WorldWideScience

Sample records for cartels

  1. Carteles

    OpenAIRE

    Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín, Tercer simposio forestal

    2013-01-01

    Aquí se puede encontrar un resumen de las presentaciones orales y de los carteles del tercer simposio forestal. Entre los que se encuentran: •Riqueza y diversidad arbórea en bosques de tierra firme en el parque nacional natural amacayacu, Amazonía Colombiana. •Dinámica del manglar en el complejo lagunar de cispatá (Caribe Colombiano) en el último milenio. •Estimación de la oferta hídrica con información escasa en ecosistemas estratégicos. •Patrones de distribución de esp...

  2. Cartel Sustainability and Cartel Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Escrihuela-Villar, Marc

    2004-01-01

    The paper studies how does the size of a cartel affect the possibility that its members can sustain a collusive agreement. I obtain that collusion is easier to sustain the larger the cartel is. Then, I explore the implications of this result on the incentives of firms to participate in a cartel. Firms will be more willing to participate because otherwise, they risk that collusion completely collapses, as remaining cartel members are unable to sustain collusion.

  3. MULTINATIONAL CARTELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu RADU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Improving the functioning of market for the benefit of European consumers and companies remains an essential component of the European project. In 2007, the competition related policy had a significant contribution in the welfare of consumers by approaching the issue of cartels. Although the fight against cartels is becoming increasingly global and an ever larger challenge, the efforts of the European institutions in this fight have begun to take shape. Clemency European policy has proven to be an extremely powerful weapon in encouraging societies to admit that cartels exist. The competition policy fits more and more the other policies of the European Commission. The recent revisal of the Lisbon Strategy as approved by the European Council stipulates the competition norms as part of the areas in which EU can contribute with specific expertise, beneficial for its key partners. This is closely connected to the need of delivering loyal competition and equal conditions worldwide. The present paper represents a study on the positive and negative influences in the activity of cartels.

  4. Carteles ii

    OpenAIRE

    Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín, Tercer simposio forestal

    2013-01-01

    Aquí se puede encontrar un resumen de las presentaciones orales y de los carteles del tercer simposio forestal. Entre los que se encuentran: •Turno tecnológico para postes de Pinus caribeae mediante simulación de variables predictoras e información análoga. •Propuesta metodológica para la medición de desperdicios en el aserrado de la madera. •Recuperación del conocimiento sobre plantas aromáticas y medicinales en la comunidad campesina la maría: estrategias de propagación formul...

  5. The discontent cartel member and cartel collapse : the case of the German cement cartel

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Joseph E.; Hüschelrath, Kai; Laitenberger, Ulrich; Smuda, Florian

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesize a particular source of cartel instability and explore its relevance to understanding cartel dynamics. The cartel instability is rooted in the observation that, upon cartel formation, the relative positions of firms are often fixed which may lead some growthconscious members to be discontent. This incongruity between a cartel member’s allocated market share and its desired market share may result in systematic deviations and the eventual collapse of the cartel. Th...

  6. Mexican Cartels: Threat and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    cartel on cartel, inter -cartel, cartels versus the government, cartel versus society, and gang versus gang violence 15. It is a multidimensional...will be rendered ineffective even before it is employed. As Ken Casas -Zamora notes "Mexico’s problem is not territorial control, but the...Police in War: Fighting Insurgency, Terrorism, and Violent Crime, 3. 56 Ibid, 84. 57 Kevin Casas -Zamora, “Mexico’s Forever War”, Foreign Policy

  7. Competition policy and cartel size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.M.; Harrington Jr., J.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines endogenous cartel formation in the presence of a competition authority. Competition policy makes the most inclusive stable cartels less inclusive. In particular, small firms that might have been cartel members in the absence of a competition authority are no longer members. Regar

  8. Imperfect cartelization in OPEC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, Samuel J.; Reynes, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    A model of global oil production is applied to study cartelization by OPEC countries. We define a measure for the degree of cooperation, analogous to the market conduct parameter of Cyert et al. (1973), Geroski et al. (1987), Lofaro (1999), and Symeonidis (2000). This parameter is used to assess the

  9. Imperfect Cartelization in OPEC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, Samuel; Reynes, F.

    2016-01-01

    A model of global oil production is applied to study cartelization by OPEC countries. Writing out the shadow price on quota allocations so as to draw correspondence to coefficients of cooperation (Cyert et al. 1973), we examine the incentives that different OPEC members to collude. We find that hete

  10. Cartel Stability and Economic Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp

    2004-01-01

    valorem trade costs, a cartel supported by collusion on either quantities or prices will be weakened, thus integration is pro-competitive. If integration consists of a reductions in unit (fixed) trade costs a price setting cartel is strengthened (unaffected), while a quantity setting one is weakened....

  11. Cartel (In)Stability on "Survivor" Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, Franklin G., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the use of popular culture in business education by examining cartel behavior of contestants in the television show "Survivor." Examples depict incentives to form cartels and to cheat on cartel decisions. Ways to integrate the material into business courses are described. (SK)

  12. The Pro-collusive Effect of Increased Cartel Detection Probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Hinloopen, Jeroen

    2004-01-01

    An increase in cartel discovery probability due to irregular price movements that result from cartel defection is shown to increase cartel stability as short-run defection profits are less likely to be earned.

  13. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  14. A Troubled Cartel: The NCAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, James V.

    1973-01-01

    Despite the claims of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) that it is a champion of amateur athletics and physical fitness in colleges and universities, the NCAA is in fact a business cartel composed of university-firms that have varying desires to restrict competition and maximize profits in the area of intercollegiate athletics.…

  15. Career development after cartel prosecution: cartel versus non-cartel managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenboom, N.S.R.

    2012-01-01

    I examine the career development of managers after they have been subjected to cartel prosecution by the Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa). A representative function is used as an indicator for a career outcome after prosecution. I compare the career development of Dutch managers involved in a

  16. Self-Disclosure at International Cartels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    We study revelation behavior at illegal international cartels. Our hypotheses suggest that a resource advantage induces executives of large multinational enterprises (MNEs) to be more likely to reveal the cartel and to cooperate with the antitrust agency during the prosecution stage. Moreover, we...... expect the cultural background to influence the firm's inclination to reveal incriminating evidence. Empirical tests based on data about cartel breakdowns under the EU Leniency Program show that large MNEs are indeed more likely to reveal the cartel. However, they largely fail to explain variation...

  17. Curbing Cartel Influence in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    terror tactics to intimidate and coerce the public. On July 15, 2010, a cartel car bombing in Ciudad Juarez targeted Mexican security forces in...Ibid., 13 20 Ibid., 13 21 Howard Campbell, Drug War Zone; Frontline Dispatches from the Streets of El Paso and Juarez (Austin: University of Texas...Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, 2009. Campbell, Howard. Drug War Zone; Frontline Dispatches from the Streets of El Paso and Juarez

  18. Maximal Cartel Pricing and Leniency Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.; Wen, Q.

    2008-01-01

    For a general class of oligopoly models with price competition, we analyze the impact of ex-ante leniency programs in antitrust regulation on the endogenous maximal-sustainable cartel price. This impact depends upon industry characteristics including its cartel culture. Our analysis disentangles the

  19. Is the Definition of a Cartel Ballooning?

    OpenAIRE

    Rein Wesseling

    2013-01-01

    Arguably, however, the factors preventing the cartel concept from widening and becoming more blurred are no longer as pre-eminent as the concept has moved away from the U.S. criminal law framework. Rein Wesseling (Stibbe)

  20. Cartel Stability with Subjective Detection Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Hinloopen, Jeroen

    2003-01-01

    The condition is derived for Friedman 's trigger strategy to sustaina collusive market equilibrium as a noncooperative Nash equilibriumgiven subjective beliefs as to the antitrust authority's ability of suc-cesfully dissolving the illegal cartel.

  1. CARTELIZATION AS EQUILIBRIUM? EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIU-DAN MATEESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of the Romanian party system in view of the cartel party thesis proposed by Richard Katz and Peter Mair. The paper is divided into three sections. In the first section I offer a brief review of the cartel party thesis and present a few theoretical arguments regarding the study of cartelization. I argue that Katz and Mair may have overemphasized the importance of cooperation between established parties as necessary for the passing and enactment of cartel related legislation. I hold that the existence of cooperation between established political parties, with or without overt collusion, may be difficult to pinpoint due to the strategic voting that goes on in most legislative bodies. Thus I think it is appropriate to view the passing of the cartel associated legislation as a collective action problem: given high electoral volatility the rules and regulations needed for reducing political uncertainty will be adopted and enacted but not necessarily through cooperation. I suggest that such a perspective can explain every instance when the passing of cartel legislation is dependent on cooperation as well as those instances where no evidence of cooperation can be found. The second section presents some methodological aspects. In the third section I analyze the development of the Romanian party system with emphasis on those electoral rules and regulations that limit open political competition as well as on the system of party finance. I show that electoral rules have gotten progressively harsher and that the system of party finance clearly handicaps new competitors. Moreover the cartel has been extremely successful in keeping new competitors out of Parliament: since the transition from communism to democracy only one genuinely new party has won legislative representation.

  2. EL CARTEL EXPOSITIVO POLACO, 1918-1939

    OpenAIRE

    SENON-LLOPIS GOLEC, ALICIA

    2013-01-01

    En esta tesis doctoral se estudia un tema poco conocido tanto en Polonia como en el extranjero. A pesar de que los carteles polacos gozan de prestigio a nivel mundial por su alto valor artístico, los carteles polacos del período de entreguerras son casi desconocidos. Por eso era interesante buscar datos sobre el tema y analizarlos. La tesis se compone de dos tomos. El primero contiene la parte teórica y los resultados de la investigación propia, y el segundo contiene el catálogo con las i...

  3. Short-term managerial contracts facilitate cartels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows how a series of commonly observed short-term CEO employment contracts improves cartel stability compared to a long-term contract. When a manager’s short-term appointment is renewed if and only if the firm hits a certain profit target, then (a) defection from collusion results in sup

  4. Rent sharing to control non-cartel supply in the German cement market

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A challenge for many cartels is avoiding a destabilizing increase in non-cartel supply in response to having raised price. In the case of the German cement cartel that operated over 1991-2002, the primary source of non-cartel supply was imports from Eastern European cement manufacturers. Industry sources have claimed that the cartel sought to control imports by sharing rents with intermediaries in order to discourage them from sourcing foreign supply. Specifically, cartel members would all...

  5. Corporate cartels and challenges to European labour market models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Karlson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose that one of the main causes of shortcomings in European labour markets is the existence of corporate cartels, through which the state has delegated various forms of regulatory power to employers and employees that act as cartels. Analysis indicates that these cartel arrangements are not in the interest of labour because they are hard to combine with the demands of a modern and knowledge-based economy. Hence, a modernization of European labour market models is needed.

  6. Have the Mexican Drug Cartels Evolved into a Terrorist Insurgency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    for abusing Central American immigrants traveling through Mexico to get to the U.S. Frequently, they forcefully recruit the migrants to carry drugs...violence between rival drug cartels, street gangs, and the government within Mexico has created concern in both Mexico and the United States. The...literature debating whether the cartels are merely a criminal enterprise or whether the cartels represent a new terrorist insurgency in Mexico

  7. Polish cement industry cartel - preliminary examination of collusion existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Bejger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to a case of a cartel in Polish cement industry. Short description of the industry and characteristics of the cartel with its fundamental illegal practices, market sharing and price fixing, have been done. We focused on examination of possibility of detection of a cartel-like behavior of players in an industry on a basis of cartel markers' evaluation, using statistical data we can actually obtain. On a basis of examination of market shares of players and price/supply processes we found distinctive, theoretically motivated patterns characteristic for collusive equilibrium in an industry.

  8. Cartels and the Incentive to Cheat: Evidence from the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudill, Steven B.; Mixon, Franklin G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that members of cartels have tremendous incentives to cheat on production limits to maximize profits. Describes a classroom activity in which grading an examination using a "curve" permits students to establish "cartels." Provides instructions on how the activity is used in the classroom. (CFR)

  9. The Effects of Leniency on Maximal Cartel Pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.; Wen, Q.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze maximal cartel prices in infnitely-repeated oligopoly models under leniency where fines are linked to illegal gains, as often outlined in existing antitrust regulation, and detection probabilities depend on the degree of collusion. We introduce cartel culture that describes how likely car

  10. The Viability of Commodity Cartels: The Case of Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeijk, Peter A. G. van

    1989-01-01

    Explains the rise and fall of the oil cartel by applying an elasticity of demand analysis. Beginning from the demand side of the market, offers a simple derivation of the elasticity of demand for the cartel's product. Maintains that method helps undergraduates comprehend basic properties, requiring only an understanding of the elasticities of…

  11. Assessment of damages in the district heating pipe cartel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The pre-insulated pipe cartel was established 1990 in Denmark, was extended to Italy and Germany during 1991 and re-organised in 1994 to cover the entire common market. Cartel members engaged in market sharing, price setting, bid rigging, coordinated predation and delaying of innovation. The Euro...

  12. CARTELS – BETWEEN THEORY, LENIENCY POLICY AND FINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berinde Mihai

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the anti-competitive practices sanctioned by competition law, cartel is the most harmful to the competitive environment. Cartel participation is sanctioned both by national and community legislation with large fines, which can reach up to 10% of the turnover of the companies involved. In order to facilitate the detection of cartels, which are, by definition, secret agreements, instructions promoting a leniency program were elaborated at European Commission level, encouraging the participants to provide information regarding the existence of a cartel. It is expected that the large fines applied in cartel cases will increase the attractiveness of the leniency program and, implicitly, to the detection of an even greater number of such practices.

  13. Cadre, catch-all or cartel? A comment on the notion of the cartel party

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    The recently proposed (ideal) type of a modern political party, the 'cartel party', evokes questions both about the conceptual clarity of the new type and about its empirical validity. The analysis of the relationship between civil society and the state, which constitutes a central element in Katz a

  14. THE ANALYSE OF THE REGULATIONS AT THE EUROPEAN LEVEL REGARDING CARTELS. CASE SUDY: CARTEL BETWEEN THE COMPANIES CHIQUITA AND PACIFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berinde Mihai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to make an analyse of the policy in the field of competition, at the level of the European Union, more exactly the policy applied on cartels. It is important to know the regulations regarding cartels, especially the way in which procedures are done in the case of a cartel. Cartels have a negative impact on competition and consumers, and that’s why it is extremely important that they are discovered on time and after that, by using correction measures to try to recuperate the created damage. The used research method is the analyze of the legislation in force regarding cartels and the study of the existing literature in this field, and in order to give an example of the procedures in the case of a cartel, we analyzed the cartel between two companies Chiquita and Pacific. It is extremely important for these regulations to be known, and in order to discourage such practices, the European Committee has thought of a series of advantages for the companies that give information and evidence regarding the existence of a cartel. Among these advantages we could mention immunity to fine, that permits the company to be absolved of all its fines. The paper presents schematically the legislation that forbids anti-competitive practices, at the level of the European Union, and after that the applied procedure when a law violation is discovered. The modality in which the procedures are applied, in the case of suspecting a cartel, have been presented step by step, and after that, the case study does not exist only to give an example of procedures, but also to present the applied methods, in the case of success in proving the existence of a cartel. The importance of competition policy at a European level cannot be denied because of the fact that only by implementing of a proper policy in this field, an economy can develop further.

  15. La fotografía en el cartel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekane Parejo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La relación entre cartel y fotografía ha variado desde el siglo XIX hasta nuestros días. En sus inicios el cartel estuvo ligado a la pintura y con las vanguardias artísticas aparece la fotografía como experimentación. Finalmente, en el siglo XXI nos encontramos ante la reelaboración de estos postulados estéticos, pero con unos renovados medios informáticos que facilitan y agilizan la confección del cartel y, a su vez, incrementan el eclecticismo visual.

  16. SCREENING METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF CARTELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail BUŞU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During their everyday activities, the economic operators conclude a multitude of agreements in tacit or written form, such as: contracts or conventions. Some of these arrangements are absolutely necessary for the development of their current activities. These are agreements which, by respecting the rules of competition, are able to bring benefits to consumers and to the entire economy, as a whole. On the other hand, the economic operators often conclude agreements which are harmful to the economy as well as to the consumers, violating the competition rules. Some examples in this respect are: operators’ agreements on price fixing, on market or customers sharing. Before investigating the violation of competition rules, the relevant authorities should identify the possibility of the existence of such illegalities. The theoretical models for detecting the cartels do represent a proactive tool concerning the antitrust activity of competition authorities. The present paper furnishes a review of the methods for detecting cartels as well as a part of their practical application.

  17. CARTELS OR FAIR COMPETITION? THE ECONOMICS OF THE NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL RECOVERY ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Taylor

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available During the heart of the Great Depression, the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA suspended U.S. antitrust laws and helped coordinate government sponsored cartels in most manufacturing industries in the American economy. The potential effect, detrimental or beneficial, of cartels is a topic of debate in the recent theoretical literature of cartels, though few historical examples of large-scale, economy-wide cartels exist. This study uses the NIRA cartel experience to test the competing hypotheses of the effects of cartels on economic variables.

