolically active bacteria represent only a small fraction, approximately 5%, of total soil bacteria. Using universal bacteria - specific primers 16S rDNA genes were amplified directly from metagenomic DNAs and two libraries were constructed. The Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RLFP method was used in library screening. Amongst 192 clones, 35 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs were determined from the rhizosphere of R. nathaliae, and 13 OTUs out of 80 clones in total from the library of R. serbica. Representative clones from each OTU were sequenced. The majority of sequences from metagenomes showed very little similarity to any cultured bacteria. In conclusion, the bacterial communities in the studied soil samples showed quite poor diversity. .

  15. Pragmatism and Community Inquiry: A Case Study of Community-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Bertram C.; Bloch, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a philosophical basis for the concept of community inquiry. Community inquiry derives from pragmatist theory as articulated by Dewey, Peirce, Addams, and others. Following Brendel, we discuss pragmatism in terms of its emphasis on the practical dimensions of inquiry, the pluralistic nature of the tools that are used to study…

  16. The Hannibal Community Survey; A Case Study in a Community Development Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, John A.

    Disturbed by the community's negative attitude toward its prospects for progress, the Hannibal (Missouri) Chamber of Commerce initiated a community self-survey to improve the situation. The questionnaire survey concentrated on felt needs relationg to city government, retail facilities and services, recreation, religion, education, industrial…

  17. Enrollment Management in the Comprehensive Community College: A Case Study of Bronx Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritze, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Faced with growing pressure to demonstrate student success and achieve financial stability, community colleges have increasingly turned to enrollment management. Using Bronx Community College as an example, this chapter examines the role institutional research can play in the enrollment management process.

  18. Market Analysis Identifies Community and School Education Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindle, Jane C.

    1989-01-01

    Principals must realize the positive effects that marketing can have on improving schools and building support for them. Market analysis forces clarification of the competing needs and interests present in the community. The four marketing phases are needs assessment, analysis, goal setting, and public relations and advertising. (MLH)

  19. THE EVANGELICAL-LUTHERAN COMMUNITY IN AZERBAIJAN: A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinalova, Sudaba

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at the life of the Protestant religious community in Azerbaijan, studies the history of how the German population that formed the foundation of the Protestant, Evangelical-Lutheran community migrated to Azerbaijan, and sheds light on the activity of the Lutheran church. A scientific analysis of the ethnoconfessional diversity that exists today in Azerbaijan reconfirms the peace-loving and respectful attitude of the Azerbaijani people toward different cultures, and the tradi...

  20. Analysis about Knowledge Communication Network Based on Friends Link in the Blog Community --A Case Study of the Blog Community in www, sciencenet, cn%基于博客社区好友链接的知识交流状况分析——以科学网博客为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱均平; 王菲菲

    2011-01-01

    本文综合采用链接分析法以及社会网络分析法,从好友链接的基本属性和特点、好友共入链、博主共出链、博主一好友互链等角度深入探讨了科学网博客虚拟社区内基于好友链接关系的学科间以及学科内部直接或间接的知识交流情况,以期对学术型虚拟社区内学术共同体的发掘、知识交流网络的特点以及相关的引导促进机制提供一定的研究参考。%The paper constructed and analyzed the interdisciplinary and intra-disciplinary knowledge communication network based on friends links in the blog Community of the Science net from the aspects of characteristics and attributes of friends links, friends-co-inlink, bloggers-co-outlink and bloggers-friends inter-link using a combination of Hyperlink Analysis and Social Network Analysis, in order to provide some references to the study of exploration of academic community, the characteristics of knowledge communication and mechanisms of the guidance and promotion in the academic virtual community.

  1. Ecotourism and community development: case studies from Hainan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mike; Wall, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    The connections between people, parks, and tourism have received significant attention in recent years, recognizing the potential for mutually beneficial relationships. Ecotourism has been promoted and widely adopted as a strategy for funding conservation initiatives, while at the same time contributing to the socioeconomic development of host communities and providing for quality tourism experiences. Parks are among the most common ecotourism destinations. Employing interviews, observations and secondary sources, this study assesses the current status of ecotourism at two protected areas in Hainan, China, where it is being promoted as a strategy for balancing regional economic growth and conservation objectives. Through an evaluation of the existing tourism-park-community relationships, opportunities and constraints are identified. Ecotourism development was found to be at an early stage at both study sites. Socioeconomic benefits for the local communities have been limited and tourism activity has not contributed revenues towards conservation to date. Community residents, nevertheless, generally support conservation and are optimistic that tourism growth will yield benefits. In light of the study findings and the salient literature, planning direction is offered with the intention of enhancing the capacity of ecotourism to generate benefits for both communities and the parks, and thus contribute to the sustainable development of the region more generally. Lessons derived have broad applicability for ecotourism destinations elsewhere.

  2. Public library services and the Polish community in England: case study

    OpenAIRE

    Listwon, A.; Sen, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the needs of the Polish community (established and newly arrived Poles) and how those needs are met by the public library service. Design/methodology/approach: A case study method was used in partnership with Sheffield City Libraries. The methodology included interviews with library professionals and interviews and questionnaires targeted at members of the Polish community. Findings: The Polish community are generally satisfied with th...

  3. Towards a Science of Community Stakeholder Engagement in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials: An Embedded Four-Country Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Newman

    Full Text Available Broad international guidelines and studies in the context of individual clinical trials highlight the centrality of community stakeholder engagement in conducting ethically rigorous HIV prevention trials. We explored and identified challenges and facilitators for community stakeholder engagement in biomedical HIV prevention trials in diverse global settings. Our aim was to assess and deepen the empirical foundation for priorities included in the GPP guidelines and to highlight challenges in implementation that may merit further attention in subsequent GPP iterations.From 2008-2012 we conducted an embedded, multiple case study centered in Thailand, India, South Africa and Canada. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with respondents from different trial-related subsystems: civil society organization representatives, community advocates, service providers, clinical trialists/researchers, former trial participants, and key HIV risk populations. Interviews/focus groups were recorded, and coded using thematic content analysis. After intra-case analyses, we conducted cross-case analysis to contrast and synthesize themes and sub-themes across cases. Lastly, we applied the case study findings to explore and assess UNAIDS/AVAC GPP guidelines and the GPP Blueprint for Stakeholder Engagement.Across settings, we identified three cross-cutting themes as essential to community stakeholder engagement: trial literacy, including lexicon challenges and misconceptions that imperil sound communication; mistrust due to historical exploitation; and participatory processes: engaging early; considering the breadth of "community"; and, developing appropriate stakeholder roles. Site-specific challenges arose in resource-limited settings and settings where trials were halted.This multiple case study revealed common themes underlying community stakeholder engagement across four country settings that largely mirror GPP goals and the GPP Blueprint, as well as

  4. Immigrant Communities from Eastern Europe: The Case of the Romanian Community in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Pajares Alonso

    2009-01-01

    In the year 2000, Romanians barely figured in statistics for immigration into Spain, but since then it is the immigrant community that has grown most rapidly. By January 2007, this community had become the second-largest in terms of numbers (after that of the Moroccan community). The intensity of this migration flow has resulted from what has taken place in Romania since the mid-1990s, as well as from the characteristics of the Spanish labour market. Though Romanian immigration has mainly tak...

  5. What is the role of a case manager in community aged care? A qualitative study in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Emily Chuanmei; Dunt, David; Doyle, Colleen

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to explore the perceptions of case managers about their roles in providing community aged care in Australia. Purposeful sampling was used and 33 qualitative semi-structured interviews with 47 participants were conducted. Participants were drawn from a list of all case managers working in aged care organisations that provided publicly funded case-managed community aged care programmes in the State of Victoria, Australia. Participant selection criteria included age, gender, job titles, professional backgrounds, practice locations, organisational attributes and organisational size. Data collection was implemented between September 2012 and March 2013. Thematic analysis was performed. Participants believed that case managers performed diverse roles based on clients' needs. They also articulated 16 important roles of case managers, including advisors, advocates, carers, communicators, co-ordinators, educators, empowering clients, engaging clients and families, liaising with people, managing budgets, navigators, negotiators, networking with people, facilitators, problem solvers and supporters. However, they were concerned about brokers, mediators and counsellors in terms of the terminology or case managers' willingness to perform these roles. Moreover, they perceived that neither gatekeepers nor direct service provision was case managers' role. The findings of this study suggest that case managers working in community aged care sectors may be more effective if they practised the 16 roles aforementioned. With the value of helping rather than obstructing clients to access services, they may not act as gatekeepers. In addition, they may not provide services directly as opposed to their peers working in medical care settings. The findings will also assist organisations to design job descriptions specifying case managers' roles and associated job responsibilities. Clear job descriptions will further benefit the organisations in staff recruitment, orientation

  6. Risk prediction in the community: A systematic review of case-finding instruments that predict adverse healthcare outcomes in community-dwelling older adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2015-09-01

    Few case-finding instruments are available to community healthcare professionals. This review aims to identify short, valid instruments that detect older community-dwellers risk of four adverse outcomes: hospitalisation, functional-decline, institutionalisation and death. Data sources included PubMed and the Cochrane library. Data on outcome measures, patient and instrument characteristics, and trial quality (using the Quality In Prognosis Studies [QUIPS] tool), were double-extracted for derivation-validation studies in community-dwelling older adults (>50 years). Forty-six publications, representing 23 unique instruments, were included. Only five were externally validated. Mean patient age range was 64.2-84.6 years. Most instruments n=18, (78%) were derived in North America from secondary analysis of survey data. The majority n=12, (52%), measured more than one outcome with hospitalisation and the Probability of Repeated Admission score the most studied outcome and instrument respectively. All instruments incorporated multiple predictors. Activities of daily living n=16, (70%), was included most often. Accuracy varied according to instruments and outcomes; area under the curve of 0.60-0.73 for hospitalisation, 0.63-0.78 for functional decline, 0.70-0.74 for institutionalisation and 0.56-0.82 for death. The QUIPS tool showed that 5\\/23 instruments had low potential for bias across all domains. This review highlights the present need to develop short, reliable, valid instruments to case-find older adults at risk in the community.

  7. How Macromedia Used Blogs to Build Its Developers' Communities: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    Business organizations are using blogs as a conversational technology to help build a community of practice where knowledge exchange and sharing actively take place. This case study examines how Macromedia used blogs to build its developers' communities and become more organizationally effective. Four major types of interactions between the…

  8. Cultural Capital and Innovative Pedagogy: A Case Study among Indigenous Communities in Mexico and Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorcic, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces case studies of innovative approaches to pedagogy among indigenous Mayan communities in Chiapas (Mexico) and Lencan communities in Intibuca (Honduras). Innovative approaches to researching alternative theories and practices of pedagogy are used by the author to develop an epistemology of critical pedagogy and its potential…

  9. Auditing and Evaluating University-Community Engagement: Lessons from a UK Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Angie; Northmore, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The growing importance of community and public engagement activities in universities has led to an increasing emphasis on auditing and evaluating university-community partnerships. However, the development of effective audit and evaluation tools is still at a formative stage. This article presents a case study of the University of Brighton's…

  10. An academic practice's transition to the business of medicine in the community. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, S L; Schryver, D L

    2000-01-01

    This case study highlights the problems confronting a clinical practice corporation affiliated with a major medical school, and the business realizations it made in the acquisition of a community-based clinic. Launching a financially viable enterprise requires careful planning, determination of formal goals and expectations, an appropriate mix of physicians and services, a specific marketing campaign and community support. PMID:11010507

  11. Erythroderma: analysis of 247 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cidia Vasconcellos

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The profile of 247 patients with erythroderma during a 23 year period from January, 1962 through March, 1985, with a follow-up period ranging from 1 to 26 years were analysed. The patients presented with diffuse erythema, scaling and pruritus of more than 2 months' duration, and the age ranged from 16 to 60 years. Psoriasis was the most frequent underlying disease with an estimated frequency of 44.9%, the reaction to the use of drugs appeared in 7.3% of total cases and association with reticulosis showed a frequency of 4.1%. The cause of the erythroderma could not be determined in 29.2% of the cases. Sex differences in terms of underlying diseases were not observed. One or more skin biopsies along with the clinical findings were diagnostic or suggestive of the underlying disease in 63.6% of the cases. Repeated skin biopsies are recommended as the best method for etiologic diagnosis of erythroderma. At P=0.05 significance level, masculine/feminine ratio of 2 : 1 was found. The question arises wether causal agent of erythroderma may not be somehow related to different exposure by sex to environmental antigens.

  12. Pragmatism and Community Inquiry: A Case Study of Community-Based Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Bertram C.; Bloch, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a philosophical basis for the concept of community inquiry. Community inquiry derives from pragmatist theory as articulated by Dewey, Peirce, Addams, and others. Following Brendel, we discuss pragmatism in terms of its emphasis on the practical dimensions of inquiry, the pluralistic nature of the tools that are used to study phenomena, the participatory role of individuals with different perspectives, and the provisional nature of inquiry. We then apply this framework in a...

  13. Community College Budgeting and Financial Planning Issues: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Soon after his election in 1995, Kentucky governor Paul E. Patton instituted a plan to restructure the commonwealth's system of postsecondary education to create a more efficient system designed to prepare Kentuckians for jobs in the new era. While Patton looked at all of postsecondary education, he focused on the 29 community and technical…

  14. Integration of ICT into an adult education program for indigenous communities The case of Guainía, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Daza Ramos, Leidy Viviana

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) into adult education for indigenous people. It does so through the analysis of a case study that focuses on an adult education program implemented in Guainía, Colombia in 2013. The overarching purpose of this study is to provide a clear understanding of the participants perceptions regarding ICTs integration into both their education and their communities. This study uses a qualitative research approach ...

  15. EMERGENCE OF VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES AS MEANS OF COMMUNICATION: A Case Study On Virtual Health Care Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehpare Tokay ARGAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, like in all areas, the Internet has had an important effect in the area of health as well. With the development of the Internet many new and different applications have developed and one of the most important of these are probably virtual communities. Virtual communities, which are used as a tool for providing information and word of mouth communication, have become a widely used marketing tool in the area of healthcare services in recent years. A virtual community is a group that does not depend on space and time to maintain ties or participation in the group whose members share the same interest and to maintain closeness, that is based on internet communications and whose membership is based on free will. In these kinds of communities whose services are provided on a membership basis, health services of various kinds are offered to the members. In virtual communities, virtual interactive communications established between the members can be an important determining factor when choosing a product, service or doctor.

  16. Anemia situation analysis and countermeasures of 48 cases of community gestation women%社区妊娠期孕妇贫血情况48例分析与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾丽妹

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the anemia situation of gestational woman in this community,analyze the influence of gestational anemia on pregnant women and fetal and put forward corresponding prevention and treatment measures.Methods:The clinical data of 48 cases of pregnant women during gestational stages were analyzed retrospectively,the incidence of anemia on early stages, metaphase stages and late pregnancy were analyzed and the corresponding prevention measures were putted forward.Results:The anaemia rate of pregnant women in community was 8.6% and the pregnancy anemia occurred in the middle and late pregnancy, which had certain correlation with pregnant women life diet and accordance to the doctor's advice or not.Conclusion:Gestation anemia often occured in the middle of the pregnancy and late pregnancy,so fully prepared for pregnancy were needed.Scientific and reasonable adjusting the diet structure,balanced nutrition,following the doctor's advice to detecte and treat anemia condition in the hospital timely could reduce the pregnant anemia during pregnancy and minimize the damage of anemia to pregnant women and fetus during pregnancy.%目的:探究本社区妊娠期孕妇贫血情况,分析妊娠期贫血对孕妇及其胎儿的影响,并提出相应的预防与治疗措施。方法:回顾性分析实施围产期保健的48例妊娠期孕妇的临床资料,分析孕早期、孕中期与孕晚期的贫血发生率,并提出相应的防治措施。结果:社区内妊娠期孕妇贫血率8.6%,妊娠期孕妇贫血多发生在孕中期和孕晚期,且和孕妇的生活饮食结构、是否遵医嘱有一定关联。结论:妊娠期贫血常发生于孕中期和孕晚期,故需充分做好孕前准备。科学合理地调整饮食结构,保持营养均衡,遵照医嘱按时到医院进行产前检查及时发现并治疗贫血,以减少妊娠期孕妇的贫血情况,最大限度降低孕期贫血给孕妇及胎儿带来的危害。

  17. 社区妊娠期孕妇贫血情况48例分析与对策%Anemia situation analysis and countermeasures of 48 cases of community gestation women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾丽妹

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究本社区妊娠期孕妇贫血情况,分析妊娠期贫血对孕妇及其胎儿的影响,并提出相应的预防与治疗措施。方法:回顾性分析实施围产期保健的48例妊娠期孕妇的临床资料,分析孕早期、孕中期与孕晚期的贫血发生率,并提出相应的防治措施。结果:社区内妊娠期孕妇贫血率8.6%,妊娠期孕妇贫血多发生在孕中期和孕晚期,且和孕妇的生活饮食结构、是否遵医嘱有一定关联。结论:妊娠期贫血常发生于孕中期和孕晚期,故需充分做好孕前准备。科学合理地调整饮食结构,保持营养均衡,遵照医嘱按时到医院进行产前检查及时发现并治疗贫血,以减少妊娠期孕妇的贫血情况,最大限度降低孕期贫血给孕妇及胎儿带来的危害。%Objective:To explore the anemia situation of gestational woman in this community,analyze the influence of gestational anemia on pregnant women and fetal and put forward corresponding prevention and treatment measures.Methods:The clinical data of 48 cases of pregnant women during gestational stages were analyzed retrospectively,the incidence of anemia on early stages, metaphase stages and late pregnancy were analyzed and the corresponding prevention measures were putted forward.Results:The anaemia rate of pregnant women in community was 8.6% and the pregnancy anemia occurred in the middle and late pregnancy, which had certain correlation with pregnant women life diet and accordance to the doctor's advice or not.Conclusion:Gestation anemia often occured in the middle of the pregnancy and late pregnancy,so fully prepared for pregnancy were needed.Scientific and reasonable adjusting the diet structure,balanced nutrition,following the doctor's advice to detecte and treat anemia condition in the hospital timely could reduce the pregnant anemia during pregnancy and minimize the damage of anemia to pregnant women and fetus during pregnancy.

  18. Enuresis: analysis of 100 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H; Kaur, L; Kataria, S P

    1991-04-01

    One hundred children with enuresis were studied to find out various factors responsible for this condition. Enuresis was more frequent in first born, service class and bottle fed children. There was a significant role of stress factors in causation of enuresis. We found a higher frequency of behavioral symptoms among children with enuresis. There was no significant correlation between enuresis and sex, education of parents, social class, sleep patterns, age of mother at marriage and intellectual grades of the children. Worm infestations, giardiasis, amebiasis and urinary infection were seen in 70% of cases. General body weakness, cold and nervousness were the common causes of enuresis in the parents' opinion. The main reason for not seeking the treatment at an early stage in view of parents' was that they thought enuresis a normal variant. PMID:1752655

  19. The Role of Emotions in Contributors Activity: A Case Study on the GENTOO Community

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, David; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the relation between the emotions and the activity of contributors in the Open Source Software project Gentoo. Our case study builds on extensive data sets from the project's bug tracking platform Bugzilla, to quantify the activity of contributors, and its mail archives, to quantify the emotions of contributors by means of sentiment analysis. The Gentoo project is known for a considerable drop in development performance after the sudden retirement of a central contributor. We analyse how this event correlates with the negative emotions, both in bilateral email discussions with the central contributor, and at the level of the whole community of contributors. We then extend our study to consider the activity patters on Gentoo contributors in general. We find that contributors are more likely to become inactive when they express strong positive or negative emotions in the bug tracker, or when they deviate from the expected value of emotions in the mailing list. We use these insights to develop a Bayes...

  20. Metagenomics meets time series analysis: unraveling microbial community dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faust, K.; Lahti, L.M.; Gonze, D.; Vos, de W.M.; Raes, J.

    2015-01-01

    The recent increase in the number of microbial time series studies offers new insights into the stability and dynamics of microbial communities, from the world's oceans to human microbiota. Dedicated time series analysis tools allow taking full advantage of these data. Such tools can reveal periodic

  1. Metagenomic analysis of the viral community in Namib Desert hypoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaenssens, Evelien M; Van Zyl, Lonnie; De Maayer, Pieter; Rubagotti, Enrico; Rybicki, Ed; Tuffin, Marla; Cowan, Don A

    2015-02-01

    Hypolithic microbial communities are specialized desert communities inhabiting the underside of translucent rocks. Here, we present the first study of the viral fraction of these communities isolated from the hyperarid Namib Desert. The taxonomic composition of the hypolithic viral communities was investigated and a functional assessment of the sequences determined. Phylotypic analysis showed that bacteriophages belonging to the order Caudovirales, in particular the family Siphoviridae, were most prevalent. Functional analysis and comparison with other metaviromes revealed a relatively high frequency of cell wall-degrading enzymes, ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) and phage-associated genes. Phylogenetic analyses of terL and phoH marker genes indicated that many of the sequences were novel and distinct from known isolates, and the class distribution of the RNRs suggests that this is a novel environment. The composition of the viral hypolith fraction containing many Bacillus-infecting phages was not completely consistent with Namib hypolith phylotypic surveys of the bacterial hosts, in which the cyanobacterial genus Chroococcidiopsis was found to be dominant. This could be attributed to the lack of sequence information about hypolith viruses/bacteria in public databases or the possibility that hypolithic communities incorporate viruses from the surrounding soil. PMID:24912085

  2. Metagenomic analysis of the microbial community in kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantoglu, Ufuk; Cakar, Atilla; Dogan, Haluk; Abaci, Neslihan; Ustek, Duran; Sayood, Khalid; Can, Handan

    2014-08-01

    Kefir grains as a probiotic have been subject to microbial community identification using culture-dependent and independent methods that target specific strains in the community, or that are based on limited 16S rRNA analysis. We performed whole genome shotgun pyrosequencing using two Turkish Kefir grains. Sequencing generated 3,682,455 high quality reads for a total of ∼1.6 Gbp of data assembled into 6151 contigs with a total length of ∼24 Mbp. Species identification mapped 88.16% and 93.81% of the reads rendering 4 Mpb of assembly that did not show any homology to known bacterial sequences. Identified communities in the two grains showed high concordance where Lactobacillus was the most abundant genus with a mapped abundance of 99.42% and 99.79%. This genus was dominantly represented by three species Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus helveticus with a total mapped abundance of 97.63% and 98.74%. We compared and verified our findings with 16S pyrosequencing and model based 16S data analysis. Our results suggest that microbial community profiling using whole genome shotgun data is feasible, can identify novel species data, and has the potential to generate a more accurate and detailed assessment of the underlying bacterial community, especially for low abundance species.

  3. Correlation network analysis applied to complex biofilm communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana E Duran-Pinedo

    Full Text Available The complexity of the human microbiome makes it difficult to reveal organizational principles of the community and even more challenging to generate testable hypotheses. It has been suggested that in the gut microbiome species such as Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are keystone in maintaining the stability and functional adaptability of the microbial community. In this study, we investigate the interspecies associations in a complex microbial biofilm applying systems biology principles. Using correlation network analysis we identified bacterial modules that represent important microbial associations within the oral community. We used dental plaque as a model community because of its high diversity and the well known species-species interactions that are common in the oral biofilm. We analyzed samples from healthy individuals as well as from patients with periodontitis, a polymicrobial disease. Using results obtained by checkerboard hybridization on cultivable bacteria we identified modules that correlated well with microbial complexes previously described. Furthermore, we extended our analysis using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM, which includes a large number of bacterial species, among them uncultivated organisms present in the mouth. Two distinct microbial communities appeared in healthy individuals while there was one major type in disease. Bacterial modules in all communities did not overlap, indicating that bacteria were able to effectively re-associate with new partners depending on the environmental conditions. We then identified hubs that could act as keystone species in the bacterial modules. Based on those results we then cultured a not-yet-cultivated microorganism, Tannerella sp. OT286 (clone BU063. After two rounds of enrichment by a selected helper (Prevotella oris OT311 we obtained colonies of Tannerella sp. OT286 growing on blood agar plates. This system-level approach would open the possibility of

  4. Factors Influencing Risk of Premature Mortality in Community Cases of Depression: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Baxter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Depressive disorders are associated with substantial risk of premature mortality. A number of factors may contribute to reported risk estimates, making it difficult to determine actual risk of excess mortality in community cases of depression. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of excess mortality in population-based studies of clinically defined depression. Methods. Population-based studies reporting all-cause mortality associated with a clinically defined depressive disorder were included in the systematic review. Estimates of relative risk for excess mortality in population-representative cases of clinical depressive disorders were extracted. A meta-analysis was conducted using Stata to pool estimates of excess mortality and identify sources of heterogeneity within the data. Results. Twenty-one studies reporting risk of excess mortality in clinical depression were identified. A significantly higher risk of mortality was found for major depression (RR 1.92 95% CI 1.65–2.23, but no significant difference was found for dysthymia (RR 1.37 95% CI 0.93–2.00. Relative risk of excess mortality was not significantly different following the adjustment of reported risk estimates. Conclusion. A mortality gradient was identified with increasing severity of clinical depression. Recognition of depressive symptoms in general practice and appropriate referral for evidence-based treatment may help improve outcomes, particularly in patients with comorbid physical disorders.

  5. Socioeconomic effects of operating reactors on two host communities: a case study of Pilgrim and Millstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This exploratory case study examines the social, economic, and political/institutional impacts of two operating nuclear power complexes on two New England communities. This work is one of a series planned to broaden knowledge of the effects of large energy generating facilities upon the social structure of local communities. Its primary objectives are to investigate and assess social and economic impacts resulting from construction and operation of nuclear power plants and to generate hypotheses about such impacts for future testing. The study concludes that construction impacts were minor due to a dispersed commuting pattern by construction workers and that the only significant construction impact that can be identified retrospectively is construction-worker traffic. The primary impact of the nuclear power plants in both communities was the massive increase in property tax payments paid to the local communities by the utilities and the option chosen by each community to maintain the existing tax rate while using the additional revenue to significantly increase and enhance the public service delivery systems and facilities within the community. Second-order consequences of the direct, first-order economic impact were: (1) changes in community land use policies, (2) increase in salience of growth issues, and (3) alteration of both inter- and intra-community relationships. The majority of residents in both communities express favorable attitudes toward the nuclear plants, primarily because of the substantial increase in the tax base of their communities

  6. Data management for community research projects: A JGOFS case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Roy K.

    1992-01-01

    Since the mid 1980s, much of the marine science research effort in the United Kingdom has been focused into large scale collaborative projects involving public sector laboratories and university departments, termed Community Research Projects. Two of these, the Biogeochemical Ocean Flux Study (BOFS) and the North Sea Project incorporated large scale data collection to underpin multidisciplinary modeling efforts. The challenge of providing project data sets to support the science was met by a small team within the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) operating as a topical data center. The role of the data center was to both work up the data from the ship's sensors and to combine these data with sample measurements into online databases. The working up of the data was achieved by a unique symbiosis between data center staff and project scientists. The project management, programming and data processing skills of the data center were combined with the oceanographic experience of the project communities to develop a system which has produced quality controlled, calibrated data sets from 49 research cruises in 3.5 years of operation. The data center resources required to achieve this were modest and far outweighed by the time liberated in the scientific community by the removal of the data processing burden. Two online project databases have been assembled containing a very high proportion of the data collected. As these are under the control of BODC their long term availability as part of the UK national data archive is assured. The success of the topical data center model for UK Community Research Project data management has been founded upon the strong working relationships forged between the data center and project scientists. These can only be established by frequent personal contact and hence the relatively small size of the UK has been a critical factor. However, projects covering a larger, even international scale could be successfully supported by a

  7. Facebook community managementin tuoma arvo yritykselle - Case: Yritys X

    OpenAIRE

    Lasola, Tanu

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää, minkälaista lisäarvoa asiakkaat kokevat saavansa Yritys X:n tuottamasta community management -palvelusta (yhteisön hallinta) sosiaalisessa mediassa ja tarkemmin Facebookissa. Toteutetulla tutkimuksella oli tarkoitus löytää ne tekijät, joista yritykset kokevat saavansa lisäarvoa palvelun ulkoistamisessa verrattuna siihen, että se toteutettaisiin sisäisesti. Tutkimuksesta saatua tietoa hyödynnetään toimeksiantajayrityksen digitaalisten palveluiden kehitt...

  8. Dynamic systems and the role of evaluation: The case of the Green Communities project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzoise, Valentina; Sardo, Stefania

    2016-02-01

    The crucial role evaluation can play in the co-development of project design and its implementation will be addressed through the analysis of a case study, the Green Communities (GC) project, funded by the Italian Ministry of Environment within the EU Interregional Operational Program (2007-2013) "Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency". The project's broader goals included an attempt to trigger a change in Italian local development strategies, especially for mountain and inland areas, which would be tailored to the real needs of communities, and based on a sustainable exploitation and management of the territorial assets. The goal was not achieved, and this paper addresses the issues of how GC could have been more effective in fostering a vision of change, and which design adaptations and evaluation procedures would have allowed the project to better cope with the unexpected consequences and resistances it encountered. The conclusions drawn are that projects should be conceived, designed and carried out as dynamic systems, inclusive of a dynamic and engaged evaluation enabling the generation of feedbacks loops, iteratively interpreting the narratives and dynamics unfolding within the project, and actively monitoring the potential of various relationships among project participants for generating positive social change. PMID:26215766

  9. Noise impact on community: A case study for power generation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong; Chui, Jonathan; Hertil, Salem

    2005-04-01

    Power generation plant will make noise impact on the surrounding communities and cause noise complaints from the residences. Noise mitigation treatment for plant is required to achieve the specified noise regulations. In this paper, a case study of the noise control design for a power generation facility is presented. Major noise sources included five engines and generators, five gas conditioning skids, five radiator coolers, and other accessory equipment. The acoustic modeling software Cadna/A was used to predict the noise contributions from sources and assess the noise impact on the nearby communities. During the acoustic modeling, alternative noise mitigation measures underwent two specific investigations before they were chosen as a noise solution recommendation. The first was to determine the technical feasibility of attenuating the source equipment. The second was to perform a cost benefit analysis, necessary to find the most cost-effective solution. For example, several acoustic wall and roof assemblies were entered into the acoustic model and the acoustic performance of the ventilation system was varied until we were able to achieve the most economical acoustic solution.

  10. Dynamic systems and the role of evaluation: The case of the Green Communities project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzoise, Valentina; Sardo, Stefania

    2016-02-01

    The crucial role evaluation can play in the co-development of project design and its implementation will be addressed through the analysis of a case study, the Green Communities (GC) project, funded by the Italian Ministry of Environment within the EU Interregional Operational Program (2007-2013) "Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency". The project's broader goals included an attempt to trigger a change in Italian local development strategies, especially for mountain and inland areas, which would be tailored to the real needs of communities, and based on a sustainable exploitation and management of the territorial assets. The goal was not achieved, and this paper addresses the issues of how GC could have been more effective in fostering a vision of change, and which design adaptations and evaluation procedures would have allowed the project to better cope with the unexpected consequences and resistances it encountered. The conclusions drawn are that projects should be conceived, designed and carried out as dynamic systems, inclusive of a dynamic and engaged evaluation enabling the generation of feedbacks loops, iteratively interpreting the narratives and dynamics unfolding within the project, and actively monitoring the potential of various relationships among project participants for generating positive social change.

  11. SmashCommunity: A metagenomic annotation and analysis tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Harrington, Eoghan D; Foerstner, Konrad U;

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY: SmashCommunity is a stand-alone metagenomic annotation and analysis pipeline suitable for data from Sanger and 454 sequencing technologies. It supports state-of-the-art software for essential metagenomic tasks such as assembly and gene prediction. It provides tools to estimate...... the quantitative phylogenetic and functional compositions of metagenomes, to compare compositions of multiple metagenomes and to produce intuitive visual representations of such analyses. AVAILABILITY: SmashCommunity is freely available at http://www.bork.embl.de/software/smash CONTACT: bork@embl.de....

  12. Immigrant Communities from Eastern Europe: The Case of the Romanian Community in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pajares Alonso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2000, Romanians barely figured in statistics for immigration into Spain, but since then it is the immigrant community that has grown most rapidly. By January 2007, this community had become the second-largest in terms of numbers (after that of the Moroccan community. The intensity of this migration flow has resulted from what has taken place in Romania since the mid-1990s, as well as from the characteristics of the Spanish labour market. Though Romanian immigration has mainly taken place through irregular channels, this has not prevented them from achieving access to the labour market, given that Spain’s “black economy” is large enough to easily absorb irregular immigration. Furthermore, the social network created between Romanian immigrants has encouraged the intensity of the migration flow, even though it is a network which – beyond the most direct family links – is extremely weak, at least for the largest sector of Romanian immigration (minorities such as gypsies and members of religious orders have very extensive, binding social networks. Thus, the job placement of the largest sector has been determined by their initial incorporation onto the “informal economy”, a fact that has meant that they have mainly been doing lowskilled jobs; nevertheless, they have now achieved a significant presence in skilled employment, and this trend is expected to continue in the future.

  13. Metagenomics meets time series analysis: unraveling microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Karoline; Lahti, Leo; Gonze, Didier; de Vos, Willem M; Raes, Jeroen

    2015-06-01

    The recent increase in the number of microbial time series studies offers new insights into the stability and dynamics of microbial communities, from the world's oceans to human microbiota. Dedicated time series analysis tools allow taking full advantage of these data. Such tools can reveal periodic patterns, help to build predictive models or, on the contrary, quantify irregularities that make community behavior unpredictable. Microbial communities can change abruptly in response to small perturbations, linked to changing conditions or the presence of multiple stable states. With sufficient samples or time points, such alternative states can be detected. In addition, temporal variation of microbial interactions can be captured with time-varying networks. Here, we apply these techniques on multiple longitudinal datasets to illustrate their potential for microbiome research.

  14. Analysis of stability of community structure across multiple hierarchical levels

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hui-Jia

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of stability of community structure is an important problem for scientists from many fields. Here, we propose a new framework to reveal hidden properties of community structure by quantitatively analyzing the dynamics of Potts model. Specifically we model the Potts procedure of community structure detection by a Markov process, which has a clear mathematical explanation. Critical topological information regarding to multivariate spin configuration could also be inferred from the spectral significance of the Markov process. We test our framework on some example networks and find it doesn't have resolute limitation problem at all. Results have shown the model we proposed is able to uncover hierarchical structure in different scales effectively and efficiently.

  15. Farmers' Markets in Rural Communities: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Nickelson, Jen; Cohen, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the potential health benefits of farmers markets have been discussed for years, there is a dearth of literature to aid health educators in advocating for the development of local farmers markets. Purpose: The purpose of this manuscript is to present a case study of a rural farmers market in southeast Georgia with emphasis on…

  16. Building Communities in Higher Education: The Case of Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Nicola; Lopes, Amélia; Pereira, Fátima; Lima, Ilda

    2014-01-01

    The historic and current case to retain a focused clinical nursing identity within an academic context is explicit; however there is tension between the need for excellence in teaching and research, and obligation to maintain a credible clinical identity. Nursing is politically and vocationally advanced but, arguably, weaker academically.…

  17. 城乡结合部社区医疗满意度分析及发展对策--以广州龙洞地区为例%Community Hospital Satisfaction Analysis and measures in rural-urban fringe zone---A Case Study of Guangzhou Long Dong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范思敏; 唐波; 余佳; 麦丽茵; 陈肖宏

    2015-01-01

    As the current status of community health service orga-nizations of rural-urban fringe zone, as well as the importance of community construction. A Case Study of Guangzhou Long Dong, this paper analysis its satisfaction and formation mechanism with field research and questionnaire. The results showed that: the local hold optimistic attitude for the future of community care, but a lack of presence of technical equipment, the management system is not perfect, social security inequity problems limited the devel-opment of community care. Based on this point, present proposals from government、large hospital、community hospitals and the pub-lic. At last, build the “gear” improving mechanism, in order to promote urban-rural community hospital reform and development in the context of the new urbanization.%针对目前我国城乡结合部社区医疗服务机构发展现状,以及社区医疗建设的重要性。本文以广州市天河龙洞地区社区医疗为例,用现场调研法和问卷调查法分析其满意度及形成机制。结果表明:当地居民对于社区医院未来发展态度比较乐观,但因存在技术设备欠缺、管理体制不完善、社保普及不公平等问题限制了社区医疗的发展。基于此,从政府、大医院,社区医院自身以及居民公众参与4角度提出建议,构建四者紧密联系合作的“齿轮”改善机制,以期推动在新型城镇化背景下城乡结合部社区医院改革与发展。

  18. Thanatophoric dysplasia: case-based bioethical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Abarca López; Alejandra Rodríguez Torres; Donovan Casas Patiño; Esteban Espíndola Benítez

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case report of thanatophoric displasia diagnosed in the prenatal period using ultrasound standards. The course of the case pregnancy, birth process, and postnatal period is described. This report invites bioethical analysis using its principles, appealing to human dignity, diversity and otherness, particularly in the mother-child dyad and their family. An early diagnosis allows parental support as they face the course of this condition and its potentially fatal outcome.

  19. Thanatophoric dysplasia: case-based bioethical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Abarca López

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case report of thanatophoric displasia diagnosed in the prenatal period using ultrasound standards. The course of the case pregnancy, birth process, and postnatal period is described. This report invites bioethical analysis using its principles, appealing to human dignity, diversity and otherness, particularly in the mother-child dyad and their family. An early diagnosis allows parental support as they face the course of this condition and its potentially fatal outcome.

  20. Analysis of activity in open-source communities using social network analysis techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Torres, María del Rocío

    2014-01-01

    The success of an open-source software project is closely linked to the successful organization and development of the underlying virtual community. In particular, participation is the most important mechanism by which the development of the project is supported. The main objective of this paper is to analyse the online participation in virtual communities using social network analysis techniques in order to obtain the main patterns of behaviour of users within communities. Sev...

  1. Analysis of virtual communities supporting OSS projects using social network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    S. L. Toral; Martínez Torres, María del Rocío; Barrero, Federico

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the behaviour of virtual communities for Open Source Software (OSS) projects. The development of OSS projects relies on virtual communities, which are built on relationships among members, being their final objective sharing knowledge and improving the underlying project. This study addresses the interactive collaboration in these kinds of communities applying social network analysis (SNA). In particular, SNA techniques will be used to identify those members pl...

  2. Advances In Mining Engineering Education: A Case For Learning Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hitch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mining engineering involves the design, planning and management of operations for the development, production and eventual rehabilitation of resource extraction. These activities draw on a diverse set of skills. University of British Columbia mining engineers have traditionally been highly regarded for their strengths in the technical aspects of mining and mineral process but also for their understanding of the application of principles of sustainability and social responsibility. The current view of the UBC Mining curriculum demands the integration of aspects of environmental and social sciences shaping the future of tertiary engineering education. The solution is developing a curriculum that is focused on key learning objectives that are a reflection of all these external pressures. This paper examines the challenge of curriculum reform and the emergence of learning communities at the Norman B. Keevil Institute of Mining Engineering at the University of British Columbia, Canada.

  3. Microbial community analysis of ambient temperature anaerobic digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciotola, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Food, Agriculture and Biological Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which designs for Chinese and Indian fixed-dome anaerobic digesters were modified in an effort to produce smaller and more affordable digesters. While these types of systems are common in tropical regions of developing countries, they have not been used in colder climates because of the low biogas yield during the winter months. Although there is evidence that sufficient biogas production can be maintained in colder temperatures through design and operational changes, there is a lack of knowledge about the seasonal changes in the composition of the microbial communities in ambient temperature digesters. More knowledge is needed to design and operate systems for maximum biogas yield in temperate climates. The purpose of this study was to cultivate a microbial community that maximizes biogas production at psychrophilic temperatures. The study was conducted on a 300 gallon experimental anaerobic digester on the campus of Ohio State University. Culture-independent methods were used on weekly samples collected from the digester in order to examine microbial community response to changes in ambient temperature. Microbial community profiles were established using universal bacterial and archaeal primers that targeted the 16S rRNA gene. In addition to the methanogenic archaea, this analysis also targeted some of the other numerically and functionally important microbial taxa in anaerobic digesters, such as hydrolytic, fermentative, acetogenic and sulfate reducing bacteria. According to preliminary results, the composition of the microbial community shifts with changes in seasonal temperature.

  4. Average-case analysis of numerical problems

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The average-case analysis of numerical problems is the counterpart of the more traditional worst-case approach. The analysis of average error and cost leads to new insight on numerical problems as well as to new algorithms. The book provides a survey of results that were mainly obtained during the last 10 years and also contains new results. The problems under consideration include approximation/optimal recovery and numerical integration of univariate and multivariate functions as well as zero-finding and global optimization. Background material, e.g. on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces and random fields, is provided.

  5. Understanding the Business Case for Telemental Health in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, David; Gale, John; Hartley, David; Croll, Zachariah; Hansen, Anush

    2016-07-01

    Telemental health has been promoted to address long-standing access barriers to rural mental health care, including low supply and long travel distances. Examples of rural telemental health programs are common; there is a less clear picture of how widely implemented these programs are, their organization, staffing, and services. There is also a need to understand the business case for these programs and assess whether and how they might realize their promise. To address these gaps, a national study was conducted of rural telemental health programs including an online survey of 53 programs and follow-up interviews with 23 programs. This article describes the current landscape and characteristics of these programs and then examines their business case. Can rural telemental health programs be sustained within current delivery systems and reimbursement structures? This question is explored in four areas: need and demand, infrastructure and workforce, funding and reimbursement, and organizational fit and alignment.

  6. Understanding the Business Case for Telemental Health in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, David; Gale, John; Hartley, David; Croll, Zachariah; Hansen, Anush

    2016-07-01

    Telemental health has been promoted to address long-standing access barriers to rural mental health care, including low supply and long travel distances. Examples of rural telemental health programs are common; there is a less clear picture of how widely implemented these programs are, their organization, staffing, and services. There is also a need to understand the business case for these programs and assess whether and how they might realize their promise. To address these gaps, a national study was conducted of rural telemental health programs including an online survey of 53 programs and follow-up interviews with 23 programs. This article describes the current landscape and characteristics of these programs and then examines their business case. Can rural telemental health programs be sustained within current delivery systems and reimbursement structures? This question is explored in four areas: need and demand, infrastructure and workforce, funding and reimbursement, and organizational fit and alignment. PMID:26695645

  7. Catholic Secondary Schools and Community Relations: A Case Study in East London 2000-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is a case study of Catholic secondary school provision in the Inner London Borough of Tower Hamlets during the period 2000-2010. Its main emphasis is on the school/community relations during the period, indicating the Church’s concern to promote community cohesion while maintaining high standards of education, particularly in an inner-city borough noted for its areas of extreme poverty and the diversity of its immigrant population. By working collaboratively with the statutory aut...

