WorldWideScience

Sample records for cartels

  1. Carteles

    OpenAIRE

    Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín, Tercer Simposio Forestal

    2013-01-01

    Aquí se puede encontrar un resumen de las presentaciones orales y de los carteles del tercer simposio forestal. Entre los que se encuentran: •Riqueza y diversidad arbórea en bosques de tierra firme en el parque nacional natural amacayacu, Amazonía Colombiana. •Dinámica del manglar en el complejo lagunar de cispatá (Caribe Colombiano) en el último milenio. •Estimación de la oferta hídrica con información escasa en ecosistemas estratégicos. •Patrones de distribución de esp...

  2. Cartel prohibition may increase prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Marco A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we show that a policy that forbids cartels may benefit dominant firms, and hurt consumers. When cartels are prohibited, an incumbent monopolist can commit not to form a cartel should a new entrant enter the market. This reduces the entry threat, which implies that entry occurs less of

  3. Imperfect Cartelization in OPEC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, Samuel; Reynes, F.

    2016-01-01

    A model of global oil production is applied to study cartelization by OPEC countries. Writing out the shadow price on quota allocations so as to draw correspondence to coefficients of cooperation (Cyert et al. 1973), we examine the incentives that different OPEC members to collude. We find that hete

  4. What Can the Duration of Discovered Cartels Tell Us About the Duration of Cartels?

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph E. Harrington, Jr.; Yanhao Wei

    2014-01-01

    There are many data sets based on the population of discovered cartels and it is from this data that average cartel duration and the annual probability of cartel death are estimated. It is recognized, however, that these estimates could be biased because the population of discovered cartels may not be a representative sample of the population of cartels. This paper constructs a simple birth-death-discovery process to theoretically investigate what it is we can learn about cartels from data on...

  5. Cartel Pricing Dynamics, Price Wars and Cartel Breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Manganelli, Anton-Giulio

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives an unified explanation of some of the most widely known facts of the cartel literature: prices gradually rise, then remain constant, there can be price wars and some cartels break down. In this model consumers are loss averse and efficiency of a competitive fringe is not publicly observable. In the best collusive equilibrium, the price expectation can be so low that loss aversion makes consumers not buy at the maximal collusive price: firms then set a lower price ...

  6. Factors influencing the magnitude of cartel overcharges: An empirical analysis of food-industry cartels

    OpenAIRE

    Yuliya Bolotova; Connor, John M.; Douglas J. Miller

    2007-01-01

    Using overcharge estimates for 395 cartel episodes from the 18th to the 21st century, we evaluate the impact of cartel characteristics on the size of overcharges imposed by cartels across several geographic regions and antitrust law regimes. The results of our study have important policy implications. We find that the average overcharge imposed by cartels in our sample is 19 percent with the median of 16 percent of the selling price. Food industry cartels achieve lower overcharges than domest...

  7. OPEC and other commodity cartels: a comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic literature provides specific characteristics for cartels. Although the theory of international cartels in not well developed in the literature, and every cartel is unique, some of these characteristics exist in each cartel. This study investigates the existence of these characteristics in six known commodity cartels including OPEC. In addition, it compares the oil companies' cartel, 'the Seven Sisters', to OPEC, and summarizes the findings of OPEC econometric models developed in the literature in the last 25 years and concludes that the results do not support cartel or competitive models for OPEC. Although other cartels are more successful than OPEC, many books and articles in economics use OPEC as a cartel example. Neither statistical tests nor theory support the popular use of OPEC as a cartel example. Indeed, this article concludes that OPEC is composed of Saudi Arabia, the dominant world producer, plus several distinct sub-groups and that separate models are required to explain the behavior of each. Assigning the power of some OPEC members to OPEC has caused confusion about its behavior. Recent OPEC success is attributed to political, natural, and technical capacity limitations in the oil fields that prevented countries from cheating on their quota. In other words, OPEC adherence to the quota, except for Saudi Arabia, is anything but voluntary. (author)

  8. EXPORT CARTELS : A Developing Country Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Bhattacharjea

    2004-01-01

    Export cartels are exempted from the competition laws of most countries. While some scholars and several WTO members have recently condemned such cartels, others have argued that they allow efficiency gains that actually promote competition and trade. This paper examines the various issues involved, with special reference to developing countries and to recent discussions on trade and competition policy. After summarising the contending views on export cartels, and also the scanty theoretical ...

  9. Self-Disclosure at International Cartels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    We study revelation behavior at illegal international cartels. Our hypotheses suggest that a resource advantage induces executives of large multinational enterprises (MNEs) to be more likely to reveal the cartel and to cooperate with the antitrust agency during the prosecution stage. Moreover, we...

  10. Cartel Resilience in Australian Markets 1901–1967

    OpenAIRE

    Martin P. Shanahan; Round, David K.; Kerrie A. Round

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the persistence of cartel behaviour in Australia using evidence gathered from 1901 to 1939, when interest in cartels was intense, and academic studies from the 1950s and 1960s, when modern antitrust legislation was introduced. The aim is not to identify long-term cartels, but factors that might forecast the emergence of cartel behaviour. We identify cartel-like behaviour, by different players in different periods and circumstances but in the same or related industries and ...

  11. THE ECONOMICS OF GRAIN PRODUCER CARTELS

    OpenAIRE

    Gleckler, James; Tweeten, Luther G.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study is to measure economic payoffs from a grain cartel. Two basic approaches to extract economic rents are considered: (i) Mandatory supply controls to restrict production and raise grain price, and (2) export price discrimination using export taxes or subsidies. The economic impacts of different producer cartel scenarios were estimated using a long-term, nine-region world trade simulation model incorporating the assumptions of neoclassical trade theory. The SWOPSIM pr...

  12. CARTELIZATION AS EQUILIBRIUM? EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIU-DAN MATEESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of the Romanian party system in view of the cartel party thesis proposed by Richard Katz and Peter Mair. The paper is divided into three sections. In the first section I offer a brief review of the cartel party thesis and present a few theoretical arguments regarding the study of cartelization. I argue that Katz and Mair may have overemphasized the importance of cooperation between established parties as necessary for the passing and enactment of cartel related legislation. I hold that the existence of cooperation between established political parties, with or without overt collusion, may be difficult to pinpoint due to the strategic voting that goes on in most legislative bodies. Thus I think it is appropriate to view the passing of the cartel associated legislation as a collective action problem: given high electoral volatility the rules and regulations needed for reducing political uncertainty will be adopted and enacted but not necessarily through cooperation. I suggest that such a perspective can explain every instance when the passing of cartel legislation is dependent on cooperation as well as those instances where no evidence of cooperation can be found. The second section presents some methodological aspects. In the third section I analyze the development of the Romanian party system with emphasis on those electoral rules and regulations that limit open political competition as well as on the system of party finance. I show that electoral rules have gotten progressively harsher and that the system of party finance clearly handicaps new competitors. Moreover the cartel has been extremely successful in keeping new competitors out of Parliament: since the transition from communism to democracy only one genuinely new party has won legislative representation.

  13. Towards the creation of a gas cartel?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting in July 2006 of Venezuela President H. Chavez with the Iran president M. Ahmadinejad has re-launched the speculations about the possible creation of a cartel of gas producing countries. Some time ago, President Chavez met also the presidents of Russia and Qatar, i.e. the countries with the hugest world gas reserves. Venezuela itself is assumed to be fitted with the most important gas reserves of South America. Finally, the signature in August 2006 of a gas cooperation agreement between Russia and Algeria has led to a reaction of the European authorities. Therefore, the question of a gas cartel appears as plausible. To try to give an answer to this question, this article analyzes first the power of a well-known existing cartel: the OPEC, in order to see if such a scheme is applicable to the gas market. To simplify the problem, the cartels are here considered as homogeneous entities, which is not necessary the case in the real world. (J.S.)

  14. Assessment of damages in the district heating pipe cartel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The pre-insulated pipe cartel was established 1990 in Denmark, was extended to Italy and Germany during 1991 and re-organised in 1994 to cover the entire common market. Cartel members engaged in market sharing, price setting, bid rigging, coordinated predation and delaying of innovation. The...... practice.Keywords: cartel damages, pre-insulated pipesJEL: L13, L41, L61/L95...

  15. Polish cement industry cartel - preliminary examination of collusion existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Bejger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to a case of a cartel in Polish cement industry. Short description of the industry and characteristics of the cartel with its fundamental illegal practices, market sharing and price fixing, have been done. We focused on examination of possibility of detection of a cartel-like behavior of players in an industry on a basis of cartel markers' evaluation, using statistical data we can actually obtain. On a basis of examination of market shares of players and price/supply processes we found distinctive, theoretically motivated patterns characteristic for collusive equilibrium in an industry.

  16. HOW TO RECOGNIZE AND PREVENT COLLUSION - CARTELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Rebić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intention of the paper is to helpwide audience and professional to bettercomprehend and understand the behavior of acartel. We discuss some steps that can be used inorder to save money of the investors, maximizecompetition and at the same time, hamper theoperation of cartels. We analyzed the specificmethods used to detect suspicious behavior in acompetitive market, as well as how to reportsuspicions of various anti-monopoly bodies. Thepaper provides practical advice and warning signsof collusion, as well as illustrative hypotheticalexamples of how and when you need to reportspecific cases to anti-monopoly bodies.

  17. SCREENING METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF CARTELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail BUŞU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During their everyday activities, the economic operators conclude a multitude of agreements in tacit or written form, such as: contracts or conventions. Some of these arrangements are absolutely necessary for the development of their current activities. These are agreements which, by respecting the rules of competition, are able to bring benefits to consumers and to the entire economy, as a whole. On the other hand, the economic operators often conclude agreements which are harmful to the economy as well as to the consumers, violating the competition rules. Some examples in this respect are: operators’ agreements on price fixing, on market or customers sharing. Before investigating the violation of competition rules, the relevant authorities should identify the possibility of the existence of such illegalities. The theoretical models for detecting the cartels do represent a proactive tool concerning the antitrust activity of competition authorities. The present paper furnishes a review of the methods for detecting cartels as well as a part of their practical application.

  18. Legal problems of doing business with foreign energy cartels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the uranium cartel - or marketing arrangement as its admitted participants styled it. The clash between US antitrust laws and cartels that fix prices is examined with particular emphasis on the uranium antitrust litigation and on a US antitrust lawsuit in which the courts rejected an attack on OPEC's price-fixing and output-limitation activities. Basic legal principles pertaining to this type of litigation are explained. Even more specialized defenses are available to complicate the litigation when foreign governments are involved with the cartel: sovereign immunity, act of state, and foreign governmental compulsion. It is concluded that antitrust litigation against a foreign cartel is not impossible, but it may be unwise in the long run if it precipitates an international reversion to protectionism. 35 references

  19. The economics of college sports: cartel behavior vs. amateurism

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence M. Kahn

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies intercollegiate athletics in the context of the theory of cartels. Some point to explicit attempts by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) to restrict output and payments for factors of production as evidence of cartel behavior. Others argue that such limits enhance product quality by preserving amateurism. I find that the NCAA's compensation limits on athletes lead to high levels of rents from the entertainment revenues produced by the athletes. The athletes...

  20. Assessing the Effectiveness of Competition Law Enforcement Policy in Relation to Cartels

    OpenAIRE

    Priit Mändmaa

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high fines for cartel infringements it is claimed that the current competition law enforcement lacks deterrent effect for the avoidance of cartel infringements and is procedurally fragile. This article analyses the current competition law enforcement policy in relation to cartels. More specifically, the article assesses the effectiveness of the policy in deterring the formation of cartels and pursuing the goals of competition law by analysing the theory of deterrence, case law, pr...

  1. Optimal Cartel Prices in Two-Sided Markets Access

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Boffa; Lapo Filistrucchi

    2014-01-01

    We study optimal cartel prices in a two-sided market. We present a simple model showing that prices above the two-sided monopoly price may prevail on one side of a two-sided market as a means to enhance the sustainability of the cartel. We prove that in such a case a higher benefit from the network effect may compensate customers on that side of the market for the higher prices they are charged. We then provide both sufficient and necessary conditions for these results to hold in more complex...

  2. THE CARTEL IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND ROMANIA - RETROSPECTIVE OF THE YEARS 2009-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berinde Mihai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The cartel is considered the most harmful anti-competitive practice; therefore the competition authorities were concerned about the continuous improvement of the legislation governing this practice. In order to stimulate companies to withdraw from participating to a cartel in the European Union, the leniency policy has implemented. The present paper aims at achieving the hindsight of the years 2009-2013 regarding the evolution of cartel cases detected both at EU level and in Romania. The research methodology used is the study of literature, followed by the analysis of the legislation governing the European cartel and the analysis of all decisions issued between 2009-2013, both by the European Commission and by the Competition Council of Romania. The paper is structured in four parts. The first part presents the cartel from the theoretical and legislative point of view. The second and third parts of the paper include the analysis of cartel cases detected both at European and national level. The following aspects were taken into account when analysing the cartel cases: the date when the decision was issued by the competition authorities, the number of companies involved in the cartel, the opening date of the investigation, the method of opening the investigation, the field in which the cartel operated, the duration of the cartel as well as the amount of the fine. The final part of the paper highlights a number of conclusions. In the reviewed period 22 cartel cases were detected in the European Union and 23 cartel cases in Romania. The amount of the fines imposed at a European level is 251 times higher than the fines imposed by the Competition Council of Romania. In the European Union there were 11 long-term cartel cases, 10 medium-term cases and only one case lasted less than a year. In Romania there have been detected 4 long term cartel cases, 7 medium-term cases and 12 cases of short-term cases.

  3. Cartell/Banderola indicant zona Wi-fi. (2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. CRAI

    2006-01-01

    Objectiu: Senyalitzar la zona Wi-fi als espais del CRAI Biblioteca. Producte: Realització i col·locació de banderoles de sostre i paret, i cartells de paret per indicar la localització de la zona Wi-fi.

  4. El Cartel Cultural en Bogotá 1986 - 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Castell, Edmon; Cortez Guzmán, Diego

    2009-01-01

    Hoja de Mano (plegable) de la muestra museográfica que expone la historia del cartel como patrimonio visual en las categorias de Bogotá, Arquitectura, Editorial y letras, Cine, Teatro y danza, Infantil, Música, Diseño Gráfico, Academia Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Arte, Fotografía y Cultura y patrimonio.

  5. Indonesia and OPEC: the economic costs of cartel membership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linquiti, P.D.

    1982-09-01

    The primary focus of this study is on why the Indonesians have cut production in the second quarter of 1982. There appears to be only one answer. The spector of triggering a price war seems powerful enough to deter Indonesia from acting against the dictates of the cartel. Additionally, the introduction of more competition into the oil market - the result of increased Indonesian production - can only cut the long-run price of oil and reduce the present discounted value of Indonesia's oil. Futhermore, it is critical to note that the other three scenarios hinge on Indonesia having excess capacity to boost production and capture added revenues. Excess capacity is the key to undercutting the cartel. By lowering prices, a producer is doomed to earn lower revenues unless it can up production. This has never been an option for Indonesia because the current level of excess capacity is a new phenomenon. Since the rise of President Suharto in 1967, Indonesia has consistently produced its oil at full capacity. Indonesia has thus spent the last fifteen years in a situation where there was little, if anything, to be gained from undercutting the cartel. Not surprisingly, Indonesia has not acted quickly to increase production in violation of OPEC ceilings. Only if the soft market continues for a long period of time does the cost of OPEC membership impose a serious burden on Indonesia. For a host of political and economic reasons, Indonesia seems willing to wait out the current cartel disarray. If the market continues its present weakness and OPEC membership becomes truly costly, the Indonesians will find it quite difficult to adhere to coordinated pricing and production policies. If however, the world market tightens again, Indonesia may soon find itself back at full production, with no incentive to undercut the cartel.

  6. Westinghouse says cartel rigged U.S. uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Oct. 15, 1976, Westinghouse filed a complaint in Federal court in Chicago charging that 29 U.S. and foreign uranium producers damaged Westinghouse by illegally rigging the uranium market; they also link the Atomic Industrial Forum to the U.S. activities of this cartel. Background information is presented for the charge, which has become the focal point of Westinghouse's defense against the uranium supply breach of contract suits filed against the firm by 27 electric utilities (3 filed in county court in Pittsburgh, 24 jointly in Federal court in Virginia). Westinghouse attorneys say that most of the evidence they have shows the existence of a cartel in the past, but they hope to show it is still operating in the U.S

  7. Does OPEC still exist as a cartel? An empirical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to determine if OPEC acts as a cartel by testing whether the production decisions of the different countries are coordinated and if they have an influence on oil prices. Relying on co-integration and causality tests in both time series and panel settings, our findings show that the OPEC influence has evolved through time, following the changes in the oil pricing system. While the influence of OPEC is found to be important just after the counter-oil shock, our results show that OPEC is price taker on the majority of the considered sub-periods. Finally, by dividing OPEC between savers and spenders, we show that it acts as a cartel mainly with a subgroup of its members. (authors)

  8. Research Joint Ventures and R&D Cartels.

    OpenAIRE

    Morton I. Kamien; Muller, Eitan; Zang, ISRAEL

    1992-01-01

    The authors analyze the effects of R&D cartelization and research joint ventures on firms that engage in either Cournot or Bertrand competition in their product market. Research efforts, which precede production, are directed to reducing unit cost and are subject to various degrees of spillovers. It is shown that creating a competitive research joint venture reduces the equilibrium level of technological improvement and increases equilibrium prices compared to when firms conduct R&D independe...

  9. OPEC and Venezuelan oil production: Evidence against a cartel hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study revisits the OPEC cartel hypothesis using a case study. A test is conducted to see if Venezuela has its production Granger cause its OPEC quota or whether the OPEC quota for Venezuela Granger causes Venezuelan production. The results show both occur at different times. In the short run, OPEC's oil production quota for Venezuela Granger causes Venezuelan production. However, shortly after cuts, Venezuela cheats on agreements, suggesting a tit-for-tat oligopoly game, which is not anti-competitive. In the long run, we show that Venezuelan oil production Granger causes OPEC's quota for Venezuela, but not vice versa. Having Venezuelan oil production Granger cause OPEC quotas for Venezuela in the long run suggests OPEC does not coordinate outputs as much as it reacts to them. The evidence suggests Venezuela is not a part of an OPEC anti-competitive syndicate even though we show that Venezuelan oil production is low. An alternative explanation for why Venezuela and possibly other OPEC members have low oil production outputs is that institutions and risk aversion, not cartel participation, is the cause. A vector error correction model shows that there is no tendency for Venezuelan oil production to converge to OPEC's quota for Venezuela.

  10. OPEC and Venezuelan oil production: Evidence against a cartel hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Douglas B., E-mail: DBReynolds@Alaska.ed [Department of Economics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Pippenger, Michael K. [Department of Economics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2010-10-15

    This study revisits the OPEC cartel hypothesis using a case study. A test is conducted to see if Venezuela has its production Granger cause its OPEC quota or whether the OPEC quota for Venezuela Granger causes Venezuelan production. The results show both occur at different times. In the short run, OPEC's oil production quota for Venezuela Granger causes Venezuelan production. However, shortly after cuts, Venezuela cheats on agreements, suggesting a tit-for-tat oligopoly game, which is not anti-competitive. In the long run, we show that Venezuelan oil production Granger causes OPEC's quota for Venezuela, but not vice versa. Having Venezuelan oil production Granger cause OPEC quotas for Venezuela in the long run suggests OPEC does not coordinate outputs as much as it reacts to them. The evidence suggests Venezuela is not a part of an OPEC anti-competitive syndicate even though we show that Venezuelan oil production is low. An alternative explanation for why Venezuela and possibly other OPEC members have low oil production outputs is that institutions and risk aversion, not cartel participation, is the cause. A vector error correction model shows that there is no tendency for Venezuelan oil production to converge to OPEC's quota for Venezuela.

  11. OPEC and Venezuelan oil production. Evidence against a cartel hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Douglas B.; Pippenger, Michael K. [Department of Economics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2010-10-15

    This study revisits the OPEC cartel hypothesis using a case study. A test is conducted to see if Venezuela has its production Granger cause its OPEC quota or whether the OPEC quota for Venezuela Granger causes Venezuelan production. The results show both occur at different times. In the short run, OPEC's oil production quota for Venezuela Granger causes Venezuelan production. However, shortly after cuts, Venezuela cheats on agreements, suggesting a tit-for-tat oligopoly game, which is not anti-competitive. In the long run, we show that Venezuelan oil production Granger causes OPEC's quota for Venezuela, but not vice versa. Having Venezuelan oil production Granger cause OPEC quotas for Venezuela in the long run suggests OPEC does not coordinate outputs as much as it reacts to them. The evidence suggests Venezuela is not a part of an OPEC anti-competitive syndicate even though we show that Venezuelan oil production is low. An alternative explanation for why Venezuela and possibly other OPEC members have low oil production outputs is that institutions and risk aversion, not cartel participation, is the cause. A vector error correction model shows that there is no tendency for Venezuelan oil production to converge to OPEC's quota for Venezuela. (author)

  12. Assessing the Effectiveness of Competition Law Enforcement Policy in Relation to Cartels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Mändmaa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high fines for cartel infringements it is claimed that the current competition law enforcement lacks deterrent effect for the avoidance of cartel infringements and is procedurally fragile. This article analyses the current competition law enforcement policy in relation to cartels. More specifically, the article assesses the effectiveness of the policy in deterring the formation of cartels and pursuing the goals of competition law by analysing the theory of deterrence, case law, procedural norms, imposed fines and academic literature. The main conclusions are that wrong targets are aimed at under the deterrence principle, the proceedings are of a criminal law nature and require a separation of powers, and that the current level of fines does not pose a threat on the economy and continually fail to deter price-fixing.

  13. The good, the bad and the ugly : the socio-economic impact of drug cartels and their violence in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Romero, Roxana; Oviedo, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact that drug cartels and their associated violence have had on development in Mexico. For this purpose, we monitor official and media reports to identify where cartels have operated with and without drug related homicides. Using the difference-in-difference kernel matching method, we find that on the one hand, inequality declined to a large extent in areas where cartels were active without incidents of drug related homicides. On the other, poverty increased in area...

  14. Methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel in the resale market of fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of anti competitive conduct such as cartels would lead to a situation of high prices and profits harming competition and society in general. The methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel by the ANP in the resale market of fuels involves analysis of the behavior of the average prices of resale and distribution, the nominal average gross margin on resale, the coefficient of variation of prices of resale and distribution of fuel for a given period by the municipality. Combining the analysis of these elements, the ANP has suggested the investigation into possible cartels. This text aims to bring contributions for a better definition of the relevant market in the analysis of economic evidence in cartel in the market for resale of fuel and add elements currently not considered in the analysis of ANP and regulation of the sector. To this end, this article is organized into three sections besides the introduction and final consideration. The first section takes place at the constitution some myths about cartels thread reseller retailer of automotive fuel by analyzing the main causes leading to complaints by consumers. Then presents a conceptual analysis of relevant market, since this definition is essential to characterize anti-competitive practices of operations performed by companies holding market power, notably the formation of cartels. Finally, it is a discussion on how the action of the main bodies involved in dismantling of anti competitive practices in the industry. Expected to find results that work with greater integration between agencies to safeguard competition and better defining the relevant market segment for the resale of fuel. (author)

  15. Methodology of analysis of economic evidence of cartel in the resale retail of the fuel sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of anti competitive conduct such as cartels would lead to a situation of high prices and profits harming competition and society in general. The methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel by the ANP in the resale market of fuels involves analysis of the behavior of the average prices of resale and distribution, the nominal average gross margin on resale, the coefficient of variation of prices of resale and distribution of fuel for a given period by the municipality. Combining the analysis of these elements, the ANP has suggested the investigation into possible cartels. This text aims to bring contributions for a better definition of the relevant market in the analysis of economic evidence in cartel in the market for resale of fuel and add elements currently not considered in the analysis of ANP and regulation of the sector. To this end, this article is organized into three sections besides the introduction and final consideration. The first section takes place at deconstitution some myths about cartels thread reseller retailer of automotive fuel by analyzing the main causes leading to complaints by consumers. Then presents a conceptual analysis of relevant market, since this definition is essential to characterize anti-competitive practices of operations performed by companies holding market power, notably the formation of cartels. Finally, it is a discussion on how the action of the main bodies involved in dismantling of anti competitive practices in the industry. Expected to find results that work with greater integration between agencies to safeguard competition and better defining the relevant market segment for the resale of fuel. (author)

  16. Bargaining in the shadow of the European settlement procedure for cartels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Schinkel

    2010-01-01

    In its recently implemented settlement procedure for cartels, the European Commission pledges not to negotiate the appropriate sanction. The Commission offers a take-it-or-leave-it 10% reduction of the ultimate fine only in exchange for acknowledgment of the facts. Yet there are at least three dimen

  17. Let's not stick together: anticipation of cartel and merger control in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Baarsma; R. Kemp; R. van der Noll; J. Seldeslachts

    2012-01-01

    Does enforcement action by the Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa) in the case of cartels and mergers produce an anticipatory effect? We use surveys among firms and their advisers to test whether merger plans that may fail to gain clearance from the NMa are not notified and whether the possibili

  18. Crackdown on Cartels Highlights the Need for Competition Law Compliance in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Irvine

    2008-01-01

    The South African Competition Commission intensified its efforts to combat cartel activity in 2007, and a number of cases involving price-fixing and market division in key sectors of the South African economy were referred to the Competition Tribunal for adjudication.

  19. THE IMPACT THE COMPETITION POLICY HAS ON THE LIBERALISATION OF INTERANTIONAL TRADE. CASE STUDY: THE CARTEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berinde Mihai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization of international trade is the key when we talk about globalization from an economic aspect, because only when there will be a single global market can we talk about abundance as to what economic globalization is concerned. It is a known fact that market economies can work in free competition conditions. Taking into account the present tendencies of international trade, a decisive role is played by competition authorities. The policy in this field and the commercial policies play complementary roles, because in the absence of one of the two policies, we cannot see economic development and growth. In order to benefit from the full advantages of a free trade, companies must respect the laws of competition. In this context, in this paper, we proposed to study the way in which the existence of a cartel on a certain market can cancel the positive effects of international trade. The working hypothesis from which we started in this study was the following: identifying a cartel that functioned on the European market before and after the Uruguay Round, in order to study the negative effects that this anti-competition practice had. The Uruguay negotiation Round has been chosen, because the best results concerning the liberalization of international trade have been achieved in it. The cartel case was not chosen at random; we have searched to find one that was active in a field which got significant customs tax reductions in the Uruguay Round. We have decided to analyze the impact which a cartel had in the field of industrial products. Following our study, we have managed to empirically demonstrate the way in which a cartel can cancel the benefits of international trade liberalization. The analysis of the way in which the Industrial Tubes cartel acted on the EU market, as well as the analysis of the indicators that led to the undisputable conclusion that this cartel case canceled the positive effects which should have been felt on the

  20. No need for conspiracy: Self-organized cartel formation in a modified trust game

    CERN Document Server

    Peixoto, Tiago P

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a trust game on a mixed population where individuals are forced to play against a predetermined number of partners, who they choose dynamically. Agents are also allowed to adapt their level of trustworthiness, based on payoff. The dynamics undergoes a transition at a specific value of the strategy update rate, above which an emergent cartel organization is observed, where individuals have similar values of below optimal trustworthiness. This cartel organization is not due to an explicit collusion among agents; instead it arises spontaneously from the maximization of the individual payoffs. This dynamics is marked by large fluctuations and a high degree of unpredictability for most of the parameter space, and serves as a plausible qualitative explanation for observed elevated levels and fluctuations of certain commodity prices.

  1. Welfare Improving Cartel Formation in a Union-Oligopoly Static Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Minas Vlassis; Maria Varvataki

    2014-01-01

    In a union-oligopoly static framework we study the role of unions regarding the possibility and the effects of endogenous cartel formation. Given that firms independently adjust their own quantities, we show that, if union members are not sufficiently risk-averse and firms� products are sufficiently close substitutes, then collusion among firms may emerge in equilibrium, and that � in contrast to conventional wisdom � cartel formation proves to be a welf...

  2. Control of district heating prices under cartel law; Die kartellrechtliche Kontrolle der Fernwaermepreise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buedenbender, Ulrich [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Buergerliches Recht, Energiewirtschaft und Arbeitsrecht

    2011-07-01

    While cartel law had much to say in the electricity and gas sector during the past few years, the issue was less relevant in the district eating sector, where the latest intensive debate dates back more than 20 years. This changed in autumn 2009, when the Federal Cartel Office decided to intensify control of district heating rates according to Sect. 32 e GWB. This publication presents an analysis of all relevant questions concerning the definition of the relevant market, the situation of district heating utilities in the market, and the standards applied for a more concrete definition of the concept of misuse. Apart from an extensive and critical analysis of the statements issued so far, some practically relevant points are discussed and solved that had not come into focus so far. (orig./AKB)

  3. Problems of cartel law in license contracts within the power economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First the licence contract is presented as a particularly important instrument of the power economy. In a second step a link is established with cartel law; that is, the special status of the power economy under cartel law and the significance of the licence contract within this context are illuminated. On this basis then, a very controversial complex of problems is entered into: the assessment of so-called expiration clauses in licence contracts, i.e. the legal situation upon expiration of a licence contract. It turns out that qualms about the time value being the takeover price have no legal basis. The fact that they were expressed at all is due to the lack of a synopsis of the relevant subareas of commercial law. Scientific purposes require a synopsis of the commercial law concerned rather than an argument in which each party splits off single aspects of the issue. (orig./HSCH)

  4. THE POSITION OF INDIRECT EVIDENCE AS VERIFICATION TOOLS IN THE CARTEL CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Veri Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Indirect (circumstantial) evidence, either economic evidence or communication evidence, has been used in cartel cases in many countries such as United States of America, Japan, Australia, Brazil, Malaysia, and others. According to Indonesia criminal procedure law, the position of indirect (circumstantial) evidence is categorized as an indication (clue evidence) whereas according to Indonesia civil procedure law, indirect (circumstantial) evidence is categorized as presumption. Considering the...

  5. Stories of Drug Trafficking in Rural Mexico: Territories, Drugs and Cartels in Michoacán

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Maldonado Aranda

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:In the international media, drug-related violence, corruption and militarization have received much attention. While this is understandable in view of the prominence of border area operations of drug cartels, drug trafficking is a pervasive phenomenon in other parts of Mexico as well, not in the least in significant parts of Western Mexico (especially in Guerrero, Colima and Michoacán). The latter state has a long history of drug production and trafficking (poppies and marihuana), an...

  6. Cabinets and Legislative Cartels in Uruguay: examining the Legislative Consequences of Government Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Chasquetti, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Since the return to democracy, Uruguayan presidents have built cabinets of varying natures (majority and minority coalitions, majority and minority parties). Most studies on presidential government assume that the partisan composition of a cabinet is a good predictor of the performance of a government’s legislative program. In this paper I test this hypothesis using Cox and McCubbins’ (1993, 2005) party cartel theory. The results confirm that six o...

  7. The impact of leniency and whistle-blowing programs on cartels

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, Cécile; Rey, Patrick; William E. Kovacic

    2006-01-01

    Antitrust authorities have set up leniency programs for cartel members that denounce their collusive agreements. These programs help prosecute participants and can thereby deter collusion. We compare the impact of reduced fines and positive rewards and argue that rewarding individuals, including firm employees, can deter collusion in a more effective way. We discuss possible adverse effects of whistle-blowing programs on firms' behavior, and particularly on turnover, incentives to innovate an...

  8. Field investigation on district heat supply to private end users. Decision of the Federal Cartel Office concerning obligatory information; Sektoruntersuchung zur Fernwaermeversorgung privater Endkunden. Auskunftsbeschluss des Bundeskartellamts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, Adolf; Fricke, Norman; Orita, Stephan [AGFW Der Energieeffizienzverband fuer Waerme, Kaelte und KWK e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    On 9 September 2009, the Federal Cartel Office initiated a field investigation on district heat supply to private end users in Germany. 30 utilities were asked to provided detailed business information on district heating in the business years 2007 and 2008. The authors discuss the background and the reasons of the Federal Cartel Office to initiate this investigation. (orig.)

  9. Methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel in the resale market of fuels; Metodologia de analise de indicios economicos de cartel no segmento de revenda varejista de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Cleber Ribeiro da Silva [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e BiocombustIveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tiryaki, Gisele Ferreira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Ramos, Maria Olivia [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The existence of anti competitive conduct such as cartels would lead to a situation of high prices and profits harming competition and society in general. The methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel by the ANP in the resale market of fuels involves analysis of the behavior of the average prices of resale and distribution, the nominal average gross margin on resale, the coefficient of variation of prices of resale and distribution of fuel for a given period by the municipality. Combining the analysis of these elements, the ANP has suggested the investigation into possible cartels. This text aims to bring contributions for a better definition of the relevant market in the analysis of economic evidence in cartel in the market for resale of fuel and add elements currently not considered in the analysis of ANP and regulation of the sector. To this end, this article is organized into three sections besides the introduction and final consideration. The first section takes place at the constitution some myths about cartels thread reseller retailer of automotive fuel by analyzing the main causes leading to complaints by consumers. Then presents a conceptual analysis of relevant market, since this definition is essential to characterize anti-competitive practices of operations performed by companies holding market power, notably the formation of cartels. Finally, it is a discussion on how the action of the main bodies involved in dismantling of anti competitive practices in the industry. Expected to find results that work with greater integration between agencies to safeguard competition and better defining the relevant market segment for the resale of fuel. (author)

  10. Methodology of analysis of economic indicia of cartel in the resale retail of the fuel sector; Metodologia de analise de indicios economicos de cartel no segmento de revenda varejista de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Cleber Ribeiro da Silva [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tiryaki, Gisele Ferreira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Ramos, Maria Olivia [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The existence of anti competitive conduct such as cartels would lead to a situation of high prices and profits harming competition and society in general. The methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel by the ANP in the resale market of fuels involves analysis of the behavior of the average prices of resale and distribution, the nominal average gross margin on resale, the coefficient of variation of prices of resale and distribution of fuel for a given period by the municipality. Combining the analysis of these elements, the ANP has suggested the investigation into possible cartels. This text aims to bring contributions for a better definition of the relevant market in the analysis of economic evidence in cartel in the market for resale of fuel and add elements currently not considered in the analysis of ANP and regulation of the sector. To this end, this article is organized into three sections besides the introduction and final consideration. The first section takes place at deconstitution some myths about cartels thread reseller retailer of automotive fuel by analyzing the main causes leading to complaints by consumers. Then presents a conceptual analysis of relevant market, since this definition is essential to characterize anti-competitive practices of operations performed by companies holding market power, notably the formation of cartels. Finally, it is a discussion on how the action of the main bodies involved in dismantling of anti competitive practices in the industry. Expected to find results that work with greater integration between agencies to safeguard competition and better defining the relevant market segment for the resale of fuel. (author)

  11. O partido-cartel: Portugal e as leis dos partidos e financiamento de 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes, Nuno

    2006-01-01

    Provocador, o modelo do partido-cartel assume-se como um retrato da democracia contemporânea. Muitos autores vêem-no apenas como uma forma de funcionamento do sistema de partidos, enquanto que outros sustentam que lhe faltam dados empíricos que provem a cartelização da política. Em Portugal, a aplicação deste tipo de partido à realidade nacional tem sido difícil e complexa. Desenvolvimentos institucionais recentes, ao nível da legislação sobre os partidos e seu financiamento, parecem ter apro...

  12. Cartel Pricing with Entry: the Experience of the Far West Marketing Order for Spearmint

    OpenAIRE

    Balagtas, Joseph Valdes; Masters, William J.; Zimmer, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    This paper documents the remarkable experience of the Far West mint producers in the operation of their marketing order. From 1993 to 2002, the marketing order witnessed a dramatic reduction its share of the Scotch spearmint market, as well as a reduction in both its price. We apply a model of a cartel facing a competitive fringe to describe the fall in the marketing order price as a logical consequence of increased world production of spearmint oil. We estimate an econometric model of the ma...

  13. Saudi Arabia's oil policy after 1. oil crisis explained with the help of a cartel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudi Arabian oil policy is analyzed by using a cartel model where Saudi Arabia's oil production is a function of oil price and oil production in other OPEC countries. Elasticities for oil production and oil price are estimated covering oil crises and 3 intercrises periods. During all intercrises periods, production elasticity is not significantly different from 1 which, to a considerable extent, shows that the oil production in Saudi Arabia followed that of the other OPEC countries. During oil crisis periods, production elasticities were either significantly negative or not significantly different from zero. In most cases, the price elasticity was not significantly different from zero. (au)

  14. Market control in the electricity production and wholesale markets. A critical analysis of the more recent views of the Federal Cartel Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its sector-specific investigations in the electricity production and wholesale markets the German Federal Cartel Office continues to apply its concept of what it terms a primary sales market. The authors describe the discrepancy that exists between the beliefs about market action that underlie the Cartel Office's determination of market boundaries and market action as it actually occurs in reality. The legal concept of the exercise of unilateral market control by several companies as developed by the Cartel Office on the basis of an economic instrument appears unsustainable, both legally and economically. This is compounded by methodological shortcomings. It is therefore the authors' opinion that the approach taken by the Cartel Office in its sector-specific investigations does not afford a sustainable basis for its finding of electricity production companies exercising market control.

  15. Belgium's 'Comite de Controle de l'Electricite et du Gaz' and European cartel law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comite de Controle de l'Electricite et du Gaz, was formed in 1955 from the three employee's unions, the employers association, as well as government officials and the national executives, and is responsible for the technical, economical and pricing policy control of the electricity and gas sectors. Among others, it fixes gas and electricity rates, controls rationalization of the gas and electricity sectors by the electricity supply companies (EVU) and gas supply companies (GVU) and examines the project lying of the renewue and the investments of the parties. Initially, the author describes the coming into being as well as the functions and the development of the Comite and illustrates the structure of the gas and electricity supply in Belgium. The crucial point of the investigation is the question whether the work of the Comite de Controle is in harmony with the European cartel law. First of all, there is a subsumption under Article 85, section 1 of the EEC Treaty and then in regard to the exemption provision in Article 90, Section 2 of the EEC Treaty or the exemption possibility pursnant to Article 85, Section 3 of the EEC Treaty, the author concludes that the work of the Comite de Controle is incompatible with the European cartel law. Among others, the dissertation includes comments on the application of the EEC Treaty to the energy sector, on the peculiarities of energy supply as well as a comparison of electricity and gas prices for households and industry in Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the Federal Republic of Germany. Furthermore, the author apports liberalization of the energy market and points out the advantages of free competition. (orig./HP)

  16. Stories of Drug Trafficking in Rural Mexico: Territories, Drugs and Cartels in Michoacán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Maldonado Aranda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:In the international media, drug-related violence, corruption and militarization have received much attention. While this is understandable in view of the prominence of border area operations of drug cartels, drug trafficking is a pervasive phenomenon in other parts of Mexico as well, not in the least in significant parts of Western Mexico (especially in Guerrero, Colima and Michoacán. The latter state has a long history of drug production and trafficking (poppies and marihuana, and of military campaigns against it, especially in the area known as the 'Tierra Caliente', Michoacán. In recent decades, however, the situation has acquired a new dimension. This paper will examine the socio-economic and political characteristics of the area and analyse the emergence of drug trafficking as part of profound processes of agrarian transformation, especially since the 1980s. What are these transformations and how can the drug economy of the area be understood? In recent years the Tierra Caliente has become the scene of particularly atrocious confrontations between rivalling drug cartels; hence it was also the first target of military intervention after Felipe Calderón assumed power. How is this explained and what are the main consequences for violence, human rights and the drug and peasant economy?Resumen: Historias del narcotráfico en el México rural: Territorios, drogas y cárteles en MichoacánEn los medios masivos internacionales el tema de las drogas y la violencia relacionada con la corrupción y la militarización ha recibido mucha atención. Si bien esto es comprensible en vista de la importancia de las operaciones de los cárteles de la droga en la zona fronteriza, el tráfico de drogas es un fenómeno generalizado en otras partes de México y de manera importante en el occidente de México (especialmente en Guerrero, Colima y Michoacán. Este último estado tiene una larga historia de producción y tráfico de drogas (marihuana y

  17. Competition and cartel law as standards for gas price equity control by civil courts o; Das Wettbewerbs- und Kartellrecht als Massstab einer Gaspreis-Billigkeitskontrolle durch die Zivilgerichte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salje, P. [Univ. Hannover (Germany). Lehrgebiet Zivilrecht und Recht der Wirtschaft

    2005-04-15

    In the second half of 2004, many customers refused to pay their gas bills as they considered them too high. Utilities were demanded to lay open their calculations. So far, utilities have not cut off supply. But, as the author shows, there is no regulation that requires investigations of gas price equity. Instead, competition and cartel law apply. (orig.)