  18. Examining the Rise in Mexican Drug Cartel Related Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    trafficking and abuse of illicit drugs and associated activities. All of the adverse societal impact resulting from the illicit drug trade begins with the...the one of the highest rates of drug abuse in the country.47 On the other hand, the Sinaloa Cartel was the best at implementing the new horizontal...EXAMINING THE RISE IN MEXICAN DRUG CARTEL RELATED VIOLENCE A thesis presented to the Faculty of the US Army Command and

  19. Measuring the effectiveness of anti-cartel interventions : A conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsoulacos, Yannis; Motchenkova, E.; Ulph, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a model of the birth and death of cartels in the presence of enforcement activities by a Competition Authority (CA). We distinguish three sets of interventions: (a) detecting, prosecuting and penalising cartels; (b) actions that aim to stop cartel activity in the short-term, imme

  20. Towards the discovery of citation cartels in citation networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Fister

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this perspective, our goal is to present and elucidate a thus far largely overlooked problem that is arising in scientific publishing, namely the identification and discovery of citation cartels in citation networks. Taking from the well-known definition of a community in the realm of network science, namely that people within a community share significantly more links with each other as they do outside of this community, we propose that citation cartels are defined as groups of authors that cite each other disproportionately more than they do other groups of authors that work on the same subject. Evidently, the identification of citation cartels is somewhat different, although similar to the identification of communities in networks. We systematically expose the problem, provide theoretical examples, and outline an algorithmic guide on how to approach the subject.

  1. THE CARTEL IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND ROMANIA - RETROSPECTIVE OF THE YEARS 2009-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berinde Mihai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The cartel is considered the most harmful anti-competitive practice; therefore the competition authorities were concerned about the continuous improvement of the legislation governing this practice. In order to stimulate companies to withdraw from participating to a cartel in the European Union, the leniency policy has implemented. The present paper aims at achieving the hindsight of the years 2009-2013 regarding the evolution of cartel cases detected both at EU level and in Romania. The research methodology used is the study of literature, followed by the analysis of the legislation governing the European cartel and the analysis of all decisions issued between 2009-2013, both by the European Commission and by the Competition Council of Romania. The paper is structured in four parts. The first part presents the cartel from the theoretical and legislative point of view. The second and third parts of the paper include the analysis of cartel cases detected both at European and national level. The following aspects were taken into account when analysing the cartel cases: the date when the decision was issued by the competition authorities, the number of companies involved in the cartel, the opening date of the investigation, the method of opening the investigation, the field in which the cartel operated, the duration of the cartel as well as the amount of the fine. The final part of the paper highlights a number of conclusions. In the reviewed period 22 cartel cases were detected in the European Union and 23 cartel cases in Romania. The amount of the fines imposed at a European level is 251 times higher than the fines imposed by the Competition Council of Romania. In the European Union there were 11 long-term cartel cases, 10 medium-term cases and only one case lasted less than a year. In Romania there have been detected 4 long term cartel cases, 7 medium-term cases and 12 cases of short-term cases.

  2. Internal cartel stability with time-dependent detection probabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.

    2006-01-01

    To account for the illegal nature of price-fixing agreements, per-period detection probabilities that can vary over time are introduced in a dynamic oligopoly. The resulting ICCs for internal cartel stability indicate that for discount factors up to 10% per-period detection probabilities of 5% are n

  3. El Cartel Cultural en Bogotá 1986 - 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Castell, Edmon; Cortez Guzmán, Diego

    2009-01-01

    Hoja de Mano (plegable) de la muestra museográfica que expone la historia del cartel como patrimonio visual en las categorias de Bogotá, Arquitectura, Editorial y letras, Cine, Teatro y danza, Infantil, Música, Diseño Gráfico, Academia Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Arte, Fotografía y Cultura y patrimonio.

  4. Endogenous Lysine Strategy Profile and Cartel Duration : An Instrumental Variables Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Colluding firms often exchange private information and make transfers within the cartels based on the information. Estimating the impact of such collusive practices— known as the “lysine strategy profile (LSP)”— on cartel duration is difficult because of endogeneity and omitted variable bi

  5. Cartel de l'acier : Des sanctions surprenantes pour une méthodologie exemplaire

    OpenAIRE

    Boy, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    National audience; Competition authorities and Cour de cassation bases in Iron Cartel case.; analyse détaillée de la motivation de la condamnation du Cartel de l'acier en 2010 par les autorités de concurrence.

  6. Mexican Drug Cartels and al Qaeda: Credible Link or Impracticable Alliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    of 5 Carlos A. Proveda, The Likelihood of Collaboration Between Central American Transnational...cartels—Sinalo, Los Zetas, Carrillo Fuentes Organization, and the Gulf Cartel—have the capability to fight for the crossings. Cartels that control...with Mexican drug cartels but most likely lack the sophistication to create long- lasting alliances. In 2005, Honduran diplomat Carlos Cruz doubted

  7. OPEC and Venezuelan oil production: Evidence against a cartel hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Douglas B., E-mail: DBReynolds@Alaska.ed [Department of Economics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Pippenger, Michael K. [Department of Economics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2010-10-15

    This study revisits the OPEC cartel hypothesis using a case study. A test is conducted to see if Venezuela has its production Granger cause its OPEC quota or whether the OPEC quota for Venezuela Granger causes Venezuelan production. The results show both occur at different times. In the short run, OPEC's oil production quota for Venezuela Granger causes Venezuelan production. However, shortly after cuts, Venezuela cheats on agreements, suggesting a tit-for-tat oligopoly game, which is not anti-competitive. In the long run, we show that Venezuelan oil production Granger causes OPEC's quota for Venezuela, but not vice versa. Having Venezuelan oil production Granger cause OPEC quotas for Venezuela in the long run suggests OPEC does not coordinate outputs as much as it reacts to them. The evidence suggests Venezuela is not a part of an OPEC anti-competitive syndicate even though we show that Venezuelan oil production is low. An alternative explanation for why Venezuela and possibly other OPEC members have low oil production outputs is that institutions and risk aversion, not cartel participation, is the cause. A vector error correction model shows that there is no tendency for Venezuelan oil production to converge to OPEC's quota for Venezuela.

  8. OPEC and Venezuelan oil production. Evidence against a cartel hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Douglas B.; Pippenger, Michael K. [Department of Economics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2010-10-15

    This study revisits the OPEC cartel hypothesis using a case study. A test is conducted to see if Venezuela has its production Granger cause its OPEC quota or whether the OPEC quota for Venezuela Granger causes Venezuelan production. The results show both occur at different times. In the short run, OPEC's oil production quota for Venezuela Granger causes Venezuelan production. However, shortly after cuts, Venezuela cheats on agreements, suggesting a tit-for-tat oligopoly game, which is not anti-competitive. In the long run, we show that Venezuelan oil production Granger causes OPEC's quota for Venezuela, but not vice versa. Having Venezuelan oil production Granger cause OPEC quotas for Venezuela in the long run suggests OPEC does not coordinate outputs as much as it reacts to them. The evidence suggests Venezuela is not a part of an OPEC anti-competitive syndicate even though we show that Venezuelan oil production is low. An alternative explanation for why Venezuela and possibly other OPEC members have low oil production outputs is that institutions and risk aversion, not cartel participation, is the cause. A vector error correction model shows that there is no tendency for Venezuelan oil production to converge to OPEC's quota for Venezuela. (author)

  9. Assessing the Effectiveness of Competition Law Enforcement Policy in Relation to Cartels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Mändmaa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high fines for cartel infringements it is claimed that the current competition law enforcement lacks deterrent effect for the avoidance of cartel infringements and is procedurally fragile. This article analyses the current competition law enforcement policy in relation to cartels. More specifically, the article assesses the effectiveness of the policy in deterring the formation of cartels and pursuing the goals of competition law by analysing the theory of deterrence, case law, procedural norms, imposed fines and academic literature. The main conclusions are that wrong targets are aimed at under the deterrence principle, the proceedings are of a criminal law nature and require a separation of powers, and that the current level of fines does not pose a threat on the economy and continually fail to deter price-fixing.

  10. Explaining Variation in the Apprehension of Mexican Drug Trafficking Cartel Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    high. El Chapo Guzman, leader of the Sinaloa Cartel has also reportedly bragged that he pays over $5 million a month on bribes to law enforcement...manner as any well-established employer. In a “ narco -banner” hung from a bridge in the state of Tamaulipas, the Gulf Cartel stated that they “offer...offices/enforcement/ofac/programs/ narco /charts/afo_chart_072006.pdf. on December 14, 2009. 49 between themselves and any member of the Arellano-Felix

  11. The COIN Approach to Mexican Drug Cartels: Square Peg in a Round Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    conducted through pre-existing social networks . . . . (Emphasis added.) 21 In short, the cartels may be an uber -violent mafia, but they are not an...To do so would require a marketable belief system, whether sincere or merely cynical, to put their violence in political context and attract (or...agenda behind the cartel activity is to posit that they seek to weaken or co-opt local, state, and, to a lesser extent, federal governments in Mexico in

  12. El cartel publicitario Contacto de lenguas y encuentro de culturas (caso de Tlemcen)

    OpenAIRE

    ANBER, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    El cartel publicitario ha demostrado a lo largo de más de un siglo de existencia ser una forma viva de expresión, que en algunos momentos ha conseguido alcanzar la categoría del arte, a partir de esto quería presentar este trabajo tratando de ilustrar este concepto desde una perspectiva más o menos lingüístico y comunicativo, o sea el cómo transmitir el mensaje por el medio de un simple cartel y poder llegar a hacer una publicidad que sea conveniente al receptor...

  13. Inconvenient Truths: A Response to the Article by David Stoesz, "The Child Welfare Cartel"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James J.; Yegidis, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    David Stoesz offers a sweeping critique of the Children's Bureau and social work education by claiming the existence of a "child welfare cartel." He also attacks the quality of social work education and research, which he claims has poorly invested government funding and helped create the unmitigated failures of the American child…

  14. A Walking Contradiction, Partly Truth and Partly Fiction: A Critique of Stoesz' The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, Alberta J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is a critique of David Stoesz' descriptions of organizational issues in child welfare, and more specifically, the relationships between the U.S. Children's Bureau and the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute. The focus is on Stoesz perspectives and assessments of sub-entities (cartels) that are currently influencing funding and…

  15. WTO law and economics and restrictive practices in energy trade : The case of the OPEC cartel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The World Trade Organization cannot deal comprehensively with restrictive export practices maintained by energy cartels such as the OPEC. The main reason for this is the absence of competition rules in the multilateral trading system. However, in spite of the fact that the WTO does not have rules on

  16. THE IMPACT THE COMPETITION POLICY HAS ON THE LIBERALISATION OF INTERANTIONAL TRADE. CASE STUDY: THE CARTEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berinde Mihai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization of international trade is the key when we talk about globalization from an economic aspect, because only when there will be a single global market can we talk about abundance as to what economic globalization is concerned. It is a known fact that market economies can work in free competition conditions. Taking into account the present tendencies of international trade, a decisive role is played by competition authorities. The policy in this field and the commercial policies play complementary roles, because in the absence of one of the two policies, we cannot see economic development and growth. In order to benefit from the full advantages of a free trade, companies must respect the laws of competition. In this context, in this paper, we proposed to study the way in which the existence of a cartel on a certain market can cancel the positive effects of international trade. The working hypothesis from which we started in this study was the following: identifying a cartel that functioned on the European market before and after the Uruguay Round, in order to study the negative effects that this anti-competition practice had. The Uruguay negotiation Round has been chosen, because the best results concerning the liberalization of international trade have been achieved in it. The cartel case was not chosen at random; we have searched to find one that was active in a field which got significant customs tax reductions in the Uruguay Round. We have decided to analyze the impact which a cartel had in the field of industrial products. Following our study, we have managed to empirically demonstrate the way in which a cartel can cancel the benefits of international trade liberalization. The analysis of the way in which the Industrial Tubes cartel acted on the EU market, as well as the analysis of the indicators that led to the undisputable conclusion that this cartel case canceled the positive effects which should have been felt on the

  17. Formal Rules Versus an Economic Approach in Dealing with Cartels: the Need for More Coherence in European Competition Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Muşetescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cartelizing is today among the most hunted business conduct in the world. Competition authorities from the countries where these statutes were adopted embrace the wisdom that such agreements between competitors are unquestionably anti-competitive. As opposed to other business practices, cartel agreements seem to offer an undeniable proof of intent that confers comfort for those who are investigating and prosecuting them. A cartel is today qualified as per se illegal. No further proof is needed but the formal agreement and the shared intentions. They are, at least until now, the only business practice that has lead, in certain jurisdictions, to jail terms and criminal record for individuals who were engaged in their negotiation and implementation. However, cartels are business practices that do not fundamentally aggress against any property right. From a public policy perspective, the harsh attitude towards cartels is lacking a theoretical coherence. Today, when competition policies all over the world and especially in the European Union are gradually transiting towards a more economic approach to evaluating the welfare effects of business practices, reassessing cartels is a critical imperative in the effort for a more coherent and reasonable public policy.

  18. El arte en el cartel publicitario. Estudio iconológico e iconográfico del Cartel en Colombia desde 2000 hasta 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata Garcés, Jorge Esteban; Institución Universitaria Luis Amigó; Carantón Sánchez, Ilvar Josué; Universidad de Medellin

    2015-01-01

    La historia y evolución del cartel publicitario en Colombia tiene sus orígenes en la influencia de los movimientos modernos. Para entender las relaciones artísticas y su función persuasiva desde finales del siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX, hacemos alusión a movimientos importantes de la época. El art decó, por ejemplo, se caracteriza por sus formas estilizadas y en zig-zag y el art nouveau por sus particulares elementos orgánicos y siluetas femeninas. Este artículo hace parte de la invest...

  19. No Need for Conspiracy: Self-Organized Cartel Formation in a Modified Trust Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Tiago P.; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a trust game on a mixed population, where individuals with the role of buyers are forced to play against a predetermined number of sellers whom they choose dynamically. Agents with the role of sellers are also allowed to adapt the level of value for money of their products, based on payoff. The dynamics undergoes a transition at a specific value of the strategy update rate, above which an emergent cartel organization is observed, where sellers have similar values of below-optimal value for money. This cartel organization is not due to an explicit collusion among agents; instead, it arises spontaneously from the maximization of the individual payoffs. This dynamics is marked by large fluctuations and a high degree of unpredictability for most of the parameter space and serves as a plausible qualitative explanation for observed elevated levels and fluctuations of certain commodity prices.

  20. No need for conspiracy: Self-organized cartel formation in a modified trust game

    CERN Document Server

    Peixoto, Tiago P

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a trust game on a mixed population where individuals are forced to play against a predetermined number of partners, who they choose dynamically. Agents are also allowed to adapt their level of trustworthiness, based on payoff. The dynamics undergoes a transition at a specific value of the strategy update rate, above which an emergent cartel organization is observed, where individuals have similar values of below optimal trustworthiness. This cartel organization is not due to an explicit collusion among agents; instead it arises spontaneously from the maximization of the individual payoffs. This dynamics is marked by large fluctuations and a high degree of unpredictability for most of the parameter space, and serves as a plausible qualitative explanation for observed elevated levels and fluctuations of certain commodity prices.

  1. Control of district heating prices under cartel law; Die kartellrechtliche Kontrolle der Fernwaermepreise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buedenbender, Ulrich [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Buergerliches Recht, Energiewirtschaft und Arbeitsrecht

    2011-07-01

    While cartel law had much to say in the electricity and gas sector during the past few years, the issue was less relevant in the district eating sector, where the latest intensive debate dates back more than 20 years. This changed in autumn 2009, when the Federal Cartel Office decided to intensify control of district heating rates according to Sect. 32 e GWB. This publication presents an analysis of all relevant questions concerning the definition of the relevant market, the situation of district heating utilities in the market, and the standards applied for a more concrete definition of the concept of misuse. Apart from an extensive and critical analysis of the statements issued so far, some practically relevant points are discussed and solved that had not come into focus so far. (orig./AKB)

  2. Impacts of Weather Shocks on Murder and Drug Cartel Violence in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, E.; Hsiang, S. M.; Burke, M.; Gonzalez, F.; Baysan, C.

    2014-12-01

    We estimate impacts of weather shocks on several dimensions of violence in Mexico during 1990-2010, using disaggregated data at the state-by-month level. Controlling for location and time fixed effects, we show that higher than normal temperatures lead to: (i) higher total murder rates, (ii) higher rates of drug cartel related murders, and (iii) higher suicide rates. The effects of high temperatures on inter-personal violence (murders) and on inter-group violence (drug cartel related murders) are large, statistically significant and similar to those found in other recent settings. The use of panel data econometric methods to examine the effect of weather on suicide incidence is novel. We assess the role of economic channels (i.e., agricultural production affected by weather) and conclude that they cannot account for most of the estimated impacts, suggesting that other mechanisms, including psychological explanations, are likely to be important in this setting.