  8. Online communities of payments and consumer behaviour : The Second Life Case

    OpenAIRE

    Hueber, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    International audience This paper asserts that the online communities of electronic money (e-money) users affect the traditional mechanisms of price determination by introducing anonymity in money payments. By studying the Second Life case it is possible to show the main characteristics of such a communities and raise new questions linked to the online behaviours of the consumers. In the aim of shedding light on the online consumer behaviour we turn to Thorstein Veblen works and to network...

  9. FORMATION OF YOUTH GROUP FROM COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT WORK PERSPECTIVE: A NAMIBIAN CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakal, Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Prakash Dhakal. Formation of a youth group from community development work perspective: A Namibian case. Järvenpää, Autumn 2010, P. 67, 5 appendices. Language: English, Autumn 2010. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak-south, Järvenpää Unit, Degree Program in Social Services (DSS). The starting point for the thesis was to elucidate the process of forming a youth group from a community development work perspective, in line to my own experiences and involvement, in Namibia. In...

  10. The ‘community’ in community case management of childhood illnesses in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembe-Mkabile, Wanga Z.; Jackson, Debra; Sanders, David; Besada, Donela; Daniels, Karen; Zamasiya, Texas; Doherty, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    Background Malawi has achieved a remarkable feat in reducing its under-5 mortality in time to meet its MDG 4 target despite high levels of poverty, low female literacy rates, recurrent economic crises, a severe shortage of human resources for health, and poor health infrastructure. The country's community-based delivery platform (largely headed by Health Surveillance Assistants, or HSAs) has been well established since the 1960s, although their tasks and responsibilities have evolved from surveillance to health promotion and prevention, and more recently to include curative services. However, the role of and the form that community involvement takes in community-based service delivery in Malawi is unclear. Design A qualitative rapid appraisal approach was utilised to explore the role of community involvement in the HSA programme in Malawi to better understand how the various community providers intersect to support the delivery of integrated community case management by HSAs. Twelve focus group discussions and 10 individual interviews were conducted with HSAs, HSA supervisors, mothers, members of village health committees (VHCs), senior Ministry of Health officials, district health teams, and implementing partners. Results Our findings reveal that HSAs are often deployed to areas outside of their village of residence as communities are not involved in selecting their own HSAs in Malawi. Despite this lack of involvement in selection, the high acceptance of the HSAs by community members and community accountability structures such as VHCs provide the programme with legitimacy and credibility. Conclusions This study provides insight into how community involvement plays out in the context of a government-managed professionalised community service delivery platform. It points to the need for further research to look at the impact of removing the role of HSA selection and deployment from the community and placing it at the central level. PMID:26823049

  11. The ‘community’ in community case management of childhood illnesses in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanga Z. Zembe-Mkabile

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malawi has achieved a remarkable feat in reducing its under-5 mortality in time to meet its MDG 4 target despite high levels of poverty, low female literacy rates, recurrent economic crises, a severe shortage of human resources for health, and poor health infrastructure. The country's community-based delivery platform (largely headed by Health Surveillance Assistants, or HSAs has been well established since the 1960s, although their tasks and responsibilities have evolved from surveillance to health promotion and prevention, and more recently to include curative services. However, the role of and the form that community involvement takes in community-based service delivery in Malawi is unclear. Design: A qualitative rapid appraisal approach was utilised to explore the role of community involvement in the HSA programme in Malawi to better understand how the various community providers intersect to support the delivery of integrated community case management by HSAs. Twelve focus group discussions and 10 individual interviews were conducted with HSAs, HSA supervisors, mothers, members of village health committees (VHCs, senior Ministry of Health officials, district health teams, and implementing partners. Results: Our findings reveal that HSAs are often deployed to areas outside of their village of residence as communities are not involved in selecting their own HSAs in Malawi. Despite this lack of involvement in selection, the high acceptance of the HSAs by community members and community accountability structures such as VHCs provide the programme with legitimacy and credibility. Conclusions: This study provides insight into how community involvement plays out in the context of a government-managed professionalised community service delivery platform. It points to the need for further research to look at the impact of removing the role of HSA selection and deployment from the community and placing it at the central level.

  12. 某社区产褥期接受三次家庭访视的产妇健康状况分析%Maternal Health Status During Puerperium: A community-based retrospective analysis of 338 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓英; 郭玲; 刘素珍; 杨梅兰; 高喜莲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To find out the current status and the influence factors of maternal health during puerperium, and to provide an evidence to improvement the home visiting service provided by community health nursing. Methods The data of maternal health status of 338 puerperae who accepted three -time home visiting during puerperium were retrospectively analyzed. Results The proportion of cesarean section was high to 71% and there were significant differences among the puerperae with different ages and degrees of education ( P < 0. 05 ). Some 61. 2% of them had hypogalactia, and there was significant difference among the puerperae of different age groups ( P < 0. 05 ). Only 47. 9% of the puerperae insisted pure breastfeeding during one month of puerperium. Univariate analysis revealed that the hypogalactia had a remarkable influence to breastfeeding ( P =0. 00 ); 53. 3% of the puerperae had sub - involution of uterus, 52. 1% had the prolonged lochia; and only 5. 3% had other disorders or health problems. Conclusion It is important to improve the home visiting service, to enhance the health promotion work for perinatal women, and raise their self - managing healthability so as to ensure the maternal health and life quality.%目的 分析某社区产妇接受产后家庭访视期间的健康状况及其影响因素,明确家庭访视的效果.方法 回顾性分析338例产妇的家庭访视资料.结果 选择剖宫产产妇比例较大(占71.0%),不同年龄、文化程度产妇对分娩方式的选择差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);61.2%的产妇曾有乳汁不足问题,且在不同年龄段产妇间的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);1个月内产妇全程纯母乳喂养执行率低(47.9%),单因素分析显示乳汁不足对母乳喂养有明显影响(P=0.00);产妇子宫复旧不佳(53.3%)问题突出,主要是恶露延迟(52.1%),但其他疾病或健康问题发生率较低(5.3%).结论 社区卫生服务中心应从提高自身访视质量出

  13. Suicide by people in a community justice pathway: population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Carlene; Senior, Jane; Webb, Roger T; Millar, Tim; Piper, Mary; Pearsall, Alison; Humber, Naomi; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-08-01

    The elevated risk of suicide in prison and after release is a well-recognised and serious problem. Despite this, evidence concerning community-based offenders' suicide risk is sparse. We conducted a population-based nested case-control study of all people in a community justice pathway in England and Wales. Our data show 13% of general population suicides were in community justice pathways before death. Suicide risks were highest among individuals receiving police cautions, and those having recent, or impending prosecution for sexual offences. Findings have implications for the training and practice of clinicians identifying and assessing suicidality, and offering support to those at elevated risk.

  14. The keys to governance and stakeholder engagement: the southeast michigan beacon community case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jardins, Terrisca R

    2014-01-01

    Community-based health information exchanges (HIEs) and efforts to consolidate and house data are growing, given the advent of Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) under the Affordable Care Act and other similar population health focused initiatives. The Southeast Michigan Beacon Community (SEMBC) can be looked to as one case study that offers lessons learned, insights on challenges faced and accompanying workarounds related to governance and stakeholder engagement. The SEMBC case study employs an established Data Warehouse Governance Framework to identify and explain the necessary governance and stakeholder engagement components, particularly as they relate to community-wide data sharing and data warehouses or repositories. Perhaps the biggest lesson learned through the SEMBC experience is that community-based work is hard. It requires a great deal of community leadership, collaboration and resources. SEMBC found that organizational structure and guiding principles needed to be continually revisited and nurtured in order to build the relationships and trust needed among stakeholder organizations. SEMBC also found that risks and risk mitigation tactics presented challenges and opportunities at the outset and through the duration of the three year pilot period. Other communities across the country embarking on similar efforts need to consider realistic expectations about community data sharing infrastructures and the accompanying and necessary governance and stakeholder engagement fundamentals.

  15. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  16. The "Boom" and "Bust" Patterns of Communities within the Energy Rich Region of West Virginia: A Case Study of Moundsville

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiger, Brandon S.

    The increasing worldwide demand for energy will provide Energy Rich Regions (ERRs) the opportunity to increase their wealth and quality of living. However, a reoccurring pattern of boom and bust cycles in ERRs suggests the need for more sustainable development strategies. A mixed methods approach (case study) is employed to explore the "wicked human problems" occurring in one community, Moundsville, WV and to discover development patterns that might inform sustainable development strategies for the future. This study explores briefly the distant past development patterns, and in greater detail the pre-boom and most current boom in natural gas. First, data will be derived from a conceptual "Energy Rich Region Template" that explores the sustainability of development from the inclusive wealth forms of natural, human, and physical capital. The qualitative data analysis software (MAXQDA) is used to systematically collect and organize data and information into a community-wide knowledge base (specifically the seven years of city council minutes). This framework can assist future research dedicated to similar cases. Furthermore, this case may support communities and or policymakers in the development of a programming guide for converting the natural capital into other reproducible capital forms, thus avoiding the development cycle of boom and bust.

  17. 社区银行的内涵特征、历史沿革与模式创新--基于中外社区银行的内容分析与案例研究%The Connotation, Characteristics, History and Mode Innovation of Community Banks---A Content Analysis and Case Studies at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宁伟

    2015-01-01

    本研究梳理了社区与社区银行的概念,通过对14组代表性定义的内容分析和编码发现传统社区银行的实质就是中小型商业银行。社区隐含了社区银行的覆盖范围、服务对象和业务特征,其服务对象没有实质差别。研究提出了社区银行的四个维度和特征,分别是银行规模、覆盖范围、服务对象和业务种类。监管机构和美国提出者更关注银行规模,而研究者特别是中国研究者更重视覆盖范围。因此,“地理范围论”和“资产规模论”基本成立,而“国别论”理论差别不大,“所有制论”和“形态论”并不成立。通过案例研究和实地调研归纳出社区银行的三种主要模式:即美国的“关系信贷”、澳大利亚的“特许经营”和中国的“金融生态”模式。其中,“特许经营”模式变相扩大了银行规模和覆盖范围两个维度,而“金融生态”模式扩展和丰富了银行规模、覆盖范围和业务种类。最后,结合发达国家的先进经验,有针对性地提出四点建议,并构建了中国社区银行建设的特征与要素模型。%This study reviews the concept of community and community bank .Then, we find the essence of traditional community bank is small and medium commercial bank through the definition of 14 repre-sentative groups for content analysis and coding .Community implies coverage , customers and types of business of community bank , and there is no real difference in the customers .We propose four dimen-sions and characteristics of community banks , namely bank (asset) size, coverage, customer and busi-ness type.Regulatory agencies and the U.S.researchers are more concerned about bank (asset) size, researchers particular Chinese pay more attention to coverage .Therefore , the“geographical scope view”and “scale of assets view” basically right , and the“country difference view” theoretically same ,

  18. The Impact of Culture On Smart Community Technology: The Case of 13 Wikipedia Instances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinayida Petrushyna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart communities provide technologies for monitoring social behaviors inside communities. The technologies that support knowledge building should consider the cultural background of community members. The studies of the influence of the culture on knowledge building is limited. Just a few works consider digital traces of individuals that they explain using cultural values and beliefs. In this work, we analyze 13 Wikipedia instances where users with different cultural background build knowledge in different ways. We compare edits of users. Using social network analysis we build and analyze co- authorship networks and watch the networks evolution. We explain the differences we have found using Hofstede dimensions and Schwartz cultural values and discuss implications for the design of smart community technologies. Our findings provide insights in requirements for technologies used for smart communities in different cultures.

  19. Moral Decision-Making among Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) Case Managers: A Focus Group Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerbæk, Birgitte; Aagaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    The context of care in assertive community treatment (ACT) can be precarious and generate ethical issues involving the principles of autonomy and paternalism. This focus group study examined case managers’ situated accounts of moral reasoning. Our findings show how they expressed strong moral...... obligation towards helping the clients. Their moral reasoning reflected a paternalistic position where, on different occasions, the potential benefits of their interventions would be prioritised at the expense of protecting the clients’ personal autonomy. The case managers’ reasoning emphasised situational...

  20. Moral Decision-Making among Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) Case Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerbæk, Birgitte; Aagaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Mette Braendstrup;

    2015-01-01

    The context of care in assertive community treatment (ACT) can be precarious and generate ethical issues involving the principles of autonomy and paternalism. This focus group study examined case managers' situated accounts of moral reasoning. Our findings show how they expressed strong moral...... obligation towards helping the clients. Their moral reasoning reflected a paternalistic position where, on different occasions, the potential benefits of their interventions would be prioritised at the expense of protecting the clients' personal autonomy. The case managers' reasoning emphasised situational...

  1. Multidisciplinary partnerships in community-specific writing or storytelling projects – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneretha Combrink

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Partnerships are used as strategy in various sectors of society, especially in order to reach goals which are unattainable for independent individuals, institutions or academic disciplines. The complexity of community-specific creative writing and storytelling projects (including the variety of languages, literacy levels and socio-economic issues in the country, as well as practical aspects such as funding, access to communities et cetera means that such projects cannot easily be run by individual persons or organisations but that collaboration is needed. The aim of this overview article is to investigate multidisciplinary partnerships in community projects which promote community-specific writing and storytelling, focusing on one such project in particular. As background the situation in South Africa with regard to writing and storytelling in communities is sketched. The focus then shifts to multidisciplinary partnerships. A case study is discussed to highlight the complexity of such partnerships. This article addresses the dearth of research on partnerships in the context of creative writing or storytelling projects in communities. Although multidisciplinary partnerships do have their challenges, the article concludes that they can bring balance and wealth to community development previously unexplored.

  2. Behavioural Comorbidity in Tanzanian Children with Epilepsy: A Community-Based Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kathryn; Rogathe, Jane; Hunter, Ewan; Burton, Matthew; Swai, Mark; Todd, Jim; Neville, Brian; Walker, Richard; Newton, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of and risk factors for behavioural disorders in children with epilepsy from a rural district of Tanzania by conducting a community-based case-control study. Method: One hundred and twelve children aged 6 to 14 years (55 males, 57 females; median age 12y) with active epilepsy (at least two…

  3. Responses to Islam in the Classroom: A Case of Muslim Girls from Minority Communities of Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Natasha Hakimali

    2016-01-01

    Coinciding with the rise of "Islamophobia" in the United States is a small but growing set of educational scholarship around the curricular impact of and response to Islamophobia. The qualitative case study discussed in this manuscript aims to contribute to this conversation by investigating how Muslim girls from minority communities of…

  4. Community Arts Programs: Cohesion and Difference Case Studies. Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiebert-Gruen, Cathleen

    2009-01-01

    A comparative case study of two cultural institutions, Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio, founded almost eighty years apart, were involved in social justice causes and community arts. Although both of these institutions participated in the political activism of their time, they also demonstrated an important adaptability. They were…

  5. Community of Practice or Affinity Space: A Case Study of a Professional Development MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kyle M. L.; Stephens, Michael; Branch-Mueller, Jennifer; de Groot, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have brought about new questions regarding the construction of virtual learning environments and course delivery systems. One such question that researchers and instructors alike are considering is the role of community in learning spaces. This paper uses a professional development (PD) MOOC as a case study to…

  6. A Community Organizes for Action: A Case Study of the Mon-Yough Region in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Robert W.; Chesler, Herbert A.

    This case study examines the development and problems of the Mon-Yough Community Action Committee, Inc. (MYCAC), one of the local anti-poverty agencies in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The agency's major effort is to overcome problems created by the decline of the local steel industry by supporting existing welfare agencies, and through such…

  7. Case Studies of School Community and Climate: Success Narratives of Schools in Challenging Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Darlene Ciuffetelli; Grenville, Heather; Flessa, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a Canadian qualitative case study project funded by the Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario. The paper describes success stories of students and communities affected by poverty from a diverse sample of eleven elementary schools throughout the province of Ontario. Over the period of one school year (2007-2008) and…

  8. Emergence of Raoultella ornithinolytica on O'ahu: a case of community-acquired R. ornithinolytica urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasone, Elizabeth S; Kaneshiro, Ricky; Min, Kathleen; Tokeshi, Jinichi

    2015-05-01

    Human infection with Raoultella ornithinolytica is rare, with only ten cases having been reported previously. This case report describes a local patient diagnosed with community-acquired R. ornithinolytica urinary tract infection in 2014.

  9. The Impact of Community Based Forest management on Communities' Livelihoods. A Comparative Case Study between CBFM and Non CBFM Villages in Kilwa District, Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Silvano, Pilly

    2012-01-01

    In 1990's the government of Tanzania introduced Community Forest management (CBFM) as a solution towards sustainable forest management with the main objectives of improving forest condition and the livelihoods of the forest dependent communities. However in many cases the most emphasis has been on the improvement of the forest condition and less focus on the livelihood impact of CBFM to local communities. Livelihood aspect of forest management remains poorly defined and little awareness has b...

  10. Molecular Analysis of Endolithic Microbial Communities in Volcanic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Meo, C. A.; Giovannoni, S.; Fisk, M.

    2002-12-01

    Terrestrial and marine volcanic glasses become mineralogically and chemically altered, and in many cases this alteration has been attributed to microbial activity. We have used molecular techniques to study the resident microbial communities from three different volcanic environments that may be responsible for this crustal alteration. Total microbial DNA was extracted from rhyolite glass of the 7 million year old Rattlesnake Tuff in eastern Oregon. The DNA was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with bacterial primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene. This 16S rDNA was cloned and screened with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Out of 89 total clones screened, 46 belonged to 13 different clone families containing two or more members, while 43 clones were unique. Sequences of eight clones representing the most dominant clone families in the library were 92 to 97% similar to soil bacterial species. In a separate study, young pillow basalts (microbial life. Total DNA was extracted from the basalt glass and screened for the presence of both bacteria and archaea using the PCR. Repeated attempts with different primer sets yielded no bacterial genes, whereas archaeal genes were quite abundant. A genetic fingerprinting technique, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), was used to compare the archaeal community compositions among the six different basalts. Filtered deep-sea water samples (~15 L) were examined in parallel to identify any overlap between rock- and seawater-associated archaea. The six rock community profiles were quite similar to each other, and the background water communities were also similar, respectively. Both the rock and water communities shared the same dominant peak. To identify the T-RFLP peaks corresponding to the individual members of the rock and seawater communities, clone libraries of the archaeal 16S rDNA for one basalt sample (Dive 3718) and its corresponding background water sample were

  11. Mining Data from Weibo to WeChat: A Comparative Case Study of MOOC Communities on Social Media in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with an overview on China's MOOC phenomenon and social media, and then reports a comparative, multiple case study on three selected MOOC communities that have emerged on social media in China. These representative MOOC communities included: (a) MOOC Academy, the largest MOOC community in China, (b) Zhejiang University of…

  12. Case management of malaria fever at community pharmacies in Pakistan; a threat to rational drug use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassali MA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To document the case management of uncomplicated malaria fever at community pharmacies located in the two major cities of Pakistan; Islamabad (national capital and Rawalpindi (twin city. Method: A comparative, cross-sectional study was designed to document the management of uncomplicated malaria fever at community pharmacies in twin cities of Pakistan through simulated patient visits. Visits were conducted in 238 randomly selected pharmacies to request advice for a simulated patient case of malaria. The pharmacy’s management was scored on a checklist including history taking and provision of advice and information. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare management of uncomplicated malaria fever by different types of dispensers working at community pharmacies situated at different locations in the twin cities.Results: The simulated patients were handled by salesmen (74.8%, n=178, pharmacist (5.4%, n=13 and diploma holders (19.8 %, n=47. Medication was dispensed in 83.1 % (n=198 of the visits, but only few of the treated cases were in accordance to standard treatment guidelines for malaria. However, in 14.8% (n=35 of the cases the simulated patients were directly referred to a physician. There was a significant difference observed in the process of history taking performed by different dispensers (e.g. pharmacist, pharmacy assistant, pharmacy diploma holders and salesman while no significant differences in the provision of advice by these dispensers was observed. Pharmacists were seen more frequently involved in the process of history taking if available at the community pharmacies. On the other hand, no significant differences were observed in the case management (history taking and provision of advice for the treatment of malaria fever among community pharmacies situated at different locations (e.g. near hospital/super market/small market in the twin cities.Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that

  13. Community-based enterprises and the commons: The case of San Juan Nuevo Parangaricutiro, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Orozco-Quintero

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Commons scholarship has tended to focus on the administration and use of commons by individuals and households and less so on collective enterprises that extract, transform and market what they harvest from the commons. In this paper, we consider Nuevo San Juan, a Mexican case that is well known in the community forestry and commons literature. In San Juan, indigenous community members who hold the rights for the commons are also the members of the enterprise that transforms and markets goods from the commons. We argue that such a strategy is one way to confront internal and external pressures on a commons. We draw upon the transcripts of 40 interviews undertaken during 2006 which are analyzed using a framework developed from the social, community-based and indigenous enterprise literature. Our goal was to utilize this framework to analyze the San Juan Forest Enterprise and understand its emergence and formation as a long-standing community-based enterprise that intersects with a commons, and thereby identify factors that increase chances of success for community enterprises. We found that by starting from the community-based and indigenous enterprise literature and using that literature to engage with thinking on commons, it was possible to consider the enterprise from the perspective of a regulatory framework rather than from the poles of dependency and modernization theories in which much commons work has been based. Enterprise and commons intersect when both are guided by core cultural values and the enterprise can become a new site for the creation of social and cultural cohesion. We also found that there were a number of necessary conditions for commons-based community-enterprises to retain internal and external legitimacy, namely: (1 leadership representative of the broad social mission rooted in the customary institutions, values and norms of the community; (2 accountability of enterprise leaders to the memberships they represent; and (3

  14. Engaging diverse communities participating in clinical trials: case examples from across Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doumbo Ogobara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the advent of increasing international collaborative research involving participants drawn from populations with diverse cultural backgrounds, community engagement becomes very critical for the smooth conduction of the research. The African Malaria Network Trust (AMANET is a pan-African non-governmental organization that sponsors and technically supports malaria vaccine trials in various African countries. Case description AMANET sponsored phase Ib or IIb clinical trials of several malaria vaccine candidates in various Africa countries. In Burkina Faso, Mali and Tanzania trials of the merozoite surface protein 3 -- in its Long Synthetic Peptide configuration (MSP3 LSP -- were conducted. In Mali, the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1 was tested, while a hybrid of glutamate rich protein (GLURP and MSP3 (GMZ2 was tested in Gabon. AMANET recognizes the importance of engaging with the communities from which trial participants are drawn, hence community engagement was given priority in all project activities conducted in the various countries. Discussion and evaluation Existing local social systems were used to engage the communities from which clinical trial participants were drawn. This article focuses on community engagement activities employed at various AMANET-supported clinical trial sites in different countries, highlighting subtle differences in the approaches used. The paper also gives some general pros and cons of community engagement. Conclusions Community engagement enables two-way sharing of accurate information and ideas between researchers and researched communities, which helps to create an environment conducive to smooth research activities with enhanced sense of research ownership by the communities.

  15. A case of community-acquired Acinetobacter junii-johnsonii cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Martínez, Andrés F; González-Fontal, Guido R; Johnson, Steven

    2012-06-01

    Acinetobacter skin and soft tissue infection outside of the traumatic wound setting are rare occurrences. The majority of cases occur in the presence of significant comorbilities and by Acinetobacter baumanii. Herein a case is reported of community-onset, health-care-associated, non-traumatic cellulitis caused by Acinetobacter, species junii-johnsonii with bacteremia. This is the first reported case of Acinetobacter junii-johnsonii skin and soft tissue infection. Hemorrhagic bullae might be one of the clinical features of Acinetobacter cellulitis. PMID:23242290

  16. The institutional space of community initiatives for renewable energy: a comparative case study of the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oteman, M.I.; Wiering, M.A.; Helderman, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Community initiatives for renewable energy are emerging across Europe but with varying numbers, success rates and strategies. A literature overview identifies structural, strategic and biophysical conditions for community success. Our analysis focuses on institutional structure, as we de

  17. Women, the welfare state, and their transnational dimension: the case of Mexico's community health worker programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Valles, J

    1999-01-01

    Feminist scholarship has shown that the welfare state is not only a set of agencies and policies to distribute services, but is engaged in the promotion of normative concepts of the female through its structural arrangements and the content of its programs and policies. Yet, this scholarship conceptualizes the state as a national entity and free from external influences, ignoring its transnational dimension. States are embedded in an international network consisting of other states, international agencies, and corporations that influence the practices and discursive frame of the welfare state. To uncover the process by which the welfare state institutionalizes and promotes female identities and the transnational dimension of this process, the author analyzes the case of community health worker programs conducted by the Mexican state from the 1970s to the early 1990s. The analysis corroborates the gender practices of the welfare state and suggests a reconceptualization that takes into account the transnational dimension of the state practices. The implications for feminist theories on the welfare state and for analyses of health promotion policies and programs are discussed. PMID:10450549

  18. Eco-Preferences and Actors Behind: Case Study on Academic Community in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dagiliute

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumption induces various environmental impacts, therefore change of consumption patterns, and decrease in related environmental burden are key issues of sustainable consumption. Promotion of environment friendly local products is related with willingness to pay for such products and factors behind. This paper examines willingness to pay and preferences within product attributes like price, quality and origin of young consumers in Lithuania. Survey results reveal that the majority of respondents are willing to buy environmentally friendly products, but in some cases the price might negatively influence consumer decision. Particular product analysis has shown that if not environment friendly then local products have preference. Nevertheless, results also indicate the need for further improvement in the education of academic community on the impact of goods and services on the environment. Revising the content of the study programmes and inner sustainability policies of universities could be the options for the improvement in this field and in sustainability in general.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.65.3.4801

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial communities in marine sediments.

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, J P; Herwig, R P

    1996-01-01

    For the phylogenetic analysis of microbial communities present in environmental samples microbial DNA can be extracted from the sample, 16S rDNA can be amplified with suitable primers and the PCR, and clonal libraries can be constructed. We report a protocol that can be used for efficient cell lysis and recovery of DNA from marine sediments. Key steps in this procedure include the use of a bead mill homogenizer for matrix disruption and uniform cell lysis and then purification of the released...

  20. Analysis of community structure in networks of correlated data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, S.; Jensen, P.; Arenas, A.

    2008-12-25

    We present a reformulation of modularity that allows the analysis of the community structure in networks of correlated data. The new modularity preserves the probabilistic semantics of the original definition even when the network is directed, weighted, signed, and has self-loops. This is the most general condition one can find in the study of any network, in particular those defined from correlated data. We apply our results to a real network of correlated data between stores in the city of Lyon (France).

  1. An ecosystem analysis of the activated sludge microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakopoulou, Trissevyene V

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken (i) to investigate the interactions of the activated sludge microbial community in a chemostat with the "environment", such as the substrate composition and variations, (ii) to investigate how these interactions affect the quality of the treated effluent and (iii) to determine the limits or applicability conditions to the indicators and to the prediction potential of the treated effluent quality. This work presents (a) the experimental results obtained from a reactor fed municipal wastewater (Data Set2-DS2) concerning the reactor's operating conditions and the microbial community of the sludge (b) comparisons between DS2 and an older Data Set (DS1) obtained when the reactor was fed synthetic substrate, all other experimental conditions being identical, and (c) simulation results and sensitivity analyses of two model runs (R1 and R2, corresponding to DS1 and DS2). The first trophic level (P(1)) of the DS2 microbial community consisted of bacteria, the second trophic level (P(2)) of bacteria-eating protozoa, rotifers and nematodes and the third trophic level (P(3)) of carnivorous protozoa and arthropods. Rotifers were an important constituent of the DS2 microbial community. The DS1 and DS1 communities differed in total size, trophic level sizes and species composition. Correlations between the major microbial groups of DS2 community and either loading rates or effluent quality attributes were generally low, but the correlation of bacteria with SVI and ammonia in the effluent was better. Also, the ratio of rotifers to protozoa in P(2) was correlated to BOD in the effluent. The results of this work indicate that predictions of the treated effluent quality based only on protozoa may not be safe. Sensitivity analysis of R2 run indicate that, when variation in Y and K(d) biokinetic coefficients of the sludge are combined with fluctuations in composition and quality of municipal wastewater entering the reactor, then sufficient significant

  2. Digital Communication and a Concern with the Community: A Case Study in a Cooperative Credit Araguaina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumeninng Abrantes Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to address the attributes of Digital Communication used by a cooperative of Credit to meet the seventh cooperative principle of Concern for Community. The same occurred in a credit union in the city of Araguaina Tocantins, with the aim of identifying the digital communication developed by the cooperative. The article begins with a literature review on the emergence of cooperative, then the conceptualization of the credit union and its history in Brazil, then the cooperative principles and their evolution, conceptualizations of concern for the community, digital communication, social marketing and the presentation and analysis of results. The methodology was based on the case study, which according to Yin (2001 it is important because it is the reality studied. The research showed that the performance of the cooperative is geared entirely to their members and do not have a lot of focus related to social actions, but it promotes actions to attract members and to promote community development through digital media. Another important result of the research was that the principle addressed is one of the goals of the cooperative that aims to meet the interests, promote the welfare of members and the entire community where the cooperative operates.

  3. 96例2型糖尿病患者社区健康干预效果分析%96 cases of patients with type 2 diabetes community health intervention effect analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德文

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨2型糖尿病患者健康干预方法和效果,提高糖尿病患者的生活质量。方法:通过成立糖尿病俱乐部、集中健康讲座、发放健康小册子、饮食干预、运动干预和用药指导等措施,对社区100名2型糖尿病患者实施健康干预。结果:2型糖尿病患者干预前后在糖尿病知识知晓、饮食控制、合理运动、按时用药、血糖达标等方面均有显著性差异(均P<0.05)。结论:健康干预对2型糖尿病患者控制血糖,改善生活质量有显效。%Objective To study the patients with type 2 diabetes health intervention method and effect, improve the quality of life in patients with diabetes. Methods Through the establishment of diabetes, centralized health club lectures, out pamphlets health, diet intervention and exercise intervention and medication guide, to the community of 100 to implement health interventions in patients with type 2 diabetes. Results In patients with type 2 diabetes in knowledge about diabetes mellitus before and after the intervention, reasonable diet, sports, medicine on time, blood glucose control is at target, etc, all have significant difference (P<0.005). Conclusion Health interventions in patients with type 2 diabetes control blood sugar, improve the quality of life have to bite.

  4. Fracture Penis: An Analysis of 26 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V.Soundra Pandyan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the pattern of penile fracture occurrence, its clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and outcome at our center. A retrospective analysis of 26 patients with penile fractures treated at our hospital from January 1997 to January 2005 was carried out. We noted an incidence of 3.5 cases per year, occurring more commonly in unmarried men. Of our study group, 28 episodes of penile fractures occurred in 26 patients. Hospital presentation after trauma varied from 2 h to 21 days. Masturbation was the main initiating causative factor and penile hematoma was the most common clinical finding. Nearly 81% noticed the characteristic click prior to the fracture. Clinical diagnosis was adequate in a majority of the cases. Midshaft fractures with right-sided laterality were more frequent in this series. The tear size ranged from 0.5—2.5 cm with a mean of 1.1 cm. All cases, but one, were treated by surgical repair using absorbable sutures. Out of three cases treated conservatively, two failed to respond and had to be treated surgically. False fracture with dorsal vein tear was present in two cases. Involvement of bilateral corpora was seen in one patient. Infection was the most common early complication, while pain with deviation was the late complication. In our experience, clinical findings are adequate enough to diagnose fracture penis in a majority of cases. Surgical exploration with repair of the tear is recommended both in early and delayed presentations. There was no noticeable relationship to the time of initial presentation or with the size and site of tear to the final outcome.

  5. CORSSA: The Community Online Resource for Statistical Seismicity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Andrew J.; Wiemer, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Statistical seismology is the application of rigorous statistical methods to earthquake science with the goal of improving our knowledge of how the earth works. Within statistical seismology there is a strong emphasis on the analysis of seismicity data in order to improve our scientific understanding of earthquakes and to improve the evaluation and testing of earthquake forecasts, earthquake early warning, and seismic hazards assessments. Given the societal importance of these applications, statistical seismology must be done well. Unfortunately, a lack of educational resources and available software tools make it difficult for students and new practitioners to learn about this discipline. The goal of the Community Online Resource for Statistical Seismicity Analysis (CORSSA) is to promote excellence in statistical seismology by providing the knowledge and resources necessary to understand and implement the best practices, so that the reader can apply these methods to their own research. This introduction describes the motivation for and vision of CORRSA. It also describes its structure and contents.

  6. Leadership style in the deaf community: an exploratory case study of a university president.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm-Larew, Deborah; Stanford, Jevetta; Greene, Robert; Heacox, Christopher; Hodge, Warren

    2008-01-01

    A qualitative mini-case study of I. King Jordan and his leadership style explores the influence of a transformational leader on Gallaudet University and the Deaf community. The study features a template-style semistructured interview with Jordan regarding his perceptions of leadership and his personal insights. The study highlights the attributes of transformational leadership and encourages further research into leadership as a tool for change in the Deaf community and the disability rights movement. This exploration of the leadership style of Gallaudet's first Deaf president is especially timely; the study was conducted between Jordan's retirement announcement and the Gallaudet Board of Trustees' decision to rescind an offer to his announced successor to become the university's next president. That tumultuous transition accentuated the disconnect between Jordan's transformational, charismatic leadership style, which affected generations of the Deaf community, and his followers' dissatisfaction with his management and successor planning.

  7. Community Walkability Measurement Methodology and Development Strategy Analysis Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Assessment-A Case Study of Typical Communities in Chongqing%基于模糊综合评价的住区可步行性测度方法及发展策略研究*--以重庆典型住区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董世永; 龙晨吟

    2015-01-01

    The current community planning is mainly motor trafifc oriented, in which there are general problems, such as pedestrian network being fragmented, pedestrian environment gradually deteriorating, and pedestrian safety becoming more endangered. The enhancement of the walkability of residential community, which are the main living space of the residents, has a great positive effect on promoting the vigor of community, reducing environment pollution, and improving the health status of residents. Firstly, this paper summarizes the key elements influencing the community walkability based on the literature review, and analyses the existing problems of the methodologies of walkability measurement. Secondly, the measuring index system of community walkability is identiifed through the Delphi Method and ifeld research, and the weight of the index system for community walkability is determined by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Method, then this study establishes the measurement methodology of community walkability using fuzzy comprehensive assessment. Finally, several typical residential communities in Chongqing are selected as examples to apply this method on, and then several strategies are recommended to enhance the community walkability according to the measuring results.%当前的住区规划以机动交通为导向,普遍存在着步行网络支离破碎、步行环境逐渐恶化、步行安全日益凸显等问题。而住区作为居民生活的主要场所,其可步行性水平的提高对减少环境污染、提升住区活力、改善居民健康状况等方面具有积极意义。本文以文献综述为基础,总结了影响可步行性的关键因素,剖析了既有可步行性测度方法存在的问题;通过德尔菲法及现场调研确定可步行性测度指标体系,并运用层次分析法明确指标体系权重向量,进而通过模糊综合评价建立住区可步行性测度方法;最后,以重庆典型住区对该方

  8. Supporting close-to-community providers through a community health system approach: case examples from Ethiopia and Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Lunsford, Sarah Smith; Fatta, Kate; Stover, Kim Ethier; Shrestha, Ram

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Close-to-community (CTC) providers, including community health workers or volunteers or health extension workers, can be effective in promoting access to and utilization of health services. Tasks are often shifted to these providers with limited resources and support from CTC programmes or communities. The Community Health System Strengthening (CHSS) model is part of an improvement approach which draws on existing formal and informal networks within a community, such as agricultu...

  9. Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Community Capacity Building of a Regional Community Cancer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, John; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Meade, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of 25 Community Network Programs funded by the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities with the objectives to create a collaborative infrastructure of academic and community based organizations and to develop effective and sustainable interventions to…

  10. Using computer aided case based reasoning to support clinical reasoning in community occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bruce; Robertson, David; Wiratunga, Nirmalie; Craw, Susan; Mitchell, Dawn; Stewart, Elaine

    2007-08-01

    Community occupational therapists have long been involved in the provision of environmental control systems. Diverse electronic technologies with the potential to improve the health and quality of life of selected clients have developed rapidly in recent years. Occupational therapists employ clinical reasoning in order to determine the most appropriate technology to meet the needs of individual clients. This paper describes a number of the drivers that may increase the adoption of information and communication technologies in the occupational therapy profession. It outlines case based reasoning as understood in the domains of expert systems and knowledge management and presents the preliminary results of an ongoing investigation into the potential of a prototype computer aided case based reasoning tool to support the clinical reasoning of community occupational therapists in the process of assisting clients to choose home electronic assistive or smart house technology. PMID:17576021

  11. What do you see? A case study of community college science pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Chantae M.

    Community colleges educate almost half of all American undergraduates. These students include but are not limited to under-prepared high school graduates, and individuals who are working full-time while attending school, as well as students of diverse cultural, socioeconomic, and ethnic backgrounds. With such a diverse student population, science educators may find it difficult to teach science, especially since the language of science is exceptional and contains some inner hierarchy that most other disciplines do not (Osborne, 2002). This qualitative case study examined a community college science faculty member notion's learning to use visual illustrations in science instruction through a collaborative professional development approach. Through this study, insights were gained on how to implement relevant science pedagogy at this community college. Narratives are used to tell the story of a community college science instructor's experience using visual illustrations through science concepts (e.g. cell structure, cellular transport, and metabolism) taught. Narratives reflect the science instructor's story leading to further studies in multiliteracies, professional development, and student perception of visual images in community college setting.

  12. Case fatality ratio and mortality rate trends of community-onset Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tom, S; Galbraith, J C; Valiquette, L;

    2014-01-01

    Lethal outcomes can be expressed as a case fatality ratio (CFR) or as a mortality rate per 100 000 population per year (MR). Population surveillance for community-onset methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia was conducted in Canada, Australia......-onset S. aureus bacteraemia, particularly MSSA, is associated with major disease burden. This study highlights complementary information provided by evaluating both CFR and MR....

  13. Organic Agriculture as Livelihood Strategy: A Case Study in a Rural Community of Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Peñaranda, Raquel; Egelyng, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a case study of a Brazilian community pursuing a livelihood strategy based on certified organic agriculture. Using the sustainable rural livelihoods framework, the paper identifies three different organic livelihood strategies involving varying degrees of capitals. The paper concludes that understanding the implications of these different organic strategies and their rationales is a prerequisite for policy-makers to tailor policies and programmes aiming to ...

  14. Impact of Mercury Use in Artisanal Gold Mining on Community Health: Kahama Case Study, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kalwani, Jumanne Daudi; Fumbuka, Colorine

    2014-01-01

    This study is part of the main research carried out in 2010 which investigated social economic impact of uncontrolled artisanal mining on local communities and the environment using a case study of sampled gold mining sites in selected villages in Lunguya and Segese wards in Kahama District, Tanzania. The methodology involved a study sample size of 210 households, forming 70% of the targeted mining villages. They were interviewed on various social economic variables related to artisanal minin...

  15. Notation of Depression in Case Records of Older Adults in Community Long-Term Care

    OpenAIRE

    Proctor, Enola K

    2008-01-01

    Although significant numbers of social service clients experience mental health problems, virtually no research has examined the responsiveness of social service agencies to mental disorder. This article examines the extent to which client depression is reflected in records of a public social service agency, community long-term care (CLTC). Researchers assessed new, consenting CLTC clients for depression using standardized research criteria in a telephone interview. Agency case records were a...

  16. A rare case of community acquired Burkholderia cepacia infection presenting as pyopneumothorax in an immunocompetent individual

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suman S Karanth; Hariharan Regunath; Kiran Chawla; Mukhyaprana Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia) infection is rarely reported in an immunocompetent host. It is a well known occurence in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic granulomatous disease where it increases both morbidity and mortality. It has also been included in the list of organisms causing nosocomial infections in an immunocompetent host, most of them transmitted from the immunocompromised patient in which this organism harbors. We report a rare case of isolation of B. cepacia from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of an immunocompetent agriculturist who presented with productive cough and fever associated with a pyopneumothorax. This is the first case of community acquired infection reported in an immunocompetent person in India.

  17. A rare case of community acquired Burkholderia cepacia infection presenting as pyopneumothorax in an immunocompetent individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman S Karanth

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia infection is rarely reported in an immunocompetent host. It is a well known occurence in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic granulomatous disease where it increases both morbidity and mortality. It has also been included in the list of organisms causing nosocomial infections in an immunocompetent host, most of them transmitted from the immunocompromised patient in which this organism harbors. We report a rare case of isolation of B. cepacia from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of an immunocompetent agriculturist who presented with productive cough and fever associated with a pyopneumothorax. This is the first case of community acquired infection reported in an immunocompetent person in India.

  18. Analysis of intestinal bacterial community diversity of adult Dastarcus helophoroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z Q; He, C; Li, M L

    2014-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and a culture-dependent technique were used to study the diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in adult Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae). Universal bacterial primers targeting 200 bp regions of the 16S rDNA gene were used in the PCR-DGGE assay, and 14 bright bands were obtained. The intestinal bacteria detected by PCR-DGGE were classified to Enterococcus (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae), Bacillus (Bacillales: Bacillaceae), Cellvibrio (Pseudomonadales: Pseudomonadaceae), Caulobacter (Caulobacterales: Caulobacteraceae), and uncultured bacteria, whereas those isolated by the culture-dependent technique belonged to Staphylococcus (Bacillales: Staphylococcaceae), Pectobacterium Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), and Enterobacter (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). These intestinal bacteria represented the groups Lactobacillales (Enterococcus), Pseudomonadales (Cellvibrio), Caulobacterales (Caulobacter), Bacilli (Bacillus and Staphylococcus), and Gammaproteobacteria (Pectobacterium and Enterobacter). Our results demonstrated that PCR-DGGE analysis and the culture-dependent technique were useful in determining the intestinal bacteria of D. helophoroides and the two methods should be integrated to characterize the microbial community and diversity. PMID:25373236

  19. Microbial community analysis of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Muñoz-Palazon, Barbara; Garcia-Ruiz, Maria-Jesus; Osorio, Francisco; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

    2015-03-01

    Full-scale applications of autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies for the treatment of digested sludge liquor have proliferated during the last decade. Among these technologies, the aerobic/anoxic deammonification process (DEMON) is one of the major applied processes. This technology achieves nitrogen removal from wastewater through anammox metabolism inside a single bioreactor due to alternating cycles of aeration. To date, microbial community composition of full-scale DEMON bioreactors have never been reported. In this study, bacterial community structure of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor located at the Apeldoorn wastewater treatment plant was analyzed using pyrosequencing. This technique provided a higher-resolution study of the bacterial assemblage of the system compared to other techniques used in lab-scale DEMON bioreactors. Results showed that the DEMON bioreactor was a complex ecosystem where ammonium oxidizing bacteria, anammox bacteria and many other bacterial phylotypes coexist. The potential ecological role of all phylotypes found was discussed. Thus, metagenomic analysis through pyrosequencing offered new perspectives over the functioning of the DEMON bioreactor by exhaustive identification of microorganisms, which play a key role in the performance of bioreactors. In this way, pyrosequencing has been proven as a helpful tool for the in-depth investigation of the functioning of bioreactors at microbiological scale.