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF STABLE CARTEL IN PRICE LEADERSHIP MODEL%价格领先模型中Cartel的稳定值特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖垒; 张锦; 汪寿阳

    2011-01-01

    采用一个三阶段价格领先博弈模型研究Cartel的稳定值特征.发现当产业规模较小的时候,Cartel稳定值可以是全联盟或者包含大多数厂商.另外,稳定Cartel的规模受厂商的成本水平影响,产业中的厂商越是成本有效,结果越趋于全合作.然而,当产业规模足够大且厂商成本足够高时,均衡结果只包含3个厂商.%In this paper, the size of stable cartel in the symmetric price leadership model is characterized. It is found that the stable cartel could be a grand coalition or a large coalition with most of firms involved in the industry when the size of the industry is small. Moreover, the size of stable dominant cartel varies according to cost levels of firms, the more cost-efficient the firms are, the more likely full cooperation appears. However, full cooperation would not be supported as an equilibrium outcome when the industry size is large and the cost of production is high enough. In this case, a unique small cartel with only three firms prevails.

  19. Cartel internacional do estanho: a importância da indústria brasileira na quebra do conluio International tin cartel: the importance of Brazilian industry in the breach of collusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Cuter

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta a indústria estanífera internacional como um oligopólio concentrado que se organiza em torno do International Tin Council, constituindo-se em um cartel com importante participação na formação dos preços do estanho, principalmente entre os anos 1960 e início dos anos 1980. Em virtude dos choques do petróleo e da crise internacional no final dos anos 1970, a associação dos produtores passa a ter dificuldades para administrar os interesses dos membros e gerir o estoque regulador, possibilitando a expansão de novos produtores. A indústria brasileira emerge neste cenário, aproveitando-se dos preços artificialmente elevados no mercado internacional, dos incentivos concedidos pelo governo brasileiro e das suas jazidas de boa qualidade, ampliando sua participação no mercado internacional, influenciando a quebra do conluio em 1985.This article presents the international tin industry as an oligopoly organized around the International Tin Council, making it a cartel with important participation in determining tin prices, mainly between the years 1960 and beginning of 1980. As a consequence of the oil shocks and the international crisis in the end of years 1970, the association of manufacturers began to have difficulties in managing the interests of its members and in controlling the buffer stock, facilitating the appearance of new producers. The Brazilian industry emerges in this scenario, benefiting from the artificial prices in the international market, from incentives granted by the Brazilian government and from its good quality mines, thus increasing its participation in the international market and contributing to the end of the collusion in 1985.

  20. La mujer como imagen de marca en el cartel de cine español en el periodo 2010-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Perales Bazo, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Con este trabajo, pretendemos definir y resaltar los rasgos visuales de la mujer en cartel cinematográfico de los últimos años (2010-2013) y establecer si su presencia contribuye como imagen de marca para nuestro cine tanto en nuestro país como internacionalmente Con ello pretendemos establecer uno de los rasgos visuales sobre los que descansa la imagen transmitida a través de la publicidad cinematográfica In this work we are going to define and highlight the visual characteristics of wome...

  1. The ''Jahrhundertvertrag'' (contract guaranteeing enhanced use of inland coal for electricity generation up to the end of the century) examined in the light of German and EC cartel law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The horizontal agreements concluded between the various electric utilities within the framework of the ''Jahrhundertvertrag'', (JHV), are a violation both of section 1 GWB (act against restraints on competition) and Art. 85 of the EC Treaty, and thus are void. The same applies to the horizontal agreements concluded between the coal mining companies in Germany, representing a violation of Art. 65, section 1 of the ECSC Treaty. As a result, the various vertical contracts concluded by the electical utilities and the coal mining companies are likewise affected by the decisions declaring the above agreements to be void. None of the applicable cartel law regimes permits exemptions from prohibition of restrictive practices beyond those provided for by cartel law. The electric utilities might receive permission from the German Federal Minister of Economics under section 8, sub-sec. 2 GWB, legalizing their agreements, but this permission would give legal effect to the cartel agreements in terms of civil law only if the EC Commission would decide to exempt this cartel from prohibition of restrictive practices of the EC Treaty by a decision in compliance with Art. 85, section 3 of the EC Treaty. The horizontal agreements of the mining companies are subject to Art. 65, section 2 of the ECSC treaty, and these stringent provisions do not leave room for an exemption in this case

  2. Cabinets and Legislative Cartels in Uruguay: Examining the Legislative Consequences of Government Formation Gabinetes y Cárteles Legislativos en Uruguay: examen de las consecuencias legislativas de la formación del gobierno

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Chasquetti

    2013-01-01

    Since the return to democracy, Uruguayan presidents have built cabinets of varying natures (majority and minority coalitions, majority and minority parties). Most studies on presidential government assume that the partisan composition of a cabinet is a good predictor of the performance of a government’s legislative program. In this paper I test this hypothesis using Cox and McCubbins’ (1993, 2005) party cartel theory. The results confirm that six of the eight presidential cabinets’ legislativ...

  3. Motivations and Implications of Community Service Provision by La Familia Michoacána / Knights Templar and other Mexican Drug Cartels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn T. Flanigan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research demonstrates that service provision by violent organizations can be an effective strategy for coercing the local community to accept and conceal a group’s violent activities, and for creating loyalty to these groups. This has been most frequently explored among political organizations such as terrorist groups, with organizations like Hezbollah and Hamas very visibly engaged in providing social welfare in addition to their violent activities. Recent reports indicate that criminal organizations in Mexico also are involved in instances of public service provision in local communities. This article explores the extent to which drug cartels operating in Mexico are involved in public service provision to members of communities where they operate, and considers possible motivations and implications for public service provision by these criminal organizations, with specific attention to the organization La Familia Michoacána/ Knights Templar. The article also gives attention to the consequences to citizenship and government of service provision by violent nonstate actors, and the ways such service provision may disrupt the social contract between the citizen and the state.

  4. Legal supervision of network access charges in the energy sector. Determination of charges through ''simulated competition'' and abuse monitoring in accordance with regulatory law, cartel law and civil law; Die Rechtskontrolle von Netzentgelten im Energiesektor. Entgeltbestimmung durch ''simulierten Wettbewerb'' und Missbrauchskontrolle nach Regulierungsrecht, Kartellrecht und Zivilrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, Michael

    2013-08-01

    This publication shows how the level of network access charges plays a decisive role in the liberalisation of the grid-bound energy sector. Price abuse on the part of network operators that leads to monopoly profits must therefore be prevented through legal supervision in accordance with cartel law, regulatory law and civil law.

  5. Cartel surprised by quota reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of world prices of petroleum in April - September 2003 are analysed. OPEC accepted a decision to lower oil production in 900 thousands barrels per day to 24.5 millions barrels per day from 1 November 2003. Although Russian Federation reports higher oil production every month, it does not represent danger for OPEC for the present. Problem is to import the oil. Situation will change dramatically from 2008. Russian Federation plans anyway to build gigantic pipeline to Murmansk port in Barents Sea. Thanks to it Russian oil export to USA should sharply extend. It was reported by Russian Minister of economy German Gref with note that construction of pipeline is priority for Russian Federation, which wants to diversification its oil export from traditional Europe. Project of pipeline construction from Western Siberia to deep water of Murmansk terminal was published by five oil companies leaded by Lukoil and Yukos already at the end of last year. Pipeline should cost 4 billions USD and it should transport up to 2.4 millions barrels of oil per day. In the meantime Caspian oil should start to flow to Europe

  6. Cabinets and Legislative Cartels in Uruguay: Examining the Legislative Consequences of Government Formation Gabinetes y Cárteles Legislativos en Uruguay: examen de las consecuencias legislativas de la formación del gobierno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chasquetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the return to democracy, Uruguayan presidents have built cabinets of varying natures (majority and minority coalitions, majority and minority parties. Most studies on presidential government assume that the partisan composition of a cabinet is a good predictor of the performance of a government’s legislative program. In this paper I test this hypothesis using Cox and McCubbins’ (1993, 2005 party cartel theory. The results confirm that six of the eight presidential cabinets’ legislative performances were consistent with theoretical expectations, while two were deviant cases. This article also provides a theoretical explanation for these two outliers, highlighting the importance of legislative parties, the presidential style of government, and preferences as regards legislative initiative.Desde el retorno a la democracia, los presidentes uruguayos han formado gabinetes de diferente naturaleza (coalición mayoritaria, coalición minoritaria, partido mayoritario y partido minoritario. La mayoría de los estudios del gobierno presidencial asumen que la composición partidaria del gabinete es un buen indicador para predecir qué sucederá con el programa legislativo del gobierno. En este trabajo se controla esta hipótesis a partir de la teoría del party-cartel de Cox y McCubbins (1993, 2005. Los resultados del análisis empírico confirman que seis de los ocho gabinetes presentan un desempeño legislativo ajustado a las expectativas teóricas. El resto del artículo brinda una explicación teórica sobre lo ocurrido con los casos desviados, destacando la importancia de los partidos legislativos, del estilo presidencial de gobierno y de las preferencias de sus iniciativas legislativas.

  7. El 'leit motiv' de la estética de Pedro Almodóvar analizado a través de la cartelística de su obra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Tabuenca Bengoa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Almodóvar está considerado un representante de la estética y el savoir faire de una generación de artistas y creadores surgidos en España en la década de los ochenta, justo en plena ebullición de las libertades. Es el objetivo, por tanto, determinar concretamente cuál es la estética que marcó a Almodóvar durante los años de la Movida madrileña y las posibles repercusiones que ésta ha podido tener en su evolución creativa.Tratamos de ver cuál es pues el verdadero alcance de las influencias artísticas experimentadas y compartidas por el director y comprobar, por lo tanto, cómo estos influjos tienen un reflejo en la elección de los carteles designados para identificar sus películas y una progresión en el tiempo.El objetivo del presente estudio es el análisis tanto formal (gráfico, tipográfico y cromático, como de contenido de los carteles que han anunciado y promocionado las películas de cineasta manchego a lo largo de su carrera como director, la cual viene desarrollándose íntegramente en España durante las cuatro últimas décadas.

  8. Application of the German and European cartel law and civil law price control according to paragraph paragraph 307, 315 BGB in the electricity and gas sector; Die Anwendung des deutschen und europaeischen Kartellrechts und der zivilrechtlichen Preiskontrolle nach paragraph paragraph 307, 315 BGB im Strom- und Gassektor in zweiten Jahrzehnt der Marktliberalisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markert, Kurt [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Rechtswissenschaft

    2009-10-15

    50 years of competition law in Germany and Europe is applied limited to the German electricity and gas supply. Up to the liberalisation of the electricity and gas supply, the central regulation of the German competition law was not applicable to area protection agreements of electric and gas utilities according to paragraph 103 of the law against the restriction of competition (GWB). A comparable stocktaking was missing in the European competition law. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the highlights of the evaluation of the German and European cartel law on the German electricity and gas economy with a critical evaluation. The civil law price control in accordance with paragraph paragraph 307, 315 of the German Civil Code (BGB) was considered here. The authors also report on the actual cartel law price control for drinking water according to paragraph 103 sect. 5 GWB.

  9. Optimal Cartel Equilibria with Imperfect Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Dilip Abreu; David Pearce; Ennio Stacchetti

    1984-01-01

    There exist optimal symmetric equilibria in the Green-Porter model [5, 8] having an elementary intertemporal structure. Such an equilibrium is described entirely by two subsets of price space and two quantities, the only production levels used by firms in any contingency. The central technique employed in the analysis is the reduction of the repeated game to a family of static games.

  10. SCREENING METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF CARTELS

    OpenAIRE

    Mihail BUŞU; Bogdan CÎMPAN

    2014-01-01

    During their everyday activities, the economic operators conclude a multitude of agreements in tacit or written form, such as: contracts or conventions. Some of these arrangements are absolutely necessary for the development of their current activities. These are agreements which, by respecting the rules of competition, are able to bring benefits to consumers and to the entire economy, as a whole. On the other hand, the economic operators often conclude agreements which are harmful to the eco...

  11. RJVs in Product Innovation and Cartel Stability

    OpenAIRE

    L. Lambertini; Poddar, S.; D. Sasaki

    1998-01-01

    We characterise the interplay between firms' decision in product development undertaken through a research joing venture (RJV), and the nature of their ensuing market behaviour. Participant firms in an RJV face a trade-off between saving the costs of product inno-vation by developing similar products to one another, e.g. by sharing most of the basic components of their products, and investing higher initial efforts in product innovation in order to develop more distinct products. We prove tha...

  12. Yohann Aucante- Alexandre Dézé (dir.), Les systèmes de partis dans les démocraties occidentales. Le modèle du parti-cartel en question, Paris, Presses de Sciences Po, 2008, 454 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Cucchetti, Humberto

    2010-01-01

    La compilación dirigida por Yohann Aucante y Alexandre Dézé se propone poner en cuestión, como sostiene el subtítulo de la obra, una tesis, una categoría para el análisis de las organizaciones partidarias, una tipología en auge desde hace más de una década; más aún, una interpretación general del cambio en los sistemas políticos en una porción de las democracias occidentales: el modelo del partido- cartel, propuesto por Richard Katz y Peter Mair en 1995–modelo de tipo de organización partidar...

  13. Common guideline of the Federal Network Agency and the Federal Cartel Office for the award of electricity and gas concession contracts and for changing concession holders. A correct step towards competition for power and gas distribution grids; Gemeinsamer Leitfaden von Bundeskartellamt und Bundesnetzagentur zur Vergabe von Strom- und Gaskonzessionsvertraegen und zum Wechsel des Konzessionsnehmers. Ein richtiger Schritt in Richtung Wettbewerb um Strom- und Gasverteilnetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Svenja; Templin, Wolf [Kanzlei Becker Buettner Held, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    By means of the guidance of the Federal Network Agency (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Federal Cartel Office (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) the desired competition for energy supply systems is finally strengthening explicitly. It is a step in the right direction and provides clarification in many ways. The comments on the scope of the claim to relinquishment and also on the economically reasonable compensation can convince to a large extent. However, the authorities lack the courage and the empirical safety such as to clarify absolutely the claim to transfer property from paragraph 46 section 2 sentence 2 Energy Economy Law. With regard to the information demands in the selection process the guideline presents only a minimum number. For any further confusion, ultimately the legislature is called upon to address the contentious issues of the concession contract law.

  14. Rationality and contradictions in the competition for concessions. A (second) contribution to the Joint Practical Guide of the German Federal Cartel Office and Federal Network Agency for the allocation of electricity and gas concession tolerated and to change the concessionaire of 21 May 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article follows to an essay in the ZNER of 2011 (S. 121 et seq.) for the first Joint Practical Guide of the Federal Network Agency (BNetzA) and Federal Cartel Office (FCO) from the year 2010, in which the authors had attested authorities a good ''step towards to more competition ''. In the essay is examined and shown that the Joint practical guide from the year 2010 this target could meet and what effect the now in its second edition newly revised guidelines on competition to distribution networks may have. The revision of the guidelines will be given to municipalities further action assistance to the hand, but - with few exceptions - only reproduces the jurisprudence of the staked legal framework. One proposed solution for the more diverse existing problems remains undone, whereas new problem areas are put up in several places. Nevertheless, the will of the authorities is to recognize, to avoid legal problems in the concession process and net acquisitions from the outset.

  15. Introduction of Leniency Programs for Cartel Participants: The Russian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Andrey Shastitko; Svetlana Avdasheva

    2011-01-01

    Certain characteristics of competition policy in Russia still objectively hinder the effectiveness of the leniency program, even after recent changes. (Andrey Shastitko, Bureau of Economic Analysis, & Svetlana Avdasheva, National Research Univ., Higher School of Economics).

  16. Constant Vigilance: Maintaining Cartel Deterrence During the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Levenstein; Valerie Suslow

    2010-01-01

    We need to assure that any implementation of an “inability to pay†policy has specific, objective, and transparent criteria. Margaret Levenstein & Valerie Suslow (Univ. of Michigan)

  17. Is OPEC a cartel? Evidence from cointegration and causality tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelen, G. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    One would expect a carter to curb production in order to raise prices of its product as well as to share the market among its members. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is no exception, and blamed for the quadrupling of crude oil prices in 1974. However, OPEC could not prevent prices from falling in the 1980s, even after it adopted output rationing in 1982. The author addresses the question of whether OPEC was ever able to increase market price of oil by curbing production, or simply took advantage of high prices caused by political problems and conflicts between members. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Can a cartel fuel the engine of economic development?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Noguera, Jose; Pecchenino, R. A.

    -, č. 280 (2005), s. 1-30. ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : OPEC * macroeconomic stability * resource curse Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp280.pdf

  19. Cartel regulation in three emerging BRICS economies: cartel and competition policies in South Africa, Brazil and India - a comparative overview

    OpenAIRE

    Afrika, Sasha-Lee Stephanie; Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik

    2011-01-01

    “Antitrust laws in general, and the Sherman Act in particular, are the Magna Charta of free enterprise. They are as important to the preservation of economic freedom and our free enterprise system as the Bill of Rights is to the protection of our fundamental personal freedoms. And the freedom guaranteed each and every business, no matter how small, is the freedom to compete- to assert with vigour, imagination, devotion, and ingenuity whatever economic muscle it can muster.” A. INTRODUCTI...

  20. Insurance and cartels through wars and depressions : Swedish Marine insurance and reinsurance between the World Wars

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Gustav Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to enhance our understanding of Swedish marine insurers' choices of business strategies under the potentially difficult business circumstances of the interwar period 1918-1939. Little previous research exists on marine insurance during the interwar period. This is remarkable in the Swedish context since the Swedish economy has traditionally depended on its exports. The focus on Sweden is justified since the Swedish insurance market saw regulatory stability during the...

  1. Cartel-Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 37, January 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Forty-six documents are listed in this annotated bibliography, which includes audio-visual, classroom, curriculum, library, and professional bilingual bicultural resources. A reference on an annotated bibliography of doctoral dissertations on social and psychological studies of minority children and youth is also included. Entries are listed…

  2. OPEC and the international oil market: can a cartel fuel the engine of economic development?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Noguera, Jose; Pecchenino, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2007), s. 187-199. ISSN 0167-7187 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : OPEC * International oil market * oil export Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.464, year: 2007

  3. ¿Noticias o carteles electorales? - Imagen política en prensa e info-propaganda

    OpenAIRE

    Lic. M. Teresa Roncero Villa; Dr. Víctor F. Sampedro Blanco

    1998-01-01

    Este trabajo se ocupa de la difusión de la imagen periodística de los líderes políticos en épocas de campaña electoral. Partimos de la base de que existe una tensión entre la maquinaria propagandística de los partidos políticos, que pretende crear una imagen estilizada de los candidatos, y la difusión que los medios hacen de dicha imagen prefabricada. Hablamos de difusión mediática como "espejo de distinta curvatura" que "refleja [encuadra] selectivamente" (Tichenor, Donohue y Olien, 1980) la...

  4. Przymusowa kartelizacja przemysłu II Rzeczypospolitej w latach 1925-1933

    OpenAIRE

    Łapa, Małgorzata

    1997-01-01

    One of more important issues, concerning industry of the Polish Republic II, was state policy towards obligatory cartels. After J. Pilsudski's coup d’etat sanacja authorities, having an interest to win business spheres’ support, exposed its positive attitude towards cartels. Number of cartels grew rapidly since 1925. An economic importance of cartels increased and the main branches of economy were comprised by the cartelization. The Government had an influence on cartels agreem...

  5. Patents Wars (3ème partie) : Les pools, du cartel à l'abolition partielle du système des patents

    OpenAIRE

    Mangolte, Pierre-André

    2012-01-01

    Dans cette dernière partie sont analysés les différents pools de patents constitués dans les industries du cinéma, de l'automobile et de l'aviation, suite aux guerres des patents étudiées précédemment. L'analyse se concentre alors sur les Etats-Unis. Si les pools ou accords de licences croisées mis sur pied à l'époque relèvent bien d'une même nécessité, celle d'arrêter les litiges juridiques et d'assurer une certaine "paix des patents", leur nature et leurs buts sont bien différents. La Motio...

  6. Legal and economic implications of the competition policy of the Federal Cartel Office for the public sector of the power supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German gas industry defends itself against the planned amendments of the German Energy Act and the Antitrust Law, objections being based on energy, environmental and regulatory considerations. The amendments most under debate are intended to discontinue demarcation agreements among suppliers, and to establish mandatory Third Party Access. The author's concluding statement is that the gas industry cannot see the point in the Government's move to prescribe such a (probably lethal) medicine to a flourishing branch of industry. (orig./HSCH)

  7. Carteles en la comunicación visual para la educación sanitaria en el período de entreguerras

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz de las Heras Herrero; Alves, Jorge Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    El avance que se hizo en el campo de la investigación médica durante la IGM, sumado a la ola de humanismo propia del período post-bélico y la propagación en 1918 de algunas enfermedades venéreas y otras como la gripe, hizo que se desarrollaran políticas de educación pública con el fin deconcienciar a la población de la importancia del cuidado profiláctico. En este contexto nació la Liga Portuguesa de Profilaxia Social, que surgió en Oporto en el año 1924 por iniciativa de tres jóvenes médicos...

  8. Motivations and Implications of Community Service Provision by La Familia Michoacána / Knights Templar and other Mexican Drug Cartels

    OpenAIRE

    Shawn T. Flanigan

    2014-01-01

    Research demonstrates that service provision by violent organizations can be an effective strategy for coercing the local community to accept and conceal a group’s violent activities, and for creating loyalty to these groups. This has been most frequently explored among political organizations such as terrorist groups, with organizations like Hezbollah and Hamas very visibly engaged in providing social welfare in addition to their violent activities. Recent reports indicate that criminal orga...

  9. Countervailing Power? Collusion in Markets with Decentralized Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Burani, Nadia; Ponsatí, Clara

    2002-01-01

    We consider the collective incentives of buyers and sellers to form cartels in markets where trade is realized through decentralized pairwise bargaining. Cartels are coalitions of buyers or sellers that limit market participation and compensate inactive members for abstaining from trade. In a stable market outcome, cartels set Nash equilibrium quantities and cartel memberships are immune to defections. We prove that the set of stable market outcomes is non-empty and we provide its full charac...

  10. Vliv kartelů na výkonnost ekonomiky

    OpenAIRE

    Zeklová, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    The target of these thesis is evaluate overall impact of the cartels on the market efficiency and evaluate the the limitations it causes to consumers. Using the theoretical knowledge was explained the market principles, on the basis of which a case study of several revealed cartels. The results showed that the cartels have a negative impact on consumers and market.

  11. Regulatory fallacies in global telecommunications: The case of international mobile roaming

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Zenhäusern, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    International mobile roaming cartel agreements prompted the EU to intervene, firstly encompassing competition law measures by a cartel exemption, then ini-tiating several competition proceedings based on the accusation of abuse of a dominant market position, and finally applying price regulations of increasing scope. The paper exposes the temporary market power regulations, including the designated local break out measures, as insufficient and misleading. The solu-tion is to solve the cartel ...

  12. Cross-subsidization, Incentives, and Outcomes in Professional Team Sports Leagues

    OpenAIRE

    Rodney Fort; James Quirk

    1995-01-01

    Professional team sports leagues provide insight into the problems facing the management of functioning cartels. This paper provides an analysis of the incentives and outcomes inherent in the management of professional team sports cartels. Except for revenue sharing and salary caps, league cartel management outcomes are consistent with league-wide revenue maximization and have no impact on competitive balance. However, there are predictable impacts on the profitability of strong- and weak-dra...

  13. Competition Policy in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Estrada Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    The CFC faces significant challenges from cartel activity, prevailing regulatory restrictions on competition, and exclusionary practices undertaken by some of the most powerful corporations in Mexico.

  14. La imagen de Sevilla y sus fiestas: creadores contemporáneos

    OpenAIRE

    Barrera García, Agustín Israel

    2016-01-01

    La imagen de Sevilla a través del “Típico y el tópico”, la iconografía de sus fiestas a través del cartel es un estudio que ahonda en la base estilística y formal de la tipología del cartel de fiestas de una ciudad cargada de tópicos. El estudio recorre la historia del cartel en Sevilla desde sus inicios, prácticamente desde que se conocen los primeros carteles en España, llegando a la actualidad, analizando pormerizadamente cada una de las obras cartelísiticas creadas en todos estos años...

  15. Integración de las actuales definiciones sobre función ejecutiva

    OpenAIRE

    Cadavid Ruiz, Natalia; Río Pereda, Pablo del; Martínez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cartel expositivo del curso sobre Integración de las actuales definiciones sobre función ejecutiva realizado por la Universidad de Salamanca en colaboración con la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid.

  16. Redefining Terrorism: Why Mexican Drug Trafficking is More than Just Organized Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lt. John P. Longmire

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mexican drug traffickers are more than criminals. They are terrorists. And that's not hyperbole. The tactics, strategy, organization, and even (to a limited extent the goals of the Mexican drug cartels are all perfectly consistent with those of recognized terrorist organizations. Admittedly, the cartels lack the motivating political or religious ideology most terrorist groups display, and some argue this precludes the application of the "terrorist" label. However, we will show this objection is inclusive at best. Were the United States government to formally recognize the Mexican cartels as the terrorists they are—or at least hybrid organizations that employ terrorist tactics—a more effective range of options would become available for combating the cartels and curtailing the violence that todayengulfs the US/Mexico borderlands.

  17. Lack of defence of the undertakings involved in antitrust follow on action and compliance with the Italian constitutional principles

    OpenAIRE

    Vasques Luciano

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses an Italian Supreme Court decision, which stated that a cartel casedecision of the Italian antitrust authority («Iaa») could limit the evaluations of a Judgein charge in the follow on private enforcement case related to the cartel already ascertainedby the Iaa. This Supreme court decision is coherent with the needs of theEu Commission to increase the private enforcement cases within the Eu. The authorwhile considers positive any mechanism which facilitates the burden of pr...

  18. Redefining Terrorism: Why Mexican Drug Trafficking is More than Just Organized Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Lt. John P. Longmire; Sylvia M. Longmire

    2008-01-01

    Mexican drug traffickers are more than criminals. They are terrorists. And that's not hyperbole. The tactics, strategy, organization, and even (to a limited extent) the goals of the Mexican drug cartels are all perfectly consistent with those of recognized terrorist organizations. Admittedly, the cartels lack the motivating political or religious ideology most terrorist groups display, and some argue this precludes the application of the "terrorist" label. However, we will show this objection...

  19. Mexico; Detailed Assessment Report on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents Mexico’s detailed assessment report on antimoney laundering and combating the financing of terrorism. Powerful drug cartels, resorting to extreme violence, have extended their activities across various parts of the country, and these activities pose significant challenges to the government. This situation reflects the magnitude of financial and economic resources and power at the disposal of drug cartels and organized crime. The authorities have taken a number of measure...

  20. European Economic Law: A Seminar

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Alexandre Libório Dias

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the legal framework of the internal market of the European Community, in special economic freedoms (free movement of goods, persons, services and capital) and their exceptions, as well as competition law concerns such as antitrust and cartels (the elimination of agreements which restrict competition - e.g. pricefixing agreements, or cartels, between competitors -, and of abuses by firms who hold a dominant position on the market), merger control (the control of mergers...

  1. The Role of Proactive Adaptation in International Climate Change Mitigation Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, de, B.; Weikard, H.P.; Dellink, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of proactive adaptation in international mitigation coalition formation. Adaptation is introduced into a three stage cartel game of coalition formation. We analytically derive the optimal level of mitigation and proactive adaptation for the singletons and coalition members. We introduce the AD-STACO model which is constructed based on the STACO model, which is an applied three-stage cartel formation model with 12 heterogenous regions. Simulating all possible c...

  2. Au Mexique, la mort suinte dans l'art. Teresa Margolles : quand l'oeuvre saigne

    OpenAIRE

    Perrée, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    International audience At this beginning of XXIth century, Mexico is the theater of a fervent violence, boundless and barbarian violence. With war between drug cartels and government, reprisal between cartels, feminicide of Ciudad Juárez, the violence declines in all of its aspects and extends of the North to the whole country. The Mexican contemporary artistic scene is the reflection of this violence all out and the plastic arts wonder about the way it is necessary to represent it to deno...

  3. A theory of price-fixing/market-sharing rings as applied to OPEC behavior since march 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, OPEC has been analyzed as a cartel, but usually without a formal theoretical framework. Don Patinkin's cartel model was occasionally used, but was turned down for being 'too strict' to explain OPEC behavior. One of the most serious short-comings of Patinkin's model is its prediction that high-cost producers would first shut down for the survival of a cartel. In OPEC agreements, it has been seen many times that Saudi Arabia (a low-cost producer) reduced its production for the survival of the cartel. A new and promising cartel theory, A theory of price-fixing/market-sharing rings, has been introduced ('CMT model'). In this paper, it is going to use CMT model's structure and model OPEC's major price-fixing/market-sharing agreements and a period without such an agreement since March, 1982 when OPEC, for the first time in its history, reached a price-fixing/market-sharing agreement. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  4. An 'OPEP' to the natural gas?; Uma 'OPEP' (Organizacao dos Paises Exportadores de Petroleo) para o gas natural?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Tathiany R. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Szklo, Alexandre S.; Machado, Giovani V. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    The development of the worldwide natural gas industry and the importance that this energy source has acquired in the energy matrix of various countries has given rise to certain uneasiness amongst the importing countries regarding the increase in gas dependence. This preoccupation is due to the fact that natural gas occurs in concentrated areas and that its major producers have joined together in the Gas Exporter Countries Forum, giving rise to a debate of the possibility of this Forum developing into cartel configuration. This paper aims at an analysis of the viability of cartel formation in the natural gas industry, following the same model as that of the oil industry. Considering the basic conditions necessary for successful cartel activities in the natural gas industry, the text presents some factors that can indeed contribute towards collusion among the exporting countries. However, the positive effects that a gas cartel can generate for the exporting countries are not guaranteed. On the contrary, what is actually observed are conditions favorable to the rupture of collusive deals and to an increase in the penetration of substitute energy sources, given that monopoly prices are fixed to the natural gas by the cartel. (author)

  5. Admissibility of take-or-pay clauses in gas and electricity supply contracts; Zulaessigkeit von Take-or-Pay-Klauseln im Rahmen von Gas- und Stromliefervertraegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronemeyer, Achim [Clifford Chance, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Electricity and gas supply contracts often contain so-called take-or-pay (ToP) clauses. Such clauses compel the customer to assume an unconditional payment obligation for the contractually agreed minimum quantity, regardless of actual consumption. The quantity risk thus lies with the consumer. ToP clauses can in particular give rise to questions relating to the content review of electricity and gas supply contracts pursuant to the regulations governing general terms and conditions as laid down in paragraph paragraph 305 ff. of the German Civil Code. As regards cartel law the Federal Cartel Office has recently brought about an administrative ruling on the problems associated with ToP clauses in terms of cartel law.

  6. Vertcal integration: origins of oil industry integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines the structure of the US oil industry in relation to the history of the industry, capital market assumptions, and advice on the enhancement of 'shareholder value'. The driving forces behind the attempts to establish cartels and vertical integration are considered, and the emergence of US companies resulting from the break-up of the Standard Oil Trust cartel, the influence of costs and logistics on the structure of the industry outside the USA , and the structure of the natural gas industry are discussed along with the discovery of large Middle East oil reserves, the enormous growth in demand for oil products in Europe and Japan, and the formation of the OPEC cartel. Details are given of the breaking down of vertical integration in the big oil companies, the theory of conglomerates, the success of big companies, the importance of scale to balance exploration risks, and the need to adjust in time to shifts in the business environment

  7. The Scale and Geography of Collusion in the European Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert; Levallois, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Europe has a long history of cartels, but the changes in the scale and geography of collusion in the European market from the post-war decades until the present have not been systematically investigated. Using network analysis methods and an original dataset based on decisions in EU cartel cases......, this paper maps the developments in detected collusion in the European market from 1958 to 2008 and tentatively explains these developments. It appears that collusive activities increased during the 1960s and after the mid-1980s and that a long decline in the scale of collusion began in the mid-1990s...... business environment and the size of national economies....

  8. Mexico and the cocaine epidemic : the new Colombia or a new problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing amount of attention paid to Mexico and its struggle with drug cartels. The drug war in Mexico has cost the lives of 28,000 people since 2006, leading to a growing concern that Mexico may become a narco-state. Although the situation in Mexico seems uncontrollable, this is not the first time drug trafficking organizations (DTO) have threatened the livelihood of a state. Colombia from the 1980s through the mid- 1990s was dominated by cartels that ruled ...

  9. Deregulation and regulation by the national and European antitrust laws. The development and amendment of antitrust laws and their effects on the public utilities. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers presented at the meeting discuss the following subjects: The public utilities and their scope of exemptions from provisions of the antitrust laws as established by court rulings; reimbursement for electricity supplied to the grid and the phasing out of franchise agreements; the competition policy of the Federal Cartel Office towards the public utilities; legal and economic implications of the competition policy adopted by the Federal Cartel Office for the structures of the public sector of the power supply industry; ensuring safe and priceworthy power supply in Europe. The five papers can be separately retrieved from the database. (HSCH)

  10. Diseño e implementación de una aplicación NFC para la creación de "Smart-Info" en la UPCT

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Pividal, Javier

    2014-01-01

    En este proyecto se presenta “smartInfo UPCT”, una aplicación móvil que hace uso de la tecnología NFC para ofrecer a la comunidad universitaria la posibilidad de interactuar con carteles publicitarios de la universidad con el fin de obtener con un simple “click” información de interés. Se ha realizado un prototipo que consiste en un cartel publicitario del Grado de Ingeniería Telemática, donde se detallan las asignaturas que hay por curso. El objetivo es que los alumnos de la ETSIT puedan int...

  11. Impactul cartelizării sistemului de partide din România asupra consolidării sistemului democratic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu-Dan Mateescu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the cartelization of the Romanian party system and its impact on citizen representation and on the consolidation of democracy. Consequently, I analyze the development of the Romanian party systems with emphasis on those electoral rules and regulations that limit open political competition as well as on the system of party finance. I show that electoral rules have gotten progressively harsher and that the system of party finance clearly handicaps new competitors. This holds true in regard to the rules for the formal registering of new political parties. Moreover the cartel has been extremely successful in keeping new competitors out of Parliament.

  12. Actors of Columbian drug trade : development and transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Smolíková

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to portray the main shifts which have been taking place in Colombian drug scene since the 70’s up to the present especially in relation to actors of this business and form of their activity. At first the development of Colombian drug trade till the 80’s when two big cartels centered in Medellín and Cali arose will be briefly outlined. These cartels were able to control a great part of domestic drug trade and due to their enormous power represented serious threat to Colombian state. Thus the cartels declared open warfare with the state in the 80’s. After the cartels’ elimination in the middle of 90’s new actors represented by small drug organizations arose in Colombian drug scene. These small groups were dependent upon cooperation with foreign partners, especially with Mexican cartels. Ever more important role in drug business is played by Colombian left-wing guerilla groups which will be described in the next part of the article. The problem of right-wing paramilitary groups and their participation in Colombian drug trade will be mentioned as well.

  13. OPEC behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo

    This thesis aims to contribute to a further understanding of the real dynamics of OPEC production behavior and its impacts on the world oil market. A literature review in this area shows that the existing studies on OPEC still have some major deficiencies in theoretical interpretation and empirical estimation technique. After a brief background review in chapter 1, chapter 2 tests Griffin's market-sharing cartel model on the post-Griffin time horizon with a simultaneous system of equations, and an innovative hypothesis of OPEC's behavior (Saudi Arabia in particular) is then proposed based on the estimation results. Chapter 3 first provides a conceptual analysis of OPEC behavior under the framework of non-cooperative collusion with imperfect information. An empirical model is then constructed and estimated. The results of the empirical studies in this thesis strongly support the hypothesis that OPEC has operated as a market-sharing cartel since the early 1980s. In addition, the results also provide some support of the theory of non-cooperative collusion under imperfect information. OPEC members collude under normal circumstances and behave competitively at times in response to imperfect market signals of cartel compliance and some internal attributes. Periodic joint competition conduct plays an important role in sustaining the collusion in the long run. Saudi Arabia acts as the leader of the cartel, accommodating intermediate unfavorable market development and punishing others with a tit-for-tat strategy in extreme circumstances.

  14. A comparative value chain analysis of smallholder burley tobacco production in Malawi – 2003/4 and 2009/10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin Philip; Moyer-Lee, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Smallholders grow the majority of Malawi’s main export crop – burley tobacco. We analyse this value chain segment for the 2003/4 and 2009/10 seasons. The comparison shows smallholder profits in 2003/4 were limited by two main factors: a cartel of leaf merchants at auction and inefficient marketin...

  15. Geopolitics. OPEC weakened by international turmoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) has become unclear. The oil cartel is suffering from growing internal strains which may threaten its future. In particular the crash of the dollar is undermining the dominant position of moderate member Saudi Arabia and strengthening the lobby of Iran and Venezuela

  16. IS OPEC'S ALLOCATION OF CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION EFFICIENT? (Bachelor Thesis in Economics)

    OpenAIRE

    ud din, Fateh; hazar, Hazal; Salih, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The foundation of OPEC (Organization of Oil Exporting Countries) was laid in the early 1960‟s by the five major oil exporters, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela, in Baghdad, Iraq. OPEC is supposed to allocate its production level among its member countries based on cartel- dominant firm model, for profit maximization.

  17. Industry structure and collusion with uniform yardstick competition : theory and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Peter; Haan, Marco A.; Mulder, Machiel

    2014-01-01

    We study cartel stability in an industry that is subject to uniform yardstick regulation. In a theoretical model, we show that the number of symmetric firms does not affect collusion. In a laboratory experiment, however, we do find an effect. If anything, increasing the number of firms facilitates c

  18. Dynamic Transfer Schemes and Stability of International Climate Coalitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagashima, M.N.; Dellink, R.B.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the formation and stability of coalitions in international climate agreements with a combined game-theoretic and integrated assessment model. The empirical model comprises twelve regions and investigates partial coalition formation in a one-shot cartel game. We argue that a dynam

  19. Optimal enforcement of competition law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motchenkova, E.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the recent theoretical developments in the field of antitrust law enforcement, much still needs to be done in order to prevent collusion and price-fixing in the major indiustries. Although penalties were recently increased considerably and new instruments of cartel deterrence such as lenienc

  20. Geometry of Cournot-Nash Equilibrium with Application to Commons and Anticommons

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agata, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The author develops a simple geometric analysis of Cournot-Nash equilibrium in the price-quantity space by exploiting the economic content of the first-order condition. The approach makes it clear that strategic interdependency in oligopoly originates from externalities among producers. This explains why cartels are unstable and casts oligopoly…

  1. On the (non) existence of a price equilibrium in delegation games with relative performance compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Kopel, M.; Lambertini, L.

    2012-01-01

    We show that Miller and Pazgal.s (2001) model of strategic delegation, in which managerial incentives are based upon relative performance, is affected by a non-existence problem which has impact on the price equilibrium. The undercutting incentives generating this result are indeed similar to those affecting the stability of price cartels.

  2. Peddling Pablo: Escobar's Cultural Renaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobutsky, Aldona Bialowas

    2013-01-01

    Nearly two decades after his death, Pablo Escobar has reemerged in a number of autobiographical publications that revisit the era of the Medellín cartel and its most infamous capo. Rather than providing strictly historical information, these texts adopt an anecdotal and intimate angle from the positions of Escobar's hitman, his lover, his…

  3. VII Setmana Cultural de Tardor (novembre 2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Punt BIU; Biblioteca de Filosofía y Letras

    2008-01-01

    Cartel de muestra de la exposición bibliográfica que se realizó en torno a la figura de Mª Luisa Cabanes Catalá, catedrática de Ciencias y Técnicas Historiográficas de la Universidad de Alicante, que falleció el 19 de mayo de 2008.

  4. Trabajo de campo: seguridad en taludes y desniveles. II taller práctico

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Domínguez, Pedro; Lamana Ballarín, Adela

    2012-01-01

    Cartel y presentación de 11 páginas con texto, fotos y esquemas - Segundo taller dedicado a la seguridad en los trabajos que tienen lugar en el campo y en las actividades de senderismo, celebrado el día 30 de octubre de 2012 en el Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología en Zaragoza.

  5. Creacionismo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Munro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hacía unos años que al borde de la carretera había aparecido un nuevo tipo de carteles. Desde hacía mucho tiempo había carteles que exhortaban a convertirse, o esos otros con grandes corazones rosas y electrocardiogramas planos destinados a desalentar el aborto. Lo que se exhibía ahora eran textos del Génesis: En el principio creó Dios los cielos y la tierra. / Y dijo Dios: Sea la luz; y fue la luz. / Y creó Dios el hombre a su imagen. Varón y hembra los creó.

  6. The judicatory assessment of reasonableness pursuant to paragraph 315 of the German Civil Code in cases of unilateral price increases on the strength of price adjustment clauses in the energy economy; Die richterliche Billigkeitspruefung gemaess paragraph 315 BGB bei einseitigen Preiserhoehungen aufgrund von Preisanpassungsklauseln in der Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreher, M. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Europarecht, Buergerliches Recht, Handels- und Wirtschaftsrecht, Rechtsvergleichung

    2007-07-15

    Numerous contracts for the supply of energy or use of supply networks contain a unilateral right of the supplier or network operator to determine its own prices. This poses the question as to the applicability of paragraph 315 of the German Civil Code. The present article examines how judges apply this regulation in assessing the reasonableness of price increases. Amongst other findings it comes to the conclusion that, firstly, judicatory assessments of reasonableness under civil law must be independent of any surveillance against misuse under cartel or energy economy law and secondly, that they must relate to the total price after the unilateral right of price determination has been exercised. Other topics covered include the assignment of the burden of proof or presentation, the maintenance of business secrets and the impact of the planned reform of energy cartel law on the assessment of reasonableness in civil law cases.