  3. Stories of Drug Trafficking in Rural Mexico: Territories, Drugs and Cartels in Michoacán

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Maldonado Aranda

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:In the international media, drug-related violence, corruption and militarization have received much attention. While this is understandable in view of the prominence of border area operations of drug cartels, drug trafficking is a pervasive phenomenon in other parts of Mexico as well, not in the least in significant parts of Western Mexico (especially in Guerrero, Colima and Michoacán). The latter state has a long history of drug production and trafficking (poppies and marihuana), an...

  4. Methodology of analysis of economic evidence of cartel in the resale retail of the fuel sector; Metodologia de analise de indicios economicos de cartel no segmento de revenda varejista de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Cleber Ribeiro da Silva [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tiryaki, Gisele Ferreira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Ramos, Maria Olivia [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The existence of anti competitive conduct such as cartels would lead to a situation of high prices and profits harming competition and society in general. The methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel by the ANP in the resale market of fuels involves analysis of the behavior of the average prices of resale and distribution, the nominal average gross margin on resale, the coefficient of variation of prices of resale and distribution of fuel for a given period by the municipality. Combining the analysis of these elements, the ANP has suggested the investigation into possible cartels. This text aims to bring contributions for a better definition of the relevant market in the analysis of economic evidence in cartel in the market for resale of fuel and add elements currently not considered in the analysis of ANP and regulation of the sector. To this end, this article is organized into three sections besides the introduction and final consideration. The first section takes place at deconstitution some myths about cartels thread reseller retailer of automotive fuel by analyzing the main causes leading to complaints by consumers. Then presents a conceptual analysis of relevant market, since this definition is essential to characterize anti-competitive practices of operations performed by companies holding market power, notably the formation of cartels. Finally, it is a discussion on how the action of the main bodies involved in dismantling of anti competitive practices in the industry. Expected to find results that work with greater integration between agencies to safeguard competition and better defining the relevant market segment for the resale of fuel. (author)

  5. Methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel in the resale market of fuels; Metodologia de analise de indicios economicos de cartel no segmento de revenda varejista de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Cleber Ribeiro da Silva [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e BiocombustIveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tiryaki, Gisele Ferreira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Ramos, Maria Olivia [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The existence of anti competitive conduct such as cartels would lead to a situation of high prices and profits harming competition and society in general. The methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel by the ANP in the resale market of fuels involves analysis of the behavior of the average prices of resale and distribution, the nominal average gross margin on resale, the coefficient of variation of prices of resale and distribution of fuel for a given period by the municipality. Combining the analysis of these elements, the ANP has suggested the investigation into possible cartels. This text aims to bring contributions for a better definition of the relevant market in the analysis of economic evidence in cartel in the market for resale of fuel and add elements currently not considered in the analysis of ANP and regulation of the sector. To this end, this article is organized into three sections besides the introduction and final consideration. The first section takes place at the constitution some myths about cartels thread reseller retailer of automotive fuel by analyzing the main causes leading to complaints by consumers. Then presents a conceptual analysis of relevant market, since this definition is essential to characterize anti-competitive practices of operations performed by companies holding market power, notably the formation of cartels. Finally, it is a discussion on how the action of the main bodies involved in dismantling of anti competitive practices in the industry. Expected to find results that work with greater integration between agencies to safeguard competition and better defining the relevant market segment for the resale of fuel. (author)

  6. Methodology of analysis of economic indicia of cartel in the resale retail of the fuel sector; Metodologia de analise de indicios economicos de cartel no segmento de revenda varejista de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Cleber Ribeiro da Silva [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tiryaki, Gisele Ferreira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Ramos, Maria Olivia [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The existence of anti competitive conduct such as cartels would lead to a situation of high prices and profits harming competition and society in general. The methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel by the ANP in the resale market of fuels involves analysis of the behavior of the average prices of resale and distribution, the nominal average gross margin on resale, the coefficient of variation of prices of resale and distribution of fuel for a given period by the municipality. Combining the analysis of these elements, the ANP has suggested the investigation into possible cartels. This text aims to bring contributions for a better definition of the relevant market in the analysis of economic evidence in cartel in the market for resale of fuel and add elements currently not considered in the analysis of ANP and regulation of the sector. To this end, this article is organized into three sections besides the introduction and final consideration. The first section takes place at deconstitution some myths about cartels thread reseller retailer of automotive fuel by analyzing the main causes leading to complaints by consumers. Then presents a conceptual analysis of relevant market, since this definition is essential to characterize anti-competitive practices of operations performed by companies holding market power, notably the formation of cartels. Finally, it is a discussion on how the action of the main bodies involved in dismantling of anti competitive practices in the industry. Expected to find results that work with greater integration between agencies to safeguard competition and better defining the relevant market segment for the resale of fuel. (author)

  7. La Familia Drug Cartel: Implications for U.S.-Mexican Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Michoacán, ministerial police discovered a methamphetamines lab construct- ed and operated by La Familia in Colonia Santa Lucía, in southern Puebla .18...Medina Hernández chilled these wedding plans.54 In mid-July 2009 Gómez Martínez shocked tele- vision journalist Marcos Knapp by phoning into his...spots in Puebla , Reynosa, Cancún, Oaxaca, and Nue- vo Laredo. The cartel proffered a $5 million reward in dollars, euros, or another currency to anyone

  8. Expresión artística y olimpismo: El cartel

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Aun cuando para millones de personas la información básica de los Juegos Olímpicos es el cartel anunciador de cada uno de ellos, de tal manera que, a partir de los mismos, somos capaces incluso de situar en el tiempo y el espacio los Juegos a los que corresponden, es igualmente cierto que desconocemos, en gran medida, los entornos artísticos y los autores de cada una de estas obras de arte que, formando parte de lo que se conoce como la Galería del Arte de la Calle, cada una en...

  9. Los padres de la microbiología en los carteles de cine

    OpenAIRE

    García Sánchez, José Elías; García Sánchez, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    [ES] Louis Pasteur y Robert Koch son los fundadores de la microbiología. Su gran impacto social, al menos en la primera mitad del siglo XX, permitió que en 1935 se estrenaran dos películas biográficas sobre el científico francés y en 1939 una sobre el alemán. En ellas sus figuras fueron el objeto central de los carteles que se elaboraron para su promoción comercial. [EN] Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch are the founders of microbiology. Their grand social impact, at least during the first hal...

  10. El cartel cinematográfico como manifestación artística y publicitaria. Los diseños de Juan Gatti

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    El cartel publicitario se posiciona como uno de los medios publicitarios más eficaces dentro de la sociedad, cada día más cambiante, que tiende a la digitalización y modernización de todo lo que les rodea. Partiendo de su eficacia publicitaria, nos centraremos en una de sus variantes, el cartel cinematográfico. Un medio capaz de mover masas con un único golpe de vista, pues no olvidemos que una película es, al fin y al cabo, un producto de masas y el cartel cinematográfico su cara al público....

  11. Achieving a Competition Compliance Culture in Russia: Assessing the UK Experience in Compliance Programmes to Deter Cartels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzhela Korzhevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartels, which are considered as the most harmful anticompetitive practice, continue to exist in many sectors of the global economy in spite of the severe sanctions regularly imposed on the cartelists by the competition authorities worldwide. This suggests that the approach to antitrust enforcement requires rethinking, and the necessity to move beyond the traditional enforcement approach, to creating a pro-compliance culture in companies. The paper suggests that robust compliance programmes, voluntarily implemented by companies to prevent infringements of competition law could be considered as one of the major elements of cartel deterrence. The paper reviews the pioneering experience of UK competition authorities in rewarding infringing companies for their efforts to comply with competition law – by reducing fines for committed violations, such as participation in cartels. The paper analyses the UK approach through the prism of its possible application in Russia, where antimonopoly laws continue to actively respond to the development of the best international competition practice, including cartel deterrence. The relative position of officials in the Russian antimonopoly body, the FAS, with respect to advocating antimonopoly compliance in Russia is presented in this work through an interview conducted by the author of this paper. The work formulates a three-step plan, embracing particular measures to develop competition compliance culture in Russia.

  12. From Drug Wars to Criminal Insurgency: Mexican Cartels, Criminal Enclaves and Criminal Insurgency in Mexico and Central America. Implications for Global Security

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Transnational organized crime is a pressing global security issue. Mexico is currently embroiled in a protracted drug war. Mexican drug cartels and allied gangs (actually poly-crime organizations) are currently challenging states and sub-state polities (in Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and beyond) to capitalize on lucrative illicit global economic markets. As a consequence of the exploitation of these global economic flows, the cartels are waging war on each other and state institutions to g...

  13. La tipografía del cartel taurino en el siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Torres González

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se aborda -por primera vez- el estudio de la tipografía en el cartel taurino del siglo xix. Resulta una nueva aportación puesto que, sobre este tema concreto, no existe ninguna bibliografía. Para llevarlo a cabo, se ha comenzado por intentar aclarar el panorama confuso de las clasificaciones tipográficas. Basándonos en la clasificación Vox -aceptada internacionalmente- se han diferenciado, uno por uno y de forma cronológica, el tipo de caracteres empleados en la cartelería taurina decimonónica. También se han investigado los modelos estéticos, los intercambios entre imprentas, la perduración de diferentes estilos en el tiempo, el concepto tan peculiar de «legibilidad» del cartel, la relación con el libro y otros impresos, el diseño de letras manuales... en fin, la estrategia de la comunicación, el atractivo de la representación y el inmovilismo, frente a la originalidad y la renovación.This article addresses -for the first time the study of graphic tipology represented in the bullfight affiche of the 19th century. Since specific bibliography on the topic is inexistent, this is an innovative contríbution to the field. The initial intention is to clarify the, so far, confusing classification ofits graphic tipology. Following the internationally accepted Vox classification, the goal of the study has been to differenciate one by one, each typographic character in the tauromachy poster of the 19th century. In addittion, this is an overview ofthe aesthetic patterns, the exchanges among printers, the persistency of certain styles throughout time, the alway peculiar concept of «legibility» in a poster, the relationships between a poster and other books and printed material, the design of the handwritten letters... and ultimately, the communication strategy, the appeal of representation and the dynamics between inmovilist attitudes and original and innovative ones.

  14. O cartel e seus efeitos no âmbito da responsabilidade civil

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Oliveira Maggi

    2010-01-01

    A dissertação analisa os danos decorrentes dos efeitos gerados pelos cartéis sob a ótica da responsabilidade civil, visando identificar os prejuízos gerados aos consumidores e demais compradores dos produtos que sofrem a ação do cartel. Primeiro, são analisadas as estruturas de mercado que propiciam a formação dos cartéis e a sua definição sob os aspectos econômico e jurídico. Após os efeitos gerados pelos cartéis são verificados e agrupados de acordo com as lesões provocadas pelas decisões d...

  15. El cartel turístico español en Alemania: de la imagen de marca al estereotipo

    OpenAIRE

    Sonlleva Velasco, Seila

    2016-01-01

    En el presente trabajo llevamos a cabo un recorrido por la historia de la promoción turística española en Alemania a través de las campañas publicitarias editadas por Turespaña y centradas en el cartel turístico. El objetivo es conocer qué retrato de España se ha proyectado a lo largo de los años a través de las imágenes y los textos que aparecen en los carteles turísticos siendo esta representación uno de los principales focos de la transmisión de estereotipos culturales. A través de este an...

  16. DISCLOSURE OF EVIDENCE IN CARTEL LITIGATIONS IN THE EU: IS BALANCE OF VICTIMS’ RIGHTS AND PUBLIC INTERESTS POSSIBLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mosunova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research focus is an assessment of disclosure rules in the European Union and a perspective for implementation of the US discovery rules to improve European private enforcement. For these purposes the EU disclosure rules are compared with the US discovery rules; the influence of tension between disclosure of evidence and leniency programme on the effectiveness of protection of information is analyzed in order to propose areas for improvement and solutions to find a balance between some inconsistencies of the EU disclosure rules with interests of European plaintiffs in cartel litigations.The research method is not limited to a doctrinal approach to the EU and US legislation, but includes case law, and secondary sources. This paper does not deal with particular types of evidence and generic issues of disclosure unrelated to the cartel cases.The author contends that the American model of discovery in cartel cases cannot be transferred to the European context completely, even though disclosure of evidence in the EU is rather inefficient, and new rules are unlikely to protect consumers’ interests. In terms of consumers’ interests, protection facilitating follow-on actions looks more relevant on the EU level. Practically, the design of the US disclosure rules and priority of consumers’ rights effectively allow victims from the EU to sue in the US and obtain all necessary documents in the US proceeding. In this context convergence of the US and EU positions on disclosure of leniency materials could bring more certainty both to plaintiffs and defendants in cartel litigations.

  17. The gas/oil price relationship from anti-cartel market view; Die Oelpreisbindung aus kartellrechtlicher (Markt-)Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daeuper, Olaf; Couval, Dominique [Kanzlei Becker Buettner Held, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    The substantiation and the reception of the judgements of the Federal High Court (Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany) from 24th March, 2010 clearly show: The coupling of the gas price to the price for light fuel oil highly is disputed legally and politically. In the contribution under consideration the author examines the linking of oil prices from historical and actual market view and legally classifies the linking of oil prices in the background the German and European cartel law.

  18. The Future of Mexico’s Drug War - Balancing Security and Rule of Law Against Cartel Freedom of Maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    Norte Aug 11 Finance & Logistics Los Zetas Financial and logistics sectors Op Veracruz Seguro Oct 11-Pres Veracruz Los Zetas, Gulf, Sinaloa... Veracruz not to pay the demanded extortion fees.33 Whether or not the people view the cartel as a hero remains to be seen, but the issue does pose a trust...danelo.geopoliticsofnorthernmexico.pdf (accessed September 6, 2011). 33 STRATFOR, "Body Dumps of Zetas Members in Veracruz ," STRATFOR Global Intelligence, September 29

  19. THE POSITION OF INDIRECT EVIDENCE AS VERIFICATION TOOLS IN THE CARTEL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veri Antoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indirect (circumstantial evidence, either economic evidence or communication evidence, has been used in cartel cases in many countries such as United States of America, Japan, Australia, Brazil, Malaysia, and others. According to Indonesia criminal procedure law, the position of indirect (circumstantial evidence is categorized as an indication (clue evidence whereas according to Indonesia civil procedure law, indirect (circumstantial evidence is categorized as presumption. Considering the characteristics the antimonopoly law which aims to find material truth, the position of indirect evidence is more properly said to be an indication. Owing to its status as an indication, indirect evidence should be exhibited together with the other direct evidence. Indirect evidenceatau bukti tidak langsung, baik bukti ekonomi atau bukti komunikasi, telah digunakan dalam kasus-kasus kartel di banyak negara, seperti Amerika Serikat, Jepang, Australia, Brazil, Malaysia, dan lain-lain. Menurut hukum acara pidana Indonesia, posisi bukti tidak langsung dikategorikan sebagai indikasi (bukti petunjuk, padahal menurut hukum acara perdata Indonesia, bukti tidak langsung dikategorikan sebagai praduga. Mengingat karakteristik hukum anti-monopoli yang bertujuan untuk mencari kebenaran materiil, posisi bukti tidak langsung lebih tepat dikatakan indikasi. Karena statusnya sebagai indikasi, bukti tidak langsung harus dipamerkan bersama dengan bukti langsung lainnya.

  20. THE POSITION OF INDIRECT EVIDENCE AS VERIFICATION TOOLS IN THE CARTEL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veri Antoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indirect (circumstantial evidence, either economic evidence or communication evidence, has been used in cartel cases in many countries such as United States of America, Japan, Australia, Brazil, Malaysia, and others. According to Indonesia criminal procedure law, the position of indirect (circumstantial evidence is categorized as an indication (clue evidence whereas according to Indonesia civil procedure law, indirect (circumstantial evidence is categorized as presumption. Considering the characteristics the antimonopoly law which aims to find material truth, the position of indirect evidence is more properly said to be an indication. Owing to its status as an indication, indirect evidence should be exhibited together with the other direct evidence.   Indirect evidenceatau bukti tidak langsung, baik bukti ekonomi atau bukti komunikasi, telah digunakan dalam kasus-kasus kartel di banyak negara, seperti Amerika Serikat, Jepang, Australia, Brazil, Malaysia, dan lain-lain. Menurut hukum acara pidana Indonesia, posisi bukti tidak langsung dikategorikan sebagai indikasi (bukti petunjuk, padahal menurut hukum acara perdata Indonesia, bukti tidak langsung dikategorikan sebagai praduga. Mengingat karakteristik hukum anti-monopoli yang bertujuan untuk mencari kebenaran materiil, posisi bukti tidak langsung lebih tepat dikatakan indikasi. Karena statusnya sebagai indikasi, bukti tidak langsung harus dipamerkan bersama dengan bukti langsung lainnya.