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Community Wind Power DevelopmentModels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Wind, Tom; Juhl, Dan; Grace, Robert; West, Peter

    2005-05-20

    For years, farmers in the United States have looked with envy on their European counterparts ability to profitably farm the wind through ownership of distributed, utility-scale wind projects. Only within the past few years, however, has farmer- or community-owned windpower development become a reality in the United States. The primary hurdle to this type of development in the United States has been devising and implementing suitable business and legal structures that enable such projects to take advantage of tax-based federal incentives for windpower. This article discusses the limitations of such incentives in supporting farmer- or community-owned wind projects, describes four ownership structures that potentially overcome such limitations, and finally conducts comparative financial analysis on those four structures, using as an example a hypothetical 1.5 MW farmer-owned project located in the state of Oregon. We find that material differences in the competitiveness of each structure do exist, but that choosing the best structure for a given project will largely depend on the conditions at hand; e.g., the ability of the farmer(s) to utilize tax credits, preference for individual versus cooperative ownership, and the state and utility service territory in which the project will be located.

  1. [Prophylaxis of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Outbreaks with Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine. Prospects Analysis for Russian Military Community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guchev, I A; Klochkov, O I; Sinopalnikov, A I

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal pneumonia and other diseases caused by pneumococci still remain the main factors of high morbidity and mortality rates throughout the world. Pneumococci as the leading pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), acute otitis media and sinusitis also cause a number of other serious systemic disorders including invasive infections with high mortality in spite of the antimicrobial resistance status and adequate antimicrobials choice. Pneumococcal infections are responsible for 5-35% or more of community-acquired pneumonias. The burden of pneumonia (up to 100-200 per thousand) is recorded among military recruits in training centers. Since the specific environment of the soldiers could be carrected, their health protection requires medical surveillance. For these reasons, polysaccharide and more immunogenic conjugated pneumococcal vaccines were developed. There is now an urgent need to understand whether such vaccines are effective in military conscripts. Controversy about the effectiveness and value of the polysaccharide (PPV-23) vaccine as a CAP morbidity restriction measure still persists. There were implemented plenty of metaanalyses of pneumococcal vaccines in adults. Some of them showed that the vaccine was effective against bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia in 'low risk' healthy adults and elders. There have been a number of poor quality observational studies in Russia where 'all pneumonia cases' were considered as an endpoint. It remains controversial whether these observational studies provide adequate evidence to justify the use of the polysaccharide vaccine in the groups of healthy young men for whom it is being advocated. In our analysis we found weak evidence supporting pneumococcal vaccination with PPV-23 for this group. Nevertheless, favorable tendency was found to immunize. It is the reason for a trail to find pharmacoepidemiological support for vaccination by novel conjugated vaccines with better immunogenicity. PMID:27337866

  2. GeoChips for Analysis of Microbial Functional Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong

    2008-09-30

    Functional gene arrays (FGA) are microarrays that contain probes for genes encoding proteins or enzymes involved in functions of interest and allow for the study of thousands of genes at one time. The most comprehensive FGA to date is the GeoChip, which contains ~;;24,000 probes for ~;;10,000 genes involved in the geochemical cycling of C, N, P, and S, as well as genes involved in metal resistance and reduction and contaminant degradation. This chapter details the methods necessary for GeoChip analysis. Methods covered include preparation of DNA (whole community genome amplification and labeling), array setup (prehybridization steps), hybridization (sample and hybridization buffers), and post hybridization steps (slide washing and array scanning).

  3. The Academic Robotics Community in the UK Web based data construction and analysis of a distributed community of practice

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Tomlinson

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores a scientific community of mainly academic researchers within the discipline of robotics. Data are constructed wholly from web-based resources such as web pages, electronic CVs and bibliographic search engines to identify teams of people working together, career patterns, and the research programmes of this group. Techniques from social network analysis are applied to the data to reveal the structures and relationships within the community. The paper is set within the conte...

  4. Integrating software architectures for distributed simulations and simulation analysis communities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsby, Michael E.; Fellig, Daniel; Linebarger, John Michael; Moore, Patrick Curtis; Sa, Timothy J.; Hawley, Marilyn F.

    2005-10-01

    The one-year Software Architecture LDRD (No.79819) was a cross-site effort between Sandia California and Sandia New Mexico. The purpose of this research was to further develop and demonstrate integrating software architecture frameworks for distributed simulation and distributed collaboration in the homeland security domain. The integrated frameworks were initially developed through the Weapons of Mass Destruction Decision Analysis Center (WMD-DAC), sited at SNL/CA, and the National Infrastructure Simulation & Analysis Center (NISAC), sited at SNL/NM. The primary deliverable was a demonstration of both a federation of distributed simulations and a federation of distributed collaborative simulation analysis communities in the context of the same integrated scenario, which was the release of smallpox in San Diego, California. To our knowledge this was the first time such a combination of federations under a single scenario has ever been demonstrated. A secondary deliverable was the creation of the standalone GroupMeld{trademark} collaboration client, which uses the GroupMeld{trademark} synchronous collaboration framework. In addition, a small pilot experiment that used both integrating frameworks allowed a greater range of crisis management options to be performed and evaluated than would have been possible without the use of the frameworks.

  5. Management of children’s acute diarrhea by community pharmacies in five towns of Ethiopia: simulated client case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abegaz TM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tadesse Melaku Abegaz,1 Sewunet Admasu Belachew,1 Tamrat Befekadu Abebe,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresilassie,1 Fitsum Sebsibe Teni,2 Habtamu Gebremeskel Woldie3 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Gondar University, Gondar, 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Debremarkos Teaching and Referral Hospital, Debremarkos, Ethiopia Background: Acute diarrhea is the major cause of child morbidity and mortality in low-income nations. It is the second most common cause of death among children <5 years of age globally. The indispensable role of community pharmacists is clearly observed in the prevention and treatment of diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of data on how community pharmacies manage acute childhood diarrhea cases in Ethiopia. This study aimed to evaluate the experience of community pharmacies in the management of acute diarrhea in northern Ethiopia.Methods: A simulated case-based cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies from five towns of northern Ethiopia between April 2015 and September 2015. Convenience sampling technique was used to select sample towns. A structured questionnaire was organized to collect the information. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, one-way analysis of variance, and binary logistic regression were performed to describe, infer, and test for association between the variables. SPSS for Windows Version 21 was used to enter and analyze the data. A 95% confidence interval and P-value of 0.05 were set to test the level of significance.Results: Approximately 113 community pharmacies were visited to collect the required data from five towns. Majority (78, 69% of them were located away from hospitals and health care areas. Nine components of history taking were presented for dispensers. Regarding the patient history, “age” was frequently taken, (90

  6. Relationship to the River: The Case of the Muar River Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaman A. Samah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Muar River which located in Johor, is an important river in Malaysia. Previously Muar River had a huge influence on the socio-economic status of the community. It has been used as the sources of income, protein and as well as the major mode of transportation for the community and traders. However, does the Muar River still has that influences on this modern day? The answer of this pertinent question will fulfill the main objective of this study which is to discover Muar River relationship with its surrounding community. Approach: In addition to relationship with the river, this quantitative study was conducted to determine the Muar River community agreement towards initiative to develop the river. A total of 300 respondents from 19 villages along Muar River were selected based on the simple random sampling. Results: Based on the analysis of the results, it can be concluded that Muar River still has a lot to offer to its surrounding community especially for the recreational activities (fish and prawn fishing. A large majority of Muar River community have a moderate and high level of agreement towards the river development. Further analysis performed revealed that income per month, number of household, age, distance to Muar River and period of staying in the areas had significant relationships with agreement towards river development. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is recommended that additional recreational facilities can be added, events at national and international level especially on fish and prawn fishing can be held at Muar River and campaign on the importance of river development and the danger of river pollution can be conducted.

  7. The Ambivalence of Community: A Critical Analysis of Rural Education's Oldest Trope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The concept of community has been central to the discourse of rural education for generations. At the same time, community has been and continues to be a deeply problematic concept. I begin this analysis with Raymond Williams's characterization of the idea of community as a uniquely positive concept, arguing that this framing is, as Williams…

  8. Poisoning and suicide by cyanide jewelry cleaner in the US Hmong community: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlich, Fiona M; Alsop, Judith Ann; Anderson, Deborah L; Geller, Richard J; Kalugdan, Theresa Thao; Roberts, David J; Thomas, Lindsey C

    2012-02-01

    Over 200 000 persons of Hmong ethnicity live in the United States. The majority of this Southeast Asian ethnic group live in California, Minnesota and Wisconsin. Tradition plays a strong role in the Hmong population, and difficulty in assimilation into "Western ways" has been reported to result in depression and suicide attempts. Some products sold at Southeast Asian ethnic markets are well-known within the Hmong community to be lethal but are essentially unknown to the outside community. We describe eight cases in which cyanide-containing products were ingested by Hmong patients. Seven cases were suicide attempts involving the ingestion of a locally-purchased substance intended for cleaning metal, coins, or jewelry. One case involved the fatal ingestion of a cyanide-containing "herbal" cure. In the majority of the cases, cyanide was not initially suspected, and treatment was delayed due to lack of information regarding the product ingested. In the two patients who survived, the cyanide antidote kit (sodium nitrite, amyl nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate) was administered early. Clinicians should be aware that unusual and potentially lethal products are easily available at ethnic markets. Cyanide toxicity should be suspected, and empiric antidote therapy initiated early, in patients of Hmong or Southeast Asian descent who present with sudden and unexplained cardiovascular collapse and metabolic acidosis, especially in the setting of a suspected suicidal ingestion.

  9. Assessing opinions in community leadership networks to address health inequalities: a case study from Project IMPACT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, M P; Ramanadhan, S; Viswanath, K

    2015-12-01

    This study demonstrates a novel approach that those engaged in promoting social change in health can use to analyze community power, mobilize it and enhance community capacity to reduce health inequalities. We used community reconnaissance methods to select and interview 33 participants from six leadership sectors in 'Milltown', the New England city where the study was conducted. We used UCINET network analysis software to assess the structure of local leadership and NVivo qualitative software to analyze leaders' views on public health and health inequalities. Our main analyses showed that community power is distributed unequally in Milltown, with our network of 33 divided into an older, largely male and more powerful group, and a younger, largely female group with many 'grassroots' sector leaders who focus on reducing health inequalities. Ancillary network analyses showed that grassroots leaders comprise a self-referential cluster that could benefit from greater affiliation with leaders from other sectors and identified leaders who may serve as leverage points in our overall program of public agenda change to address health inequalities. Our innovative approach provides public health practitioners with a method for assessing community leaders' views, understanding subgroup divides and mobilizing leaders who may be helpful in reducing health inequalities. PMID:26471919

  10. Community College Student Mental Health: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Daniel Seth; Davison, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study explores community college student mental health by comparing the responses of California community college and traditional university students on the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II). Using MANOVA, we compared community college and traditional university students, examining…

  11. Interspecific associations and community structure: A local survey and analysis in a grass community

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific associations in the plant community may help to understand the self-organizing assembly and succession of the community. In present study, Pearson correlation, net correlation, Spearman rank correlation, and point correlation were used to detect the interspecific (inter-family) associations of grass species (families) using the sampling data collected in a grass community of Zhuhai, China. We found that most associations between grass species (families) were positive association...

  12. Cohorts and community: a case study of community engagement in the establishment of a health and demographic surveillance site in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Allotey, Pascale; Reidpath, Daniel D.; Devarajan, Nirmala; Rajagobal, Kanason; Yasin, Shajahan; Arunachalam, Dharmalingam; Imelda, Johanna Deborah; Soyiri, Irenous; Davey, Tamzyn; Jahan, Nowrozy; Team, The Seaco

    2014-01-01

    Background: Community engagement is an increasingly important requirement of public health research and plays an important role in the informed consent and recruitment process. However, there is very little guidance about how it should be done, the indicators for assessing effectiveness of the community engagement process and the impact it has on recruitment, retention, and ultimately on the quality of the data collected as part of longitudinal cohort studies.Methods: An instrumental case stu...

  13. Economic evaluation in primary health care: the case of Western Kenya community based health care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang'ombe, J K

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country. PMID:6427933

  14. Creating Community and Support Using Native American Values in an Inclusive Third Grade Setting: An Action Research Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloom, Lisa A.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This action research case study describes the collaboration of five third-grade teachers and a special educator to create a grade block system of support for all students to encourage learning and to meet school-wide and classroom expectations. Three goals guided the development of this integrated system: to create an inclusive caring classroom community, to provide positive behavioral support to all students, and to integrate strong ties and values of the local Native American culture. This article describes classroom and community activities, including class meetings and service learning projects. A case study of Steven, a classmate with Emotional-Behavioral Disorders (EBD who needed intensive support, is presented. After a functional behavior analysis was conducted, individualized strategies were developed and implemented based on his needs. These included modifying assignments and encouraging peer compliments and positive attention. Results of an AB research design indicated a substantial drop in Steven’s disruptive behavior after the implementation of these individualized interventions. Recommendations for practitioners based on the integrated classroom system are presented.

  15. A Case Study of Community Involvement Influence on Policy Decisions: Victories of a Community-Based Participatory Research Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith M. Williams

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Buffalo Lupus Project was a community-university partnership that investigated associations between exposure to a local waste site and high rates of lupus and other autoimmune diseases. The partnership’s major accomplishment was successful advocacy for containment and clean-up of the site. As a result of community education, the remediation plan suggested by the community was adopted. Additionally, when a local childhood lead poisoning testing program was canceled, community members signed a letter to legislators urging them to replace the funding, which was restored within one week. This demonstrated how coordinated community-based capacity-building efforts can influence health policy.

  16. Building a Community of Scholars in Educational Research: A Case Study for Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Lamb, PharmD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the model of the Education Research/Scholarship of Teaching Community of Scholarship (EdCOS as one Community of Scholars (COS within a department of pharmacy.Case Study: A case study describing the Education Research/Scholarship of Teaching Community of Scholars (EdCOS. Faculty members were self-selected into one or more of eight COS. The EdCOS was comprised of 14 members. The EdCOS developed a vision statement to “foster and support a learning culture that enables faculty to capture and evaluate teaching and learning experiences.” The process by which the EdCOS set out to initiate this COS will be discussed. Since its inception all members of the EdCOS have become IRB Certified. Through a combined project, members had the opportunity to develop, learn, and acquire experience in areas of conducting research from the conception of a project through final submission of the manuscript. Departmental publications and grant funding increased over the years after the implementation of the COS.Conclusion: Although cause and effect cannot be explicitly determined, the EdCOS has had a positive impact on its members building confidence, experience, and ideas for future projects.

  17. An Integrative Psychotherapy Approach to Foster Community Engagement and Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Case Study Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Whitesel, Frankie; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-02-01

    This case study illustrates the use of a long-term integrative psychotherapy approach with a middle- aged man with chronic schizophrenia and a mood disorder. The case of "Holst" describes a man with a history of insecure attachment and trauma who later went on to contract a serious chronic illness, precipitating the onset of psychotic symptoms, depression, and chronic suicidal ideation, resulting in multiple hospitalizations. Combining metacognition-oriented therapy with elements of cognitive behavioral therapy and psychiatric rehabilitation, this approach fostered significantly improved community functioning and attainment of personal goals over time. Through the journey of therapy, the patient also developed a more coherent narrative about his life, established a stable sense of self, and became an active agent in the world. This case illustration demonstrates that these three different approaches can be used in a sequential and complementary fashion to foster recovery in the midst of serious physical and mental illness. PMID:26636563

  18. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS AN APPROACH TO COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT : a case study of social entrepreneurship in Kathmandu, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Khatiwada, Prabesh

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Khatiwada, Prabesh. Social entrepreneurship as an approach to community development: a case study of social entrepreneurship in Kathmandu, Nepal. 66 pages. 1 appendix. Language: English. Autumn 2014. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences. Degree Programme in Social Services. Bachelors of Social Services, Focus in Community Development Work. This is a qualitative and descriptive study. The aim of the research is to study the role of social entrepreneurship in community devel...

  19. Feature Analysis and Modeling of the Network Community Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁超; 柴毅; 魏善碧

    2012-01-01

    Community structure has an important influence on the structural and dynamic characteristics of the complex systems.So it has attracted a large number of researchers.However,due to its complexity,the mechanism of action of the community structure is still not clear to this day.In this paper,some features of the community structure have been discussed.And a constraint model of the community has been deduced.This model is effective to identify the communities.And especially,it is effective to identify the overlapping nodes between the communities.Then a community detection algorithm,which has linear time complexity,is proposed based on this constraint model,a proposed node similarity model and the Modularity Q.Through some experiments on a series of real-world and synthetic networks,the high performances of the algorithm and the constraint model have been illustrated.

  20. Metagenomic analysis of microbial community in uranium-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xun; Luo, Xuegang; Zhao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Uranium tailing is a serious pollution challenge for the environment. Based on metagenomic sequencing analysis, we explored the functional and structural diversity of the microbial community in six soil samples taken at different soil depths from uranium-contaminated and uncontaminated areas. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthology (KO) groups were obtained using a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool search based on the universal protein resource database. The KO-pathway network was then constructed using the selected KOs. Finally, alpha and beta diversity analyses were performed to explore the differences in soil bacterial diversity between the radioactive soil and uncontaminated soil. In total, 30-68 million high-quality reads were obtained. Sequence assembly yielded 286,615 contigs; and these contigs mostly annotated to 1699 KOs. The KO distributions were similar among the six soil samples. Moreover, the proportion of the metabolism of other amino acids (e.g., beta-alanine, taurine, and hypotaurine) and signal transduction was significantly lower in radioactive soil than in uncontaminated soil, whereas the proportion of membrane transport and carbohydrate metabolism was higher. Additionally, KOs were mostly enriched in ATP-binding cassette transporters and two-component systems. According to diversity analyses, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla in radioactive and uncontaminated soil, and Robiginitalea, Microlunatus, and Alicyclobacillus were the dominant genera in radioactive soil. Taken together, these results demonstrate that soil microbial community, structure, and functions show significant changes in uranium-contaminated soil. The dominant categories such as Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria may be applied in environmental governance for uranium-contaminated soil in southern China.

  1. Soviet Jewish Community Strategies, Concerning Memory Perpetuation (Erection of Memorials to Jews-Fascism Victims Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tcherkasski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article, case studying the memorials erection, shows the process of Jews, victims of Nazism memory perpetuation by the Jewish Community within the Soviet Republics in postwar, what difficulties the Jewish Communities and groups of initiators faced, trying to prove the Jewish identity of the graves and gain adoption of Jewish symbols on memorials and memorial signs to fascism victims.

  2. Influence of face-to-face meetings on virtual community activity: the case of Learning Network for Learning Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Hummel, Hans; Tattersall, Colin; Brouns, Francis; Kurvers, Hub; Koper, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Burgos, D., Hummel, H., Tattersall, C., Brouns, F., Kurvers, H., & Koper, R. (2006). Influence of face-to-face meetings on virtual community activity: the case of Learning Network for Learning Design. Proceedings of IADIS International Conference Web Based Communities 2006. February, 16-18,2006, San

  3. Autonomy and hierarchy in two slave communities: the cases of George (Alabama, United States, 1847 and Lino (Vassouras, Brazil, 1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Pereira de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks argue that the search for autonomy among slaves necessarily created hierarchies within the community where they were inserted. Through two cases compared, George in U.S. and Lino in Brazil, seeks to show that a notion of slave community was built by the social actors who were part of it

  4. Cancer Patient Navigation Case Studies in Hawai‘i: The Complimentary Role of Clinical and Community Navigators

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo, Jermy B; Davis, Elise L; Allison, Amanda L; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the activities performed by cancer patient navigators in community-based and hospital settings. The case study demonstrates the depth and breadth of navigation activities and illustrates how hospital-based and community-based navigators work together to help individuals access cancer care and complete cancer treatment.

  5. 77 FR 41986 - Division of Nursing, Public Health Nursing Community Based Model of PHN Case Management Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Division of Nursing, Public Health Nursing Community Based Model of...), Community Based Model of Public Health Nursing Case Management Services. This program is authorized under... IHS OCPS Public Health Nursing (PHN) Program serves as the primary source for national...

  6. Case fatality ratio and mortality rate trends of community-onset Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, S; Galbraith, J C; Valiquette, L; Jacobsson, G; Collignon, P; Schønheyder, H C; Søgaard, M; Kennedy, K J; Knudsen, J D; Ostergaard, C; Lyytikäinen, O; Laupland, K B

    2014-10-01

    Lethal outcomes can be expressed as a case fatality ratio (CFR) or as a mortality rate per 100 000 population per year (MR). Population surveillance for community-onset methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia was conducted in Canada, Australia, Sweden and Denmark to evaluate 30-day CFR and MR trends between 2000 and 2008. The CFR was 20.3% (MSSA 20.2%, MRSA 22.3%) and MR was 3.4 (MSSA 3.1, MRSA 0.3) per 100 000 per year. Although MSSA CFR was stable the MSSA MR increased; MRSA CFR decreased while its MR remained low during the study. Community-onset S. aureus bacteraemia, particularly MSSA, is associated with major disease burden. This study highlights complementary information provided by evaluating both CFR and MR.

  7. Networked Community Change: Understanding Community Systems Change through the Lens of Social Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Jennifer A; Neal, Zachary P

    2016-06-01

    Addressing complex problems in communities has become a key area of focus in recent years (Kania & Kramer, 2013, Stanford Social Innovation Review). Building on existing approaches to understanding and addressing problems, such as action research, several new approaches have emerged that shift the way communities solve problems (e.g., Burns, 2007, Systemic Action Research; Foth, 2006, Action Research, 4, 205; Kania & Kramer, 2011, Stanford Social Innovation Review, 1, 36). Seeking to bring clarity to the emerging literature on community change strategies, this article identifies the common features of the most widespread community change strategies and explores the conditions under which such strategies have the potential to be effective. We identify and describe five common features among the approaches to change. Then, using an agent-based model, we simulate network-building behavior among stakeholders participating in community change efforts using these approaches. We find that the emergent stakeholder networks are efficient when the processes are implemented under ideal conditions.

  8. Community based adaptation options for climate change impacts on water resources: The case of Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Hammouri Nezar; Al-Qinna Mohammad; Salahat Mohammad; Adamowski Jan; Prasher Shiv O.

    2015-01-01

    A strategic vision to ensure an adequate, safe and secure drinking water supply presents a challenge, particularly for such a small country as Jordan, faced with a critical supply-demand imbalance and a high risk of water quality deterioration. In order to provide sustainable and equitable long-term water management plans for the future, current and future demands, along with available adaptation options should be assessed through community engagement. An analysis of available water resources...

  9. The environment as an unrecognized reservoir for community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Catrin Uhlemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA infections are spreading, but the source of infections in non-epidemic settings remains poorly defined. METHODS: We carried out a community-based, case-control study investigating socio-demographic risk factors and infectious reservoirs associated with MRSA infections. Case patients presented with CA-MRSA infections to a New York hospital. Age-matched controls without infections were randomly selected from the hospital's Dental Clinic patient population. During a home visit, case and control subjects completed a questionnaire, nasal swabs were collected from index respondents and household members and standardized environmental surfaces were swabbed. Genotyping was performed on S. aureus isolates. RESULTS: We enrolled 95 case and 95 control subjects. Cases more frequently reported diabetes mellitus and a higher number of skin infections among household members. Among case households, 53 (56% were environmentally contaminated with S. aureus, compared to 36 (38% control households (p = .02. MRSA was detected on fomites in 30 (32% case households and 5 (5%; p<.001 control households. More case patients, 20 (21% were nasally colonized with MRSA than were control indexes, 2 (2%; p<.001. In a subgroup analysis, the clinical isolate (predominantly USA300, was more commonly detected on environmental surfaces in case households with recurrent MRSA infections (16/36, 44% than those without (14/58, 24%, p = .04. CONCLUSIONS: The higher frequency of environmental contamination of case households with S. aureus in general and MRSA in particular implicates this as a potential reservoir for recolonization and increased risk of infection. Environmental colonization may contribute to the community spread of epidemic strains such as USA300.

  10. The Practice and Issues of Administration on Participate Community Planning : A Case Study on Making Community Planning of Naha City

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Yoshiharu; Ikeda, Takayuki; 池田, 孝之

    2000-01-01

    Citizen participation in community planning is becoming more important. The purpose of this study is to clarify the issues of administration on citizen participation through making the general plan of Naha City.The issues are summarized as follows:1. To practice citizen participation in aggressive community planning and to create a new system that materializes the citizens' proposal.2. To adopt citizens' autonomous activities about community planning more briskly and to support the activities...

  11. Building Resilient Communities through Empowering Women with Information and Communication Technologies: A Pakistan Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Khan Khalafzai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world, a revolution in digital technologies has changed our way of life—for better. The role of women is expanding in socio-economic, political and physical spaces; hence their empowerment will contribute toward resilience and capacity building that contributes to sustainability and disaster risk reduction in the long run. In developing nations, especially in rural regions, women empowered with information and communication technologies can enhance their capacity to cope in diverse situations. This paper addresses the vital role of information and communication technologies intervention and resilient communities with the help of a case study carried out in Pakistan.

  12. A Translation Case Analysis Based on Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖孟姣

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a translation case analysis based on Skopos Theory.This paper choose President Xi’s New Year congratulations of 2015 as analysis text and gives the case analysis.This paper focuses on translating the text based on Skopos Theory.

  13. [Two Cases of Rapidly Progressive Community-acquired Pneumonia Due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Akira; Katono, Ken; Harada, Shinya; Igawa, Satoshi; Katagiri, Masato; Yanase, Nobuo; Masuda, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a significant causative bacterium in hospital-acquired pneumonia and nursing and healthcare-associated pneumonia, but it seems to be rare in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We report two cases of severe CAP due to P. aeruginosa. Case 1: A 52-year-old man was referred to our hospital for chest and back pain. He was being treated for diabetes mellitus and had a long history of smoking. Chest images showed consolidation in the right upper lobe. Soon after hospitalization, he developed sepsis shock and died seven hours later. Case 2: A 73-year-old man with a history of heavy smoking was referred to our hospital for right chest pain. Chest images showed right upper lobe pneumonia. Although wide-spectrum antimicrobial agents were administrated, he died ten hours after admission. In both cases, there was a rapid progression to death, despite administration of a broad spectrum of antibiotics and treatment for sepsis. In cases of CAP involving the right upper lobe, the possibility of bacteremia and rapid progress should be considered. PMID:26548298

  14. Bacterial community analysis of Tatsoi cultivated by hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ok K; Kim, Hun; Kim, Hyun J; Baker, Christopher A; Ricke, Steven C

    2016-07-01

    Tatsoi (Brassica narinosa) is a popular Asian salad green that is mostly consumed as a source of fresh produce. The purpose of this study was to assess the microbial diversity of Tatsoi cultivated in a hydroponic system and of its ecosystem. Tatsoi leaves, nutrient solution, and perlite/earth samples from a trickle feed system (TFS) and an ebb-and-flow system (EFS) were collected and their microbial communities were analyzed by pyrosequencing analysis. The results showed that most bacteria in the leaves from the TFS contained genus Sporosarcina (99.6%), while Rhizobium (60.4%) was dominant in the leaves from the EFS. Genus Paucibacter (18.21%) and Pelomonas (12.37%) were the most abundant microbiota in the nutrient solution samples of the TFS. In the EFS, the nutrient solution samples contained mostly genus Rhodococcus and Acinetobacter. Potential microbial transfer between the leaves and the ecosystem was observed in the EFS, while samples in the TFS were found to share only one species between the leaves, nutrient solution, and earth. Together, these results show that the bacterial populations in Tatsoi and in its ecosystem are highly diverse based on the cultivation system. PMID:27070460

  15. Bacterial community analysis of Tatsoi cultivated by hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ok K; Kim, Hun; Kim, Hyun J; Baker, Christopher A; Ricke, Steven C

    2016-07-01

    Tatsoi (Brassica narinosa) is a popular Asian salad green that is mostly consumed as a source of fresh produce. The purpose of this study was to assess the microbial diversity of Tatsoi cultivated in a hydroponic system and of its ecosystem. Tatsoi leaves, nutrient solution, and perlite/earth samples from a trickle feed system (TFS) and an ebb-and-flow system (EFS) were collected and their microbial communities were analyzed by pyrosequencing analysis. The results showed that most bacteria in the leaves from the TFS contained genus Sporosarcina (99.6%), while Rhizobium (60.4%) was dominant in the leaves from the EFS. Genus Paucibacter (18.21%) and Pelomonas (12.37%) were the most abundant microbiota in the nutrient solution samples of the TFS. In the EFS, the nutrient solution samples contained mostly genus Rhodococcus and Acinetobacter. Potential microbial transfer between the leaves and the ecosystem was observed in the EFS, while samples in the TFS were found to share only one species between the leaves, nutrient solution, and earth. Together, these results show that the bacterial populations in Tatsoi and in its ecosystem are highly diverse based on the cultivation system.

  16. Analysis of two cases with bronchopulmonary neurofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Ting

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neurogenic tumor of lung is very rare. Only few cases have been reported in the literature. We present here two cases of bronchopulmonary neurofibromatosis in two adults. In both cases, attempts at imaging failed to diagnose the case, and it was the histological study that ensured the diagnosis of neurofibromatosis. Biopsy specimens showed bundles of spindle-shaped cells mixed with collagen, and on immunohistochemistry some cells were positive for S-100 protein.

  17. The ethnographically contextualized case study method: exploring ambitious achievement in an American Indian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P; Alcántara, Carmela

    2010-04-01

    This article demonstrates the empirical viability of the Ethnographically Contextualized Case Study Method (ECCSM) for investigating interrelationships between cultural and psychological processes. By juxtaposing two relevant forms of data--original interview material from a single respondent and existing ethnographic evidence--the inherent idiographic limitations of the case study approach for pursuing the psychological study of culture might be transcended. Adoption of the ECCSM for the exploration of cultural ideals among an elderly Native American respondent revealed both the personal and cultural significance of ambitious achievement within this tribal community, calling into question the conventional wisdom within multicultural psychology that Native Americans are culturally disposed to passive, submissive and noncompetitive psychological orientations. This application of the proposed methodology demonstrates how important empirical insights may be obtained in unusually efficient and nuanced ways at the confluence of culture and psychology.

  18. Species Abundance in a Forest Community in South China: A Case of Poisson Lognormal Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo-Yun YIN; Hai REN; Qian-Mei ZHANG; Shao-Lin PENG; Qin-Feng GUO; Guo-Yi ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    Case studies on Poisson lognormal distribution of species abundance have been rare, especially in forest communities. We propose a numerical method to fit the Poisson lognormal to the species abundance data at an evergreen mixed forest in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, South China. Plants in the tree, shrub and herb layers in 25 quadrats of 20 m×20 m, 5 m×5 m, and 1 m×1 m were surveyed. Results indicated that: (i) for each layer, the observed species abundance with a similarly small median, mode, and a variance larger than the mean was reverse J-shaped and followed well the zero-truncated Poisson lognormal;(ii) the coefficient of variation, skewness and kurtosis of abundance, and two Poisson lognormal parameters (σ andμ) for shrub layer were closer to those for the herb layer than those for the tree layer; and (iii) from the tree to the shrub to the herb layer, the σ and the coefficient of variation decreased, whereas diversity increased. We suggest that: (i) the species abundance distributions in the three layers reflects the overall community characteristics; (ii) the Poisson lognormal can describe the species abundance distribution in diverse communities with a few abundant species but many rare species; and (iii) 1/σ should be an alternative measure of diversity.

  19. Species abundance in a forest community in South China: A case of poisson lognormal distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Z.-Y.; Ren, H.; Zhang, Q.-M.; Peng, S.-L.; Guo, Q.-F.; Zhou, G.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    Case studies on Poisson lognormal distribution of species abundance have been rare, especially in forest communities. We propose a numerical method to fit the Poisson lognormal to the species abundance data at an evergreen mixed forest in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, South China. Plants in the tree, shrub and herb layers in 25 quadrats of 20 m??20 m, 5 m??5 m, and 1 m??1 m were surveyed. Results indicated that: (i) for each layer, the observed species abundance with a similarly small median, mode, and a variance larger than the mean was reverse J-shaped and followed well the zero-truncated Poisson lognormal; (ii) the coefficient of variation, skewness and kurtosis of abundance, and two Poisson lognormal parameters (?? and ??) for shrub layer were closer to those for the herb layer than those for the tree layer; and (iii) from the tree to the shrub to the herb layer, the ?? and the coefficient of variation decreased, whereas diversity increased. We suggest that: (i) the species abundance distributions in the three layers reflects the overall community characteristics; (ii) the Poisson lognormal can describe the species abundance distribution in diverse communities with a few abundant species but many rare species; and (iii) 1/?? should be an alternative measure of diversity.

  20. Community College Student Mental Health: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Though there are at least 12.4 million community college students, accounting for 44% of all undergraduates within the United States (Cohen & Brawer, 2008), little academic research has explored the mental health needs of community college students as a distinct population ( Floyd, 2003; Townsend & LaPaglia, 2000; Townsend, Donaldson,…

  1. George Washington Community High School: Analysis of a Partnership Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringle, Robert G.; Officer, Starla D. H.; Grim, Jim; Hatcher, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    After five years with no public schools in their community, residents and neighborhood organizations of the Near Westside of Indianapolis advocated for the opening of George Washington Community High School (GWCHS). As a neighborhood in close proximity to the campus of Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, the Near Westside and campus…

  2. Evaluation of Integrated Community Case Management in Eight Districts of Central Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubiru, Denis; Byabasheija, Robert; Bwanika, John Baptist; Meier, Joslyn Edelstein; Magumba, Godfrey; Kaggwa, Flavia Mpanga; Abusu, Jackson Ojera; Opio, Alex Chono; Lodda, Charles Clarke; Patel, Jaanki; Diaz, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evidence is limited on whether Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) improves treatment coverage of the top causes of childhood mortality (acute respiratory illnesses (ARI), diarrhoea and malaria). The coverage impact of iCCM in Central Uganda was evaluated. Methods Between July 2010 and December 2012 a pre-post quasi-experimental study in eight districts with iCCM was conducted; 3 districts without iCCM served as controls. A two-stage household cluster survey at baseline (n = 1036 and 1042) and end line (n = 3890 and 3844) was done in the intervention and comparison groups respectively. Changes in treatment coverage and timeliness were assessed using difference in differences analysis (DID). Mortality impact was modelled using the Lives Saved Tool. Findings 5,586 Village Health Team members delivered 1,907,746 treatments to children under age five. Use of oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc treatment of diarrhoea increased in the intervention area, while there was a decrease in the comparison area (DID = 22.9, p = 0.001). Due to national stock-outs of amoxicillin, there was a decrease in antibiotic treatment for ARI in both areas; however, the decrease was significantly greater in the comparison area (DID = 5.18; p<0.001). There was a greater increase in Artemisinin Combination Therapy treatment for fever in the intervention areas than in the comparison area but this was not significant (DID = 1.57, p = 0.105). In the intervention area, timeliness of treatments for fever and ARI increased significantly higher in the intervention area than in the comparison area (DID = 2.12, p = 0.029 and 7.95, p<0.001, respectively). An estimated 106 lives were saved in the intervention area while 611 lives were lost in the comparison area. Conclusion iCCM significantly increased treatment coverage for diarrhoea and fever, mitigated the effect of national stock outs of amoxicillin on ARI treatment, improved timeliness of treatments for fever and ARI and saved

  3. Evaluation of Integrated Community Case Management in Eight Districts of Central Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Mubiru

    Full Text Available Evidence is limited on whether Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM improves treatment coverage of the top causes of childhood mortality (acute respiratory illnesses (ARI, diarrhoea and malaria. The coverage impact of iCCM in Central Uganda was evaluated.Between July 2010 and December 2012 a pre-post quasi-experimental study in eight districts with iCCM was conducted; 3 districts without iCCM served as controls. A two-stage household cluster survey at baseline (n = 1036 and 1042 and end line (n = 3890 and 3844 was done in the intervention and comparison groups respectively. Changes in treatment coverage and timeliness were assessed using difference in differences analysis (DID. Mortality impact was modelled using the Lives Saved Tool.5,586 Village Health Team members delivered 1,907,746 treatments to children under age five. Use of oral rehydration solution (ORS and zinc treatment of diarrhoea increased in the intervention area, while there was a decrease in the comparison area (DID = 22.9, p = 0.001. Due to national stock-outs of amoxicillin, there was a decrease in antibiotic treatment for ARI in both areas; however, the decrease was significantly greater in the comparison area (DID = 5.18; p<0.001. There was a greater increase in Artemisinin Combination Therapy treatment for fever in the intervention areas than in the comparison area but this was not significant (DID = 1.57, p = 0.105. In the intervention area, timeliness of treatments for fever and ARI increased significantly higher in the intervention area than in the comparison area (DID = 2.12, p = 0.029 and 7.95, p<0.001, respectively. An estimated 106 lives were saved in the intervention area while 611 lives were lost in the comparison area.iCCM significantly increased treatment coverage for diarrhoea and fever, mitigated the effect of national stock outs of amoxicillin on ARI treatment, improved timeliness of treatments for fever and ARI and saved lives.

  4. Sharing best practices through online communities of practice: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Peter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The USAID-funded Capacity Project established the Global Alliance for Pre-Service Education (GAPS to provide an online forum to discuss issues related to teaching and acquiring competence in family planning, with a focus on developing countries' health related training institutions. The success of the Global Alliance for Nursing and Midwifery's ongoing web-based community of practice (CoP provided a strong example of the successful use of this medium to reach many participants in a range of settings. Case description GAPS functioned as a moderated set of forums that were analyzed by a small group of experts in family planning and pre-service education from three organizations. The cost of the program included the effort provided by the moderators and the time to administer responses and conduct the analysis. Discussion and evaluation Family planning is still considered a minor topic in health related training institutions. Rather than focusing solely on family planning competencies, GAPS members suggested a focus on several professional competencies (e.g. communication, leadership, cultural sensitivity, teamwork and problem solving that would enhance the resulting health care graduate's ability to operate in a complex health environment. Resources to support competency-based education in the academic setting must be sufficient and appropriately distributed. Where clinical competencies are incorporated into pre-service education, responsible faculty and preceptors must be clinically proficient. The interdisciplinary GAPS memberships allowed for a comparison and contrast of competencies, opportunities, promising practices, documents, lessons learned and key teaching strategies. Conclusions Online CoPs are a useful interface for connecting developing country experiences. From CoPs, we may uncover challenges and opportunities that are faced in the absorption of key public health competencies required for decreasing maternal

  5. Member Perceptions of Informal Science Institution Graduate Certificate Program: Case Study of a Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lois A.

    This research attempted to understand the experiences of a cohort of informal and formal science educators and informal science institution (ISI) community representatives during and after completion of a pilot graduate certificate program. Informal science educators (ISEs) find limited opportunities for professional development and support which influence their contributions to America's science literacy and school science education. This emergent design nested case study described how an innovative program provided professional development and enabled growth in participants' abilities to contribute to science literacy. Data were collected through interviews, participant observations, and class artifacts. The program by design and constituency was the overarching entity that accounted for members' experiences. Three principal aspects of the ISI certificate program and cohort which influenced perceptions and reported positive outcomes were (1) the cohort's composition and their collaborative activities which established a vigorous community of practice and fostered community building, mentoring, and networking, (2) long term program design and implementation which promoted experiential learning in a generative classroom, and (3) ability of some members who were able to be independent or autonomous learners to embrace science education reform strategies for greater self-efficacy and career advancement. This research extends the limited literature base for professional development of informal science educators and may benefit informal science institutions, informal and formal science educators, science education reform efforts, and public education and science-technology-society understanding. The study may raise awareness of the need to establish more professional development opportunities for ISEs and to fund professional development. Further, recognizing and appreciating informal science educators as a diverse committed community of professionals who positively

  6. Indochinese Refugees in America: Profiles of Five Communities. A Case Study. Executive Seminar in National and International Affairs (22nd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gim, Wever; Litwin, Tybel

    Five case studies describe experiences in the resettlement of Indochinese refugees in Albuquerque, New Mexico; San Diego, California; Grand Rapids, Michigan; Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota; and Des Moines, Iowa. The case studies focus on local government and community attitudes toward the refugees; patterns of resettlement; and the nature and…

  7. Tangled Narratives and Wicked Problems: A Complex Case of Positioning and Politics in a Diverse School Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu Suong Thi; Scribner, Samantha M. Paredes; Crow, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    The case of Allen Elementary School presents tangled narratives and wicked problems describing the multidimensionality of school community work. Using multiple converging and diverging vignettes, the case points to the distinctiveness of individual experience in schools; the ways institutionalized organizational narratives become cultural…

  8. Sustaining a Community Computing Infrastructure for Online Teacher Professional Development: A Case Study of Designing Tapped In

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Umer; Schank, Patricia; Harris, Alexandra; Fusco, Judith; Schlager, Mark

    Community computing has recently grown to become a major research area in human-computer interaction. One of the objectives of community computing is to support computer-supported cooperative work among distributed collaborators working toward shared professional goals in online communities of practice. A core issue in designing and developing community computing infrastructures — the underlying sociotechnical layer that supports communitarian activities — is sustainability. Many community computing initiatives fail because the underlying infrastructure does not meet end user requirements; the community is unable to maintain a critical mass of users consistently over time; it generates insufficient social capital to support significant contributions by members of the community; or, as typically happens with funded initiatives, financial and human capital resource become unavailable to further maintain the infrastructure. On the basis of more than 9 years of design experience with Tapped In-an online community of practice for education professionals — we present a case study that discusses four design interventions that have sustained the Tapped In infrastructure and its community to date. These interventions represent broader design strategies for developing online environments for professional communities of practice.

  9. Community Cognition Investigation and Research on Tourists Disaster of Mountain Tourism-taking Taibai Moutain as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jian-Chang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study focus on the community cognition to disasters of tourism taking the disasters frequently happens in Taibai Mountains as the case. The research covers people’s cognition in tourist destination, which is closely related to the development and the economy in tourism. The age, education, occupation, income and the degree of relation to the tourism are also the important factors. The cognition of the community is the disasters influence, the disasters avoidance, the disasters knowledge and the disasters research. It is found that the elderly, higher education and income groups in community have more requirements to tourism development; community young people, local people and engaged in tourism business or management groups are not satisfied with the community benefits which gets through the development of tourism at present; more elderly, civil servants and workers staff in community know about the influence of the tourism disasters to social, economic and cultural in scenic spots; the young people, local and engaged in tourism business and management groups of community know more about prevention work of tourism disaster; higher education and youth groups in community have more knowledge of tourism disaster; more community civil servants are skeptical to the study of tourism disaster. Analyzing the results from the tourist areas, this research can offer advice to local governments and the administrations of the tourism, esp. develop the community avoidance ability in order that the system of the avoidance administration could be established.