  7. Claudette endangered Mexican refiners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of petroleum world prices in six months of 2003 (March - July) are analysed. Oil Company Shell Oil Co. closed some oil and gasworks workshop because of hurricane Claudette. Oil companies BP Plc, Marathon Oil Corp. and Exxon Mobil Corp. announced that they evacuated a part of staff from their workshops in Gulf of Mexico. International energy agency (IEA) forecasts that global average daily consumption should reach 79.1 million of barrels and it should be 1.1 millions of barrels higher compared to this year. As oil demand from non-member countries will be rising up in future, the interest in oil mined in OPEC countries should decrease in 700 thousand barrels per day. It threatens the attempt of cartel to hold high oil prices on market. IEA presents that it will the fifth year for the cartel losing a part of market, benefiting non-member countries

  8. Can OPEC hold it together?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation described the status of OPEC and whether it can continue to operate under the current economic situation. OPEC is the most successful commodity cartel in history, but the author cautions that it is only a matter of time before it self destructs. OPEC has not served the interest of Saudi Arabia in the past and it will not be able to serve its interest in the future without strong incremental demand for OPEC oil. The author stated that OPEC is threatened by Islamic fundamentalists and by financial difficulty due to a decline in export revenues. Other threats for OPEC are environmental, strategic and technological. The author concluded that Saudi Arabia is likely to choose to abandon OPEC, because the cartel will continue to be at the mercy of world oil demand and non-OPEC supply. 19 figs

  9. Au Mexique, la mort suinte dans l’art. Teresa Margolles : quand l’œuvre saigne

    OpenAIRE

    Perrée, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    En ce début de XXIe siècle, le Mexique est le théâtre d’une violence frénétique, sans borne et barbare. Guerre entre cartels de drogue et gouvernement, règlements de compte entre cartels, féminicide de Ciudad Juárez, la violence se décline sous toutes ses coutures et s’étend du Nord à l’ensemble du pays. La scène artistique contemporaine mexicaine se fait le reflet de cette violence tous azimuts et les arts plastiques s’interrogent sur la manière dont il faut la représenter pour la dénoncer. ...

  10. World oil prices flat to declining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A forecast is presented of the likely trends in world oil prices over the short to medium term. A historical background is presented of the OPEC cartel and its role in influencing oil prices. The incentives and disincentives for OPEC to raise prices, and the tensions within the cartel are explored. Slower demand growth and the expansion of natural gas are expected to put downward pressure on oil prices, which are currently artificially high. The impacts of high taxes on development and exploration are examined, and it is shown that state ownership poses an obstacle to improved performance. Threats of price decline are expected to continue to lead to threats of hasty, or even violent action on the part of OPEC members, as happened in 1990. Privatization and tax codes designed to skim rent are positive trends

  11. Rent Sharing and Gender Discrimination in Collegiate Athletics

    OpenAIRE

    Lackner, Mario; Zulehner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effect of market power on the share of females in top management positions using data from a market in which some firms have market power due to an institutionalized cartel. We investigate collegiate athletics and interpret coaches as top-level managers or chief executive officers (CEOs). The causal link between market power and female employment is established by exploiting the existence of the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) as an exogenous shock. Our results sh...

  12. Exploring the likelihood of the formation of Organization of Rice Exporting Countries in international rice market

    OpenAIRE

    Kulyadul, Supaluck

    2008-01-01

    The situation in international rice trade can be considered as in crisis because of two main factors; an increase in rice prices and shortage of rice supply. The rice crisis has impacts on rice producers, traders, consumers in terms of life quality, especially those in Asia where rice is considered a basic staple and necessary commodity. To alleviate negative consequences from the crisis, an idea to stabilize international rice market is to form a rice cartel called Organization of Rice Expor...

  13. Lack of agreement over the use and ownership of the internationally shared resources (such as air space, outer space and the oceans) leading to international conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The lack of adequate institutional mechanisms to regulate, monitor and govern the use of commonly owned world resources appears to be politically destabilizing and subject to socioeconomic pressures of overpopulation, food shortages, cartelism, terrorism, and wealth distribution to developing countries. The capacity and propensity to wage war and its potential consequences are elaborated. It is shown that technology is one of the dominant factors affecting the exploration and management of commonly shared resources.

  14. Information operations, an evolutionary step for the Mexican Armed Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, David Vargas

    2007-01-01

    This thesis will focus on the Mexican Armed Force's ability to deal with existing and future unconventional threats and insurgencies. The modern Mexican Armed Forces are the result of an enduring evolutionary process, which has made the necessary changes to deal with the emerging threats against the state. Mexico's criminal threat has evolved because of 9/11 and because of the U.S.-led crackdown on Colombian drug cartels. Mexico's modern adversary is well versed in waging mass media campa...

  15. Koncentrace a konsolidace v americkém filmovém průmyslu

    OpenAIRE

    Macko, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with issue of concentration and consolidation of the film industry. The thesis summaries knowledge from economy, media industry and history of film studios. In theoretical part, there are described the basic concepts of acquisition, merges, cartel agreements, vertical and horizontal integration. It explains historical context, compares the different approaches and differences in terminology and introduces the issue. The practical part discusses progress and results ...

  16. Industry structure and collusion with uniform yardstick competition: theory and experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Peter; Haan, Marco A.; Mulder, Machiel

    2014-01-01

    We study cartel stability in an industry that is subject to uniform yardstick regulation. In a theoretical model, we show that the number of symmetric firms does not affect collusion. In a laboratory experiment, however, we do find an effect. If anything, increasing the number of firms facilitates collusion. Our theory suggests that an increase in heterogeneity increases the regulated price if firms do not collude, but also makes collusion harder, rendering the net effect ambiguous. Our exper...

  17. Emerging threat to America: non-state entities fighting fourth generation warfare in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Treglia, Philip.

    2010-01-01

    CHDS State/Local Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The 2007 Merida Initiative provides the framework for the cooperation between America and Mexico, supporting the fight against the Pack Virus in Mexico. The new American-Mexican policy of combating the drug cartels, transnational gangs, and paramilitaries is a first step in creating a real U.S. Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) theater defense. The USNORTHCOM Mexico strategy is a supporting effort to the U.S. defens...

  18. Organized crime and national security: the Albanian case

    OpenAIRE

    Gjoni, Ilir

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This thesis argues that the building of the democratic institutions in new democracies was and still is a painstaking task. It shows that the new institutions are fragile and at times unable to cope with powerful organized criminal syndicates, rampant corruption, illegalism, elite bureaucratic cartels, and weak judicial systems still in the process of post communist reconstruction. This thesis proceeds from the premise that organized c...

  19. Die wettbewerbsrechtliche Zulässigkeit von Meistbegünstigungsklauseln auf Buchungsplattformen am Beispiel von HRS

    OpenAIRE

    Hamelmann, Lisa; Haucap, Justus; Wey, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Online platforms have increasingly implemented so-called 'Across-Platform Parity Agreements', restraining the seller to offer his goods to any other retailer / intermediary at more favorable terms and conditions. These clauses raise antitrust concerns; i. a., the German Federal Cartel Office (recently confirmed by the Düsseldorf Court of Appeal) declared the implementation by the online hotel-booking portal HRS as anticompetitive. The justification given was that it would constitute an effect...

  20. On the historical and geographic origins of the Sicilian mafia

    OpenAIRE

    Buonanno, Paolo; Durante, Ruben; Prarolo, Giovanni; Vanin, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    This research attempts to explain the large differences in the early diffusion of the mafia across different areas of Sicily. We advance the hypothesis that, after the demise of Sicilian feudalism, the lack of publicly provided property-right protection from widespread banditry favored the development of a florid market for private protection and the emergence of a cartel of protection providers: the mafia. This would especially be the case in those areas (prevalently concentrated in the West...

  1. An examination of criminalization of Russia’s anti-bid rigging policy

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya Mosunova

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates enforcement of criminal sanctions in anti-bid rigging policy in Russia. Although cartels were criminalized in 1997, parties of numerous anticompetitive agreements on tenders are punished by corporate or individual fines, or disqualified. Statistics on sentences for bid rigging are highly controversial although legislative conditions for efficient criminalization are presented not only by criminal norms but also by leniency programmes in administrative and criminal proce...

  2. Soutěžní právo v Ruské federaci

    OpenAIRE

    Levý, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The thesis deals with competition law (law on unlawful restriction of competition as well as unfair competition) in Russian Federation, it particularly compares Russian and Czech law. Its content is first a brief introduction to Russian competition law, sources of law etc. Next chapters are devoted to basic concepts of this branch of law. Law about abuse of dominant position, cartels, control of mergers, and unfair competition has been analysed. The last chapter deals with the supervision in ...

  3. ACCOMPLISHING HUMAN RIGHTS JUSTICE IN THE CONTEXT OF ASSETS CONFISCATION: AN EVALUATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM DRUG LAWS ENFORCEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Kingston, Kato Gogo

    2011-01-01

    It is estimated that crude oil, tourism and illicit drug trade are among the top five most financially inducing business in the world. Drug cartels conducts sophisticated and well organised activities including money laundering and monitoring of large networks of their couriers. In past the decade, the United Kingdom has incurred large expenditure on the treatment of drug related illnesses and, on the enforcement of drug control laws. Several drug laws are enacted to dealing with the waves of...

  4. Analyzing Organized Crime From A Business Perspective: The Case Of Mexican Meth Mafia

    OpenAIRE

    Laureen Albarrán Díaz de León; Jerjes Aguirre Ochoa

    2014-01-01

    The mission of the original Knights Templar was to protect pilgrims to the Holy Land during medieval times. In Mexico, three hundred years later, they had turned into a sort of protection racket, loaning money out of popes and kings alike. Following its homologues to the letter, the newest of Mexican drug cartels is not only known for its involvement on international crystal-meth production and trafficking, but also as an efficient governance structure that derives enormous sums of money thro...

  5. Does oil production promote economic growth in OPEC countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Quaresma, Tânia Noélia Raposo

    2013-01-01

    The oil-growth nexus is studied in a panel of OPEC countries, for a long time span (1960-2011), controlling for the specific context of oil production. Their membership to the cartel put them under a common guidance, which originates phenomena of cross section dependence/contemporaneous correlation in the panel. Recent panel data estimators and cointegration analyses are both pursued and discussed, namely confronting the heterogeneity of panels and the countries specific effects. The Driscoll...

  6. Why There Is No Milton Friedman Today

    OpenAIRE

    Richard A Epstein

    2013-01-01

    The extraordinary influence of Milton Friedman is largely attributable to the passion and clarity he brought to the defense of competitive markets during the New Deal period when the public entrenchment of monopolies and cartels were standard government policy. Friedman wrote at a time when the field was smaller, specialization was limited, and technical and empirical work relatively undeveloped. Against that background, his lucid prose and emphatic judgments gained him influence that is not ...

  7. Empiricism meets theory: Is the Boone-Indicator applicable?

    OpenAIRE

    Schiersch, Alexander; Schmidt-Ehmcke, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Boone (2008a) proposes a new competition measure based on Relative Profit Differences (RPD) with superior theoretical properties. However, the empirical applicability and robust-ness of the Boone-Indicator is still unknown. This paper aims to address that question. Using a rich, newly built, data set for German manufacturing enterprises, we test the empirical valid-ity of the Boone-Indicator using cartel cases. Our analysis reveals that the traditional regres-sion approach of the indicator fa...

  8. More Baskets? Renewable Energy and Energy Security

    OpenAIRE

    Lehr, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Energy security increasingly becomes an issue in the face of rising worldwide energy demand and dwindling resources. Threats to energy security are seen in political instabilities of resource exporting countries, decreasing reserves, geostrategic and geopolitical factors and the structure of the relevant energy markets in terms of market power, monopolies, cartels and trusts. The European Commission has issued two Green Papers on a strategy for the security of energy supply, supporting compet...

  9. Patent Pools: Intellectual Property Rights and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article...

  10. Essays in Applied Microeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhmer, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three self-contained papers, which contribute to different strands of the literature on industrial organization and microeconomic theory. The first paper analyzes price collusion between platforms in a two-sided market model. I show that higher indirect network externalities have two opposing effects on the sustainability of a cartel. First, collusive profits increase while stage game Nash profits fall - this makes collusion more desirable. Second,...

  11. Estimating the Price Overcharge from Cartelisation of the Irish Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mariuzzo, Franco; Walsh, Patrick Paul; van Parys, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Price coordination can be very harmful for consumers. Yet, even if a cartel is proved to exist, and successful in enforcement, how do we estimate damages or price overcharges to consumers? We build a structural model of the Irish automobile market that avails of a crosssection of new cars and jointly estimate demand and cost primitives. We use these estimates to quantify the role that price coordination could play in terms of pricing, profits and burden of taxation in three alternative regime...

  12. Retrospectives: Schumpeter, David Wells, and Creative Destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Perelman

    1995-01-01

    Joseph A. Schumpeter's celebrated theory of creative destruction was anticipated by David Wells's Recent Economic Changes (1989). In some respects, Wells's treatment is superior to that of Schumpeter. Unlike Schumpeter, who believed that monopolistic competition could maximize economic growth, Wells held that cartels or trusts were necessary to prevent capital-intensive firms from competing themselves into bankruptcy and sending the economy into a depression.

  13. The gains from cooperative R&D with a concave technology and spillovers

    OpenAIRE

    Baldelli, S; L. Lambertini

    2004-01-01

    We reassess the respective gains from R&D cooperation and competition in a Cournot Duopoly with homogeneous goods, where firms adopt a concave cost-reducing R&D technology. Contrary to the previous literature on the same topic, our main results are that (i) no corner solutions emerge and (ii) cooperation, in the form of either a cartel or a joint venture, is always profitable for firms and (iii) socially superior to independent ventures, provided that spillovers are sufficie...

  14. Estudio multitemporal de imágenes usando la transformación de componentes principales

    OpenAIRE

    Siljeström, Patricia; Moreno López, Adela; García, Luis V.; Clemente Salas, Luis

    1993-01-01

    10 páginas, 3 figuras, 1 tabla, 9 referencias. V Reunión Científica de la Asociación Española de Teledetección, celebrada en Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 10, 11 y 12 de noviembre de 1993. El libro referenciado consta de 1098 páginas. Se presentó un cartel que aparece en Libro de Resúmenes, página 138.

  15. Towards a typology of collusive industrial networks:dark and shadow networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pressey, Andrew D.; Vanharanta, Markus; Gilchrist, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The prevailing understanding of collusive B2B networks is primarily based on the theories of industrial economists and organizational criminologists. ‘Successful’ collusive industrial networks (such as price-fixing cartels) have been seen to endure due to formal managerial structures of coordination and control. In this paper, we seek to transcend and challenge the understanding of these illegal forms of co-opetition by drawing on evidence from an in-depth examination of four price-fixing car...

  16. Dôsledky činnosti drogových kartelov na medzinárodné vzťahy (kokaínové kartely Latinskej Ameriky)

    OpenAIRE

    Mifková, Miroslava

    2008-01-01

    Organizations active in cocaine trafficking are not cartels in the proper sense of the word. They are rather complex differentiated networks with flexible relations, where both cooperation and competition is present. In general the impacts of cocaine trafficking are economic, political, diplomatic and impacts on public order. The key participants in cocaine trafficking are producer states Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, the main consumer markets are the United States and the European Union. Cocai...

  17. Türkiye'nin Petrol Politikaları Ve Enerji Özelleştirmelerine Bir Bakış

    OpenAIRE

    Akalın, Uğur Selçuk; Tüfekçi, Suat

    2014-01-01

    Turkish Petroleum Corporation (TPAO) is a big petroleum energy cartel company which operates Turkish petroleum policy and its very important for Turkish energy sector. Turkish petrol policy was a national trend at the 1930s and contiuned up to the 1950s. Turkish energy policy and petroleum research activities have changed and influenced by globalization and privatization trends since last three decades. Petroleum exploration, production, oil field research, trading and distribution services r...

  18. The analysis of market dominance and restrictive practices under German antitrust law in light of EC antitrust law.

    OpenAIRE

    Chirita, Anca D.

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses key features of the German Act Against Restraints of Competition (section 19), including the more severe provisions of section 20, and aims to discuss the economic freedom of competition approach to the abuse of a dominant market position. Furthermore, the article details with specific examples of abuse in cases heard by the Federal Cartel Office, with particular focus upon predatory pricing, cross-subsidisation, rebates, exclusive contracts, tying and bundling, refusal ...

  19. Praxeology and the firm: a contribution to the Austrian redefinition of the economic organization problem

    OpenAIRE

    Janković Ivan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to syntetize theory of entrepreneurship of the Austrian School of economics with the contractual theory of the firm. Transaction cost theory of Ronald Coase and his followers holds that the firm is the organization with dominant component of ordering, while market is defined by competition and rivalry. But, market also includes interdependency and cooperation, such as in the case of cartel. Therefore non-competitive forms of economic coordination are not specificity f...

  20. Brevet du vivant : progrès ou crime ?

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The genetic-industrial cartel, draped in a cloak of philanthropy and progress, has succeeded in slapping a patent on the living in 1980 in the United States and in 1998 in the European Union, with the 98/44 directive which France has just transposed. The World Trade Organisation demands it to be extended to the whole world. Its consequences for people, especially those of the Third World, will be tragic in the twin domains of applied biology : agriculture and health.

  1. Entry and competition in highly concentrated banking markets

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Cetorelli

    2002-01-01

    This article studies conditions of entry and competitive conduct in highly concentrated banking markets. The author estimates the minimum market size at which a second bank, a third, a fourth, and so on, can enter and maintain long-run profitability. The results suggest no evidence of cartel-like behavior, where banks collude and maximize joint monopoly profits, even in markets with only two or three banks. The results are more consistent with the competitive conduct predicted by models of ol...

  2. Bargaining Power and Local Heroes

    OpenAIRE

    Heimeshoff, Ulrich; Klein, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Bargaining Power of retailers is an important aspect of discourse in many industrialized countries, including Germany, Portugal, the UK, and the USA. In Germany the Federal Cartel Office argues that strong bargaining power of retailers presents danger for workable competition in the market. Furthermore, significant bargaining power on the retailer side is often assumed a priori without further investigation. Based on a treatment effect study using difference-in-differences techniques we show,...

  3. Sale of visas : a smuggler's final song?

    OpenAIRE

    Auriol, Emmanuelle; Mesnard, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Is there a way of eliminating human smuggling? We set up a model to simultaneously determine the provision of human smuggling services and the demand from would-be migrants. A visa-selling policy may be successful at eliminating smugglers by eroding their profits but it also increases immigration. In contrast, repression decreases migration but fuels cartelized smugglers. To overcome this trade-off we show that legalisation through selling visas in combination with repression can be used to w...

  4. Mexico's año horrible: global crisis stings economy

    OpenAIRE

    Edward C. Skelton; Erwan Quintin

    2009-01-01

    Initial optimism has been replaced by increasingly dire predictions for Mexico's near-term economic outlook in response to the global economic slump. World trade flows have dried up, which is particularly damaging for nations like Mexico whose economic activity depends critically on exports. At the same time, international financial uncertainty led investors to withdraw capital from emerging markets. Mexico was also confronted with a number of idiosyncratic shocks: a crackdown on drug cartels...

  5. Funkcjonowanie wybranych rynków oligopolistycznych w Polsce w aspekcie działań Urzędu Ochrony Konkurencji i Konsumentów

    OpenAIRE

    Bochan, Radosław

    2012-01-01

    The profile of some was introduced in the present article, discordant with the right workings, chosen enterprises act on Polish oligopolic markets the which became detects thanks to supervisory workings Office of Fair Trading (UOKiK). The cartel collusions which have the place on various, Polish oligopolic markets predominate the various kind in the objective catalogue of described delicts. Illegal agreements can concern the inflated price not only, but also the different elements of marketin...

  6. Network industries deregulation and energy industries reorganization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric power distribution systems deregulation is going to change the economical and institutional scenery. The empowerment term can be anything but a happy change for the customer by giving him the free choice. But this evolution calls the public power in question again. Meanwhile the government has to remain vigilant and watch over the safety in terms of cartel and environment risk. (A.L.B.)

  7. Blowing the Whistle

    OpenAIRE

    Apesteguia, José; Dufwenberg, Martin; Selten, Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    Leniency clauses, offering cartelists legal immunity if they blow the whistle on each other, is a recent anti-trust innovation. The authorities wish to thwart cartels and promote competition. This effect is not evident, however; whistle-blowing may enforce trust and collusion by providing a tool for cartelists to punish each other. We examine the impact of leniency law, and other rules, theoretically and experimentally.

  8. - STRATEGIC PIGOUVIAN TAXATION, STOCK EXTERNALITIES AND POLLUTING NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago J. Rubio; Luisa Escriche

    1998-01-01

    This paper extends Wirl and Dockner¿s (1995) model designed to analyze the long-term bilateral interdependence between a resource exporting cartel and a coalition of resource importing country governments. Firstly, depletion effects are introduced into the analysis of the intertemporal properties of a pigouvian tax. Secondly, the feedback Stackelberg equilibria are computed. The results show that the dynamics of the tax depends critically on the level of the marginal environmental damage. Mor...

  9. Strategic delegation and collusion: Do incentive schemes matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Daniel Guigou; Patrick De Lamirande; Bruno Lovat

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces delegation decisions and contracts based on relative performance evaluation (RPE) in the analysis of cartel stability. We follow the approach developed by Lambertini and Trombetta [12], where manager's compensation combines pro_ts and sales (CPS) instead. Some of our results are similar while others are distinct from those of Lambertini and Trombetta. In particular, we show that collusion under RPE is always harder to sustain than under CPS.

  10. わが国ビール産業の競争政策と競争戦略

    OpenAIRE

    富田, 輝博

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the Japanese beer industry and firms from two aspects. Firstly, I consider competition policy and oligopolistic behaviors of beer industry. Secondly, I consider competitive strategy of beer firms, especially Asahi Breweries as a case study. As the Beer industry is highly oligopolistic and regulated, there are many possibilities of collusive agreements. Evidence of such collusion, was found in administered prices, cartels, and rebates for wholesalers and retailers. The sour...

  11. Water Management in France: Delegation and Irreversibility

    OpenAIRE

    Ephraim Clark; Gérard Mondello

    2000-01-01

    The problem that we address in this paper stems from the trend to delegation in the water management field. It refers to the municipality’s negotiating disadvantage in the face of cartelized water management firms that makes delegation, once undertaken, virtually irreversible. We show why the characteristics of the delegation auction render is useless as a tool for collective welfare maximization. We also show that the remaining tool for achieving collective welfare maximization, i.e. the mun...

  12. La politica economica del fascismo. La crisi del ‘29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Sylos Labini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Text of a speech held at the University of Rome in 1965. The author discusses the economic policy of Fascism, claiming that several of its characteristic features, e.g. the policy of industrial and financial bailouts, the policy of industry cartels and firms’ groups, and protectionism, were part of an international trend. In these areas international similitudes probably outweigh differences. What was peculiar of Fascism was the approach towards trade unions and the peculiarly corporatist policy.

  13. The OPEC strategy dilemma, Middle East politics, and the figures that don't match

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper answers two question: Is the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) a cartel, and do cartels learn? In both cases the answer is conditionally positive. OPEC is a cartel in the sense that as an organization of oil exporters it is able to set or strongly influence the price of the oil by allocating market shares, at last as long as productive capacity is not fully utilized. OPEC appears to have learned from the ups and downs of the oil market since the early 1970s, in the sense that the OPEC states have experienced their own interaction with the world economy and the risks involved in oil price discontinuities. Oil exporters may gain in short-term cash flow from an oil price shock, but the easy money dislocates their economies. Subsequently, they are subject to an impairing income squeeze as oil demand falls due to the setback of the world economy triggered by the initial oil price shock. This trauma now belongs to the common intellectual and political heritage of the oil exporters. As a result of this experience, there is now an apparent consensus among the OPEC nations that they have more to gain from volume expansion than from price increases in the oil market

  14. Merger control in the energy sector. An empirical investigation for the Federal Republic of Germany; Fusionskontrolle in der leitungsgebundenen Energiewirtschaft. Eine empirische Untersuchung fuer Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauk, Martina Margret

    2008-11-06

    In 1998, EU legislation initiated a liberalisation process among European energy markets. The process of market opening has significantly changed the functioning of the markets and the competition conditions of the energy sector. At the same time, the industry witnessed a surge of mergers and far-reaching changes in the structure of German electricity and natural gas markets occurred. Against this background, the doctoral thesis at hand surveys the merger activities in the energy sector as well as the merger control policy of the German Federal Cartel Office during the first years of liberalisation. The study starts with a portrayal of the institutional framework of the German merger control regime and a survey of the relevant economic literature on horizontal and vertical mergers. Subsequent to the legal and theoretical considerations, the merger activities and the merger control policy of the German Federal Cartel Office are investigated empirically. The data set is based on information taken from merger control files at the archive of the Federal Cartel Office in Bonn. It contains information on more than 250 merger cases and appendant decisions in the German natural gas and electricity sector put before the Federal Cartel Office between 1999 and 2003. In order to perform a statistical analysis, the information contained in the written decisions is transformed into variables. The data set is complemented by information on electricity and gas networks taken from external data sources. The empirical part of the study is divided into two parts: The aim of the first part is to investigate the integration strategies of energy utilities with respect to basic characteristics of the firms involved as well as structural factors of the markets affected by the respective mergers. In the descriptive section, key patterns of the integration strategies of the energy utilities can be identified. The results of the discrete choice analysis show that in addition to firm size of

  15. The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel's ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical ''more competitive'' world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader's judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy's potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy's inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US's primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison

  16. Price abuse monitoring under paragraph 29 of the Law Against Restraints on Competition; Die Preismissbrauchskontrolle nach paragraph 29 GWB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koleva, Raliza

    2013-08-01

    Written against the backdrop of criticism levelled at paragraph 29 of the Law Against Restraints on Competition (GWB) the present study undertakes a critical discussion of this legal norm along with questions and points of criticism that have been raised in its context in the literature and case law. It first addresses the central question as to whether paragraph 29 GWB conforms to the stipulations of European law and the German constitution. It then expounds the system behind paragraph 29 GWB, making a detailed examination of the individual elements of the offences covered by the regulation while giving thorough consideration to existing case law on instruments of price abuse monitoring that have been used to date under cartel law. A further focus of the present study is on the question as to what circumstances a supply company under suspicion of price abuse may claim in attempting to justify significant differences that have been found to exist between its own prices and those of a comparable company. This aspect is of great practical relevance in lawsuits concerning price abuse under cartel law, since the option of demonstrating justification is the most important line of approach for supply companies under suspicion of price abuse in attempting to fend off such allegations. Based on an analysis of past practice of the German Federal Cartel Office and the antitrust courts the author undertakes to determine a scale for assessing the costs which the responding supply company can claim in its defence. Finally she endeavours to methodologically capture the price limit concept, making proposals for its practical application with due consideration to the findings that have transpired from the study.

  17. La oposición política en Chile durante el período 1990-2011. Una aproximación conceptual y empírica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Avendaño

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of opposition parties and coalitions in Chile since the putting in place of the first democratic government in 1990. Assuming that opposition plays a pivotal role in the functioning of a democratic system, the paper demonstrates that –with regards to changes and alterations of an immediate context– the evolution of opposition in Chile can be characterized by its reactive attitude, sometimes combining competence with collusion and cartelization. The author argues that it is the electoral domain, in which the opposition has adopted the most offensive attitude and left the task of informal negotiation between representatives of two key coalitions to other entities.

  18. ARE. Regional energy supplies - progress report 2000-2001; ARE. Regionale Energieversorgung 2000-2001. Taetigkeitsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    The ARE progress report discusses the following issues: Economic development and its effects on power supply; Deregulation of the electricity and gas market; Competition between regional utilities; Energy policy of the new German government; European regulations; Legislation on energy supply; Energy supply and cartel law; Regional supply in the East German states. [German] Der Taetigkeitsbericht der ARE befasst sich mit folgenden Themen: Gesamtwirtschaftliche Entwicklung und ihre Auswirkung auf die Energiewirtschaft, Oeffnung des Monopoles fuer Strom und Gas, Wettbewerb der regionalen Energieversorger, Energiepolitik der neuen Bundesregierung, Europaeische Richtlininen, energiewirtschaftsrecht, Versorgungswirtschaft und Kartellrecht und der Regionalversorgung in den neuen Bundeslaendern.

  19. La exposición solar adecuada. Una de de las mejores medidas preventivas ante el cáncer del piel.

    OpenAIRE

    Carmena Hernández, Ana Isabel; Vidal Salcedo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: en las últimas décadas ha aumentado la incidencia del cáncer de piel en la sociedad a nivel mundial, motivados por varios factores, como los cambios medioambientales derivados por el deterioro de la capa de ozono, la exposición solar excesiva, la desvaloración de los daños creados por las radiaciones ultravioleta, el esc...

  20. La nascita e lo sviluppo dell'Azienda Generale Italiana Petroli (AGIP) negli anni fra le due guerre (1926-1940)

    OpenAIRE

    Mascia, Giacinto

    2014-01-01

    On the eve of the First World War, the geopolitical role of the crude oil begun to reveal all of its importance, affecting the politics of the States. After the war, Great Britain and the United States had a strong diplomatic struggle for the control of the Middle East’s oil, until they signed the «Red Line Agreement» in 1928. The agreement allowed Iraqi’s oil exploitation by the cartel guided by the Iraq Petroleum Company. Oil industry was completely under the control of the two most powerfu...

  1. Unbundling and regulation in the German power industry. Practical manual for application of the EnWG. 3. rev. ed.; Entflechtung und Regulierung in der deutschen Energiewirtschaft. Praxishandbuch zum Energiewirtschaftsgesetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The book provides a fast outline into the new legal boundary conditions for power supply in Germany. Apart from the legal aspects of power generation and distribution, other fields like taxes, labour, public procurement and cartel law are gone into as well. Subjects: Fundamentals, methods and current modifications of unbundling; Relevant aspects of unbundling for operators of transmission lines, grids, and power stores; Regulation by incentives and grid usage fees; Competences of state regulation authorities; Grid development planning. There is also a free online access to tools and updates. (orig./RHM)

  2. NAFTA-Land Security: The Mérida Initiative, Transnational Threats, and U.S. Security Projection in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ashby, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores recent U.S. bilateral aid to Mexico through the Mérida Initiative (MI), a $2.3 billion assistance commitment on the part of the United States (U.S.) officially justified as helping Mexico build its capacity to take on violent drug cartels and thereby improve security in both countries. There has been a good amount of engaging work on the MI. However this extant literature has not undertaken detailed policy analysis of the aid programme, leading to conclusions that it is a...

  3. Un Modelo Abierto: Nuit Blanche

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Tarín, Francisco Javier

    2010-01-01

    El sábado 4 de Octubre tuvo lugar en París la segunda manifestación de una jornada nocturna que se ha dado en llamar la nuit blanche. El evento fue publicitado por todos los medios (vallas, carteles, espots, reportajes, internet, etc.) y consistía básicamente en la liberación del espacio urbano a los ciudadanos; es decir, la apropiación colectiva y lúdica de los servicios municipales. A partir de una reflexión sobre las condiciones de persuasión, seducción y comercialización que caracterizan ...

  4. Future US energy demands based upon traditional consumption patterns lead to requirements which significantly exceed domestic supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Energy consumption in the United States has risen in response to both increasing population and to increasing levels of affluence. Depletion of domestic energy reserves requires consumption modulation, production of fossil fuels, more efficient conversion techniques, and large scale transitions to non-fossile fuel energy sources. Widening disparity between the wealthy and poor nations of the world contributes to trends that increase the likelihood of group action by the lesser developed countries to achieve political and economic goals. The formation of anticartel cartels is envisioned.

  5. Reseña Bibliográfica: Bastías, C. (et. al). 2011, Mujeres de la Vega. Género, memoria y trabajo en la Vega Central de Santiago. Chile Santiago, Salesianos Impresores S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Eloísa Maldonado

    2014-01-01

    Una sugerente portada, que representa la gráfica y los colores de los carteles que habitualmente ofrecen los productos agrícolas, nos invita a entrar al mun­do de la Vega, uno de los mercados más importantes de Santiago. “Mujeres de la Vega. Género, memoria y trabajo en la Vega Central de Santiago” es el libro donde se dan a conocer los resultados de una investigación realizada entre agosto de 2010 y enero de 2011, financiada por el Consejo Nacional de la Cul­tura y las Artes, a través del Fo...

  6. Tax havens or tax hells? A discussion of the historical roots and present consequences of tax havens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Raposo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax havens are not recent phenomena. However, in contrast to historical precedents, tax havens in the age of mobile capital allow for non-consensual transfers and are not profitable for every citizen. We discuss the four main groups of tax havens (former Western possessions, sovereign nations, countries controlled by cartels, and emerging economies. This article also synthesizes the history of tax havens and describes their current heterogeneity, discussing the main methods available to regulate tax haven flows. Some of the most efficient methods involve unilateral measures (such as the Fiscal Transparency of Outland Societies but also encompass multilateral measures (such as Tax Harmonization and the Request for Information.

  7. PROMOTING COMPETITIVENESS BY FIGHTING AGAINST ABUSES OF A DOMINANT MARKET POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia IRINESCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Competition is a basic mechanism of the market economy involving supply and demand. The legislative framework of the European competition policy is provided by the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU(Articles 101–109. Without an effective EU competition policy, the Single Market cannot reach its full potential. Competition policy is also crucial in allowing the EU to crack down on abuses of dominant position, cartels and concerted practices that harm consumers. To be in a dominant position is not itself illegal. A dominant company has a special responsibility to ensure that its conduct does not distort competition.

  8. Mexiko a boj s drogami

    OpenAIRE

    Kadlecová, Markéta

    2011-01-01

    This thesis concerns with the issue of war on drugs in Mexico. The paper analyses development of drug trafficking, reasons of its origin and the role of the United States. Also it observes drug policies of both states and their common programmes and operations. One of them is the Mérida Initiative, programme of financial assistance for Mexico to combat the drug trafficking. The aim of this thesis is also to present actual mexican drug production and drug cartels. The final part pays attention...

  9. The War on Drugs in Colombia and Mexico: failed strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Rosen, Jonathan; Zepeda Martínez, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:to identify and evaluate the experience of the strategies and results of the war on drugs in Colombia and Mexico through initiatives such as Plan Colombia and the Merida Initiative.Methodology: in order to analyze programs of anti-narcotics cooperation in the Americas, particularly among the United States, Colombia and Mexico a qualitative method was used. The analysis was focused on the production and trafficking of drugs, criminal organizations or drug cartels and violence levels...

  10. Narcocine : la descente aux enfers du cinéma populaire mexicain

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Cet article cherche à proposer, dans une perspective historique, une première approche du narcocine mexicain. Après avoir situé les origines du trafic de drogue au Mexique, il explique pourquoi la naissance du narcocinéma au milieu des années 1970 est indissociable de celle du narcocorrido, puis il souligne la perpétuation de ce genre dans le cadre du videohome, système de production apparu au début des années 1990. Pour finir, il s’intéresse à la question de l’implication des cartels dans l’...

  11. Regional power supply in 1998-1999. Progress report of the association of regional utilities - Arbeitsgemeinschaft regionaler Energieversorgungs-Unternehmen - ARE e.V.; Regionale Energieversorgung 1998-1999. Taetigkeitsbericht der Arbeitsgemeinschaft regionaler Energieversorgungs-Unternehmen - ARE - e.V.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The ARE progress report discusses the following issues: Economic development and its effects on power supply; Deregulation of the electricity and gas market; Competition between regional utilities; Energy policy of the new German government; European regulations; Legislation on energy supply; Energy supply and cartel law; Regional supply in the East German states. [German] Der Taetigkeitsbericht der ARE befasst sich mit folgenden Themen: Gesamtwirtschaftliche Entwicklung und ihre Auswirkung auf die Energiewirtschaft, Oeffnung des Monopoles fuer Strom und Gas, Wettbewerb der regionalen Energieversorger, Energiepolitik der neuen Bundesregierung, Europaeische Richtlininen, energiewirtschaftsrecht, Versorgungswirtschaft und Kartellrecht und der Regionalversorgung in den neuen Bundeslaendern.

  12. The problem with party finance : theoretical perspectives on the funding of party politics

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkin, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    This article presents some theoretical contours for the study of party finance and its consequences. Two broad issues are explored. First, the article develops an account of changes in patterns of party finance, and in particular the move away from the ‘mass party’ model of funding towards ‘elite party’ and ‘cartel party’ models. Party finance is conceptualized as a collective action problem, and four ‘post-mass party’ financial strategies are identified. Second, the article addresses normati...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND PARTY FUNDING: MODELS AND CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Hrvoje MATAKOVIC; Irena CAJNER MRAOVIC

    2015-01-01

    The first modern political parties were formed at the end of the 18th century and have, from those times up to now, undergone 4 developing phases; each of the phases is bound to ideal-type political party model: cadre parties, mass parties, catch-all parties and cartel parties. Each of these party models differentiates in various characteristics: party foundation, number of members, and way of leading the election campaigns, but also in ways of financing. This paper describes the above mentio...

  14. Exposición: Fondo documental del investigador Dr. Antonio Martínez-Cob donado a la Biblioteca de la EEAD-CSIC

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Cob, Antonio; Martínez Giménez, José Carlos; Callén Amador, Pilar; Lostres Lamarca, María Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Copias .pdf de documento de donación, cartel empleado para la difusión, lista bibliográfica de títulos de ejemplares expuestos, 7 pósteres complementarios informativos. También se incluye videopresentación con fotos realizadas durante el transcurso de la exposición. La Exposición y sus contenidos también pueden ser accesibles a través de evento dedicado creado en Facebook.

  15. Administrative Surveillance and Fear: Implications for U.S.-Mexico Border Relations and Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Correa-Cabrera; Terence Garrett; Michelle Keck

    2014-01-01

    Fear has struck the people along the U.S.-Mexico border. Government authorities of the two nations have implemented techniques to secure the Rio Grande against drug trafficking, immigration, and terrorism. This article explores the issues and policies that have led to the escalation of violence on the U.S.-Mexico border and the ‘politics of fear’. Firstly, Mexican and U.S. governmental authorities are examined in the context of their actions against the various drug cartels. Secondly, the imp...

  16. La lucha contra el maltrato infantil desde el ámbito sanitario

    OpenAIRE

    Carmena Hernández, Ana Isabel; Vidal Salcedo, Ana; Jiménez Carabias, María del Rocío

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: el maltrato infantil ha sido, y es, una preocupación mundial expresada en multitud de asambleas generales de naciones unidas, con el fin de proteger los derechos de los niños. Desde principios del siglo XX, en España se lleva generando una ley que proteja a la infancia, que fomente unos buenos cuidados y una crianza salu...

  17. The brown coal surcharge on East-German power customers` bills; Ueber den Braunkohlepfennig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treffer, C.

    1997-10-02

    Power customers in the new federal states are in a turmoil. They feel themselves to have been conned by VEAG, the largest East-German electric utility, out of some 2 billion German marks. The author looks at the matter from the angles of the constitutional law, the law on cartels, and EU law. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Stromkunden in den neuen Bundeslaendern befinden sich in Aufruhr. Sie glauben sich von der VEAG, dem grossen Elektrizitaetsversorgungsunternehmen im Osten Deutschlands, um rund 2 Milliarden DM geprellt. Treffer untersucht das Thema unter verfassungsrechtlichen, kartell- und EG-rechtlichen Aspekten. (orig.)

  18. Extracting Geography from Trade Data

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuke; Marshall, Nicholas; Steinerberger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The gravity equation has been successful in establishing a connection between the amount of trade between two countries, their respective gross domestic products and "distance" (a complex notion including geographical, historical, linguistic and sociological components). We take the inverse route and show that it is possible to construct a meaningful 'distance' without any external information simply from knowing the bilateral trade volumes between countries. The main tool is a non-standard interpretation of trade flows data as a set of high-dimensional points and the use of mathematical tools to perform dimensionality reduction. This may have further applications for problems in long-term economic analysis, cartel detection and others.

  19. General Considerations on the Oligopoly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Angelo Ioan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the main aspects of oligopoly, in the case of n firms. The analysis has made, as a rule, for arbitrary marginal costs, each time, however, by considering these costs constant recovering well known results of the models presented: the Stackelberg model, the case of more production leaders, the price leader, the Cournot equilibrium for duopoly, the Cournot equilibrium for oligopoly or in the case of perfect competition and cartels. We also treat the problems above for the general case of cost function, again customizing the overall results for linear functions and obtaining the corresponding classical relations.