  1. Fundamentos de los programas de delación compensada para la presecución de los carteles

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo González Tissinetti

    2006-01-01

    El artículo realiza una revisión de la literatura teórica sobre la forma en que los programas de amnistía o delación compensada afectan la estabilidad de los carteles y permiten su detección y disuasión. Sobre la base de las principales contribuciones, se presenta un modelo unificado que permite extraer los mensajes más relevantes de la literatura y se entregan recomendaciones de política la implementación de dichos programas.

  2. Los carteles del periódico Tierra: construcción de la identidad del obrero colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Eugenia Peters

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo pretende hacer una revisión del periódico Tierra, órgano central del Partido Comunista, en el periodo comprendido entre 1932 y 1939. Esta publicación se configuró como dispositivo de enunciación articulado con las actividades de un proyecto político que empezó a surgir en la década de 1930. La revisión incorpora una mirada analítica de algunas de las imágenes de dicho periódico, realizadas en xilografía y aplicadas a carteles políticos.

  3. Cartel legal limits according to cooperations of purchase of power supply companies; Kartellrechtliche Grenzen bei Einkaufskooperationen von Energieversorgungsunternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleiser, Jens

    2009-07-01

    In the optimization of the conditions of purchase the question rises whether and under which conditions products and services may be brought together with other companies. In this case, it is an intra-group co-ordination of the procurement of majority and minority interests as well as co-operation of purchase with suppliers, customers, competitors and third parties. The author of the contribution under consideration gives an answer to these aspects. Apart from general considerations according to cartel law, also the liberalisation of the energy market, the branch structure and the regulation of incentives particularly for power supply companies are considered.

  4. Stories of Drug Trafficking in Rural Mexico: Territories, Drugs and Cartels in Michoacán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Maldonado Aranda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:In the international media, drug-related violence, corruption and militarization have received much attention. While this is understandable in view of the prominence of border area operations of drug cartels, drug trafficking is a pervasive phenomenon in other parts of Mexico as well, not in the least in significant parts of Western Mexico (especially in Guerrero, Colima and Michoacán. The latter state has a long history of drug production and trafficking (poppies and marihuana, and of military campaigns against it, especially in the area known as the 'Tierra Caliente', Michoacán. In recent decades, however, the situation has acquired a new dimension. This paper will examine the socio-economic and political characteristics of the area and analyse the emergence of drug trafficking as part of profound processes of agrarian transformation, especially since the 1980s. What are these transformations and how can the drug economy of the area be understood? In recent years the Tierra Caliente has become the scene of particularly atrocious confrontations between rivalling drug cartels; hence it was also the first target of military intervention after Felipe Calderón assumed power. How is this explained and what are the main consequences for violence, human rights and the drug and peasant economy?Resumen: Historias del narcotráfico en el México rural: Territorios, drogas y cárteles en MichoacánEn los medios masivos internacionales el tema de las drogas y la violencia relacionada con la corrupción y la militarización ha recibido mucha atención. Si bien esto es comprensible en vista de la importancia de las operaciones de los cárteles de la droga en la zona fronteriza, el tráfico de drogas es un fenómeno generalizado en otras partes de México y de manera importante en el occidente de México (especialmente en Guerrero, Colima y Michoacán. Este último estado tiene una larga historia de producción y tráfico de drogas (marihuana y

  5. Long-term energy contracts and cartel law. Overview of the case practice of the cartel authorities and courts on long-term gas, electricity, and district heating supply contracts and corresponding energy transport and gas storage contracts; Langfristige Energievertraege und Kartellrecht. Uebersicht ueber die Entscheidungspraxis der Kartellbehoerden und Gerichte zu langfristigen Gas-, Strom- und Fernwaermeliefervertraegen sowie entsprechenden Energietransport- und Gasspeichervertraegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Florian

    2011-07-01

    Energy contracts should be drawn up with due consideration not only to the stipulations of civil law but also to aspects of cartel law. In recent times the cartel authorities and legislature have again sharpened their focus on long-term energy contracts. The present study gives an overview of the decisions of the European Commission and the German Federal Cartel Office concerning long-term energy contracts. It offers energy supply companies reference points for an assessment of their own contract practice. It also takes account of the new regulations of the amended Gas Network Access Ordinance as well as the changes soon to come with the EU's Third Single Energy Market Package. For the sake of clarity the study presents the case practice of the cartel authorities separately by energy carrier, making further distinctions by economic level and contractual relationships. It deals not only with natural gas and electricity but also district heating, an energy carrier which is increasingly moving into the focus of the German cartel authorities. The study also discusses the compatibility of long-term energy contracts with European state aid legislation.

  6. Un grito en la pared: algunas consideraciones generales sobre el cartel desde el principio de la Revolución hasta la década del setenta del siglo XX

    OpenAIRE

    González Pastrana, Luis Augusto

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo sobre cartel político cubano pretende analizar el desarrollo del diseño gráfico antes del triunfo de la Revolución Cubana y evaluar el cartel político a partir de 1959. Destaca el impacto de la Revolución como nuevo paradigma social en la cartelística cubana; se abordan las nuevas funciones del diseño gráfico y se presentan las instituciones directamente vinculadas con la temática, creadas para propagar, divulgar y desarrollar el nuevo y floreciente fen...

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF STABLE CARTEL IN PRICE LEADERSHIP MODEL%价格领先模型中Cartel的稳定值特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖垒; 张锦; 汪寿阳

    2011-01-01

    采用一个三阶段价格领先博弈模型研究Cartel的稳定值特征.发现当产业规模较小的时候,Cartel稳定值可以是全联盟或者包含大多数厂商.另外,稳定Cartel的规模受厂商的成本水平影响,产业中的厂商越是成本有效,结果越趋于全合作.然而,当产业规模足够大且厂商成本足够高时,均衡结果只包含3个厂商.%In this paper, the size of stable cartel in the symmetric price leadership model is characterized. It is found that the stable cartel could be a grand coalition or a large coalition with most of firms involved in the industry when the size of the industry is small. Moreover, the size of stable dominant cartel varies according to cost levels of firms, the more cost-efficient the firms are, the more likely full cooperation appears. However, full cooperation would not be supported as an equilibrium outcome when the industry size is large and the cost of production is high enough. In this case, a unique small cartel with only three firms prevails.

  8. Science, industry and the colonial state : a shift from a German- to a Dutch-controlled cinchona and quinine cartel (1880–1920)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roersch van der Hoogte, Arjo; Pieters, Toine

    2015-01-01

    This study shows how control over delicately balanced supply chains from raw material to the final product shifted from one national industry to another. By 1920, Dutch cinchona producers and quinine manufacturers dominated the international cartel that controlled the worldwide production and distri

  9. Traumatic events and trauma-related psychopathology in former drug cartel soldiers in Rio de Janeiro: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojahr, Lisa S; van Emmerik, Arnold A P

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the occurrence of traumatic events and trauma-related psychopathology in former drug cartel soldiers (FDCS) in Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, the authors examined the relationship between the number of traumatic events and symptom severity, and compared symptom severity in perpetrators versus victims of traumatic events. They found high exposure rates to traumatic events, with 83.5% of the FDCS (n = 97) and 57.9% of the controls (n = 95) having experienced more than 5 events. FDCS had higher mean scores for trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress (PTS), depressive symptoms, and general mental health problems, compared to controls. More FDCS than controls satisfied DSM-IV symptom criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (36.4% vs. 15.8%) and reported severe depressive symptoms (25.8% vs. 8.3%). The number of traumatic events was strongly related to PTS among FDCS (r = .48). Furthermore, more FDCS than controls (23.7% vs. 10.5%) identified themselves as a perpetrator of 1 or more traumatic events. Among FDCS, perpetrators reported more PTS than victims. It is concluded that being a (former) drug cartel soldier is associated with elevated trauma exposure and severe trauma-related psychopathology.

  10. Market control in the electricity production and wholesale markets. A critical analysis of the more recent views of the Federal Cartel Office; Marktbeherrschung im Bereich Stromerzeugung/Stromgrosshandel. Eine kritische Analyse der neueren Sicht des Bundeskartellamts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozella, Gisela; Krebs, Harald

    2013-07-01

    In its sector-specific investigations in the electricity production and wholesale markets the German Federal Cartel Office continues to apply its concept of what it terms a primary sales market. The authors describe the discrepancy that exists between the beliefs about market action that underlie the Cartel Office's determination of market boundaries and market action as it actually occurs in reality. The legal concept of the exercise of unilateral market control by several companies as developed by the Cartel Office on the basis of an economic instrument appears unsustainable, both legally and economically. This is compounded by methodological shortcomings. It is therefore the authors' opinion that the approach taken by the Cartel Office in its sector-specific investigations does not afford a sustainable basis for its finding of electricity production companies exercising market control.

  11. Cartel internacional do estanho: a importância da indústria brasileira na quebra do conluio International tin cartel: the importance of Brazilian industry in the breach of collusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Cuter

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta a indústria estanífera internacional como um oligopólio concentrado que se organiza em torno do International Tin Council, constituindo-se em um cartel com importante participação na formação dos preços do estanho, principalmente entre os anos 1960 e início dos anos 1980. Em virtude dos choques do petróleo e da crise internacional no final dos anos 1970, a associação dos produtores passa a ter dificuldades para administrar os interesses dos membros e gerir o estoque regulador, possibilitando a expansão de novos produtores. A indústria brasileira emerge neste cenário, aproveitando-se dos preços artificialmente elevados no mercado internacional, dos incentivos concedidos pelo governo brasileiro e das suas jazidas de boa qualidade, ampliando sua participação no mercado internacional, influenciando a quebra do conluio em 1985.This article presents the international tin industry as an oligopoly organized around the International Tin Council, making it a cartel with important participation in determining tin prices, mainly between the years 1960 and beginning of 1980. As a consequence of the oil shocks and the international crisis in the end of years 1970, the association of manufacturers began to have difficulties in managing the interests of its members and in controlling the buffer stock, facilitating the appearance of new producers. The Brazilian industry emerges in this scenario, benefiting from the artificial prices in the international market, from incentives granted by the Brazilian government and from its good quality mines, thus increasing its participation in the international market and contributing to the end of the collusion in 1985.

  12. Single and cartel effect of pesticides on biochemical and haematological status of Clarias batrachus: A long-term monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narra, Madhusudan Reddy

    2016-02-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in the streams of agricultural or urban catchments. Individual and cartel toxicity of four different pesticides, namely Endosulfan, Carbofuran, Methyl parathion and Cypermethrin were studied. Sub acute exposure (1/10th of LC50) for 1, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days in Clarias batrachus active tissues such as brain, gills, blood and liver were evaluated. Growth, hepatosomatic index and survival performance were decreased, inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase, gills Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activities, and abnormal behavior are noticed. The characteristics of the blood respiratory burst activity, erythrocyte count, contents of hematocrit and hemoglobin are dwindled. Plasma total proteins and liver glycogen decreased whereas blood glucose and serum creatinine, triglycerides are elevated. The immunological attributes such as white blood cell count was elevated, whereas albumin, globulins and lysozyme activity significantly decreased. Hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities and lipid peroxidation levels are elevated, whereas glutathione peroxidase and glutathione are reduced. Toxicity effect of pesticides reached to a crest on 30th day and showed a descent thereafter except in endosulfan which mounted its detrimental effect throughout the experimental period. Toxicity trends of the present study are determined to be highest in Mix group followed by cypermethrin, methyl parathion and carbofuran. Indiscriminate application of these chemicals pose a toxic threat to non-target organisms, damage the ecosystems and jeopardizes human health.

  13. Free Competition Theory and the secret agreements between companies. Saint-Gobain under the charges of cartel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas STAMATE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The European view of economic competition, which is the European Parliament view and enforced by the European Commission does not have a coherent theory of efficiency in allocating resources and justice on a market. The positive law proceeds at incriminating and penalizing with arbitrarily fixed fines the players on different markets but not offering a definition of what competition or free market means, not to mention a theory of the firm. It delivers, of course, a sort of theory, but we argue that it is not coherent and moreover, pretends to be what it cannot possible be, nam¬ely free of any value judgments. The present paper exposes an alternative view to the theory used by EC when decided to fine with 1.4 billion euros the European car glass suppliers Saint-Gobain, Pilkington, AGC and Soliver for cartelizing, and it also presents the case from the perspective of free competition theory based on private property rights of owners.

  14. El destape del cartel de cine español. La nueva libertad sexual en la transición española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Collado Alonso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, que sintetiza los resultados de un trabajo más amplio, pretende explorar la relación entre el cartel de cine y el cambio social, centrándose en el análisis del primero y no del segundo, por lo que se trata de un estudio comunicacional y no sociológico, buscando las interrelaciones que pueden producirse entre ambas opciones: el uso del cartel como reflejo de los valores sociales existentes y como elemento provocador del cambio social. Para ello situamos nuestro análisis en el período de la transición española, momento histórico de profundas transformaciones políticas, económicas y sociales. Es evidente que en nuestro país, desde comienzos de la década de los setenta, todavía con Franco, empieza a notarse el cambio político que estaba por llegar, sobre todo la permisividad oficial hacia un cine que se atreve a plantear temas anteriormente intocables, relacionados sobretodo con la política y con el sexo. La censura franquista había silenciado durante muchos años el deseo sexual y el erotismo, pero desde finales de los años sesenta comienza a surgir un cine comercial que manifiesta una clara tendencia hacia una cierta liberalización en temáticas sexuales, que terminará afianzándose en los años setenta apareciendo los primeros desnudos en la pantalla. Con todo ello, nuestro trabajo pretende analizar el papel del cartel de cine como reflejo de esta nueva situación. 

  15. Estereotipos de género en los orígenes de la publicidad: la imagen femenina en el cartel artístico

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno Doral, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    En esta investigación nos proponemos estudiar la publicidad desde un enfoque histórico, por un lado, y desde un enfoque de género, por el otro. La descodificación del mensaje persuasivo visual, se asienta sobre tres premisas diferentes: la revisión conceptual, la contextualización del objeto de estudio y el análisis de contenido. En este sentido, hemos seleccionado un importante medio de comunicación persuasiva de masas (el único existente en la época) como fue el cartel artístico, para es...

  16. El cartel político, social y cultural de la izquierda chilena en el Gobierno de la Unidad Popular: 1970-1973

    OpenAIRE

    Vico Sánchez, Mauricio Esteban

    2016-01-01

    El objeto del trabajo de investigación que aquí se presenta ha sido la localización, rescate, datación, catalogación y documentación del conjunto de carteles o afiches que se editaron en Chile durante el período comprendido entre el lanzamiento de la campaña electoral de Salvador Allende para las elecciones presidenciales de 1970, hasta el golpe de Estado protagonizado por el general Augusto Pinochet que le puso término, acabando así con el Gobierno de la Unidad Popular, y con la vida del Pre...

  17. Methodology applied by the Petroleum, Natural Gas and Bio fuels National Agency for detection of cartels - their limits and perspectives; Metodology adotada pela Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis para detectecao de carteis - seus limites e perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedra, Douglas Pereira; Sales, Orlando de Araujo Vilela; Baran, Patricia Huguenin; Paiva, Rodrigo Milao de [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Regulacao de Petroleo, seus Derivados, Alcool Combustivel e Gas Natural; Bicalho, Lucia Maria de Oliveira Navegantes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the present methodology used by the Defense Competition Coordination of the Petroleum National Agency for detection of vestiges of cartels in the Brazilian fuel market, their limits, in view of the instruments presently at the disposal of the Agency and perspectives of modification from the eventual availability of new instruments.

  18. 外围厂商行为对Cartel稳定值的影响%The impact of fringe firms' behavior on the size of stable Cartel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖垒; 张锦; 汪寿阳

    2012-01-01

    主导厂商定价之后,外围厂商积极参与市场价格制定,被称作为数量领先模型.而在主导厂商定价后,外围厂商仅仅作为价格接受者而不参与价格制定,则被称作为价格领先模型.通过比较不同外围厂商行为的两种模型,发现当外围厂商参与市场价格确定时,稳定的Cartel规模较大.而当外围厂商不参与价格确定,只是价格接受者时,Cartel规模较小.最后用数值计算的方法对比检验了在两种模型下Cartel稳定值的大小.%The fringe firms' participation in the setting of market price leads to the quantity leadership game, but if the fringe firms act as price takers, price leadership game happens. It compares the two models regarding the fiinge firms' different behaviors and finds that the size of stable Cartel is larger in the quantity leadership model than that in the price leadership model. Finally, it employs numerical method to verify the size of stable Cartels in the two models.