  10. Illusions of Resilience? An Analysis of Community Responses to Change in Northern Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Amundsen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to our understanding of community resilience. Community resilience is the ability of a community to cope and adjust to stresses caused by social, political, and environmental change and to engage community resources to overcome adversity and take advantage of opportunities in response to change. Through an analysis of local responses to multiple challenges, six dimensions of community resilience were found in one village in northern Norway. These dimensions; community resources, community networks, institutions and services, people–place connections, active agents, and learning; are activated in processes and activities in the village to respond to current challenges. Although this corroborates findings from other community resilience research, this research suggests that community resilience is both complex and dynamic over time. Although communities may consider themselves resilient to today’s challenges, the rate and magnitude of expected systemic global changes, especially climate change, means that future resilience cannot be taken for granted. This work concludes that there is a risk that community resilience may be an illusion, leading to complacency about the need for adaption to multiple factors of change. Hence, the ability of communities to actively engage in reflexive learning processes is of importance for both adaptation and future resilience.

  11. Inter-organisational communication for patients being case managed by community matrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul; Stoddart, Gilly; Nota, Johnny; Teh, Ling; Wells, Victoria; Dhillon, Gouri; Leese, Yvonne

    2010-12-01

    Background Poor communication between community matrons (CMs), in-hours and out-of-hours (OoH) general practitioners (GPs) causes uncertainty and inefficiencies. Setting A practice-based commissioning group in West London and the associated CMs who case manage high users of hospital services. Question What helps good communication between CMs, GPs and OoH services to ensure that the right patients are case managed and hospital admissions are avoided? Methods Whole system participatory action research, with four stages: 1) identify communication problems as perceived by a wide range of stakeholders; 2) draw a diagram of the existing communication system, and with stakeholders redraw this to overcome its weaknesses; 3) pilot the changes proposed; 4) gain consensus among stakeholders about policy. Results Stakeholders agreed that standards should be adopted to improve communication for the care of patients who are case managed by CMs. Routine passage of information between GP, CMs and the OoH services would achieve this, and is feasible. Specifically: routine information (termed Special Patient Notes) should be sent to the OoH service about vulnerable patients, including those who are case managed by CMsclear information about CM attachment to general practices and how to refer to them should be easily accessibleGPs and CMs should meet quarterly for mutual learning and to discuss patientsthe OoH service electronically should cascade information to GPs, CMs and others named in the Special Patient Notescommissioners should routinely gather data to compare clusters of general practices for i) referrals to CMs, ii) posting Special Patient Notes, iii) unscheduled consultations and hospital admissions of all patients including those being case managed. Discussion This project revealed system-wide communication problems for the care of patients being case managed by CMs, and ways to overcome these. Commissioners could insist that these are adopted locally, and gather data to

  12. Raising Graduation and College Going Rates: Community High School Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelroth, Rita

    2009-01-01

    A community school is a place and a set of partnerships between the school and community resources. The community school strategy integrates academics, health and social services, youth and community development, and civic engagement to improve student learning and to develop stronger families and healthier communities. This report presents a…

  13. CORSSA: Community Online Resource for Statistical Seismicity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechar, J. D.; Hardebeck, J. L.; Michael, A. J.; Naylor, M.; Steacy, S.; Wiemer, S.; Zhuang, J.

    2011-12-01

    Statistical seismology is critical to the understanding of seismicity, the evaluation of proposed earthquake prediction and forecasting methods, and the assessment of seismic hazard. Unfortunately, despite its importance to seismology-especially to those aspects with great impact on public policy-statistical seismology is mostly ignored in the education of seismologists, and there is no central repository for the existing open-source software tools. To remedy these deficiencies, and with the broader goal to enhance the quality of statistical seismology research, we have begun building the Community Online Resource for Statistical Seismicity Analysis (CORSSA, www.corssa.org). We anticipate that the users of CORSSA will range from beginning graduate students to experienced researchers. More than 20 scientists from around the world met for a week in Zurich in May 2010 to kick-start the creation of CORSSA: the format and initial table of contents were defined; a governing structure was organized; and workshop participants began drafting articles. CORSSA materials are organized with respect to six themes, each will contain between four and eight articles. CORSSA now includes seven articles with an additional six in draft form along with forums for discussion, a glossary, and news about upcoming meetings, special issues, and recent papers. Each article is peer-reviewed and presents a balanced discussion, including illustrative examples and code snippets. Topics in the initial set of articles include: introductions to both CORSSA and statistical seismology, basic statistical tests and their role in seismology; understanding seismicity catalogs and their problems; basic techniques for modeling seismicity; and methods for testing earthquake predictability hypotheses. We have also begun curating a collection of statistical seismology software packages.

  14. Building the Community Online Resource for Statistical Seismicity Analysis (CORSSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, A. J.; Wiemer, S.; Zechar, J. D.; Hardebeck, J. L.; Naylor, M.; Zhuang, J.; Steacy, S.; Corssa Executive Committee

    2010-12-01

    Statistical seismology is critical to the understanding of seismicity, the testing of proposed earthquake prediction and forecasting methods, and the assessment of seismic hazard. Unfortunately, despite its importance to seismology - especially to those aspects with great impact on public policy - statistical seismology is mostly ignored in the education of seismologists, and there is no central repository for the existing open-source software tools. To remedy these deficiencies, and with the broader goal to enhance the quality of statistical seismology research, we have begun building the Community Online Resource for Statistical Seismicity Analysis (CORSSA). CORSSA is a web-based educational platform that is authoritative, up-to-date, prominent, and user-friendly. We anticipate that the users of CORSSA will range from beginning graduate students to experienced researchers. More than 20 scientists from around the world met for a week in Zurich in May 2010 to kick-start the creation of CORSSA: the format and initial table of contents were defined; a governing structure was organized; and workshop participants began drafting articles. CORSSA materials are organized with respect to six themes, each containing between four and eight articles. The CORSSA web page, www.corssa.org, officially unveiled on September 6, 2010, debuts with an initial set of approximately 10 to 15 articles available online for viewing and commenting with additional articles to be added over the coming months. Each article will be peer-reviewed and will present a balanced discussion, including illustrative examples and code snippets. Topics in the initial set of articles will include: introductions to both CORSSA and statistical seismology, basic statistical tests and their role in seismology; understanding seismicity catalogs and their problems; basic techniques for modeling seismicity; and methods for testing earthquake predictability hypotheses. A special article will compare and review

  15. Community Knowledge Sharing and Co-Production of Water Services: Two Cases of Community Aqueduct Associations in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Llano-Arias

    2015-01-01

    Local-level participatory communication practices have enabled the opening of new democratic spaces in which decisions on water policies are taken. Through their resistance to water privatisation policies, many Colombian community aqueducts have made use of a transformed political and social role. Citizens from community aqueduct associations are generating new forms of political participation and citizenship, capable of challenging the widespread political apathy in the country. This arti...

  16. Best practice model for community capacity-building: A case study of community-based tourism enterprises in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Manyara, Geoffrey; Jones, Eleri

    2007-01-01

    As tourism continues to play a major role in the global economy, key international organisations, such as the United Nations World Tourism Organisation and the World Bank, have endorsed it as a tool for poverty alleviation particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. To address this endorsement, local community involvement in tourism development is now urgent. The Local Agenda 21, for instance, advocates for participative and collaborative approaches in which the local communities play a significant r...

  17. Strategy analysis of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in the community

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jin; Ma, Li; Lu, Yuan-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a crucial therapy for sudden cardiac arrest. This appreciation produced immense efforts by professional organizations to train laypeople for CPR skills. However, the rate of CPR training is low and varies widely across communities. Several strategies are used in order to improve the rate of CPR training and are performed in some advanced countries. The Chinese CPR training in communities could gain enlightenment from them.

  18. What Attracts People to Visit Community Open Spaces? A Case Study of the Overseas Chinese Town Community in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyong Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A well-designed open space that encourages outdoor activity and social communication is a community asset that could potentially contribute to the health of local residents and social harmony of the community. Numerous factors may influence the use of each single space and may result in a variety of visitors. Compared with previous studies that focused on accessibility, this study highlights the relationship between the utilization and characteristics of community open spaces in China. The Overseas Chinese Town community in Shenzhen is regarded as an example. The association between the number of visitors and space characteristics is examined with multivariate regression models. Results show that large areas with accessible lawns, well-maintained footpaths, seats, commercial facilities, and water landscapes are important characteristics that could increase the use of community open spaces. However, adding green vegetation, sculptures, and landscape accessories in open spaces has limited effects on increasing the outdoor activities of residents. Thus, to increase the use of community open spaces, landscape designers should focus more on creating user-oriented spaces with facilities that encourage active use than on improving ornamental vegetation and accessories.

  19. What Attracts People to Visit Community Open Spaces? A Case Study of the Overseas Chinese Town Community in Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiyong; Liu, Tao; Xie, Xiaohuan; Marušić, Barbara Goličnik

    2016-01-01

    A well-designed open space that encourages outdoor activity and social communication is a community asset that could potentially contribute to the health of local residents and social harmony of the community. Numerous factors may influence the use of each single space and may result in a variety of visitors. Compared with previous studies that focused on accessibility, this study highlights the relationship between the utilization and characteristics of community open spaces in China. The Overseas Chinese Town community in Shenzhen is regarded as an example. The association between the number of visitors and space characteristics is examined with multivariate regression models. Results show that large areas with accessible lawns, well-maintained footpaths, seats, commercial facilities, and water landscapes are important characteristics that could increase the use of community open spaces. However, adding green vegetation, sculptures, and landscape accessories in open spaces has limited effects on increasing the outdoor activities of residents. Thus, to increase the use of community open spaces, landscape designers should focus more on creating user-oriented spaces with facilities that encourage active use than on improving ornamental vegetation and accessories. PMID:27367713

  20. Estimating the value of volunteer-assisted community-based aging services: a case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharlach, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of a social return on investment (SROI) approach in estimating the financial and social value created by volunteer-assisted community-based aging services. An expanded value added statement (EVAS) analysis found that the total value of outputs produced by the Concierge Club of San Diego substantially exceeded the cost of the program, after considering likely secondary and tertiary benefits for a range of affected stakeholders-including elderly service recipients, family members, volunteers, and societal institutions. Additional research is needed regarding the direct and indirect costs and benefits of volunteer support services for vulnerable older adults and their families. PMID:25551169

  1. Jury Selection in Child Sex Abuse Trials: A Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J.; Adams, Desiree D.; Brodsky, Stanley L.

    2009-01-01

    Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include…

  2. Community relations and child-led microfinance: a case study of caregiving children in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovdal, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Rampant levels of AIDS and poverty have made many children in sub-Saharan Africa the primary caregivers of their ageing or ailing guardians. This paper reports on a social action fund initiative that brought caregiving children together to set-up and run income generating activities as a group with the aim of strengthening their coping capabilities. To further our understanding of child-led microfinance activities, this paper explores how intra-community relations can both facilitate and undermine child-led activities, and how these activities in turn can further strengthen some intra-community relations. Twenty-one children (aged 12-17) and six guardians participated in this study. Data included draw-and-write compositions (n=21), essays (n=16), workshop notes and proposals (n=8) and in-depth interviews (n=16). A thematic analysis revealed that the children actively drew on the expertise and involvement of some guardians in the project as well as on each other, developing supportive peer relations that helped strengthen their coping capabilities. However, the children's disenfranchised position in the community meant that some adults took advantage of the child-led activities for their own personal gain. Some children also showed a lack of commitment to collective work, undermining the morale of their more active peers. Nevertheless, both guardians and the children themselves began to look at caregiving children differently as their engagement in the project began to earn them respect from the community - changing guardian/child relations. The paper concludes that microfinance interventions targeting children and young people must consider children's relationships with each other and with adults as key determinants of Project success. PMID:21161771

  3. Development of Community Mental Health Services: The Case of Emilia‐Romagna Italian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Fioritti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Italian psychiatry has gained International attention after its radical reform of 1978, which established the progressive closure of mental hospitals and the establishment of community services throughout the country. However it is technically inappropriate to talk about Italian psychiatry as the devolution process has transferred to the regions all competences about policy, planning and evaluating health services. This explains the variety of “community psychiatries” that can be found along the peninsula and the reasons of interest that can arise from their comparison. The development of community psychiatry in Emilia‐Romagna, a region of 4 million inhabitants in Northern Italy, has proceeded through two partially overlapping phases of deinstitutionalization (1978‐1997 and development of integrated mental health departments (1990‐2008. The analysis of raw data about allocation of resources and professional capital development give way to tentative comparisons with the current Portuguese situation of implementation of a similar reform. In 2006 the regional Council launched a three year project aimed at rethinking the welfare system and the integration of social and health services, considering the dramatic social and demographic changes occurring in the region. This project has implied also a three year process of redrafting mental health policy finalised in the Emilia‐Romagna Mental Health Action Plan 2009‐2011 approved by the council in March 2009. It basically follows two strategies: integration of health and social services and further qualification of health services. The former is pursued through a reshaping of the planning and commissioning bodies of both health and social services, previously separated and now merging. They are taking responsibility on many issues related to mental health care, such as prevention, mental health promotion, supported employment, supported housing, subsidies, self‐help. The improvement of

  4. Teaching Case: Analysis of an Electronic Voting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nik; Toohey, Danny

    2014-01-01

    This teaching case discusses the analysis of an electronic voting system. The development of the case was motivated by research into information security and management, but as it includes procedural aspects, organizational structure and personnel, it is a suitable basis for all aspects of systems analysis, planning and design tasks. The material…

  5. Community Governance for Disaster Recovery and Resilience: Four Case Studies in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Florano, Ebinezer R.

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the role of communities in disaster recovery and in building resilience to answer the questions: "What is the role of community in the disaster recovery process? What roles do various stakeholders play in community-led disaster recovery? Is community-based disaster recovery affected by exposure to hazards and disasters, or by the community`s level of socioeconomic development?" To answer these questions, five hypotheses were tested in the 12 barangays from Ta...

  6. [Laparoscopic splenectomy: analysis of 60 consecutive cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silecchia, Gianfranco; Fabiano, Paolo; Raparelli, Luigi; Perrotta, Nicola; Greco, Francesco; Clementi, Marco; Elmore, Ugo; Pecchia, Alessandro; Basso, Nicola

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the results of 60 patients who were candidates for laparoscopic splenectomy. Over the period from May 1994 to May 2001, 60 patients were candidates for splenectomy. Laparoscopy was contraindicated in 3 cases because of ASA III and marked splenomegaly (2 cases) and previous gastric resection (1 case). The procedure was indicated for benign disease in 38 cases and for malignant disease in the remainder. Fifty-three procedures were completed laparoscopically (92.9%). Conversion proved necessary in 4 patients (6.7%) due to large incisional hernia, perisplenic abscess, bleeding of major splenic vessels at the hilum and marked splenomegaly (2 cases of lymphoma). The mean operative time was 200 min for the malignancies and 110 min for the benign conditions (P < 0.05). Major morbidity occurred in 5 cases (8.7%). No deaths were registered. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 7.5 days for patients with malignancies and 5.2 days for patients with benign disease (P < 0.05). Laparoscopic splenectomy was safe and effective in patients with benign disease, even in cases of marked splenomegaly. The morbidity rate was significantly higher in lymphoma patients than in patients with benign haematological disorders. PMID:12192922

  7. Structured Case Analysis: Developing Critical Thinking Skills in a Marketing Case Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebba, Joanne M.; Hamilton, Janet G.

    2007-01-01

    Structured case analysis is a hybrid pedagogy that flexibly combines diverse instructional methods with comprehensive case analysis as a mechanism to develop critical thinking skills. An incremental learning framework is proposed that allows instructors to develop and monitor content-specific theory and the corresponding critical thinking skills.…

  8. Use of combinatorial pharmacogenomic testing in two cases from community psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fields ES

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Eve S Fields,1 Raymond A Lorenz,2 Joel G Winner2 1Northwest Center for Community Mental Health, Reston, VA, USA; 2Assurex Health, Mason, OH, USA Abstract: This report describes two cases in which pharmacogenomic testing was utilized to guide medication selection for difficult to treat patients. The first patient is a 29-year old male with bipolar disorder who had severe akathisia due to his long acting injectable antipsychotic. The second patient is a 59-year old female with major depressive disorder who was not ­responding to her medication. In both cases, a proprietary combinatorial pharmacogenomic test was used to inform medication changes and improve patient outcomes. The first patient was switched to a long acting injectable that was not affected by his genetic profile and his adverse effects abated. The second patient had her medications discontinued due to the results of the genetic testing and more intense psychotherapy initiated. While pharmacogenomic testing may be ­helpful in cases such as these presented here, it should never serve as a proxy for a comprehensive biopsychosocial approach. The pharmacogenomic information may be selectively added to this comprehensive approach to support medication treatment. Keywords: pharmacogenomics, adverse effects, risperidone, nortriptyline, paliperidone

  9. An analysis of a low-energy, low-water use community in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez Alcocer, Jose Luis

    This study investigated how to determine a potential scenario to reduce energy, water and transportation use in Mexico City by implementing low-energy, low-water use communities. The proposed mixed-use community has multi-family apartments and a small grocery store. The research included the analysis of: case studies, energy simulation, and hand calculations for water, transportation and cost analysis. The previous case studies reviewed include: communities in Mexico City, Mexico, Austin, Texas, Phoenix, Arizona, New York City, New York and San Diego, California in terms of successful low-energy, low-water use projects. The analysis and comparison of these centers showed that the Multifamiliar Miguel Aleman is an excellent candidate to be examined for Mexico City. This technical potential study evaluated energy conserving measures such as low-energy appliances and efficient lighting that could be applied to the apartments in Mexico City to reduce energy-use. The use of the simulations and manual calculations showed that the application of the mixed-use concept was successful in reducing the energy and water use and the corresponding carbon footprint. Finally, this technical potential study showed taking people out of their cars as a result of the presence of the on-site grocery store, small recreation center and park on the ground floor also reduced their overall transportation energy-use. The improvement of the whole community (i.e., apartments plus grocery store) using energy-efficient measures provided a reduction of 70 percent of energy from the base-case. In addition a 69 percent reduction in water-use was achieved by using water-saving fixtures and greywater reuse technologies for the complex. The combination of high-efficiency automobiles and the presence of the on-site grocery store, small recreation center and park potentially reduced the transportation energy-use by 65 percent. The analysis showed an energy cost reduction of 82 percent reduction for

  10. COMMUNITY GARDENS AND FOOD SECURITY IN RURAL LIVELIHOOD DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF ENTREPRENEURIAL AND MARKET GARDENS IN MBERENGWA, ZIMBABWE

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Chazovachii; Cephas Mutami; John Bowora

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to assess the contribution of community gardens on food security in rural livelihoods development in Mberengwa ward 27. Despite the introduction of community gardens in ward 27, poverty persisted amongst the vulnerable groups in the district. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in collection of data through questionnaires, interviews and focused group discussions (FGDs). Analysis was done using descriptive statistics and content analysis. This study revealed t...

  11. University-Community Engagement: A grid-group analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Low

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available University-community engagement involves complex issues, entangling multiple and interacting points of view, all of which operate in a wider dynamic evolving social environment. For this reason, there is often disagreement about why engagement is necessary or desirable, and whether there is one optimal method to practice it. To address this issue, I argue that university-community engagement can be examined as a form of enquiry. In this view, engagement is viewed as a system that arises through the recognition of the dissent it embodies. As such, enquiry functions to process disagreements into diverse methods of communication. Most of the disagreements utilised by universities are derived from external sources, thus university-based enquiry must necessarily involve a dialogue with a broader community or environment. In this sense, university-community engagement can be viewed most generally as a method that processes disagreements into shared understandings through enquiry. To demonstrate how university-community engagement functions from an enquiry point of view, I use Mary Douglas’ grid-group diagramming method to develop a critical typology for classifying university-community engagement. My modified grid-group diagram provides a structured typological space within which four distinct methods of university-community engagement can be identified and discussed – both in relation to their internal communicational characteristics, and in relation to each other. The university-engagement grid-group diagram is constructed by locating each of Douglas’ four quadrants within Charles Peirce’s four methods of enquiry. Peirce’s work is introduced because each of his four methods of enquiry deals specifically with how disagreements are processed and resolved. When Peirce’s methods for fixing belief are located in Douglas’ grid-group diagram, they create a sense-making framework for university-community engagement. It is argued

  12. Building a Mien-American house: A case study in school-community relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Lorie A.

    2000-10-01

    Researchers and policymakers agree that schools and parents must work together if they are to provide the sustenance, services, and support which children need to be successful in our increasingly complex society. (Clark, 1983; Comer, 1980, 1996; Clinton, 1995; Epstein, 1995, 1996). Unfortunately, the social and academic success of language minority students is often adversely affected by the alienation of parents from school culture and by the "deficit" view which teachers hold of language minority parents' academic and parenting skills (Boggs, 1985; Delgado-Gaitan, 1990; Heath, 1983; Lareau, 1987, 1989; Philips, 1983). This case study describes the attempts of one school site to build academic and social bridges between immigrant families from a Southeast Asian Hill Tribe, the Iu Mien, and a mainstream elementary school. This effort is facilitated by a constructivist approach to curriculum in which parents, teachers, and children create an intercultural space---a school community garden---as a context in which academic dialogue can occur. Various strategies which enable inter-cultural learning are described, including the use of students as ethnographers, of parents as expert teachers, and of teachers as cultural brokers. The study also considers the cultural conflicts and understandings which occurred when American teachers and Mien parents built a Mien field-house together: a structure which became symbolic of their blended lives. Through both a descriptive narration and interviews with various participants, the study analyzes (a) community-based curriculum development, led by practitioner reformers, as a way to enable language minority students to be academically successful within their own life worlds, as well as (b) the political and bureaucratic forces which make community-based reforms difficult to sustain. This study employs qualitative research strategies within an action-research context in which the author plays the dual role of practitioner reformer

  13. Community Health Seeking Behavior for Suspected Human and Animal Rabies Cases, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegaye Tewelde G/hiwot

    Full Text Available Timely presentation to appropriate health service provider of sick animals/humans from zoonotic diseases like rabies is important for early case/outbreak detection and management. However, data on community's health seeking practice for rabies in Ethiopia is limited. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine community's health seeking behavior on rabies, Southwest Ethiopia.A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 16-February 14, 2015 to collect data from 808 respondents where the respondents were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaire by trained epidemiology graduate level students. Data were entered to Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 for windows.Eight hundred three (99.4% respondents participated in the study. Out of 28 respondents who reported their family members' exposure to rabies, 8 of them replied that the exposed family members sought treatment from traditional healers. More than nine in ten respondents perceived that humans and domestic animals with rabies exposure should seek help of which 85% of them suggested modern health care facilities as the preferred management option for the sick humans and domestic animals. However, among those who reported sick domestic animals, near to 72% of them had either slaughtered for human consumption, sold immediately, visited traditional healer, given home care or did nothing for the sick domestic animals.Majority of the respondents had favorable perception of seeking treatment from modern health care facilities for rabies. However, significant number of them had managed inappropriately for the sick domestic animals from rabies. Hence, raising awareness of the community about management of sick domestic animals from rabies and the need for reporting to both human and animal health service providers is needed.

  14. Social impacts of community renewable energy projects: findings from a woodfuel case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is much current interest in the potential of community-based renewable energy projects to contribute to transition towards low carbon energy systems. As well as displacing fossil fuel consumption by increasing renewable energy generation, projects are expected to have a range of social impacts which may result in additional positive sustainability outcomes. These include potential to increase: acceptance of renewable energy developments; awareness of renewable and sustainable energy technologies and issues; uptake of low carbon technologies; and sustainable/pro-environmental behaviours. To date however, there has been little investigation of whether and how these impacts occur. This paper presents results from qualitative research investigating the social impacts of a community woodfuel project as experienced by project participants and other local stakeholders. Findings show projects can raise awareness of renewable energy technologies and increase uptake of renewables. Overall the case study project successfully changed the local social context for development of woodfuel heating, reducing risk for all involved in the future development of this sector, particularly in the immediate locality. There was some evidence of increased engagement with wider sustainability issues but this was limited to direct participants, suggesting local projects need to be supported by wider systemic change to maximise impacts. - Highlights: ► We assessed the social impacts of a community woodfuel project. ► The project increased awareness and uptake of woodfuel heating. ► Impacts were achieved as a result of the locally-specific approach. ► Local projects can seed cultural change promoting transition to a low carbon society.

  15. Perspective for Aquaponic Systems: "Omic" Technologies for Microbial Community Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia-Fragozo, Perla; Alatorre-Jacome, Oscar; Rico-Garcia, Enrique; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Cruz-Hernandez, Andres; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalia V; Garcia-Trejo, Juan F; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G

    2015-01-01

    Aquaponics is the combined production of aquaculture and hydroponics, connected by a water recirculation system. In this productive system, the microbial community is responsible for carrying out the nutrient dynamics between the components. The nutrimental transformations mainly consist in the transformation of chemical species from toxic compounds into available nutrients. In this particular field, the microbial research, the "Omic" technologies will allow a broader scope of studies about a current microbial profile inside aquaponics community, even in those species that currently are unculturable. This approach can also be useful to understand complex interactions of living components in the system. Until now, the analog studies were made to set up the microbial characterization on recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). However, microbial community composition of aquaponics is still unknown. "Omic" technologies like metagenomic can help to reveal taxonomic diversity. The perspectives are also to begin the first attempts to sketch the functional diversity inside aquaponic systems and its ecological relationships. The knowledge of the emergent properties inside the microbial community, as well as the understanding of the biosynthesis pathways, can derive in future biotechnological applications. Thus, the aim of this review is to show potential applications of current "Omic" tools to characterize the microbial community in aquaponic systems.

  16. Perspective for Aquaponic Systems: "Omic" Technologies for Microbial Community Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia-Fragozo, Perla; Alatorre-Jacome, Oscar; Rico-Garcia, Enrique; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Cruz-Hernandez, Andres; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalia V; Garcia-Trejo, Juan F; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G

    2015-01-01

    Aquaponics is the combined production of aquaculture and hydroponics, connected by a water recirculation system. In this productive system, the microbial community is responsible for carrying out the nutrient dynamics between the components. The nutrimental transformations mainly consist in the transformation of chemical species from toxic compounds into available nutrients. In this particular field, the microbial research, the "Omic" technologies will allow a broader scope of studies about a current microbial profile inside aquaponics community, even in those species that currently are unculturable. This approach can also be useful to understand complex interactions of living components in the system. Until now, the analog studies were made to set up the microbial characterization on recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). However, microbial community composition of aquaponics is still unknown. "Omic" technologies like metagenomic can help to reveal taxonomic diversity. The perspectives are also to begin the first attempts to sketch the functional diversity inside aquaponic systems and its ecological relationships. The knowledge of the emergent properties inside the microbial community, as well as the understanding of the biosynthesis pathways, can derive in future biotechnological applications. Thus, the aim of this review is to show potential applications of current "Omic" tools to characterize the microbial community in aquaponic systems. PMID:26509157

  17. Building partnerships to support community-led HIV/AIDS management: a case study from rural South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Yugi; Campbell, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    The importance of partnerships between marginalised communities and support agencies (from the public sector, private sector and civil society) is a pillar of HIV/AIDS management policy. Such alliances are notoriously difficult to promote and sustain. We present a case study focusing on the first stage of a project seeking to build partnerships to facilitate local responses to HIV/AIDS in a remote rural community in South Africa. To date the Entabeni project has been successful in its goal of...

  18. Funding Ohio Community Colleges: An Analysis of the Performance Funding Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined Ohio's community college performance funding model that is based on seven student success metrics. A percentage of the regular state subsidy is withheld from institutions; funding is earned back based on the three-year average of success points achieved in comparison to other community colleges in the state. Analysis of…

  19. The Community College and a Rising Global Imaginary: An Analysis of Practical Reasoning, 1950-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, David F.; Palmadessa, Allison L.

    2015-01-01

    Through an analysis of 245 issues of the "Community College Journal" published between 1950 and 2013, we show how three discourses--international understanding and geopolitics, economic competitiveness, and global citizenship--informed practical reasoning about a rising global imaginary and its implications for the community college. By…

  20. Shared Governance in the Community College: An Analysis of Formal Authority in Collective Bargaining Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines shared governance in Washington State's community and technical colleges and provides an analysis of faculty participation in governance based on formal authority in collective bargaining agreements. Contracts from Washington's thirty community and technical college districts were reviewed in order to…

  1. Using Social Network Analysis to Understand Sense of Community in an Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Demei; Nuankhieo, Piyanan; Huang, Xinxin; Amelung, Christopher; Laffey, James

    2008-01-01

    This study uses social network analysis (SNA) in an innovative way to describe interaction and explain how interaction influences sense of community of students in online learning environments. The findings reveal differences on sense of community between two similarly structured online courses, and show unique interaction patterns for students in…

  2. Community based adaptation options for climate change impacts on water resources: The case of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammouri Nezar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A strategic vision to ensure an adequate, safe and secure drinking water supply presents a challenge, particularly for such a small country as Jordan, faced with a critical supply-demand imbalance and a high risk of water quality deterioration. In order to provide sustainable and equitable long-term water management plans for the future, current and future demands, along with available adaptation options should be assessed through community engagement. An analysis of available water resources, existing demands and use per sector served to assess the nation’s historic water status. Taking into account the effect of both population growth and rainfall reduction, future per sector demands were predicted by linear temporal trend analysis. Water sector vulnerability and adaptation options were assessed by engaging thirty five stakeholders. A set of weighed-criterions were selected, adopted, modified, and then framed into comprehensive guidelines. A quantitative ratio-level approach was used to quantify the magnitude and likelihood of risks and opportunities associated with each proposed adaptation measure using the level of effectiveness and severity status. Prioritization indicated that public awareness and training programs were the most feasible and effective adaptation measures, while building new infrastructure was of low priority. Associated barriers were related to a lack of financial resources, institutional arrangements, and data collection, sharing, availability, consistency and transparency, as well as willingness to adapt. Independent community-based watershed-vulnerability analyses to address water integrity at watershed scale are recommended.

  3. Predicate Argument Structure Analysis for Use Case Description Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hironori; Nakamura, Taiga; Yamaguchi, Takahira

    In a large software system development project, many documents are prepared and updated frequently. In such a situation, support is needed for looking through these documents easily to identify inconsistencies and to maintain traceability. In this research, we focus on the requirements documents such as use cases and consider how to create models from the use case descriptions in unformatted text. In the model construction, we propose a few semantic constraints based on the features of the use cases and use them for a predicate argument structure analysis to assign semantic labels to actors and actions. With this approach, we show that we can assign semantic labels without enhancing any existing general lexical resources such as case frame dictionaries and design a less language-dependent model construction architecture. By using the constructed model, we consider a system for quality analysis of the use cases and automated test case generation to keep the traceability between document sets. We evaluated the reuse of the existing use cases and generated test case steps automatically with the proposed prototype system from real-world use cases in the development of a system using a packaged application. Based on the evaluation, we show how to construct models with high precision from English and Japanese use case data. Also, we could generate good test cases for about 90% of the real use cases through the manual improvement of the descriptions based on the feedback from the quality analysis system.

  4. Community referral in home management of malaria in western Uganda: A case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsungwa-Sabiiti Jesca

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Home Based Management of fever (HBM was introduced as a national policy in Uganda to increase access to prompt presumptive treatment of malaria. Pre-packed Chloroquine/Fansidar combination is distributed free of charge to febrile children Methods A case-series study was performed during 20 weeks in a West-Ugandan sub-county with an under-five population of 3,600. Community drug distributors (DDs were visited fortnightly and recording forms collected. Referred children were located and primary caretaker interviewed in the household. Referral health facility records were studied for those stating having completed referral. Results Overall referral rate was 8% (117/1454. Fever was the main reason for mothers to seek DD care and for DDs to refer. Twenty-six of the 28 (93% "urgent referrals" accessed referral care but 8 (31% delayed >24 hours. Waiting for antimalarial drugs to finish caused most delays. Of 32 possible pneumonias only 16 (50% were urgently referred; most delayed ≥ 2 days before accessing referral care. Conclusion The HBM has high referral compliance and extends primary health care to the communities by maintaining linkages with formal health services. Referral non-completion was not a major issue but failure to recognise pneumonia symptoms and delays in referral care access for respiratory illnesses may pose hazards for children with acute respiratory infections. Extending HBM to also include pneumonia may increase prompt and effective care of the sick child in sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. Categorizing Bugs with Social Networks: A Case Study on Four Open Source Software Communities

    CERN Document Server

    Zanetti, Marcelo Serrano; Tessone, Claudio Juan; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Efficient bug triaging procedures are an important precondition for successful collaborative software engineering projects. Triaging bugs can become a laborious task particularly in open source software (OSS) projects with a large base of comparably inexperienced part-time contributors. In this paper, we propose an efficient and practical method to identify valid bug reports which a) refer to an actual software bug, b) are not duplicates and c) contain enough information to be processed right away. Our classification is based on nine measures to quantify the social embeddedness of bug reporters in the collaboration network. We demonstrate its applicability in a case study, using a comprehensive data set of more than 700,000 bug reports obtained from the Bugzilla installation of four major OSS communities, for a period of more than ten years. For those projects that exhibit the lowest fraction of valid bug reports, we find that the bug reporters' position in the collaboration network is a strong indicator for ...

  6. Exploring the Hidden Barriers in Knowledge Translation: A Case Study Within an Academic Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Gill; Marshall, Rhianon J; Jordan, Zoe; Kitson, Alison L

    2015-11-01

    Debates about knowledge translation (KT) typically focus on the research-practice gap, which appears to be premised on the assumption that academics are a homogeneous collective, sharing a common view. We argue that a number of hidden barriers need to be addressed related to the understanding, interpretation, ability, and commitment to translate knowledge within academic communities. We explore this by presenting a qualitative case study in a health sciences faculty. Applying organizational and management theory, we discuss different types of boundaries and the resultant barriers generated, ranging from diversity in understanding and perceptions of KT to varying motivations and incentives to engage in translational activity. We illustrate how we are using the empirical findings to inform the development of a KT strategy that targets the identified barriers. Investing in this internal KT-focused activity is an important step to maximize the potential of future collaborations between producers and users of research in health care. PMID:25847856

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Community Detection Algorithms on Artificial Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zhao; Tessone, Claudio Juan

    2016-01-01

    Many community detection algorithms have been developed to uncover the mesoscopic properties of complex networks. However how good an algorithm is, in terms of accuracy and computing time, remains still open. Testing algorithms on real-world network has certain restrictions which made their insights potentially biased: the networks are usually small, and the underlying communities are not defined objectively. In this study, we employ the Lancichinetti-Fortunato-Radicchi benchmark graph to test eight state-of-the-art algorithms. We quantify the accuracy using complementary measures and algorithms' computing time. Based on simple network properties and the aforementioned results, we provide guidelines that help to choose the most adequate community detection algorithm for a given network. Moreover, these rules allow uncovering limitations in the use of specific algorithms given macroscopic network properties. Our contribution is threefold: firstly, we provide actual techniques to determine which is the most sui...

  8. A Case Study of the South Puget Intertribal Planning Agency’s Comprehensive Cancer Control Planning and Community Mobilization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Nass, MPH, CHES

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The high rates of cancer among American Indians and Alaska Natives are of growing concern.Context In response to high cancer rates, national, state, and tribal organizations have worked to assess knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and screening practices related to cancer in American Indian and Alaska Native communities and to increase awareness and use of cancer screening. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is one such effort. NCCCP’s comprehensive cancer control (CCC planning process provides a new approach to planning and implementing cancer control programs. The CCC process and components for American Indians and Alaska Natives are not yet fully understood because this is a fairly new approach for these communities. Therefore, the purpose of our case study was to describe the CCC process and its outcomes and successes as applied to these communities and to identify key components and lessons learned from the South Puget Intertribal Planning Agency’s (SPIPA’s CCC planning and community mobilization process.Methods We used interviews, document reviews, and observations to collect data on SPIPA’s CCC planning and community mobilization process.Consequences We identified the key components of SPIPA’s CCC as funding and hiring key staff, partnering with outside organizations, developing a project management plan and a core planning team, creating community cancer orientations, conducting community cancer surveys, developing a community advisory committee, ongoing training and engaging of the community advisory committee, and supporting the leadership of the communities involved.Interpretation The CCC planning process is a practicable model, even for groups with little experience or few resources. The principles identified in this case study can be applied to the cancer control planning process for other tribes.

  9. Analysis of Computer Science Communities Based on DBLP

    CERN Document Server

    Biryukov, Maria; 10.1007/978-3-642-15464-5_24

    2010-01-01

    It is popular nowadays to bring techniques from bibliometrics and scientometrics into the world of digital libraries to analyze the collaboration patterns and explore mechanisms which underlie community development. In this paper we use the DBLP data to investigate the author's scientific career and provide an in-depth exploration of some of the computer science communities. We compare them in terms of productivity, population stability and collaboration trends.Besides we use these features to compare the sets of topranked conferences with their lower ranked counterparts.

  10. Conceptualizing age-friendly community characteristics in a sample of urban elders: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard J; Lehning, Amanda J; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2013-01-01

    Accurate conceptualization and measurement of age-friendly community characteristics would help to reduce barriers to documenting the effects on elders of interventions to create such communities. This article contributes to the measurement of age-friendly communities through an exploratory factor analysis of items reflecting an existing US Environmental Protection Agency policy framework. From a sample of urban elders (n = 1,376), we identified 6 factors associated with demographic and health characteristics: access to business and leisure, social interaction, access to health care, neighborhood problems, social support, and community engagement. Future research should explore the effects of these factors across contexts and populations.

  11. Retrosternal Goiter: Analysis of 42 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkýn Yazýcýoðlu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cases that were operated due to diagnosis of retrosternal goiter were examined in terms of age, gender, complaints, diagnosis methods, surgical methods and postoperative complications. Material and Metod: The records of 42 cases operated due to retrosternal goiter between January 2006 and April 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Of the 42 cases, 16 (38.1% were male and 26 (61.9% were female; mean age was 56.4 years (range 31 – 79. 10 patients (23.8% were asymptomatic and the most frequent complaint was dyspnea (n = 18, 42.9%. A collar-incision was used in 22 patients (52.4%, collar + sternotomy to 5 patients (11.9%, and right thoracotomy to 8 patients (19.0%. The most frequently observed thyroid pathology was nodular hyperplasia (n = 32, 76.2% and 5 patients (11.9% were diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma. The average duration of hospital stay was 5.6 days (2 – 16 and hypoparathyroidic hypocalcemia was determined in 2 patients (4.8%; no mortality was observed. Discussion: Collar incision is adequate for excision in most cases of retrosternal goiter. Sternotomy or thoracotomy can be safely applied with low morbidity rate to cases with suspected adjacency to mediastinal structures.  

  12. Case study: Promoting community resilience with local values – Greenland's Paamiut Asasara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berliner, Peter; Larsen, Line Natascha; de Casas Soberón, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The chapter describes the programme Paamiut Asasara. The programme mobilised the local community from locally defined values and promoted shared community resilience as well as individual and family resilience.......The chapter describes the programme Paamiut Asasara. The programme mobilised the local community from locally defined values and promoted shared community resilience as well as individual and family resilience....