  20. La Historia Clínica Electrónica. Una nueva forma de comunicación

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Aguilar, María del Mar

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: Las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones (TIC) están cada vez más extendidas en el sistema sanitario y se han convertido en una herramienta habitual en su funcionamiento cotidiano. El elemento principal es la Historia Clínica Electrónica, que integra la información clínica y de gestión asistencial relevan...

  1. The Complement Market/Final Consumer Distinction: Exclusion & Predation in the U.S. Department of Justice Section 2 Report

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Brennan

    2008-01-01

    Most competition law falls into one of three categories. The first, cartel behavior, is relatively uncontroversial. The basics of the second, horizontal mergers, are generally accepted, but how best to implement itâ۠efficiency defenses, welfare standards, the need for market definition, or the value of customer testimonyâ۠can be hotly contested. The most controversial category is single-firm conduct, called monopolization in the United States and abuse of dominance in much of the re...

  2. Sistemas de información sanitarios: bases de registro de información e interacción de profesionales

    OpenAIRE

    Haro Llopis, María José; Sánchez Aguilar, María del Mar; Rey Sierra, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: En la actualidad los recursos disponibles para las organizaciones sanitarias han alcanzado unos niveles de desarrollo importantes, ofreciendo con los mismos medios un aumento de las prestaciones de las aplicaciones que resultaban impensables hace unos años; las Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación (TIC), y de entr...

  3. Gains from Cartelisation in the Oil Market

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Elin; Kverndokk, Snorre; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we ask whether OPEC still gains from cartelisation in the oil market despite low producer prices and a modest market share. We apply two intertemporal equilibrium models of the global oil market; one consisting of a cartel and a fringe, and one describing a hypothetical competitive market. Comparing the outcome of these models we conclude that there are positive cartelisation gains of about 18 per cent in the oil market. In comparison with what Pindyck (1978) found for the 1970s...

  4. Programa de prevención de la salud bucal a embarazadas en atención primaria

    OpenAIRE

    González Castillo, Silvia; Roldán Roldán, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Durante el periodo de gestación se producen en la embarazada unos cambios fisiológicos que afectan a su salud general, así como a la salud oral. Muchas mujeres no entienden la importancia del cuidado oral en el embarazo, por lo que cobran gran importancia los programas educativos. El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido describir las enfe...

  5. La problemática del narcotráfico en méxico y los esfuerzos institucionales para responder al flagelo

    OpenAIRE

    Barrachina Lisón, Carlos; Hernández Mora, Juan Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    En el sexenio del presidente Felipe Calderón (2006-2012) se toma la decisión de enfrentar a los carteles que operan en el país. Iniciada la “guerra contra las drogas”, el Estado mexicano no puede contar con las fuerzas de seguridad pública porque identifican en las mismas grandes problemas de organización, falta de eficacia y corrupción. Por ello optan como solución de compromiso sacar a los militares de los cuarteles, desempeñando estos posiciones de jefes de Policía en los principales estad...

  6. Paisaje sonoro de una invasión marciana - La intervención de los principios constructivos radiofónicos en el proceso de creación de las imágenes auditivas de 'La guerra de los mundos' (Orson Welles, 1938)

    OpenAIRE

    Lic. Lourdes Novalbos Bou

    1999-01-01

    La densa iconosfera que caracteriza la civilización contemporánea postindustrial (desde la fotografía a la imagen sintética generada por ordenador, pasando por el cartel, el cómic, el cine o la imagen electrónica de televisión) constata que el ser humano es un "animal visual"; un "animal visual" que sobrevive, fundamentalmente, gracias a la agudeza del aparato ocular y que se relaciona con el entorno y obtiene información, gratificación intelectual, cultural, espiritual e incluso sexual a tra...

  7. Market Structure, Organizational Structure, and R&D Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Joseph; Gilbert, Richard; Katz, Michael

    2002-01-01

    We examine the effects of market structure and the internal organization of firms on equilibrium R&D projects. We compare a monopolist’s choice of R&D portfolio to that of a welfare maximizer. We next show that Sah and Stiglitz’s finding that the market portfolio of R&D is independent of the number of firms under Bertrand competition extends to neither Cournot oligopoly nor a cartel. We also show that the ability of firms to pre-empt R&D by rivals along particular research paths can lead t...

  8. Competition And Antitrust Law In Ecuadorian Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marín Sevilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work allows us to establish the Economic Constitution and the Competition Law (C.L in the Constitution. Additionally, the paper analyzes whether the rules outlined in the C. L. and in doctrine are consistent and appropriate with the Constitution of Ecuador. The Competition and Antitrust Laws has rules for investigating and punishing the cartels, the abuses of power market (dominant position, the rules for merger control, the behaviors of Abuse of economic dependence, and unfair competition behaviors. Always the Antitrust Authority will analyze these behaviors in terms of welfare of both: the consumer and the market.

  9. Application of Core Theory to the Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Sunder

    2003-01-01

    Competition in the airline industry has been fierce since the industry was deregulated in 1978. The proponents of deregulation believed that more competition would improve efficiency and reduce prices and bring overall benefits to the consumer. In this paper, a case is made based on core theory that under certain demand and cost conditions more competition can actually lead to harmful consequences for industries like the airline industry or cause an empty core problem. Practices like monopolies, cartels, price discrimination, which is considered inefficient allocation of resources in many other industries, can actually be beneficial in the case of the airline industry in bringing about an efficient equilibrium.

  10. People as a Problem : A discourse analysis of the Favela residents´portrayal in Rio de Janeiro´s press

    OpenAIRE

    Kaukonen, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    Many Latin American countries have during the past decades experienced an increase in violence (Howard et al 2007:716). The expansion of youth gangs and drug cartels in many countries of the region, and the states policy to fight these groups with a strong fist, has created a situation bearing the characteristics of an un-proclaimed civil war, that has come to affect all social classes (ibid:719). This expansion of the problem of violence, and the notion of insecurity it brings, has resulted ...

  11. La traducci??n en el sector tur??stico

    OpenAIRE

    Poder, Marie Eveline le; Fuentes Luque, Adri??n; Nobs, Marie-Louise; Fallada Pouget, Carmina; Perles Aguado, Marta; Mart??nez Motos, Raquel; Vencesl?? Mariscal, Isabel; Kelly, Dorothy

    2005-01-01

    A menudo, cuando viajamos, quienes estamos de alg??n modo relacionados con los idiomas o con la comunicaci??n intercultural en alguna de sus formas, nos sorprendemos leyendo, analizando, alg??n folleto tur??stico, alguna carta de restaurante, alg??n cartel promocional, y en no pocas ocasiones acompa??amos el gesto esbozando una sonrisita no exenta de tono cr??tico, grabando la situaci??n para convertirla en chascarrillo o an??cdota en reuniones futuras. Parece as?? que el...

  12. Mejora de la comunicación e información en el programa de atención dental infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Priego, María Esther; Pérez Heredia, Mercedes; González Pérez, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: Una de las principales quejas recogidas en la consulta de Odontología de un centro de salud de Atención Primaria es que el dentista no les explicó el programa de atención de los menores, sus coberturas ni cuando debían volver a consulta. Es por ello que se decidió escoger esta oportunidad de mejora en la comunicación con...

  13. Ambigüedades urbanas en el cine de los años veinte

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Biosca, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    Los historiadores de la arquitectura nos explicarán cómo fueron trazadas y construidas las ciudades de los años veinte y evaluarán en qué medida correspondían con sus representaciones en la pintura, los carteles, la literatura o el cine. Hay, sin embargo, otra forma de abordar el asunto, probablemente más modesta y oblicua, y consiste en preguntarse qué fantasías urbanas circularon entre aquellas gentes que jamás construyeron un edificio, hicieron un plano y ni siquier...

  14. Beneficios del acompañamiento a la mujer por la matrona durante el trabajo de parto y puerperio

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Gallego, Isabel; Partida Márquez, Antonio Luis; Castro Guerrero, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: En 2008, el Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo lanza la “Estrategia de Atención al Parto normal en el Sistema Nacional de Salud”, dónde se reconoce el derecho de la embarazada a estar acompañada por la persona que ella elija durante el embarazo, parto y puerperio. Por otro lado, ofrecer apoyo continuo profesional está descr...

  15. Difteria y éxitus. Tratamiento informativo en prensa digital especializada

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Radío, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: El tratamiento informativo proporcionado a personal sanitario sobre el reciente caso de fallecimiento de un niño a causa de la difteria ha generado en prensa de carácter especializado -Diario médico , en su versión digital- una serie de artículos al respecto . Objetivos: Este estudio trata de analizar la cobertura in...

  16. La politica economica del fascismo. La crisi del ‘29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Sylos Labini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Text of a speech held at the University of Rome in 1965. The author discusses the economic policy of Fascism, claiming that several of its characteristic features, e.g. the policy of industrial and financial bailouts, the policy of industry cartels and firms’ groups, and protectionism, were part of an international trend. In these areas international similitudes probably outweigh differences. What was peculiar of Fascism was the approach towards trade unions and the peculiarly corporatist policy.    JEL codes: N14, N34, N44 Keywords: fascism, economic policy, corporatism  

  17. Institutional arrangements for the reduction of proliferation risks formulation, evaluation, and implementation of institutional concepts. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this supporting analysis is to provide a foundation for developing a model, an international or multinational institution capable of accomodating the back end of the fuel cycle, while meeting US nonproliferation goals. The analysis is based on a review of selected, defunct and extant institutions which, although not necessarily concerned with nonproliferation, have faced a trade-off between acceptability and effectiveness in meeting their objectives. Discussion of the various institutions is divided into three categories: international organizations, multinational consortia, and cartels or producer associations. Examples of international organizations include the International Seabed Authority, Intelsat, the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The International Seabed Authority is discussed. Multinational consortia are organizations that have been developed primarily to meet common commercial objectives. Membership includes at least three member nations. Examples include the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS), URENCO, Unilever, Royal Dutch Shell, Eurochemic, Eurodif, Euratom, European Coal and Steel Community, and Serena. Cartels or producer associations are multinational agreements that restrict market forces; viz, production, market share, customers or prices. Examples include the Intergovernmental Council of Copper Exporting Countries (CIPEC), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), and the Fifth International Tin Agreement (ITA), as well as agreements governing diamonds and uranium, bauxite and coffee. OPEC, CIPEC and ITA are discussed

  18. Network access charges, vertical integration, and property rights structure - experiences from the German electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the deregulation of the German electricity markets in 1998, the German government opted for a regulatory regime called negotiated third party access, which would be subject to ex-post control by the federal cartel office. Network access charges for new competitors are based on contractual arrangements between energy producers and industrial consumers. As the electricity networks are incontestable natural monopolies, the local and regional network operators are able to set (monopolistic) charges at their own discretion, restricted only by the possible interference of the federal cartel office (Bundeskartellamt). In this paper we analyze if there is evidence for varying charging behaviour depending on the supplier's economic independence (structure of property rights) or its level of vertical integration. For this purpose, we hypothesise that incorporated and vertically integrated suppliers set different charges than independent utility companies. Multivariate estimations show a relation between network access charges and the network operator's economic independence as well as level of vertical integration: on the low voltage level for an estimated annual consumption of 1700 kW/h, vertically integrated firms set-in accordance with our hypothesis-significantly lower access charges than vertically separated suppliers, whereas incorporated network operators charge significantly higher charges compared to independent suppliers. These results could not have been confirmed for other consumptions or voltage levels. (author)

  19. An Examination of Criminalization of Russia’s Anti-Bid Rigging Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Mosunova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates enforcement of criminal sanctions in anti-bid rigging policy in Russia. Although cartels were criminalized in 1997, parties of numerous anticompetitive agreements on tenders are punished by corporate or individual fines, or disqualified. Statistics on sentences for bid rigging are highly controversial although legislative conditions for efficient criminalization are presented not only by criminal norms but also by leniency programmes in administrative and criminal proceedings which were designed to contribute to anticartel enforcement.The aim of this research is to determine factors that have caused the very rare use of criminal sanctions for cartel enforcement with the focus on bid rigging. For the purpose of the research, the paper outlines the regulation of tendering in Russia and the system of sanctions for bid rigging, including leniency. Case analysis of the first custodial sentence for anticompetitive agreement on a public tender highlights specific features resulting in successful prosecution. Since this is one of the first attempts to assess criminalization of bid rigging in Russia, original empirical data including interviews with officials from federal competition authorities and regional representatives constitute the basis of the study.Findings of the research determine the influence of social norms on the enforcement as the main challenge for criminalization of bid rigging which is weighed down by the insufficient political influence of competition authorities. The paper’s findings may be of interest for assessing enforcement in other jurisdictions experiencing the same difficulties.

  20. Institutional arrangements for the reduction of proliferation risks formulation, evaluation, and implementation of institutional concepts. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this supporting analysis is to provide a foundation for developing a model, an international or multinational institution capable of accomodating the back end of the fuel cycle, while meeting US nonproliferation goals. The analysis is based on a review of selected, defunct and extant institutions which, although not necessarily concerned with nonproliferation, have faced a trade-off between acceptability and effectiveness in meeting their objectives. Discussion of the various institutions is divided into three categories: international organizations, multinational consortia, and cartels or producer associations. Examples of international organizations include the International Seabed Authority, Intelsat, the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The International Seabed Authority is discussed. Multinational consortia are organizations that have been developed primarily to meet common commercial objectives. Membership includes at least three member nations. Examples include the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS), URENCO, Unilever, Royal Dutch Shell, Eurochemic, Eurodif, Euratom, European Coal and Steel Community, and Serena. Cartels or producer associations are multinational agreements that restrict market forces; viz, production, market share, customers or prices. Examples include the Intergovernmental Council of Copper Exporting Countries (CIPEC), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), and the Fifth International Tin Agreement (ITA), as well as agreements governing diamonds and uranium, bauxite and coffee. OPEC, CIPEC and ITA are discussed.

  1. Outlook for mineral raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyerhoff, H.A.

    1979-04-01

    No better summary of the outlook for the mineral raw materials industry during the next two decades can be offered than the oft-repeated aphorism, The more things change, the more they remain the same. Each mineral commodity will pursue its own individual course, but overall, the growth and increasing sophistication of the world population will double consumption and narrow such gaps as exist between supply and demand. Sources of supply will be found over a widening geographic range and will cross an increasing number of political boundaries. Although the need for an international mineral policy is obvious, confrontation between the industrial nations of the West and the anti-colonialism and nationalism of Third World countries offers little hope of anything better than ad hoc solutions in the form of bilateral agreements or cartelization of specific commodities involving several producing nations with common interests. Japan has shown the efficacy of bilateral agreements; the International Tin Council and OPEC are examples of cartelization. Although its mineral resources make the USSR all but self-sufficient, analysis of its military and maritime programmes indicates that one of its aims is to fill the vacuum created by the lack of an international mineral policy. It is following closely a modernized formula for world domination set forth by Sir Halford Mackinder in 1904. Success would enable it to impose a mineral policy on the rest of the world, which will be well advised to ponder this possibility.

  2. OPEC: Market failure or power failure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actions of OPEC and Saudi Arabia are discussed in terms of their objectives and their technical and social constraints. It is concluded (1) that OPEC does not act as a cartel and (2) that Hotelling’s rule is not an important feature of pricing or production. OPEC’s (more specifically, Saudi Arabia’s) ideal policy is to keep price moderate to try to assure a market for their high reserves over the long run. Such an action would require heavy investments in capacity, including in excess capacity, for times of interruption of supply from other countries as in the 1990s and for times of high demand as in the 2000s. The action may be inconsistent with other objectives and in any case may be too difficult to achieve. - Highlights: ► Hotelling models abstract from the essence of oil technology. ► Members of OPEC do not act as members of a classical cartel. ► Political–economic considerations influence objectives. ► The aim of Saudi Arabia, the price leader, is to keep price moderate. ► Supply was inelastic in the 2000s. Saudi investment was not adequate.

  3. The outlook for US oil dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil dependence is defined as a dynamic problem of short- and long-run market power. The potential monopoly power of an oil cartel depends on its market share and the elasticities of oil supply and demand, while the economic vulnerability of oil-consuming states depends most directly on the quantity of oil imported and the oil cost share of gross domestic product (GDP). Of these factors, only the market share of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel and the rate of growth of world oil demand are clearly different than they were 25 years ago. OPEC still holds the majority of world oil and, in the future, will regain market share. A hypothetical 2-year supply reduction in 2005-2006, similar in size to those of 1973-1974 or 1979-1980, illustrates the potential benefits to OPEC and harm to the US economy of a future oil price shock. OPEC's revenues are estimated to increase by roughly $0.7 trillion, while the US economy loses about $0.5 trillion. Strategic petroleum reserves seem ineffective against a determined, multi-year supply curtailment. Increasing the market's price responsiveness by improving the technologies of oil supply and oil demand can greatly reduce the costs of oil dependence. Each element of this interpretation of the oil dependence problem is well supported by previous studies. This paper's contribution is to unite these elements into a coherent explanation and to point out the enormously important implications for energy policy. (Author)

  4. The gains and losses of collusion: An empirical research on the market behaviors of China’s power enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruize Gao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Collusion is a common behavior of oligarch enterprises aiming to get an advantage in market competition. The purpose of the thesis is to use the empirical research methods to explore positive or negative effects that the electricity generation manufacturers’ collusion has caused at the macro level of Market Economy and the micro level of enterprises’ behaviors. Design/methodology/approach: The designed research model in the thesis is an extension of Porter’s model (Porter, 1984. It applies a more advanced measurement method, FIML. In the example of price bidding project that started by electricity generation enterprises of China’s power industry, the thesis analyzes the relevant price data of subordinate power plants of China’s five power generation groups in pilots of price bidding Policy. Findings: It is found in the thesis that power generation enterprises are facing collusion issues in the market. To be exact, it is such a situation in which non-cooperative competition and collusion alternate. Under the competition, market is relatively steady, thus forming a lower network price. It is helpful to the development of the whole industry. However, once Cartel is formed, the price will rise and clash with power enterprises and transmission-distribution companies concerning the interests conflicts. At the same time, a higher power price will form in the market, making consumers suffer losses. All of these are bad for industry development. Not only the collusion of power enterprises affects power price but also the market power that caused by long-time Cartel will reduce the market entrant in electricity generation. Market resources are centralized in the hands of Cartel, causing a low effective competition in the market, which has passive effects on users. Implications: The empirical research also indicates that collusion undoubtedly benefits the power enterprises that involved. As a cooperation pattern, collusion can lead to

  5. Mexican journalists: an investigation of their emotional health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Anthony

    2012-08-01

    Mexican journalists are frequently the victims of violence, often drug related. The purpose of the study was to assess their mental well-being. Of 104 journalists recruited from 3 news organizations, those who had stopped working on drug-related stories because of intimidation from the criminal drug cartels (n = 26) had significantly greater social dysfunction (p = .024); and more depressive (p = .001) and higher intrusive (p = .027), avoidance (p = .005), and arousal (p = .033) symptoms than journalists living and working under threat in regions of drug violence (n = 61). They also had more arousal (p = .05) and depressive (p = .027) symptoms than journalists (n = 17) never threatened before and living in regions without a drug problem. These findings provide preliminary data on the deleterious effects of drug-related violence on the Mexican media, amplifying the concerns expressed by journalist watchdog organizations monitoring the state of the press in the country. PMID:22807229

  6. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  7. 40th annual meeting on energy law. Review and lookout; 40. Energierechtliche Jahrestagung: Rueckblick und Ausschau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehricke, Ulrich (ed.)

    2012-11-01

    Within the 40th energy legal annual meeting at 3rd November, 2011 in Cologne (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Development of the electrical grid as a central element of the future energy supply (Matthias Kurth); (2) Practice of cartel law in times of the energy policy turnaround (Andreas Mundt); (3) The annual meetings of the Institute for Energy Law (Juergen F. Bauer); (4) On the relation between energy law and energy industry (Marc Oliver Bettzuege); (5) Constitutional issues of the nuclear power phaseout (Rupert Scholz); (6) 5 Years of price regulation of the power distribution systems: Inventory and expectations (Boris Scholtka); (7) Impacts of the energy policy turnaround on the Energy State and Industry State North Rhine-Westphalia (Harry K. Voigtsberger); (8) On the way to an environmentally friendly energy supply in Germany - what was actually achieved? Which tasks will surrender yet? (Ursula Heinen-Esser).

  8. L’audace de la culpabilité : les États-Unis et le rapport UNODC sur le crime organisé / The Audacity of Guilt: The U.S. and the UNODC’s Report on Organized Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Dominick M. F.

    2010-01-01

    Comme cela avait été prédit l’an dernier dans cette revue, le cancer des cartels de la drogue mexicains s’est métastasé et des discours impolitiques sur la « faillite de l'état » et sur son impact concernant la politique étrangère et intérieure américaine se sont répandus, bien que restants encore relativement discrets.Parmi ces considérations et discours sur les perspectives effrayantes de la violence toujours croissante et terrifiante au Mexique – et même dans les débats qui ont entouré le...

  9. Developments on the European energy market. Part 1. Natural gas supply. Extra import covers growing natural gas demand in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This first part of a series on developments in the European gas market features the growth in gas supply. 35% of the gas demand must be covered from sources outside Europe. For the future additional imports are required from countries such as the Russian Federation, Algeria and Nigeria. Over the next few years the artificial link between ga and oil prices will disappear, bringing the gas price to a structurally lower level. It will be of crucial importance that gas suppliers will not be able to form cartels to keep prices high. All competing projects will curb price increases on the European market, but will definitely result in more freedom of choice for European natural gas consumers

  10. [Free choice of doctor: patient's right or doctor's power?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertens, R M; Huisman, F G

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines the historical development of the principle of patients' free choice of doctor in the Netherlands. Far from being the result of debates on patients' rights, this principle was used instead as an instrument by the medical profession to gain a foothold in the power relations between doctors and sickness funds back in the early 20th-century. This development created a medical power bloc that lasted for most of that century and forced sickness funds and private insurers to start organizing in this fashion too. Therefore, when the new market ideology of introducing competition in health care was introduced in 1987, the fields of health provision and insurance were already defined by a high degree of cartelization. These relations lingered even after the introduction of regulated competition in 2006. Knowledge of this history therefore leads to a better understanding of current debates and problems in the organization of Dutch health care. PMID:27353160

  11. The H0 function, a new index for detecting structural/topological complexity information in undirected graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscema, Massimo; Asadi-Zeydabadi, Masoud; Lodwick, Weldon; Breda, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Significant applications such as the analysis of Alzheimer's disease differentiated from dementia, or in data mining of social media, or in extracting information of drug cartel structural composition, are often modeled as graphs. The structural or topological complexity or lack of it in a graph is quite often useful in understanding and more importantly, resolving the problem. We are proposing a new index we call the H0function to measure the structural/topological complexity of a graph. To do this, we introduce the concept of graph pruning and its associated algorithm that is used in the development of our measure. We illustrate the behavior of our measure, the H0 function, through different examples found in the appendix. These examples indicate that the H0 function contains information that is useful and important characteristics of a graph. Here, we restrict ourselves to undirected.

  12. Carbon Democracy. Le pouvoir politique à l’ère du pétrole

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Après le pic de production du charbon, se profile celui du pétrole même si des technologies au coût environnemental exorbitant comme la fracturation hydraulique semblent en repousser l’échéance. L’auteur, titulaire d’une chaire sur le Moyen-Orient à Columbia University, examine une thèse aux multiples tiroirs : les transformations politiques du XXe siècle seraient sous l’influence majeure de l’organisation géostratégique des flux d’énergie fossile. Ainsi, s’instruit le procès du cartel des co...

  13. Abusive behaviour of grid operators within concession procedures and grid acquisitions with respect to paragraph paragraph 30, 32 EnWG; Missbraeuchliches Verhalten von Netzbetreibern bei Konzessionierungsverfahren und Netzuebernahmen nach paragraph paragraph 30, 32 EnWG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Peter [ZNER (Germany); Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin (Germany). Energierecht; Becker Buettner Held, Berlin (Germany); Templin, Wolf [Kanzlei Boos Hummel und Wegerich, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    The competition for the power distribution systems has inflamed all over in the Federal Republic of Germany due to the fact that concession contracts have a running time of only twenty years and end not later than 31st December, 1994. Those concession contracts will end currently. Thus the old affiliated companies have to fear for their market position. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the abusive behaviour of grid operators at licensing procedures and grid acquisitions with respect to paragraph paragraph 30, 32 Energy Economy Law. The authors report on the unilateral monopole consideration of the authorities and court as well as on the abusive behaviour of the old concessionaires from the standpoint of energy law and cartel law.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND PARTY FUNDING: MODELS AND CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje MATAKOVIC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The first modern political parties were formed at the end of the 18th century and have, from those times up to now, undergone 4 developing phases; each of the phases is bound to ideal-type political party model: cadre parties, mass parties, catch-all parties and cartel parties. Each of these party models differentiates in various characteristics: party foundation, number of members, and way of leading the election campaigns, but also in ways of financing. This paper describes the above mentioned 4 phases of political parties’ development and 4 phases of parties' finances development; it will be analysed in detail positive and negative sides of each of the models of party financing.

  15. Crude prices - is OPEC relevant?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil-exporting nations are in deep trouble. A global recession is suppressing consumption growth and frustrating exporter attempts to boost prices. Future prospects for oil exporters appear even bleaker. New production from several satellites of the former Soviet Union (FSU) will reach the market within a few years, limiting the increase in OPEC scales, and the FSU's incremental output will be augmented by much larger exports from Iraq. An oil price surge resulting from turmoil in Nigeria will, ironically, only serve to emphasize OPEC's loss of influence. When a cartel-like organization breaks down, the result is usually lower and more volatile prices, and so political or physical production disruptions have a greater impact on volumes supplied. In the future, these disruptions will occur more often because of the worsening financial situation in exporting countries. (author)

  16. An introduction to safety aspects of the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors figure out the main issues of the nuclear controversy, the theoretical approaches of the debate about nuclear safety, the dimensions of the safety concept at various levels, i.e. at individual level in the basic rights context, at the governmental policy, and at social level. Other aspects referred to include the nuclear industry, its basic organisational structures and its interlacements with the state, which make it a so-called 'neo-corporate cartel'. The introduction sets out the purposes and limits of the book which deals with risk assessment and safety philosophies, hazardous potentials of technologies, problems of the nuclear fuel safeguards, - both from the political point of view and with respect to technical supervision and measuring -, and with effects on the legal situation on the level of constitutional rights. (HSCH)

  17. How would the gas exporting countries forum influence gas trade?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cleanest burning fossil fuel, today, is natural gas. While many businesses have gone global, it has remained an exception. An impending challenge facing the industry, however, is the evolution of a cartel from the 5-year-old Gas Exporting Countries Forum. How would this new organization influence the trade of gas globally? Does its existence imply a threat to the development of gas trade? The paper reviews this fairly new organization within the context of the above questions. It is mainly a comparative study of the body in relation to OPEC's historical, political and economic development. Subsequently, the author proposes probable influence options available to the Forum and the impending consequence of such actions on the market. The outcome of this study calls for further analysis and research on new issues and questions of interest. (author)

  18. The implications of the Wassenaar group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology control are principally aimed at preserving the military and economic interests of the leading powers and their allies. These interests include direct or indirect security threats, market access for selling goods and services, cheap imports of oil and other raw materials, favorable trading rules, and preventing the rise of regional hegemons. In the post cold war years, new barriers to trade in technology are being erected even as import and investment barriers are being dismantled and new economic opportunities are being availed of in countries such as India. The new Wassenaar cartel is part of the growing consensus and cooperation between former cold war antagonists on controlling the diffusion of technology that could potentially impinge on their interests. The rogue-states doctrine has come handy to justify new technology controls although the real intended targets of such controls are different

  19. Trade Liberalization and the Degree of Competition in International Duopoly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashournia, Damoun; Hansen, Per Svejstrup; Hansen, Jonas Worm

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes how a reduction in trade costs influences the possibility for firms to engage in international cartels, and hence how trade liberalization affects the degree of competition. We consider a particular intra-industry trade model amended to allow for firms producing differentiated...... products. Our main finding is that trade liberalization may have an anti-competitive effect. We find that there is no unique relation between a reduction in trade costs and the degree of competition. When products are differentiated, a lowering of trade costs is pro-competitive if trade costs are initially...... high, but anti-competitive if trade costs initially are low. Hence, trade policy is not necessarily a substitute for competition policy...

  20. De la inseguridad a la incertidumbre: el desplazamiento forzado interno en el noroeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Emilio Ibarra Montero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta las características del desplazamiento forzado interno en el noroeste de México, caso especíco de Sinaloa; parte de la idea de que el individuo ve trastocada su identidad en tres momentos: antes, durante y después, y su finalidad es entender el proceso de desplazamiento hacia las ciudades, de miles de familias provenientes de zonas rurales, que, como consecuencia del conflicto entre Estado y carteles de la droga, son ultrajadas y transgredidos sus derechos y, por lo tanto, marginadas por instituciones estatales e internacionales, pues pasan de la inseguridad a la incertidumbre que las ciudades de destino les imponen.

  1. The Economic Effect of Competition in the Air Transportation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    The air transportation industry has been described as a highly-competitive, regulated oligopoly or as a price-regulated cartel with blocked entry, resulting in excessive service and low load factors. The current structure of the industry has been strongly influenced by the hypotheses that increased levels of competition are desirable per se, and that more competing carriers can be economically supported in larger markets, in longer haul markets, with lower unit costs, and with higher fare levels. An elementary application of competition/game theory casts doubt on the validity of these hypotheses, but rather emphasizes the critical importance of the short-term non-variable costs in determining economic levels of competition.

  2. Avances en experiencias de cálculo mental

    OpenAIRE

    Coriat Benarroch, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    La conferencia se caracteriza por un formato tipo taller, en el que se prioriza la participación activa de los asistentes. Los contenidos tratados en una sesión de 3 horas en el horario y en la fecha que figuran en el cartel de difusión pública del evento, que se adjunta al presente documento, son los siguientes: - Idea de la aritmética rápida - Actividades de suma, resta, multiplicación y división rápidas - Estimación y resultado exacto - Aritmética rápida y pre-álgebra - Ar...

  3. About the carel legal and civil legal validity of take-or-play clauses in gas supply contracts with distribution; Zur kartell- und zivilrechtlichen Zulaessigkeit von Take-or-Pay-Klauseln in Gasliefervertraegen mit Weiterverteilern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegerich, Christine [Eggers Malmendier Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany); Seiferth, Conrad [Kermel und Scholtka Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    Gas supply contracts of all market stages contain ToP clauses (ToP = Take or Pay). These clauses obligate the consumers of gas to the payment of a certain minimum quantity of gas independently of the actually removed mass of gas. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the cartel legal and civil legal validity of ToP clauses in gas supply contracts with distribution. These clauses represent a control-free price agreement. A clear substantiation of an inadequate disadvantage of the consumer of gas by ToP clauses is not to be furnished. The ToP clauses do not deviate from legal or contract-typical principles. With the conclusion of a contract, the contracting parties assume that the obligation of payment of the customer corresponds to the obligation of supply by the supplier.

  4. Praxeology and the firm: a contribution to the Austrian redefinition of the economic organization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to syntetize theory of entrepreneurship of the Austrian School of economics with the contractual theory of the firm. Transaction cost theory of Ronald Coase and his followers holds that the firm is the organization with dominant component of ordering, while market is defined by competition and rivalry. But, market also includes interdependency and cooperation, such as in the case of cartel. Therefore non-competitive forms of economic coordination are not specificity for the firm, and can be observed in the open market as well. Agency theory rejects the notion of the firm as a hierarchy, and it is based on completeness of knowledge and contract. Theory of entrepreneurship and monetary calculation of Austrian School enables us to integrate contractual theory into the theoretical setting characterized by uncertainty, information asymmetry and positive transaction costs.

  5. Elliott Erwitt : "Personal Best"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillemette Minisclou

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Le photographe américain Elliott Erwitt expose à la MEP une sélection de ses travaux intitulée « Personal Best » ou « le meilleur de ses photographies personnelles ».Si les cartels ne précisent ni le format ni le type de tirages, l’exposition réunit un ensemble éclectique de photographies exclusivement noir et blanc (à l’exception de la dernière image représentant la cérémonie d’investiture du président Barack Obama en janvier 2009. Cette rétrospective oscille entre différents genres photogr...

  6. Los colombianos y las redes del narcotráfico en Nueva York durante los años 70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sáenz Rovner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available La idea que se tiene sobre el narcotráfico desde Colombia es que éste ha sido manejado por “carteles”. Lo que la evidencia empírica muestra es que además de las grandes organizaciones criminales, el narcotráfico durante las últimas décadas, y en particular durante los años 70, objeto de este escrito, ha sido un negocio abierto con innumerables participantes (incluyendo mulas “free lancers” que se constituían en microempresarios del narcotráfico, en buena parte colombianos pero también de otras nacionalidades. De ahí que la idea de carteles que ejercen poderes monopólicos, es equivocada. La información inédita con la que se escribió este ensayo es tomada principalmente de una serie de archivos norteamericanos.

  7. Progress report 1978/79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report emphasizes a few central points of interest to be found in the activities of the VIK whose tasks are primarily to promote in general the energy industry, unholding its members common interests in energy management. The following subjects are dealt with: 1. Avoidance of a power gap as a common task for industry and politics 2. Power industry legislation, legislation governing power supply contracts, cartel laws, legislation governing the protection against nuisances, and water legislation 3. Power generation and fuels and 4. Further developments in the field of steam generators and power plants, focusing especially nuclear power stations. The final part of the report is dedicated to the cooperation between members and to public relations. (UA)

  8. To the punishability of manipulations of the trade at the electricity market EEX in Leipzig; Zur Strafbarkeit von Manipulationen des Handels an der Stromboerse EEX in Leipzig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Matthias [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Strafrecht und Strafprozessrecht

    2009-01-15

    The reproaches of the manipulation of the price formation at the electricity market EEX (Leipzig, Federal Republic of Germany) require supervision-legal, cartel legal and European legal attention. On 12 June 2008, the European Commission (Brussels, Belgium) expressed doubts, E.ON AG (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) possibly used its dominating market position. So far, the criminal content of the manipulation reproaches was not considered yet. Circumstances can justify the first suspicion due to criminal experience on criminal offences. This is valid not only for the facts constituting an offence of the stock exchange fraud towards the electricity market EEX for the disadvantage of the customer, but also for the current trade at the EEX in accordance with paragraph 20 of the law of securities transactions.

  9. Celebrado el I Encuentro Latinoamericano de Revistas Zootécnicas donde se fundó la Red Latina de Revistas de Zootecnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veterinaria.org

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe celebró en la Universidad de Córdoba, del 12 al 14 de Diciembre de 2007, el “I Encuentro Latinoamericano de Revistas Zootécnicas”, en el cual se convocó a los responsables de la edición de las revistas más prestigiosas dentro del ámbito científico. En el cartel anunciador, figura el título y fecha del evento y debajo un arco formado por portadas de revistas del sector, entre las que está REDVET, y de fondo un mapa mundi, culminado por los logotipos institucionales de las entidades organizadoras, colaboradoras y patrocinadoras: Archivos de Zootecnia, Red Conbiand, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Universidad de Córdoba, Junta de Andalucía y Ayuntamie y Diputación de Córdoba.

  10. Measuring energy security: Can the United States achieve oil independence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stochastic simulation of the direct economic costs of oil dependence in an uncertain future is proposed as a useful metric of oil dependence. The market failure from which these costs arise is imperfect competition in the world oil market, chiefly as a consequence of the use of market power by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel. Oil dependence costs can be substantial. It is estimated that oil dependence costs to the US economy in 2008 will exceed $500 billion. Other costs, such as military expenditures or foreign policy constraints are deemed to be largely derivative of the actual or potential economic costs of oil dependence. The use of quantifiable economic costs as a security metric leads to a measurable definition of oil independence, or oil security, which can be used to test the ability of specific policies to achieve oil independence in an uncertain future.

  11. Measuring energy security. Can the United States achieve oil independence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stochastic simulation of the direct economic costs of oil dependence in an uncertain future is proposed as a useful metric of oil dependence. The market failure from which these costs arise is imperfect competition in the world oil market, chiefly as a consequence of the use of market power by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel. Oil dependence costs can be substantial. It is estimated that oil dependence costs to the US economy in 2008 will exceed $500 billion. Other costs, such as military expenditures or foreign policy constraints are deemed to be largely derivative of the actual or potential economic costs of oil dependence. The use of quantifiable economic costs as a security metric leads to a measurable definition of oil independence, or oil security, which can be used to test the ability of specific policies to achieve oil independence in an uncertain future. (author)

  12. Energy and competition. Supplying Europe with safe and low-cost energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EC Commission and the Energy Committee of the European Parliament want to achieve more competition in energy supply. To this end, deregulation is to be carried out as a first step. The proposals under discussion are based on the English-Welsh model which, however, can hardly be applied to the whole of the EC and not at all to Germany, as it provides for government controlled ''pseudo''-competition to override real competition. At the same time, the German Federal Cartel Office tries to abolish altogether the concept of territorial protection. In a ''competition'' brought about by such means, foreign utilities operating in Germany would enjoy advantages over domestic utilities. From an all-European point of view, also the draft amendment to the Energy Economy Act proposed by the German Federal Ministry of Economics, and a number of regulations covering energy trust legislation, are appearing at the wrong time. (orig.)

  13. Stability factors for OPEC and the oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nationalizations of the 1970s, as well as the 1973 and 1979 sharp price increases which heightened OPEC's notoriety, considerably exaggerated the organization's image of strength, power, and dominance. In contrast, the 1980s-which witnesses the murderous war between two OPEC founding members, the shrinkage of the energy market, the emergence of new oil exporters, the dramatic price collapse in early 1986, and acute economic crises in a great number of member countries-have framed OPEC as a weak and powerless organization, incapable of enforcing any discipline or establishing any dialogue with its competitors. This paper reports that in this period of market depression, the end of a cartel-or at best its breaking apart-became common talk as too much emphasis was placed on the deep antagonisms between the rich, less populated member countries and those with dense population and relatively low income

  14. From War on Drugs to War against Terrorism: modeling the evolution of Colombia's counter-insurgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Catherine M; Sokolowski, John A

    2009-03-01

    Strategic and tactical planning for military intervention needs revision as the causes, methods, and means of conflict have evolved. Counter-insurgent engagement is one such intervention that governments, militaries, and non-governmental organizations seek to better understand. Modeling insurgencies is an acceptable means to gain insight into the various characteristics of asymmetric warfare to proffer prescriptive resolutions for mitigating their effects. Colombia's insurgency poses the challenge of assessing population behavior in a non-traditional revolutionary climate. Factors prevalent in traditional insurgency are not applicable in Colombia, specifically between the years 1993 and 2001 with the democratization of the drug cartels. The catastrophic events of September 11th reverberated in Colombia resulting in a new policy and strategy to the waging the counter-insurgency there. This research introduces a structured methodology to modeling the Colombian counter-insurgency incorporating qualitative assessment, mathematical representation, and a System Dynamics approach to represent the effects of the policy change. PMID:19569297

  15. Modeling OPEC behavior: theories of risk aversion for oil producer decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theories of OPEC such as price leadership, cartel, or game theoretic models suggest an incentive for OPEC members to expand their production capacity well above current levels in order to maximize revenues. Yet individual OPEC members consistently explore for and develop oil fields at a level well below their potential. The cause of low oil exploration and development efforts among OPEC members, and even some non-OPEC members, may have to do with risk aversion. This paper describes an alternative theory for OPEC behavior based on risk aversion using a two piece non-Neumann-Morgenstern utility function similar to Fishburn and Koehenberger (1979, Decision Science 10, 503-518), and Friedman and Savage (1948, Journal of political Economy 56). The model shows possible low oil production behavior. (author)

  16. Middle East gas: utilization, development and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationships between gas and liquid hydrocarbon fuels are interesting.Gas can be and being used to boost oil production and recovery factors in oil fields. This is proper use of gas. Gas displaces oil as a fuel in energy markets but yields a low net back. If all gas and oil producers formed a single cartel they will produce oil first and delay gas. But they are not. As a result the drive for gas harms oil and there is therefore an opportunity cost which gas producers who, in many instances, are also oil exporters, should consider. The economics of gas often depend on the condensates. In some instance gas is the economics by-product of condensates and not the other way round. Thus more gas means also more oil supplies in international markets

  17. Research on the coal enterprise society responsibility cost based on the regional oligopolistic market structure%基于区域寡占垄断市场结构的煤炭企业社会责任成本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高双喜

    2013-01-01

    本文提出如果煤炭产业处于完全竞争市场结构下,则煤炭企业无力承担社会责任成本;而在区域寡头垄断市场结构下,煤炭企业有能力承担社会责任成本.本文运用弯折的需求曲线、价格领导模式和卡特尔模式对此加以论证和说明.弯折的需求曲线证明,只要煤炭企业承担社会责任成本后,使其边际成本曲线的变动没有超出一定范围时,则煤炭企业的最优价格和最优产量决策始终不变;价格领导模式说明,如果领袖企业首先承担一定的社会责任成本,并且内化在其成本中,这样其产品的价格就会升高,因此,其产品定价策略就定位在较高价格,然后其他企业跟进定价;卡特尔模式说明,如果存在区域煤炭卡特尔,煤炭企业承担社会责任成本的可行性就比较大,因为煤炭卡特尔内各个煤炭企业在承担社会责任成本后,他们可以通过共同价格、总的产量和各自的产量的变化来消化社会责任成本,而不影响其利润.%This paper puts forward that if coal industry was a fully competitive market structure, the coal enterprise cannot afford the cost of social responsibility; and if it was a regional duopoly market structure,the coal enterprise has the ability to bear social responsibility cost. In this paper, the bending of the demand curve,price leadership style and cartel mode to argue and instructions were used demonstration and explain that. The bend demand curve proves that so long as the coal enterprise bear the social responsibility cost,its marginal cost curve's change not beyond a certain range, the best price and the optimal production decision of the coal enterprise always unchanged;Price leadership model shows that if the leader enterprise first assume certain social responsibility cost, and internalization of its cost, so its prices will rise, therefore, its product pricing strategy is high price, and then other enterprise keep up with the

  18. Risk-centered calculation of network charges in the power transmission sector; Risikoorientierte Kalkulation von Netznutzungsentgelten in der Stromverteilungswirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maennel, W. [Friedrich-Alexander-Univ., Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany). Betriebswirtschafliches Inst.