  19. Los murales y carteles como recurso didáctico para enseñar ciencias en Educación Primaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosario Díaz Perea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En la era de las nuevas tecnologías, siguen siendo necesarios los recursos educativos más tradicionales que motiven a los alumnos y les ayuden en su proceso de enseñanza – aprendizaje. Estos recursos, contextualizados en una metodología activa y globalizada, fomentan el desarrollo de las diferentes competencias básicas y promueven que los alumnos interactúen y cooperen para aprender. En este artículo se describen y analizan varias actividades relacionadas con la elaboración y el rendimiento didáctico de murales y carteles en la enseñanza de las ciencias en Educación Primaria. Además, se describe y evalúa una experiencia didáctica que hemos llevado a cabo en un colegio de Educación Primaria de la Comunidad de Madrid, durante dos cursos académicos consecutivos 2009-2010 y 2010-2011, cuyo eje principal fue la elaboración de murales y carteles científicos con alumnos de primer ciclo. Con esta experiencia, resaltamos la conveniencia de orientar la formación inicial y permanente del profesorado hacia la introducción de estrategias organizativas y metodologías cooperativas, que aseguren aprendizajes científicos significativos y funcionales, orientados también a la atención de la diversidad de nuestras aulas.

  20. Carteles, publicidad y territorio: la creación de la identidad turística en España (1929-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Fernández Poyatos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El Patronato Nacional de Turismo, desde su fundación en 1928, asumió como una de sus tareas esenciales la promoción turística de España. Para ello, entre otras actividades, editó varias decenas de carteles en distintas lenguas, en los que difundió no sólo la riqueza territorial de nuestro país, sino también una determinada concepción de España que pudiera despertar el interés de potenciales visitantes, es decir, una auténtica identidad turística española. Analizar desde la óptica publicitaria y la geográfica el conjunto de carteles que han llegado hasta nosotros y establecer los aspectos claves de aquella promoción de nuestro país es el objetivo de este artículo.

  1. INSTITUTIONS EUROPEENNES, CARTELS DE PARTIS NATIONAUX ET DEVELOPPEMENT DES PARTIS EUROPEENS : QUE REVELENT LES DEBATS SUR LES REGLEMENTS 2001 ET 2003 ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Kulahci

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of supranational parties in the European political life represents an increasing concern among practitioners and researchers. Their attributed place represents an important aspect of that problem. Based upon the current literature, this article wants to proceed to an institutional analysis of the 2001 and 2003 Regulations focusing upon the debate regarding the statute, financing and functions of the European parties. We will prove that the European institutions have permitted considerable advances regarding the statute and financing while they have stopped the progress as regards the functions, for instance, of electoral representation. Finally, our analysis will permit us to evaluate the attitudes of various European institutional actors, to diversify and refine the thesis of « national parties' cartel » and to confirm the importance of the problem of the deficit of partisan representation within the European Union.

  2. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  3. Breaking the Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Richard F.

    2006-01-01

    It is clear that the system we have relied on to produce school leaders is not up to the task. A redesigned system will have a better chance of succeeding if it follows the basic principles Mr. Elmore offers here. (Contains 1 endnote.)

  4. Cartel para una esquina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rojas Herazo

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available Sí, realmente es la nuestra la más dura, anónima y dramática de todas las tareas : la de emplearnos a fondo -con nuestros huesos, con nuestra piel y con nuestro traje- en la misión de vivir. Poner los nervios, los cabellos y los sentidos frente a la luz. Estar en ellos. Moler los días y las noches en nosotros.

  5. Study on R& D Cartelization of Enterprises Based on the Technological Convergence%基于技术融合的企业研发勾结研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈抗; 郁明华

    2007-01-01

    随着技术融合的日益盛行,产业融合的趋势越来越显著,企业跨产业的合作屡见不鲜.这种技术融合推动下的新竞合动态,迫使企业重新思考创新战略:即,企业如何突破原有产业边界,通过跨技术领域的合作创新,来降低成本、增加产量、提高企业利润、增进社会福利.因此,本文针对目前企业采用最频繁的合作创新模式--研发勾结(R&D Cartelization),在D'Aspremont二阶段模型的基础上,通过构建相应的博弈模型,研究了不同的产品替代系数、技术溢出系数以及创新系数对合作企业均衡成本、均衡研发投资、均衡产量和均衡利润的影响,并进行了相关案例分析.

  6. Motivations and Implications of Community Service Provision by La Familia Michoacána / Knights Templar and other Mexican Drug Cartels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn T. Flanigan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research demonstrates that service provision by violent organizations can be an effective strategy for coercing the local community to accept and conceal a group’s violent activities, and for creating loyalty to these groups. This has been most frequently explored among political organizations such as terrorist groups, with organizations like Hezbollah and Hamas very visibly engaged in providing social welfare in addition to their violent activities. Recent reports indicate that criminal organizations in Mexico also are involved in instances of public service provision in local communities. This article explores the extent to which drug cartels operating in Mexico are involved in public service provision to members of communities where they operate, and considers possible motivations and implications for public service provision by these criminal organizations, with specific attention to the organization La Familia Michoacána/ Knights Templar. The article also gives attention to the consequences to citizenship and government of service provision by violent nonstate actors, and the ways such service provision may disrupt the social contract between the citizen and the state.

  7. Energy price control according to Section 29 GWB. Chances and risks of implementation against the background of energy law and cartel law; Energiepreiskontrolle durch paragraph 29 GWB. Chancen und Risiken der Implementierung vor dem Hintergrund des Energierechts und des Kartellrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frerichs, Alexandra

    2010-07-01

    In view of the fact that the energy cost increased continuously during the past few years, the legislator saw fit to take countermeasures. In December 2007, Section 29 GWB came into force in spite of vehement and enduring criticism. This section strengthens the position of the cartel authority. With the aid of expert interviews, the author investigates the effects of Section 29 GWB on the energy market and the market partners. Her focus is on the changes brought about in terms of competition in the energy market. 16 interviews were made with experts from science, consumer associations, politics, and public utilities. (orig.)

  8. Legal supervision of network access charges in the energy sector. Determination of charges through ''simulated competition'' and abuse monitoring in accordance with regulatory law, cartel law and civil law; Die Rechtskontrolle von Netzentgelten im Energiesektor. Entgeltbestimmung durch ''simulierten Wettbewerb'' und Missbrauchskontrolle nach Regulierungsrecht, Kartellrecht und Zivilrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, Michael

    2013-08-01

    This publication shows how the level of network access charges plays a decisive role in the liberalisation of the grid-bound energy sector. Price abuse on the part of network operators that leads to monopoly profits must therefore be prevented through legal supervision in accordance with cartel law, regulatory law and civil law.

  9. An analysis on leniency program of hard core cartel and the regulation and perfection of this rule by China's anti-monopoly law%论核心卡特尔中的宽恕制度及我国《反垄断法》对其规制和完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕

    2009-01-01

    核心卡特尔通过相同的定价、一致的行动、固定的份额来获取高额的利润,给竞争带来重大的危害,但是其隐蔽性强,难以为执法机关所侦破.宽恕制度,通过豁免卡特尔协议成员的方式以鼓励其对卡特尔协议的披露,成为西方国家打击卡特尔的重要武器.我国虽对宽恕制度做了规制,但尚且不足.仍待完善.%Hard core cartel usurps high profits through fixing price,concurrent action and allocating market share,which are harmful to competition. As cartel is usually secrete,it's not easy to be detected, Leniency program encourages the member of cartel to dis-close the covenant by exempting its liability and becomes an important weapon to punish the cartel.The Anti-monopoly Law of Chi-na also regulates the leniency program,but is not complete,and needs further perfection.

  10. Analysis of “Prisoners” Dilemma and Cartel Coalition in Oligopoly%寡头垄断中的“囚徒困境”与卡特尔联盟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉炳安; 周祥龙; 罗云峰; 孙德保

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the decision-making behaviors of manufacturers in oligopoly. The correlation of manufacturers and the prisoners′ dilemma due to the correlation are analyzed. The effectiveness of Cartel coalition is investigated and the principle of output dispense is given. The factors affecting the stability of Cartel coalition are also studied.%对寡头垄断市场中厂商的决策行为进行了研究.分析了寡头垄断市场中厂商间的相互依存性以及由此而产生的“囚徒困境”,并对厂商为摆脱“囚徒困境”而形成的卡特尔联盟的有效性进行探讨,给出了卡特尔厂商的产量分配原则,并对卡特尔联盟不稳定性的原因进行了探讨.

  11. El 'leit motiv' de la estética de Pedro Almodóvar analizado a través de la cartelística de su obra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Tabuenca Bengoa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Almodóvar está considerado un representante de la estética y el savoir faire de una generación de artistas y creadores surgidos en España en la década de los ochenta, justo en plena ebullición de las libertades. Es el objetivo, por tanto, determinar concretamente cuál es la estética que marcó a Almodóvar durante los años de la Movida madrileña y las posibles repercusiones que ésta ha podido tener en su evolución creativa.Tratamos de ver cuál es pues el verdadero alcance de las influencias artísticas experimentadas y compartidas por el director y comprobar, por lo tanto, cómo estos influjos tienen un reflejo en la elección de los carteles designados para identificar sus películas y una progresión en el tiempo.El objetivo del presente estudio es el análisis tanto formal (gráfico, tipográfico y cromático, como de contenido de los carteles que han anunciado y promocionado las películas de cineasta manchego a lo largo de su carrera como director, la cual viene desarrollándose íntegramente en España durante las cuatro últimas décadas.

  12. Cabinets and Legislative Cartels in Uruguay: Examining the Legislative Consequences of Government Formation Gabinetes y Cárteles Legislativos en Uruguay: examen de las consecuencias legislativas de la formación del gobierno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chasquetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the return to democracy, Uruguayan presidents have built cabinets of varying natures (majority and minority coalitions, majority and minority parties. Most studies on presidential government assume that the partisan composition of a cabinet is a good predictor of the performance of a government’s legislative program. In this paper I test this hypothesis using Cox and McCubbins’ (1993, 2005 party cartel theory. The results confirm that six of the eight presidential cabinets’ legislative performances were consistent with theoretical expectations, while two were deviant cases. This article also provides a theoretical explanation for these two outliers, highlighting the importance of legislative parties, the presidential style of government, and preferences as regards legislative initiative.Desde el retorno a la democracia, los presidentes uruguayos han formado gabinetes de diferente naturaleza (coalición mayoritaria, coalición minoritaria, partido mayoritario y partido minoritario. La mayoría de los estudios del gobierno presidencial asumen que la composición partidaria del gabinete es un buen indicador para predecir qué sucederá con el programa legislativo del gobierno. En este trabajo se controla esta hipótesis a partir de la teoría del party-cartel de Cox y McCubbins (1993, 2005. Los resultados del análisis empírico confirman que seis de los ocho gabinetes presentan un desempeño legislativo ajustado a las expectativas teóricas. El resto del artículo brinda una explicación teórica sobre lo ocurrido con los casos desviados, destacando la importancia de los partidos legislativos, del estilo presidencial de gobierno y de las preferencias de sus iniciativas legislativas.

  13. Pricing of opportunity cost of free CO{sub 2} emission certificates in electricity rates. An evaluation of boundary conditions set by emission trading, balance law and cartel law; Zur Einpreisung von Opportunitaetskosten unentgeltlich zugeteilter CO{sub 2}-Emissionszertifikate in die Strompreise. Eine Bewertung emissionshandels-, bilanz- und kartellrechtlicher Vorgaben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The publication considers the problem within the European and German legal boundary conditions. There may be a conflict of targets between teh economic cost theory and the standards of energy law or cartel law. To solve a potential conflict between economic rationality and legal regulations, the balancing of free emission certificates is looked into as it may provide information on the rationality and legal acceptability of pricing at the full stock exchange price. (orig./RHM)

  14. Cartel Car Bombings in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    communicado de la secretaria de seguridad publica del estado” (“Communication of the Secretary of Seguridad publishes of the State”), March 19, 2012...Investigación y Seguridad Nacional) COIN Counterinsurgency COTS Commercial Off-The-Shelf DAS Administrative Department of Security...Departamento Administradora de Seguridad en Proceso de Supresión) DEA Drug Enforcement Administration DHS Department of Homeland

  15. 反垄断法规制的新视点——对行政指导卡特尔的规制%The Regulation on the Administrative Guidance Cartel as a New Approach to Chinese Anti- monopoly Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙炜

    2011-01-01

    对行政指导卡特尔行为的规制是我国反垄断立法上面对的一个新问题。目前我国反垄断法虽然规定了对滥用行政权,强制性地排除、限制竞争的行政垄断的规制,而对于有一定的抽象的法律依据,但没有形式上的强制力的行政指导引发的限制竞争行为尚未明确规定。为加强我国对行政指导卡特尔行为的规制,我们需要借鉴日本野田酱油事件的规制经验,要从行政方和经营者两方面入手,采取下列措施予以规范:加紧制定行政程序法、行政指导与反垄断法方面的指南等行政立法工作;明确对由行政指导引发的卡特尔行为适用反垄断法中对垄断行为的相关规定;进一步明确反垄%The regulation on the Administrative Guidance Cartel is a new problem for Chinese Anti - monopoly Law. China Anti - monopoly Law provides a regulation for abuse of administrative power, and mandatorily exclusion and restrict competition of administrative

  16. Common guideline of the Federal Network Agency and the Federal Cartel Office for the award of electricity and gas concession contracts and for changing concession holders. A correct step towards competition for power and gas distribution grids; Gemeinsamer Leitfaden von Bundeskartellamt und Bundesnetzagentur zur Vergabe von Strom- und Gaskonzessionsvertraegen und zum Wechsel des Konzessionsnehmers. Ein richtiger Schritt in Richtung Wettbewerb um Strom- und Gasverteilnetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Svenja; Templin, Wolf [Kanzlei Becker Buettner Held, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    By means of the guidance of the Federal Network Agency (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Federal Cartel Office (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) the desired competition for energy supply systems is finally strengthening explicitly. It is a step in the right direction and provides clarification in many ways. The comments on the scope of the claim to relinquishment and also on the economically reasonable compensation can convince to a large extent. However, the authorities lack the courage and the empirical safety such as to clarify absolutely the claim to transfer property from paragraph 46 section 2 sentence 2 Energy Economy Law. With regard to the information demands in the selection process the guideline presents only a minimum number. For any further confusion, ultimately the legislature is called upon to address the contentious issues of the concession contract law.

  17. A Total War on Drug Cartels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    undermine the Western culture. From the National Liberation Army in Colombia and Venezuela protecting cannabis and opium poppy laboratory operations, to...to proceed with any actions to guarantee greater success and to mitigate possible failures. Thorough knowledge breeds familiarity and permits empathy

  18. Essays on cartel behavior and deterrence policy

    OpenAIRE

    Avramovich, Maria Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Esta tesis consta de tres artículos sobre el impacto de distintas políticas para la disuasión de delitos corporativos en el comportamiento estratégico de los agentes económicos. Combina temas de Organización Industrial, Derecho y Economía, con fundamentos teóricos de microeconomía. El primer artículo analiza el impacto de la política de defensa de la competencia en la disuasión de la colusión y en la eficiencia productiva de los cárteles que sobreviven, en contextos en donde...

  19. Analysis of Bidder Collusion in First-Price Sealed-Bid Auction---based on“Strong” Cartel Mechanism of First-Price Pre-auction Knockout%密封第一价格拍卖中的竞拍者串谋分析--基于“强”卡特尔的第一价格预拍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林菡密; 孙绍荣

    2015-01-01

    已有密封一价拍卖竞拍者串谋均衡研究中存在不符合现实的诸多约束,鉴于此,在串谋只包含部分竞拍者、串谋成员与非串谋尔成员间形成独立、非对称以及连续的价值分布并同时存在竞价策略互动的假设下,建立串谋方和非串谋方互动的竞价优化模型以及拍卖方的保留价格优化模型,得到串谋方和非串谋方的最优竞拍出价以及竞拍方的最优保留价格。结果表明串谋方和非串谋方的出价策略不仅与自身的估价、竞标人数、串谋人数相关,也与对方的估价存在关联性;拍卖方的最优保留价格设定与非串谋方和串谋方的价值分布存在关联。%The existing researches of bidder collusion in first-price sealed-bid auction have many constraints that do not conform to the reality.In view of this, by the assumption that cartels include only a partial of the bidders, collusive and non-collusive members whose value are independent,continuous and asymmetric will respond strate-gically to each other on bidding, this paper gets the optimal bidding price of collusive members and non-collusive members and the optimal reserve price of the auctioneer.As a result, bidding strategy of collusive and non-collu-sive members is not only decided by their own valuations, the numbers of bidders, the number of collusive mem-bers, but also the valuations of the other side.Optimal reserve price is related to valuation distribution of collu-sive and non-collusive members.