  13. Case Study: Cincinnati, Covington, and Newport. Needle-Moving Community Collaboratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldon, Willa; Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Communities face powerful challenges that require powerful solutions: a high-school dropout epidemic, youth unemployment, teen pregnancy. In an era of limited resources, those solutions must help communities to achieve more with less. A new kind of community collaborative--an approach that aspires to significant community-wide progress by…

  14. An analysis of 1018 cases of ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chu Wan; Suh, Jeong Soo; Lee, Kwan Seh; Kim, Ki Hwan; Im, Chung Gie; Chang, Kee Hyun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung; Choo, Dong Woon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    Ultrasound is an especially helpful diagnostic tool in assessing various diseases in various organs as well as differentiating cystic masses from solid ones, with ease safety, reproducibility, and high accuracy. Authors analyzed total 1018 cases of ultrasonography that were studied in last seven months from March. 15. 1979 to October. 31. 1979, at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. Among the 1018 cases, 421 cases were male and 597 cases of female. The age distribution was from several months to 83 years, and 88% of all cases were in 20 to 69 years of age. 2. Sites of scanning; Liver, G.B. and biliary systems 376, thyroid 185, kidney 192, pelvis 121, abdomen 70, pancreas 48, eyeball 14, and other 12. 3. Hepatobiliary system 376; Normal 174, hepatomegaly 12, hepatoma 7, metastases 6, abscess 6, cirrhosis 2, hepatic cyst 1, hemangioma 1, agenesis of left lobe 1. 4. G.B. stones 106, cholecystitis 35, biliary tree dilatation 13, enlarged G.B. 7, C.B.D. stone 5, cystic duct stone 4, C.B.D. cancer 6, G.B. cancer 1, choledochal cyst 1, non-visualized G.B. 8. 5. Thyroid, 185; Nodule 147 -- solid 56, cystic 70, complex 21, Diffuse enlargement 29, normal scan 7, unidentified 2. 6. Pancreas, 48; Normal 17, pancreastitis 4, pancreatic cancer 22, pseudocyst 4, unidentified 1. 7. Abdomen 77 (excluding liver, G.B. and pancreas); Normal scan 31, solid tumor 14 - lymphoma group 12, mesenchyma origin 2, multiple lymph node enlargement 13, aortic aneurysm 4, retroperitoneal mass 2, subphrenic abscess 2, abdominal wall abscess 2, unknown solid mass 4, not contributory 4. 8. Kidney, 194, Normal scan 44, size and markings for biopsy 75, hydronephrosis 21, renal cyst 8, polycystic disease 8, solid renal tumor 10, renal stone 7, agenesis or hypoplasia 2, contracted kidney, both 7, enlarge kidney due to lymphoma and compensatory hyperplasia 5, renal tbc 2, perirenal abscess 1, perirenal hematoma 1, movable kidney 1, bladder tumor

  15. Implementation and utilisation of community-based mortality surveillance: a case study from Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowden Sarah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective surveillance is a recognised approach for measuring death rates in humanitarian emergencies. However, there is limited evidence on how such surveillance should optimally be implemented and on how data are actually used by agencies. This case study investigates the implementation and utilisation of mortality surveillance data by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF in eastern Chad. We aimed to describe and analyse the community-based mortality surveillance system, trends in mortality data and the utilisation of these data to guide MSF’s operational response. Methods The case study included 5 MSF sites including 2 refugee camps and 3 camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs. Data were obtained through key informant interviews and systematic review of MSF operational reports from 2004–2008. Results Mortality data were collected using community health workers (CHWs. Mortality generally decreased progressively. In Farchana and Breidjing refugee camps, crude death rates (CDR decreased from 0.9 deaths per 10,000 person-days in 2004 to 0.2 in 2008 and from 0.7 to 0.1, respectively. In Gassire, Ade and Kerfi IDP camps, CDR decreased from 0.4 to 0.04, 0.3 to 0.04 and 1.0 to 0.3. Death rates among children under 5 years (U5DR followed similar trends. CDR and U5DR crossed emergency thresholds in one site, Kerfi, where CDR rapidly rose to 2.1 and U5DR to 7.9 in July 2008 before rapidly decreasing to below emergency levels by September 2008. Discussion Mortality data were used regularly to monitor population health status and on two occasions as a tool for advocacy. Lessons learned included the need for improved population estimates and standardized reporting procedures for improved data quality and dissemination; the importance of a simple and flexible model for data collection; and greater investment in supervising CHWs. Conclusions This model of community based mortality surveillance can be adapted and used by

  16. Improving financial performance by modeling and analysis of radiology procedure scheduling at a large community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lingbo; Li, Jingshan; Gisler, Paula

    2011-06-01

    Radiology tests, such as MRI, CT-scan, X-ray and ultrasound, are cost intensive and insurance pre-approvals are necessary to get reimbursement. In some cases, tests may be denied for payments by insurance companies due to lack of pre-approvals, inaccurate or missing necessary information. This can lead to substantial revenue losses for the hospital. In this paper, we present a simulation study of a centralized scheduling process for outpatient radiology tests at a large community hospital (Central Baptist Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky). Based on analysis of the central scheduling process, a simulation model of information flow in the process has been developed. Using such a model, the root causes of financial losses associated with errors and omissions in this process were identified and analyzed, and their impacts were quantified. In addition, "what-if" analysis was conducted to identify potential process improvement strategies in the form of recommendations to the hospital leadership. Such a model provides a quantitative tool for continuous improvement and process control in radiology outpatient test scheduling process to reduce financial losses associated with process error. This method of analysis is also applicable to other departments in the hospital. PMID:20703560

  17. Analysis on Affecting Factors of Community Tourism Development-A Case from Baihuazhou Area of Ji’nan City%社区旅游发展影响因素分析--以济南百花洲片区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玮娜; 刘海玲

    2014-01-01

    社区旅游作为一种以社区为基础,将目的地建设、旅游业发展与社区规划布局相结合的旅游发展模式,对实现区域旅游业的可持续发展具有重要意义。本文选取济南百花洲片区作为案例,运用问卷调查法,从居民参与旅游发展的意愿和对旅游影响的感知两个方面分析了百花洲片区社区旅游发展的影响因素。研究结果表明,百花洲片区居民对旅游业发展普遍抱有正面积极态度、分享旅游发展成果并参与承担旅游发展责任的意愿水平较高是当地社区旅游发展的有利条件;居民参与旅游发展具体事项的意愿有待提升、对旅游发展带来的部分影响持消极态度是当地社区旅游发展的限制因素。最后指出,对社区居民进行旅游教育与培训、在旅游规划中吸纳社区观点并尊重居民的社会需要、注重对旅游社会影响的研究和监测是培育社区旅游发展机制的关键。%Community tourism is a community-based tourism development model, which integrating the destination construction, the development of tourism industry and community planning. Community tourism has an important signiifcance upon the sustainable development of regional tourism. Selecting Baihuazhou area of Ji'nan city as a case, and using questionnaire survey method, this paper analyzes the influence factors of its development of community tourism from two aspects: the residents’ participation willingness and their perception of tourism impact. The results show that there are two advantages for the development of community tourism in the Baihuazhou area: the residents’ positive attitude to tourism development, and their high level willingness of sharing the achievements and responsibilities of tourism development;and there are two limiting factors to the development of the local community tourism: the lower residents' willingness to participate in the details of tourism development

  18. 社区卫生服务中心门诊腹痛患者244例诊治情况分析%Analysis of diagnosis and treatment of 244 cases of patients with abdominal pain in outpatient services of community health service center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡勇军

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析某社区卫生服务中心门诊腹痛患者伴随症状及病因,探索门诊腹痛诊治过程中的注意事项及腹痛诊断思维。方法:2013年1-12月收治腹痛患者244例,回顾性分析其临床资料。结果:244例腹痛患者中,102例伴恶心呕吐,86例伴腹泻,28例伴反跳痛,5例伴牵涉痛,19例有发热。腹痛病因最后确诊为急性胃肠炎等18种疾病,病例数及百分比排在前5位的疾病有急性胃肠炎92例(38.70%)、胆囊炎及胆结石34例(13.92%)、急性阑尾炎17例(6.97%)、泌尿系结石及感染12例(4.92%)、急性盆腔炎11例(4.51%)。另有腹痛患者诊断为心肌梗死、心肌炎和癫痫等。结论:腹痛病因较为复杂,社区门诊医师应完善自己的知识结构,打破固有的思维定势,进一步扩大腹痛病因诊断方面的知识面,以减少误诊和漏诊。%Objective:To analyze the associated symptoms and etiology of patients with abdominal pain in outpatient services of community health service center,to explore the matters needing attention in the course of diagnosis and treatment of abdominal pain and abdominal pain diagnosis thinking.Methods:244 patients with abdominal pain were selected from January to December 2013.The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.Results:In 244 cases of patients with abdominal pain,102 cases accompanied with nausea and vomiting;86 cases had diarrhea;28 cases had rebound pain;5 cases had referred pain;19 cases had fever.The cause of abdominal pain finally diagnosed as acute gastroenteritis and other 18 kinds of diseases.The case number and percentage of the top five diseases were acute gastroenteritis in 92 cases(38.70% ),cholecystitis and gallstones in 34 cases(13.92% ),17 cases(6.97%) of acute appendicitis,urinary calculi and infection in 12 cases(4.92%),11 cases(4.51%) of acute pelvic inflammatory disease.In addition,some abdominal pain were diagnosed with myocardial infarction

  19. Community Knowledge Sharing and Co-Production of Water Services: Two Cases of Community Aqueduct Associations in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Llano-Arias

    2015-06-01

    These new forms of citizenship based on claims of sovereignty over natural, common goods are gradually transforming Colombian democratic space. The article draws on debates around active citizenship, deepening democracy, and participatory communication approaches to explain the aims of community organisations and the mechanisms by which they are self-organising and managing water at the local level.

  20. Data analysis in community and landscape ecology. 2nd Edition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, R.H.G.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Tongeren, van O.F.R.

    1995-01-01

    Ecologists need to analyze their field data to interpret relationships within plant and animal communities and with their environments. The purpose of this book is to show ecologists and environmental scientists what numerical and statistical methods are most useful, how to use them and interpret th

  1. Defining Campus Violence: A Phenomenological Analysis of Community Stakeholder Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Caldwell, Rebecca J.; Goldman, Emily Grey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to derive an empirically based understanding of campus violence. Grounded in a communication paradigm offered by sociolinguistic scholars, we adopted a phenomenological approach for conducting and analyzing 23 interviews from campus community stakeholders, including students, staff, faculty, administrators, and…

  2. A Learning Community's Potential Academic Impact: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W.; Warner, Susan C.; Rose, Stephanie Firebaugh; Johnson, Courtney B.; Firmin, Ruth L.

    2012-01-01

    Learning Communities (LC) in higher education can serve as powerful connectors among individuals, particularly when integrating minority and White students. We conducted 24 in-depth interviews, using qualitative research methodology, with the 2004 cohort of LC students from a private, selective, Midwest university. Seniors at the time of…

  3. Community College Mission Influence on Culture: An Organizational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, E. Gerome

    2013-01-01

    Strong agreement of mission and culture has been found in more effective colleges (Fjortoft & Smart, 1994). For leaders, the culture of an organization provides the context for which decisions about organizational change processes can be made (Malm, 2008). The purpose of this study was to explore the culture present within a community college…

  4. Recruitment Campaigns as a Tool for Social and Cultural Reproduction of Scientific Communities: A case study on how scientists invite young people to science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrée, Maria; Hansson, Lena

    2014-08-01

    Young people's interest in pursuing science and science-intense educations has been expressed as a concern in relation to societal, economic and democratic development by various stakeholders (governments, industry and university). From the perspective of the scientific communities, the issues at stake do not necessarily correspond to the overall societal aims. Rather, initiatives to recruit young people to science are also ways for the scientific community to engage in the social and cultural reproduction of itself. For a community to survive and produce a future, it needs to secure regeneration of itself in succeeding generations. The aim of this study is to, from a perspective of social and cultural production/reproduction, shed light on an initiative from the scientific community to recruit young people to science education. This is a case study of one recruitment campaign called the Chemistry Advent calendar. The calendar consists of 25 webcasted films, produced and published by the science/technology faculty at a university. The analysed data consist of the films and additional published material relating to the campaign such as working reports and articles published about the campaign. The analysis focussed on what messages are communicated to potential newcomers. The messages were categorised by means of a framework of subjective values. The results are discussed both from a perspective of how the messages mirror traditions and habits of the scientific community, and in relation to research on students' educational choices.

  5. Evaluating community investments in the mining sector using multi-criteria decision analysis to integrate SIA with business planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaining senior management's commitment to long-term social development projects, which are characterised by uncertainty and complexity, is made easier if projects are shown to benefit the site's strategic goals. However, even though the business case for community investment may have been accepted at a general level, as a strategy for competitive differentiation, risk mitigation and a desire to deliver - and to be seen to deliver - a 'net benefit' to affected communities, mining operations are still faced with implementation challenges. Case study research on mining companies, including interviews with social investment decision-makers, has assisted in developing the Social Investment Decision Analysis Tool (SIDAT), a decision model for evaluating social projects in order to create value for both the company and the community. Multi-criteria decision analysis techniques integrating business planning processes with social impact assessment have proved useful in assisting mining companies think beyond the traditional drivers (i.e. seeking access to required lands and peaceful relations with neighbours), to broader issues of how they can meet their business goals and contribute to sustainable development in the regions in which they operate

  6. Analysis of 23 cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚海青; 李惠萍; 何国钧

    2004-01-01

    @@ Pulmonary cryptococcosis (PC) is a subacute or chronic pulmonary fungitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. Because of no specific clinical symptoms or manifestations in chest radiographs, misdiagnosis is common.1 Between January 1980 and January 2004, 23 cases of PC were diagnosed by pathological examinations in our hospital and the clinical data were retrospectively analyzed to improve the diagnosis of PC.

  7. AN ANALYSIS OF PHARMACY SERVICES BY PHARMACIST IN COMMUNITY PHARMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Up to now there are more than 60 schools of pharmacy with a variety of accreditation level in lndonesia. Previous study found that the standard of pharmaceutical services at various service facilities (hospitals, primary health care and community pharmacy can not be fully implemented because of the limited competency of pharmacist. This study was conducted to identify the qualification of pharmacist who delivers services in community pharmacy in compliance with the Indonesian Health Law No. 36 of 2009. As mandated in the Health Law No. 36 of 2009, the government is obliged to establish minimum requirements that must be possessed. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010 at 2 community pharmacies in each of 3 cities, i.e. Bandung, DI Yogyakarta and Surabaya. Other than ten pharmacists delivering services in community pharmacies, there were pharmacists as informants from 4 institutions in each city selected, i.e. six pharmacists from two Schools of Pharmacy, three pharmacists from three Regional Indonesian Pharmacists Association,six pharmacists from three District Health Offices and three Provincial Health Offices. Primary data collection through in-depth interviews and observation as well as secondary data collection concerning standard operating procedures, monitoring documentation and academic curricula has been used. Descriptive data were analysed qualitatively Results: The findings indicate that pharmacists' qualification to deliver services in a community pharmacy in accordance with the Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009, Standards of Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacy and Good Pharmaceutical Practices (GPP was varied. Most pharmacists have already understood their roles in pharmacy service, but to practice it in accordance with the standards or guidelines they are still having problems. It is also acknowledged by pharmacists in other institutions, including School of Pharmacy, Regional

  8. Status epilepticus: Analysis of refractory cases

    OpenAIRE

    B. P. Gladov; O. A. Podgornaya; P. N. Vlasov

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to analyze refractory status epilepticus (SE) cases.Patients and methods. Fifteen female patients aged 21 to 62 years with refractory SE were comprehensively examined using long-term electroencephalography monitoring. The investigators evaluated the efficiency of treatment regimens with intravenous antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), such as diazepam (DZP); valproic acid (VPA); levetiracetam; and lacosamide and their combinations, at the prehospital and hospital stages, as well as SE thera...

  9. Determinants of Individual Level Satisfaction with Community Based Natural Resources Management: A Case of Five Communities in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shylock Muyengwa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a logistic regression model, this paper examines key factors that influence individual support for communal conservancies in Namibia. It tests the hypothesis that if individuals are compensated for their wildlife related losses, they are more likely to support community based wildlife management projects. Data for this study were collected from 472 members of five conservancies in the Caprivi Region of Namibia. Respondents were selected through convenience sampling. The key findings are that receiving meat, activity during the Annual General Meeting (AGM, and being a member of a specific conservancy are the key predictors of satisfaction with the conservancy among the respondents. On the other hand, cash and jobs have no significant impact on individual attitudes toward communal conservancies. Based on these findings, the paper argues that the focus on incentives omits broader factors that motivate individuals to participate in community-based conservation.

  10. Social acceptance of community-based DEWATS - A case from two urban communities of Madhyapur Thimi municipality of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Nepal, Udhab

    2013-01-01

    Challenge of wastewater management is increasing with rapid population growth in urban areas. Rivers are heavily polluted as more than 90 percent of wastewater is being discharged directly without any treatment in many developing countries. Urban centres of Nepal are facing the same problem. A community-based DEWATS (decentralized wastewater treatment system) as a pilot and demonstration project was initiated by an NGO in Madhyapur Thimi municipality with an attempt to tackle this situation. ...

  11. Social acceptance of community-based DEWATS: A case study from two urban communities of Madhyapur Thimi municipality of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Nepal, Udhab

    2013-01-01

    Challenge of wastewater management is increasing with rapid population growth in urban areas. Rivers are heavily polluted as more than 90 percent of wastewater is being discharged directly without any treatment in many developing countries. Urban centres of Nepal are facing the same problem. A community-based DEWATS (decentralized wastewater treatment system) as a pilot and demonstration project was initiated by an NGO in Madhyapur Thimi municipality with an attempt to tackle this situation. ...

  12. An analysis of open source principles in diverse collaborative communities

    OpenAIRE

    Coffin, Jill

    2006-01-01

    Open source culture and practice emerged as software hackers took control over the production, ownership and distribution of their skilled work. This revolution, quiet and unnoticed by most, began over twenty years ago. Along the way, free and open source software hackers developed organizational and dialog structures to support their ethos, creating a successful model for collaboration. This paper applies traits common to successful free software and open source hacker communities as a frame...

  13. Promoting law enforcement for child protection: a community analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lavelle, J M; Hovell, M F; West, M P; Wahlgren, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Colorado Occupant Protection Project (COPP) intervention provided police with brief instruction concerning the importance of citations for drivers' failure to use child safety seats and special coupons to accompany citations. Coupons were exchangeable by drivers for a safety seat and brief training in its use, plus a waiver of the $50 citation fine. Over 4.5 years of archival records were employed, using an ABA design and a comparison community to evaluate the program. Few tickets were is...

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Community Detection Algorithms on Artificial Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Algesheimer, René; Tessone, Claudio J.

    2016-08-01

    Many community detection algorithms have been developed to uncover the mesoscopic properties of complex networks. However how good an algorithm is, in terms of accuracy and computing time, remains still open. Testing algorithms on real-world network has certain restrictions which made their insights potentially biased: the networks are usually small, and the underlying communities are not defined objectively. In this study, we employ the Lancichinetti-Fortunato-Radicchi benchmark graph to test eight state-of-the-art algorithms. We quantify the accuracy using complementary measures and algorithms’ computing time. Based on simple network properties and the aforementioned results, we provide guidelines that help to choose the most adequate community detection algorithm for a given network. Moreover, these rules allow uncovering limitations in the use of specific algorithms given macroscopic network properties. Our contribution is threefold: firstly, we provide actual techniques to determine which is the most suited algorithm in most circumstances based on observable properties of the network under consideration. Secondly, we use the mixing parameter as an easily measurable indicator of finding the ranges of reliability of the different algorithms. Finally, we study the dependency with network size focusing on both the algorithm’s predicting power and the effective computing time.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Community Detection Algorithms on Artificial Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Algesheimer, René; Tessone, Claudio J.

    2016-01-01

    Many community detection algorithms have been developed to uncover the mesoscopic properties of complex networks. However how good an algorithm is, in terms of accuracy and computing time, remains still open. Testing algorithms on real-world network has certain restrictions which made their insights potentially biased: the networks are usually small, and the underlying communities are not defined objectively. In this study, we employ the Lancichinetti-Fortunato-Radicchi benchmark graph to test eight state-of-the-art algorithms. We quantify the accuracy using complementary measures and algorithms’ computing time. Based on simple network properties and the aforementioned results, we provide guidelines that help to choose the most adequate community detection algorithm for a given network. Moreover, these rules allow uncovering limitations in the use of specific algorithms given macroscopic network properties. Our contribution is threefold: firstly, we provide actual techniques to determine which is the most suited algorithm in most circumstances based on observable properties of the network under consideration. Secondly, we use the mixing parameter as an easily measurable indicator of finding the ranges of reliability of the different algorithms. Finally, we study the dependency with network size focusing on both the algorithm’s predicting power and the effective computing time. PMID:27476470

  16. Pro: Meta-analysis: the case for.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, David W; Webster, Angela C; Johnson, David W

    2016-06-01

    With ever-accumulating medical evidence for treatment benefits and harms, it is vital that clinicians are able to access and use up-to-date, best evidence in specific clinical scenarios involving individual patients-the primary goal of evidence-based medicine. In this article, we propose that meta-analysis, when properly conducted and reported in the context of a rigorous systematic review, is an indispensable tool for synthesis and interpretation of clinical evidence for the purpose of informing clinical decision-making by clinicians, patients and health care policy makers. Meta-analysis provides many benefits, including enhanced precision and statistical power, greater transparency, identification of bias, exploration of heterogeneity of effects, enhanced generalizability, efficient integration of clinical knowledge, identification of evidence gaps, better informed future trial design and avoidance of unnecessary research duplication and potential patient harm. The overall standard, clinical value and reach of meta-analysis has been further enhanced by the development of standards for registration, conduct and reporting, as well as advanced meta-analytic techniques, such as network meta-analysis. Of course, meta-analysis can at times be limited by poor quality studies, trial heterogeneity, publication bias and non-rigorous review and analysis, although through appraisal these issues are often able to be identified and explored, such that valuable clinical information can still be obtained. Consequently, meta-analysis is now the most highly cited form of research and is considered by many leading organizations to represent the highest level of clinical evidence. However, to maximize their considerable value, it is essential that all clinicians have the skills to critically appraise, carefully interpret and judiciously apply meta-analyses in their practice. PMID:27217392

  17. Pro: Meta-analysis: the case for.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, David W; Webster, Angela C; Johnson, David W

    2016-06-01

    With ever-accumulating medical evidence for treatment benefits and harms, it is vital that clinicians are able to access and use up-to-date, best evidence in specific clinical scenarios involving individual patients-the primary goal of evidence-based medicine. In this article, we propose that meta-analysis, when properly conducted and reported in the context of a rigorous systematic review, is an indispensable tool for synthesis and interpretation of clinical evidence for the purpose of informing clinical decision-making by clinicians, patients and health care policy makers. Meta-analysis provides many benefits, including enhanced precision and statistical power, greater transparency, identification of bias, exploration of heterogeneity of effects, enhanced generalizability, efficient integration of clinical knowledge, identification of evidence gaps, better informed future trial design and avoidance of unnecessary research duplication and potential patient harm. The overall standard, clinical value and reach of meta-analysis has been further enhanced by the development of standards for registration, conduct and reporting, as well as advanced meta-analytic techniques, such as network meta-analysis. Of course, meta-analysis can at times be limited by poor quality studies, trial heterogeneity, publication bias and non-rigorous review and analysis, although through appraisal these issues are often able to be identified and explored, such that valuable clinical information can still be obtained. Consequently, meta-analysis is now the most highly cited form of research and is considered by many leading organizations to represent the highest level of clinical evidence. However, to maximize their considerable value, it is essential that all clinicians have the skills to critically appraise, carefully interpret and judiciously apply meta-analyses in their practice.

  18. Community-Based Coastal Resource Management (CB-CRM: a Case Study f Mariveles, Bataan, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lou L. Mungcal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressed the issue of sustainable coastal resource management through a successful Community-Based Coastal Resource Management (CB-CRM Program in the Municipality of Mariveles, province of Bataan in the Philippines. The paper investigated how governance and institutional and legislative framework, and the concept of sustainable development complemented each other to promote good local eco-governance in the management and protection of finite local marine resources. Specifically, it analyzed how the local fisherfolk community of Mariveles utilized efficiently their finite marine resources in the context of eco-governance. It also investigated how the cooperative efforts of various stakeholders: peoples’ organizations (POs, local government unit (LGU, and a non-government organization (NGO in Mariveles, Bataan affected their coastal resources against environmental degradation and exploitation. This paper would benefit POs, LGUs, and NGOs in their quest for sustainable management and conservation of their limited coastal resources. This paper yielded the following findings. First, POs and NGOs engage when NGOs can strengthen the POs’ capacity building through the transfer of skills and technology, when NGOs can enhance the POs’ indigenous knowledge, and when NGOs are more knowledgeable of formal venues of LGU participation. Second, LGUs, NGOs and POs engage when POs and NGOs can complement each other to strengthen their capacity building, and when NGOs can help implement environmental programs that are beneficial to the POs. Third, NGOs and POs engage when POs are threatened by elite power, and when NGOs want their environmental issues on LGU’s legislative agenda. Finally, NGOs and POs engage when they see possible LGU cooperation. Participant observation through focus group discussion (FGD and key informants’ interview of different stakeholders was a primary source of information in formulating the aforementioned conclusions

  19. Designing Program Roadmaps to Catalyze Community Formation: A Case Study of the Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Roadmapword

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Brent; Hanson, Duane; Matthern, Gretchen

    2003-02-27

    A number of broad perspective technology roadmaps have been developed in the last few years as tools for coordinating nation-wide research in targeted areas. These roadmaps share a common characteristic of coalescing the associated stakeholder groups into a special-interest community that is willing to work cooperatively in achieving the roadmap goals. These communities are key to roadmap implementation as they provide the collaborative energy necessary to obtain the political support and funding required for identified science and technology development efforts. This paper discusses the relationship between roadmaps and special-interest communities, using the recently drafted Department of Energy's Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Roadmap as a case study. Specific aspects this roadmap's design facilitated the development of a long-term stewardship community while specific realities during roadmap development impacted the realization of the design.

  20. How do we know? An assessment of integrated community case management data quality in four districts of Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourkavitch, Jennifer; Zalisk, Kirsten; Prosnitz, Debra; Luhanga, Misheck; Nsona, Humphreys

    2016-11-01

    The World Health Organization contracted annual data quality assessments of Rapid Access Expansion (RAcE) projects to review integrated community case management (iCCM) data quality and the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system for iCCM, and to suggest ways to improve data quality. The first RAcE data quality assessment was conducted in Malawi in January 2014 and we present findings pertaining to data from the health management information system at the community, facility and other sub-national levels because RAcE grantees rely on that for most of their monitoring data. We randomly selected 10 health facilities (10% of eligible facilities) from the four RAcE project districts, and collected quantitative data with an adapted and comprehensive tool that included an assessment of Malawi's M&E system for iCCM data and a data verification exercise that traced selected indicators through the reporting system. We rated the iCCM M&E system across five function areas based on interviews and observations, and calculated verification ratios for each data reporting level. We also conducted key informant interviews with Health Surveillance Assistants and facility, district and central Ministry of Health staff. Scores show a high-functioning M&E system for iCCM with some deficiencies in data management processes. The system lacks quality controls, including data entry verification, a protocol for addressing errors, and written procedures for data collection, entry, analysis and management. Data availability was generally high except for supervision data. The data verification process identified gaps in completeness and consistency, particularly in Health Surveillance Assistants' record keeping. Staff at all levels would like more training in data management. This data quality assessment illuminates where an otherwise strong M&E system for iCCM fails to ensure some aspects of data quality. Prioritizing data management with documented protocols, additional training and

  1. Leadership Analysis in K-12 Case Study: "Divided Loyalties"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Merfat Ayesh

    2016-01-01

    This report mainly aims to provide a critical and in-depth analysis of the K-12 Case, "Divided Loyalty" by Holy and Tartar (2004). The case recounts how the manifestation of inadequate leadership skills in a school setting could affect negatively the performance of students.

  2. Leadership Analysis in K-12 Case Study: Superintendent's Hiring Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsobaie, Mohammed Fahad

    2016-01-01

    This paper will seek to analyze of the case "Superintendent's Hiring Dilemma" by Hoy and Tarter (2004) using multiple leadership perspectives. The last section of this analysis of the case study will provide the most effective leadership recommendations for the key players.

  3. Regional heritage preservation planning :an examination through case study analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, Karen J.

    1993-01-01

    Cultural preservation efforts have evolved from traditional, site specific projects administered by a single agency, to regional, multi-jurisdictional projects administered by a cooperative partnership. The projects administered cooperative partnerships are a recent phenomena and are often termed heritage preservation projects. An analysis of the evolution of cultural preservation efforts is undertaken through historical and case study research. The selected cases are ...

  4. Automating case reports for the analysis of digital evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cassidy, Regis H. Friend

    2005-01-01

    The reporting process during computer analysis is critical in the practice of digital forensics. Case reports are used to review the process and results of an investigation and serve multiple purposes. The investigator may refer to these reports to monitor the progress of his analysis throughout the investigation. When acting as an expert witness, the investigator will refer to organized documentation to recall past analysis. A lot of time can elapse between the analysis and the actual testim...

  5. Participation, Poverty and Public Policies: 3P Challenging Community Environmental Psychology (The Case of the Communal Councils in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Wiesenfeld

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Participation, poverty and public policy are three relevant topics for the state, society and academy, particularly for environmental and community social psychology. Meanings and ways of addressing these topics by the above mentioned sector have varied across time and places. Recent impact of new governance models, such as participative democracy, has provoked changes in public policy modes of influence, as a strategy for poverty reduction. Such changes’ orientations coincide with those of environmental community psychology, social constructionist theoretical perspective and qualitative methodology. In Venezuela, only Latin American country where participation has been given a constitutional and legal status, it is important to study participation’s meanings and its implications in public management as a strategy for poverty reduction. Communal councils constitute the main community participatory structure, which integrates poor sectors and vehicles their requirements together with governmental entities. Conscious as we are of existing gaps between discourses and actions, the present research analyses official discourses on participation, through the Venezuelan Constitution and the Organic Communal Councils Law, and compares them with participatory meanings and experiences provided by communal councils’ members and other community stakeholders’ narratives. Results show differences between official and community perspectives on participation in communal councils, as well as discrepancies within communities: they also point out to the difficulties of state induced participation, as is the venezuelan case, for its protagonists’ limitations for transcending projects and exerting power outside community boundaries.

  6. Revising the Community of Inquiry Framework for the Analysis of One-to-One Online Learning Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbom, Stefan; Jansson, Malin; Hulkko, Annelie

    2016-01-01

    In online learning research, the theoretical community of inquiry framework has been used extensively to analyze processes of inquiry among learners and instructors within a community. This paper examines a special case of community of inquiry consisting of only one learner and one instructor. Together they engage in an online coaching discourse…

  7. Leading Change: A Case Study of Leadership Practices from the Development of the Niagara County Community College Culinary Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, Jazmin; Mistriner, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the lessons learned from the development of a project that set out to revitalize an economically depressed area with an innovative approach to workforce development through partnerships. The focus was to utilize the development of the Niagara County Community College Culinary Institute as an example…

  8. A Triple Helix Strategy for Promoting SME Development: The Case of a Dried Banana Community Enterprise in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwawutto, Sauwapa; Smitinont, Thitapha; Charoenanong, Numtip; Yokakul, Nattaka; Chatratana, Sonchai; Zawdie, Girma

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the university-industry-government relationship as a mechanism for enhancing the efficiency and competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The case of a community enterprise producing dried banana products in the north of Thailand is used to demonstrate the significance of the Triple Helix model for business…

  9. Case Management for Students at Risk of Dropping Out: Implementation and Interim Impact Findings from the Communities in Schools Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrin, William; Parise, Leigh M.; Cerna, Oscar; Haider, Zeest; Somers, Marie-Andrée

    2015-01-01

    Too many students drop out and never earn their high school diploma. For students at risk of dropping out, academic, social, and other supports may help. "Communities In Schools" seeks to organize and provide these supports to at-risk students in the nation's poorest-performing schools, including through "case-managed"…

  10. Are pathogenic leptospira species agents of community-acquired pneumonia? case reports of leptospirosis presenting as pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Gasem; H. Farida (Helmia); A. Ahmed (Ahmed); J.A. Severin (Julitte A.); A. Suryanto (Agus); B. Isbandrio; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); R.A. Hartskeerl (Rudy); P.J. Van Den Broek (Peterhans J.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe report four Indonesian cases meeting the clinical and radiological criteria for community-acquired pneumonia and other findings suggestive of leptospirosis. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses of serum and urine samples and serology confirmed the diagnosis of leptospirosis in each. Resul

  11. Using Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory to Understand Community Partnerships: A Historical Case Study of One Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Although the value of school-community partnerships is unquestioned, the reasons for success and failure are not sufficiently understood. This mixed-methods case study examines 60 years of partnering at one urban high school, using Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory to better understand the effect on student development as measured by…

  12. What influences community positions towards nearby mining projects : eight cases from Brazil and Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    This thesis looks at the influences and dynamics of community positions towards nearby mining projects in Brazil and Chile from an affected communities perspective. This subject is important because even after many initiatives and guidance aimed at helping companies to obtain good community relations, also known as a social license to operate (SLO), conflict in many mining community contexts is still prevalent today. In considering this, the thesis draws from Stakeholder, Resou...

  13. Commonality Analysis for the Regression Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Kavita

    Commonality analysis is a procedure for decomposing the coefficient of determination (R superscript 2) in multiple regression analyses into the percent of variance in the dependent variable associated with each independent variable uniquely, and the proportion of explained variance associated with the common effects of predictors in various…

  14. Status epilepticus: Analysis of refractory cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Gladov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze refractory status epilepticus (SE cases.Patients and methods. Fifteen female patients aged 21 to 62 years with refractory SE were comprehensively examined using long-term electroencephalography monitoring. The investigators evaluated the efficiency of treatment regimens with intravenous antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, such as diazepam (DZP; valproic acid (VPA; levetiracetam; and lacosamide and their combinations, at the prehospital and hospital stages, as well as SE therapy complications noted only in the intravenous administration of narcotics (propofol, sodium thiopental.Results and discussion. A fetal outcome due to multiple organ dysfunction indirectly related to SE was recorded in 2 (13.3% patients with acute symptomatic status. SE was abolished in the other 13 cases. The preliminary findings may suggest that it is appropriate to prescribe VPA just at the prehospital stage. The co-administration of VPA and DZP substantially enhances the efficiency of SE therapy. The maximum acceptable doses of AEDs using the whole available therapeutic arsenal should be administered within the first hours of acute symptomatic SE.

  15. Identifying Overlapping Language Communities: The Case of Chiriquí and Panamanian Signed Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I use a holographic metaphor to explain the identification of overlapping sign language communities in Panama. By visualizing Panama's complex signing communities as emitting community "hotspots" through social drama on multiple stages, I employ ethnographic methods to explore overlapping contours of Panama's sign language…

  16. Promoting Community Wellbeing: The Case for Lifelong Learning for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Sharan B.; Kee, Youngwha

    2014-01-01

    Community wellbeing is a function of many factors working in concert to promote an optimal quality of life for all members of a community. It is argued here that the promotion of lifelong learning among older adults can significantly contribute to community wellbeing. The aging society is a worldwide phenomenon presenting both opportunities and…

  17. Examining the Development of a Teacher Learning Community: The Case of a Video Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Es, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Learning communities have become a widespread model for teacher development. However, simply bringing teachers together does not ensure community development. This study offers a framework for the development of a teacher learning community in a video club. Qualitative coding of video data resulted in characterizing the evolution of the video club…

  18. Building Vibrant School-Community Music Collaborations: Three Case Studies from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartleet, Brydie-Leigh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between school music and community music in Australia. While many Australian schools and community music activities tend to exist in relative isolation from one another, a range of unique school-community collaborations can be found throughout the country. Drawing on insights from "Sound Links," one of…

  19. "It Really Comes Down to the Community": A Case Study of a Rural School Music Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDeusen, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Communities, schools, their music programs, and the individuals who participate in these groups are tied to the social, cultural, and political contexts in which they reside. Schools are often connected to their communities, and are often deeply cherished in rural communities. School music programs hold the potential to influence a small…

  20. ICT in Teaching: An analysis of cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Elisabet Almiron

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although increasingly, with ever more emphasis and frequency, the benefits of incorporating Information Technology and Communications (ICT in teaching are touted, the reality is far from what is stated. In this paper the aim has been to investigate teachers’ conceptions of ICT and how they apply them in the classroom. To this end, discourse analysis (DA was performed on the opinions of three Natural Science teachers about the importance they assign to ICT, and the new challenges of education in today's society. The analysis results show that, although the discourse emphasizes the need for ICT in school, the reality is that teachers find it hard to implement them in the classroom.

  1. Microbial Community Analysis of the Costa Rica Margin from a Metagenomic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon Zayas, R. I.; Martino, A. J.; House, C. H.; Biddle, J.

    2015-12-01

    The taxonomic distribution and metabolic capabilities of microbial communities in the subseafloor are poorly understood. In this study we aimed to analyze the microbial community of samples obtained from the Costa Rica margin in two different sites, one where three samples were collected at 2 meters below the sea floor (mbsf), 33 mbsf and 93 mbsf, and another from 22 mbsf to 45 mbsf. Whole community analysis of conserved gene markers show that the microbial community varies with depth, in composition as well as in average genome size. Genome sizes do not increase with depth and metabolic strategies change with streamlined functions at depth. Specific metabolic processes are found to be performed by distinct members of the microbial community. Changes within the microbial populations related to depth, age and geochemistry are able to be investigated.

  2. Spontaneous Hemopneumothorax: Analysis of 8 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Aydın

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Spontaneous hemopneumothorax is a rare disorder that results from a torn of small vessels located in adhesions between the visceral and parietal pleura resulting from the progress of lung collapse. A large spontaneous hemopneumothorax is often life threatening, and the late diagnosis and treatment can increase mortality rate. In this study; we present eight patients who presented to us with nontraumatic spontaneous hemopneumothorax and the clinical features of these patients and the results of conservative and surgical management were discussed. Material and Method: From January 2005 and September 2010, a total of 97 patients were treated with spontaneous pneumothorax. Eight (8.23% developed spontaneous hemopneumothorax. We analyzed many factors such as sex and age distribution, affected site, the degree of lung kollaps, clinical symptoms, bleeding volume, etiology, treatments, complications. Result: Six patients (75 % were male and 2 patients (25 % were female and their mean age was 30.25.15.75 years. Hemopneumothorax is detected at the right side in 5 patients (62.5% ,and at the left side in 3 patients (37.5%. The most common symptoms (62.5% in all patients were chest pain and dyspnea. All patients were treated with the tube thoracostomy; five (62.5% were treated with only the tube thoracostomy, and the other 3 (37.5% were treated by the thoracostomy combined with video-assisted thoracic surgery. The amount of bleeding in patients who underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery ranged 1083.33 304.972 ml. The amount of bleeding in patients who underwent tube thoracostomy ranged 448.2 242.572 ml. Discussion: Closed-tube thoracostomy is the first choice in the cases of spontaneous hemothorax. Regular hemodynamic monitoring is needed in the cases with tube thoracostomy. When tube thoracostomy is not sufficient, VATS can be the first surgical treatment choice and thoracotomy may not be needed. Complete recovery may be expected with early

  3. ESIP Federation: A Case Study on Enabling Collaboration Infrastructure to Support Earth Science Informatics Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E.; Meyer, C. B.; Benedict, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    toolbox of collaborative development resources including Amazon Web Services to quickly spin-up the testbed instance and a GitHub account for maintaining testbed project code enabling reuse. Recently, the Foundation supported development of the ESIP Commons (http://commons.esipfed.org), a Drupal-based knowledge repository for non-traditional publications to preserve community products and outcomes like white papers, posters and proceedings. The ESIP Commons adds additional structured metadata, provides attribution to contributors and allows those unfamiliar with ESIP a straightforward way to find information. The success of ESIP Federation activities is difficult to measure. The ESIP Commons is a step toward quantifying sponsor return on investment and is one dataset used in network map analysis of the ESIP community network, another success metric. Over the last 15 years, ESIP has continually grown and attracted experts in the Earth science data and informatics field becoming a primary locus of research and development on the application and evolution of Earth science data standards and conventions. As funding agencies push toward a more collaborative approach, the lessons learned from ESIP and the collaboration services themselves are a crucial component of supporting science research.

  4. COMPLEX EVALUATION OF THE NUMBER DYNAMICS OF COLONIAL WATERBIRD COMMUNITIES (THE CASE OF SOME ISLANDS OF SIVASH REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsyura A.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the mathematical analysis of the number dynamics of the nesting waterbirds for the islands of the south of Ukraine is examined. The algorithm of the evaluation of changes in the number of island birds is proposed. Data of the long-term monitoring of the number of birds were analyzed according to this algorithm. The necessity of the implementation of the statistical indices together with the graphic representation of island birds’ turnover is proved. The trends of population dynamics are determined for the key species. The discussed procedure of the complex evaluation is proposed for the management planning of the island bird species and their habitats. The performed analysis of the number dynamics of the key-stone breeding island birds showed that, with the exception of little tern, the population status and the prognosis of number are sufficiently favorable. From the data of long-term monitoring we came up with the conclusion about the existence of island habitats with carrying capacity to maintain the additional number of breeding birds. In the case of unfavorable conditions like strengthening of anthropogenic press, concurrent interrelations, deficiency of feed resources or drastic reduction of breeding biotopes, the birds due to turnover are capable to successfully react even without reducing their number and breeding success. The extinction rate of the breeding bird species from the island sites directly correlates with the number of breeding species. For the species with equal abundance, the extinction probability is higher for birds, whose numbers are unstable and characterized by significant fluctuations. This testifies the urgency of the constant monitoring and analysis of the number dynamics of breeding bird species in region. The suggested procedure of analysis is recommended for drawing up of management plans and performing of prognoses of number of breeding island bird species. More detail analysis with use of

  5. The Internal Mechanism Analysis of Community Governance Innovating under the Transformation of Maintaining Stability-based on Four Typical Case Studies in Shenzhen%转型维稳下社区治理创新的内在机制探析--基于深圳市四个典型样本案例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄惠丹

    2016-01-01

    ,which based on a overall regulating by a single government,so the traditional way,maintaining stability does. Fiercer contradiction among the various subjects worsens the instability of community related to blocked interest expression channel of multiple groups. Constructing multi-platform helps to expand the channels of interest expression of differ-ent subjects in the community,and it also plays an important role in alleviating the contradiction of the community. By considering four typical cases,this paper finds that community governance innovation is constantly toward mul-tiple co-governance development. Regardless of whether the initiative launched or midway participation,grass-roots government is promoting community governance innovation leader. It is significantly important to analyze the underlying mechanism that the local governments act on innovation of community governance .Constructing multi-variate power negotiation platform. In fact,for maintaining grassroots stability is strategic choice under the transfor-mation crisis,as well as the behaviors of developing innovation when faced social needs. Transforming government functions,switching unified governance mode,strong local governance,building community governance mode based on multivariate cooperation,which are founded on maintaining stability,are required as the change of com-munity structure.

  6. Microbial community analysis of anaerobic reactors treating soft drink wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Narihiro

    Full Text Available The anaerobic packed-bed (AP and hybrid packed-bed (HP reactors containing methanogenic microbial consortia were applied to treat synthetic soft drink wastewater, which contains polyethylene glycol (PEG and fructose as the primary constituents. The AP and HP reactors achieved high COD removal efficiency (>95% after 80 and 33 days of the operation, respectively, and operated stably over 2 years. 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analyses on a total of 25 biofilm samples generated 98,057 reads, which were clustered into 2,882 operational taxonomic units (OTUs. Both AP and HP communities were predominated by Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and candidate phylum KSB3 that may degrade organic compound in wastewater treatment processes. Other OTUs related to uncharacterized Geobacter and Spirochaetes clades and candidate phylum GN04 were also detected at high abundance; however, their relationship to wastewater treatment has remained unclear. In particular, KSB3, GN04, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi are consistently associated with the organic loading rate (OLR increase to 1.5 g COD/L-d. Interestingly, KSB3 and GN04 dramatically decrease in both reactors after further OLR increase to 2.0 g COD/L-d. These results indicate that OLR strongly influences microbial community composition. This suggests that specific uncultivated taxa may take central roles in COD removal from soft drink wastewater depending on OLR.

  7. The Educational Community and the School: A Case Study, by Means of the Combination of Different Techniques, of a Public Secondary School in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Giacobbe

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Research projects in which qualitative and quantitative techniques are combined entail the difficulty of an integral interpretation of the results, due to the particular characteristics of these two approaches. In this article the methodology applied in a case study carried out in an educational institution is described. The study was especially directed towards discovering the particular elements of teacher training which can hinder a constructive teaching practice, ascertaining the role that each of the educational actors performs in the construction of their school, and identifying the characteristics of the educational community that shape the performance of the institution. The study involved the collection, processing and analysis of materials relating to students, teachers, parents and administrators. Each group is addressed methodologically in a different way. Low levels of school performance and difficulties in the integration of the educational community were found. Some proposals for rectifying them are presented here.

  8. Bioethics, culture and infanticide in Brazilian indigenous communities: the Zuruahá case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Saulo Ferreira; Garrafa, Volnei; Cornelli, Gabriele; Tardivo, Carla; Carvalho, Samuel José de

    2010-05-01

    This article analyzes the practice of infanticide in indigenous communities in Brazil. Taking as a reference point a specific case involving two children of the Zuruahá people, it takes a broader look at the issue and discusses how infanticide is understood among other indigenous peoples. A debate focusing specifically on this topic that took place during a public hearing held in the Brazilian National Congress in December 2005 has also been taken into consideration in this discussion. In view of the positions adopted as a result of the hearing, this paper seeks to identify the ethical problems and moral dilemmas relating to the subject, by putting them into context and analyzing them in the light of respect for cultural pluralism. Seeking to contribute to the debate, the authors analyze the possibilities for intervention in the traditional practices of infanticide, while rejecting those positions that are not anchored in an attitude of profound respect for other people's cultures or that do not create conditions for dialogue between individuals or groups with different moralities.

  9. Mathematical decision theory applied to land capability: a case study in the community of madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, J M; Saa-Requejo, A; Grau, J B; Gallardo, J; Díaz, M C; Andina, Diego; Sanchez, M E; Tarquis, A M

    2014-03-01

    In land evaluation science, a standard data set is obtained for each land unit to determine the land capability class for various uses, such as different farming systems, forestry, or the conservation or suitability of a specific crop. In this study, we used mathematical decision theory (MDT) methods to address this task. Mathematical decision theory has been used in areas such as management, finance, industrial design, rural development, the environment, and projects for future welfare to study quality and aptness problems using several criteria. We also review MDT applications in soil science and discuss the suitability of MDT methods for dealing simultaneously with a number of problems. The aim of the work was to show how MDT can be used to obtain a valid land quality index and to compare this with a traditional land capability method. Therefore, an additive classification method was applied to obtain a land quality index for 122 land units that were compiled for a case study of the Community of Madrid, Spain, and the results were compared with a previously assigned land capability class using traditional methods based on the minimum requirements for land attributes.