    2004-04-01

    Utilities insist that contrary to the opinions of the Federal Cartel Office and network users, distribution network operation is a high-risk enterprise. The contribution starts by listing typical relevant risks in power distribution and then proceeds to discussing risk factors one by one. Empirical findings generated with the Capital Asset Pricing Mode (CAPM) prove that the conservative approach for calculating the risk-based surcharges laid down in the VV II plus agreement is appropriate. (orig./CB) [German] Entgegen der Auffassung von Bundeskartellbehoerden und Netznutzern ist das stark anlagenintensive Netzgeschaeft mit bedeutsamen Unternehmerrisiken behaftet, deren Ueberwaelzung nur begrenzt moeglich ist. Ausgehend von generell bedeutsamen und typischen Unternehmerrisiken im Stromverteilungssektor beschaeftigt sich der Artikel mit den direkt auf die Eigenkapitalverzinsung einwirkenden Risikofaktoren. Mit dem Capital Asset Pricing Mode (CAPM) genierierte empirische Befunde bestaetigen die konservativen Wagniszuschlaege in der VV II plus. (orig.)

  19. Évaluation du dernier programme Leader (2007-2013) en Auvergne et Bourgogne : entre logiques de routinisation et risque de capture agricole

    OpenAIRE

    Bosc
, Christel; Vollet
, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Loin des images d’Épinal véhiculées habituellement au sujet du programme Leader, souvent mis en avant pour son caractère innovant et territorialisé, les exercices d’évaluation ex ante et intermédiaires menés dans les Régions Auvergne et Bourgogne ont révélé un dispositif toujours écartelé entre développement agricole et rural et confronté à une gestion bureaucratisée en raison du cadre contraignant des cofinancements européens et nationaux et des logiques de professionnalisation à l’œuvre par...

  20. Awarding legal and Union legal specifications for the routing and operation of district heating pipelines in the public street space; Vergabe- und unionsrechtliche Vorgaben fuer die Verlegung und den Betrieb von Fernwaermeleitungen im oeffentlichen Strassenraum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidt, Olaf

    2012-08-15

    The contribution under consideration deals with the question which requirements arise from the national competition and procurement law under EU law for the construction, the continued existence and operation of district heating pipes in public streets. In particular, the question will be whether the planned signing of a concession agreement or the imminent expiry of a fixed-term concession agreement are to be made known throughout the Union. Various constellations in the district heating sector will comment on whether the EU law procurement directives require the compliance with the antitrust laws. Then the requirements of the European primary law are presented for such cases in which the public procurement directives and the cartel procurement law are not relevant.

  1. Market-sharing approach to the world nuclear sales problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent decisions by West Germany and France to sell nuclear fuel facilities to Brazil and Pakistan, respectively, mark the first sharp divergence by major industrial nations from long-established U.S. nonproliferation policy. Thus far, the U.S. has been ineffective in seeking to persuade Germany and France not to proceed with them. This indicates a serious weakness in the execution of American nonproliferation policy, which if left uncorrected, could result in the rapid spread of nuclear weapons material and capability around the world. It is clear that complex problems are raised by the concept of market-sharing. A principal advocate, Dr. Lawrence Scheinman from ERDA, says that traditional arguments against market-sharing do not qualify as reasons against the concept. He does identify three basic arguments against market-sharing, which the author discusses in this article, namely: (1) reactor market-sharing is contrary to U.S. anti-cartel policy and in violation of antitrust laws; (2) other nuclear supplier countries would reject a market-sharing arrangement; and (3) the recipient countries of the Third World would view it as a nuclear cartel and refuse to do business with it. The author advocates that at the very least, the U.S. should enter the next round of supplier negotiations prepared to propose multinational arrangements for closing the commercial nuclear fuel cycle and for making all weapons-grade material generated by the fuel cycle unavailable to any nation on a sovereign basis. The U.S. should also make clear that it would view with the gravest concern the continuation of the present export policies of West Germany and France

  2. Labor Migration, Drug Trafficking Organizations, and Drug Use: Major Challenges for Transnational Communities in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Víctor; González, Laura

    2009-06-01

    In our article, we present the recent findings of our ethnographic field study on drug use and the emergence of a drug use culture in transnational communities in Mexico. Transnational communities are part of a larger migratory labor circuit that transcends political borders and are not restricted to a single locality. Transnational migrants and returning immigrants link the multiple localities through their social networks. In southern Guanajuato, Mexico, using a transnational migration paradigm, we examined the manner in which transnational migration and drug trafficking organizations are contributing to a growing drug problem in these communities. We found that transnational migrants and returning immigrants, including deported workers, introduce drugs and drug use practices, and contribute to the creation of a drug use culture within the communities. The social conditions in the community that foster and proliferate drug use are many: the erosion of the traditional family, truncated kinship bases, and new social formations. These conditions are all consequences of migration and emigration. Recent drug cartel activities are also contributing to this growing drug problem. The cartels have aggressively targeted these communities because of availability of money, existing drug use, a drug use culture, and the breakdown of traditional deterrents to substance abuse. Although a number of communities in three municipalities were part of our study, we focus on two: Lindavista, a rancho, Progreso, a municipal seat. Our field study in Mexico, one of four sequential ethnographic field studies conducted in Guanajuato and Pennsylvania, was completed over a six month period, from September, 2008, through February, 2009, using traditional ethnography. The four field studies are part of a larger, ongoing, three-year bi-national study on drug use among transnational migrants working in southeastern Pennsylvania. This larger study, near its third and final year, is funded by the

  3. Las estrategias de los partidos políticos españoles hacia las organizaciones sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verge, Tània

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the strategies used by the three state-level Spanish political parties (Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party, Popular Party and United Left in relation to civil society and their evolution during the period 1977-2004. It will be shown that competition and co-optation were replaced by different collaboration mechanisms along the 1990s. On the one hand, collaboration might be functional to electoral mobilization and, on the other hand, it facilitates the obtaining of the necessary inputs to elaborate party manifestos. Furthermore, it reinforces parties’ credibility before the electorate regarding their commitment to certain social demands. Against the cartel party thesis, access to public financing is compatible with a new rapprochement to society.

    En este artículo se analizan las estrategias utilizadas por los tres partidos políticos españoles de ámbito estatal (PSOE, PP e IU en relación con la sociedad civil organizada y su evolución en el período 1977-2004. Se demostrará que las estrategias de competición y cooptación cedieron paso a partir de los años noventa a distintas fórmulas de colaboración con las organizaciones sociales. Por un lado, esta última estrategia puede ser funcional a la movilización electoral y, por otro, facilita la obtención de los inputs necesarios para elaborar los programas electorales. Asimismo, permite a los partidos hacer creíble ante el electorado su compromiso con ciertas demandas sociales y recuperar cierta legitimidad pública. En contra de las tesis del cartel party, el acceso a la financiación pública resulta compatible con un nuevo acercamiento a la sociedad.

  4. Assessment of Correspondent Banks Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer F.A.A. Abbadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study aims at evaluating corresponding banks in Jordan. Characterizing the goals, instruments and profitability under unfavorable conditions of financial setbacks and unfair competition among banks. Focuses on the feasibility and profitability of Philadelphia Investment Bank in its international trade via its Correspondent banks. Approach: Problems and setbacks shall be screened out; reasoned and appropriate optimal recommendations are to be presented. Results: The study followed the analytical approach and depended on “History Documents” and “In depth Interview” techniques and puts a major emphasis on the fact that correspondent banking has become an essential cornerstone of international business amid the new era of world trade, globalization, external competition and cartels from the major opponents to Jordanian Banks, the main conclusion is realized the importance of correspondent banks in the international trade, so Philadelphia bank benefited from correspondent banks for the cheap cost of market entry and services were tailored to the scale of required locale. But there was no big investment in staff facilities. And there are setbacks in dealing with correspondent banks, such as fund delay in reaching destinations on time. Moreover, Jordanian banks have suffered in general from these correspondent banks because they deal with these correspondent banks individually. Conclusion/Recommendations: The recommendation of the study is, it is the time to consider solidification and forming one financial block, or a sort of cartel and face these correspondent banks in one unit. They are also called for developing collective strategies. Small banks should merge and form huge capital blocks. Another strategy is that Jordanian banks should minimize the reliance on foreign banks and should develop their own, by establishing international branches abroad to help financing their international activities.

  5. Estrategias políticas para el tratamiento de las drogas ilegales en Colombia / Political Strategies for Treating Illegal Drugs in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ebastián Quintero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Para la década del noventa, la institucionalidad en Colombia se encontraba vulnerada frente a grandes carteles que traficaban y comercializaban con narcóticos. Fue en este contexto en el cual surgió el Plan Colombia, estrategia para recuperar la institucionalidad, reducir los cultivos ilícitos de coca y amapola, debilitar la economía de los grupos ilegales insurgentes, y finalmente recuperar la confianza inversionista. Hoy 13 años después de implementado el Plan, los cultivos ilícitos han tenido una disminución pero persisten, el tráfico y el comercio de psicoactivos han mutado y el consumo se ha incrementado, por lo tanto se cuenta con una necesidad social manifiesta por abordajes que realmente procuren un desarrollo sostenible y que den respuesta a una demanda comunitaria por acciones que procuren la prevención, la atención, el tratamiento y la rehabilitación de las personas, con servicios de salud adecuados. During the 1990's, institutionality in Colombia was negatively affected by large drug-dealing cartels. It was in this context where the Plan Colombia was born. This plan was a strategy to recover institutionality, reduce illegal coca and poppy plantations, weaken the economy of illegal insurgent groups, and restore investor confidence. Today, 13 years after the implementation of the Plan, the amount of illegal plantations has decreased. However they are still present, the traffic and trade of psychoactive substances have evolved, and consumption has increased. Therefore, there is now an evident societal need for strategies which address these issues that truly lead to sustainable development. Likewise, the community requires actions aimed at preventing this issue and promoting the care, treatment, and rehabilitation of those affected by this reality while providing adequate healthcare service

  6. 反垄断从宽处理制度及其中国化%Leniency program in anti-monopoly and its Sinolization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊峰

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at attracting cartel members to surrender or expose illegal acts of others by reducing or exempting them from public law responsibilities, the leniency program in anti-monopoly law is an effective mechanism throughout the world to discover and crack cartels. The leniency program can be divided into various categories, all of which are based on three preconditions: Filing an application, providing effective information and fully cooperating with anti-monopoly authorities. China has a legal tradition similar to the program as well as legal grounds for establishing such program. However, implementation of the program in China may face potential problems arising from various factors including inner conflicts of the anti-monopoly legal regime, ambiguity of enforcement rights and weakness and lack of administrative law liabilities.%反垄断从宽处理制度旨在减免公法责任,以吸引卡特尔成员主动投案并揭发他人的违法事实,这是国际上通行的一种发现和打击卡特尔的有效机制.从宽处理制度分为多种类型,其共同的先决条件有三:提出申请、提供有效信息、完全配合反垄断执法机构的查处.中国具有与该制度相契合的传统法律土壤,也具备建构该制度的法律依据,但是中国反垄断法律体系内部的冲突、执法权归属的模糊、行政法律责任的薄弱与缺失等因素,使得该制度在中国的实施面临隐忧.

  7. Análisis de tiempos y movimientos en el proceso de contratación administrativa de medicamentos, en el Hospital México durante el año 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Cordero-García

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: Dentro de la población que atiende la Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social existe un grupo minoritario que posee necesidades excepcionales de determinados medicamentos debido a su condición clínica diferencial. Ante esta situación de importancia, a pesar que solo constituye la menor parte de los casos, la CCSS ofrece un sistema para adquirir los medicamentos tránsito y los que se encuentran fuera de la Lista Oficial de Medicamentos (LOM. Este proceso de adquisición conlleva una variedad de trámites de Contratación Administrativa, establecidos en la Ley, los cuales afectan la prescripción del medicamento al paciente. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo analizar la duración del proceso de contratación administrativa en las compras directas y licitaciones de medicamentos no LOM en el Hospital México durante el año 2009. Métodos: En esta investigación se revisó un 47.26% de la población total de expedientes de compra, que corresponden a 112 de las 237 compras directas y de licitación que aparecen registradas en el año 2009, según el Histórico de Compras 2009. Resultados y Conclusión: Se determinó que existe una alta variabilidad entre las diferentes compras (carteles de medicamentos, y entre los diferentes procesos que se llevan a cabo en cada uno de estos carteles. No existe una uniformidad en relación a los procesos de adquisición de medicamentos, lo cual dificulta el poder determinar los factores que obstaculizan este proceso.

  8. Making Sense of an Unstable Legislature: Committee Assignments in the Argentine Chamber of Deputies, 1946–2001 La lógica de una legislatura inestable: la distribución de comisiones en la Cámara de Diputados Argentina, 1946-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Lilian Danesi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Latin American legislatures have gone largely unstudied, with the functioning of the Argentine Chamber of Deputies prior to the 1980s being an entirely unexplored subject. This paper fills that gap by examining the organization of the Chamber, with particular focus on its standing committee system from 1946 to 2001. We assess the portability of two U.S.-based theoretical approaches to legislative organization by applying them to committee assignments. An original data set of Argentine deputies was constructed and a way of measuring political power in committees was devised for this study. Despite weak democratic governments, military interventions, and changes to the electoral system, we find that ruling parties have consistently influenced the committee system, shaping its structure and securing an over-proportion of their deputies in key committee positions. These results support the applicability of the U.S. originated Cartel Theory of legislative organization to understanding and studying legislatures outside that country.Las legislaturas latinoamericanas no han recibido debida atención. Un caso emblemático es la Cámara de Diputados Argentina, cuyo funcionamiento previo a los 1980’s ha sido inexplorado. Este artículo persigue llenar ese vacío examinando la organización de su sistema de comisiones permanentes desde 1946 hasta 2001. Para ello, evaluamos la aplicabilidad de dos teorías norteamericanas sobre organización legislativa para analizar la integración de comisiones, creamos una base de datos de diputados argentinos y diseñamos una forma de medir su poder político en las comisiones. A pesar de la inestabilidad institucional y los cambios de sistema electoral, los resultados demuestran que los partidos que controlaron la Cámara influenciaron en forma sistemática el sistema de comisiones, cambiando su estructura y asegurando la sobrerrepresentación de sus diputados en cargos clave. El estudio confirma, asimismo, la

  9. An assessment of the optimal timing and size of investments in concentrated solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extend the WITCH model to consider the possibility to produce and trade electricity generated by large-scale concentrated solar power plants (CSP) in highly productive areas that are connected to demand centers through High Voltage Direct Current cables. We test the attractiveness of the CSP option by imposing a global cap on Greenhouse gases concentration equal to 535 ppm CO2-eq in 2100, with and without constraints to the expansion of nuclear power and IGCC coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS). We find that it becomes optimal to produce with CSP from 2040 and to trade CSP electricity across the Mediterranean from 2050. Therefore projects like DESERTEC seem to be premature. After 2050, CSP electricity shares become significant. CSP has a high stabilization cost option value: depending on the constraints, it ranges between 2.1% and 4.1% of discounted GDP in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), between 1.1. and 3.4 in China, between 0.2% and 1.2% in the USA, between 0.1 and 1.3% in Eastern Europe and between 0.1 and 0.4% in Western Europe. A moderate level of subsidy to invest more and earlier in CSP might increase welfare. However, large-scale deployment should occur after 2040. We also show that MENA countries have the incentive to form a cartel to sell electricity to Europe at a price higher than the marginal cost. This suggests that a hypothetical Mediterranean market for electricity should be carefully regulated. - Highlights: ► An extensive use of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) will be optimal after 2050. ► Trade of CSP electricity between MENA and Europe will start in 2050. ► CSP reduces greatly the option value of nuclear power and coal with CCS. ► Learning externalities motivate moderate subsidies for earlier CSP investments. ► MENA countries have the incentive to form a cartel to sell electricity to Europe

  10. Multi-Period Natural Gas Market Modeling. Applications, Stochastic Extensions and Solution Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation develops deterministic and stochastic multi-period mixed complementarity problems (MCP) for the global natural gas market, as well as solution approaches for large-scale stochastic MCP. The deterministic model is unique in the combination of the level of detail of the actors in the natural gas markets and the transport options, the detailed regional and global coverage, the multi-period approach with endogenous capacity expansions for transportation and storage infrastructure, the seasonal variation in demand and the representation of market power according to Nash-Cournot theory. The model is applied to several scenarios for the natural gas market that cover the formation of a cartel by the members of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum, a low availability of unconventional gas in the United States, and cost reductions in long-distance gas transportation. The results provide insights in how different regions are affected by various developments, in terms of production, consumption, traded volumes, prices and profits of market participants. The stochastic MCP is developed and applied to a global natural gas market problem with four scenarios for a time horizon until 2050 with nineteen regions and containing 78,768 variables. The scenarios vary in the possibility of a gas market cartel formation and varying depletion rates of gas reserves in the major gas importing regions. Outcomes for hedging decisions of market participants show some significant shifts in the timing and location of infrastructure investments, thereby affecting local market situations. A first application of Benders decomposition (BD) is presented to solve a large-scale stochastic MCP for the global gas market with many hundreds of first-stage capacity expansion variables and market players exerting various levels of market power. The largest problem solved successfully using BD contained 47,373 variables of which 763 first-stage variables, however using BD did not result in

  11. 限制转售价格的违法性认定研究%A Study on Illegality Determination of Resale Price Restrictions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾扬阳; 原旷怡

    2014-01-01

    几起关于限制转售价格的大案引发对其违法性的激烈争论,而是否违法从根本上取决于对此行为“双重效应”的认识。限制转售价格既可能导致生产商卡特尔、销售商卡特尔、生产商与经销商双边垄断等负面效应,又具有解决“搭便车”问题、消除双重涨价等正面效应。这使得对该行为的规制应该区分情况,慎重在本身违法原则与合理原则中做出选择。基于我国目前的规制模式,应建立“安全港”制度、完善豁免条款,以提高其运行效率,从而推动我国价格与反垄断执法的进步。%Several major resale prices restrictions cases triggered a fierce debate on its illegality. However, whether it is illegal or not depends on the awareness of the“dual effects”of the resale behavior. Resale price restrictions may lead to producer cartel, retailer cartel, bilateral monopoly of manufacturers and distributors and other negative effects. On the other hand, they have positive effects as to solve the“free rider”problem, and to eliminate double prices. Therefore regulations on the behavior should be implemented accordingly and careful choice should be made between the per se illegal principle and rational principle. Based on China’s current regulatory model, a“safe harbor”system should be established, exemption clauses should be perfected in order to improve its operating efficiency, thus promoting the progress in price and antitrust enforcement.

  12. Humanitarian Protection for Children Fleeing Gang-Based Violence in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Carlson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available By the end of 2011, the US Customs and Border Protection (CBP began to see a steady rise in the number of Unaccompanied Alien Children (UAC from Central America, particularly from the Northern Triangle countries—El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala—arriving to the US-Mexico border. The number of children entering the United States from these countries more than doubled during fiscal year (FY 2012 and continued to grow through FY 2014. In FY 2013, CBP apprehended over 35,000 children. That number almost doubled to 66,127 in FY 2014, with Central American children outnumbering their Mexican counterparts for the first time. Research has identified high levels of violence perpetrated by gangs and drug cartels in the Northern Triangle countries and Mexico as a primary reason for this surge. Under the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA passed with bi-partisan support in 2008, children from Central America cannot be immediately deported and must be given a court hearing.In contrast, unless there are indicia of trafficking, Mexican children are returned immediately to their country. Advocates have expressed concern that expedited removal of Mexican children places children with valid humanitarian claims at risk of being returned to harm, including forcible recruitment into drug cartels and trafficking rings. After the spike in arrivals in FY 2014, several members of Congress called for a change in the TVPRA, urging that Central American children be treated like Mexican children and undergo expedited procedures for their removal. Many of their constituents supported such measures. The Obama administration requested additional funds to strengthen border security, speed up deportation procedures and implement measures to address the humanitarian crisis in Central America. Groups and individuals across the country came together to provide shelter, medical and psychological care and legal representation to many

  13. Necropolitics, narcopolitics, and femicide: gendered violence on the Mexico-U.S. border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Melissa W

    2011-01-01

    In 1993, a group of women shocked Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, with the news that dozens of girls and women had been murdered and dumped, like garbage, around the city during the year. As the numbers of murders grew over the years, and as the police forces proved unwilling and unable to find the perpetrators, the protestors became activists. They called the violence and its surrounding impunity "femicide," and they demanded that the Mexican government, at the local, state, and federal levels, stop the violence and capture the perpetrators. Nearly two decades later, the city's infamy as a place of femicide is giving way to another terrible reputation as a place of unprecedented drug violence. Since 2006, more than six thousand people have died in the city, as have more than twenty-eight thousand across the country, in relation to the violence associated with the restructuring of the cartels that control the production and distribution of illegal drugs. In response to the public outcry against the violence, the Mexican government has deployed thousands of troops to Ciudad Juárez as part of a military strategy to secure the state against the cartels. In this essay, I argue that the politics over the meaning of the drug-related murders and femicide must be understood in relation to gendered violence and its use as a tool for securing the state. To that end, I examine the wars over the interpretation of death in northern Mexico through a feminist application of the concept of necropolitics as elaborated by the postcolonial scholar Achille Mbembe. I examine how the wars over the political meaning of death in relation both to femicide and to the events called "drug violence" unfold through a gendering of space, of violence, and of subjectivity. My objective is twofold: first, to demonstrate how the antifemicide movement illustrates the stakes for a democratic Mexican state and its citizens in a context where governing elites argue that the violence devastating Ciudad Ju

  14. Multi-period natural gas market modeling Applications, stochastic extensions and solution approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egging, Rudolf Gerardus

    This dissertation develops deterministic and stochastic multi-period mixed complementarity problems (MCP) for the global natural gas market, as well as solution approaches for large-scale stochastic MCP. The deterministic model is unique in the combination of the level of detail of the actors in the natural gas markets and the transport options, the detailed regional and global coverage, the multi-period approach with endogenous capacity expansions for transportation and storage infrastructure, the seasonal variation in demand and the representation of market power according to Nash-Cournot theory. The model is applied to several scenarios for the natural gas market that cover the formation of a cartel by the members of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum, a low availability of unconventional gas in the United States, and cost reductions in long-distance gas transportation. 1 The results provide insights in how different regions are affected by various developments, in terms of production, consumption, traded volumes, prices and profits of market participants. The stochastic MCP is developed and applied to a global natural gas market problem with four scenarios for a time horizon until 2050 with nineteen regions and containing 78,768 variables. The scenarios vary in the possibility of a gas market cartel formation and varying depletion rates of gas reserves in the major gas importing regions. Outcomes for hedging decisions of market participants show some significant shifts in the timing and location of infrastructure investments, thereby affecting local market situations. A first application of Benders decomposition (BD) is presented to solve a large-scale stochastic MCP for the global gas market with many hundreds of first-stage capacity expansion variables and market players exerting various levels of market power. The largest problem solved successfully using BD contained 47,373 variables of which 763 first-stage variables, however using BD did not result in

  15. La editorial Ricordi y su aportación a la publicidad italiana de principios del siglo XX / The publisher Ricordi and his contribution to the Italian advertising early twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rut Francia Ferrero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El objeto de estudio de la presente investigación es el nacimiento de las campañas publicitarias gráficas orquestadas por la fructífera colaboración entre empresarios, editores e ilustradores entre los siglos XIX y XX en Italia. El estudio se centra en la Casa Editorial Ricordi porque fue la creadora e impulsora del moderno cartel artístico y publicitario italiano, con un vasta producción de ejemplares, hoy considerados obras maestras del género. La etapa de oro del cartel italiano coincide, no por casualidad, con el predominio técnico y artístico de esta empresa en Italia que nada tenía que envidiar a sus competidoras francesas (como la prestigiosa Imprimerie Chaix parisina, tan querida por Jules Chéret, alemanas o inglesas. El período analizado (1890-1914 es el de mayor actividad y esplendor artístico en las artes gráficas. Son los años de los primeros pasos en el campo de la publicidad. Como en todos los comienzos, abundan las ideas, la energía, la ingenuidad y las ganas de experimentar. Es un tiempo lleno de cambios: la transformación económica, social e industrial que vivió Europa en un lapso tan corto de  tiempo es probablemente la mayor de su historia.The purpose of this research is the birth of graphic advertising campaigns orchestrated by the fruitful collaboration between employers, publishers and illustrators between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in Italy. The study focuses on the Ricordi publishing house because it was the creator and driving force of the modern Italian poster art and advertising with a vast production of copies, today considered masterpieces of the genre. The golden age of Italian poster coincides, not coincidentally, with the technical and artistic dominance of this company in Italy that had nothing to envy their French competitors (including the prestigious Paris Imprimerie Chaix, so beloved by Jules Cheret, German or England. The period analyzed (1890-1914 is the most active and

  16. Nuclear energy forecasts and the international safeguards system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the impact of the increasing use of nuclear energy on the international safeguards system, and it identifies and assesses options for coping with the anticipated impact. A review of nuclear energy forecasts indicates a need for substantial increases in the financial and personnel resources of the safeguards system over the next decade. The requisite financial increases are probably within the limits of political feasibility, but the personnel needs may become problematic. There is also likely to be a continuing decline in confidence in the effectiveness of the system because of perceptions of inadequate resources and methods. There are several options that could reduce the projected technical and political pressures on the system: a postponement of plutonium recycle; improved materials measurement accuracies; immediate increases in the IAEA inspections staff. There are also options that would supplement the safeguards system and alleviate the pressures on it; multinational fuel cycle centers; a suppliers' cartel-like arrangement; and an International Nuclear Materials Custodial Authority. 53 refs

  17. Gonzo Strategies of Deceit: An Interview with Joaquin Segura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett W. Schultz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The interview that follows is a dialogue between artist and gallerist with the intent of unearthing the artist’s working strategies for a general public. Joaquin Segura is at once an anomaly in Mexico’s contemporary art scene at the same time as he is one of the most emblematic representatives of a larger shift toward a post-national identity among its youngest generation of artists. If Mexico looks increasingly like a foreclosed home burning to the ground, Segura could likely be the one walking away, charred matchstick between thumb and forefinger and shit-eating grin on his face. His corrosive attacks on institutions, ideologies, and power reflect a deep general distrust of authority, increasingly evident within the work of younger Mexican artists. It is perhaps most directly the result of President Calderon’s deeply unpopular war against the cartels but no doubt equally the product of decades upon decades of rampant corruption and errant policy within Mexico.

  18. Solar thermal technologies benefits assessment: Objectives, methodologies and results for 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1982-07-01

    The economic and social benefits of developing cost competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) were assessed. The analysis was restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high insolation/high energy price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs were considered, reflecting uncertainty over fuel prices and STT cost projections. After considering the numerous benefits of introducing STT into the energy market, three primary benefits were identified and evaluated: (1) direct energy cost savings were estimated to range from zero to $50 billion; (2) oil imports may be reduced by up to 9 percent, improving national security; and (3) significant environmental benefits can be realized in air basins where electric power plant emissions create substantial air pollution problems. STT research and development was found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. The normal risks associated with investments in research and development are accentuated because the OPEC cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut the growth of alternative energy sources.

  19. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  20. Energy and globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birjandi, Hossein Saremi

    Before the Industrial Revolution, nations required no energy fuel. People relied on human, animal, and wind and waterpower for energy need. Energy (oil) has resettled populations, elected officials in the free world, or changed the governments of the energy rich countries by force. Energy fueled wars, played the major factor in the might of those who have it or more importantly the abilities to acquire it by force. This dissertation researches the primacy of oil as an energy source from the time of oil's discovery to the present times. Between 1945 and 1960, the use of oil and gas doubled as power was generated for industries as steel, cement, metalworking and more important of all filling station hoses into automobiles gas tanks, thus energy swept people and societies quite literally off their feet. One in every six jobs in the industrial world hired by the giant automotive industries. The big five American oil companies spurred on by special tax benefit, these companies grew to gigantic sizes by taking out the best part of the nation's oil. Then, for greater growth, they leaped overseas and built up an immensely profitable system, in alliance with Anglo-Dutch Shell and British Petroleum, known as seven sisters. On the other side of the world, the energy producing nations form an alliance mainly to protect themselves from downward price fluctuations of oil. The struggle for survival in the global energy market forced those countries to get together and form OPEC, which is referred as an "oil cartel".

  1. The formation of the global natural gas industry: definition, constraints and challenges; A formacao da industria global de gas natural: definicao, condicionantes e desafios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires

    2008-03-15

    This study aims to investigate the real possibilities for the natural gas industry to become a global energy industry. So, it is necessary to define what global energy industry really means. In order to do a comparative analysis between the oil and natural gas industries, it is necessary to define three distinct stages of the evolution of an energy industry, namely internationalization, mundialization and globalization. This study analyzes the evolution of the oil industry trying to identify the main aspects that promoted changes and transformed the oil business into a global industry. Then, the evolution of the natural gas industry is analyzed, looking for similarities between the structural changes in both industries, and trying to determine what is the current stage of the natural gas industry. Despite the increase in the natural gas international trade and the prospects of growth of natural gas demand, there are still some challenges for this industry to effectively become global. Some of the challenges are the need of investments in production infrastructure, transportation and distribution sectors, the access to the main reserves, the uncertainty related to the demand evolution and the possible creation of a natural gas producers cartel, like the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). (author)

  2. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen-consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power. PMID:26052427

  3. “Benvenuti all’inferno”: aggressione neo-nazista e cultura hip-hop turco-tedesca negli anni Novanta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Kappler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the trauma of the racist attacks of Hoyerswerda, Rostock-Lichtenhagen, Mölln and Solingen in the early 1990s and their impact on the Turkish community in Germany using the example of rap lyrics composed during those years. Hip-hop culture in Germany is primarily appropriated by male immigrant youths, especially with Turkish roots. During the first years of German rap (early 1990s, it is thus natural that the themes of the rappers were dominated by issues of social integration, multicultural coexistence and, after traumatic events of the racist attacks, of xenophobia and racism. After a short introduction to Turkish-German hip-hop culture (general features, social and cultural implications, Kanaksta Rap and the Kanak Attak community, the article provides some lyrics (in German and Turkish and an analysis of the reception of the attacks in German hip-hop culture, especially in the production of the rap formation Cartel, a merging of several hip-hop groups with mainly Turkish elements.

  4. [Deaths by homicide in Mexico: trends, socio-geographical variations and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián; Vega-López, María Guadalupe; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos Enrique; Vega-López, Agustín; Muñoz de la Torre, Armando

    2012-12-01

    This study seeks to analyze the trend of homicide rates (total and by firearm) in Mexico between 1990 and 2009 and identify the variables that best explain the geographical variations of these rates in the 2008-2009 two-year period. Homicide rates, adjusted for age, were calculated for both sexes between 1990 and 2009 and for each state in 2008-2009. Factors associated with the interstate variations in the homicide rates were identified using multiple linear regression analysis. Results show that the homicide rate in Mexico decreased between 1990 and 2007, but doubled over the last two years (from 7.6 to 16.6 per 100,000). In 2009, the male homicide rate was almost 9 times higher than the female rate and about two-thirds of homicides involved firearms. Multivariate analysis reveals that impunity, drug trafficking, alcohol and drug consumption and school dropout in basic education - in that order - are key factors for understanding the geographical variations in homicide rates in Mexico in 2008-2009. Findings suggest that to reduce the number of homicide victims and spatial variations in the rate, it is necessary not only to fight the drug cartels, but above all to implement structural reforms in the criminal justice system and reduce the socioeconomic disparities among states. PMID:23175396

  5. Why do oil prices jump (or fall)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses theories that can explain the zig-zags of oil prices in general and in particular the recent jump. More precisely, the following explanations are discussed: Homo oeconomicus (pure profit maximization if demand is dynamic and convex), price reaction function (price increases and respectively declines depend on capacity utilization), cartelization contingent on output or revenues of which the latter can lead to backward bending supply segments and multiple equilibria, statistical descriptions (mean reversion), homo politicus, i.e., arguments for price hikes that are rational (Public Choice) despite the (long-run) economic loss. Finally two approaches are presented that emphasize demand uncertainty: one extending the above-mentioned dynamic demand framework and the other considers a dynamic game of non-competitive suppliers with lumpy investments. Summing up, a demand shock seems to be the most suitable explanation of today's high prices (indeed a shock given that International Energy Agency (IEA) and Department of Energy (DoE) were promising just a couple of years ago that we are going to have lots of oil at low prices), while others and in particular politics have surprisingly little or no explanatory power

  6. Why do oil prices jump (or fall)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses theories that can explain the zig-zags of oil prices in general and in particular the recent jump. More precisely, the following explanations are discussed: Homo oeconomicus (pure profit maximization if demand is dynamic and convex), price reaction function (price increases and respectively declines depend on capacity utilization), cartelization contingent on output or revenues of which the latter can lead to backward bending supply segments and multiple equilibria, statistical descriptions (mean reversion), homo politicus, i.e., arguments for price hikes that are rational (Public Choice) despite the (long-run) economic loss. Finally two approaches are presented that emphasize demand uncertainty: one extending the above-mentioned dynamic demand framework and the other considers a dynamic game of non-competitive suppliers with lumpy investments. Summing up, a demand shock seems to be the most suitable explanation of today's high prices (indeed a shock given that International Energy Agency (IEA) and Department of Energy (DoE) were promising just a couple of years ago that we are going to have lots of oil at low prices), while others and in particular politics have surprisingly little or no explanatory power. (author)

  7. Law of the energy economy. A practical manual. 4. new rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual presents the laws governing the electricity and gas markets, a field that has evolved at ever greater speed since the onset of liberalisation. Its content is of practical relevance and well-founded, yet nonetheless readily comprehensible to the layman. Following introductory sections on the technical and economic as well as national and European foundations of energy law are a wealth of contributions offering detailed analyses of the regulation of market structures; planning and licensing of energy infrastructure and energy installations; granting of municipal concessions to energy supply companies; trade in energy and emission permits as well as grid operation and grid utilisation; energy regulatory authorities and procedures; promotion of renewable energy, cogeneration and energy saving. The manual consistently takes account of the relevant regulations of cartel, municipal, environmental, tax, contractual and financial market law. Links to energy law proper are duly covered wherever practically relevant. The following legislation in particular has been incorporated in this new edition: 2011 amendment to the Energy Economy Law (unbundling, transmission system operator, grid development plans, modernisation in metrology, new consumer rights); 2012 amendment to the Nuclear Energy Law; Grid Expansion Acceleration and Transmission System Law of 2011 (NABEG); Renewable Energy Law of 2012; and Cogeneration Law of 2012.

  8. Paisaje sonoro de una invasión marciana - La intervención de los principios constructivos radiofónicos en el proceso de creación de las imágenes auditivas de 'La guerra de los mundos' (Orson Welles, 1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Lourdes Novalbos Bou

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available La densa iconosfera que caracteriza la civilización contemporánea postindustrial (desde la fotografía a la imagen sintética generada por ordenador, pasando por el cartel, el cómic, el cine o la imagen electrónica de televisión constata que el ser humano es un "animal visual"; un "animal visual" que sobrevive, fundamentalmente, gracias a la agudeza del aparato ocular y que se relaciona con el entorno y obtiene información, gratificación intelectual, cultural, espiritual e incluso sexual a través de la mirada. En definitiva, vivimos en un mundo creado para los ojos, en una civilización basada, desde sus orígenes, en la percepción visual. En este "universo ocular", el sentido del oído ha quedado relegado a un segundo plano, supeditado a las necesidades y carencias de la vista. Y la radio con él: la mayoría de los estudiosos de los medios de comunicación audiovisual orientan sus investigaciones hacia el ámbito de la imagen visual del cine y la televisión. Las imágenes auditivas radiofónicas, sin embargo, parecen haber quedado relegadas en el olvido.

  9. Essays on the economics of licensing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulation and licensing of nuclear power plants by the United States Atomic Energy Commission and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission are discussed. Chapter 1 overviews the licensing process and issues raised in licensing cases. Based on a sample of plants licensed between 1967 and 1978, a statistical study of the impact of public participation in licensing is performed. The study concludes that public participation has had a major impact on licensing and power-plant costs. The impact is due to a fundamental weakness of the Commissions: their inability to resolve certain issues related to acceptable social risk. The study has important policy implications for reforming the Federal licensing process. Chapter 2 contains an analysis of the Price-Anderson Act, a Federal program for compensating victims of large nuclear accidents. The Price-Anderson Act is placed within the context of generalized federal disaster relief. A model is developed that allows an evaluation programs on the basis of moral hazard and equity principles. Chapter 3 analyzes the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's treatment of its mandatory antitrust review of applicants for nuclear power plants. The main conclusion of the chapter is that the reviews have not addressed the central economic issues of antitrust that are relevant to nuclear power. Instead, the reviews contribute to further cartelization of the electric utility industry. While politically expedient, the reviews are counter-productive to the development of an optimal industry structure

  10. Law of the energy economy. A practical manual. 4. new rev. ed.; Recht der Energiewirtschaft. Praxishandbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Jens-Peter [Freiburg Univ. (Germany); Theobald, Christian (ed.)

    2013-07-01

    This manual presents the laws governing the electricity and gas markets, a field that has evolved at ever greater speed since the onset of liberalisation. Its content is of practical relevance and well-founded, yet nonetheless readily comprehensible to the layman. Following introductory sections on the technical and economic as well as national and European foundations of energy law are a wealth of contributions offering detailed analyses of the regulation of market structures; planning and licensing of energy infrastructure and energy installations; granting of municipal concessions to energy supply companies; trade in energy and emission permits as well as grid operation and grid utilisation; energy regulatory authorities and procedures; promotion of renewable energy, cogeneration and energy saving. The manual consistently takes account of the relevant regulations of cartel, municipal, environmental, tax, contractual and financial market law. Links to energy law proper are duly covered wherever practically relevant. The following legislation in particular has been incorporated in this new edition: 2011 amendment to the Energy Economy Law (unbundling, transmission system operator, grid development plans, modernisation in metrology, new consumer rights); 2012 amendment to the Nuclear Energy Law; Grid Expansion Acceleration and Transmission System Law of 2011 (NABEG); Renewable Energy Law of 2012; and Cogeneration Law of 2012.

  11. The Economics of Information, Studiously Ignored in the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Henry Vogel et. al.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economics of information has been studiously ignored in the ten Conferences of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Nevertheless, an academic literature exists which recognises genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge as natural and artificial information. Its unambiguous prescriptions would widen the scope of the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing (ABS and resolve almost all of the contentious issues identified by Kamau et al. One begins with retroactivity: because biological resources exhibit tangible and intangible aspects, the latter can be conceptualised as a set of natural information where value currently added in a patent is access to a subset not previously accessed. The economics quickly leads to a justification for a biodiversity cartel among countries of origin, wholly analogous to monopoly intellectual property rights. To achieve such a sea change in policymaking, the justification must be accompanied by a narrative that can penetrate the social sphere, much as Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights achieved through the World Intellectual Property Organisation. Several examples of bio-discoveries drawn from a popular medium are analysed in terms of the contentious issues of the Protocol and the distinct ABS that would eventuate under cartelisation. History also offers an analogy. The Parties’ eighteen years of resistance (1993-2011 to applying the economics of information to genetic resources is reminiscent to the twenty-seven years that the British Parliament rebuffed David Ricardo’s economic analysis of the Corn Laws (1815-1842.

  12. REDVET está indexada en LIBRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veterinaria.org

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLIBRIS es el catálogo conjunto de la bibliotecas académicas y de investigación de Suecia suministrado en linea por el Departamento de la Biblioteca Nacional de Suecia. En la actualidad, la base de datos LIBRIS contiene cerca de 6 millones de títulos entre libros, revistas, artículos, mapas, carteles, música impresa, recursos electrónicos, etc. En cualquiera de los resultados obtenidos tras una búsqueda concreta en LIBRIS se puede ver el título, autor, año de publicación, etc, y la frecuencia con la que se presentó información adicional, tales como tablas de contenidos, resúmenes, ilustraciones y enlaces a documentos en texto completo. El Departamento de la Biblioteca Nacional de Suecia es el responsable de la operación y el desarrollo de este servicio de búsqueda en línea.