  20. Rationality and contradictions in the competition for concessions. A (second) contribution to the Joint Practical Guide of the German Federal Cartel Office and Federal Network Agency for the allocation of electricity and gas concession tolerated and to change the concessionaire of 21 May 2015; Rationalitaet und Widersprueche im Wettbewerb um Konzessionen. Ein (zweiter) Beitrag zum Gemeinsamen Leitfaden von Bundeskartellamt und Bundesnetzagentur zur Vergabe von Strom- und Gaskonzessionsvertraegen und zum Wechsel des Konzessionsnehmers vom 21. Mai 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, David; Templin, Wolf [Boos Hummel und Wegerich Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    This article follows to an essay in the ZNER of 2011 (S. 121 et seq.) for the first Joint Practical Guide of the Federal Network Agency (BNetzA) and Federal Cartel Office (FCO) from the year 2010, in which the authors had attested authorities a good ''step towards to more competition ''. In the essay is examined and shown that the Joint practical guide from the year 2010 this target could meet and what effect the now in its second edition newly revised guidelines on competition to distribution networks may have. The revision of the guidelines will be given to municipalities further action assistance to the hand, but - with few exceptions - only reproduces the jurisprudence of the staked legal framework. One proposed solution for the more diverse existing problems remains undone, whereas new problem areas are put up in several places. Nevertheless, the will of the authorities is to recognize, to avoid legal problems in the concession process and net acquisitions from the outset. [German] Dieser Beitrag knuepft an einen Aufsatz in der ZNER 2011 (S. 121 ff.) zum ersten Gemeinsamen Leitfaden von Bundesnetzagentur (BNetzA) und Bundeskartellamt (BKartA) aus dem Jahre 2010 an, in dem die Autoren den Behoerden einen richtigen ''Schritt hin zu mehr Wettbewerb'' attestiert hatten. In der Abhandlung wird untersucht und dargestellt, ob der Gemeinsame Leitfaden aus dem Jahr 2010 diesem Ziel gerecht werden konnte und welche Auswirkungen der nunmehr in der zweiten Auflage neu ueberarbeitete Leitfaden auf den Wettbewerb um Verteilnetze haben kann. Die Ueberarbeitung des Leitfadens wird den Kommunen eine weitere Handlungshilfe an die Hand gegeben, die aber - bis auf wenige Ausnahmen - den durch die Rechtsprechung abgesteckten Rechtsrahmen nur wiedergibt. Ein Loesungsvorschlag fuer die noch vielfaeltig bestehenden Probleme unterbleibt, wohingegen an mehreren Stellen neue Problemfelder aufgemacht werden. Gleichwohl ist der Wille der Behoerden

  1. Exploiting Weaknesses: An Approach to Counter Cartel Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    up, although the initial vision and goals derive from the top. 12 Figure 1. Los Zetas Organizational Structure -m .__ lione...85 In addition to Tamaulipas, Coahuila, and Nuevo Leon, Los Zetas has also taken over the piracy business in Chiapas, Tabasco, Veracruz and Puebla ...Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatán, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Chiapas, Puebla , Tlaxcala, Hidalgo, Querétaro, Zacatecas, Durango, Guerrero, Oaxaca

  2. Mexican Cartels: The Threat Along Our Southern Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    the drug smuggling on the Southwest Border its leader, Joaquin “El Chapo ” Guzmán, made Forbes’ list of the world’s richest individuals in 2009. 4...resources. 46 UCs are decision-making organizations that develop and seek to implement consensual solutions to defeat narco -terrorism at the border as...Benson, R. G. (2011). Is Merida Antiquated? Part Two: Updating US Policy to Counter Threats of Insurgency and Narco -Terrorism. Washington D.C

  3. African-American Students and the Financial Aid Cartel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Herschel I.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how competition for black college students among the nation's most prestigious institutions could become more intense if these universities abandon their agreement to set financial aid based on merit as well as on need. It argues that by enforcing limitations on financial aid, Congress is protecting Ivy League schools and is sanctioning…

  4. FoxO: a new addition to the ESC cartel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Kevin Andrew Uy; Ng, Huck-Hui

    2011-09-02

    The forkhead box O (FoxO) family is involved in diverse cellular processes such as tumor suppression, stress response, and metabolism. In a recent Nature Cell Biology Letter, Zhang et al. (2011) uncover a novel role for FoxO proteins in regulating the identity of human ESCs.

  5. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  6. End of a cartel; Abschied von einem Kartell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzburger, Heiko

    2010-07-01

    The days of float glass are numbered. The production cost makes modules too expensive and consumes too much energy. Low-cost rolled glass developed especially for solar modules romise considerable savings in terms of energy consumption, material, and weight. (orig.)

  7. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  8. Fellowship Behavior in Division 17 and the MOMM Cartel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, John J.; Erickson, Chris D.

    1991-01-01

    Notes that, although the Council of Counseling Psychology Training Programs lists 64 members, graduates and employees of 4 institutions (Minnesota, Ohio State, Maryland, and Missouri) heavily dominate every science and practice organ of the American Psychological Association Division 17's governing body. Cites examples of barriers to professional…

  9. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  10. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  11. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  12. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  13. [Cartel]: Monthly Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  14. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  15. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  16. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  17. Strict Slaves of Slogans: Response to ''The Social Work Cartel''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, William M.

    2016-01-01

    The corruption of the social work enterprise is not simply episodic but systemic and long-standing including education, research, governance, and practice. Reform is unlikely since the constituency within the field and outside of it that wishes to change the situation is small and ineffective. The corruption of social work reflects the unfortunate…

  18. Security Through Partnership: Fighting Transnational Cartels in the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Ciudad Juarez alone.1 in neighboring Guatemala, the government declared an official “state of siege” along its northern border with Mexico to permit...narcotics market in the United States, modern technology, the wide availability of small arms and global economic integration.4 Indeed, some Mexican...compete with one another and with governments for control of territory, markets and influence, and establish fiefdoms for operations and training

  19. Coming after U.: Why Colleges Should Fear the Accrediting Cartel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    Examines how the college accreditation process can allow a centralized body of bureaucrats to impose a political agenda through their control of funding. The author provides the example of Aquinas College (Michigan) to show how this process can threaten educational quality by forcing changes in the curriculum and administrative practices to…

  20. Cartel and Anti- Cartel Legislation in China%中国的卡特尔与反卡特尔立法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健

    2001-01-01

    @@卡特尔是一种限制竞争的行为,是反垄断法的重要规制对象.时下,卡特尔在中国十分盛行,危害相当严重,但法律对此却显得力不从心.鉴于此,作者认为,应尽快制定反……

  1. Drug Cartels and Gangs in Mexico and Central America: A View through the Lens of Counterinsurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    South America to the U.S.. Since Spanish colonization in the early sixteenth century, Central America and Mexico have endured civil wars, political...fundamental knowledge of the cultural and revolutionary events that shaped socio–political terrain in the region. From as early as the days of the Mayan ...empire, violence and conflict marked the Mesoamerican landscape. The Mayans , a conquering nation in their own right, imposed their rule of law on

  2. Reframing Financial Sector Identity: Options For Reducing Mexican Drug Cartel Economic Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    Finnegan describes how this perception translates to average Mexican citizens: “The narcos use jets and helicopters, speedboats, and even...18 Hal Brands, “Mexico’s  Narco ‐Insurgency and U.S. Counterdrug Policy.” SSI Monograph, Carlisle, PA: U.S.  Army War College Strategic Studies...Targets Colombian Drug Trafficking Organization Tied to Mexican Drug Lord  Chapo  Guzman,” September 21,  2011. http://www.treasury.gov/resource‐center

  3. Cartel. Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials. Vol. III, No. 42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is an informative listing for educators, librarians, and others interested in materials for bilingual multicultural education. Items are listed according to: title, author, subject, and publisher/distributor indexes. The following are among the topics covered: (1) African and Afro-American culture; (2) Native American cultures; (3) arts and…

  4. 论价格卡特尔的界定%Defining Price Cartel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游钰

    2001-01-01

    价格卡特尔的界定是价格卡特尔规制中的首要问题.价格卡特尔应当具备主体、主观、客观行为、损害后果等四个构成要件,这是界定价格卡特尔的基础.本文在考察国外反垄断实践中对价格卡特尔的界定时,着重探讨了价格信息交换和同步价格行为这两种经常出现而又难以准确界定其性质的行为.本文还简要分析了我国目前价格卡特尔的特点并对其界定提出了一些设想.

  5. CARTEL: A method to calibrate S-band ranges with geostationary satellites. Results of orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, A.; Mesnard, B.

    1986-05-01

    A satellite tracking campaign was organized, with 4 S-band stations, for 1 wk. The relative geometry of the network with respect to the satellites was an opportunity to show how the most precise orbit can be computed with the operational software. This precise orbit served as a reference to evaluate what can be achieved with one station with range and angular measurements, a typical configuration used for stationkeeping of geostationary satellites. Orbit computation implied numerical integration with gravitational (Earth, Moon, and Sun) and solar radiation pressure forces acting on the satellite. Arc lengths of 2 days gave initial state vectors which were compared every day. Precision of 10 m is achieved. However, an analysis of the influence of parameters in the orbit computations reveals that the absolute accuracy is of the order of 100 m, since modeling perturbations were neglected in the operational software (e.g., polar motion). In a relative sense, the reference orbit allows estimation of systematic errors for other tracking antennas.

  6. CARTEL: A method to calibrate S-band ranges with geostationary satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, A.; Mesnard, R.; Nouel, F.

    1986-12-01

    An intersite tracking campaign was organized, with 4 S-band stations, for a period of 1 wk to show how the most precise orbit can be computed with the operational software. This precise orbit served as a reference in order to evaluate what can be achieved with one single station with range and angular measurements (a typical configuration used for stationkeeping of geostationary satellites). Orbit computation implied numerical integration with gravitational (Earth, Moon, and Sun) and solar radiation pressure as forces acting on the satellite. Arc lengths of 2 days gave initial state vectors which were compared every day. A precision of 10 m is achieved. However, an analysis of the influence of several parameters entering the orbit computations reveals that the absolute accuracy is of the order of 100 m, since modeling perturbations were neglected in the operational software (polar motion for example). This reference orbit allows estimation of systematic errors for other tracking antennas.

  7. Cartel: Annotations and Analyses of Bilingual Multicultural Materials. Winter 1976-77. Vol. IV, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is an informative listing for educators, librarians, and others interested in materials for bilingual multicultural education. There are two main sections, annotations and analyses. Annotated entries are arranged under the following headings: (1) assessment and evaluation; (2) bibliographies; (3) classroom resources; (4) English as a second…

  8. Product Differentiation and Cartel Stability%产品差异与卡特尔维持

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫星宇

    2006-01-01

    针对国内彩电、手机等行业的价格战,重新思考卡特尔这种厂商合作组织,并通过建模说明产品差异使得卡特尔趋于更加稳定,从而赋予传统意义上的卡特尔以新的涵义,即限制产量仅是为了解决供大于求的问题,以获得正常利润,保持企业的发展后劲.希望相关厂商能够通过建立新涵义的厂商联盟,走出价格竞争的怪圈,提升相应产业的国际竞争力.

  9. CARTEL: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials No. 12. Cumulative Issue--1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Approximately 400 books, curriculum guides, journals, and educational resource materials published between 1967 and 1973 are listed in this annotated bibliography of bilingual bicultural materials on the Spanish-speaking, American Indians, French, Portuguese, Chinese, and Russians. This listing shares with bilingual bicultural project personnel…

  10. Cartel-Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials. No. 36, December 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Thirty-two documents are listed in this annotated bibliography which includes audio-visual, classroom, curriculum, library, and professional bilingual bicultural resources. A reference on an annotated bibliography of doctoral dissertations on social and psychological studies of minority children and youth is also included. Entries are listed…

  11. Cartel-Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 37, January 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Forty-six documents are listed in this annotated bibliography, which includes audio-visual, classroom, curriculum, library, and professional bilingual bicultural resources. A reference on an annotated bibliography of doctoral dissertations on social and psychological studies of minority children and youth is also included. Entries are listed…

  12. THE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL GLOBAL CARTELS OF THE 1990s: OVERVIEW AND UPDATE

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, John M.

    2002-01-01

    “Greed is good.” --Gordon Gecko in Wall Street (1987) “Greed Is Bad.”--Paul Krugman, The New York Times, June 4, 2002 “For many years, Archer Daniels Midland Co.’s philosophy of customer relations could be summed up by a quote from former ADM President James Randall: ‘Our competitors are out friends. Our customers are the enemy.’ This motto animated the company’s business dealings and ultimately led to blatant violations of U.S. antitrust law, a guilty plea and a staggering criminal fine agai...

  13. Cartel Next: How Army Design Methodology Offers Holistic and Dissimilar Approaches to the Mexican Drug Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    information on the term „problematization‟, see also: Michel Foucault , Discourse and Truth: The Problematization of Parrhesia (originally covered in six...lectures given by Michel Foucault at the University of California, Berkeley in October-November, 1983. Published online at: http://foucault.info

  14. Going once, going twice, reported! Cartel activity and the effectiveness of antitrust policies in experimental auctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.; Onderstal, S.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally examine the effectiveness of antitrust policies against bidding rings in the English auction (EN) and the first-price sealed-bid auction (FP). We consider both traditional antitrust policy (without a leniency program) and modern antitrust policy (with a leniency program). In EN, ne

  15. Going once, going twice, reported!: cartel activity and the effectiveness of leniency programs in experimental auctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.; Onderstal, S.

    2009-01-01

    We experimentally examine the effectiveness of a leniency program against bidding rings in two commonly used auctions: the English auction (EN) and the first-price sealed-bid auction (FPSB). Our results show that the leniency program does not affect the average winning bid, nor the average winning c

  16. 供求弹性变化对卡特尔的影响及卡特尔强制力的探讨%Changes of Supply and Demand Elasticity Impacts on Cartel & Explore about Cartel Mandatory Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅翀; 唐小我

    2001-01-01

    卡特尔是寡头垄断市场中厂商的一种重要勾结形式。对一个想要成功运作的卡特尔来说,市场供求弹性的变化和卡特尔强制力是必须考虑的两个重要问题。本文通过4个案例,就市场供求弹性变化对卡特尔限产抬价的影响以及如何运用卡特尔强制力进行了相关探讨,并得出了一些有益的结论.

  17. 论信息革命对社会经济发展的影响%Changes of Supply and Demand Elasticity Impacts on Cartel & Explore about Cartel Mandatory Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩蒙; 葛中全

    2001-01-01

    本文揭示了信息革命的本质,阐述了信息革命对经济发展、对管理改革及对社会的影响.指出网络安全等系列问题成为制约信息、社会发展的突出问题,而信息过剩带来新的信息匮乏问题,同样也会使人类陷入新的信息危机.

  18. From Cartel to Enterprise Alliance%试析从"卡特尔"到企业联盟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何瑛

    2003-01-01

    通过对企业联盟的最初形态--卡特尔的分析研究,指出现代企业走向联盟的必然性以及联盟形式的探讨.对我国国有企业如何摆脱困境提升竞争力有一定的启迪.

  19. Anti-monopoly Issues of Regional Cartel%地域卡特尔的反垄断问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉岭; 汪萍

    2008-01-01

    地域卡特尔即横向分配市场,是有着竞争关系的企业为分割产品的营销市场或原材料采购市场,而达成的不在指定市场进行竞争的协议.它不仅限制了经营者之间的竞争,提高了其市场力量,推动着区域内垄断的形成,还损害了消费者福利,并导致市场失灵.本文通过对美国反垄断法经典地域卡特尔案件的评析和合资与合作研发中分割市场的分析,认为我国反垄断法应当将这一问题作为未来执法与司法的一个重点.

  20. 发电商价格卡特尔之思考%Thoughts on the Cartel Power Plant Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新民

    2004-01-01

    在新的科学合理的价格机制还没有完全建立的情况下,为打破垄断、提高效益,率先在发电侧引入竞争机制, 实行竞价上网.从竞争的角度对此进行讨论,认为现行的边际价格结算规则存在一定的风险和漏洞,特别是处于寡头垄断的发电商的市场价格垄断行为,对建立开放有序、公平竞争的电力市场是十分不利的,应从国家、行业和电网经营企业几个层面对此进行研究和预防.

  1. Federal Cartel Office interferes with the issuing of concessions for electricity and gas supply; Bundeskartellamt greift Strom- und Gaskonzessionsvergaben an

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, Ute; Biemann, Jens [Heuking Kuehn Lueer Wojtek, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-03-08

    Direct awarding of electricity or gas concessions to utility-owned companies or communal subsidiaries without competition is not permissible, according to current rulings of the BKartA. The BKartA assumes misuse of the market-dominating position of a community if it violates the specifications of Sect. 46 EnWG for the issuing of concessions. The trend towards recommunalisation is stopped at least in those cases where both an electricity concession and a gas concession are to be transferred simultaneously to a new community-owned utility.

  2. 政党的转型与政党的卡特尔化%Transformation and Cartelization of Party

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长江

    2010-01-01

    政党最初以阶级的政党的形态出现,依靠社会的政治支持,在选举中形成政党竞争的政治格局.二战后,经济社会的发展使阶级的政党遭遇危机,阶级的政党转型为包括一切人的政党.在短暂的复兴后,包括一切人的政党面临更全面深刻的危机,危机来自于党的举措,这些举措成为西方政党的卡特尔化的直接动力.政党西方卡特尔化的原因在于,包括一切人的党无法协调党内、党与社会和竞争的政党之间的关系.