  10. Networking between community health programs: a case study outlining the effectiveness, barriers and enablers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grills Nathan J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, since the 1990s, there has been a burgeoning of NGOs involved in providing primary health care. This has resulted in a complex NGO-Government interface which is difficult for lone NGOs to navigate. The Uttarakhand Cluster, India, links such small community health programs together to build NGO capacity, increase visibility and better link to the government schemes and the formal healthcare system. This research, undertaken between 1998 and 2011, aims to examine barriers and facilitators to such linking, or clustering, and the effectiveness of this clustering approach. Methods Interviews, indicator surveys and participant observation were used to document the process and explore the enablers, the barriers and the effectiveness of networks improving community health. Results The analysis revealed that when activating, framing, mobilising and synthesizing the Uttarakhand Cluster, key brokers and network players were important in bridging between organisations. The ties (or relationships that held the cluster together included homophily around common faith, common friendships and geographical location and common mission. Self interest whereby members sought funds, visibility, credibility, increased capacity and access to trainings was also a commonly identified motivating factor for networking. Barriers to network synthesizing included lack of funding, poor communication, limited time and lack of human resources. Risk aversion and mistrust remained significant barriers to overcome for such a network. Conclusions In conclusion, specific enabling factors allowed the clustering approach to be effective at increasing access to resources, creating collaborative opportunities and increasing visibility, credibility and confidence of the cluster members. These findings add to knowledge regarding social network formation and collaboration, and such knowledge will assist in the conceptualisation, formation and success of

  11. Community involvement in obstetric emergency management in rural areas: a case of Rukungiri district, Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogwang Simon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality is a major public health problem worldwide especially in low income countries. Most causes of maternal deaths are due to direct obstetric complications. Maternal mortality ratio remains high in Rukungiri district, western Uganda estimated at 475 per 100,000 live births. The objectives were to identify types of community involvement and examine factors influencing the level of community involvement in the management of obstetric emergencies. Methods We conducted a descriptive study during 2nd to 28th February 2009 in rural Rukungiri district, western Uganda. A total of 448 heads of households, randomly selected from 6/11 (54.5% of sub-counties, 21/42 (50.0% parishes and 32/212 (15.1% villages (clusters, were interviewed. Data were analysed using STATA version 10.0. Results Community pre-emergency support interventions available included community awareness creation (sensitization while interventions undertaken when emergency had occurred included transportation and referring women to health facility. Community support programmes towards health care (obstetric emergencies included establishment of community savings and credit schemes, and insurance schemes. The factors associated with community involvement in obstetric emergency management were community members being employed (AOR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.02 - 3.54 and rating the quality of maternal health care as good (AOR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.19 - 4.14. Conclusions Types of community involvement in obstetric emergency management include practices and support programmes. Community involvement in obstetric emergency management is influenced by employment status and perceived quality of health care services. Policies to promote community networks and resource mobilization strategies for health care should be implemented. There is need for promotion of community support initiatives including health insurance schemes and self help associations; further community

  12. The Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and an Analysis of Related Lifestyle Factors in Beijing Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Tian, Yongfeng; Yan, Wenhua; Kong, Yue; Wang, Haibin; Wang, Anping; Dou, Jingtao; Liang, Ping; Mu, Yiming

    2016-04-01

    Thyroid nodules (TNs) have annual increasing trends worldwide, and large-scale investigations on the prevalence of TNs in Beijing communities have not been conducted since the introduction of salt iodization in 1995. We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of TNs, their epidemiological characteristics, and their correlation with lifestyle factors. A total of 6324 permanent residents aged 18 years or older (mean age, 52.15 ± 11.58 years) from seven representative communities in Beijing were included in the analyses. Once informed consent was obtained, the subjects were asked to complete questionnaires, a physical examination, and thyroid ultrasound. A total of 3100 cases had TNs. The overall prevalence rate was 49.0%, and the age-standardized prevalence was 40.1%, which increased significantly as age increased (p literacy levels (p physical labor and exercise intensity (p < 0.001, p = 0.009). Logistic regression analysis showed that age (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.039 (1.034-1.044), p < 0.001), the female sex (OR = 1.789 (1.527-2.097)), Body mass index (BMI) (OR = 1.019 (1.005-1.034)), and current smoking habits (OR = 1.246 (1.046-1.483)) were independent risk factors for TNs. Our findings indicate that there is a high prevalence of TNs in Beijing, with a higher prevalence in females than in males. Moreover, the prevalence increases as age increases. Smoking and BMI are independent risk factors for TNs. Therefore, intervention against smoking and weight loss might help reduce the risk of TN occurrence. PMID:27110805

  13. Independent Evaluation of the integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness Strategy in Malawi Using a National Evaluation Platform Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouzou, Agbessi; Kanyuka, Mercy; Hazel, Elizabeth; Heidkamp, Rebecca; Marsh, Andrew; Mleme, Tiope; Munthali, Spy; Park, Lois; Banda, Benjamin; Moulton, Lawrence H; Black, Robert E; Hill, Kenneth; Perin, Jamie; Victora, Cesar G; Bryce, Jennifer

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the impact of integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) on careseeking for childhood illness and child mortality in Malawi, using a National Evaluation Platform dose-response design with 27 districts as units of analysis. "Dose" variables included density of iCCM providers, drug availability, and supervision, measured through a cross-sectional cellular telephone survey of all iCCM-trained providers. "Response" variables were changes between 2010 and 2014 in careseeking and mortality in children aged 2-59 months, measured through household surveys. iCCM implementation strength was not associated with changes in careseeking or mortality. There were fewer than one iCCM-ready provider per 1,000 under-five children per district. About 70% of sick children were taken outside the home for care in both 2010 and 2014. Careseeking from iCCM providers increased over time from about 2% to 10%; careseeking from other providers fell by a similar amount. Likely contributors to the failure to find impact include low density of iCCM providers, geographic targeting of iCCM to "hard-to-reach" areas although women did not identify distance from a provider as a barrier to health care, and displacement of facility careseeking by iCCM careseeking. This suggests that targeting iCCM solely based on geographic barriers may need to be reconsidered.

  14. Feasibility of Dual-Task Gait Training for Community-Dwelling Adults after Stroke: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Plummer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This case series explored the feasibility and efficacy of cognitive-motor dual-task gait training in community-dwelling adults within 12 months of stroke. A secondary aim was to assess transfer of training to different dual-task combinations. Seven male participants within 12 months of stroke participated in 12 sessions of dual-task gait training. We examined single and dual-task performance in four different dual-task combinations at baseline, after 6 and 12 sessions, and if possible, at 1-month followup. Feasibility was assessed by asking participants to rate mental and physical fatigue, perceived difficulty, anxiety, and fear of falling at the end of each session. Five of the seven participants demonstrated reduced dual-task cost in gait speed in at least one of the dual-task combinations after the intervention. Analysis of the patterns of interference in the gait and cognitive tasks suggested that the way in which the participants allocated their attention between the simultaneous tasks differed across tasks and, in many participants, changed over time. Dual-task gait training is safe and feasible within the first 12 months after stroke, and may improve dual-task walking speed. Individuals with a combination of physical and cognitive impairments may not be appropriate for dual-task gait training.

  15. Is the contribution of community forest users financially efficient? A household level benefit-cost analysis of community forest management in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Rai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Community forestry in Nepal is considered an exemplary forest management regime. However, the economics behind managing a community forest is not fully studied. This study examines whether the benefits generated from community forest management justify the contributions of forest users. The study is based on a survey of community forest users in Chitwan, Nepal. A household level benefit-cost analysis was performed to quantify and compare the costs and benefits from community forest management. Only direct benefits were included in the analysis. The study shows that older forest user groups derive more benefits to households compared to more recently established ones. The extent of timber harvesting also substantially influences the size of the household benefits. In addition, redistribution of benefits at the household level, in terms of income generating activities and payment for involvement in forest management activities, also enhances household benefits. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the current practice of community forest management enhances the welfare of rural households in this subsistence community. However, this finding is sensitive to assumptions regarding the opportunity cost of time. The study also found that the household costs of community forest management depend upon two factors – the area of community forest and the size of the forest area relative to the number of households.

  16. High-Resolution Melt Analysis for Rapid Comparison of Bacterial Community Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmsø, Mathis Hjort; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Bælum, Jacob;

    2014-01-01

    In the study of bacterial community composition, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing is today among the preferred methods of analysis. The cost of nucleotide sequence analysis, including requisite computational and bioinformatic steps, however, takes up a large part of many research budgets. High-r...

  17. Impact of Community-Based DOT on Tuberculosis Treatment Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HaiYang Zhang

    Full Text Available Poor adherence to tuberculosis (TB treatment can lead to prolonged infectivity and poor treatment outcomes. Directly observed treatment (DOT seeks to improve adherence to TB treatment by observing patients while they take their anti-TB medication. Although community-based DOT (CB-DOT programs have been widely studied and promoted, their effectiveness has been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to critical appraise and summarize evidence of the effects of CB-DOT on TB treatment outcomes.Studies published up to the end of February 2015 were identified from three major international literature databases: Medline/PubMed, EBSCO, and EMBASE. Unpublished data from the grey literature were identified through Google and Google Scholar searches.Seventeen studies involving 12,839 pulmonary TB patients (PTB in eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs and nine cohort studies from 12 countries met the criteria for inclusion in this review and 14 studies were included in meta-analysis. Compared with clinic-based DOT, pooled results of RCTs for all PTB cases (including smear-negative or -positive, new or retreated TB cases and smear-positive PTB cases indicated that CB-DOT promoted successful treatment [pooled RRs (95%CIs: 1.11 (1.02-1.19 for all PTB cases and 1.11 (1.02-1.19 for smear-positive PTB cases], and completed treatment [pooled RRs (95%CIs: 1.74(1.05, 2.90 for all PTB cases and 2.22(1.16, 4.23 for smear-positive PTB cases], reduced death [pooled RRs (95%CIs: 0.44 (0.26-0.72 for all PTB cases and 0.39 (0.23-0.66 for smear-positive PTB cases], and transfer out [pooled RRs (95%CIs: 0.37 (0.23-0.61 for all PTB cases and 0.42 (0.25-0.70 for smear-positive PTB cases]. Pooled results of all studies (RCTs and cohort studies with all PTB cases demonstrated that CB-DOT promoted successful treatment [pooled RR (95%CI: 1.13 (1.03-1.24] and curative treatment [pooled RR (95%CI: 1.24 (1.04-1.48] compared with self-administered treatment.CB-DOT did improved TB

  18. Game Theoretical Analysis on Cooperation Stability and Incentive Effectiveness in Community Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaida Song

    Full Text Available Community networks, the distinguishing feature of which is membership admittance, appear on P2P networks, social networks, and conventional Web networks. Joining the network costs money, time or network bandwidth, but the individuals get access to special resources owned by the community in return. The prosperity and stability of the community are determined by both the policy of admittance and the attraction of the privileges gained by joining. However, some misbehaving users can get the dedicated resources with some illicit and low-cost approaches, which introduce instability into the community, a phenomenon that will destroy the membership policy. In this paper, we analyze on the stability using game theory on such a phenomenon. We propose a game-theoretical model of stability analysis in community networks and provide conditions for a stable community. We then extend the model to analyze the effectiveness of different incentive policies, which could be used when the community cannot maintain its members in certain situations. Then we verify those models through a simulation. Finally, we discuss several ways to promote community network's stability by adjusting the network's properties and give some proposal on the designs of these types of networks from the points of game theory and stability.

  19. Comparative economic analysis: Anaerobic digester case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An economic guide is developed to assess the value of anaerobic digesters used on dairy farms. Two varieties of anaerobic digesters, a conventional mixed-tank mesophilic and an innovative earthen psychrophilic, are comparatively evaluated using a cost-effectiveness index. The two case study examples are also evaluated using three other investment merit statistics: simple payback period, net present value, and internal rate of return. Life-cycle savings are estimated for both varieties, with sensitivities considered for investment risk. The conclusion is that an earthen psychrophilic digester can have a significant economic advantage over a mixed-tank mesophilic digester because of lower capital cost and reduced operation and maintenance expenses. Because of this economic advantage, additional projects are being conducted in North Carolina to increase the rate of biogas utilization. The initial step includes using biogas for milk cooling at the dairy farm where the existing psychrophilic digester is located. Further, a new project is being initiated for electricity production with thermal reclaim at a swine operation

  20. Bioconductor workflow for microbiome data analysis: from raw reads to community analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan, Ben J.; Sankaran, Kris; Fukuyama, Julia A.; McMurdie, Paul J.; Holmes, Susan P; Garud, Nandita R.; Charlop-Powers, Zachary; Lahti, Leo

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing of PCR-amplified taxonomic markers (like the 16S rRNA gene) has enabled a new level of analysis of complex bacterial communities known as microbiomes. Many tools exist to quantify and compare abundance levels or microbial composition of communities in different conditions. The sequencing reads have to be denoised and assigned to the closest taxa from a reference database. Common approaches use a notion of 97% similarity and normalize the data by subsampling to equal...

  1. Economic Analysis of Cost-Effectiveness of Community Engagement to Improve Health

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Street; Roy Carr-Hill

    2008-01-01

    Liberty of association is one of the building blocks of a democratic society, and presumes that community engagement in a democratic society is universally a good thing. This presumption is not subject to economic analysis, but the issue considered here is whether community engagement is a better vehicle for improving the community’s health than another approach. The problems of applying the standard framework of economic evaluation to consider this issue include: multiple perspectives and ti...

  2. Integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea across three African countries: A qualitative study exploring lessons learnt and implications for further scale up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Strachan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies highlight the effectiveness of an integrated approach for the management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea at the community level. There has however been little study on lessons learnt from implementation in practice and stakeholder experiences which could inform future programmatic planning and evaluation frameworks. A participatory, qualitative evaluation was conducted in the three varied settings of South Sudan, Uganda and Zambia, which have seen the scale up of integrated community case management (iCCM over the last five years. All key in–country stakeholders were consulted on study design, with a particular focus on scope and methodology. Data collection methods included stakeholder consultations (key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and a review of project and Ministry of Health documentation. Data analysis followed the Framework Approach. Results suggest that iCCM implementation generally followed national pre–agreed guidelines. Overarching key programmatic recommendations included: collaboration with implementing partners in planning stages to positively impact on community acceptance and ownership; adoption of participatory training methods adapted to low literacy populations; development of alternative support supervision methods such as peer support groups; full integration of community level data into the health management information system and emphasizing data analysis, use and feedback at all levels; strengthened supply chains through improved quantification and procurement of commodities in conjunction with the national distribution network; community engagement to establish a support system for community health workers to increase their motivation; enhanced sensitisation and behaviour change communication to raise awareness and usage of appropriate health services; and advocacy at the national level for funding and logistical support for the continuation and integration of iCCM. This

  3. Integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea across three African countries: A qualitative study exploring lessons learnt and implications for further scale up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Clare; Wharton-Smith, Alexandra; Sinyangwe, Chomba; Mubiru, Denis; Ssekitooleko, James; Meier, Joslyn; Gbanya, Miatta; Tibenderana, James K; Counihan, Helen

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies highlight the effectiveness of an integrated approach for the management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea at the community level. There has however been little study on lessons learnt from implementation in practice and stakeholder experiences which could inform future programmatic planning and evaluation frameworks. A participatory, qualitative evaluation was conducted in the three varied settings of South Sudan, Uganda and Zambia, which have seen the scale up of integrated community case management (iCCM) over the last five years. All key in-country stakeholders were consulted on study design, with a particular focus on scope and methodology. Data collection methods included stakeholder consultations (key informant interviews, focus group discussions), and a review of project and Ministry of Health documentation. Data analysis followed the Framework Approach. Results suggest that iCCM implementation generally followed national pre-agreed guidelines. Overarching key programmatic recommendations included: collaboration with implementing partners in planning stages to positively impact on community acceptance and ownership; adoption of participatory training methods adapted to low literacy populations; development of alternative support supervision methods such as peer support groups; full integration of community level data into the health management information system and emphasizing data analysis, use and feedback at all levels; strengthened supply chains through improved quantification and procurement of commodities in conjunction with the national distribution network; community engagement to establish a support system for community health workers to increase their motivation; enhanced sensitisation and behaviour change communication to raise awareness and usage of appropriate health services; and advocacy at the national level for funding and logistical support for the continuation and integration of iCCM. This qualitative study is a

  4. Analysis of prescriptions dispensed at community pharmacies in Nablus, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawalha, A F; Sweileh, W M; Zyoud, S H; Al-Jabi, S W; Shamseh, F F Bni; Odah, A

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the prescription quality and prescribing trends of private clinicians in Nablus governorate, Palestine. A total of 363 prescriptions were collected from a random sample of 36 community pharmacies over a study period of 288 working hours. Data regarding elements in the prescription and the types of drugs prescribed were analysed. Physician-related variables were mostly noted, however, patient's address and weight were absent in all prescriptions and less than half included age and sex. Information regarding strength of the medications prescribed was missing in over 70% of prescriptions. Other drug-related variables like frequency and instruction of use were present in over 80% of prescriptions. Antimicrobial agents were the most commonly prescribed followed by NSAIDs/analgesics. Amoxicillin alone or in combination was the most commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents followed by cefuroxime. Prescription writing quality in Nablus is deficient in certain aspects and improvement is required. PMID:20799538

  5. Expert Network for Die Casing Defect Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiadi WANG; Yongfeng JIANG; Chen LU; Wenjiang DING

    2003-01-01

    Due to the competition and high cost associated with die casting defects, it is urgent to adopt a rapid and effective method for defect analysis. In this research, a novel expert network approach was proposed to avoid some disadvantages of rulebased expert system. The main objective of the system is to assist die casting engineer in identifying defect, determining the probable causes of defect and proposing remedies to eliminate the defect. 14 common die casting defects could be identified quickly by expert system on the basis of their characteristics. BP neural network in combination with expert system was applied to map the complex relationship between causes and defects, and further explained the cause determination process.Cause determination gives due consideration to practical process conditions. Finally, corrective measures were recommended to eliminate the defect and implemented in the sequence of difficulty.

  6. The role of communities in sustainable land and forest management: The case of Nyanga, Zvimba and Guruve districts of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Matsvange

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest benefit analysis is vital in ensuring sustainable community-based natural resources management. Forest depletion and degradation are key issues in rural Zimbabwe and strategies to enhance sustainable forest management are continually sought. This study was carried out to assess the impact of forests on communities from Nyanga, Guruve and Zvimba districts of Zimbabwe. It is based on a Big Lottery Fund project implemented by Progressio-UK and Environment Africa. Itfocuses on identifying replicable community forest and landmanagement strategies and the level of benefits accruing to the community. Analysis of change was based on the Income and Food Security and Forest benefits, which also constitutes the tools used during the research. The study confirms the high rate of deforestation and the increased realisation by communities to initiate practical measures aimed at protecting and sustaining forest and land resources from which they derive economic and social benefits. The results highlight the value of community structures (Farmer Field Schools and Environmental Action Groups as conduits for natural resource management. The interconnectivity among forests, agricultural systems and the integral role of people are recognised as key to climate change adaptation.Keywords: Forest benefits; sustainability,;livelihoods; farmer field schools

  7. PUBLIC DEBT SUSTAINABILITY ANALYSIS: EU CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botoc Claudiu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The global crisis has caused a serious fiscal deterioration that leaves the world economy with serious challenges. In many developed markets as well as in a few emerging markets (Emerging markets public finances have already become, or are at least at risk of becoming, unsustainable. Commonly, public debt sustainability is defined as a sovereign's ability to service debt without large adjustments to public revenue and/or expenditure and without ever-increasing public-debt-to-GDP ratios. Hence, this definition refers to both a country's ability and willingness to repay its debt. We also have to add the fact that there isn`t an universal accepted definition of fiscal or debt sustainability. In light of the growing public debt, the issue of debt sustainability has increasingly attracted attention. In this paper we analyse public debt sustainability scenario in EU economies. At least half of the EU countries will have to implement stringent fiscal consolidation programmes over the next few years in order to prevent already high public-debt-to-GDP ratios from a further significant rise, also the case of Romania. However, drastic fiscal policy adjustment may be not feasible in the short term and hence public debt is likely to grow further. In some scenarios the public-debt-to-GDP ratio is predicted to soar to 133% in 2020, from just over 100% in 2010. By contrast, nearly all EM countries, including major economies, appear to be well positioned to stabilise or even outgrow their current debt ratios without drastic fiscal adjustment. Institutional improvements may help European countries to maintain fiscal credibility. In light of the future fiscal challenges, many European governments may introduce new or more effective national debt limits, similar to those put in place in the past with good results by some Emerging markets. Such institutional reforms could help to insulate fiscal policies from political pressure and to anchor financial market

  8. Development and application of functional gene arrays for microbial community analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.L.HE; J.D.VAN NOSTRAND; L.Y.WU; J.Z.ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    Functional gene markers can provide important information about functional gene diversity and potential activity of microbial communities.Although microarray technology has been successfully applied to study gene expression for pure cultures,simple,and artificial microbial communities,adapting such a technology to analyze complex microbial communities still presents a lot of challenges in terms of design,sample preparation,and data analysis.This work is focused on the development and application of functional gene arrays (FGAs) to target key functional gene markers for microbial community studies.A few key issues specifically related to FGAs,such as oligonucleotide probe design,nucleic acid extraction and purification,data analysis,specificity,sensitivity,and quantitative capability are discussed in detail.Recent studies have demonstrated that FGAs can provide specific,sensitive,and potentially quantitative information about microbial communities from a variety of natural environments and controlled ecosystems.This technology is expected to revolutionize the analysis of microbial communities,and link microbial structure to ecosystem functioning.

  9. Community-Acquired Serratia Marcescens Spinal Epidural Abscess in a Patient Without Risk Factors: Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Parkins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Serratia marcescens has rarely been reported as an agent of invasive disease in patients presenting from the community. Furthermore, S marcescens is frequently opportunistic, affecting individuals with serious medical comorbidities including immune suppression and diabetes. A case of a community-acquired S marcescens spontaneous lumbar epidural abscess presenting as cauda equina syndrome is reported in a previously well 36-year-old man with no identifiable risk factors. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of invasive S marcescens causing disease in a patient with no medical comorbidities.

  10. Community-acquired Serratia marcescens spinal epidural abscess in a patient without risk factors: Case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, Michael D; Gregson, Daniel B

    2008-05-01

    Serratia marcescens has rarely been reported as an agent of invasive disease in patients presenting from the community. Furthermore, S marcescens is frequently opportunistic, affecting individuals with serious medical comorbidities including immune suppression and diabetes. A case of a community-acquired S marcescens spontaneous lumbar epidural abscess presenting as cauda equina syndrome is reported in a previously well 36-year-old man with no identifiable risk factors. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of invasive S marcescens causing disease in a patient with no medical comorbidities.

  11. Inverse Association of Serum Docosahexaenoic Acid With Newly Diagnosed Hypertension: A Community-based Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Ding, Fang; Wang, Feng-Lei; Yu, Wei; Li, Duo

    2016-02-01

    Observational studies on circulating fatty acid (FA) and primary prevention of hypertension have yielded inconsistent results, and the association among the Chinese population is not fully clear. The aim of the study was to discern important FAs that can discriminate hypertensive patients from normotensive persons, and investigate associations between the important FAs and risk of hypertension.We conducted a case-control study nested within a community-based cohort of 2447 Chinese participants aged 35 to 79 years who completed a baseline assessment between October 2012 and April 2013. In all, 480 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension were identified at baseline and 480 normotensive individuals were randomly selected as matched normotensive controls. Controls were individually matched to cases by age (±2 y), sex, and recruitment center, with a 1:1 case-to-control ratio. Serum FA profile was compared between cases and controls by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analyses. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for newly diagnosed hypertension was estimated by a conditional logistical analysis.After adjustment for body mass index, education, profession, family history of hypertension, salt intake, heart rate, blood lipids, and fasting glucose levels, serum FA profile in hypertensive patients was typically characterized by higher 16:0 and 16:1n-7, and lower 18:2n-6 and 22:6n-3, compared with normotensive controls. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) were identified as the important FA contributing most to the intergroup separations. When comparing the highest and lowest quartile of FA composition, newly diagnosed hypertension was negatively associated with 22:6n-3 (OR 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45-0.93; P for trend = 0.02), but positively associated with 16:1n-7 (OR 2.14; 95% CI, 1.46-3.12; P for trend < 0.001). The associations remained pronounced after multiple adjustments and in further stratified analyses

  12. RisaAligner software for aligning fluorescence data between Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer chips: Application to soil microbial community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Elisabeth; Fabrègue, Olivier; Scorretti, Riccardo; Reboulet, Jérémy; Simonet, Pascal; Dawson, Lorna; Demanèche, Sandrine

    2015-12-01

    Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (RISA) is a high-resolution and highly reproducible fingerprinting technique for discriminating between microbial communities. The community profiles can be visualized using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer. Comparison between fingerprints relies upon precise estimation of all amplified DNA fragment lengths; however, size standard computation can vary between gel runs. For complex samples such as soil microbial communities, discrimination by fragment size is not always sufficient. In such cases, the comparison of whole fluorescence data as a function of time (electrophoregrams) is more appropriate. When electrophoregrams [fluorescence = f (time)] are used, and more than one chip is involved, electrophoregram comparisons are challenging due to experimental variations between chips and the lack of correction by the Agilent software in such situations. Here we present RisaAligner software for analyzing and comparing electrophoregrams from Agilent chips using a nonlinear ladder-alignment algorithm. We demonstrate the robustness and substantial improvement of data analysis by analyzing soil microbial profiles obtained with Agilent DNA 1000 and High Sensitivity chips.

  13. Attachment to community and civic and political engagement: a case study of students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulianne, Shelley; Brailey, Michelle

    2014-11-01

    Youth's low level of civic and political engagement may detrimentally affect the health of communities and the democratic system. This paper examines the role of community attachment in explaining youth's levels of civic and engagement. This examination requires an evaluation of existing measures of community attachment and their relevance for understanding youth's experiences. The paper uses a student sample, highlighting a group of youth who have a degree of variation in their experiences of community attachment. We find that subjective measures of community attachment are related to volunteering and voting, but the objective measure of community attachment, that is, years of residence, affects voting and not volunteering. Different mechanisms explain civic engagement versus political engagement. As such, different strategies are required to combat low levels of civic versus political engagement.

  14. Attachment to community and civic and political engagement: a case study of students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulianne, Shelley; Brailey, Michelle

    2014-11-01

    Youth's low level of civic and political engagement may detrimentally affect the health of communities and the democratic system. This paper examines the role of community attachment in explaining youth's levels of civic and engagement. This examination requires an evaluation of existing measures of community attachment and their relevance for understanding youth's experiences. The paper uses a student sample, highlighting a group of youth who have a degree of variation in their experiences of community attachment. We find that subjective measures of community attachment are related to volunteering and voting, but the objective measure of community attachment, that is, years of residence, affects voting and not volunteering. Different mechanisms explain civic engagement versus political engagement. As such, different strategies are required to combat low levels of civic versus political engagement. PMID:25612388

  15. [Statistical analysis of 100 recent cases of sterile couples. (1948)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Carlos D

    2002-12-01

    A statistical analysis of 100 recent cases of sterile couples, studied from February through December, 5945, is made. The management of the study is described. Sterility causes are classified under four groups: hormonal factor; tubal factor; cervical spermatic factor; spermatic (pure) factor. Every group has two subgroups: serious and not serious. The serious case is incurable or very difficult to treat (examples: azoospermia, bilateral absence or tubal obstruction, nonovulatory menstruation). Other doctor-referred cases (difficult): 61. Doctors' own wives: 15. Serious cases: 65 with three pregnancies (4.56 per cent). Not serious cases: 24, with ten pregnancies (41.8 per cent). Total number of cases finished: 89, with 13 pregnancies (14.5 per cent). Study discontinued: eleven. The last total rate (14.5 per cent) is erroneous because there is an absolute difference between the "serious cases", and the "not serious cases." In Mexico the "sterility specialist" has many "serious cases", and for this reason the rate of successful cases is low. PMID:12661337

  16. Preventive maintenance by vibratory analysis: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Boukili,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available :The majority of the industrial machine components have to satisfy to the requirements of the high quality and incessantly increasing; so the machines maintaining in good state during the production has became a fundamental point for a product or a company success. Through the measure of the predictive maintenance, it is possible to satisfy these complex requirements with success and to reduce the costs of maintenance. However, an optimization of the maintenance is realized by a continued monitoring of degradation, by way of a control system on line “On Line”, which can respond to industrial imperatives and which provides to define just the necessary at the level of interventions, “The machine can’t be serviced except if only its state requires.”For an effective maintenance, it takes precise and reliable measures. Nevertheless, the experience has shown that the vibratory measure is the most reliable parameter that gives the precociously and with a best ways the deterioration state of a turnable machine. It provides to identify the efforts as soon as they appear, before of an irreversible damage, it also provides, after analysis, to deduce the origin and to estimate the breakdown risks.In this context, a study had done inside a workshop of a phosphoric office, which adopt a continued surveillance (On-Line, in the hope of doing an optimal process of a conditional maintenance which can be developed in time toward an idealized by a vibratory indicator accomplishing satisfactory results.

  17. Strategic Management Analysis: Case of Erzeni LTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba KRUJA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades Albania had shifted from a closed, communist economy to an open market where private sector has increased its influence, especially in production and trade sector. Today it can be studied and found the leaders of each sector by analyzing the position that these private companies have in the market.Erzeni LTD is a company operating in the market for more than 17 years. The company‘s first operations were production and trade of home, office and school furniture, operations which later on were expanded in new product such as inside and armored doors. Erzeni LTD, known also as the leader in wood/MDF based products, arranges its sale in three different directions: 1. Sales in Albanian free market, 2. Sales through fixed long-term contracts, 3. Export sales. In this paper it will be analyzed the past, present and future of Erzeni LTD, by developing an implementable strategy that would improve the future position of the company not only as an operator in the Albanian market but also abroad. In order to develop the company`s strategies, the SWOT-TOWS analysis will be conducted in which it will be identified the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that the company is facing.

  18. Challenges and Community Development: A Case Study of Homestay in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Arif Kamisan Pusiran; Honggen Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Homestay programme, which was introduced in 1988, has become the iconic rural tourism product highlighting Malaysian cultural and traditional ways of life. The concept of Homestay is whereby a tourist stays together with the host family and interacts with the local community for a reasonable charge. This paper presents a review of community development through the Homestay programme in Malaysia as well as to review challenges facing the Homestay operators and community. Due to the potential o...

  19. Reciprocal Exchange and Community Vitality: The Case of Gortshom Village in Eastern Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Kinga, Sonam

    2008-01-01

    The vibrancy and vitality of community life is indispensable in realising the goals of Gross National Happiness. The fact that Bhutan is largely a Kingdom consisting of many subsistence farming villages require an objective understanding of the dynamics of community life. A 'hot' community that retains and regenerates its vitality overtime is one that takes cognizance of social, cultural, economic and political life based on active participation of its members characterised by upholding its c...

  20. Assessing community readiness for overweight and obesity prevention in pre-adolescent girls: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kesten, Joanna May; Cameron, Noel; Griffiths, Paula Louise

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity is a global public health concern. For girls in particular, being overweight or obese during pre-adolescence (aged 7–11 years) has intergenerational implications for both the mother and her future offspring. In the United Kingdom (UK) there is increasing interest in community targeted interventions but less is known about how to tailor these approaches to the needs of the community. This study applied the Community Readiness Model (CRM), for the fir...

  1. Epistemic communities and social movements: Transnational dynamics in the case of creative commons

    OpenAIRE

    Dobusch, Leonhard; Quack, Sigrid

    2008-01-01

    While the existence of transnational communities is increasingly recognized in globalization studies, very little is yet known about their impact on global governance. Studies investigating the role of transnational communities in international rule setting tend to specialize in specific types, such as epistemic communities, social movements, or policy networks, and narrow down their effects to agenda setting or issue framing. In this paper, we choose a broader view. We examine the regulator...

  2. Can the community construct knowledge to shape services in the local state ? a case study.

    OpenAIRE

    Callaghan, G.; Wistow, G

    2008-01-01

    The Labour government's stated commitment to shifting the balance of power to communities, citizens and users has been expressed in numerous initiatives to promote participatory governance in the local state. In this context achieving reliable ways of learning about participants' views becomes critical. A prime concern then becomes what constitutes `community knowledge' and how that knowledge can be developed. This article considers some issues that arise for communities and policy makers in ...

  3. Local community involvement in cultural heritage management: a case study of Melaka Heritage Trail, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    ismail, mohd hafizal

    2013-01-01

    The sustainability of cultural heritage management of the resources is strongly related to support from local community via participation. It is evident that active community involvement can improve local residents’ quality of life based on better environment, social and economic conditions. However, there is little research into the question of whether the involvement of local community in heritage management derives from a genuine interest and desires to protect and conserve their local her...

  4. Community Involvement in Tourism Development: A Case Study of Lenggong Valley World Heritage Site

    OpenAIRE

    A. Khadar Nur Zafirah; Jaafar Mastura; Mohamad Diana

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the empirical relationship between the economic impact and community involvement in the Lenggong Valley. Recommendations for improvement in development effectiveness through the development of a community centre for economic and social activities, with specific attention given to types of activity and community involvement stimulating the economic development in the Lenggong Valley. Heritage tourism development is a tourism in which arts, culture and heritage form a key at...

  5. Bringing the Farming Community Into the Internet Age: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    A. B. Deraman; A. K. Shamsul Bahar

    2000-01-01

    Despite the rapid Internet evolution in Malaysia, the farming community is not getting its full benefit due to many factors. Efforts to get the community use the Internet without the availability of proper resources and appropriate content are ineffective. TaniNet is an interactive on-line agricultural and biotechnological web site aimed at providing the agricultural community with information on the advances of planting materials and practices. The major goal of TaniNet is to get the rural f...

  6. Multiculturalism and Community Cohesion in Britain: The Case of Arab Minority

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Benitto

    2015-01-01

    This article falls within the scope of debate about 'Community Cohesion' in Britain. Community cohesion is at the centre of public policy initiated in response to the urban disturbances in northern towns. Many official reports pointed out that lack of community cohesion is an element jeopardizing security and safe coexistence. In this sense, this article explores hindrances to intergroup coexistence, given that this issue is the main concern in this pluralist society since the attacks in Lond...

  7. Decision making and community participation: A case study of the tourism industry in Langkawi

    OpenAIRE

    Marzuki, Azizan

    2008-01-01

    Community participation is regarded as an important tool for successful tourism planning. Western scholars generally agree that active community participation in the decision making process will benefit local communities. However, in developing countries, such participation is difficult to put into practice because of shortcomings in structural and operational limitations in the tourism development process. A study in Langkawi Islands, Malaysia was conducted from March to July 2004 to explore...

  8. Learning for Social Justice: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Analysis of Community Leadership Empowerment in a Korean American Community Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghwan

    2012-01-01

    Community organizations, especially those aiming at social change, play a significant role in establishing societal health and contributing to adult learning in daily communities. Their existence secures marginalized groups' involvement in society and enhances community development by building community leadership with multiple stakeholders…

  9. Investigating Student Communities with Network Analysis of Interactions in a Physics Learning Center

    CERN Document Server

    Brewe, Eric; Sawtelle, Vashti

    2011-01-01

    Developing a sense of community among students is one of the three pillars of an overall reform effort to increase participation in physics, and the sciences more broadly, at Florida International University. The emergence of a research and learning community, embedded within a course reform effort, has contributed to increased recruitment and retention of physics majors. Finn and Rock [1] link the academic and social integration of students to increased rates of retention. We utilize social network analysis to quantify interactions in Florida International University's Physics Learning Center (PLC) that support the development of academic and social integration,. The tools of social network analysis allow us to visualize and quantify student interactions, and characterize the roles of students within a social network. After providing a brief introduction to social network analysis, we use sequential multiple regression modeling to evaluate factors which contribute to participation in the learning community. ...

  10. Regional-scale analysis of subtidal rocky shore community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrien-Courtel, Sandrine; Le Gal, Aodren; Grall, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    The French monitoring network, REseau BENThique (REBENT), was launched by the Ministry of the Environment in 2003 following the 1999 Erika oil spill. REBENT aimed to acquire baseline knowledge of coastal benthic habitat distributions with a special focus on biological diversity. This study analyzed data from 38 subtidal rocky reef sites collected by a single diving team of marine biologists along the coast of Brittany from 2004 to 2010. At each site, the depth limits of the algal belts were determined between 0 and -40 m Chart Datum (CD); the flora and fauna compositions and abundances were sampled at -3 and -8 m CD. A total of 364 taxa (156 flora and 208 fauna), belonging to 12 phyla, were identified. The results showed that the depth limit and density of kelp beds increased as water turbidity decreased; moreover, several changes in community structure could be related to water turbidity and temperature. Thus, northern and southern Brittany showed strong differences in diversity and structure of the dominant kelp species ( Laminaria hyperborea and Saccorhiza polyschides). The results from this kelp habitat composition survey (dominant kelp species and indicator species) provided important information for local pressure assessments, like increases in turbidity. The data also provided a reference that could be useful for detecting changes in coastal water temperatures due to global warming.

  11. Diversity Management Among Small Shops in Barcelona: A Case of Community Intercultural Mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercé Zegrí

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The setting up of small shops by foreign people involves a number of difficulties and challenges with respect to how it fits in certain districts. These issues have been tackled from the view of intercultural mediation. This kind of intervention focuses on relationships and communication among shopkeepers by highlighting their common interests. Intervention also includes making associative networks acknowledge and adapt to new realities. This paper describes a process of intervention focused on community intercultural mediation carried out in small shops in a district of Barcelona. First, most significant results of the diagnosis stage are shown concerning the speech and relationships of main agents along with “conflict” analysis. Then a detailed mediation intervention is described that was carried out with a group of shopkeepers called “shop promoting group”. Finally, bearing in mind their high participative and transformational potential, some general appraisals are made with respect to the impact of this type of processes and their continuity and sustainability.

  12. Environmental Equity through Negotiation: A Case Study on Urban Landfills and the Roma Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu-Mag, Ruxandra Mălina; Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Oroian, Ioan Gheorghe; Safirescu, Ovidiu Călin; Bican-Brișan, Nicoleta

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the necessity to bring environmental equity within the Pata Rât Roma community in Northwest Romania, relying on the answers to three questions: “Does environmental equity exist in Pata Rât?”, “How can it be attained?”, and “To what extent can it be brought to the targeted people?” It was shown how a trio of factors tailors the destiny of Roma inhabitants: being a minority, their ethnicity, and the fact they are living on and off what society rejects and dumps—a landfill. The framing of the environmental equity concerns within a vision considering negotiation as the most adequate means to attain it is a novel approach. Further on, the results of the study can fuel win-win solutions in environmental equity. The information abstracted from a set of indicators, assessed through an evaluation matrix, represents a beneficial platform for future bottom-up decisions concerning landfill residents. Three action options were analyzed: on-site living opportunities—that resulted to be preferred, off-site living opportunities, and “Do nothing”. The analysis provides qualitative evidence that the evaluation of environmental equity is largely subjective, because of its complexity and specificity related to geographical, historical, cultural characteristics, and political interests. PMID:27314371

  13. Environmental Equity through Negotiation: A Case Study on Urban Landfills and the Roma Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Mălina Petrescu-Mag

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the necessity to bring environmental equity within the Pata Rât Roma community in Northwest Romania, relying on the answers to three questions: “Does environmental equity exist in Pata Rât?”, “How can it be attained?”, and “To what extent can it be brought to the targeted people?” It was shown how a trio of factors tailors the destiny of Roma inhabitants: being a minority, their ethnicity, and the fact they are living on and off what society rejects and dumps—a landfill. The framing of the environmental equity concerns within a vision considering negotiation as the most adequate means to attain it is a novel approach. Further on, the results of the study can fuel win-win solutions in environmental equity. The information abstracted from a set of indicators, assessed through an evaluation matrix, represents a beneficial platform for future bottom-up decisions concerning landfill residents. Three action options were analyzed: on-site living opportunities—that resulted to be preferred, off-site living opportunities, and “Do nothing”. The analysis provides qualitative evidence that the evaluation of environmental equity is largely subjective, because of its complexity and specificity related to geographical, historical, cultural characteristics, and political interests.

  14. Participatory vulnerability assessment in the context of conservation and development projects: A case study of local communities in Southwest Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    cannot happen without providing alternative livelihood solutions for local communities dependent on them, global experiences illustrate that the successful integration of conservation and development continues to be elusive. We adapted the approach based on “participatory vulnerability assessments...... as a first step in improving decision making. Project activities are not implemented in isolation from the global context and are therefore not the only drivers of adaptation for local communities. One of our main findings is that new external stimuli, such as markets, may be highly influential, potentially......” developed for climate change research and applied it to changes occurring in a conservation and development context. As a case study, we focused on a biodiversity hotspot in Southwest Cameroon that was recently designated a national park. We have shown that local communities believe their livelihood options...

  15. Technical, economic and environmental analysis of a MSW kerbside separate collection system applied to small communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, G; Malvano, C

    2012-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the costs and environmental impacts induced by a fixed model of MSW kerbside separate collection system for communities up to 10,000 inhabitants, in order to evaluate the convenience for the smaller municipalities to unite and form more economically and environmentally sound systems. This topic is important not only due to the large number of small municipalities (e.g. in Italy 72% of the municipalities has less than 5000 inhabitants) but also to the fact that separate collection systems are typically designed to take into account only the technical and economic aspects, which is a practice but not acceptable in the light of the sustainable development paradigm. In economic terms, between 1000 and 4000 inhabitants, the annual per capita cost for vehicles and personnel decreased, with a maximum at approximately 180€/inhabitants/year; while, from 5000 up to 10,000 inhabitants, the annual per capita cost was practically constant and equal to about 80€/inhabitants/year. For the municipalities of less than 5000 inhabitants, from an economic point of view the aggregation is always advantageous. The environmental impacts were calculated by means of the Life Cycle Assessment tool SimaPro 7.1, while the economic-environmental convenience was evaluated by combining in a simple multicriteria analysis, the annual total per capita cost (€/inhabitants/year) and the annual total per capita environmental impact (kEco-indicator point/inhabitants/year), giving the same importance to each criteria. The analysis was performed by means of the Paired Comparison Technique using the Simple Additive Weighting method. The economic and environmental convenience of the aggregation diminishes with the size of the municipalities: for less than 4000 inhabitants, the aggregation was almost always advantageous (91.7%); while, for more than or equal to 5000 inhabitants, the aggregation was convenient only in 33.3% of the cases. On the whole, out of

  16. Characterization of chlorinated and chloraminated drinking water microbial communities in a distribution system simulator using pyrosequencing data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular analysis of drinking water microbial communities has focused primarily on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Since this approach provides limited information on function potential of microbial communities, analysis of whole-metagenome pyrosequencing data was used to...