  13. Political corruption and weak state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author starts from the hypothesis that it is essential for the countries of the region to critically assess the synergy established between systemic, political corruption and a selectively weak, “devious” nature of the state. Moreover, the key dilemma is whether the expanded practice of political rent seeking supports the conclusion that the root of all corruption is in the very existence of the state - particularly in excessive, selective and deforming state interventions and benefits that create a fertile ground for corruption? The author argues that the destructive combination of weak government and rampant political corruption is based on scattered state intervention, while also rule the parties cartel in the executive branch subordinate to parliament, the judiciary and the police. Corrupt exchange takes place with the absence of strong institutional framework and the precise rules of the political and electoral games, control of public finances and effective political and anti-monopoly legislation and practice included. Exit from the current situation can be seen in the realization of effective anti­corruption strategy that integrates preventive and repressive measures and activities and lead to the establishment of principles of good governance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179076: Politički identitet Srbije u regionalnom i globalnom kontekstu

  14. Energy law. The legal boundary conditions of power supply. 2. rev. ed.; Grundriss zum Energierecht. Der rechtliche Rahmen fuer die Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhlmacher, Gerd [E.ON Global Commodities SE, Duesseldorf (Germany); Stappert, Holger; Jansen, Guido (eds.) [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schoon, Heike [BDEW Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-01

    Now appearing in its second edition, this book presents a comprehensive overview of the legal framework governing the energy sector. It provides readily understandable coverage, across the relevant subfields of law, of the legal regulations applicable to any manner of activity in the energy sector along with a wealth of practical advice on the interpretation and application of legal provisions. The content has been thoroughly revised, updated to reflect the current status of legislation and supplemented with numerous chapters. The 2014 amendment of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) and its practical impact have also been taken into account. The following topics are covered amongst others: unbundling of network operation; connection and access to networks and metering; network charges and incentive regulation; easement contracts; energy supply and basic services; energy and electricity taxes; cartel law, law on operating aids, procurement law; energy trade OTC and at exchanges; energy trade surveillance law; fuel production and fracking; conventional and nuclear power production; renewable energy production (including offshore production); energy storage and power-to-gas; transmission line construction; climate protection (including the 2014 EEG, emission trade and the Law on the Promotion of Renewable Energy in the Heat Sector); cogeneration law, district heating and contracting; and investment protection.

  15. Communication and organizacional change / Comunicación y cambio organizacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Luz Ernestina Fierro Murga eierro@uach.mx

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication is an essential element in organizational life, thanks to this process, through which human beings share experiences, it is possible for persons to accomplish joint actions, generate agreements, commitments and participate in organizational change. The purpose of this investigation is to analyze -through open messages in the form of a poster- the influence of communications as strategies of power in organizational change.Resumen: La comunicación es un elemento esencial en la vida de las organizaciones, gracias e este proceso, a través del cual se ponen en común las experiencias y vivencias del ser humano, es posible que las personas realicen acciones conjuntas, generen acuerdos, compromisos y participen en el cambio organizacional. En esta investigación se tiene como propósito analizar -a través de las circulares abiertas en forma de cartel- la influencia que tienen las comunicaciones como estrategias de poder en el cambio organizacional.

  16. Planning Oil Prices In The World Market And Preventive Policies In Energy Sector Of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The planning of oil prices in the world can not be analyzed by means of the market-competition theory or the game theory. The current prices seem to be influenced greatly by large energy consuming industries of developed countries, oil producing corporations and cartels, and oil productions outside of OPEC. There is a lack of necessary long term policies and planning so that drastic changes in market prices can be avoided. The goal of this paper is to suggest new policies by means of discussing in following issues: 1.Initiating some form of a financial support for OPEC with the necessary follow up. 2. Utilization of oil income in sectors organized to have the least susceptibility against income loss and the lowest impact on other sectors. 3. Reducing of oil production level in the local and global framework and starting in industrialization process. 4. Replacement of oil with natural gas at a faster rate. 5. improving the oil industry infrastructure for lowering production costs and increasing variety in products in light of country economic policies and occupational strategies. 6. Imposing self-reliance on development of oil-production technology

  17. Oil market structures-strategies and performances of the actors of the international petroleum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rises of petroleum prices as revealed by the oil crises of the 1970's are the consequences of a beside market perverse game between artificial factors. The public management and the intervention of public authorities have contributed to the unbalancing of oil markets and to the confusion of the actor's strategies in the international petroleum system. The chronical decay of the petroleum prices indicate the slow and silent come back of the economical forces (laws). The management of an exhaustible asset like petroleum, raises lot of intriguing problems. This work aims at exploring the problems linked with this type of management where the decisions of the profession, of private and public companies and of the governments are closely interfering. The study is largely inspired of the meso-economical approach which consists in examining the markets structure and their determining factors, and the strategies and results of the actors of the world petroleum system. The examination of the structures/strategies/results sequence does not neglect the relations and feedbacks between each of these elements. The economical theory of oligopoly and cartel markets is also used to examine the way how prices are determined in petroleum markets. A critical presentation of the energy models allows to show how it is possible to understand, foresee and control the evolution of these prices and the possible supply/demand equilibrium. The study takes also into consideration the debates and controversies about the 'green tax' and its impact of petroleum supply and demand. (J.S.)

  18. Nuclear power: in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Agnew, former director of Los Alamos Scientific Lab., observes that modern communications have made the over-populated and less-developed countries impatient to have the energy-intensive living standards enjoyed by Europe and the US. More cartels can be expected, he feels, to give these people economic leverage unless they are supplied with cheap, available energy. He notes that all energy sources, including nuclear, have a role and must be developed. The economic and environmental impacts of nuclear energy compare favorably with other major energy sources, but the public neds to be given factual rather than sensational information about nuclear energy so that realistic comparisons can be made. Dr. Agnew points to new types of reactors for land-based facilities that can be designed and that will be safer than the water-cooled design and eliminate some risks. He also finds fuel reprocessing removing some risks, in contrast to the failing nonproliferation policy. He admonishes opponents of nuclear energy to recognize that their position has serious social and economic implications for developing countries and possibly grave political and security repercussions for the US

  19. Los Zetas and Proprietary Radio Network Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Halverson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The years from 2006 through 2011 were very active years for a number of Mexican drug trafficking organizations. However, the group that probably saw the most meteoric rise in this period, Los Zetas, had a unique and innovative tool at their disposal. It was during these years that the group constructed and utilized a proprietary encrypted radio network that grew to span from Texas to Guatemala through the Gulf States of Mexico and across much of the rest of the country. This network gave the group an operational edge. It also stood as a symbol of the latitude the group enjoyed across vast areas, as this extensive illicit infrastructure stood, in the face of the government and rival cartels, for six years. This investigation explicates the process by which Los Zetas constructed, concealed and utilized this network and attempts to draw conclusions about the motivations and organizational dynamics that brought the network to be, with attention paid to what this case says about the complex engineering capabilities of non-state entities in general.

  20. Livestock Marketing Decisions Among Pastoral Communities: The Influence of Cattle Rustling in Baringo District, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaimba George Kinyua

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to determine whether pastoralists haveresorted to sale of livestock as a form of insurance againstcommercialization of cattle rustling in which well structuredand managed cartels have organised more intense and frequentcattle raids on pastoralist, and how their decisions have affectedtheir herd size. The study was conducted among the pastoralBaringo community of Kenya. A sample size of 110 householdswas selected using multi-stage sampling procedures and interviewedusing a questionnaire. Binary Probit Model and OrdinaryLeast Squares were used in the analysis. Results indicated thatcattle rustling, particularly in its predatory state significantlycontributes to spontaneous sale of livestock even under verylow prices that in themselves could be described as raiding.The results further indicated that the number of livestock lostthrough cattle rustling dominated livestock sale and hencereduced herd size and the numbers of livestock available forsale. The insecurity generated by cattle rustling, coupled withthe poor marketing infrastructure make market inaccessible byboth buyers and sellers, resulting to increased poverty and dependencyamongst the pastoralists. Consequently, pastoralismhas become a source of misery rather than source of livelihood.

  1. US rejection of the Kyoto Protocol: the impact on compliance costs and CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the US rejection of the Kyoto Protocol, the meeting of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in July 2001 has increased the likelihood that the Protocol will be ratified. This raises a number of issues concerning mitigation costs, particularly for the buyers and sellers of emission permits. In this paper, we examine how the US decision is likely to affect compliance costs for other Annex B countries during the first commitment period. We also explore the implications for US emissions. Key findings include: - Participating Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries may experience a decline in mitigation costs, but because of the banking provision contained in the Protocol, the decline may not be as great as some would suggest; - If the majority of 'hot air' is concentrated in a small number of countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, these countries may be able to organize a sellers' cartel and extract sizable economic rents; and; - Even in the absence of mandatory emission reduction requirements, US emissions in 2010 may be lower than their business-as-usual baseline because of expectations regarding future regulatory requirements

  2. Energy and emissions trading. Proceedings; Energie und Klimawandel. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlers, Dirk; Wolffgang, Hans-Michael; Schroeder, Ulrich Jan (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    Within the 14th Muensteraner Foreign Trade legislation conference at 15th and 16th October, 2009 in Muenster (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) National and European energy policy (Dieter Kunhenn); (2) Trade, transport and distribution of energy - actual and future legal aspects (Markus J. Kachel); (3) Liberalization and regulation of energy services at multilateral and bilateral level (Christian Pitschas); (4) Legal protection for foreign direct investigations in the energy sector (Richard Kreindler); (5) Energy cartels in the light of the WTO law (Joerg Philipp Terhechte); (6) Subsidisation of renewable energy in the area of attention between WTO and EU subsidy law (Martin Lukas); (7) Legal aspects of pipeline through the Baltic Sea (Barbara Kaech); (8) Sustainability standards and their compatibility with the WTO law (Lorenz Franken); (9) Economic instruments between Kyoto and Kopenhagen - Quo vadis climate protection? (Benjamin Goeerlach); (10) Emissions rights trading with developing countries (Peter Ebsen); (11) Legal aspects of the European emissions rights trading (Stefan Altenschmidt).

  3. Geopolitics of the energy; Energy no chiseigaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J. [Energy and Environmental Programme, (United Kingdom)

    1996-02-01

    In the study of the geopolitics of energy, oil production of the world was taken up, with reference made to Middle East, East Asia, Russia, and the now-defunct Soviet Union. The oil production of the world is divided into three categories, the OPEC, the now-defunct Soviet Union, and the others (NOPCIS). Production in the now-defunct Soviet Union will begin to increase when political troubles are settled. The NOPCIS countries are making a remarkable progress in the production of oil. The progress is attributable to the increase in production in the North Sea and Latin Americas because of taxation system changes and reduction in exploration and exploitation costs thanks to the employment of new technologies. Looking into the future, it is supposed that the share of the OPEC will remain approximately 45% even in 2010, with no sharp increase expected in other countries` dependence upon the OPEC. In the Middle East region, although it is afraid there may be a short-term cartel in view of the unstable political situation, yet such will not last, with oil supply increasing to develop competition among the suppliers. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. MICROECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Prisecaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the most important microeconomic tools used in assessing antitrust and merger cases by the competition authorities. By explaining the way that microeconomic concepts like “market power”, “critical loss” or “price elasticity of demand” are used by the modern competition policy, the microeconomics scholar can get a practical perspective on the way that these concepts fit into the more general concept of “competition policy”. Extensive economic research has shown what are the market forces and economic factors that determine how cartels, which are at the core of antitrust policy, are established and sustained over time. One of the most important of these factors is the markets exposure to innovation, especially disruptive innovation. In these markets, the paradox, from a competition policy perspective, can be considered the fact that collusion is one of the least important concerns, due to the specific elements that determine the nature of competition.Instead, the main anticompetitive risk in the markets exposed to intensive innovation is unilateral conduct by which dominant incumbents can exclude competitors.

  5. Problems Faced by Mexican Asylum Seekers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anna Cabot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Violence in Mexico rose sharply in response to President Felipe Calderón’s military campaign against drug cartels which began in late 2006. As a consequence, the number of Mexicans who have sought asylum in the United States has grown significantly. In 2013, Mexicans made up the second largest group of defensive asylum seekers (those in removal proceedings in the United States, behind only China (EOIR 2014b. Yet between 2008 and 2013, the grant rate for Mexican asylum seekers in immigration court fell from 23 percent to nine percent (EOIR 2013, 2014b. This paper examines—from the perspective of an attorney who represented Mexican asylum seekers on the US-Mexico border in El Paso, Texas—the reasons for low asylum approval rates for Mexicans despite high levels of violence in and flight from Mexico from 2008 to 2013. It details the obstacles faced by Mexican asylum seekers along the US-Mexico border, including placement in removal proceedings, detention, evidentiary issues, narrow legal standards, and (effectively judicial notice of country conditions in Mexico. The paper recommends that asylum seekers at the border be placed in affirmative proceedings (before immigration officials, making them eligible for bond. It also proposes increased oversight of immigration judges.

  6. Competition Policy And Organizational Fragmentation In Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas (Tim Greaney

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Once upon a time . . . and a very good time it was, advocates for marketbased approaches to health policy had a coherent story to tell. Cost and quality would remain suboptimal as long as fee-for-service medicine persisted and the myriad market imperfections that impede efficiency went unchecked. However, things could be righted by adopting principles associated with managed care, together with pursuing sensible antitrust enforcement and government deregulation to clear away the private and regulatory underbrush obstructing market forces. Economic theorists and policy experts agreed that these steps would effectively address information, agency, and moral hazard problems and begin to glue together the pieces of our fragmented delivery system. And, for a while, things seemed to work out as promised. Providers began to reorganize into firms and other integrating arrangements and health insurers adopted financial and contractual measures designed to align provider incentives with consumer needs. Regulators directed policies at removing obstacles to competition and antitrust enforcers sought to encourage efficient consolidation while blocking cartels and provider oligopolies. Spiraling costs leveled off for a while and both payment systems and provider organizations began to adapt to market forces.

  7. The surveillance of the electricity wholesale market and emission trading market; Die Ueberwachung von Stromgrosshandelsmarkt und Emissionshandelsmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luedemann, Volker [Hochschule Osnabrueck (Germany). Forschungszentrum Energiewirtschaft/Energierecht (fee); Hochschule Osnabrueck (Germany). Wirtschafts- und Wettbewerbsrecht; Konar, Selma [Sozietaet Becker Buettner Held, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    The Regulation on Wholesale Market Integrity and Transparency (REMIT) and the German Law on the Establishment of a Market Transparency Office for Wholesale Trade in Electricity and Gas (MTS-G) have fundamentally changed the surveillance of electricity wholesale trade in Germany. From now on the Federal Network Agency and the Federal Cartel Office will be jointly responsible for monitoring the electricity wholesale trade for suspicious market phenomena and abusive behaviour. The REMIT specifies that the electricity trade must be surveilled ''with due consideration to interactions'' with the emission trade system. However, occurrences observed in recent years have shown that the emission trading system is in need of reform. This has also been recognised and has prompted extensive corrective action by the regulatory authorities of the European Union. These changes have yet to be transposed into the national surveillance regimes. The present article explains why the new role accorded to the Federal Network Agency under the REMIT fails to eliminate the structural shortcomings of the old surveillance system. At least the decision to put the collection and evaluation of data exclusively in the hands of the market transparency office and the cooperation this will prompt between the supervisory authorities responsible will make the task of surveilling the energy wholesale trading market a lot easier for the authorities. The energy transition and its exigencies will yet lead to further changes in the market and its surveillance regime.

  8. Regional energy supply in 1994/1995. Progress report of the working pool of regional power supply companies (ARE e.V.); Regionale Energieversorgung 1994/1995. Taetigkeitsbericht der Arbeitsgemeinschaft regionaler Energieversorgungs-Unternehmen - ARE - e.V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Generally speaking the present report deals with the regional power supply as part of the whole economy. In this connection it also addresses issues of economic development. The following topics are covered in its report on the activities of ARE since the annual meeting of 1994; energy policy, regional supply in the new Laender, European common market for electricity, energy-economic law, special provisions under cartel law concerning public utilities. The report concludes with a description of the organisation of ARE (tasks and aims, members, executive board, management, committees, headquarters). (RHM) [Deutsch] Gegenstand des Berichtes ist zunaechst die regionale Energieversorgung im Rahmen der Gesamtwirtschaft. Dabei wird sowohl auf die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung als auf die regionale Energieversorgung eingegangen. Anschliessend wird ein Ueberblick ueber die Taetigkeit des ARE seit der Jahrestagung 1994 gegeben. Dabei werden Aktivitaeten in den Bereichen Energiepolitik, Regionalversorgung in den neuen Bundeslaendern, europaeischer Binnenmarkt fuer Elektrizitaet, Energiewirtschaftsrecht sowie kartellrechtlicher Ausnahmebereich Versorgungswirtschaft behandelt. Abschliessend wird die Organisation der ARE (Aufgaben und Ziele, Mitglieder, Vorstand, Geschaeftsfuehrung, Ausschuesse, Geschaeftsstelle) beschrieben. (RHM)

  9. Regional energy supply in 1996/1997. Progress report of the working pool of regional power supply companies (ARE e.V.); Regionale Energieversorgung 1996-1997. Taetigkeitsbericht der Arbeitsgemeinschaft regionaler Energieversorgungs-Unternehmen - ARE - e.V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Generally speaking the present report deals with the regional power supply as part of the whole economy. In this connection it also addresses issues of economic development. The following topics are covered in its report on the activities of ARE since the annual meeting of 1996; energy policy, regional supply in the new Laender, European common market for electricity and natural gas, energy-economic law, special provisions under cartel law concerning public utilities. The report concludes with a description of the organisation of ARE (tasks and aims, members, executive board, management, committees, headquarters). (RHM) [Deutsch] Gegenstand des Berichtes ist zunaechst die regionale Energieversorgung im Rahmen der Gesamtwirtschaft. Dabei wird sowohl auf die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung als auf die regionale Energieversorgung eingegangen. Anschliessend wird ein Ueberblick ueber die Taetigkeit des ARE seit der Jahrestagung 1996 gegeben. Dabei werden Aktivitaeten in den Bereichen Energiepolitik, Regionalversorgung in den neuen Bundeslaendern, europaeischer Binnenmarkt fuer Elektrizitaet und Gas, Energiewirtschaftsrecht sowie kartellrechtlicher Ausnahmebereich Versorgungswirtschaft behandelt. Abschliessend wird die Organisation der ARE (Aufgaben und Ziele, Mitglieder, Vorstand, Geschaeftsfuehrung, Ausschuesse, Geschaeftsstelle) beschrieben. (RHM)

  10. El uso de minijuegos en la enseñanza–aprendizaje de Física y Química de Bachillerato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe QUINTANAL PÉREZ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El proyecto realizado se ha cimentado en el empleo de minijuegos educativos gratuitos que guarden alguna relacio?n con la materia de Física y Química. Esta temática ha sido seleccionada por consenso con los alumnos en base a las utilidades didácticas de los videojuegos, a la seducción que ejercen sobre los estudiantes y a la mejora en el desarrollo de sus habilidades TIC. Esta acción se realizó durante el curso 2012–2013 con alumnos de 1º de Bachillerato de las modalidades de salud y científico–tecnológica. Los estudiantes se organizaron por equipos de trabajo heterogéneos e inicialmente seleccionaron y analizaron minijuegos. Una vez escogidos, realizaron las siguientes tareas: una revista digital, una fotografía interactiva, un test multimedia y un cartel de presentación. Estas actividades fueron compartidas en la red social Edmodo. A tenor de los resultados obtenidos en la autoevaluación efectuada por los alumnos, se puede consideran la ejecución de este proyecto como un éxito. 

  11. Facultés de droit en crise : formation et socialisation des élites allemandes sous la République de Weimar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Bénédicte Vincent

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available L’article se propose d’explorer l’univers des facultés de droit sous la République de Weimar, que les contemporains jugent en « crise ». Cette perception renvoie tout d’abord aux difficultés d’adaptation d’un enseignement qui est de plus en plus écartelé entre les exigences de la science (transmettre une compréhension historique de l’évolution du droit et celles de la pratique (préparer les étudiants au monde professionnel par une connaissance du droit en vigueur : l’Université apparaît ainsi comme un lieu de confrontation entre professeurs et autorités étatiques pour le contrôle du cursus juridique. Par ailleurs, dans un contexte de grande expansion des effectifs étudiants, les facultés de droit ne connaissent pas de démocratisation de leur public et restent le domaine des élites traditionnelles ; de ce fait, elles semblent en décalage avec leur époque et continuent de former un univers passéiste que conforte l’engagement des étudiants dans des corporations traditionnelles. Ce mode de socialisation explique leur radicalisation dans le camp antirépublicain dès les années 1920.

  12. A system dynamics approach to the study of Colombian coca cultivation and the counter-intuitive consequence of law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, Sebastian; Dyner, Isaac

    2014-03-01

    A large-scale expansion of the Colombian coca cultivation is one of the most revealing signs of a structural change in the illegal cocaine market in the Andean region. From being a modest and domestic production, in the space of five years Colombian coca cultivation supplied a competitive market, capable of substituting almost completely the foreign sources of supply. The purpose of this work is to explore the role and potential of system dynamics (SD) as a modeling methodology to better understand the consequences of drug policy. As a case study, this work tests the hypothesis that the outbreak of Colombian coca cultivations is a consequence of the take down of large cartels, leading to the surge of small drug-trafficking firms called "cartelitos." Using an SD model, and elements from the economic theory of the criminal firm, our work shows how the formation of these small firms might significantly contribute to the configuring of a more competitive domestic coca industry (and hence to a more efficient crime industry). We conclude that SD seems an appropriate dynamic modeling-based approach to address policy issues regarding drug markets. The methodology takes into account the dynamic nature of drug markets and their multi-dimensional responses to policy interventions. PMID:24534325

  13. GIS application on modern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Bharath

    This is a GIS based tool for showcasing the history of modern Mexico starting from the post-colonial era to the elections of 2012. The tool is developed using simple language and is flexible so as to allow for future enhancements. The application consists of numerous images and textual information, and also some links which can be used by primary and high school students to understand the history of modern Mexico, and also by tourists to look for all the international airports and United States of America consulates. This software depicts the aftermaths of the Colonial Era or the Spanish rule of Mexico. It covers various topics like the wars, politics, important personalities, drug cartels and violence. All these events are shown on GIS (Geographic information Science) maps. The software can be customized according to the user requirements and is developed using JAVA and GIS technology. The user interface is created using JAVA and MOJO which contributes to effective learning and understanding of the concepts with ease. Some of the user interface features provided in this tool includes zoom-in, zoom-out, legend editing, location identifier, print command, adding a layer and numerous menu items.

  14. OPEC abandons quotas, more violence in Nigeria and British give away gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OPEC ministers meeting in Vienna on 11th September agreed to leave the production ceiling unchanged at 28 mn bpd. The cartel, however, is to move away from formal quotas to a system of adjusting total production to world demand. The change recognizes the fact that many OPEC countries cannot produce their full quota allowances. The new policy is described by OPEC as trying ''to ensure that supply and demand (remain) in balance with prices at reasonable levels''. ''Reasonable levels'' were not defined in the communique, but most ministers agreed they should be in the region to $60-65/bbl. The oil markets were sceptical and prices fell below $60, reaching a seven-month low at the start of October. Nigeria announced a production cut of 120,000 bpd, though this may be a recognition of the difficulty of producing oil there at present. During September, the country was plagued by further violence in the Niger Delta, including attacks on oil workers, kidnappings and sabotage to oil installations. Oil workers went on strike for two days, threatening further walk-outs. By late September, nearly 875,000 bpd of production was estimated shut-in as a result of the current unrest. Shell said it had suspended plans to repair damaged facilities in the Niger Delta because of the continuing high level of violence. (author)

  15. Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author is trying very hard to present a systematic and compact description of the energy law as a whole. For reasons metioned in the first chapter, the energy law confines itself to the law relating to energy supplied by means of pipelines and transmission lines. Energy law and the law relating supplied by means of pipelines are therefore synonyms. There is no special energy law except the one relating to energy supplied by means of pipelines. The book - intended to be read by experts and undergraduates - discusses the subject and systematics of energy law, energy control, price regulations for electricity supply industry and for the gas supply industry, the law relating to pipe-laying, licence fees and law on cartels, supply obligations of the electricity supply utilities, legal issues of energy supply contracts, liability for supply disruptions, the legal nature of public energy supply, planning law, the relating to plant licensing, atomic law, legal protection in plant licensing procedures, the current structure of industry supplying energy by means of pipelines and, finally, reform demands. (orig.)

  16. Energy law. The legal boundary conditions of power supply. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Now appearing in its second edition, this book presents a comprehensive overview of the legal framework governing the energy sector. It provides readily understandable coverage, across the relevant subfields of law, of the legal regulations applicable to any manner of activity in the energy sector along with a wealth of practical advice on the interpretation and application of legal provisions. The content has been thoroughly revised, updated to reflect the current status of legislation and supplemented with numerous chapters. The 2014 amendment of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) and its practical impact have also been taken into account. The following topics are covered amongst others: unbundling of network operation; connection and access to networks and metering; network charges and incentive regulation; easement contracts; energy supply and basic services; energy and electricity taxes; cartel law, law on operating aids, procurement law; energy trade OTC and at exchanges; energy trade surveillance law; fuel production and fracking; conventional and nuclear power production; renewable energy production (including offshore production); energy storage and power-to-gas; transmission line construction; climate protection (including the 2014 EEG, emission trade and the Law on the Promotion of Renewable Energy in the Heat Sector); cogeneration law, district heating and contracting; and investment protection.

  17. The surveillance of the electricity wholesale market and emission trading market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regulation on Wholesale Market Integrity and Transparency (REMIT) and the German Law on the Establishment of a Market Transparency Office for Wholesale Trade in Electricity and Gas (MTS-G) have fundamentally changed the surveillance of electricity wholesale trade in Germany. From now on the Federal Network Agency and the Federal Cartel Office will be jointly responsible for monitoring the electricity wholesale trade for suspicious market phenomena and abusive behaviour. The REMIT specifies that the electricity trade must be surveilled ''with due consideration to interactions'' with the emission trade system. However, occurrences observed in recent years have shown that the emission trading system is in need of reform. This has also been recognised and has prompted extensive corrective action by the regulatory authorities of the European Union. These changes have yet to be transposed into the national surveillance regimes. The present article explains why the new role accorded to the Federal Network Agency under the REMIT fails to eliminate the structural shortcomings of the old surveillance system. At least the decision to put the collection and evaluation of data exclusively in the hands of the market transparency office and the cooperation this will prompt between the supervisory authorities responsible will make the task of surveilling the energy wholesale trading market a lot easier for the authorities. The energy transition and its exigencies will yet lead to further changes in the market and its surveillance regime.

  18. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen–consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power. PMID:26052427

  19. Why do oil prices jump (or fall)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirl, Franz [Industry, Energy and Environment, University of Vienna, Bruennerstr. 72, 1210 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-03-15

    This paper discusses theories that can explain the zig-zags of oil prices in general and in particular the recent jump. More precisely, the following explanations are discussed: Homo oeconomicus (pure profit maximization if demand is dynamic and convex), price reaction function (price increases and respectively declines depend on capacity utilization), cartelization contingent on output or revenues of which the latter can lead to backward bending supply segments and multiple equilibria, statistical descriptions (mean reversion), homo politicus, i.e., arguments for price hikes that are rational (Public Choice) despite the (long-run) economic loss. Finally two approaches are presented that emphasize demand uncertainty: one extending the above-mentioned dynamic demand framework and the other considers a dynamic game of non-competitive suppliers with lumpy investments. Summing up, a demand shock seems to be the most suitable explanation of today's high prices (indeed a shock given that International Energy Agency (IEA) and Department of Energy (DoE) were promising just a couple of years ago that we are going to have lots of oil at low prices), while others and in particular politics have surprisingly little or no explanatory power. (author)

  20. Demokratie als Bürgerprojekt. Verfassungspatriotismus und Bürgerengagement Democracy as a Project of Citizens. Constitutional Patriotism and Citizen Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Eckertz-Höfer

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Bleibt unsere Demokratie unter heutigen veränderten Rahmenbedingungen – Geburtenrückgang und Alterung der Gesellschaft, hohe Arbeitslosigkeit, Finanzierungsprobleme der Sozialsysteme, Immigrationsströme, Kapitalflucht, internationale Kriminalität, Elitenkartelle, zunehmende Verwischung staatlicher Aufgaben und wirtschaftlicher Interessen, Europäisierung – überlebensfähig? Jutta Limbach geht es um die Bedingungen der Stabilität unseres staatlichen und gesellschaftlichen Gemeinwesens. Ihre Hoffnung gilt einer sich entwickelnden Bürgergesellschaft. Hier – und nicht bei der politischen Elite – setzt sie auf die Phantasie, Tatkraft und Meinungsfreude, derer unser Staat bedarf, um zu überleben.Is our democracy able to survive under the current changed conditions—decrease in birth rates and the aging of society, high unemployment, financial problems of social systems, streams in immigration, flight of capital, international criminality, elite cartels, and Europeanization? Jutta Limbach considers the conditions of stability in our state and societal community. Her hope is aimed at a developing civil society. It is here—and not with the political elite—that she finds imagination, power of action and pleasure to express opinion. These qualities are necessary for the survival of our country.

  1. Análisis de tiempos y movimientos en el proceso de contratación administrativa de medicamentos, en el Hospital México durante el año 2009 Time and Motion Analysis for the Process of Public Procurement of Drugs in Mexico Hospital during

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Cordero-García

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: Dentro de la población que atiende la Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social existe un grupo minoritario que posee necesidades excepcionales de determinados medicamentos debido a su condición clínica diferencial. Ante esta situación de importancia, a pesar que solo constituye la menor parte de los casos, la CCSS ofrece un sistema para adquirir los medicamentos tránsito y los que se encuentran fuera de la Lista Oficial de Medicamentos (LOM. Este proceso de adquisición conlleva una variedad de trámites de Contratación Administrativa, establecidos en la Ley, los cuales afectan la prescripción del medicamento al paciente. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo analizar la duración del proceso de contratación administrativa en las compras directas y licitaciones de medicamentos no LOM en el Hospital México durante el año 2009. Métodos: En esta investigación se revisó un 47.26% de la población total de expedientes de compra, que corresponden a 112 de las 237 compras directas y de licitación que aparecen registradas en el año 2009, según el Histórico de Compras 2009. Resultados y Conclusión: Se determinó que existe una alta variabilidad entre las diferentes compras (carteles de medicamentos, y entre los diferentes procesos que se llevan a cabo en cada uno de estos carteles. No existe una uniformidad en relación a los procesos de adquisición de medicamentos, lo cual dificulta el poder determinar los factores que obstaculizan este proceso.Background and aim: Within the population attended by the Costarican Social Security System (CCSS, there exists a minority group with unique needs of certain drugs due to their differential clinical condition. In this situation of importance, although only constituted by a minority of cases, the CCSS provides a system for acquiring “transit drugs” and those which are outside of the Official List of Medicines. The acquisition process involves a variety of Public

  2. URUGUAY: ¿DÓNDE ESTÁ EL PILOTO? A DOS AÑOS DE GOBIERNO DEL PRESIDENTE MUJICA (2010-2011 Uruguay: Where is the Pilot? Two years after the inauguration of president Mujica (2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN ANDRÉS MORAES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza Ia coyuntura política de Uruguay durante 2010 y 2011. Para ello, el trabajo se divide en cinco secciones. La primera repasa el contexto macroeconómico de mediano plazo, así como algunos indicadores vinculados a la pobreza y la distribución del ingreso. La segunda sección se centra en la asunción del nuevo gobierno electo en las elecciones nacionales de 2009. En particular, esta sección describe y analiza la elaboración de la agenda del nuevo gobierno liderado por el presidente José Mujica, la definición de un nuevo gabinete y la búsqueda de acuerdos interpartidarios para el establecimiento de consensos de larga duración en algunas áreas de política pública definidas por el propio Presidente. Todo ello, en el marco de un análisis sistemático sobre la forma en que el Presidente gestiona la agenda de gobierno dentro y fuera de su partido, así como adentro del gabinete y en interacción con el Poder Legislativo. Precisamente, la tercera sección está dedicada a la actividad del Poder Legislativo y en particular a la forma en que el cartel legislativo del gobierno opera la agenda prioritaria del Ejecutivo. La cuarta sección repasa brevemente la realización de elecciones municipales, luego de constituirse en la única innovación político-institucional desde la reforma constitucional de 1996. La quinta sección repasa los asuntos principales del bienio y concluye.This article analyzes the Uruguayan political juncture during 2010-2011. To that end, the paper is divided in five sections. Section one reviews the medium term economic context as well as some indicators related to poverty and income distribution. Section two focuses on the new elected government in 2009. In particular, this section describes and analyzes the agenda setting process defined by president Mujica, the new cabinet appointments and the first steps to achieve multiparty agreements on a set ofpolicy areas defined by the president's agenda

  3. Normas básicas de seguridad durante el manejo de equipos de radiaciones no ionizantes Safety basic rules when handling non-ionizing radiation equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Armida Bretones

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La preocupación creciente de los trabajadores hacia los posibles efectos nocivos de la exposición a campos electromagnéticos, está suponiendo una percepción desproporcionada de los riesgos derivados de la exposición. En la actualidad, no existe evidencia científica sobre dichos efectos nocivos, siendo aconsejable la vigilancia sobre las exposiciones que están fuera de los límites de seguridad. Desde este Servicio de Prevención y en colaboración con el Servicio de Física Médica, hemos elaborado un procedimiento que garantice, mediante criterios preventivos básicos, la seguridad y salud de los trabajadores que manejan equipos emisores de radiaciones no ionizantes, en nuestro hospital y centros de especialidades. Para la elaboración de este procedimiento hemos revisado la literatura científica relativa a los efectos de los campos electromagnéticos sobre la salud, reuniones periódicas de trabajo entre ambos servicios, identificación y ubicación de los equipos de radiaciones no ionizantes, y asesoramiento por expertos en la materia. El procedimiento establece medidas de control para los trabajadores, y medidas de control para los equipos. Con la finalidad de conseguir una buena difusión e implantación de dicho procedimiento, hemos elaborado dípticos y carteles, donde reflejamos las medidas de control para trabajadores y equipos: Onda Corta, Microondas, Magnetoterapia, Resonancia Magnética Nuclear, Láser y Ultravioleta El procedimiento con sus carteles explicativos ha sido distribuido específicamente por servicios, realizando formación e información de los trabajadores que maneja dichos equipos.Employee increasing concern about possible dangerous effects of the exposure to electromagnetic fields is meaning a distorted perception of the exposure related risks. Currently, there is no scientific evidence of the dangerous effects mentioned although surveillance over the exposures out of the safety limits is recommended. Within

  4. Strategic regulation of gas transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -exporting cartel it may be more profitable for such a cartel to coordinate their availability pricing policy than their export volumes. Another result shows that increased competition in the import market may be a disadvantage for the exporting countries when the authorities use strategic availability pricing. Consequently the use of strategic availability pricing could contribute to increase the conflict levels between the exporting and importing countries as to competition policy. If all the participants use strategic availability pricing the conflict of interests between the upstream and downstream countries would be complete as the importing country would wish to stimulate increased competition in all parts of the value chain while the exporting countries would wish the opposite. The analysis is based on a theoretical model and is consequently based on several conditions that must be considered when interpreting the results. The authors think however, that the mechanisms revealed are central in the market for natural gas. As long as the national authorities permit a certain degree of flexibility in the regulation of the availability prices for the transport and distribution of natural gas the strategic availability pricing could be an important measure in the battle for as large a part of the profits as possible in a future market for natural gas characterized by increased competition. As to Norway this would mean that possible negative effects of a more liberalised European gas market could be counteracted through strategic adaptation of the availability price in the Norwegian gas transport system

  5. Evaluación de una intervención de promoción de espacios sin humo en el ámbito educativo Evaluation of a schoolbased intervention to promote smokefree areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José García-Vázquez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer el efecto de un programa sobre el consumo visible de tabaco en los institutos de enseñanza secundaria (IES, la prevalencia y la intensidad del consumo del alumnado y el profesorado, y sus actitudes y conductas respecto al consumo en el centro. Métodos: Estudio casi experimental en 18 IES que realizaron el programa y en 18 que no lo realizaron (grupo control. Por observación directa se registró el consumo visible, la existencia de ceniceros y de carteles de «espacio libre de humo». Por encuesta al profesorado y al alumnado de 3.º de ESO y 2.º de Bachillerato, se recogieron datos de consumo de tabaco, grandes fumadores, consumo en el recinto escolar y opinión sobre la prohibición de fumar; a los profesores también se les preguntó sobre el consumo delante de los alumnos y sobre los intentos de dejar de fumar. Resultados: En el grupo de intervención había menor consumo en las zonas observadas (el 27,9 frente al 45,6% y el doble de carteles. No hubo diferencias en la prevalencia de consumo diario, pero sí en el porcentaje de grandes fumadores, que fue menor en el profesorado y el alumnado del grupo de intervención; también eran menos los alumnos de 3.º de ESO que fumaban en el centro. La opinión sobre la prohibición de fumar en el centro era favorable en los dos grupos. Conclusiones: El programa contribuyó a la reducción del consumo visible y del número de cigarrillos/día consumidos por profesorado y alumnado.Objective: To determine the effect of an intervention in secondary schools on visible tobacco use, the prevalence and intensity of smoking, and the attitudes and behaviors of teachers and students. Methods: We performed a quasiexperimental study in 18 public secondary schools that carried out the program and in 18 that did not (control group. Information was obtained on visible tobacco use and the number of ashtrays and smokefree posters through direct observation. Data were collected on tobacco use, the

  6. ESCENARIOS DE FRAGILIDAD POLÍTICA, BALANCE POLÍTICO: GUATEMALA 2010-2011 Scenarios of political fragility, political balance: Guatemala 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENZO LAUTARO ROSAL

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En 2010 y 2011, la democracia guatemalteca experimentó procesos en que dificultaron la gobernabilidad. Ambos años representaron la segunda parte del gobierno presidido por el Ingeniero Álvaro Colom. La expectativa inicial del gobierno de supuesta orientación socialdemócrata pasó a rápido debilitamiento. Los programas sociales, inicialmente la punta de lanza de su gestión, dieron paso a su uso clientelar. El interés de la ex primera dama en participar en las elecciones de finales de 2011 y el posterior "divorcio presidencial" supuso un mayor grado de desgaste y pérdida de credibilidad del gobierno. El adelanto del proceso electoral, la debilidad del Tribunal Supremo Electoral TSE, la continuidad del frágil sistema de partidos políticos, el excesivo y opaco financiamiento privado electoral vinculado, en gran parte, al crimen organizado, generaron un proceso electoral paradigmático. Las opciones partidarias representaron un espectro reducido, conservador y dominado por opciones autoritarias. A nivel económico, a pesar de que el país no estuvo afectado por los efectos de la crisis económica mundial, el debilitamiento en el manejo de las finanzas públicas, el aumento de la deuda pública a niveles nunca antes conocidos y las consecuencias de la serie de desastres naturales ocurridos anualmente como consecuencia del cambio climático, generaron un escenario complejo con serias consecuencias para los siguientes gobiernos. Los niveles de criminalidad y violencia se mantuvieron altos, solo por debajo de Honduras y El Salvador. La presencia de las redes del crimen organizado y en particular del narcotráfico se generalizaron por todo el país. Las elecciones 2011 se desarrollaron en un clima de debilidad de la institucionalidad electoral, altos niveles de violencia electoral y una lucha entre carteles por el control territorial, destacando el avance de los Zetas.In 2010 and 2011, the Guatemalan democracy experienced processes which

  7. Considering extraction constraints in long-term oil price modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehrl, Tobias; Friedrich, Rainer; Voss, Alfred

    2005-12-15

    paths endogenously from OPEC's intertemporally optimal cartel behaviour. Thereby OPEC is faced with both the price-dependent production of the non-OPEC competitive fringe and the price-dependent world oil demand. World oil demand is modelled with a constant price elasticity function and refers to a scenario from ACROPOLIS-POLES. LOPEX results show, that the OPEC optimum - because of the cartel behaviour - depends much more on the present market situations than on intertemporal considerations. This qualifies the a priori assumption of perfect market foresight, tending to a more myopic decision making from OPEC. The results indicate that OPEC may have acted quite optimal since the seventies, at least in a ten-years average. LOPEX calculates a significant higher oil price from around 2020 onwards compared to the reference scenario, and a stagnating market share of maximal 50 % to be optimal for OPEC. (Author)

  8. Considering extraction constraints in long-term oil price modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    paths endogenously from OPEC's intertemporally optimal cartel behaviour. Thereby OPEC is faced with both the price-dependent production of the non-OPEC competitive fringe and the price-dependent world oil demand. World oil demand is modelled with a constant price elasticity function and refers to a scenario from ACROPOLIS-POLES. LOPEX results show, that the OPEC optimum - because of the cartel behaviour - depends much more on the present market situations than on intertemporal considerations. This qualifies the a priori assumption of perfect market foresight, tending to a more myopic decision making from OPEC. The results indicate that OPEC may have acted quite optimal since the seventies, at least in a ten-years average. LOPEX calculates a significant higher oil price from around 2020 onwards compared to the reference scenario, and a stagnating market share of maximal 50 % to be optimal for OPEC. (Author)

  9. Problems faced by Bangladesh in introducing a nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The per capita energy resources and consumption of energy in Bangladesh are among the lowest in the world as in the per capita GDP of the country. The need for and importance of nuclear power in providing cheaper and reliable energy for economic development of the country is discussed in the light of this situation. The constraints faced by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) in the initiation and development of a national nuclear power programme are detailed. Following the liberation of the country in 1971 its financial resources were mainly channelled to the rehabilitation and restoration of the economy. As the size of the national grid has remained relatively small, unit sizes in the range of 50-200MW(e) only could be considered for commissioning. Lack of vendor interest in such small sizes and the difficulty of arranging long-term investment for nuclear stations are the main constraints faced by the BAEC. Other bottlenecks are due to the uncertainty about the nature and extent of future economic development, pricing policy for available indigenous fossil fuel, and national energy planning criteria, which are mainly influenced by the limited financial resources, national priority for various essential non-development expenditures, which use up most of the country's own earnings and foreign aid, etc. Problems that are likely to be faced in future are discussed. These include public acceptability of nuclear power in Bangladesh, the obstacles to the transfer of nuclear technology that may be erected through the prospective growth of a cartel of nuclear-exporting countries, drainage of trained manpower, etc. (author)

  10. Energy Choices. Global Energy Trends and Problems to Supply the Energy Demand; Vaegval Energi. Globala energitrender och problem att tillgodose energibehoven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radetzki, Marian (Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    Although the use of renewable fuels is increasing, oil and other fossil fuels still dominate the global energy supply the next decades, as shown by a review of energy sector development from 1990 to today and projections up to 2030. Nothing indicates that the supplies of oil or any other fossil fuel will be depleted during the coming decades. Resource Nationalism has long characterized the oil market. OPEC has since 1970 successfully controlled the supply and price of oil for its producing member countries. The cartel's grip on the oil market has been strengthened in the 2000s commodity boom, not least as a result of improved production discipline among member countries. At the same time, the long-term trend in the world's great centers of consumption is towards a lower degree of self-sufficiency in energy. The EU dependence on import of oil is expected to rise to over ninety per cent by year 2030. In order to secure a stable energy supply, clear strategies in the oil-importing countries are needed. Tools include diversified import, storage and securing supplies through futures trading on commodity exchanges. Energy policy has long been focused on supply. But the environmental aspects of energy production and use has grown in importance and now the climate issue dominates the energy policy. So far, however, the policy measures to curb the effects of climate change has been both limited and cost-ineffective. The cost to seriously limit emissions of greenhouse gases will be high. To carry out serious climate measures will annually take at least one percent of global GDP, according to an estimate by the British economist Nicholas Stern. This can be compared to the additional cost of approximately five percent of global GDP as energy consumers had to absorb between 2005 and 2008 because of rising prices for fossil fuels

  11. Colusión en licitaciones y concursos. El caso paradigmático para las entidades públicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Pabón Almanza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Con ocasión de la coyuntura relacionada con los denominados “carruseles de contratación” en Colombia y particularmente en el Distrito Capital, se ha generado un giro institucional importante para proteger los procesos de selección de contratistas. Así, desde el año 2009 la Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio creó un grupo anti-colusión, dio inicio a más de 30 averiguaciones preliminares relacionadas con la conducta tipificada en el artículo 47 numeral 9 del Decreto 2153 de 1992. El Congreso de la República promulgó la Ley 1474 de 2011 para criminalizar los carteles en la contratación pública y, por ende, la Fiscalía General de la Nación entró como un actor institucional relevante para el reproche de esos comportamientos ilícitos, así como también se han generado iniciativas para dar “muerte jurídica” a quienes logren adjudicaciones de contratos públicos por vías ilícitas. No obstante, poco se ha dicho sobre qué acción deben tomar los servidores públicos de cara a sospechas de conductas colusorias, los riesgos que cada posible conducta les reporta y las condenas a las cuales se exponen años después. El presente documento tiene por propósito analizar distintos escenarios en los que un servidor público se encontrará cuando advierta conductas anticompetitivas, enfocándonos en cuatro pronunciamientos del H. Consejo de Estado, resaltando también el entendimiento de los órganos de control sobre la materia.