  3. On China Export Cartel Exemption System%中国出口卡特尔豁免制度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张靖

    2009-01-01

    出口卡特尔是出口商之间设定价格同盟、建立排他性出口销售的横向协议.为了增加出口,维护本国利益,世界各国反垄断法对本国出口卡特尔普遍予以反垄断豁免,具体方式包括明示豁免、模式豁免和非法定豁免三种.作为发展中国家,中国一方面应不断完善反垄断法中的出口卡特尔豁免实体和程序规则,另一方面应积极加强双边、多边的国际协调与合作,尽量避免外国对我国出口卡特尔提起反垄断诉讼.

  4. 论我国电信业的卡特尔形态%The Cartel Forms of China's Telecom Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲少臣

    2009-01-01

    电信的垄断地位和电信业引入竞争机制是行业改革相辅相成的两方面.在反垄断法视野下,运用卡特尔分析电信业第三次重组前后的市场形态,可以发现电信业从市场划分卡特尔向价格卡特尔的过度.电信业的卡特尔阴影为未来的改革指明了方向.

  5. 试析我国卡特尔豁免制度%Research on Cartel Exemption System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小军; 张文彧

    2010-01-01

    卡特尔是企业用采限制市场竞争的重要手段和方式之一,是市场竞争的必然产物.许多国家或地区的反垄断法对卡特尔禁止的同时也确立了卡特尔豁免制度.卡特尔豁免出现了多种类型.我国中卡特尔豁免制度具有规定全面、适用范围广泛、完全豁免与有限豁免相结合的特色,但也存在可操作性不强、具体标准不明确、缺乏相关程序制度及监督制度的问题,我国中卡特尔豁免制度还需逐步完善.

  6. 现实生活中的卡特尔组织%CARTEL IN REAL WORLD PERFORMANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施政骏

    2012-01-01

    卡特尔组织是由竞争企业所构成的共谋联盟.企业通过在商品价格、产量和市场份额等方面订立协定而形成的同盟.本文将先阐述卡特尔组织的优点及其不稳定性,并运用保洁与联合利华的例子来分析卡特尔组织在现实生活中的稳定性.

  7. The Evolution of Los Zetas in Mexico and Central America: Sadism as an Instrument of Cartel Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Mazatlecos, a gang in Mazatlán, Sinaloa. They have followed the same ex- change with La Resistencia , a violent gang that has given them access to Jalisco. El...with La Resistencia , are important players in Mexico’s third largest city, known as the “Pearl of the West” by residents and a money-laundering...Intelligence: Southern Pulse,” May 10, 2011, "Petroleum Rustling," Verónica Sánchez, “Registrar desde 2009 liga entre INM-narco” (“Recognized since

  8. Competing with the Cartels: How Mexico’s Government Can Reduce Organized Crime’s Economic Grip on its People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    DTOs grip on the economy. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mexico, Economy, Poverty Reduction, Microfinance , Regulatory Reform, Drug Trafficking Organizations...financial infrastructure and “ microfinance ”, and economic policy reform.24 ECONOMIC CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES Historically poverty has been one of...the “Rural Microfinance Technical Assistance Project (PATMIR)” within its Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Development, Fisheries, and

  9. 76 FR 5603 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Office of Operations Coordination and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... terrorists, drug cartel leaders or other persons known to have been involved in major crimes or terror of... to Homeland Security; and Known terrorists, drug cartel leaders or other persons known to have...

  10. Departmental Takeover and the Peculiar Property Rights of Academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Holley H.

    1989-01-01

    The academic department is viewed as a form of cartel, a model of monopolistic behavior characterized by control over a particular differentiated product. The development and operation of this academic cartel is explored. (MSE)

  11. 论核心卡特尔参与者获得宽大的必要条件%Requirements for Leniency Applicants of Hard-Core Cartels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金美蓉

    2008-01-01

    核心卡特尔是世界各国公认的最严重的竞争违法行为.打击核心卡特尔已经成为主要市场经济国家竞争机构的首要工作任务.由于核心卡特尔行为具有很强的隐蔽性,竞争机构传统上采用的调查和办案手段往往对其无法奏效.为了解决这一问题,各国纷纷制定了从内部瓦解卡特尔、鼓励卡特尔参与者自首的宽大方案.根据各国宽大方案,申请人必须满足一系列条件才能获得宽大,本文旨在考察主要市场经济国家宽大方案基础上,对宽大的必要条件进行深入的研究和分析,为我国相关制度的进一步发展提供一定借鉴.

  12. The sectorial investigation power generation / electricity wholesaling of the Federal Cartel Office. Excellent analysis, insufficient consequences; Die Sektoruntersuchung Stromerzeugung/Stromgrosshandel des Bundeskartellamts. Ausgezeichnete Analyse, unzureichende Konsequenzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Peter [Becker Buettner Held (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The office faced a difficult task: Are the German prices for electric power at the Wholesale level abusively excessive from the point of view of antitrust law? If so, what are the consequences? The investigation follows on two methods, which ended without result for the electricity customers: the abuse proceedings by the Commission against E.ON (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) and the abuse proceedings of the offices against RWE AG (Dortmund, Federal Republic of Germany), both of which have been adjusted. Therefore, the expectations to the office were high. The investigation fulfills the restricted formulation of a question. The investigation will not fulfill the statutory mandate. The question of the instruments and their relationship to one another often remains open.

  13. Can Antimonopoly Law Deterrent Cartels?%反垄断法能有效威慑卡特尔犯罪吗?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐要家; 唐春晖

    2009-01-01

    反垄断执法的目标是阻止犯罪和补偿受害方,要有效阻止恶性卡特尔犯罪,必须确保企业的违法预期所得低于违法预期成本.通过数值模拟和对美国、欧盟反垄断罚金和法律责任体系实际执法效能的检验,发现基于违法所得或违法伤害的罚金计算依据要比依据企业销售额比例上限更有效,综合法律责任的威慑力度要高于单一法律责任.实证分析发现,中国反垄断法的罚金规则和法律责任体系,既不能有效阻止恶性卡特尔犯罪,也不能有效补偿受害方.

  14. Regulation on Cartel Concerted Restrictive Behavior%卡特尔协议限制竞争行为的规制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴汉洪; 安劲萍

    2006-01-01

    企业间达成卡特尔协议是市场经济中一种重要的限制竞争的行为,为各国竞争政策所规制.中国的反垄断法草案也明确规定了对垄断协议的禁止.在中国未来的反垄断执法中,对卡特尔协议行为的规制将可能面临一些问题.为此,应加强对反垄断法的宣传,加强对有关垄断问题的经济学分析,以及加强对反垄断理论与实践方面人才的培养.

  15. 论出口卡特尔的反垄断豁免%On Export Cartel Exemptions from Anti-monopoly Laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄涧秋

    2008-01-01

    出口卡特尔是与出口有关的限制竞争协议,其针对的目标市场为外国市场.各国关于出口卡特尔反垄断豁免的立法模式包括明示豁免和默示豁免,这反映了各国对垄断的实体性标准认识的不同.出口卡特尔豁免的限制性条件主要为不影响本国市场和不限制国际贸易,具有一定程度的不确定性.出口卡特尔豁免需要各国在竞争政策方面进行国际合作,在WTO体制内,各国对出口卡特尔的合法性问题存在着重大分歧.

  16. On "Managerial Revolution" and the Legal Regulation on Price Cartel%论"经理革命"与价格卡特尔的法律规制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继峰

    2008-01-01

    公司内部管理制度的变革会在公司外部行为中反映出来.西方国家公司管理经历了股东大会中心主义到董事会中心主义的转变,现代又发生了"经理革命".这种权力在公司机构间的移动过程相应地改变了价格卡特尔的表现形式,进而改变了法律规制卡特尔的方法.

  17. An Introduction and Assessment of American Anti-Cartel Amnesty Program%美国制裁国际卡特尔的赦免制度介评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽君

    2007-01-01

    美国反垄断部门出台的赦免制度在制裁国际卡特尔方面发挥着极为重要的作用,该制度规定参加卡特尔的公司中第一个向政府揭发该卡特尔的公司可免除刑事责任.赦免制度有效实施的基础包括三个方面,即管辖地的反垄断法必须对参与卡特尔的公司制定严厉的惩罚措施、卡特尔成员面临着被反垄断部门查处的巨大风险、赦免制度具有透明度和可预见性.美国的赦免制度已相当成熟和完善,实践也证明这一制度具有极大的应用价值,这对于我国制定反垄断法、有效制裁国际卡特尔具有重要的借鉴意义.

  18. Antimonopoly Law Regulation of Behavior of Cartel Industry Association%行业协会卡特尔行为的《反垄断法》规制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏静

    2010-01-01

    行业协会限制竞争的行为主要体现为卡特尔行为.行业协会卡特尔行为因行业协会的特殊性质而更具隐蔽性、复杂性和严重性.我国现行对行业协会卡特尔行为进行了规制,但规定存在某些缺失,有待进一步完善.

  19. 卡特尔与正当协调的判断标准分析%Analysis About The Judgment Standard For Cartel And Due Coordination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高重迎

    2011-01-01

    卡特尔规制是各国反垄断法规制的主要内容之一。在反垄断执法中,如果对市场中所有协调行为均予以违法论处显然不符合竞争政策与公共政策的要求,同时也不能真正有效地制止卡特尔行为。因此,有必要对市场中的卡特尔与正当的协调行为进行有效区分。本文研究、探讨了美欧日卡特尔与正当协调行为的判断标准,以期对完善我国的判断标准提供借鉴。

  20. 论互补性专利联营的卡特尔管制%On Cartel Regulation About Complementary Patent Pools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海涛

    2008-01-01

    司法实践中,对互补性专利联营一般免予卡特尔管制,但多数互补性专利联营成员之间实际上是存在竞争关系的,专利联营很可能构成卡特尔.对于互补性专利联营,只有各成员在创新市场独立进行研发,各自取得专利,并且无潜在竞争关系的,才能认定不构成卡特尔.我国应当充分运用,加强对互补性专利联营的卡特尔管制.

  1. Determination of Cartel fines and its effectiveness%卡特尔罚金的确定方法及其效能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐要家; 唐春晖

    2009-01-01

    罚金是有效威慑价格合谋行为的主要手段.从国际比较来看,美国以损害程度为基础的罚金规则要比欧盟的销售额比例规则更能有效制裁违法行为.中国应尽快制订出台,并采用灵活的罚金确定方法来提高对违法行为的制裁力度.

  2. A Study on Cartel Exemption System in Anti-Monopoly Law%反垄断法中卡特尔豁免制度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸣胜

    2001-01-01

    通过对发达的市场经济国家反垄断法律制度的研究,揭示了卡特尔及可豁免卡特尔的一般构件,归纳出了可豁免卡特尔的主要类型,并以德国为例说明了豁免卡特尔的基本程序.还通过探究反垄断法中卡特尔豁免法律制度建立的根据,从我国实际出发并借鉴外国经验,提出了在制定我国反垄断法时,建立我国卡特尔豁免制度的几点建议.

  3. 出口卡特尔与反垄断的法律探讨%Export Cartel and Antitrust:A Legislation Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖振中; 陆佳

    2005-01-01

    出口卡特尔是出口商之间设定价格同盟以及建立排他性出口销售渠道的横向协议.为了鼓励出口,维护本国利益,世界各国反垄断法普遍对本国出口卡特尔予以反垄断"豁免",而对外国出口卡特尔则依据"合理原则"认定其是否危害本国竞争环境,并进行相应制裁.我国的反垄断法应当限制国外出口卡特尔,同时应明确对国内出口卡特尔的"豁免".

  4. A Review of Cartel Problem on Chinese Car Insurance Market%中国车险市场的卡特尔问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张程

    2010-01-01

    车险费率改革促进了我国保险业的快速发展.随着改革的逐步深入,车险市场的竞争问题日益突出.车险费率的过度竞争导致保险公司间纷纷签订自律协议,结成车险市场卡特尔同盟.以理论经济学为分析基础,以产业组织理论中的推测变差模型为分析工具,对车险市场卡特尔的形成原因、稳定性、绩效等三个方面进行了分析.最后,针对我国车险市场现实状况、结合即将实施的相关条例,给出了规范性的政策建议.

  5. “不景气卡特尔适用除外制度”的适用及完善%Application and Improvement of Crisis Cartel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾新宇

    2015-01-01

    不景气卡特尔是反垄断法为了应对周期性的经济变化带来的困境与机遇的重要制度,但由于现行法律规制的缺陷及理论研究的空白,其在现实中的适用存在较多的困难,在执法过程中也缺少行之有效的实施方案.因此,需结合不景气卡特尔自身的特点以及法理依据,对其在实践中的认定需从行为目的和行为后果两个方面进行合理性考量,以使不景气卡特尔在实践中的适用具有切实的可操作性、合理性.

  6. On Differentiation between Inter-firm Strategic Alliances and Cartel%论企业战略联盟与卡特尔的差别性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建

    2000-01-01

    根据企业合作关系在当前全球化竞争战略中日益重要的背景,讨论两种代表性的合作关系战略联盟和卡特尔的差别性,涉及的方面包括特征和目的、治理结构与利润机制、组织形式和理论解释的类别。研究指出,区分这两种合作关系有助于我们重新认识新的全球竞争格局和市场经济制度结构,并重塑我国企业战略管理的内容与过程。

  7. 价格联盟定价策略博弈分析%Analysis on Pricing Strategy of Price-fixing Cartel by Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学军

    2012-01-01

    运用博弈论的智猪博弈模型,对由实力不同厂商组成的价格卡特尔联盟中的大厂商和小厂商之间的博弈和定价策略进行分析.研究表明:在价格联盟确定的垄断高价和垄断低价下,小厂商都应采取背叛策略才最有利;大厂商则应通过控制价格联盟采取垄断低价、合作策略,这将有利于其更长时间保持市场优势地位.

  8. 对Cartel联盟机制的博弈分析及其改进%A Game Analysis and Its Improvement on Cartel Alliance Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金明

    2007-01-01

    Cartel联盟是当前企业合作的重要形式,它以限价和限量为手段追求整个行业最大收益,然后根据公平分配机制分享利润.而利用纳氏混合策略均衡解的思想,研究n个企业的Cartel联盟合作机制的博弈情况.纳氏均衡解表明此合作模式因个别企业的背叛而导致该合作模式可靠性不强,引入惩罚机制后,得出保证Cartel联盟合作为博弈均衡解的条件,以求出了惩罚系数的取值范围.

  9. 对Cartel联盟机制的非合作博弈分析%The Non-cooperative Game Analysis on the Mechanism of Cartel Alliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚洪心; 李军; 武振业

    2004-01-01

    Cartel联盟是当前企业合作的重要形式,它以限价和限量为手段追求行业收益,然后再根据公平的分配机制分享利润.本文在古诺模型的基础上进行了Cartel联盟模型的扩展,并且对其重复博弈机理进行了分析;本文的结论是在静态博弈条件下企业的Cartel联盟不具有稳定性条件,在重复博弈条件下,企业在合作均衡与竞争均衡之间的选择取决于贴现因子的大小.

  10. 论进出口卡特尔的禁止与豁免%Cartel's Prohibition and Exemptions on the Import and Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于蕾

    2006-01-01

    从进出口卡特尔的基本理论谈起,具体分析了当时美国、德国、日本等各国法律豁免进出口卡特尔的原因以及当今世界各国对进出口卡特尔予以禁止的趋势;认为中国应该从自身进出口贸易的实际情况出发,结合当今的国际经济环境,选择对进出口卡特尔予以禁止的立法态度.

  11. Aderentes e militantes: a participação político-partidária na era do Partido Cartel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F. Nique Franz

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo analisa o estado da arte da literatura sobre as transformações nas formas de participação político-partidária produzida nas últimas décadas. Dois objetivos principais guiam nossa argumentação: (i fornecer um panorama de referência que possa contribuir ao desenvolvimento de pesquisas sobre esta temática e (ii atenuar a segmentação que caracteriza as distintas correntes analíticas. Revisando trabalhos publicados em revistas e livros anglo-saxões e franceses, comparamos suas problemáticas, as questões teóricas subjacentes, bem como os métodos de administração da prova utilizados. Destarte, identificamos a estruturação de dois campos de produção politológica que se comunicam pouco. De um lado, uma tradição “Political Science”, mainstream, cujos estudos privilegiam uma abordagem sistêmica e comparada, apoiando-se em uma demonstração fundamentalmente estatística. De outro lado, uma tradição “Sociologie Politique” desenvolvida na França e cuja perspectiva de análise é internacionalmente pouco conhecida. Influenciadas pelo paradigma interacionista, suas pesquisas empregam o método sócio-etnográfico e redirecionam o foco de análise aos níveis meso e micro social. Fazendo um balanço crítico das principais contribuições de ambas as vertentes, apontamos algumas tendências atuais observadas pelos especialistas. Insistimos, particularmente, no potencial heurístico oferecido pelo enfoque da Sociologia Política para agregar novos elementos para a compreensão deste fenômeno.