  17. Sample Preparation for Fungal Community Analysis by High-Throughput Sequencing of Barcode Amplicons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmensen, Karina Engelbrecht; Ihrmark, Katarina; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Lindahl, Björn D

    2016-01-01

    Fungal species participate in vast numbers of processes in the landscape around us. However, their often cryptic growth, inside various substrates and in highly diverse species assemblages, has been a major obstacle to thorough analysis of fungal communities, hampering exhaustive description of the fungal kingdom. Recent technological developments allowing rapid, high-throughput sequencing of mixed communities from many samples at once are currently having a tremendous impact in fungal community ecology. Universal DNA extraction followed by amplification and sequencing of fungal species-level barcodes such as the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region now enable identification and relative quantification of fungal community members across well-replicated experimental settings. Here, we present the sample preparation procedure presently used in our laboratory for fungal community analysis by high-throughput sequencing of amplified ITS2 markers. We focus on the procedure optimized for studies of total fungal communities in humus-rich soils, wood, and litter. However, this procedure can be applied to other sample types and markers. We focus on the laboratory-based part of sample preparation, that is, the procedure from the point where samples enter the laboratory until amplicons are submitted for sequencing. Our procedure comprises four main parts: (1) universal DNA extraction, (2) optimization of PCR conditions, (3) production of tagged ITS amplicons, and (4) preparation of the multiplexed amplicon mix to be sequenced. The presented procedure is independent of the specific high-throughput sequencing technology used, which makes it highly versatile. PMID:26791497

  18. Immortality of Prejudice in Striving Ubuntu: Case Studies of Community Managed Schools in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh; Rajbhandari, Smriti

    2016-01-01

    The immortality of prejudice after the school management transfer has not been judged. This makes communities to take responsibility for schools further by compelling the government to mandate amendments of Community Managed Schools (CMS) Directives. The purpose was to explore the CMS enduring Ubuntu against immorality of prejudice, through…

  19. Private University and Community College Strategic Alliances: The Case for Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the literature on community colleges and private universities, applying principles of strategic management to these environments. States that private universities have the flexibility to offer a specialized program of study at a premium price, while community colleges are better able to offer low-cost services to a large group of students.…

  20. Identifying Success Factors of ICT in Developing a Learning Community: Case Study Charles Sturt University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew; Uys, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: A learning community has been developing in a distributed environment amongst the members of the Centre for Enhancing of Learning and Teaching (CELT) located in the Bathurst, Goulburn and Orange campuses of Charles Sturt University. This group is known by the acronym of GDMOB, with the purpose of the community to facilitate the…

  1. Whither Utility and Duty? A Case for Virtue in Community College Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propheter, Geoffrey; Jez, Su Jin

    2012-01-01

    Recent improprieties by community college administrators have scarred the public trust. Efforts to secure against maladministration are firmly rooted in utilitarian and deontological ethics. In this article, the authors argue that these common approaches cannot remedy maladministration in the community college because utilitarianism and deontology…

  2. Finding the SurPriSe: A Case Study of a Faculty Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Roberta M.

    2014-01-01

    This article details a faculty learning community (FLC) that started in 2009 on the campus of a Midwestern University and has evolved into an interdisciplinary research, teaching and social community of practice and learning called SurPriSe. SurPriSe is an acronym that reflects the interest area of the FLC; Sur for surveillance, Pri for privacy,…

  3. Service-Learning and Emergent Communities of Practice: A Teacher Education Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschak, Jennifer Cutsforth; Letwinsky, Karim Medico

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the unexpected emergence of a community of practice in a middle level mathematics and science methods course. The authors describe how preservice teacher participation in a collaborative, project-based service-learning experience resulted in the formation of a community of practice characterized by teamwork, meaningful…

  4. Beyond the School Walls: A Case Study of Principal Leadership for School-Community Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Mavis G.; Harvey, Adia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how one urban elementary school in a high-reform district and state developed strong connections with community business and organizations as part of its program of school, family, and community partnerships, identifying four factors that allowed the school to maintain successful partnerships: school commitment to learning, principal…

  5. Corporate Social Responsibility: Case Study of Community Expectations and the Administrative Systems, Niger Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogula, David

    2012-01-01

    Poor community-company relations in the Niger Delta have drawn attention to the practice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the region. Since the 1960s, transnational oil corporations operating in the Niger Delta have adopted various CSR strategies, yet community-company relations remain adversarial. This article examines community…

  6. Problems with Reporting and Evaluating Mining Industry Community Development Projects: A Case Study from Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Wangari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Reporting on contributions to community development is one way gold mining companies communicate the expanse and depth of their commitment to social responsibility. These projects are intended to provide the mine-proximate communities with some of the wealth and other benefits generated by mine development in their locales. We raise questions about reporting and evaluation of community development projects undertaken by AngloGold Ashanti in the two communities of Nyakabale and Nyamalembo, near its Geita mining projects in the Lake Victoria goldfields of Tanzania. We use archival data and data obtained from field research conducted during different periods throughout 2005, 2007 and 2010 to compare what the company reports to have done with what is found on the ground. Our findings revealed that the corporate reporting is misleading, ambiguous, and omissive. Much of the effort labeled “community development” benefited the companies directly via infrastructure development, food supplies to the mine cafeteria, and worker health. We argue that, if Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR projects are to be the primary way local people directly benefit from mine development, the relationship between the value of those projects and the wealth taken from the location should be considered, community projects should be well defined and differentiated from company-oriented projects, and community representatives should participate in monitoring the success and impact of community development projects.

  7. Learning How to Teach Poverty: A Case for Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Laurie P.; Roll, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Recreation students today need to be prepared to engage in the topic of poverty as a social justice issue affecting our communities, yet many instructors do not have the tools to effectively teach this complex topic. One way instructors might learn how to engage students with poverty is through an interdisciplinary community of practice (CoP).…

  8. Comparing Compositional Effects in Two Education Systems: The Case of the Belgian Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhier, Julien; Martin, Émilie

    2014-01-01

    The Belgian educational field includes separate educational systems reflecting the division of the country into linguistic communities. Even if the French-speaking and the Dutch-speaking communities keep sharing important similarities in terms of funding rules and structures, they present a huge gap between their respective pupils'…

  9. Student-Created Musical as a Community of Practice: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Research on the improvement of learning shifted from a focus on the learner as individual to the concept of sociocultural learning in communities of learning, communities of practice or learning cultures during the 1990s. A similar shift in the focus of the development of a single construct of individual musical creativity to socially situated…

  10. Developing a Culture of Assessment through a Faculty Learning Community: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlitz, Stephanie A.; O'Connor, Margaret; Pang, Yanhui; Stryker, Deborah; Markell, Stephen; Krupp, Ethan; Byers, Celina; Jones, Sheila Dove; Redfern, Alicia King

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how a diverse, interdisciplinary team of faculty formed a topic-based faculty learning community. Following an introduction to faculty learning communities and a brief discussion of their benefit to faculty engaged in the process of adopting new technology, we explain how our team, through a competitive mini-grant…

  11. Spatial analysis of BSE cases in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brus Dick J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many of the European countries affected by Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, case clustering patterns have been observed. Most of these patterns have been interpreted in terms of heterogeneities in exposure of cattle to the BSE agent. Here we investigate whether spatial clustering is present in the Dutch BSE case data. Results We have found three spatial case clusters in the Dutch BSE epidemic. The clusters are geographically distinct and each cluster appears in a different birth cohort. When testing all birth cohorts together, only one significant cluster was detected. The fact that we found stronger spatial clustering when using a cohort-based analysis, is consistent with the evidence that most BSE infections occur in animals less than 12 or 18 months old. Conclusion Significant spatial case clustering is present in the Dutch BSE epidemic. The spatial clusters of BSE cases are most likely due to time-dependent heterogeneities in exposure related to feed production.

  12. The voluntary community health movement in India: a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M; Bhatia, G

    1996-12-01

    There has been a prolific growth of voluntary organizations in India since independence in 1947. One of the major areas of this growth has been in the field of community health. The purpose of this article is to historically trace the voluntary movement in community health in India, analyze the current status, and predict future trends of voluntary efforts. A review of the literature in the form of a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis was the method of this study. Some of the key trends which emerged as the priority areas for progress and for strengthening voluntary organizations in the future were enhancing linkages between health and development; building upon collective force; greater utilization of participatory training; establishing egalitarian and effectual linkages for decision making at the international level; developing self-reliant community-based models; and the need for attaining holistic empowerment at individual, organizational, and community levels through "duty consciousness" as opposed to merely asking for rights.

  13. Quantitative Analysis on Economic Contribution of Community Health Service in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新平; 王铁军

    2004-01-01

    Summary: In China, the implementation of community health service shows that the prevention is an essential and important part of our national health system and is helpful to decrease the medical expenditure gradually. According to the data from Health Statistic Information Center of Ministry of Health in China, we calculated that the total health expenditure of China would be decreased 8000. 0 million yuan only in 2001, among which, 1188.3 million, 1953.9 million and 4833.0 million yuan were respectively saved for the government budget, the society and resident if implementing the policy of community health service powerfully. And every outpatient can save 15.46 yuan per time. By the quantitative analysis on the economic contribution of community health service, it can be proved that a great economic benefit could be gotten from the implementation of community health service.

  14. Security risk analysis in retail store, Case study: Company X

    OpenAIRE

    Nugrahany, Raihana

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was conducted to protect the valuable assets of the case study company. By using the risk analysis, it will improve their business resilience by being well organized to prevent the occurrence of the threats and taking appropriate measure as response to it and by applying corporate security it can help to manage the safety of business function and assets of the case company. The purpose of this study is to identify various type of external and internal risk in the case company...

  15. Indigenous management systems as a basis for community forestry in Tanzania: a case study of Dodoma urban and Lushoto districs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kajembe, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the nature of both indigenous and professionally sponsored community forest management systems in two districts in Tanzania. It describes various types of internally generated forest and tree management systems. It demonstrates that a gap exists between indige

  16. Analysis of institutional mechanisms that support community response to impacts of floods in the middle-zambezi river basin, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhonda, P.; Mabiza, C.; Makurira, H.; Kujinga, K.; Nhapi, I.; Goldin, J.; Mashauri, D. A.

    In recent years, the frequency of occurrence of floods has increased in Southern Africa. An increase in the frequency of extreme events is partly attributed to climate change. Floods negatively impact on livelihoods, especially those classified as poor, mainly by reducing livelihood options and also contributing to reduced crop yields. In response to these climatic events, governments within Southern Africa have formulated policies which try to mitigate the impacts of floods. Floods can be deadly, often occurring at short notice, lasting for short periods, and causing widespread damage to infrastructure. This study analysed institutional mechanisms in Mbire District of Zimbabwe which aim at mitigating the impact of floods. The study used both quantitative (i.e. questionnaires) and qualitative (i.e. key informant interviews, focus group discussions and observations) data collection methods. Secondary data such as policy and legislation documents and operational manuals of organisations that support communities affected by disasters were reviewed. Qualitative data was analysed using the thematic approach and social network analysis using UCINET 6. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The study found out that there exists institutional framework that has been developed at the national and local level to support communities in the study area in response to the impacts of floods. This is supported by various pieces of legislation that are housed in different government departments. However, the existing institutional framework does not effectively strengthen disaster management mechanisms at the local level. Lack of financial resources and appropriate training and skills to undertake flood management activities reduce the capacity of communities and disaster management organisations to effectively mitigate the impacts of floods. The study also found that there are inadequate hydro-meteorological stations to enable accurate forecasts. Even in those cases

  17. Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework to develop community-driven health programmes in an Indigenous community in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows, Noreen; Dyck Fehderau, David; Raine, Kim D

    2016-09-01

    Indigenous First Nations people in Canada have high chronic disease morbidity resulting in part from enduring social inequities and colonialism. Obesity prevention strategies developed by and for First Nations people are crucial to improving the health status of this group. The research objective was to develop community-relevant strategies to address childhood obesity in a First Nations community. Strategies were derived from an action-based workshop based on the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework. Thirteen community members with wide-ranging community representation took part in the workshop. They combined personal knowledge and experience with community-specific and national research to dissect the broad array of environmental factors that influenced childhood obesity in their community. They then developed community-specific action plans focusing on healthy eating and physical activity for children and their families. Actions included increasing awareness of children's health issues among the local population and community leadership, promoting nutrition and physical activity at school, and improving recreation opportunities. Strengthening children's connection to their culture was considered paramount to improving their well-being; thus, workshop participants developed programmes that included elders as teachers and reinforced families' acquaintance with First Nations foods and activities. The research demonstrated that the ANGELO framework is a participatory way to develop community-driven health programmes. It also demonstrated that First Nations people involved in the creation of solutions to health issues in their communities may focus on decolonising approaches such as strengthening their connection to indigenous culture and traditions. External funds were not available to implement programmes and there was no formal follow-up to determine if community members implemented programmes. Future research needs to examine the

  18. Flooding and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Case-Crossover Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia J. Lin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a bacterium that can spread by water. It often causes acute gastrointestinal illness in older adults who are hospitalized and/or receiving antibiotics; however, community-associated infections affecting otherwise healthy individuals have become more commonly reported. A case-crossover study was used to assess emergency room (ER and outpatient visits for C. difficile infection following flood events in Massachusetts from 2003 through 2007. Exposure status was based on whether or not a flood occurred prior to the case/control date during the following risk periods: 0–6 days, 7–13 days, 14–20 days, and 21–27 days. Fixed-effects logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of diagnosis with C. difficile infection following a flood. There were 129 flood events and 1575 diagnoses of C. difficile infection. Among working age adults (19–64 years, ER and outpatient visits for C. difficile infection were elevated during the 7–13 days following a flood (Odds Ratio, OR = 1.69; 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 0.84, 3.37. This association was more substantial among males (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.01–10.19. Associations during other risk periods were not observed (p < 0.05. Although we were unable to differentiate community-associated versus nosocomial infections, a potential increase in C. difficile infections should be considered as more flooding is projected due to climate change.

  19. Metagenomic analysis provides insights into functional capacity in a hyperarid desert soil niche community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram, Surendra; Guerrero, Leandro D; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Le, Phuong T; Seely, Mary; Cowan, Don A

    2016-06-01

    In hyperarid ecosystems, macroscopic communities are often restricted to cryptic niches, such as hypoliths (microbial communities found beneath translucent rocks), which are widely distributed in hyperarid desert environments. While hypolithic communities are considered to play a major role in productivity, the functional guilds implicated in these processes remain unclear. Here, we describe the metagenomic sequencing, assembly and analysis of hypolithic microbial communities from the Namib Desert. Taxonomic analyses using Small Subunit phylogenetic markers showed that bacterial phylotypes (93%) dominated the communities, with relatively small proportions of archaea (0.43%) and fungi (5.6%). Refseq-viral database analysis showed the presence of double stranded DNA viruses (7.8% contigs), dominated by Caudovirales (59.2%). Analysis of functional genes and metabolic pathways revealed that cyanobacteria were primarily responsible for photosynthesis with the presence of multiple copies of genes for both photosystems I and II, with a smaller but significant fraction of proteobacterial anoxic photosystem II genes. Hypolithons demonstrated an extensive genetic capacity for the degradation of phosphonates and mineralization of organic sulphur. Surprisingly, we were unable to show the presence of genes representative of complete nitrogen cycles. Taken together, our analyses suggest an extensive capacity for carbon, phosphate and sulphate cycling but only limited nitrogen biogeochemistry. PMID:26470632

  20. [Analysis of Prokaryotic Community Structure in River Waters of the Ningbo Sanjiang Mouth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, An-yi; Li, Jiang-wei; Yang, Xiao-yong; Wang, Hong-jie; Yu, Chang-ping

    2015-07-01

    The prokaryotic community structure in river waters of the Ningbo Sanjiang Mouth was analyzed for the first time using 16S rRNA gene based-Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing. A total of 215 504 high-quality sequences were obtained, and the results of alpha-diversity analysis revealed that Yongjiang River Watershed (YRW) harbored high diversity and richness of prokaryotic communities. Taxonomic assignment analysis indicated that β-Proteobacterium, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated in the river water of YRW, and accounted for 78. 88% of the total prokaryotic communities. Hydrological condition may play an important role in influencing the composition and structure of YRW prokaryotic community. In addition, several kinds of sewer- and fecal-pollution indicator bacterial groups were observed in this area with the highest abundance of pollution indicator bacteria occurring in the water sample of Yuyao River, implying that the Yuyao River might have a high potential risk of sewer- and fecal-pollution. Moreover, a total of 76 species and 18 subspecies of potential pathogenic bacteria, which accounted for 2. 19% and 0. 40% of total sequences respectively, were identified using BLASTN analysis with a local pathogenic bacteria database. Overall, this study provided an important basic data for shedding light on the structure and ecological function of YRW prokaryotic community. PMID:26489316

  1. Investigating student communities with network analysis of interactions in a physics learning center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird; Sawtelle, Vashti

    2012-06-01

    Developing a sense of community among students is one of the three pillars of an overall reform effort to increase participation in physics, and the sciences more broadly, at Florida International University. The emergence of a research and learning community, embedded within a course reform effort, has contributed to increased recruitment and retention of physics majors. We utilize social network analysis to quantify interactions in Florida International University’s Physics Learning Center (PLC) that support the development of academic and social integration. The tools of social network analysis allow us to visualize and quantify student interactions and characterize the roles of students within a social network. After providing a brief introduction to social network analysis, we use sequential multiple regression modeling to evaluate factors that contribute to participation in the learning community. Results of the sequential multiple regression indicate that the PLC learning community is an equitable environment as we find that gender and ethnicity are not significant predictors of participation in the PLC. We find that providing students space for collaboration provides a vital element in the formation of a supportive learning community.

  2. Is Decentralization Leading to "Real" Decision-Making Power for Forest-dependent Communities? Case Studies from Mexico and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Kozak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization of forest governance has been promoted as a way to conserve forests more effectively, while also improving rural and forest-dependent livelihoods. Prior to assessing the consequences of this decentralization trend, there is a need to critically examine the degree to which decentralization of forest management decision making is actually happening. In particular, it is unclear whether communities are securing legal authority and/or decision-making power over the forests on which they depend. This study uses case studies of community forestry in Brazil and Mexico to examine the amount of decision-making power communities and smallholders have received over forest resources. A framework for assessment is developed that identifies criteria of relevance to community members' rights and day-to-day activities. We found that in both countries the government maintains significant control over forest resources through heavy regulation of extraction, but that communities have increasing control over day-to-day forest management decisions. We conclude by posing questions on the appropriate levels of decentralization for optimal outcomes.

  3. Managing Tourism in the Greater Mekong Region (GMS: A Case Study of Chiang Khan Community, Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawee Hanpachern

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine complex ‘sustainability’ aspects of the Community-based tourism concept in tourism and destination management in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS. This research is conceptualized in assessing the potential for Community-Based Tourism (CBT development in Chiang Khan, a small village by the Mekong River in the Northeast of Thailand. For collecting data, semi-interviews questions are designed. Focus-group discussion and indepth interviews are carried to include tourism stakeholders of the destination. This study argues that although a community may contain many tourism assets, it is not the only factor necessary for a ‘sustainable’ tourism to be developed in that community. Through a case study, its natural features, cultural activities, local lifestyle and the serene landscape of its location are exemplified as the important community-based tourism assets. However, a number of complex components and holistic approaches that worked well together Chiang Khan becoming a sustainable tourism destination. There elements and approaches that contribute to starting up Chiang Khan as a sustainable tourist destination include: its unique features of recreational activities and local businesses, knowledge and skills of the locals to develop tourism related businesses, and direct proper marketing strategies.

  4. Citizen Science for Post-disaster Sustainable Community Development in Ecologically Fragiel Regions - A Case from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ming, Meng; Lu, Ye; Jin, Wei

    2016-04-01

    The world's mountains host some of the most complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems and are also hotspots for natural disasters, such as earthquake, landslide and flood. One factor that limits the mountain communities to recover from disasters and pursue sustainable development is the lack of locally relevant scientific knowledge, which is hard to gain from global and regional scale observations and models. The rapid advances in ICT, computing, communication technologies and the emergence of citizen science is changing the situation. Here we report a case from Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuary World Natural Heritage in China on the application of citizen science in a community reconstruction project. Dahe, a mountainous community (ca. 8000 ha in size) is located covering part of the World Heritage's core and buffer zones, with an elevation range of 1000-3000 meters. The community suffered from two major earthquakes of 7.9 and 6.9 Mw in 2008 and 2013 respectively. Landslides and flooding threat the community and significantly limit their livelihood options. We integrated participatory disaster risk mapping (e.g., community vulnerability and capacity assessment) and mobile assisted natural hazards and natural resources mapping (e.g., using free APP GeoODK) into more conventional community reconstruction and livelihood building activities. We showed that better decisions are made based on results from these activities and local residents have a high level of buy-in in these new knowledge. We suggest that initiatives like this, if successfully scale-up, can also help generate much needed data and knowledge in similar less-developed and data deficient regions of the world.

  5. Malaria case detection using rapid diagnostic test at the community level in Ghana: consumer perception and practitioners’ experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Danquah, Daniel A.; Buabeng, Kwame O; Asante, Kwaku P; Mahama, Emmanuel; Bart-Plange, Constance; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis

    2016-01-01

    Background Ghana has scaled-up malaria control strategies over the past decade. Much as malaria morbidity and mortality seem to have declined with these efforts, there appears to be increased consumption of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). This study explored the perception and experiences of community members and medicines outlet practitioners on malaria case detection using rapid diagnostic test (RDTs) to guide malaria therapy. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using both...

  6. Consideration of Regional Informatization Practices in Japan: A Case Study on a Civic Organization Operating Community Media

    OpenAIRE

    Togo, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Kosei

    2011-01-01

    [Abstract] The aim of this article is to investigate Japanese regional informatization from the viewpoint of practices with use of a progressive case study. This article focuses attention on a civic organization that has been taking the lead in promoting regional informatization in city A, and elucidates how the civic organization of a community media operator reconsidered its own practices, and then transformed both its own organizational structure and practices. This article starts with a ...

  7. The Interplay of Virtual Communities: A Multiple Case Study of E-Retailers in Yahoo E-Auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Zhi-Xian Zhao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how businesses operate e-shops in a transaction-oriented virtual community. This research employed a multiple case study approach by observing three cases of e-retailers, as being new e-commerce initiates, operating their businesses on the Yahoo! e-auction website. The results showed that e-shops displaying amusing stories can attract site visitors and “spick and span” e-shop design format can be helpful for converting visitors into buyers.

  8. Extension of the preliminary rulings procedure outside the scope of Community law: The Dzodzi line of cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulius Lukas Kaleda

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The Dzodzi line of cases evidence that the functioning of the preliminary rulings procedure under Article 234 EC is not restricted to the scope of Community law, but extends also to the cases governed by national law referring to certain Community provision or concept. Most controversially in the context of this far-reaching pronouncement, the Court dismissed the views expressed by its Advocates General, actually, in all the cases of this type (recently in Roman Angonese , 6 June 2000. Ten years after the judgment in Dzodzi has been delivered, the future development of the tendency seems to be still open to radically different solutions. A compromise solution may be found in the acceptance of jurisdiction in comparable situations, ascertained on the basis of relationship between the interpretation and the facts of a particular case. This solution should be based on the assessment of the ability to provide helpful interpretation and the possibility to define a legal problem precisely, as a prerequisite for the full exchange of arguments. Then, it could provide a consistent attitude of the Court towards all the cases on the admissibility of references under Article 234 EC. The uncertainty inevitably following such a solution could be outweighed by the need to retain a flexible and cooperative attitude.

  9. Earthquake Analysis of Multi Storied Residential Building - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pavan Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake occurred in multistoried building shows that if the structures are not well designed and constructed with and adequate strength it leads to the complete collapse of the structures. To ensure safety against seismic forces of multi-storied building hence, there is need to study of seismic analysis to design earthquake resistance structures. In seismic analysis the response reduction was considered for two cases both Ordinary moment resisting frame and Special moment resisting frame. The main objective this paper is to study the seismic analysis of structure for static and dynamic analysis in ordinary moment resisting frame and special moment resisting frame. Equivalent static analysis and response spectrum analysis are the methods used in structural seismic analysis. We considered the residential building of G+ 15 storied structure for the seismic analysis and it is located in zone II. The total structure was analyzed by computer with using STAAD.PRO software. We observed the response reduction of cases ordinary moment resisting frame and special moment resisting frame values with deflection diagrams in static and dynamic analysis. The special moment of resisting frame structured is good in resisting the seismic loads.

  10. Zooplankton community analysis in the Changjiang River estuary by single-gene-targeted metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fangping; Wang, Minxiao; Li, Chaolun; Sun, Song

    2014-07-01

    DNA barcoding provides accurate identification of zooplankton species through all life stages. Single-gene-targeted metagenomic analysis based on DNA barcode databases can facilitate longterm monitoring of zooplankton communities. With the help of the available zooplankton databases, the zooplankton community of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary was studied using a single-gene-targeted metagenomic method to estimate the species richness of this community. A total of 856 mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequences were determined. The environmental barcodes were clustered into 70 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). Forty-two MOTUs matched barcoded marine organisms with more than 90% similarity and were assigned to either the species (similarity>96%) or genus level (similaritymetagenomic analysis is a useful tool for zooplankton studies, with which specimens from all life history stages can be identified quickly and effectively with a comprehensive database.

  11. Comparative analysis of model assessment in community detection

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamoto, Tatsuro

    2016-01-01

    Bayesian cluster inference with a flexible generative model allows us to detect various types of structures. However, it has problems stemming from computational complexity and difficulties in model assessment. We consider the stochastic block model with restricted hyperparameter space, which is known to correspond to modularity maximization. We show that it not only reduces computational complexity, but is also beneficial for model assessment. Using various criteria, we conduct a comparative analysis of the model assessments, and analyze whether each criterion tends to overfit or underfit. We also show that the learning of hyperparameters leads to qualitative differences in Bethe free energy and cross-validation errors.

  12. Identity in a virtual community: The case of forum "The Sign of Sagita"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the operating of one type of virtual community, established by science fiction/fantasy/horror fans, known as "Forum Znak Sagite". The specific access to the phenomena of cyber-space remains in the process of rethinking the phenomena confined neither by the usual oppositions of virtual: real nor by the debates about the ethics of virtual reality. Having taken in consideration the operation of a specific virtual community and the construction of the identification practices inside the community, we approach the issue from a local basis, observing the practice of specific people on the specific ground.

  13. Towards an understanding of community organization against crime: The case of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Javier Vilalta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ciudad Juarez is the second largest Mexican border city and one of most violent cities worldwide. Over the past five years, it has suffered from a dramatic wave of homicidal violence related to organized crime. Residents have reacted in different ways to such violence: some have migrated whereas others have decided to stay and organize against it. This is an empirical study of community organization for crime prevention. This study found some of the factors that facilitate and impede community organization against crime. The results constitute a first step in the empirical study of community organization for crime prevention in Mexico.

  14. Spectral analysis of signals the missing data case

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yanwei

    2006-01-01

    Spectral estimation is important in many fields including astronomy, meteorology, seismology, communications, economics, speech analysis, medical imaging, radar, sonar, and underwater acoustics. Most existing spectral estimation algorithms are devised for uniformly sampled complete-data sequences. However, the spectral estimation for data sequences with missing samples is also important in many applications ranging from astronomical time series analysis to synthetic aperture radar imaging with angular diversity. For spectral estimation in the missing-data case, the challenge is how to extend t

  15. Social responsibility and educational communication in communities accessed by the works: a case study. IEGA - enterprise implementations for gasene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Elisangela Assis de; Farias, Aline Marianne Magalhaes [LP Empreendimentos, Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marques, Yanna Oliveira [Cia. Nacional de Dutos (Conduto S/A), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Penido, Rita de Cassia [Sinopec Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Construction and assembly in a gas pipeline project is a constant study of realities and in some cases situations which involve interferences in communities, the company's interests must be wholly integrated with the primary need of the project which is to construct with Social-Environmental Responsibility, establish a good relationship, respect the communities values in which the project passes through and around and surround itself with measures guaranteeing safety, information about the activities and cause minimal impact in the day to day lives of the residents. At Spread 2A of the Pipeline project Cacimbas-Catu, the necessity to develop a specific project for the communities surrounding the access areas was elaborated principally because the topography only permitted the transportation of pipes, equipment and personnel to pass through these areas. This unique situation was drafted based on the transit of vehicles and heavy machinery, through communities with a low IDH (Human Development Index), dangerous living conditions and a high demographic density. Preventive and pacifying actions for Communities and Social responsibility were drafted and developed, involving a multidisciplinary collective effort with other sectors of the project, applying a global theme to ensure safety for the residents around the access areas, also to divulge information in regards to project activities, establish ethical and transparent communication and implement measures that assist in building a solid relationship between the enterprise and community, anticipating risky situations and possible conflicts. This Case Study has as an objective to present projects that were developed in the area of Communication and Social Responsibility in the Access Communities and that, proved effective, became standard within the entire work force's Trainings and Daily Safety, Environmental, and Occupational Health Dialoguing. During the development of the Project 'Street of Leisure

  16. An Analysis of Earth Science Data Analytics Use Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Chung-Lin; Kempler, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the number and volume, and sources, of globally available Earth science data measurements and datasets have afforded Earth scientists and applications researchers unprecedented opportunities to study our Earth in ever more sophisticated ways. In fact, the NASA Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS) archives have doubled from 2007 to 2014, to 9.1 PB (Ramapriyan, 2009; and https:earthdata.nasa.govaboutsystem-- performance). In addition, other US agency, international programs, field experiments, ground stations, and citizen scientists provide a plethora of additional sources for studying Earth. Co--analyzing huge amounts of heterogeneous data to glean out unobvious information is a daunting task. Earth science data analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining large amounts of data of a variety of types to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations and other useful information. It can include Data Preparation, Data Reduction, and Data Analysis. Through work associated with the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation, a collection of Earth science data analytics use cases have been collected and analyzed for the purpose of extracting the types of Earth science data analytics employed, and requirements for data analytics tools and techniques yet to be implemented, based on use case needs. ESIP generated use case template, ESDA use cases, use case types, and preliminary use case analysis (this is a work in progress) will be presented.

  17. Community level composting in a developing country: case study of KIWODET, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberlin, A.S.; Szanto, G.L.

    2011-01-01

    Environmentally sustainable waste management practices have a limited relevance and viability in developing countries. Despite a technological potential, composting initiatives often share this fate. Little is known about the functioning of community level composting, which is reportedly the optimal

  18. Exploring New Firm Creation Out of Brand Communities: The Case of LEGO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hienerth, Christoph; Lettl, Christopher; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2011-01-01

    from the identification and exploitation of attractive business opportunities and the reduction of entrepreneurial risk. At the same time, the entrepreneurial lead users benefit from brand transfer and from the crucial support of the brand community in the entrepreneurial process. Moreover, the LEGO...... brand community enjoys a broader range of LEGO products and services. Our findings reveal the emergence of a hybrid organizational form in which new business ideas are neither exploited solely within the boundaries of the focal producer firm, nor pursued by fully independent new firms alone. We observe......In the field of new product development, brand communities have attracted a great deal of attention from both academics and practitioners as a means of facilitating consumer-producer co-creation processes. In this paper, we extend the line of research on brand communities to the field...

  19. Analysis of the attempt to establish a community currency into a Scottish Neighbourhood; focusing on community participation and engagement

    OpenAIRE

    McLoughlin, James

    2012-01-01

    The Transition Town Movement is a grassroots, community development movement which emerged in the UK and which aims to make communities more sustainable, stronger and more resilient in the face of environmental, economic and social problems we currently face. One initiative which has been adopted by the Transition Town Movement is community currencies; a broad term for a currency that operates within defined boundary (such as a community), alongside national currency and which facilitates th...

  20. A Discourse Analysis of Collaboration between Academic and Student Affairs in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Needham Yancey

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the nature of collaboration between academic affairs and student affairs units in the community college context from a qualitative perspective. A discourse analysis study was conducted to explore the ways in which collaborative practice was discussed and understood by chief and midlevel academic and…

  1. A Social Network Analysis of Teaching and Research Collaboration in a Teachers' Virtual Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaofan; Hu, Xiaoyong; Hu, Qintai; Liu, Zhichun

    2016-01-01

    Analysing the structure of a social network can help us understand the key factors influencing interaction and collaboration in a virtual learning community (VLC). Here, we describe the mechanisms used in social network analysis (SNA) to analyse the social network structure of a VLC for teachers and discuss the relationship between face-to-face…

  2. Critical Social Network Analysis in Community Colleges: Peer Effects and Credit Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Canché, Manuel S.; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses the importance of conducting critical social network analysis (CSNA) in higher education. To illustrate the benefits of CSNA, the authors use existing institutional data to examine peer effects in community colleges. The chapter ends with a discussion of the implications of using a CSNA approach to measure inequities in…

  3. Chapter 2: Predicting Newcomer Integration in Online Knowledge Communities by Automated Dialog Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nistor, Nicolae; Dascalu, Mihai; Stavarache, Lucia; Tarnai, Christian; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Nistor, N., Dascalu, M., Stavarache, L.L., Tarnai, C., & Trausan-Matu, S. (2015). Predicting Newcomer Integration in Online Knowledge Communities by Automated Dialog Analysis. In Y. Li, M. Chang, M. Kravcik, E. Popescu, R. Huang, Kinshuk & N.-S. Chen (Eds.), State-of-the-Art and Future Directions of

  4. Average-case analysis of incremental topological ordering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajwani, Deepak; Friedrich, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Many applications like pointer analysis and incremental compilation require maintaining a topological ordering of the nodes of a directed acyclic graph (DAG) under dynamic updates. All known algorithms for this problem are either only analyzed for worst-case insertion sequences or only evaluated ...

  5. The implementation of customer profitability analysis: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaij, van Erik M.; Vernooij, Maarten J.A.; Triest, van Sander

    2003-01-01

    By using customer profitability analysis (CPA), firms can determine the profit contribution of customer segments and/or individual customers. This article presents an approach for the implementation of CPA. The implementation process is illustrated using a case study of a firm producing and selling

  6. Bottom-Up Analysis of Single-Case Research Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper defines and promotes the qualities of a "bottom-up" approach to single-case research (SCR) data analysis. Although "top-down" models, for example, multi-level or hierarchical linear models, are gaining momentum and have much to offer, interventionists should be cautious about analyses that are not easily understood, are not governed by…

  7. Using ICT to support public and private community memories: case studies and lessons learned

    OpenAIRE

    Mulholland, P.; Gaved, Mark; Collins, T; Zdrahal, Z.; Heath, T

    2006-01-01

    Information communication technologies (ICTs) enable the development of memories across a variety of communities. We identify a spectrum of deployment from private through to open public spaces. As we move along this spectrum key variables change including mechanisms of trust and accountability and the definition of ownership, authorship and readership. Some challenges however, remain constant such as designing for sustainability and the need to align research and community goals. Privat...

  8. Community Participation and Barriers in Rural Tourism: A Case Study in Kiulu, Sabah

    OpenAIRE

    Velnisa Paimin N. F.; Modilih S.; Mogindol S. H.; Johnny C.; Thamburaj J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an investigation on local community participation and barriers in rural tourism. It identifies two sides of community participation in tourism as identified by Timothy [5], which are; the benefits point of view and from the decision making process perspective. It also identifies the communities’ barriers in engaging in tourism and uses Tosun’s [18] approach in examining the barriers. A total of eighty-three questionnaire forms were completed by respondents from seven villag...

  9. Exploring community tourism in China: The case of Nanshan Cultural Tourism Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y

    2004-01-01

    As a sustainable development approach, community tourism can be implemented in a modernized civil society when individuals confront the opportunities and responsibilities of citizenship. China seems to present a series of problems to community tourism. It is in the midst of 'modernising' its norms and values, but has no civil society to counterbalance the power of the state. It enjoys the benefits of a growing economy, but is far from being regulated by the invisible hand of the market. There...

  10. Stakeholder Engagement in Corporate Community Investment: The Case of Guinness Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Bamuh, MK

    2009-01-01

    Corporate community investment has become an important part of business strategy with company executives claiming that local communities are benefiting from their presence. However, how they balance business goals and stakeholder expectations in the process is not properly understood. Since stakeholder engagement is critical in effectively ensuring that the most important social needs are identified and properly executed, this study seeks to develop and test a model of stakeholder engagement ...

  11. Special Education Transition: a Case Study of the Community Integration Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ligon, Julie Ann

    2009-01-01

    Julie Ann Ligon, Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine and describe transition services vis a vis the community integration of an adult-age special education student with a developmental disability. An additional goal was to provide the reader with a detailed portrait of the experiences of this student, especially with respect to the relationships and networks that influenced this student's integration into a community setting. Transition, according to the ...

  12. Understanding International Similarities and Differences in Corporate Community Involvement: The Case of Capital One

    OpenAIRE

    Amerman, Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a highly dynamic and contestable concept in today’s global marketplace (Matten & Moon, 2004). One area of CSR is Corporate Community Involvement (CCI) or a “corporation’s engagement with local communities, special interest groups and issues of concern, above and beyond the day-to-day operations, often working in partnership with not-for-profit organizations” (Tuffrey, 1998). CCI drives business decision-making to make a significant and sustainable impa...

  13. Mobilising community-based research on zoonotic infections: A case study of longitudinal cohorts in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Saylors; Tue Ngo Tri; Toan Tran Khanh; Kiet Bach Tuan; Heiman FL Wertheim; Stephen Baker; Hoa Ngo Thi; Bryant, Juliet E

    2015-01-01

    We initiated the Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS) research program to better understand the epidemiology of disease transmission at the human–animal interface in Vietnamese rural communities and to integrate One Health approaches to disease surveillance. We established a longitudinal community cohort study of individuals with occupational exposure to animals, which involves concurrent targeted sampling from domestic livestock species and follow-up monitoring of human clinic...

  14. Case analysis online: a strategic management case model for the health industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Anne; Bearden, Eithne

    2004-01-01

    Despite the plethora of methods and tools available to support strategic management, the challenge for health executives in the next century will relate to their ability to access and interpret data from multiple and intricate communication networks. Integrated digital networks and satellite systems will expand the scope and ease of sharing information between business divisions, and networked systems will facilitate the use of virtual case discussions across universities. While the internet is frequently used to support clinical decisions in the healthcare industry, few executives rely upon the internetfor strategic analysis. Although electronic technologies can easily synthesize data from multiple information channels, research as well as technical issues may deter their application in strategic analysis. As digital models transform access to information, online models may become increasingly relevant in designing strategic solutions. While there are various pedagogical models available to support the strategic management process, this framework was designed to enhance strategic analysis through the application of technology and electronic research. A strategic analysis framework, which incorporated internet research and case analysis in a strategic managementcourse, is described alongwith design and application issues that emerged during the case analysis process. PMID:15129900

  15. Case analysis online: a strategic management case model for the health industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Anne; Bearden, Eithne

    2004-01-01

    Despite the plethora of methods and tools available to support strategic management, the challenge for health executives in the next century will relate to their ability to access and interpret data from multiple and intricate communication networks. Integrated digital networks and satellite systems will expand the scope and ease of sharing information between business divisions, and networked systems will facilitate the use of virtual case discussions across universities. While the internet is frequently used to support clinical decisions in the healthcare industry, few executives rely upon the internetfor strategic analysis. Although electronic technologies can easily synthesize data from multiple information channels, research as well as technical issues may deter their application in strategic analysis. As digital models transform access to information, online models may become increasingly relevant in designing strategic solutions. While there are various pedagogical models available to support the strategic management process, this framework was designed to enhance strategic analysis through the application of technology and electronic research. A strategic analysis framework, which incorporated internet research and case analysis in a strategic managementcourse, is described alongwith design and application issues that emerged during the case analysis process.

  16. Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Human Adenovirus in Immunocompetent Adults: A Multicenter Case Series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingyu Tan

    Full Text Available Severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP caused by human adenovirus (HAdV, especially HAdV type 55 (HAdV-55 in immunocompetent adults has raised increasing concerns. Clinical knowledge of severe CAP and acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by HAdV-55 is still limited, though the pathogen has been fully characterized by whole-genome sequencing.We conducted a multicentre retrospective review of all consecutive patients with severe CAP caused by HAdV in immunocompetent adults admitted to the Emergency Department Intensive Care Unit of two hospitals in Northern China between February 2012 and April 2014. Clinical, laboratory, radiological characteristics, treatments and outcomes of these patients were collected and analyzed.A total of 15 consecutive severe CAP patients with laboratory-confirmed adenovirus infections were included. The median age was 30 years and all cases were identified during the winter and spring seasons. HAdV-55 was the most frequently (11/15 detected HAdV type. Persistent high fever, cough and rapid progression of dyspnea were typically reported in these patients. Significantly increased pneumonia severity index (PSI, respiratory rate, and lower PaO2/FiO2, hypersensitive CRP were reported in non-survivors compared to survivors (P = 0.013, 0.022, 0.019 and 0.026, respectively. The rapid development of bilateral consolidations within 10 days after illness onset were the most common radiographic finding, usually accompanied by adjacent ground glass opacities and pleural effusions. Total mortality was 26.7% in this study. Corticosteroids were prescribed to 14 patients in this report, but the utilization rate between survivors and non-survivors was not significant.HAdV and the HAdV-55 sub-type play an important role among viral pneumonia pathogens in hospitalized immunocompetent adults in Northern China. HAdV should be tested in severe CAP patients with negative bacterial cultures and a lack of response to antibiotic

  17. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jessica C

    2015-12-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country's iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur's mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to a

  18. Sensitivity analysis in the WWTP modelling community – new opportunities and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan; Ruano, M.V.; Neumann, Marc B.;

    2010-01-01

    design (BSM1 plant layout) using Standardized Regression Coefficients (SRC) and (ii) Applying sensitivity analysis to help fine-tuning a fuzzy controller for a BNPR plant using Morris Screening. The results obtained from each case study are then critically discussed in view of practical applications of...... analysis is related to uncertainty analysis, which attempts to relate the total uncertainty in the outputs to the uncertainty in the inputs. In this paper we evaluate and discuss two such sensitivity analysis methods for two different purposes/case studies: (i) Applying sensitivity analysis to a plant...