  12. 社会组织参与食品安全风险治理的法律促进机制%The Legal Promotion Mechanism of Social Organizations Participating in Food Safety Risk Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秋娜

    2016-01-01

    借鉴发达国家食品安全治理的经验,在国家权威监管之下需要重视食品企业类社会组织和食品类消费者保护组织的作用。促进这两类组织参与食品安全风险治理,应允许消费者成立公益性打假组织,赋予社会组织更多的自治权,借鉴食品安全卡特尔豁免制度,吸收食品安全组织行业标准之合理部分,以期对我国食品安全风险防治有所助益。%Using developed countries′ food safety governance experience for reference,functions of food enterprises social organizations and food consumers protection organizations need to be thought highly of under the state authority supervi-sion.To promote these two kinds of organizations to participate in food safety risk governance,it should allow consumers to establish the public-benefit anti-counterfeiting organizations,give social organizations more autonomous right,use food safety cartel exemption system for reference,absorb food safety organization′s industrial standard′s reasonable parts to be to the benefit of China′s food safety risk prevention according to schedule.

  13. Socio-spatial violence prevention: Inhibiting violence in Caracas, Venezuela through spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Kasang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary urban growth in many cities in Latin American and Africa has been accompanied by unprece¬dented levels of urban violence. Latin America epitomizes this trend as three of the world’s most dangerous cities, Ciudad Juárez, San Pedro Sula, and Caracas, are located within this region (JÁCOME; GRATIUS, 2011, p. 2. Of these three, Caracas is notable because its exorbitant homicide rate cannot be explicitly attributed to the illicit drug trade-cartel wars that consume Mexico, nor is it represented by the civil conflict-gang violence that afflicts Central America. Moreover, the Venezuelan context is further distinguished as inequality, which is consistently cited as the primary catalyst for the emergence of everyday reactionary violence, is not overtly characteristic of the contemporary situation. Rather, caraqueño insecurity has largely been attributed to the exacerbation of social factors that perpetuate violence as “[…] an end in itself or a [mechanism] to injure/ eliminate another person in order to resolve an interpersonal conflict […]” (SANJUÁN, 2002, p. 95. Based on this reality, this work proposes the inclusion of socio-spatial interventions into contemporary prevention initiatives. Spatial interventions have shown a “[…] significant capacity to prevent the occurrence of violence in areas that are either totally or partially excluded from economic development and larger society […]” (DÍAZ; MELLER, 2012, p. 23. Implications of this work have the capacity to augment predominantly technical vio¬lence prevention precedent and enhance knowledge on alternative mechanisms to prevent insecurity. This study employs a comprehensive literature review in conjunction with data analyses in the development of a spatial proposal for Caracas.

  14. Manejo del aula, competencia básica del maestro líder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Petty

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumen. Es necesario establecer dos áreas específicas para llevar a cabo un proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje efectivo: la de los contenidos programáticos y la de la naturaleza del quehacer de aula. El autor se concentra en este último aspecto, fundamentado en un enfoque conductual.

    Se establecen tres componentes para el manejo de aula: (a Definición de conductas apropiadas e inapropiadas. (b La forma de llamar la atención de los estudiantes que no cumplen con las expectativas. (c El desarrollo de un sistema de manejo de conducta.

    Los docentes que utilizan carteles de normas en sus clases, encontrarán dos ejemplos, en los que descubrirá aciertos y errores. Se resalta la importancia de las "palmaditas positivas" o recompensas y se alerta del peligro de utilizar los castigos en forma indebida.

     

    Abstract. It is necessary to establish two specific areas to carry out an effective teaching-learning process. These are the program contents and the nature of the work in the classroom. This article analyzes the latter from a behavioral theoretical perspective. The author proposes three classroom management components: (a Definition of appropriate and inappropriate behaviors, (b The way to admonish those students who do not comply with the expectations; (c The development of a behavior management system.

    The teachers who post the rules of behavior in their classrooms will find two examples in which they can discover strengths and weaknesses. The benefit of patting the students on the back and the use of rewards to acknowledge their achievement and the danger of the undue use of punishment are discussed in this article.

  15. Syndication of the earth system: the future of geoscience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current global change policy debate reverberates around the polarized extremes of civilization-level cooperation through treaties as a mitigation tactic, on the one hand, and a wait-and-see approach that may lead to a climatic tragedy of the commons, on the other. Meanwhile, energy technology research is rapidly generating a perception that it will be possible to tune the earth system via carbon sequestration and other types of biogeochemical engineering. The consequences of this potential for planetary management, based on provincial self-interest, include the transition of the earth sciences into a security industry involving proprietary scientific knowledge bases of biogeochemical cycling and the evolution of a climate-design brokerage dominated by military/industrial interests. As the dominant political powers perceive the potential for planetary engineering and consider implementation, the global economy will adjust to exploit new opportunities, perceptions of which will be determined by the quality of system simulations. The growth of a viable international climate-design community will profoundly influence the trajectory of the earth system by providing either the illusion or the reality of predictability. Although this process will be chaotic at first, the probability of stabilization will ultimately be enhanced because the vast resources of the military/industrial sector will become involved. These concepts are disturbingly familiar in that they acknowledge the pervasion of competition and conflict in human technological affairs. However, they are consistent with approaches used in thermodynamics, ecological energetics, behavioral evolution, economics, and interdisciplinary climate science to describe collectively the evolution of the earth system. This paper argues that the perception that the climate can be regulated inexpensively will create an economic driving force for international cartel-style management of the total earth system. That is, the earth

  16. Oil has its price. A qualitative outline of the world oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the relevance of the oil price has been recognised since the early seventies of the last century one would expect that both monitoring and modelling practice of the international oil industry would be well developed and effective. The recent developments on the international oil market seem to have come as a surprise to many sector analysts however. This report seeks to review the structure of the international oil market in order to identify relevant drivers and internal dynamics of the international oil market. In addition several modelling approaches, as undertaken by institutions in this field, have been reviewed on the basis of this narrative and qualitative analysis. The analysis of the international oil market suggests that the role of OPEC policies has gained increasing importance, both due to the increasing dependence on OPEC production and increasing coherence of OPEC decision making. None of the models surveyed structures the international oil market as an oligopolistic or cartel-driven market however, but rather as a competitive market with OPEC either as a price-following or a price-setting marginal producer. The first approach seems adequate for the simulation of the international market structure over the nineties of the past century but seems problematic for the current and future term. The second approach reflects the recent trend of increasing OPEC pricing power but fails to present a transparent logic on the price-setting strategy of OPEC. On the basis of these notions it is suggested that future modelling practice should embed game theoretic considerations regarding the strategic behaviour of the large oil producers

  17. Competition in power grids. The right of grid connection according to Sect. 17 EnWG; Wettbewerb im Stromnetz. Der Netzanschlussanspruch nach paragraph 17 EnWG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Beatrice

    2011-07-01

    The book investigates grid connection, i.e. the physical connection of a household to the grid, on the basis of the current EnWG (Energy Industry Act) and the market situation. In order to analyze the effects of the EnWG, the deregulation period of the late nineties is gone into including the market structure before and after deregulation. The book has five sections. The first chapter describes teh development and structure of the power supply sector. The German power industry, markets and utilities are described, and restructuring attempts are reviewed critically. The second chapter goes into the new legal framework, the relationship between regulation law and cartel law, and the goals of the EnWG 2005. The third chapter goes into grid connection according to Sect. 17 EnWG. The addressees of the norm of this right are analyzed, as well as the petitioners and the objective and reasonable grounds for refusal. Refusal not based on objective and reasonable grounds interferes with competition and puts petitioners at a disadvantage. Sect. 17 EnWG also defines whether the implemented regulation is sufficient for achieving an internal market for electricity. Sect. 110 EnWG poses a problem here as it excludes object grid operators as addressees of the norm of the connection, which may violate European law. The fourth chapter goes into future legal initiatives and discusses whether there is a need for competition and more efficient grid connection in case of ownership unbundling. Compliance with European law and constitutional law must be analyzed. The fifth and final chapter summarizes the results. (orig./RHM)

  18. Generation expansion planning in a competitive electric power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Angela Shu-Woan

    This work investigates the application of non-cooperative game theory to generation expansion planning (GEP) in a competitive electricity industry. We identify fundamental ways competition changes the nature of GEP, review different models of oligopoly behavior, and argue that assumptions of the Cournot model are compatible with GEP. Applying Cournot theory of oligopoly behavior, we formulate a GEP model that may characterize expansion in the new competitive regime, particularly in pool-dominated generation supply industries. Our formulation incorporates multiple markets and is patterned after the basic design of the California ISO/PX system. Applying the model, we conduct numerical experiments on a test system, and analyze generation investment and market participation decisions of different candidate expansion units that vary in costs and forced outage rates. Simulations are performed under different scenarios of competition. In particular, we observe higher probabilistic measures of reliability from Cournot expansion compared to the expansion plan of a monopoly with an equivalent minimum reserve margin requirement. We prove several results for a subclass of problems encompassed by our formulation. In particular, we prove that under certain conditions Cournot competition leads to greater total capacity expansion than a situation in which generators collude in a cartel. We also show that industry output after introduction of new technology is no less than monopoly output. So a monopoly may lack sufficient incentive to introduce new technologies. Finally, we discuss the association between capacity payments and the issue of pricing reliability. And we derive a formula for computing ideal capacity payment rates by extending the Value of Service Reliability technique.

  19. Tracking illegal small arms traffic across U.S. borders through the implementation of firearm microstamping to small arms and small arms exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest P.

    2009-05-01

    At a border security conference in August 2008, Michael Sullivan, acting director of Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives stated that, "Nearly all illegal firearms (90% to 95%) seized in Mexico come from the United States"[1]. When firearms are recovered at a crime scene, the firearms can be traced providing specific details on illegal firearm dealers or straw purchasers within the United States. Criminals or narco terrorist groups target US dealers to source firearms for drug cartels in Mexico and South America. Joint law enforcement programs between the US and Mexico law enforcement have been effective, however, in most cases the firearms that are seized are only a small fraction of the firearms trafficked across the United States border. A technology called Microstamping, when applied to newly manufactured firearms will provide further opportunities for tracing illegal firearms for law enforcement in the United States and across the globe. Microstamping is a patented technology and trace solution where intentional tooling marks are formed or micromachined onto firearms interior surfaces that come into contact or impact the surfaces of cartridge casings. The intentional tooling marks can take the form of alphanumeric codes or encoded geometric codes, such as a barcode. As the firearm is discharged the intentional tooling marks transfer a code to the cartridge casing before it is ejected out of the firearm. When recovered at the scene of an incident, the Microstamped cartridge can indentify a specific firearm, without the need to recover that firearm. Microstamping provides critical intelligence for use in border security operations and cross border violent drug related crime investigations. This paper will explain the key attributes of microstamping technology; including its potential benefits in border security operations and how data gathered from the technique can be used in geospatial information systems to identify illicit firearm sources

  20. El triunfo de la democracia a finales del siglo XX: ¿fin de la Historia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hidalgo Rodríguez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El artículo que se ofrece a continuación pretende reflexionar acerca de los procesos de democratización de finales del siglo XX (la tercera ola, e introducir una nueva perspectiva que revise este fenómeno histórico partiendo de la comprensión particular de cada caso a través de la línea de investigación abierta por la historia del tiempo presente. Las ventajas que se derivan de utilizar la óptica propuesta son de dos tipos. Desde el plano teórico el campo temático en cuestión representa un periodo repleto de elementos e incógnitas que dan forma a la historia contemporánea de un grueso generacional importante y, por lo tanto, el análisis de los mismos resulta imprescindible para comprender su realidad contemporánea. En cuanto a la vertiente metodológica disponemos, además de las pautas interpretativas procedentes de otras ciencias (politología, sociología, etc., del testimonio oral de actores implicados directa o indirectamente y, por supuesto, de todo el enorme caudal informativo generado por estos en diversas plataformas: prensa, cine, radio, televisión, cartelística, etc. El objeti- vo central es aspirar a entender la democratización desde el punto de vista de sus pro- tagonistas dentro de contextos muy variados para señalar las claves del que pudo ser el último gran cambio que sienta las bases materiales e ideológicas del mundo actual. Palabras clave: Democratización, Historia del tiempo presente, Cambio político. 

  1. 论互联网相关市场的界定%The Definition of Relevant Internet Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟巍

    2013-01-01

    界定相关市场是反垄断法实施中的核心问题。此文主要侧重于互联网相关市场的界定。文章第一部分描述了互联网相关市场的五项基本特征。第二部分介绍中国关于界定互联网相关市场的反垄断立法和有关案件的情形。第三部分推介和阐释了欧盟委员会、德国联邦卡特尔局和德国法院在界定互联网相关市场中应用的理论与方法。文章最后部分提出了关于如何界定中国互联网相关市场的若干建议。%Defining relevant markets is the key issue in enforcing antimonopo-ly law.This paper focuses primarily on the definition of the relevant internet mar-ket.The first part describes 5 basic characteristics of the relevant internet market . The second part introduces the situation of China ’s antimonopoly legislation about the definition of the relevant internet market and the relevant China ’s antimonopoly cases .The third part introduces and explains theories and methods used by the Eu -ropean Commission , German Federal Cartel Office and German courts to define a relevant internet market .Finally, it offers suggestions about how to define the rele-vant internet market in China .

  2. Drogas, violencia y militarización en el México rural: El caso de Michoacán Drugs, violence and militarization in rural Mexico: The case of Michoacán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Maldonado Aranda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En los medios de comunicación internacionales, las drogas han recibido mucha atención, al igual que en México, pues se asocian a la violencia, la corrupción y la militarización. Si bien esto es comprensible por la importancia de las operaciones de los cárteles en las zonas fronterizas, la producción y el tráfico de drogas son fenómenos generalizados en otras partes del país, como Guerrero y Michoacán. Este último estado tiene una larga historia al respecto, así como de campañas militares para combatirlos. En este documento se examinan las transformaciones socioeconómicas y políticas del sur de Michoacán y se analiza el surgimiento del narcotráfico como resultado de los profundos cambios en materia agraria y las reformas neoliberales implantadas.Drugs have attracted a great deal of attention in the international media, as they have done in Mexico, since they are associated with violence, corruption and militarization. Although this is understandable, due the importance of the drug cartels on the border zones, drug production and trafficking are widespread phenomena in other parts of the country such as Guerrero and Michoacán. Michoacán has a long history in this area as well as military campaigns for combating them. This document examines the socio-economic and political transformations in the south of Michoacán and analyzes the emergence of drug trafficking as part of the profound changes in agrarian issues and the neoliberal reforms implemented.

  3. “The dangerous classes”: Hugo Grotius and seventeenth-century piracy as a primitive anti-systemic movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Wilson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the historical and textual representations of piracy in the writings of Hugo Grotius, primarily De Indis/De iure praedae(1603-1608 and the Commentarius in Theses XI (c. 1600. Contrary to popular belief, Grotius, in stark contrast to Jean Bodin, was not an advocate of the constitutionally homogenous Nation-State. Rather, his central concept of divisible sovereignty, the lynchpin of the constitutional theory of his early writings, unambiguously presents us with the object of the heterogeneousState. In Grotian theory, the State may be “read” as a composite construction, with a residual degree of inalienable sovereignty accruing at each unit-level. Even if only unconsciously, Grotius describes a concurrent para-political sub-division of the state between institutional Government (the “magistrates”and civil society, one that constitutes an operational system of governance within the Nation-State. Like his contemporary Johannes Althusius, Grotius’theory allows for the emergence of a wholly “private,” albeit lawful, mode of authority. This is most apparent in Grotius’ treatment of the mercantile trading Company and its Privateering operations. The corporatist theory of sovereignty permits the Company’s private agents of violence, the legally ambivalent Privateer/Pirate, to be invested with a requisite degree of sovereignty. The Grotian theory of divisible sovereignty, investing the seventeenth-century Pirate band with legal personality, serves as a vital historical precursor to the quasi-statist (trans- national criminal cartels of the twenty-first century. The Grotian Pirate/Privateer/Just Avenger, therefore, is a “nomad”: a liminal entity that simultaneously transverses both geographical and juro-political spaces, rendering him or herselfin-determinable.

  4. The European Emission Trading System and competition. Anticompetitive measures beyond reach? An assessment of the grandfathering allocation method and the Performance Standard Rate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Subsequently the development and the present interpretation of the joint application doctrine are presented. The criteria identified under Article 81 (cartels), Article 82 (abuse) and Article 86 (public undertakings) are applied to the Emission Trading System. An economic appraisal concludes the paper.

  5. L’échéance des Jeux Olympiques de 2016 et les stratégies de restructuration du transport métropolitain de Rio de Janeiro. Rio 2016 : Jogos Olímpicos e estratégias de restruturação do sistema de transportes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Beyer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La question des transports a joué un rôle décisif dans la candidature de Rio aux Jeux Olympiques de 2016. Pour remporter d’adhésion du CIO, les autorités locales ont fait la promesse d’une restructuration radicale de l’offre. L’ambitieux plan à réaliser s’appuie sur les divers projets laissés jusque-là sans suite. Faute de financements ? En partie seulement. La raison plus profonde est à chercher dans l’incapacité structurelle des politiques à modifier le cadre d’exercice du service public des transports, laissé au puissant cartel des sociétés d’autobus. L’organisation actuelle répond de plus en plus mal aux besoins de mobilité d’une métropole de plus de 11 millions d’habitants et contribue à approfondir les déséquilibres sociaux et spatiaux que l’offre de transport informel suscitée par la carence du système contribue encore à le fragiliser. La situation de Rio est d’autant plus paradoxale que la seconde ville du pays est restée à l’écart des innovations retenues par l’emblématique ville de Curitiba, dont les solutions de Bus Rapid Transit (BRT ont été adoptées dans la plupart des métropoles du pays. Pour Rio, l’échéance des Olympiades est donc un défi de taille. Présentés comme des investissements d’infrastructure, les projets de BRT doivent relier entre eux les sites olympiques et au-delà assurer l’émergence de pôles d’échange structurants à l’échelle métropolitaine. La question est alors de savoir si les aménagements planifiés vont parvenir à agir comme un levier pour restructurer en profondeur de l’offre. Un pari encore incertain dont l’enjeu est la redéfinition des rapports de pouvoir entre les sociétés de transport privées et les autorités publiques.A reorganização do sistema de transportes foi um dos aspectos decisivos no projeto de candidatura apresentado pela cidade do Rio de Janeiro para acolher os Jogos Olímpicos em 2016. Para

  6. Assessing the Macroeconomic Importance of Gasoline and Vehicle Spending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, Danilo J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poyer, David A. [Morehouse College, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Vector error correction (VEC) was used to test the importance of a theoretical causal chain from transportation fuel cost to vehicle sales to macroeconomic activity. Real transportation fuel cost was broken into two cost components: real gasoline price (rpgas) and real personal consumption of gasoline and other goods (gas). Real personal consumption expenditure on vehicles (RMVE) represented vehicle sales. Real gross domestic product (rGDP) was used as the measure of macroeconomic activity. The VEC estimates used quarterly data from the third quarter of 1952 to the first quarter of 2014. Controlling for the financial causes of the recent Great Recession, real homeowners’ equity (equity) and real credit market instruments liability (real consumer debt, rcmdebt) were included. Results supported the primary hypothesis of the research, but also introduced evidence that another financial path through equity is important, and that use of the existing fleet of vehicles (not just sales of vehicles) is an important transport-related contributor to macroeconomic activity. Consumer debt reduction is estimated to be a powerful short-run force reducing vehicle sales. Findings are interpreted in the context of the recent Greene, Lee, and Hopson (2012) (hereafter GLH) estimation of the magnitude of three distinct macroeconomic damage effects that result from dependence on imported oil, the price of which is manipulated by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). The three negative macroeconomic impacts are due to (1) dislocation (positive oil price shock), (2) high oil price levels, and (3) a high value of the quantity of oil imports times an oil price delta (cartel price less competitive price). The third of these is the wealth effect. The VEC model addresses the first two, but the software output from the model (impulse response plots) does not isolate them. Nearly all prior statistical tests in the literature have used vector autoregression (VAR) and

  7. THE ABUSE OF DOMINANT POSITION - RESTRICTING COMPETITION PRACTICE. CASE STUDY: ENI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERINDE Mihai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The abuse of dominant position along with cartel, merger and state aid are practices restricting competition strictly regulated at EU level. These practices can have a disastrous effect on the internal market harming both competition especially consumers. These practices can have a disastrous effect on the domestic market harming both competition and especially consumers. This paper aims to analyze how the abuse of a dominant position is regulated in the European Union. The research methodology used is the study of literature, analysis of legislation, case study, and the collection and interpretation of statistical data. The Competition Law at European level is harmonized among European Union member states. The competition authorities of the EU Member States work together to detect and sanction the practice that is restrictive for competition. Improving legislation that regulates the abuse of dominant position has been an ongoing concern of competition authorities, which is why the EU currently enjoys a very well established procedure. The procedure governing the abuse of dominant position consists of a series of steps that must be taken gradually to have the desired result, i.e. restoring fair competition on a given market. The case study presented in this paper is indicative and shows very clearly the next steps for referral to an abuse of dominant position, with special reference to the outcome arising when applying the procedure correctly. The analysis of statistical data regarding the number of investigations opened and the number of decisions made by competition authorities on abuse of dominant position is relevant, outlining the evolution of the work performed by competition authorities. Throughout the period of ten years analyzed (January 2004 - February 2013 there were 1583 cases of violation of antitrust laws at European level. The percentage of investigations opened by the competition authorities of the Member States is 86%, much

  8. Una propuesta para la gestión de los recursos arqueológicos de Villa Castelli, Provincia de La Rioja, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Callegari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta la propuesta que fue desarrollada para la gestión del patrimonio arqueológico de la localidad de Villa Castelli (La Rioja. La misma surge de la preocupación conjunta de la comunidad y de los investigadores por el acceso no controlado a ciertos recursos culturales arqueológicos ubicados en las inmediaciones de la localidad, que llegan, incluso, a aparecer en las páginas web de turismo provincial sin que medie un diseño para su gestión. Se generó, así, un proyecto para elaborar una propuesta de manejo que permitiera abrir ciertos sitios al turismo sin poner en riesgo su integridad. Puesto que un plan de manejo implica una construcción colectiva, se organizaron una serie de talleres participativos con los distintos segmentos de la comunidad anfitriona, en el transcurso de los cuales se fueron delineando y consensuando las diferentes líneas de trabajo y estrategias a seguir. Dado que en la actualidad Villa Castelli no cuenta con la infraestructura necesaria como para albergar el incremento de la afluencia turística que han generado los importantes polos de atracción de Ischigualasto, Talampaya y Laguna Brava, en está primera etapa la planificación apuntó a un turismo en tránsito. La elaboración del plan de manejo involucró diversos aspectos: investigación científica de base; charlas de información y sensibilización sobre el patrimonio; talleres participativos con la comunidad a fin de planificar en conjunto una estrategia de gestión; diseño de sendas y circuitos interpretativos; diagramación de señalética y cartelería bilingüe; elaboración de material didáctico, consistente en libros, pósters y folletería; como así también las acciones de monitoreo que se implementarán una vez que la propuesta se ponga en funcionamiento.

  9. FACTORES DE SERVICIOS DE SALUD Y SATISFACCIÓN DE USUARIAS ASOCIADOS AL ACCESO AL CONTROL PRENATAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Tatiana Rivera Mejía

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los factores de los servicios de salud y satisfacción de usuarias que se asocian con el acceso al control prenatal (CP en instituciones de salud de Manizales y Cali. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de casos y de controles con una muestra de gestantes que asistieron al CP en 7 instituciones. Se aplicó un cuestionario para la recolección de información a 823 gestantes. Otro cuestionario fue aplicado a 4 enfermeras encargadas de manejar los programas de CP. La variable dependiente fue el acceso al CP y las independientes: la presencia de barreras administrativas, económicas, geográficas y percepción del trato, orientación brindada y aspecto físico de los servicios de salud. Las variables que indagaron por las estrategias de búsqueda activa fueron: proporción de gestantes inscritas en el primer trimestre, utilización de folletos y carteles informativos para generar conciencia sobre la importancia del acceso oportuno al CP. Resultados: Factores como la etnia (P = 0, 01, el tipo de afiliación al régimen de salud (P = 0,001, actividad de la madre en el último mes (P = 0,04, baja capacidad económica (P = 0,038, no estar afiliada al Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud (SGSSS (P < 0,001 y la tramitología (P = 0,003 presentaron diferencias significativas entre los grupos. En ambos grupos se encontraron valoraciones positivas del trato, orientación y aspecto físico en los servicios de salud. Conclusiones: Aspectos como la disminución del gasto de bolsillo, las incomodidades derivadas de la atención y de las instalaciones, además del buen trato, respeto, empatía con las gestantes deben ser parte de los planes de mejoramiento de la calidad de la atención del CP.

  10. Pragmatismo corporativo. Estado y empresarios frente a la crisis de la agroindustria azucarera mexicana en la década de 1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo, Horacio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican sugar industry had undergone relapsing overproduction crises due to structural supply-demand imbalances and low competitiveness. Exports were confined to eventual stock surpluses which lowered the domestic, profit-depending prices. This article studies the State reaction to stock accumulation after the 1930 Depression, which endangered the viability of a key sector in rural employment. This reaction was based on the expansion of the domestic market, the conversion of sugar into a salary good, as well as the cartelization and regularization of sugar production by the Government. This latter, in its turn gave access facilities to official credit in order to finance the performance and expansion of the sugar business. The success of this program was one of the most outstanding cases of public intervention in the political economy in the thirties and later.

    La industria azucarera mexicana sufrió reiteradas crisis de sobreproducción por desajustes estructurales entre oferta y demanda y, por su escasa competitividad, sólo exportó para paliar eventuales excesos de existencias que deprimían el precio interno, del que dependían sus ganancias. Este artículo analiza la respuesta del Estado a la acumulación de stocks tras la depresión de 1930, que puso en peligro la viabilidad de un sector clave en el empleo rural, basada en la expansión del mercado interno, la conversión del azúcar en un bien salario, la cartelización de su producción y su completa regularización por parte del Gobierno, que a cambio facilitó el acceso al crédito oficial para financiar las operaciones y expansión del negocio. El éxito del programa fue uno de los hechos más destacados de la política de intervención pública en la economía a partir de los años treinta.

  11. Associating Human-Centered Concepts with Social Networks Using Fuzzy Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Ronald R.

    The rapidly growing global interconnectivity, brought about to a large extent by the Internet, has dramatically increased the importance and diversity of social networks. Modern social networks cut across a spectrum from benign recreational focused websites such as Facebook to occupationally oriented websites such as LinkedIn to criminally focused groups such as drug cartels to devastation and terror focused groups such as Al-Qaeda. Many organizations are interested in analyzing and extracting information related to these social networks. Among these are governmental police and security agencies as well marketing and sales organizations. To aid these organizations there is a need for technologies to model social networks and intelligently extract information from these models. While established technologies exist for the modeling of relational networks [1-7] few technologies exist to extract information from these, compatible with human perception and understanding. Data bases is an example of a technology in which we have tools for representing our information as well as tools for querying and extracting the information contained. Our goal is in some sense analogous. We want to use the relational network model to represent information, in this case about relationships and interconnections, and then be able to query the social network using intelligent human-centered concepts. To extend our capabilities to interact with social relational networks we need to associate with these network human concepts and ideas. Since human beings predominantly use linguistic terms in which to reason and understand we need to build bridges between human conceptualization and the formal mathematical representation of the social network. Consider for example a concept such as "leader". An analyst may be able to express, in linguistic terms, using a network relevant vocabulary, properties of a leader. Our task is to translate this linguistic description into a mathematical formalism

  12. U.S. oil dependence in a global context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.V. [Royal Institute of Interantional Relations, Londres (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-15

    The plan of this paper is to review the role of the US in the evolution of international energy security in the past; to examine the present situation and outlook for international energy trade and investment on which the US, and most major consuming countries depend, and, finally, to speculate about the possible effect on energy security of the war against terrorism. It seems that, the slogans of past energy security are not a good guide to the present problems. All industrial countries depend to some extent on imported energy supplies, but have the capacity to pay for imports over a wide range of price scenarios. Price stability is not to be expected: there will be short term shocks to both buyers and sellers, medium term cycles with leads and lags in adjusting supply capacity to demand, and long term uncertainty about the effects of policies aimed at sustainability and protecting the climate. The diversity and flexibility of international trade and investment offers the best long and medium term security and is most likely to achieve adjustments at lowest cost. Competition between oil and other fuels, and between major oil exporters to secure markets for their oil reserves, will limit the possibilities for cartel behaviour. Short-term disruptions do, however, create problems. These have been managed during the last twenty years by a combination of actual or potential use of strategic stocks by importers and reserve capacity by OPEC exporters, particularly Saudi Arabia. The role of Saudi Arabia cannot be separated from its political relationships within the Middle East and with the US. The immense flexibility of policy which the US now enjoys as a superpower could be eroded by a weakening of the acceptance the US receives from governments in the Middle East. In the last resort, if the international system fails, the US and Europe could survive the termination of oil imports from the Middle East; Asia could not, and the consequences for the world economy including

  13. 高校高水平足球运动员个性特征研究%Research on the Characteristic Features of High-level Soccer Players in Colleges and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田振华

    2012-01-01

    With the Cartel 16PF measuring table,the author of this paper takes 60 high-level soccer players in colleges and universities as the testing group,and takes college students majoring in soccer in PE departments in colleges and universities as the control group.The study shows that male high-level soccer players are better than average male soccer majors in colleges and universities in Section C and F,while female high-level soccer players are better than average female soccer players in colleges and universities in Section G;but both female and male high-level players show lower competence than average soccer players in Section I.Compared with male players,female players show features of lower competence in Sections C,E,F,N and Q1,and features of higher competence in Section M.Compared with soccer majors,high-level soccer players show features of higher competence in Sections C,G and Q2,and show features of lower competence in Section O.%采用卡特尔16PF测量量表,以全国高校高水平足球运动员60名作为实验组,高校体育学院足球专选学生作为对照组。研究结果表明,高校高水平男足运动员在C项、F项,女足运动员在G项高于全国大学生常模;在I项上则均低于全国大学生常模。女足与男足运动员相比在C、E、F、N、Q1项上呈低分特征,在M项上呈高分特征;高水平足球运动员与足球专选学生相比,在C、G、Q2项上呈高分特征,在O项上呈低分特征。

  14. El "lavado verde" en la comunicación gráfica de la publicidad de condominios residenciales en Caruaru-Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamires Maria de Lima Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdución: El término lavado verde (greenwashing se utiliza para nombrar el modo de comunicación desarrollado por empresarios para tratar de ocultar las verdades que impregnan sus productos y servicios, lo que puede indicar su débil compromiso con el medio ambiente. El objetivo de esa investigación fue el análisis de los atributos gráficos y textuales que figuran en los materiales publicitarios relacionados con comunidades residenciales en el municipio de Caruaru, Pernambuco, los cuales afirmaban tener aspectos "sostenibles". El análisis se ha centrado en entender en qué medida las prácticas de lavado verde podrían ser identificadas en este segmento de mercado. Método: Se realizó un estudio de campo entre enero y marzo de 2012 en los puntos de venta de las propiedades inmobiliarias de aquellos proyectos complementada por el estudio de las campañas de publicidad. Información adicional fue adquirida por conversaciones informales con los intermediarios y otras personas responsables de las acciones de marketing. Complementarmente se verificaron materiales de promoción tales como sitios web, folletos, catálogos, carteles y los stands de comercio. Resultados: Todos los proyectos examinados tenían algún grado de lavado verde en lo que respecta lo establecido en el documento denominado de "seis pecados del lavado verde", y el artículo 36 de la CONAR En cuanto a la infracción de la autenticidad en los medios de publicidad. Conclusión: Caruaru, por su crecimiento exponencial, atrajo empresas atrajo de distintos sectores empresariales. Sin embargo, se insta a repensar como se forman nuevas perspectivas y conceptos de vida y sostenibilidad a partir de desarrollo de acciones reales y transparentes y que cumplan con todos los grupos de interés de la ciudad.