  19. Metagenomic analysis of fungal communities inhabiting the fairy ring zone of Tricholoma matsutake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miae; Yoon, Hyeokjun; You, Young-Hyun; Kim, Ye-Eun; Woo, Ju-Ri; Seo, Yeonggyo; Lee, Gyeong-Min; Kim, Young Ja; Kong, Won-Sik; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2013-10-28

    Tricholoma matsutake, an ectomycorrhiza that has mutual relationships with the rootlet of Pinus denisflora, forms a fruiting body that serves as a valuable food in Asia. However, the artificial culture of this fungus has not been successful. Soil fungi, including T. matsutake, coexist with many other microorganisms and plants; therefore, complex microbial communities have an influence on the fruiting body formation of T. matsutake. Here, we report on the structures of fungal communities associated with the fairy ring of T. matsutake through the pyrosequencing method. Soil samples were collected inside the fairy ring zone, in the fairy ring zone, and outside the fairy ring zone. A total of 37,125 sequencing reads were obtained and 728 to 1,962 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed in the sampling zones. The fairy ring zone had the lowest OTUs and the lowest fungal diversity of all sampling zones. The number of OTUs and fungal taxa inside and outside the fairy ring zone was, respectively, about 2 times and 1.5 times higher than the fairy ring. Taxonomic analysis showed that each sampling zone has different fungal communities. In particular, out of 209 genera total, 6 genera in the fairy ring zone, such as Hemimycena, were uniquely present and 31 genera, such as Mycena, Boletopsis, and Repetophragma, were specifically absent. The results of metagenomic analysis based on the pyrosequencing indicate a decrease of fungal communities in the fairy ring zone and changes of fungal communities depending on the fairy ring growth of T. matsutake.

  20. Bifurcation analysis of fan casing under rotating air flow excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温登哲; 陈予恕

    2014-01-01

    A fan casing model of cantilever circular thin shell is constructed based on the geometric characteristics of the thin-walled structure of aero-engine fan casing. According to Donnelly’s shell theory and Hamilton’s principle, the dynamic equations are established. The dynamic behaviors are investigated by a multiple-scale method. The effects of casing geometric parameters and motion parameters on the natural frequency of the system are studied. The transition sets and bifurcation diagrams of the system are obtained through a singularity analysis of the bifurcation equation, showing that various modes of the system such as the bifurcation and hysteresis will appear in different parameter regions. In accordance with the multiple relationship of the fan speed and stator vibration frequency, the fan speed interval with the casing vibration sudden jump is calculated. The dynamic reasons of casing cracks are investigated. The possibility of casing cracking hysteresis interval is analyzed. The results show that cracking is more likely to appear in the hysteresis interval. The research of this paper provides a theoretical basis for fan casing design and system parameter optimization.

  1. External rhinoplasty: a critical analysis of 500 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2003-06-01

    The study presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of a series of 500 consecutive rhinoplasties of which 380 (76 per cent) were primary and 120 (24 per cent) were secondary cases. All cases were operated upon using the external rhinoplasty technique; simultaneous septal surgery was performed in 350 (70 per cent) of the cases. Deformities of the upper two-thirds of the nose that occurred significantly more in the secondary cases included; dorsal saddling, dorsal irregularities, valve collapse, open roof and pollybeak deformities. In the lower third of the nose; secondary cases showed significantly higher incidences of depressed tip, tip over-rotation, tip asymmetry, retracted columella, and alar notching. Suturing techniques were used significantly more in primary cases, while in secondary cases grafting techniques were used significantly more. The complications encountered intra-operatively included; septal flap tears (2.8 per cent) and alar cartilage injury (1.8 per cent), while post-operative complications included; nasal trauma (one per cent), epistaxis (two per cent), infection (2.4 per cent), prolonged oedema (17 per cent), and nasal obstruction (0.8 per cent). The overall patient satisfaction rate was 95.6 per cent and the transcolumellar scar was found to be unacceptable in only 0.8 per cent of the patients. PMID:12818057

  2. Partner's engagement in community-based health promotion programs: a case study of professional partner's experiences and perspectives in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahraminejad, Nasrin; Ibrahim, Faisal; Riji, Haliza Mohd; Majdzadeh, Reza; Hamzah, Azimi; Keshavarz Mohammadi, Nastaran

    2015-12-01

    Community-based health promotion requires effective participation and partnership of diverse and numerous stakeholders from community as well as external professional organizations. Although effective partnership of stakeholders is often the key for success of health promotion practice and research, but this has proved to be a complex and challenging task. This study is an exploratory study to identify professional stakeholder's perspectives and experiences toward the partner's engagement challenges in community-based participatory research conducted in Population Research Centers in Iran. A qualitative study design with in-depth semi-structured interviews as data collection method was chosen. Using purposeful sampling technique, policy-makers and managers (mainly academics) involved in community-based participatory research in these centers were invited to be interviewed. Data were collected to the point where no new information was forthcoming. All interviews were taped and transcribed. To provide answers for research questions, qualitative content analysis was employed to extract emerging main themes from numerous cods. Findings were categorized in three main themes as Partnership's relationship and trust issues, Partnership's individual issues and Partnership's system issues. Although community-based participatory research in Iran benefits from more than a decade history and some physical infrastructures, but it seems that public health experts and researchers and other partner organizations are lagging behind in terms of capacities and competencies required to effectively utilize the available structure and opportunities. Hence, capacity development, both among professional partners and community may be the main way forward to tackling the future challenges for strengthening community actions but should include both levels of individuals and systems.

  3. Metagenomic analysis of the turkey gut RNA virus community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffler Brian E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Viral enteric disease is an ongoing economic burden to poultry producers worldwide, and despite considerable research, no single virus has emerged as a likely causative agent and target for prevention and control efforts. Historically, electron microscopy has been used to identify suspect viruses, with many small, round viruses eluding classification based solely on morphology. National and regional surveys using molecular diagnostics have revealed that suspect viruses continuously circulate in United States poultry, with many viruses appearing concomitantly and in healthy birds. High-throughput nucleic acid pyrosequencing is a powerful diagnostic technology capable of determining the full genomic repertoire present in a complex environmental sample. We utilized the Roche/454 Life Sciences GS-FLX platform to compile an RNA virus metagenome from turkey flocks experiencing enteric disease. This approach yielded numerous sequences homologous to viruses in the BLAST nr protein database, many of which have not been described in turkeys. Our analysis of this turkey gut RNA metagenome focuses in particular on the turkey-origin members of the Picornavirales, the Caliciviridae, and the turkey Picobirnaviruses.

  4. Metagenomic Analysis of Bacterial Communities of Antarctic Surface Snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eLopatina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of bacteria present in surface snow around four Russian stations in Eastern Antarctica was studied by high throughput sequencing of amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Considerable class- and genus-level variation between the samples was revealed indicating a presence of inter-site diversity of bacteria in Antarctic snow. Flavobacterium was a major genus in one sampling site and was also detected in other sites. The diversity of flavobacterial type II-C CRISPR spacers in the samples was investigated by metagenome sequencing. Thousands of unique spacers were revealed with less than 35% overlap between the sampling sites, indicating an enormous natural variety of flavobacterial CRISPR spacers and, by extension, high level of adaptive activity of the corresponding CRISPR-Cas system. None of the spacers matched known spacers of flavobacterial isolates from the Northern hemisphere. Moreover, the percentage of spacers with matches with Antarctic metagenomic sequences obtained in this work was significantly higher than with sequences from much larger publically available environmental metagenomic database. The results indicate that despite the overall very high level of diversity, Antarctic Flavobacteria comprise a separate pool that experiences pressures from mobile genetic elements different from those present in other parts of the world. The results also establish analysis of metagenomic CRISPR spacer content as a powerful tool to study bacterial populations diversity.

  5. Analysis of influencing factors of drug antihypertensive therapy management and blood pressure standard in com-munity hypertension management cases%社区高血压管理病人药物降压治疗管理及血压达标的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董婷; 刘素珍; 李继平

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To probe into the situation of drug antihypertensive therapy and blood pressure standard of hypertension patients participating in a community managements in Chengdu and its influencing factors.Meth-ods:A total of 664 cases of patients in two communities in Chengdu received the questionnaire about general conditions,drug treatment and its management behavior,blood pressure control and so on.Results:The pa-tients’drug treatment rate was 97.7%;most of the patients received the combined antihypertensive with multi drugs.The patients’standard rate of blood pressure control was 68.1%;there was statistically significant differ-ences in standard rate of blood pressure control among patients with different ages,or genders,course of dis-ease,tobacco and alcohol habits,the number of complications,special clinics,blood glucose,blood lipids,treat-ment of management score(P <0.05),in which the prescribed medication,remembering medication,older than 65 years old,normal blood lipid,kind numbers of complications were the influencing factors of blood pressure standard(P <0.05 ).Conclusion:The drug treatment rate of patients participating in community management was higher,and most of them followed the recommended scheme,their standard rate of blood pressure was higher,and their compliance was better and could help patients control blood pressure.%[目的]探讨参与成都某社区管理的高血压病人药物降压治疗和血压达标情况及其影响因素。[方法]对成都市两社区664例病人的一般情况、药物治疗及其管理行为和血压控制情况等进行问卷调查。[结果]病人药物治疗率为97.7%;大多数病人采用多药联合降压。病人血压控制达标率为68.1%;不同年龄、性别、病程、烟酒嗜好、并发症种数、特殊门诊、血糖、血脂、治疗管理总分等病人的血压控制达标率差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),其中遵医嘱服药、记得服药、年龄≥65岁、血脂达标、

  6. Appraisal of cooperation with a palliative care case manager by general practitioners and community nurses: a cross-sectional questionnaire study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, A.G.M. van der; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.; Vissers, K.C.; Deliens, L.; Jansen, W.J.J.; Francke, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To investigate how general practitioners and community nurses value the support that they receive from a nurse case manager with expertise in palliative care, whether they think the case manager is helpful in realizing appropriate care and what characteristics of the patient and case managemen

  7. Static analysis of worst-case stack cache behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Alexander; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a stack cache in a real-time system can aid predictability by avoiding interference that heap memory traffic causes on the data cache. While loads and stores are guaranteed cache hits, explicit operations are responsible for managing the stack cache. The behavior of these operations can...... be analyzed statically. We present algorithms that derive worst-case bounds on the latency-inducing operations of the stack cache. Their results can be used by a static WCET tool. By breaking the analysis down into subproblems that solve intra-procedural data-flow analysis and path searches on the call......-graph, the worst-case bounds can be efficiently yet precisely determined. Our evaluation using the MiBench benchmark suite shows that only 37% and 21% of potential stack cache operations actually store to and load from memory, respectively. Analysis times are modest, on average running between 0.46s and 1.30s per...

  8. Revising the Community of Inquiry framework for the analysis of one-to-one online learning relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Stenbom, Stefan; Jansson, Malin; Hulkko, Annelie

    2016-01-01

    In online learning research, the theoretical Community of Inquiry framework has been used extensively to analyze processes of inquiry among learners and instructors within a community. This paper examines a special case of community of inquiry consisting of only one learner and one instructor. Together they engage in an online coaching discourse to form a relationship of inquiry. Within these relationships, coachees pass through processes of practical inquiry process while a coach supports th...

  9. The Potential of GIS as a Management Tool for Avenue Trees Population in Small Communities; a Case Study of Idi-Shin Community, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olokeogun, O. S.; Akintola, O. O.; Abodunrin, E. K.

    2016-06-01

    This study demonstrates the potentials of Geographic Information System (GIS) as a management tool for avenue trees (Street trees) populations in small communities (using Idi-Ishin community, Ibadan, Nigeria as a case study). GIS is a decision support system which integrate data or set of data from different sources, bringing them under the same referencing system in a computer system. An Ikonos Imagery (1m Spatial Resolution) of the study area was digitized to produce a digital map using ArcGIS 10.1 version. The avenue trees species ≥ 5cm diameter at breast height (DBH) was selected for enumeration. These trees were then measured and tagged. The Height, Girth and Geographic location (X &Y coordinate) of the trees were measured with Haga altimeter, Girthing tape and Hand held Global Positioning System (GPS) respectively. The species and families of the trees enumerated were also identified. Data were analysed for basal area (BA) and volume (V). A total number of 43 avenue trees were assessed in Idi-Ishin Community. Roystonea regia accounted for the majority of the avenue trees (25.58%), followed by Polyanthia longiflora (23.26%), Gliricida seprium (20.93%), Eucalyptus toreliana (13.95%), Delunix regea (6.98%). However Terminalia catapa, Terminalia radii, Azadrachita indica and Newbodia levis had the same abundance of 2.33%. It was also observed that the benefits derived from these avenue trees includes; Carbon sequestration, Beautification, Wind break and shade. A spatial relational database was created for the assessed avenue trees using ArcCatalog of ArcGIS 10.1 version. Based on the findings from the study (which serves as baseline information for the management of the avenue trees in the study area), it was therefore recommended that subsequent assessment should be carried out at 3-5 year interval in other to ensure proper and continuous monitoring and updating of the data.

  10. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT. THE CASE OF ROMANIA. CONCEPT AND MANAGEMENT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisetchi Mihai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The public administration has a major role in partnerships establishing and operating with different community actors aiming at solving specific community problems. In the process of identifying and solving the community problems the actions of the non-governmental organisations are considered as "alternatives" to the solutions of the public administration. The advantages of an on-going collaboration between non-governmental organisations, as relevant agents in the social economy, and the public authorities aiming at solving the community problems were identified and aknowledged by both sides representatives. The access to complementary resources, and implicitly, an increase in the range of actions of the partners beyond mathematical calculus, an increase in the credibility and public image of the partners, as well as the social benefit corollary to positive models established within the community, are only a few of the arguments. The question raised is why this type of a more consistent approach is not used in the current practices of solving the community issues in Romania. The following causes should be considered in response to this question: the lack of an associative culture at the level of all potential partners, the access to resources is by far too limited on behalf of any of the two parts involved, a neutral, thus, unrestrictive legislative environment, but at the same time, unstimulating towards an associative action, i.e. limited management capacities on both sides. From this perspectives, this paper aims at clarifying the partnership concept (definition, typology, the public-private partnership role in solving community problems and the management issues related: partners identification, negociation of the cooperation protocol, decision making process and resource management, assesment, etc.

  11. The Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and an Analysis of Related Lifestyle Factors in Beijing Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid nodules (TNs have annual increasing trends worldwide, and large-scale investigations on the prevalence of TNs in Beijing communities have not been conducted since the introduction of salt iodization in 1995. We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of TNs, their epidemiological characteristics, and their correlation with lifestyle factors. A total of 6324 permanent residents aged 18 years or older (mean age, 52.15 ± 11.58 years from seven representative communities in Beijing were included in the analyses. Once informed consent was obtained, the subjects were asked to complete questionnaires, a physical examination, and thyroid ultrasound. A total of 3100 cases had TNs. The overall prevalence rate was 49.0%, and the age-standardized prevalence was 40.1%, which increased significantly as age increased (p < 0.001. The prevalence was significantly higher in females compared to males (p < 0.001, and it was significantly higher among female current smokers and former smokers compared to non-smokers (p = 0.007. There was no correlation between alcohol consumption and TNs, and there were no significant differences in the prevalence among different groups of taste preference. The prevalence decreased with an increased frequency of seafood intake (p = 0.015 and with higher literacy levels (p < 0.001. The Cochran–Armitage trend test showed that the prevalence significantly increased with decreased physical labor and exercise intensity (p < 0.001, p = 0.009. Logistic regression analysis showed that age (Odds ratio (OR = 1.039 (1.034–1.044, p < 0.001, the female sex (OR = 1.789 (1.527–2.097, Body mass index (BMI (OR = 1.019 (1.005–1.034, and current smoking habits (OR = 1.246 (1.046–1.483 were independent risk factors for TNs. Our findings indicate that there is a high prevalence of TNs in Beijing, with a higher prevalence in females than in males. Moreover, the prevalence increases as age increases. Smoking and

  12. Learning Communities in Undergraduate STEM Education: A Quantitative Analysis of how Sense of Community Influences Retention of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archie, T.; Newman, P.

    2012-12-01

    Countless programs are aimed at retaining first year college students in their majors and at their institutions. Additionally, first year students in STEM majors are retained at lower rates, than non-STEM majors. Previous research has shown that students who leave the institution are not as academically and socially integrated into the campus community than students who persist at an institution. Residential learning communities can be thought of as a retention tool by enhancing the academic and social integration of their participants. Academic integration has historically been measured by academic success as indicated by GPA, while social integration has been more difficult to measure. We adapted the Sense of Community Index (SCI) as a measure of social integration. Sense of community (SOC) has been defined as ''a feeling that members have of belonging, a feeling that members matter to one another and to the group, and a shared faith that members' needs will be met through their commitment to be together''. This quantitative study examines sense of community as a means of social integration and explores the relationship between learning communities, students' sense of community, and their intent to persist at a large public university and within their current major. An online survey of 60 first-year college students in a Natural Resources College, examined the relationships between learning community participation, sense of community, and student retention. A logistic regression of sense of community was very effective in predicting students' intent to stay or leave the institution. Structural equation models showed that sense of community was strongly positively related to a students' intent to stay or leave the institution for non-learning community participants, but not for learning community participants. We hypothesized that learning community participants sense of community needs would be more fully met than non-learning community participants. Learning

  13. High prevalence of tuberculosis and insufficient case detection in two communities in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareli Claassens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In South Africa the estimated incidence of all forms of tuberculosis (TB for 2008 was 960/100000. It was reported that all South Africans lived in districts with Directly Observed Therapy, Short-course. However, the 2011 WHO report indicated South Africa as the only country in the world where the TB incidence is still rising. AIMS: To report the results of a TB prevalence survey and to determine the speed of TB case detection in the study communities. METHODS: In 2005 a TB prevalence survey was done to inform the sample size calculation for the ZAMSTAR (Zambia South Africa TB and AIDS Reduction trial. It was a cluster survey with clustering by enumeration area; all households were visited within enumeration areas and informed consent obtained from eligible adults. A questionnaire was completed and a sputum sample collected from each adult. Samples were inoculated on both liquid mycobacterium growth indicator tube (MGIT and Löwenstein-Jensen media. A follow-up HIV prevalence survey was done in 2007. RESULTS: In Community A, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 32/1000 (95%CI 25-41/1000 and of smear positive TB 8/1000 (95%CI 5-13/1000. In Community B, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 24/1000 (95%CI 17-32/1000 and of smear positive TB 9/1000 (95%CI 6-15/1000. In Community A the patient diagnostic rate was 0.38/person-year while in community B it was 0.30/person-year. In both communities the adjusted HIV prevalence was 25% (19-30%. DISCUSSION: In both communities a higher TB prevalence than national estimates and a low patient diagnostic rate was calculated, suggesting that cases are not detected at a sufficient rate to interrupt transmission. These findings may contribute to the rising TB incidence in South Africa. The TB epidemic should therefore be addressed rapidly and effectively, especially in the presence of the concurrently high HIV prevalence.

  14. Trenton ICES: demonstration of a grid-connected integrated community energy system. Phase II. Volumes 1 and 2. Preliminary design of ICES system and analysis of community ownership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    Preliminary design and evaluation for the system has been carried out. The findings of this study are: (1) it is technically feasible, utilizing commercially available hardware; (2) under utility ownership and operation, it will not be economically competitive with conventional alternatives for heating and cooling buildings (analysis contained in companion report under separate cover); (3) under utility ownership and operation, no restrictions have been identified that would prevent the project from proceeding; (4) under community ownership, preliminary analysis indicates that thermal energy produced by Trenton ICES will be approximately 12 percent less expensive than thermal energy produced by oil-fired boilers; and (5) a review and update of institutional analyses performed during Phase 2 has identified no factors that would preclude community ownership and operation of the Trenton ICES. The background data produced for the analysis of the Trenton ICES based on utility ownership and operation can, in large part, be used as the bases for a detailed analysis of community ownership.

  15. Experiences and Challenges of Community Participation in Urban Renewal Projects: The Case of Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Didibhuku Thwala

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban renewal and inner city regeneration have become critical efforts for the South African government, which has invested in several structures to stem the tide of decline in its nine major cities. Commitment to the alleviation of poverty is a focal point of the renewal and regeneration agenda and will remain so in the future. This effort is motivated by the fact that around 24% of the South African population currently lives on less than USD 1.00 per day, below the poverty line defined by the World Bank. The Central Government has made numerous public commitments to development, a part of which concerns extensive infrastructure investment and service delivery. Communities are expected to participate fully in the planning and implementation of these urban renewal projects. To this aim, participation is a process through which stakeholders influence and share control over development initiatives and the decisions and resources which affect them. Community participation should be aimed at empowering people by ensuring the development of skills and the creation of employment opportunities. This paper first explores the concept of community participation, and will then look at relevant past experiences in relation to community participation in urban renewal projects. Furthermore, the paper outlines the challenges and problems of community participation in urban renewal projects in Johannesburg, and finally, close with recommendations for the future.

  16. Community perceptions towards the establishment of an urban forest plantation: a case of Dzivaresekwa, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mureva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health of urban forest communities not only depend on the government and nongovernmental organizations, but also strongly rely on local community stewardship. A study was carried out to assess community perceptions on the establishment of an urban forest plantation among urban residents in Dzivaresekwa, an urban area in Harare. Randomized systematic sampling was used to select 150 households and one resident per household was interviewed using a pretested questionnaire with both closed and open-ended questions. The objectives of the study were to determine how age and gender and employment status variables, were related to the urban residents’ perceptions towards establishment of a forest plantation in an urban area. Most females (58.3% viewed the plantation as a threat while most men (51.7% viewed the plantation as a recreational area. The highest proportion (61.9% of the middle age group (21-40 years perceived the plantation as a source of employment. There was a statistically significant relationship (p = 0.040 between gender and the general perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. However, there was no statistically significant relationship (p = 0.203 between age groups and the perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. It is concluded that the community had diverse perceptions on urban community forestry.

  17. Case Study Report: Community-Based Monitoring Systems for REDD+ in Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Bellfield

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental component of initiatives to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+; will be the development of robust and cost-effective measuring, reporting, and verification (MRV instruments for national forest monitoring and safeguard information systems. It is increasingly recognized that community-based monitoring (CBM offers a positive model for greater participation and engagement of indigenous and forest-dependent communities within a REDD+ framework. Yet plans for CBM within REDD+ MRV systems remain limited, and there are currently relatively few concrete examples of CBM informing national forest monitoring systems. This paper outlines findings from a community MRV project with Amerindian communities in the North Rupununi, Guyana; and demonstrates that a CBM approach can enable key REDD+ requirements: in understanding local deforestation drivers and measuring carbon stocks; and for providing information on safeguards through social and environmental assessments. In addition, the authors discuss community capacity-building on smartphone technology for monitoring as a challenging yet viable pathway for scaling the use and adoption of indigenous knowledge and local skills for REDD+ programs.

  18. Participatory Design to Enhance ICT Learning and Community Attachment: A Case Study in Rural Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Huang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study used observation and interviews with participants in “PunCar Action” to understand how participatory design methods can be applied to the education of rural individuals in information and communication technology (ICT. PunCar Action is a volunteer program in which ICT educators tour the rural communities of Taiwan, offering courses on the use of digital technology. This paper makes three contributions: First, we found that participatory design is an excellent way to teach ICT and Web 2.0 skills, co-create community blogs, and sustain intrinsic motivation to use Web applications. Second, PunCar Action provides an innovative bottom-up intergenerational ICT education model with high penetrability capable of enhancing the confidence of rural residents in the use of ICT. Third, the content of basic courses was based on applications capable of making the lives of elderly individuals more convenient, and the advanced course was based on the co-creation of community blogs aimed at reviving the core functions of communities and expanding local industry. Our research was conducted with the use of a non-quantitative index to measure ICT learning performance of participants from a rural community. The results show that PunCar Action emphasizes interpersonal communication and informational applications and creates a collaborative process that encourages rural residents to take action to close the digital divide.

  19. Enabling Innovation and Collaboration Across Geography and Culture: A Case Study of NASA's Systems Engineering Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topousis, Daria E.; Murphy, Keri; Robinson, Greg

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, NASA faced major knowledge sharing challenges due to geographically isolated field centers that inhibited personnel from sharing experiences and ideas. Mission failures and new directions for the agency demanded better collaborative tools. In addition, with the push to send astronauts back to the moon and to Mars, NASA recognized that systems engineering would have to improve across the agency. Of the ten field centers, seven had not built a spacecraft in over 30 years, and had lost systems engineering expertise. The Systems Engineering Community of Practice came together to capture the knowledge of its members using the suite of collaborative tools provided by the NASA Engineering Network (NEN.) The NEN provided a secure collaboration space for over 60 practitioners across the agency to assemble and review a NASA systems engineering handbook. Once the handbook was complete, they used the open community area to disseminate it. This case study explores both the technology and the social networking that made the community possible, describes technological approaches that facilitated rapid setup and low maintenance, provides best practices that other organizations could adopt, and discusses the vision for how this community will continue to collaborate across the field centers to benefit the agency as it continues exploring the solar system.

  20. The Expectations of the Local Community and Visitors From Tourism in Rural Areas: Case of Safranbolu-Yorukkoyo Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiper, Tugba; Arslan, Mukerrem

    The formation and development of tourism in a specific rural area is bound to the natural and cultural landscape assets, which alters that area from others. In fact, many components such as the local culture, agricultural pattern and natural resources are the features that form rural areas. For this reason determining the expectations and inclinations of the local community who are the center of the target group and those participators that are to use these resources is an important subject. In this study, the topics were questioned with a research based on questionnaires, observations and related literature are (1) What is the visitors= land use and satisfaction level? (2) What are the expectations of the local community from tourism and what are they able to do? With this aim, different questionnaires were applied to the visitors and the local community in the case of the Safranbolu-Yorukkoyu Village. These questionnaires were applied to a total of randomly selected 194 people. One hundred and forty four of them were composed of visitors and 50 of them were from the local community. Questionnaires have been applied to people having different socio-economic structures in June and July of 2004. The research shows that Safranbolu-Yorukkoyu has a suitable potential for rural tourism with its historical, cultural and natural resources. These resources can contribute to the diversification and distribution of tourism to different seasons and the local people can have active roles during this process.

  1. A case-control study of support/opposition to wind turbines: Perceptions of health risk, economic benefits, and community conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite considerable quantitative case study research on communities living with turbines, few have studied the roles played by the perceptions of: health risk, economic benefits/fairness, and intra-community conflict. We report the findings from a case-control survey which compares residents living with/without turbines in their community to understand the relative importance of these variables as predictors of turbine support. Ontario is the context for this study as it is a place where the pace of turbine installations is both very high and extremely politicized. As expected 69% of residents in the case community would vote in favour of local turbines yet surprisingly, only 25% would do so in the control community. Though the literature suggests that aesthetic preferences best predict turbine support the key predictors in this study are: health risk perception, community benefits, general community enhancement, and a preference for turbine-generated electricity. Concern about intra-community conflict is high in both the case (83%) and control (85%) communities as is concern about the fairness of local economic benefits (56% and 62%, respectively); yet neither is significant in the models. We discuss the implications of these findings particularly in terms of the consequences of a technocratic decide-announce-defend model of renewable facility siting. - Highlights: • We compare turbine support in a community living with turbines against a matched control. • We include health risk perception, economic benefits, and community conflict as predictors. • Turbine support is highest in the turbine community and surprisingly low in the control. • Health risk perception and economic benefits consistently predict turbine support. • Economic benefits distribution and conflict are important, but not consistent predictors

  2. Community Involvement in Tourism Development: A Case Study of Lenggong Valley World Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khadar Nur Zafirah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the empirical relationship between the economic impact and community involvement in the Lenggong Valley. Recommendations for improvement in development effectiveness through the development of a community centre for economic and social activities, with specific attention given to types of activity and community involvement stimulating the economic development in the Lenggong Valley. Heritage tourism development is a tourism in which arts, culture and heritage form a key attraction for visitors and it can be represented as an area of significant economic benefit to heritage sites. The tourism industry in Hulu Perak became more widespread after Lenggong Valley is recognized as a World Heritage Site. There is shown a positive effect on the development and economic prosperity.

  3. [Molecular analysis of the microbial communities of the Dagang Kongdian flooding bed oilfield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Yue-hui; Zhang, Xue-li; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Ling-hua; Zhao, Li-ping

    2005-06-01

    Both PCR-TGGE (temperature gradient gel electrophoresis, TGGE) and 16S rRNA gene clone library construction were used to comparatively analyze the microbial communities of a water injection well (WW) and an oil well (OW) in Dagang oilfield. TGGE analysis of the PCR amplified 16S rDNA V3 region products showed great difference between these two microbial communities. Six major bands were detected in the TGGE profile of the WW sample, while only one predominant band in the OW sample was found. Two 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were also constructed, and 108 and 50 clones were selected from the WW and OW library respectively for amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). 33 taxanomic operational units (OTUs) were found in the WW library with 6 major OTUs, while only 8 OTUs were found in the OW library with one OTU predominant. The results of TGGE and clone library profiling analysis both indicated that microbial community of the WW had higher diversity than the OW. Sequence analysis of the representative clone of each OTU showed that most bacteria of the WW were affiliated with alpha, beta, and gamma Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, especially Rhodobacter (47%). Most bacteria of the OW were affiliated with alpha, beta, and gamma Proteobacteria, especially Pseudomonas (62%). Molecular analysis of the microbial diversity in oilfield provides foundation for better application of MEOR (Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery). PMID:15989220

  4. Comprehensive Case Analysis on Participatory Approaches, from Nexus Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuhara, N.; Baba, K.

    2014-12-01

    According to Messages from the Bonn2011 Conference, involving local communities fully and effectively in the planning and implementation processes related to water, energy and food nexus for local ownership and commitment should be strongly needed. The participatory approaches such as deliberative polling, "joint fact-finding" and so on have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes, however the drivers and barriers in such processes have not been necessarily enough analyzed in a comprehensive manner, especially in Japan. Our research aims to explore solutions for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus in local communities. To achieve it, we clarify drivers and barriers of each approaches applied so far in water, energy and food policy, focusing on how to deal with scientific facts. We generate hypotheses primarily that multi-issue solutions through policy integration will be more effective for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus than single issue solutions for each policy. One of the key factors to formulate effective solutions is to integrate "scientific fact (expert knowledge)" and "local knowledge". Given this primary hypothesis, more specifically, we assume that it is effective for building consensus to provide opportunities to resolve the disagreement of "framing" that stakeholders can offer experts the points for providing scientific facts and that experts can get common understanding of scientific facts in the early stage of the process. To verify the hypotheses, we develop a database of the cases which such participatory approaches have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes based on literature survey of journal articles and public documents of Japanese cases. At present, our database is constructing. But it's estimated that conditions of framing and providing scientific information are important driving factors for problem solving and consensus building. And it's important to refine

  5. Municipal solid waste management: Identification and analysis of engineering indexes representing demand and costs generated in virtuous Italian communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Collection and analysis of real life data in the field of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation and costs for management. • Study of 92 virtuous Italian communities. • Elaboration of trends of engineering indexes useful during design and evaluation of MSWM systems. - Abstract: The definition and utilisation of engineering indexes in the field of Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is an issue of interest for technicians and scientists, which is widely discussed in literature. Specifically, the availability of consolidated engineering indexes is useful when new waste collection services are designed, along with when their performance is evaluated after a warm-up period. However, most published works in the field of MSWM complete their study with an analysis of isolated case studies. Conversely, decision makers require tools for information collection and exchange in order to trace the trends of these engineering indexes in large experiments. In this paper, common engineering indexes are presented and their values analysed in virtuous Italian communities, with the aim of contributing to the creation of a useful database whose data could be used during experiments, by indicating examples of MSWM demand profiles and the costs required to manage them

  6. Community-based active tuberculosis case finding in poor urban settlements of Phnom Penh, Cambodia: a feasible and effective strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Lorent

    Full Text Available In light of the limitations of the current case finding strategies and the global urgency to improve tuberculosis (TB case-detection, a renewed interest in active case finding (ACF has risen. The WHO calls for more evidence on innovative ways of TB screening, especially from low-income countries, to inform global guideline development. We aimed to assess the feasibility of community-based ACF for TB among the urban poor in Cambodia and determine its impact on case detection, treatment uptake and outcome.Between 9/2/2012-31/3/2013 the Sihanouk Hospital Center of HOPE conducted a door-to-door survey for TB in deprived communities of Phnom Penh. TB workers and community health volunteers performed symptom screening, collected sputum and facilitated specimen transport to the laboratories. Fluorescence microscopy was introduced at three referral hospitals. The GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert was performed at tertiary level for individuals at increased risk of HIV-associated, drug-resistant or smear-negative TB. Mobile phone/short message system (SMS was used for same-day issuing of positive results. TB workers contacted diagnosed patients and referred them for care at their local health centre.In 14 months, we screened 315.874 individuals; we identified 12.201 aged ≥ 15 years with symptoms suggestive of TB; 84% provided sputum. We diagnosed 783, including 737 bacteriologically confirmed, TB cases. Xpert testing yielded 41% and 48% additional diagnoses among presumptive HIV-associated and multidrug-resistant TB cases, respectively. The median time from sputum collection to notification (by SMS of the first positive (microscopy or Xpert result was 3 days (IQR 2-6. Over 94% commenced TB treatment and 81% successfully completed it.Our findings suggest that among the urban poor ACF for TB, using a sensitive symptom screen followed by smear-microscopy and targeted Xpert, contributed to improved case detection of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB

  7. Habitat niche community-level analysis of an amphibian assemblage at Lake Nabugabo, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Behangana

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Community structure was studied across six different habitat types in an amphibian assemblage constituted by 24 species belonging to five families, from Lake Nabugabo, Uganda. We employed a suite of different statistical methods, including univariate, multivariate, and Monte Carlo procedures to investigate the randomness/nonrandomness and the seasonal effects (wet versus dry season of the community assembly. We calculated for each species in each habitat type an index of relative abundance by using a time constrained counting technique, with 48 1-h counts for each habitat type. Co-occurrence was analysed by C score with 30 000 simulations; resource partitioning patterns by RA2 and RA3 algorithms with 30 000 simulations; and apparent dissimilarity among species in terms of habitat use by UPGMA dendrograms. After pooling data from wet and dry seasons, it resulted that the amphibian community was non-randomly assembled according to C-score analyses, but both RA2 and RA3 were unable to uncover any competitive structure for the dataset. Seasonal effects were evident, and although C score analyses confirmed a nonrandom structure for the community under study (particularly in wet season, RA3 showed that species with high relative abundance tended to significantly concentrate in one habitat type (swamp forest rather than to partition the habitat resource. UPGMA dendrograms grouped the species differently in dry versus wet seasons. Overall, the comparative evidence of 1 non-random community structure according to C-score analysis, and 2 absence of resource partitioning according to niche overlap null models analysis, suggests that community organization in Lake Nabugabo amphibians is generated by habitat affinities rather than by interspecific competition.

  8. Service utilization in community health centers in China: a comparison analysis with local hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaohang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being an important part of China's Urban Health Care Reform System, Community Health Centers (CHCs have been established throughout the entire country and are presently undergoing substantial reconstruction. However, the services being delivered by the CHCs are far from reaching their performance targets. In order to assess the role of the CHCs, we examined their performance in six cities located in regions of South-East China. The purpose of this investigation was to identify the utilization and the efficiency of community health resources that are able to provide basic medical and public health services. Methods The study was approved by Peking University Health Science Center Institutional Reviewing Board (NO: IRB00001052-T1. Data were collected from all the local health bureaux and processed using SPSS software. Methods of analysis mainly included: descriptive analysis, paired T-test and one-way ANOVA. Results The six main functions of the CHCs were not fully exploited and the surveys that were collected on their efficiency and utilization of resources indicate that they have a low level of performance and lack the trust of local communities. Furthermore, the CHCs seriously lack funding support and operate under difficult circumstances, and residents have less positive attitudes towards them. Conclusion The community health service must be adjusted according to the requirements of urban medical and health reform, taking into account communities' health needs. More research is required on the living standards and health needs of residents living within the CHC's range, taking into consideration the users' needs in expanding the newly implemented service, and at the same time revising the old service system so as to make the development of CHCs realistic and capable of providing a better service to patients. Several suggestions are put forward for an attainable scheme for developing a community health service.

  9. Post licensing case study of community effects at two operating nuclear power plants. Final report, March 1975--March 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy, B.J.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.; Mattingly, T.J. Jr.; Soderstrom, J.; DeVault, R.C.

    1976-06-01

    The social, economic, and political/institutional impacts of two operating nuclear power complexes on two New England communities are studied. The report includes discussions of the study design and objectives, profiles of the towns of Plymouth, Massachusetts, and Waterford, Connecticut, and analysis of the social, economic, and political impacts as observed by members of the ORNL staff. Results are presented from an attitude survey as well as a social impact classification schema devised as a methodological tool.

  10. Post licensing case study of community effects at two operating nuclear power plants. Final report, March 1975--March 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The social, economic, and political/institutional impacts of two operating nuclear power complexes on two New England communities are studied. The report includes discussions of the study design and objectives, profiles of the towns of Plymouth, Massachusetts, and Waterford, Connecticut, and analysis of the social, economic, and political impacts as observed by members of the ORNL staff. Results are presented from an attitude survey as well as a social impact classification schema devised as a methodological tool

  11. Analysis of microbial community structure and composition in leachates from a young landfill by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köchling, Thorsten; Sanz, José Luis; Gavazza, Sávia; Florencio, Lourdinha

    2015-07-01

    Microorganisms are responsible for degrading the raw leachate generated in sanitary landfills, extracting the soluble fraction of the landfill waste and biotransforming organic matter and toxic residues. To increase our understanding of these highly contaminated ecosystems, we analyzed the microbial communities in the leachate produced by three landfill cells of different ages. Using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we describe the structure of the leachate communities and present their compositional characteristics. All three communities exhibited a high level of abundance but were undersampled, as indicated by the results of the rarefaction analysis. The distribution of the taxonomic operational units (OTUs) was highly skewed, suggesting a community structure with a few dominant members that are key for the degradation process and numerous rare microorganisms, which could act as a resilient microorganism seeder pool. Members of the phylum Firmicutes were dominant in all of the samples, accounting for up to 62% of the bacterial sequences, and their proportion increased with increasing landfill age. Other abundant phyla included Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes, which together with Firmicutes comprised 90% of the sequences. The data illustrate a microbial community that degrades organic matter in raw leachate in the early stages, before the methanogenic phase takes place. The genera found fit well into the classical pathways of anaerobic digestion processes. PMID:25652654

  12. Attitudes of local communities towards conservation of mangrove forests: A case study from the east coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badola, Ruchi; Barthwal, Shivani; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2012-01-01

    The ecological and economic importance of mangrove ecosystems is well established and highlighted by studies establishing a correlation between the protective function of mangroves and the loss of lives and property caused by coastal hazards. Nevertheless, degradation of this ecosystem remains a matter of concern, emphasizing the fact that effective conservation of natural resources is possible only with an understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of local communities. In the present study, we examined the attitudes and perceptions of local communities towards mangrove forests through questionnaire surveys in 36 villages in the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area, India. The sample villages were selected from 336 villages using hierarchical cluster analysis. The study revealed that local communities in the area had positive attitudes towards conservation and that their demographic and socio-economic conditions influenced people's attitudes. Local communities valued those functions of mangrove forests that were directly linked to their wellbeing. Despite human-wildlife conflict, the attitudes of the local communities were not altogether negative, and they were willing to participate in mangrove restoration. People agreed to adopt alternative resources if access to forest resources were curtailed. Respondents living near the forests, who could not afford alternatives, admitted that they would resort to pilfering. Hence, increasing their livelihood options may reduce the pressure on mangrove forests. In contrast with other ecosystems, the linkages of mangrove ecosystem services with local livelihoods and security are direct and tangible. It is therefore possible to develop strong local support for sustainable management of mangrove forests in areas where a positive attitude towards mangrove conservation prevails. The current debates on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) and payment for ecosystem services provide ample scope for

  13. An Analysis of Research Topics within a Community : the Example of Knowledge Science

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Kun; Ji, Zhe; Nakamori, Yoshiteru

    2007-01-01

    This Paper presents a new approach how to analyze research topics within a given research community. Under the guidance of the I-system methodology, this paper conducts both top-down and bottom-up analysis. For the bottom-up analysis, similarity measurement and hierarchical clustering are applied to obtain a tree-like dendrogram structure of research topics; for the top-down analysis, the experts' knowledge is included. Then resulting from the iterative dialogue between the above two stages o...

  14. Setting global research priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM): Results from a CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative) exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Kerri Wazny; Salim Sadruddin; Alvin Zipursky; Davidson H Hamer; Troy Jacobs; Karin Kallander; Franco Pagnoni; Stefan Peterson; Shamim Qazi; Serge Raharison; Kerry Ross; Mark Young; Marsh, David R

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To systematically identify global research gaps and resource priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM). METHODS: An iCCM Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) Advisory Group, in collaboration with the Community Case Management Operational Research Group (CCM ORG) identified experts to participate in a CHNRI research priority setting exercise. These experts generated and systematically ranked research questions for iCCM. Research questions were ranked us...

  15. Visualisation of the Dynamics for Longitudinal Analysis of Computer-mediated Social Networks-concept and Exemplary Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, Andreas; Zeini, Sam; Ziebarth, Sabrina

    In this paper we will demonstrate the potential of processing and visualising the dynamics of computer-mediated communities by means of Social Network Analysis. According to the fact that computer-mediated community systems are manifested also as structured data, we use data structures like e-mail, discussion boards, and bibliography sources for an automatic transformation into social network data formats. The paper will demonstrate a 3-dimensional visualisation of two cases: the first presents an author community based on bibliography data converted into GraphML. Based on this dataset we visualise publications networks with a tool called Weaver, which is developed in our research group. According to Lothar Krempel's algorithm, Weaver uses the first two dimensions to embed the network structure within a common solution space. The third dimension is used for representing the time axis and thus the dynamics of co-authorship relations. The second case describes recent research in open source communities and highlights how our visualization approach can be used as a complement to more traditional approaches, such as content analysis and statistics based on specific SNA indices.

  16. Language and Literacy Planning and Local Contexts: The Case of a Raramuri Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciotto, Carla

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of a ten-month ethnography of a Raramuri school and community, this article contributes to the understanding of the role of sociolinguistic and socioeconomic contexts in creating Indigenous-language maintenance programs. Employing concepts of micro- and macrolevel variables in language endangerment and language vitality scales, it…

  17. Analysing a Web-Based E-Commerce Learning Community: A Case Study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joia, Luiz Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates the use of a Web-based participative virtual learning environment for graduate students in Brazil enrolled in an electronic commerce course in a Masters in Business Administration program. Discusses learning communities; computer-supported collaborative work and collaborative learning; influences on student participation; the role of…

  18. Attendance, Retention, and Funding: A Community College Case Study in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jay S., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between student traits represented by data currently stored in a Mississippi community college's administrative software system and a student's propensity to miss class excessively. A basic literature review showed that both students and their college benefit when students attend…

  19. Institutional Commitment to Community Engagement: A Case Study of Makerere University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugabi, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Although the earliest medieval universities began as teaching-only institutions, the university as an institution has since experienced revolutions in the way its functions are conceived. Currently, the university embraces three functions: teaching, research and community engagement. Although the teaching and research functions of the university…

  20. Two approaches using traits to assess ecological resilience: A case study on earthworm communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Kramer, K.; Faber, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    The relation between biological diversity and ecosystem functioning is a central theme in ecology. Ecological traits of species are often regarded as a link between structure and function, and trait distributions in a community may change in response to environmental stressors. Likewise, resilience