  15. U.S. oil dependence in a global context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plan of this paper is to review the role of the US in the evolution of international energy security in the past; to examine the present situation and outlook for international energy trade and investment on which the US, and most major consuming countries depend, and, finally, to speculate about the possible effect on energy security of the war against terrorism. It seems that, the slogans of past energy security are not a good guide to the present problems. All industrial countries depend to some extent on imported energy supplies, but have the capacity to pay for imports over a wide range of price scenarios. Price stability is not to be expected: there will be short term shocks to both buyers and sellers, medium term cycles with leads and lags in adjusting supply capacity to demand, and long term uncertainty about the effects of policies aimed at sustainability and protecting the climate. The diversity and flexibility of international trade and investment offers the best long and medium term security and is most likely to achieve adjustments at lowest cost. Competition between oil and other fuels, and between major oil exporters to secure markets for their oil reserves, will limit the possibilities for cartel behaviour. Short-term disruptions do, however, create problems. These have been managed during the last twenty years by a combination of actual or potential use of strategic stocks by importers and reserve capacity by OPEC exporters, particularly Saudi Arabia. The role of Saudi Arabia cannot be separated from its political relationships within the Middle East and with the US. The immense flexibility of policy which the US now enjoys as a superpower could be eroded by a weakening of the acceptance the US receives from governments in the Middle East. In the last resort, if the international system fails, the US and Europe could survive the termination of oil imports from the Middle East; Asia could not, and the consequences for the world economy including

  16. Tracing the origins of rescued chimpanzees reveals widespread chimpanzee hunting in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadsby Elizabeth L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While wild chimpanzees are experiencing drastic population declines, their numbers at African rescue and rehabilitation projects are growing rapidly. Chimpanzees follow complex routes to these refuges; and their geographic origins are often unclear. Identifying areas where hunting occurs can help law enforcement authorities focus scarce resources for wildlife protection planning. Efficiently focusing these resources is particularly important in Cameroon because this country is a key transportation waypoint for international wildlife crime syndicates. Furthermore, Cameroon is home to two chimpanzee subspecies, which makes ascertaining the origins of these chimpanzees important for reintroduction planning and for scientific investigations involving these chimpanzees. Results We estimated geographic origins of 46 chimpanzees from the Limbe Wildlife Centre (LWC in Cameroon. Using Bayesian approximation methods, we determined their origins using mtDNA sequences and microsatellite (STRP genotypes compared to a spatial map of georeferenced chimpanzee samples from 10 locations spanning Cameroon and Nigeria. The LWC chimpanzees come from multiple regions of Cameroon or forested areas straddling the Cameroon-Nigeria border. The LWC chimpanzees were partitioned further as originating from one of three biogeographically important zones occurring in Cameroon, but we were unable to refine these origin estimates to more specific areas within these three zones. Conclusions Our findings suggest that chimpanzee hunting is widespread across Cameroon. Live animal smuggling appears to occur locally within Cameroon, despite the existence of local wildlife cartels that operate internationally. This pattern varies from the illegal wildlife trade patterns observed in other commercially valuable species, such as elephants, where specific populations are targeted for exploitation. A broader sample of rescued chimpanzees compared against a more

  17. L’audace de la culpabilité : les États-Unis et le rapport UNODC sur le crime organisé / The Audacity of Guilt: The U.S. and the UNODC’s Report on Organized Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick M. F.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Comme cela avait été prédit l’an dernier dans cette revue, le cancer des cartels de la drogue mexicains s’est métastasé et des discours impolitiques sur la « faillite de l'état » et sur son impact concernant la politique étrangère et intérieure américaine se sont répandus, bien que restants encore relativement discrets.Parmi ces considérations et discours sur les perspectives effrayantes de la violence toujours croissante et terrifiante au Mexique – et même dans les débats qui ont entouré le lancement du rapport de Antonio Maria Costa « UNODC’s 2010 Drug and Organized Crime Reports » à New York et à Washington, D.C., l’été dernier – rares sont pourtant ceux qui pointent du doigt vers la cause première de la guerre perdue contre les drogues illégales, à savoir la demande américaine de cocaïne, de marijuana, d’opiacés et de drogues synthétiques et ses corolaires : approvisionnement et distribution criminels ; blanchiment d'argent et armes. Cet article cherche à enrichir les analyses sur la situation critique du Mexique en soulignant l’étendue et l’ancrage profond de l'usage illégal de stupéfiants et des autres délits liés aux drogues dans la société américaine, tant au niveau public que privé. Par exemple, au niveau fédéral, les standards en matière d’enquête préalables et de délivrance des habilitations de sécurité ont été, pendant les vingt-cinq dernières années, assouplis à un point tel qu’un passé « drug-free » (sans drogue est l'exception et non pas la règle pour l’emploi dans les services publics gouvernementaux.Les révélations les pires et les plus critiques sont celles qui concernent ces fonctionnaires de haut niveau, élus et/ou nommés, qui ont corrompu l'état de droit aux Etats-Unis en justifiant et/ou en mentant sur leurs propres culpabilités passées et présentes. C'est seulement au travers de la mise en œuvre de la formule « sunshine government

  18. 大学新生心理健康状况与其人格特征、生活事件的相关研究%A Correlation Study on Mental Health Status, Personality Characteristic and Life Events of Freshmen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭静; 吴汉荣

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To understand the overall mental health level and influence factors of freshman, provide different perspectives and theoretic basis for psychological health educator of college students and help them make the psychological counseling and intervention. Methods Using the Symptoms Checklist90 (SCL-90), the cartel 16 kinds of Personality Factor table (16 PF) and the adolescent life event table (ASLEC), random sampling investigation of physical and moral health condition was conducted in some university freshmen who entered college in 2009 and 589 effective questionnaires were collected. After the inspection checking, correlation analysis with the T-test and the multivariate linear regression analysis were used. Results In the SCL-90 various factors score, the force symptom and the terror factors are slightly higher than the national norm, others are lower than the national norm. Depression, anxiety and other factors such as study stress in life events make significant influence on the SCL-90 score (P<0. 01). Conclusions The personality characteristics and life events are the important factors which affect university freshman psychological health conditions, therefore, it have extremely profound significance for improving university students' psychological health to cultivate their healthy personality and provide pertinent psychological health education and guidance.%目的 了解大学新生的总体心理健康水平及其影响因素,为大学生心理健康教育者提供不同的视角和理论依据,使其有针对性地对大学生进行心理辅导和干预.方法 利用症状自评量表(SCL-90)、卡特尔16种人格因素量表(16PF)和青少年生活事件量表(ASLEC),对某高校2009级大一新生身心健康状况进行随机抽样调查,收回有效问卷589份,问卷数据经检查核实后用t检验、多元线性回归分析进行数据分析.结果 2009级新生SCL-90各因子得分中,除强迫症状和恐怖两因子略高于全国大

  19. Administrative Surveillance and Fear: Implications for U.S.-Mexico Border Relations and Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Correa-Cabrera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fear has struck the people along the U.S.-Mexico border. Government authorities of the two nations have implemented techniques to secure the Rio Grande against drug trafficking, immigration, and terrorism. This article explores the issues and policies that have led to the escalation of violence on the U.S.-Mexico border and the ‘politics of fear’. Firstly, Mexican and U.S. governmental authorities are examined in the context of their actions against the various drug cartels. Secondly, the impact of such actions on the nations’ publics is analysed. The authors combine the theoretical conceptions of the ‘media spectacle’ and the politics of fear that create a ‘spectacle of fear’ to explain events in the region. Finally, the authors provide a theoretical interpretation of the politics and administration of security policies regarding the impact of violence in this border region, employing primarily the works of Michel Foucault and Hannah Arendt, which are central to any discussion of the phenomena of politics and societal violence. Overall, this work seeks to interpret the ‘culture of fear’ forced on citizens and the conflict between power and violence. Resumen: Vigilancia Administrativa y Miedo: Implicaciones para la Gobernanza y las Relaciones Fronterizas México-Estados Unidos El miedo ha tomado por sorpresa a la población que habita en la región fronteriza México-Estados Unidos. Las autoridades han implementado acciones para combatir, en ambos lados del Río Bravo, el tráfico de drogas, la migración y el terrorismo. En este artículo se explican las causas de la violencia fronteriza que derivan en la ‘política del miedo’. Primeramente, se analizan las acciones de las autoridades mexicanas y estadounidenses en contra de los denominados cárteles de la droga. En segundo lugar, se evalúa el impacto de dichas acciones sobre la sociedad en ambas naciones. Los autores combinan las nociones teóricas de

  20. Impact of different national biomass policies on investment costs of biomass district heating plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    costs to justify higher subsidies. Monitoring of actual costs could prevent this problem. The investigations also show that specific investment costs are closely related to the technical design of the plant. Applying strict technical criteria leads to high full load hours and thus decreases specific investment costs per heat produced. However, higher investment costs (e.g. for technical equipment) can also reduce the operation costs. Due to a lack of availability these costs were not analysed, but taken into account by forming different plant samples. Other identified measures for decreasing costs are: to provide organisational structures for professional training, standardised tender documents, increased quality of feasibility studies. European benchmarking, rigorous anti-cartel policies, organised advice for possible new operators, communication platforms for plant operators, model contracts with planners. (au)

  1. Economics of lifecycle analysis and greenhouse gas regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2009-11-01

    the market power of OPEC (Oil Producing and Exporting Countries), a cartel of nations which is the single largest oil exporting entity in the world, and is an entity considered unreliable. On the other hand, it reduces the demand for domestic farm subsidies. At the same crops comprise a small share of the retail price of food. As a result, the expected negative impact of biofuel was at worst a small increase in the retail price of food. However, the food price inflation in the year 2008 suggests that the negative impact on food consumers was significantly higher than expected and also outweighed the impact fuel consumers. I estimate the effect on biofuels on food and oil prices and compare them to other estimates in the literature and also relate these to prices observed in the real world. The third topic is the economics of greenhouse gas regulations of transportation fuels. Climate change policies such as United Nations' Kyoto protocol, European Union Emission Trading Scheme, and the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in the US north-east mandate an aggregate emission target, called a cap and allow regulated entities to trade responsibilities for abatement. Furthermore, these policies have generally and sometimes exclusively targeted the electricity and industrial sector for emission reduction. However, the Low carbon fuel standard and Renewable fuel standard are two policies about to be implemented by the State of California and the US federal government, which exclusively target the transportation sector for emission reduction. Furthermore, these regulations mandate emission intensity target for fuels rather than aggregate emission reduction. I compare the cost-effectiveness of these two types of regulations, namely, aggregate emission caps versus emission intensity standards and discuss how prices, output and emissions vary between these two types of policies.

  2. LNG, Competition and Security of Supply: the Role of Shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, one of the main concerns of European Union in the energetic field has been that of facilitating the safeguard of raw materials' security of supply, especially that of natural gas. Import through LNG chain, that is, through the employment of LNG tankers for gas transportation, has been identified by the European Council as one of the instruments to achieve these goals. In fact, import via LNG does not require, for the importer, such investments as to determine an indissoluble physical tie between producer and buyer, as happens for transport via pipeline (Chernyavska et al., 2002). In other words, investments in pipelines are very specific. Moreover, as they are made in order to support specific transactions, contracts usually take the form of long-term agreements with minimum off take requirements (take or pay clauses): such contracts definitely contribute to the cartelization of the market, hindering competition. Unlike investments in pipelines, those in the LNG chain present a much lower degree of specificity: in fact, even though the construction of a re gasification plant is generally tied to the stipulation of a long-term agreement (with take or pay clause), LNG chain costs have significantly decreased over time (until a few years ago) and, moreover, it is getting increasingly common that part of plant capacity is made available for spot transactions. What's more, once the contract is expired and the investment is sunk, the importer may satisfy his gas supply needs on the basis of his relative gains. As far as LNG import contractual practices are concerned, significant changes have started to take places in the last few years, both in terms of agreements' length average duration has significantly decreased and in terms of price indexation in the most developed markets LNG price is tied to gas spot price (IEA, 2006). One of the many possible advantages of transport via LNG is that liquefied gas enables European importers to widen their gas

  3. International Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper analyzes recent market trends in the oil and natural gas sector. For the latter, a focus on the European gas market is then presented, whose consumption has grown considerably in these last ten years. As for the oil sector this paper investigates the key elements that have shaped its market in these years. As for oil consumption, we show that in these last 15 years China, India and the Middle East are the main responsible for the increase in World consumption. On the other hand, European OECD Countries have consistently reduced (almost 9%) their oil demand. This is due both to the dematerialization of their economy and their significant improvements in energy efficiency. As for energy intensity, in fact, Europe by far is the most efficient region in the World. On the other hand, OPEC has drastically raised its share of total production: at present the cartel accounts for more than 40% of overall production. OPEC members were the only producers to meet World's needs as oil demand expanded. The difficulties of other producers to keep up with the demand originated in the nineties, when no investment in new production capacity was brought about due to low oil prices. In the end of 2008, anyway, recession has eased the situation: for the first time in fifteen years, demand has not grown, compared to 2007 consumption. Recession has also shrunk prices, which, as soon as the demand started decreasing, have collapsed by almost 70%. As for the gas sector, the paper focuses on the European market where, after ten years from the beginning of the liberalization process, competition is still missing. In particular, the paper discusses whether LNG can bring about the competition so desperately needed. Unlike investments in pipelines, those in the LNG chain present a much lower degree of specificity, since the importer is not physically tied with the producer; moreover, it is getting increasingly common that part of the plant capacity is made available for spot

  4. Josep Renau y la recuperación de una belleza comprometida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabañas Bravo, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Besides the question about the link between beauty and commitment, the paper analyses and proposes the restoration of both the existential and creative trajectory of Josep Renau (Valencia, 1907-Berlin, 1982, as one of the greatest Spanish modern painters without any doubt, but also a most singular, versatile and committed one. He was dedicated to painting, muralist painting, illustration, graphics and posters design or photomontage. His very intense development, in a sort of progression in relation to both socio-cultural commitment and artistic renovation, went through artistic and cultural stages of three significant countries binding his life, creativity and pilgrimage: Spain, Mexico and the former German Democratic Republic. Nevertheless, this commitment, so previously linked to his creative development, was simultaneously changing and varying from the impetuous commitment to the Spanish stage, to an endogen commitment of Mexican character and finally to the hexogen German stage, thus becoming from the seventies a functional implication adapted to the social requirement. At any rate, under such conditionings and during his development, he generated a kind of contingent or complex beauty –which we have called “committed beauty”-, the recovery of which must be undertaken while we also restore the figure of the artist himself.Junto a la pregunta por el vínculo de la belleza y el compromiso, se analiza y propone la recuperación conjunta de la trayectoria vivencial y creativa de Josep Renau (Valencia 1907-Berlín 1982, sin duda uno de los grandes creadores del arte español contemporáneo, pero también uno de sus artistas más singulares, polifacéticos y comprometidos. Dedicado a la pintura, el muralismo, la ilustración, el diseño gráfico, el cartel o el fotomontaje, su intensa evolución pasó, en una suerte de progresión respecto al compromiso socio-cultural y la renovación artística, por los ámbitos artístico-culturales de

  5. Mortalidad por homicidios en México: tendencias, variaciones socio-geográficas y factores asociados Deaths by homicide in Mexico: trends, socio-geographical variations and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Julián González-Pérez

    2012-12-01

    ,000. In 2009, the male homicide rate was almost 9 times higher than the female rate and about two-thirds of homicides involved firearms. Multivariate analysis reveals that impunity, drug trafficking, alcohol and drug consumption and school dropout in basic education - in that order - are key factors for understanding the geographical variations in homicide rates in Mexico in 2008-2009. Findings suggest that to reduce the number of homicide victims and spatial variations in the rate, it is necessary not only to fight the drug cartels, but above all to implement structural reforms in the criminal justice system and reduce the socioeconomic disparities among states.

  6. Effects of a Liberalized European Gas Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-07-01

    After World War II a position that for some time was called ''left-liberal'' tried to reconcile the values of individual freedom with social justice and a more egalitarian distribution of income. According to this perception, the government should let markets work if they satisfy social goals. However, if markets are non-competitive, either by nature or cartelization, often a public authority or a regulator must intervene in order to secure social goals, such as the provision of important goods and services, to avoid excessive pricing practices etc. If the results from competitive markets achieved either by actual competition or by public regulations bring about unacceptable injustice or inequality between persons, groups or regions, governments should intervene to correct this by redistributing income through taxes and subsidies, partnership schemes with the industry, and so on. For the functioning of natural gas markets, the most crucial element is the cost of, and access to, transportation. Cost of gas transportation is often characterized by strong elements of scale and scope economies, making transporting firms natural monopolies in the markets in which they operate. In Europe, many public utilities operating as natural monopolies were nationalized in the aftermath of World War II. Being monopolists by nature (but sometimes only by law) they were considered bottlenecks in the development of each nation's competitiveness. Probably the most frequently used argument explaining these firms' inefficient use of resources, has been the lack of competition. Liberalization of a market represents a departure from the ''one management'' approach. However, the particular aspect of by-nature non-competitive markets, such as major parts of the European gas market, is that the goals of competition cannot be achieved only by removal of trade barriers. If the most efficient operation of a market is done by one, or only a few

  7. Phenol oxidase activity in secondary transformed peat-moorsh soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styła, K.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    The chemical composition of peat depends on the geobotanical conditions of its formation and on the depth of sampling. The evolution of hydrogenic peat soils is closely related to the genesis of peat and to the changes in water conditions. Due to a number of factors including oscillation of ground water level, different redox potential, changes of aerobic conditions, different plant communities, and root exudes, and products of the degradation of plant remains, peat-moorsh soils may undergo a process of secondary transformation conditions (Sokolowska et al. 2005; Szajdak et al. 2007). Phenol oxidase is one of the few enzymes able to degrade recalcitrant phenolic materials as lignin (Freeman et al. 2004). Phenol oxidase enzymes catalyze polyphenol oxidation in the presence of oxygen (O2) by removing phenolic hydrogen or hydrogenes to from radicals or quinines. These products undergo nucleophilic addition reactions in the presence or absence of free - NH2 group with the eventual production of humic acid-like polymers. The presence of phenol oxidase in soil environments is important in the formation of humic substances a desirable process because the carbon is stored in a stable form (Matocha et al. 2004). The investigations were carried out on the transect of peatland 4.5 km long, located in the Agroecological Landscape Park host D. Chlapowski in Turew (40 km South-West of Poznań, West Polish Lowland). The sites of investigation were located along Wyskoć ditch. The following material was taken from four chosen sites marked as Zbechy, Bridge, Shelterbelt and Hirudo in two layers: cartel (0-50cm) and cattle (50-100cm). The object of this study was to characterize the biochemical properties by the determination of the phenol oxidize activity in two layers of the four different peat-moors soils used as meadow. The phenol oxidase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring quinone formation at λmax=525 nm with catechol as substrate by method of Perucci

  8. O significado atribuído ao papel masculino e feminino por adolescentes de periferia El significado que los adolescentes de la periferia le atribuyen al rol masculino y femenino Meanings attributed to the masculine and feminine roles by socially-excluded adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Baggio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de pesquisa-ação cujo objetivo foi compreender os significados atribuídos ao papel masculino e feminino pelos adolescentes/jovens integrantes de um projeto de inclusão social. Participaram 27 sujeitos vinculados aos grupos da Gastronomia, Estética e Nova Descoberta. Os dados derivam da oficina "conhecimento do corpo humano", desenvolvida nos três grupos em momentos distintos, por meio da construção de cartazes, atividades de recorte, colagem, desenho, escrita; utilização de manequim e abordagem dialógica do tema. Os dados foram analisados conforme o método de análise temática de conteúdo. Os resultados apontam duas categorias: "a fortaleza e o poder masculino" e "o papel contraditório do gênero feminino". Conclui-se que as diferenças dos papéis masculino e feminino, relacionadas ao contexto sócio-político-cultural no qual os adolescentes/jovens estão inseridos, tem repercussões importantes na forma que vivem a sua sexualidade, e, acima de tudo, na construção do seu viver saudável e de sua cidadania.Se trata de investigación -acción cuyo objetivo fue comprender los significados que los adolescentes de un grupo de inclusión social le atribuyen al papel masculino y femenino Participaron 27 sujetos vinculados a los grupos da Gastronomía, Estética y Nueva Descubierta. Los datos derivan del taller "conocimiento del cuerpo humano", desarrollado en los 3 grupos, en momentos distintos, a través de la creación de carteles , actividades para hacer collagede recorte , diseño, escritura; utilización de maniquí y abordaje dialógica del tema. Los datos fueron analizados con el método de análisis temático de contenido. Los resultados evidencian dos categorías: "la fortaleza y el poder masculino" y "el papel contradictorio del género femenino". Se concluye que las diferencias de papeles masculino y femenino, relacionadas al contexto socio-político-cultural en el cual los adolescentes/jóvenes están inseridos

  9. 护理人员人格特征调查分析%Investigation of Personality Characteristics in Nursing Staff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳永萍; 孙鑫

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the personality characteristics of nurses and provide a theoretical basis for the selection and training of nursing personnel. Methods The cartel 16PF personality cpjestionnaire was carried out for 569 nurses,and all data were analyzed by statistical methods. Results Compared with nursing students,the scores of nursing professionals in personality factors (G,N and 0)and the adaptability in the new environment were higher (P< 0.01 ),the scores of personality factors (E,M,Q1 and Q2),cowardice,audacity,and mental health were lower(P< 0.01);the scores of outstanding nurses in personality factors (L and Q3), professional achievement, and the a-bility to grow in the new environment were higher than general nurses (P < 0.01). Conclusion There were personality factors may conducive to the development of nursing profession, while there were also some other personality factors may hinder the development of nursing profession. Significant differences in the personality factors were observed in different groups of nurses. Base on these finding,we recommend personality trait analysis as an indicator for targeted professional training of excellent nurses..%目的 探讨护理人员的个性品质,为护理人才的选拔和培养提供理论依据.方法 采用卡特尔16PF人格问卷对569名护理人员进行测试,所有数据都通过统计学分析.结果 护士在有恒性、世故性、忧虑性、新环境中成长能力上得分高于护理专业大学生(P<0.01);而在恃强性、幻想性、实验性、独立性、怯懦与果敢、心理健康得分低于护理专业大学生(P<0.01);优秀护士在怀疑性、自律性、专业而有成就、新环境成长能力方面得分高于一般护士(P<0.01).结论 护理人员既具有有利于护理事业发展的人格因素,也存在可能阻碍护理事业发展的人格因素;不同护理人员的人格因素具有显著差异性;建议以优秀护士的人格特征为指标,

  10. Effects of a Liberalized European Gas Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After World War II a position that for some time was called ''left-liberal'' tried to reconcile the values of individual freedom with social justice and a more egalitarian distribution of income. According to this perception, the government should let markets work if they satisfy social goals. However, if markets are non-competitive, either by nature or cartelization, often a public authority or a regulator must intervene in order to secure social goals, such as the provision of important goods and services, to avoid excessive pricing practices etc. If the results from competitive markets achieved either by actual competition or by public regulations bring about unacceptable injustice or inequality between persons, groups or regions, governments should intervene to correct this by redistributing income through taxes and subsidies, partnership schemes with the industry, and so on. For the functioning of natural gas markets, the most crucial element is the cost of, and access to, transportation. Cost of gas transportation is often characterized by strong elements of scale and scope economies, making transporting firms natural monopolies in the markets in which they operate. In Europe, many public utilities operating as natural monopolies were nationalized in the aftermath of World War II. Being monopolists by nature (but sometimes only by law) they were considered bottlenecks in the development of each nation's competitiveness. Probably the most frequently used argument explaining these firms' inefficient use of resources, has been the lack of competition. Liberalization of a market represents a departure from the ''one management'' approach. However, the particular aspect of by-nature non-competitive markets, such as major parts of the European gas market, is that the goals of competition cannot be achieved only by removal of trade barriers. If the most efficient operation of a market is done by one, or only a few, firms, these must be made to behave in a way that

  11. Editorial: XVI Congreso Latinoamericano, VII Congreso Iberoamericano y I Congreso Colombiano de Gastroenterología, Hepatología y Nutrición Pediátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Velasco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available En Cartagena de Indias, Colombia y sobre el mar Caribe en el Océano Atlántico de Suramérica, entre el 22 y 24 de abril de 2005, en el Centro de Convenciones de Cartagena de Indias y con sede hotelera en el Hotel Las Américas, estaremos reunidos en el 16º Congreso Latinoamericano, 7º Iberoamericano y 1er Colombiano de Gastroenterología, Hepatología y Nutrición Pediátrica, lo que permitirá la congregación de miembros de la Sociedad Latinoamericana de Gastroenterología Pediátrica, Nutrición y Hepatología (SLAGPNH, de la Asociación Colombiana de Gastroenterología, Hepatología y Nutrición Pediátrica (ACOGAHNP, de la Sociedad Colombiana de Pediatría (SCP, de la Sociedad Venezolana de Pediatría y Puericultura (SVPP y del Grupo de Investigación en Gastroenterología, Hepatología y Nutrición Pediátrica de la Universidad del Valle (GASTROHNUP. Para los asistentes se organizó un Precongreso en las horas de la mañana del primer día del evento, en donde se expondrán 12 conferencias magistrales, en la modalidad de estado del arte, de las principales entidades que aquejan a nuestra población pediátrica. A partir de la tarde del primer día y por dos días más, se realizará el Congreso en el que tendremos el Foro Horacio Toccalino con 6 presentaciones orales convocadas a premio, el Foro Martins Campos con otras 6 presentaciones orales y la presentación de 200 trabajos libres en la modalidad de carteles, con el incentivo en esta ocasión de haber ofrecido 100 becas-inscripción para asistir al Precongreso, Congreso y Actividades Sociales, a los estudiantes a quienes se les aceptó su trabajo y fueron presentados por un miembro de la SLAGPNH. Se compartirá nuestra experiencia latino, ibero y colombiana con la participación de al menos un miembro de todos y cada uno de los países pertenecientes a la SLAGPNH mediante la modalidad de 17 foros con aproximadamente 80 conferencistas. También se contará con un espacio destinado a

  12. Replacing the Rare Earth Intellectual Capital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl

    2011-04-01

    The rare earth crisis slowly evolved during a 10 to 15 year period beginning in the mid-1980s, when the Chinese began to export mixed rare earth concentrates. In the early 1990s, they started to move up the supply chain and began to export the individual rare earth oxides and metals. By the late 1990s the Chinese exported higher value products, such as magnets, phosphors, polishing compounds, catalysts; and in the 21st century they supplied finished products including electric motors, computers, batteries, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs), TVs and monitors, mobile phones, iPods and compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) light bulbs. As they moved to higher value products, the Chinese slowly drove the various industrial producers and commercial enterprises in the US, Europe and Japan out of business by manipulating the rare earth commodity prices. Because of this, the technically trained rare earth engineers and scientists who worked in areas from mining to separations, to processing to production, to manufacturing of semifinished and final products, were laid-off and moved to other fields or they retired. However, in the past year the Chinese have changed their philosophy of the 1970s and 1980s of forming a rare earth cartel to control the rare earth markets to one in which they will no longer supply the rest of the world (ROW) with their precious rare earths, but instead will use them internally to meet the growing demand as the Chinese standard of living increases. To this end, they have implemented and occasionally increased export restrictions and added an export tariff on many of the high demand rare earth elements. Now the ROW is quickly trying to start up rare earth mines, e.g. Molycorp Minerals in the US and Lynas Corp. in Australia, to cover this shortfall in the worldwide market, but it will take about five years for the supply to meet the demand, even as other mines in the ROW become productive. Unfortunately, today there is a serious lack of technically trained

  13. Memoria y representación simbólica tras la matanza en Acteal, Chiapas, 22 de diciembre de 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Sacbé Shuttera Pérez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo busca rastrear las huellas de las representaciones artísticas y simbólicas y su impacto en la memoria, en torno a los sucesos acaecidos el 22 de diciembre de 1997 en la comunidad de Acteal, Chiapas. Se parte del supuesto de que la preservación y la simbolización de la violencia ejercida por el poder estatal, son manifestaciones de un contrapoder y un gesto de resistencia por parte de quien debiera ser en última instancia el depositario de la soberanía, según los términos de la filosofía política moderna, esto es, el pueblo. Esta tendencia a la simbolización fue un rasgo consistente que caracterizó al movimiento insurgente del Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (ezln desde los primeros días de su levantamiento armado, en enero de 1994. Tras doce días de combates y enfrentamientos con el Ejército Mexicano, fue muy probablemente el núcleo discursivo y simbólico del propio movimiento filtrado en la conciencia de la sociedad civil (a través de medios masivos de comunicación como la Internet, lo que detuvo las hostilidades y colocó al conflicto en un escenario distinto. La fotografía, el cartón, se sumaron así a la frialdad de los discursos sociológicos o periodísticos, creando un rico y complejo entramado discursivo con un fuerte componente estético. Ahora bien, a esta nueva y revolucionaria estrategia discursiva, correspondió también, en virtud de una ley implacable de algo que podríamos denominar física histórica, una fase contrarrevolucionaria, cuyo expediente más significativo lo constituyó la matanza de Acteal. Los caminos dejados tras este capítulo al movimiento social, en vez de la confrontación directa, fueron nuevamente el ejercicio de este contrapoder simbólico, que para el caso de 1997, estuvo mayormente influido por representaciones como la pintura, la escultura, la poesía y el cartel, aunadas a las ya citadas fotografía y cartón periodístico que se ven

  14. Revista Ciencias Biomedicas - Suplemento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Departamento de Investigaciones

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En la última semana del mes de mayo del2011, el Departamento de Investigacionesde la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidadde Cartagena. Colombia, realizó LA SEMANADEL POSTER CIENTIFICO – 2011. Espaciocreado con los objetivos de estimular entrelos diferentes estamentos de la Facultad elhábito a la lectura y a la escritura científica,promover una cultura investigativa comoaccionar diario y cotidiano que facilite lagénesis de conocimiento nuevo, contribuira una dialéctica a la altura de los tiempomodernos, facilitar el movimiento de lasestructuras mentales con el ánimo de brindarsustratos para una correcta fundamentacióndel pensamiento medico y ofrecer unosespacios validos para que los grupos de investigación categorizados, los nocategorizados, los investigadores, los docentes, los estudiantes de los diferentespostgrados y los estudiantes de pregrado, expusieran y socializaran los resultadosde sus investigaciones. Espacio suficiente para presentar la metodología, losobjetivos y los alcances esperados en sus proyectos en preparación, áreasuficiente para explicitar los casos clínicos documentados dentro del crecimientopersonal y grupal al amparo del marco de la actividad académico-asistencial.Rincones favorables para apuntar notas sobre las revisiones revisadas.Con 55 pósteres una comunidad académica receptiva acudió al llamadode “inundar los pasillos de la Facultad de Medicina con letras científicas”.Permanentemente docentes y estudiantes de la Facultad de Medicina y otrasFacultades del área de la salud, se acercaron a beber del conocimiento queplasmaron en los carteles profesores prestigiosos y una importante cohorte deestudiantes entusiastas y en formación, que de seguro se perfilarán en un futuroinmediato, como los docentes del relevo generacional y llegarán cargados deconocimientos y ganas de realizar investigación básica, clínica y epidemiológica,como estrategia central del proceso enseñanza – aprendizaje

  15. Study of Astaxanthin on anti-oxidative damage and anti-inflammatory of osteoarthritis cartilage cells%虾青素对骨关节炎软骨细胞氧化损伤及炎性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴凌鹏; 白岩; 惠伯棣

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究虾青素对骨关节炎(OA)软骨细胞氧化损伤及炎性的逆转作用.方法 选择15只5月龄新西兰兔,采用内侧副韧带、前后交叉韧带切断并切除内侧半月板的OA动物模型制作方法,体外分离培养软骨细胞.以假手术组细胞为正常对照组,造模组细胞为OA软骨细胞,分别加入10、20、30 μg/ml虾青素(低、中、高剂量);从第9周开始,每周处死1组动物,分离培养软骨细胞.连续8 w,DCFH-DA法检测细胞内活性氧(ROS)水平,Griess法测定培养上清中氧化氮(NO)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)含量,RT-PCR法检测各组细胞相关炎性因子(IL)-1β、诱导型一氧化氮合酶(iNOS)、转录调节因子p53基因mRNA的表达.结果 DCFH-DA法检测细胞内ROS水平,对照组与模型组差异显著(P<0.01);虾青素低、中、高剂量组与模型组差异显著(P<0.01).模型组中NaNO2、SOD、GSH-Px与对照组差异显著(P<0.01);NaNO2、SOD、GSH-Px水平虾青素低、中、高剂量组与模型组差异显著(P<0.01,P<0.05).模型组中IL-1β、iNOS、p53基因mRNA的表达量与对照组及各剂量虾青素组差异显著(P<0.01).结论 虾青素对OA软骨细胞的氧化损伤及炎性有逆转作用,具有研发成为OA治疗药物的潜能.%Objective Objective;To study the reverse effect of the oxidative damage and inflammatory on cartilage cells by Astaxanthin. Methods Fifteen New Zealand white rabbits of 5 month old were selected. Osteoarthritis cartilage cells in model groups were added Astaxanthin 10,20,30 μg/ml respectively. A group of animals were sacrificed every week from the ninth weeks and the cartel age cells were isolated and cultured. For 8 w,the level of reactive oxygen species( ROS) in chondrocyte was detected by DCFH-DA,the content of NO and the activity of SOD and GSH-Px in cell culture supernatant were detected by Griess method. The related expression contents of IL-1β/GAP-DH, i

  16. Relación del material didáctico con la enseñanza de ciencia y tecnología Relação do material didático com o ensino de ciência e tecnologia The Relationship Between Educational Material and the Teaching of Science and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aidé Angarita-Velandia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La formación de usuarios cultos de tecnología, capaces de tomar decisiones adecuadas con respecto a los avances científicos que impactan a la sociedad, implica el empleo de estrategias pedagógicas adecuadas al estudio de los conceptos científicos y tecnológicos, y sus aplicaciones. En este trabajo se reporta el impacto causado con la utilización de material didáctico innovador en el aula, con el fin de mejorar el proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje de algunos conceptos científicos y tecnológicos relacionados con la energía. Para las pruebas piloto se escogieron cinco instituciones educativas de la ciudad de Duitama (Colombia, y se trabajó con 450 niños de los grados tercero a quinto de educación básica y 17 docentes. Previa utilización de las ayudas didácticas, se desarrolló un plan de clase, cuyo primer punto consistía en la explicación teórica del concepto que se iba a estudiar y su aplicación, para luego explicar el prototipo que se utilizaría, indicando los cuidados y las posibilidades de su manejo, así como su relación con los conceptos teóricos impartidos previamente. Es interesante observar que antes de utilizar el material, menos del 20% de los estudiantes identificaron correctamente los conceptos de ciencia y tecnología, y más del 60% de ellos lo hicieron en forma apropiada después de la actividad. En cuanto a los profesores, se pudo notar que si bien es cierto todos utilizan ayudas tradicionales, como carteles, guías, libros y el computador, ninguno emplea material específicamente diseñado para impartir los conceptos tecnológicos.A formação de usuários cultos na tecnologia, capazes de tomar uma decisão adequada com respeito aos progressos da ciência que impactam a sociedade, involucra a utilização de estratégias pedagógicas apropriadas ao estudo dos conceitos científicos e tecnológicos, e suas aplicações. Neste artigo e reportado o efeito da utilização de material didático inovador na aula

  17. 配偶心理社会因素对海勤人员心理健康的影响%Influence of spouses psychosocial factors on mental health among naval personnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟杰; 孙敬翔; 熊波; 张明月; 斯银平; 齐翠; 董丽洁

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨配偶的心理社会因素对海勤人员的心理健康影响,为开展婚姻咨询与治疗提供理论依据。方法采用随机整层抽样的方法,共抽取调查对象412人。使用 Olson 婚姻质量问卷(ENRICH)中婚姻满意度分量表、卡特尔16项人格因素问卷(16PF)、症状自评量表(SCL-90)、生活事件量表(LES)、特质应对问卷(TCSQ)、领悟社会支持量表(PSSS)对375对海勤人员夫妻双方均进行了评定。结果海勤人员夫妻间在个性、婚姻、心理、社会中的9个因子差异均有统计学意义(t =-2.579~15.025,P <0.05);海勤人员 SCL-90的9个因子分别与妻子 SCL-90的8个因子(r =0.125~0.245,P <0.05)、16PF 中的9个因子(r =-0.226~0.186,P<0.05)、与妻子的生活事件的工作学习及社交其他问题(r =0.129~0.402,P <0.05)、与妻子的客观支持及积极应对方式(r =-0.202~-0.139,P <0.05)均存在一定程度的相关性。多因素分析揭示对丈夫心理健康的贡献大小依次为:婚姻满意度(β=-1.510)>子女和婚姻(β=1.503)>负性工作学习问题(β=1.387)。结论配偶个性、心理各方面的因素会直接或间接的对海勤人员的身心健康产生一定的影响,要保证婚姻家庭的和谐稳定需从夫妻双方的心理健康着手。%Objective To investigate spouses psychological and social factors effect on mental health among naval personnel,and provide evidence for carrying out marriage counseling and treatment.Methods Random cluster sampling method was used,a total of 412 people were sampled.Olson marital quality questionnaire (ENRICH)in marital satisfaction subscale,Cartel 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF),Symptom Checklist (SCL-90),Life Event Scale (LES), Trait Coping Questionnaire (TCSQ),Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS)were investigated among 375 couple spouses of naval

  18. The Astronomy Club of Araranguá: Educating Science Teachers as Science Communicators. (Breton Title: Clube de Astronomia de AraranguÁ: a Formação de Professores de Ciências Como Divulgadores Científicos. ) Club de Astronomía de Araranguá: la Formación del Profesorado Como Comunicadores de la Ciencia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasio, Felipe; Allain, Olivier; Antunes Rodrigues, Adriano

    2013-07-01

    -se na Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, sempre procurando alcançar a pré-disposição em aprender e produzir material potencialmente significativo, as duas condições necessárias para que a aprendizagem significativa ocorra. El estudio relatado en este trabajo se lleva a cabo desde 2009 en el Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnología de Santa Catarina, campus Araranguá. En él se busca formar a comunicadores de la ciencia durante la formación inicial de los docentes Licenciatura en Ciencias Naturales con especialidad en Física, y también promover acciones de divulgación científica para el público en general en la región de Araranguá a través de un club de astronomía llamado CA2 (Clube de Astronomia Araranguá). Entres las acciones de los estudiantes que se promueven están: producción de videos, programas de radio, conferencias, observaciones nocturnas, la preparación y exposición de carteles, la educación en física para los niños, actividades de formación permanente del profesorado y enseñanza de la física de con el tema generador Astronomía. El trabajo de la formación del profesorado y la difusión de club científico se basa en la teoría del aprendizaje significativo, buscando siempre la predisposición para aprender y producir material potencialmente significativo, las dos condiciones necesarias para que ocurra el aprendizaje significativo.

  19. Diseño, desarrollo y evaluación de una campaña publicitaria para la prevención de accidentes de tráfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Diego GARCÍA GARCÍA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente estudio se trata de una investigación experimental para intentar predecir la variabilidad que se puede producir por la influencia de una campaña publicitaria con el objetivo de prevenir los accidentes de tráfico en los niños de seis a catorce años. Más concretamente, se desarrollan todos los elementos que han intervenido en la aplicación educativa de un programa, que pretende modificar los niveles de error que cometen los niños en los pasos para peatones regulados con semáforo. El instrumento de intervención educativa consistió en un folleto que se facilitó a los alumnos y en un cartel que se situaba en las aulas, y en donde aparecen matizadas las conductas adecuadas que se han de llevar a cabo en el mencionado paso para peatones. El procedimiento se basa en las estrategias de las intervenciones experimentales, pero teniendo presente los factores que condicionan los resultados de las aplicaciones en los programas aplicados en un medio natural. Los resultados de la aplicación experimental han sido significativos, aunque hay que tener la influencia de algunos factores que han condicionado parte de los resultados. Asimismo, además de la conducta de los niños, se evaluó la conducta de los adultos, obteniéndose en todos los casos una variabilidad menor que en los primeros.ABSTRACT: The present study deals with experimental research that attempted to pre-- dict the variability that can be produced by the influence of an advertising campaign aimed at preventing traffic accidents in children aged six to fourteen. More concretely, we analyzed the elements that intervened in the educational application of a program aimed at modifying the number of errors committed by children at cross-walks regulated by traffic lights. The instrument of educational intervention consisted of a leaflet given to the students and a poster put up in the classroom, which showed the proper behaviour for using pedestrian cross-walks. The

  20. Selling Journalism Educational Content; an analysis of the latest Modes of Commercialization in Media Content --- فروش

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalipour, Yahya, kamaliyr@calumet.purdue.edu, يحيي كمالي پور

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of a research project that was done on a sample of international media agencies which are involved in Journalism as well as in commercial activities. In this regard, the first question that we will be dealing with, here, is how these media cartels get involved in commercial activities for revenue purposes, in addition to their normal money-making activities that mainly is done through selling news, photos and commercial advertising? The second question deals with the issue of factors involved in making skills performed by reporters of BBC, CNN, Reuters, French News Agency, Associated Press to be precedent over skills performed by reporters of less famous media agencies.We will also examine the comparative educations between European and American schools of Journalism and that of Iranian counterparts. The objective of this comparison is to understand what are missing in the process of educating reporters and journalists in Iran so we can come of with solutions to mend the Iranian media economic system for a better and more effective journalism in Iran.The findings indicate that the media cartels use new modes of money-making alongside the traditional modes of commercial advertisements and infotainment. The new modes of educational contents are in fact the new ways of money-making that are used to increase their revenue. This has led them to be more significant not only because of their media activities but also because of their educational activities. --- اين مقاله بر اساس برخي از نتايج يک طرح پژوهشي و به منظور پاسخ به اين پرسش طراحي شده است که رسانه هاي پيشرفته و کارتل‏هاي رسانه‏اي علاوه بر آگهي، فروش خبر و عکس از چه روش ديگري براي درآمدزايي استفاده مي‏کنند؟ به نظر ما اين رسانه ها نخست آنكه همانند شركتهاي تجاري

  1. Une activité touristique et de loisir « amphibie » entre espaces de pratiques et territoires de gestion : la plaisance Uma atividade turística e de lazer “anfíbia” entre espaços de práticas e territórios de gestão : o nautismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan Sonnic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available À l’ère du tourisme de masse et des loisirs, la plaisance est une expression particulière de territorialité à travers divers équipements sur le trait de côte (ports, marinas, chantiers navals, etc. et des flux tant maritimes que terrestres (itinéraires en mer des plaisanciers entre ports, liaisons domiciles-points d’embarquement, navettes domicile-travail des professionnels de la plaisance, etc.. Ce caractère « amphibie » confère à la plaisance une place atypique parmi les activités touristiques.En France, plus que d’autres loisirs, la plaisance est écartelée entre des espaces vécus, résultant pour l’essentiel des parcours des plaisanciers (bassins de navigation, bassins de croisière, bassins de plaisance…, et des territoires administratifs relevant d’une logique bien différente à terre (collectivités territoriales, subdivisions des affaires maritimes comme en mer (eaux territoriales, zone d’exercice du droit de police.Conformément à bien des espaces vécus, les aires de pratiques de la plaisance sont particulièrement complexes. Outre leur caractère chronique, compte tenu du caractère essentiellement saisonnier de l’activité, ces territoires vont dépendre de la diversité des pratiques plaisancières (pêche-promenade, balade en mer, croisière côtière, croisière hauturière, voile sportive…, des limites conscientes voire inconscientes que se fixe chaque plaisancier, du déterminisme physique (obstacles à la navigation, vents, courants…, de la réglementation en vigueur qui interdit la navigation au-delà d’une certaine distance d’un abri selon les différentes catégories de navires, etc. Pour leur part, les territoires de gestion relèvent d’une logique largement continentale, même en avant du trait de côte. L’inadéquation entre espaces de pratiques et de gestion est telle que plusieurs acteurs (collectivités territoriales, services déconcentrés de l’Etat, bureaux d

  2. La Pop Culture. De la publicité dans la poésie : un renversement de l’ordre économique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K Dick

    2010-02-01

    positivismo “pragmático” y consumidor de arte (Lyotard. En un mundo donde se supone que la imagen lo dice todo, el estatuto de la palabra es puesto en duda, en abismo. Así, los poetas contemporáneos empiezan a “responder a la videación de nuestra cultura” (Marjorie Perloff trabajando a la par la palabra y la imagen. También utilizan las técnicas de la tipografía, del collage, de la instalación, del diseño y la integración de la imagen (de los cómics y mangas en un texto. El primer efecto de esta tendencia es la invención de una especie de poema “publicitario”, en el que se nota el paralelismo entre el signo, los carteles publicitarios y el poema. Sin embargo, estos autores (como Clemente Padín, Capistrano Franklin, Jacques Sivan, Maurice Roche, Philadelpho Menezes, Howe Susan, Ricardo Goncalves, Mathias Goeritz Holly Bittner, Maestri Vannina... reutilizan los procedimientos explotados por la Pop culture, pero para invertir (“subvertir” los roles de dominante y dominado y derrocar así el mensaje del consumismo. Yendo hasta los límites extremos del arte y la cultura, se sirven de las imágenes de productos conocidos, de fotografías contemporáneas de la belleza y la decoración, así como los símbolos relativos a la economía compartida (símbolos monetarios, términos bursátiles para rescribirlos en poemas que se convierten en una afirmación de la vida y la cultura frente al “anti-arte”. Estos poemas son una manera de luchar contra la “cultura cero” a la que están destinados debido a la dominación de la literatura por la cultura de las imágenes, nuestra Pop culture.