  12. 构建中国煤炭卡特尔的可行性分析%The Feasibility Analysis of Coal Cartel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄欢; 薛耀文

    2011-01-01

    中国的煤炭资源主要集中在少数几个省份,煤炭给这些省带来经济利益的同时也带来了诸如环境破坏严重、产业结构不合理等问题.文章分析了卡特尔的合法性及合理性,并对中国煤炭业的现状及形成煤炭卡特尔的利益方面进行了研究,在此基础上分析了构建中国煤炭卡特尔的可行性,研究了中国煤炭卡特尔的成员构成及其内部合作博弈情况.

  13. On China's Price Cartel and Its Law System%论我国价格卡特尔及其法律规制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿静

    2003-01-01

    价格卡特尔作为一种广泛存在的限制竞争行为,一直是各国反垄断法规制的重点.在我国,价格卡特尔作为与市场竞争相伴而生的社会现象已出现在许多行业中,并产生危害.为使我国即将出台的反垄断法中有效规制价格卡特尔,需要明确价格卡特尔的行为主体,规定严格的法律责任制度,并避免采用单一的本身违法原则,同时,需要设立专门的主管机关.

  14. Fifteen Profession Programs Build up Cartel Pattern%落实行业"十五"规划构建企业联盟运行模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚红云; 江昌洪

    2003-01-01

    @@ 自上世纪90年代中国安防产品制造形成行业以来,许多安防中小企业仍把企业的生存和发展看作产品创新和技术创新.实践证明,这是一种狭隘的战略思想.前几年,笔者曾有幸随中国安防产品行业协会分赴粤、沪、川、陕等11个省市142个安防企业进行调研,发现经创业6、7年,甚至10多年的企业大都在单打独斗,苦苦支撑.惟浙江的众多中小企业聚集成群并形成配套(零部件,产品链)、分包、合伙,股份化合资等多种形式的企业联盟,呈现出一派共生共荣的喜人景象.针对此状况,在后来行协编制的行业"十五"发展规划的措施中明确提出,要通过企业之间竞合战略开展各种关联形态的经营活动,加快企业发展、实现我国安防产业升级.为此笔者就构建我国安防企业之间的关联模式,从理论、战略及实施对策方面作深人的探讨,供业内人士讨论.

  15. An Analysis of Price Cartel in Printing Market in NUC%中北大学文印市场价格卡特尔分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟宏飞

    2010-01-01

    为牟取超额利润,中北大学周围的文印服务提供商利用学校地理位置特点,结合文印服务特性,成立了价格卡特尔--中北文印协会.本文首先运用经济学、法学相关理论对中北大学文印市场价格卡特尔进行介绍;其次对中北文印卡特尔的形成原因进行分析;最后总结了文印卡特尔崩溃的原因.

  16. 对我国价格卡特尔规制的法学研究%Law Research of China's Regulation on the Price Cartel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江雪梅; 包迪鸿

    2005-01-01

    价格卡特尔是对竞争危害最大的卡特尔,它严重限制了市场的竞争机制并损害了消费者的利益.在我国市场化进程中,许多行业已经出现了价格卡特尔现象,与其他国家相比,我国的价格卡特尔还带有经济体制转轨这一特定历史时期的印记.目前,我国现有法律对价格卡特尔的规制存在着许多不足之处,相比而言,2002年2月的对价格卡特尔的规制有了明显的进步,但是,这一草案对价格卡特尔的规制仍然不尽完善.未来我国反垄断法对价格卡特尔的规制还应当将行业协会作为特定主体纳入价格卡特尔规制的对象范围,强化对价格卡特尔的制裁措施,实施双罚原则,设立鼓励揭露价格卡特尔的举报制度.

  17. On Regulation of Importing and Exporting Cartel of China%论我国对进出口卡特尔的法律规制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓燕; 肖继新; 王东伟; 刘俊杰; 王新刚

    2006-01-01

    卡特尔是反垄断法规制的重要对象之一.文章具体分析了过去美国、德国、日本等国豁免进出口卡特尔的原因,指出禁止进出口卡特尔已成为发展趋势,认为中国应从自身进出口贸易的实际情况出发,结合当今的国际经济环境,选择对进出口卡特尔予以禁止的立法态度.

  18. 欧佩克的卡特尔行为研究综述%A Survey of the Cartel Behavior of OPEC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸿雁

    2005-01-01

    自从国际石油价格在20世纪70年代剧烈上涨以来,欧佩克就成为经济学文献中卡特尔组织的典范.欧佩克确实具有一些传统卡特尔组织的基本特征,但与其他传统的卡特尔组织相比,欧佩克又具有明显的不同之处.在研究欧佩克行为的统计检验文献中,大部分研究不能证明欧佩克是卡特尔组织,而只能证明欧佩克成员之间存在着相似的行为.另外,欧佩克的卡特尔利益已经大幅度降低.因此,可以得出结论:就目前而言,欧佩克不是一个有效运作的卡特尔组织;或者可以说,欧佩克对国际石油市场的影响力并不是完全来自卡特尔的力量.

  19. Competition and cartel law. Balanced consideration of mutual interests; Wettbewerb und Kartellrecht - korrektes Verhalten vor, waehrend und nach der Submission. Ausgleichende Beruecksichtigung gegenseitiger Interessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motzke, G. [OLG Muenchen (Bausenat in Augsburg) (Germany)

    2001-11-19

    The article reviews existing laws and regulations and discusses case law in the context of rights and obligations of the parties involved in competitive bidding on a tender basis for construction and installation work for local power distribution systems and house service stations. (orig./CB) [German] Das Thema nimmt den Ausschreibenden als den Nachfrager von Bauleistungen wie auch den Bieter und spaeteren Auftragnehmer in die Pflicht. Beide Parteien sind gehalten, ihren Obliegenheiten und Pflichten in den einzelnen Stadien bis zum Vertragsschluss und im Rahmen der Vertragsabwicklung nachzukommen. (orig.)

  20. Fighting corruption in Mexico : lessons from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    New, Jonathan David; Ventura, Humberto Ovidio

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The elevated levels of violence seen recently in Mexico are not a sign of a worsening security situation as the media would lead one to believe. Instead, they give witness that the Government of Mexico has implemented an unparalleled offensive against the deadly drug cartels. Despite the unprecedented assault against the cartels, cartel prevalence and violence is increasing when it should be decreasing. Drawbacks, such as widespread c...

  1. 墨西哥的真实战争——民主如何能够击败贩毒集团%Real War in Mexico:How Democracy Can Defeat the Drug Cartels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    香农·奥尼尔; 包云波; 贺双荣

    2010-01-01

    @@ 香农·奥尼尔 毒枭肆无忌惮的暗杀、绑架和恐吓使人联想到90年代初哥伦比亚的景象.然而,今天墨西哥被不断升级的暴力所吞噬.自2006年12月费利佩·卡尔德龙总统上任后,墨西哥发生了1万多起与毒品有关的谋杀事件,仅2008年就超过6000起.

  2. 我国房地产市场价格卡特尔行为的分析与规制%Analysis and Regulation of Price Cartel in Chinese Real Estate Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊聃

    2009-01-01

    目前,我国房地产市场属于区域性寡头垄断市场,寡头房地产商较易实施价格信息交换、价格领导和同步价格等价格卡特尔行为,损害了消费者福利,降低了市场资源配置效率.而以为中心的规制价格卡特尔的法律制度难以制止房地产市场的价格卡特尔行为.因此,还需要完善房地产法律制度和等对房地产市场的价格卡特尔行为进行规制,以保护消费者福利,保证市场的有效运行.

  3. 论国际卡特尔的危害及对其制裁与遏制%On the Imperilment Engendered by International Cartel and the Sanction and Deterrent to It

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勇; 李志强

    2006-01-01

    卡特尔被普遍认为是所有反竞争行为中危害最大的.由来自多个国家的企业参加而形成的国际卡特尔则对全球经济和各国消费者有更为严重的危害.世界主要国家的竞争法都对这种行为加以规范和制裁.文章主要讨论卡特尔对市场竞争机制造成的损害,进而阐述并评述各国对卡特尔的遏制与打击的努力,最后提出中国在此问题上的立场.

  4. Anti -Cartel Amnesty Program's Historical Existence and Its Practical Legitimacy%赦免制度的历史存在及其现实合理性刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍操

    2009-01-01

    赦宥是一种国家性质的宽恕行为,其盛行于中国古代历朝历代,具体表现为君王对犯罪人应受刑罚的免除或减轻.时至近代,赦免制度却因其遗留太多人治痕迹而饱受批判.然而,笔者认为,以往的历史必将成为现实的传统.赦免制度的历史存在与现实合理性,可以支撑起其作为一种有效的刑事政策手段继续存在于现代法治社会之中.

  5. 医疗行业分析与特色医院集团化发展战略%On Come-to-cartel Strategy of Characteristic Hospital on Medical-Industry-analysis-based

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华

    2005-01-01

    医疗行业具有自身的特点,向市场经济体制的过渡使得当前中国医疗市场演进呈现明显特征.目前医院发展的基本战略环境决定了特色医院集团化发展的战略选择.医疗、服务、管理、品牌是实施特色集团化战略的最突出的4个方面.

  6. 反垄断宽恕政策的理论分析与实证考察%Theoretical Analysis and Positive Observation of Leniency Policy in Cartel Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游钰

    2008-01-01

    宽恕政策是卡特尔执法的有效政策工具,它有利于破坏卡特尔的稳定性,有利于提高卡特尔的执法效率.设计合理的规则是宽恕政策有效发挥作用的基础,具体、确定、透明是宽恕政策的基本要求.宽恕政策的实施效果与卡特尔的立法、执法状况密切相关,严厉的法律制裁、坚定的执法态度和有力的执法措施能够有效促进宽恕政策的实施.为了加强卡特尔执法,我国反垄断执法机构应当根据的有关规定尽快出台宽恕政策.

  7. 基于卡特尔模型的营销渠道分销商联盟机制设计%Marketing Channel Distributor Alliance Contract Mechanism Design Based on Cartel Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 王方华

    2006-01-01

    营销渠道分销商联盟是双方提高利润的主要手段之一,尽管联盟是不稳定的,但双方仍希望通过谈判形成联盟,并建立相互制约机制,此时,市场结构将从垄断竞争向卡特尔联盟转变,本文主要基于卡特尔模型分析营销渠道分销商联盟的可能性,并提出相应的合作机制设计.

  8. Analysis On Pricing Strategy Of Property Insurance Price-fixing Cartel By Game%财产保险价格联盟定价策略博弈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学军

    2012-01-01

    运用博弈论,对由实力不同保险公司组成的价格卡特尔联盟中的大保险公司和小保险公司之间的博弈和定价策略进行分析.研究表明:在价格联盟确定的垄断高价和垄断低价下,小保险公司都应采取背叛策略才最有利;大保险公司则应通过控制价格联盟采取垄断低价/合作策略,这将有利于价格联盟稳定,也有利大保险公司更长时间保持市场优势地位.

  9. Retail Competition, Channel Power and Upstream Cartel%零售环节竞争、渠道势力与上游环节行业卡特尔

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昊

    2014-01-01

    文章考察零售环节竞争与渠道势力对上游环节形成行业卡特尔的影响.结果表明,零售环节竞争加剧时,上游行业新产生的卡特尔趋于不稳定,已经存在的合谋也更有可能破裂.相反,零售环节垄断性增强时,现有的行业卡特尔更加稳定,并有可能形成新的稳定合谋.当零售商凭借渠道势力向生产商索取利润转移时,上游行业合谋更有可能形成,稳定性也随之增强.由此得到的启示是,竞争型的零售环节与产销对等的渠道势力将有利于防止上游稳定合谋的形成.

  10. The Comparative Studies on Antimonopoly Law Regulations on Cartel Initiated by Trade Association%行业协会价格卡特尔反垄断法规制的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁篱; 周道树

    2007-01-01

    行业协会的价格卡特尔行为同时具有正负两方面的效应,但我国相应的法律规制却并未得以完全体现,美国与日本的反垄断法在该方面已经积累了一些重要的经验,这对于如何完善我国行业协会价格卡特尔行为的反垄断法规制提供了有益的参考.

  11. 房地产开发商Cartel联盟合作博弈的稳定性分析%Stability analysis of Cartel alliance cooperative games of developer of real estate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄武军; 许维胜; 刘天虎; 吴启迪

    2009-01-01

    从经济博弈的角度对房地产开发商Cartel联盟的稳定性进行了分析.首先利用古诺博弈模型分析了开发商的行为及收益均衡,通过比较古诺均衡收益与Cartel联盟收益的大小,分析了开发商形成Cartel联盟的动因.随后引入干预函数,从博弈论的角度分析了开发商Cartel联盟的均衡点及不稳定性,通过介入惩罚函数来强化Cartel联盟的稳定性,实现了精炼子博弈Nash均衡.最后提出政策建议,以限制Cartel联盟所形成的房地产市场垄断行为.

  12. La renovación de la ilustración gráfica alicantina y la eclosión del Art Déco en dos carteles de les Fogueres de “San Chuan”

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Izquierdo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    En 1928, fecha de creación de les Fogueres de Sant Joan, asistimos a la vinculación estilística de la fiesta con el fenómeno del Art Déco. Esta moda aportará aires de vanguardia y modernidad a una nueva celebración que, sin embargo, deberá rendir tributo a las tradiciones propias de la ciudad a fin de no perder la identidad de un pueblo abierto al turismo. Este artículo busca ofrecer este encuentro entre tradición y modernidad a través de la ilustración gráfica alicantina, sector artístico qu...

  13. 论建立完善我国出口卡特尔的反垄断豁免制度%Establishment and Improvement about Anti-monopoly Exemption System for Export Cartel in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马龙

    2013-01-01

    出口卡特尔实质上是一种限制竞争协议,主要针对目标指向外国市场.各国出口卡特尔反垄断豁免的立法模式都有所不同,主要分为明示豁免、默示豁免和无法定豁免.立法模式的不同体现出各国对反垄断豁免实体标准的认识也不同.出口卡特尔本身具有不确定性,且容易对进口国市场和不限制国际贸易造成一定的影响.因此,我国建立完善此制度需在国际协调范围内进行合作.

  14. The Necessity of Establishment on the China Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Cartel Exemption System%浅谈我国建立中小企业卡特尔豁免制度的必要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔雪松

    2007-01-01

    通过采用实证分析方法和比较分析方法,分析我国中小企业发展中存在的技术水平偏低及参差不齐、区域发展不平衡、融资难的现状,以及我国现有法律对中小企业调整中存在的不足,指出针对我国扩大内需、经济全球化、科学技术的发展的需求,我国必须建立中小企业的卡特尔豁免制度.

  15. 论建立和完善我国出口卡特尔反垄断豁免审查制度%On Establishment & Improvement About Anti-Monopoly Exemption Inspection System For Export Cartel In China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余菲

    2008-01-01

    对出口卡特尔豁免适用本国反垄断法是很多国家的通行做法,我国也不例外.对此的规定无疑具有进步性,但其内涵的不确定性和缺乏可操作性是令人担忧的.本文介绍了出口卡特尔的含义、类型及其成因,结合分析其他国家对出口卡特尔的态度和法律规制,提议应当建立我国出口卡特尔反垄断豁免审查制度.为此,作者提出了建立和完善相关制度的框架性建议.

  16. 从LCD面板案看我国规制横向卡特尔制度的完善%STUDY ON THE IMPROVEMENT OF CHINA'S REGULATING SYSTEM TOWARD TRANSVERSE CARTEL BASED ON THE LCD PANEL CASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓辉; 喻玲

    2011-01-01

    @@ 一、LCD面板案及其引发的反垄断争议 2008年11月,韩国LG、日本夏普和中华映管(Chunghwa)与美国司法部(DOJ)就共谋操纵LCD面板产品价格案件达成和解协议,他们同意为其共谋行为(又称卡特尔)支付总计5.85亿美元的刑事罚金,并承诺将配合DOJ的后续反托拉斯调查.

  17. "卡特尔"定价不是良策--论电解金属锰行业组织的功能定位%Cartel Priceing is not a Good Strategy--The function of electrolytic manganese guild

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢利人

    2003-01-01

    电解金属锰行业组织很容易陷入联合定价的圈子,但对成员企业违背"卡特尔"联合定价的欺骗行为没有任何的强制力."卡特尔"联合定价是与市场经济不相符的,更何况为制度、法律所不允许.行业组织应该加强其信息、技术的服务功能,弱化其价格联盟功能.

  18. 对我国价格卡特尔的反垄断法规制的反思%Reflection on Anti-monopoly Regulation of Price Cartel in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟宝红

    2010-01-01

    价格卡特尔作为与市场竞争相伴而生的社会现象已出现在许多行业中,它是对竞争危害最大的卡特尔,它严重限制了市场的竞争机制并损害了消费者的利益,一直是各国反垄断法规制的重点.为此我国新颁布实施的中对价格卡特尔进行了重点规制,虽然较之以前的规制价格卡特尔的立法有了明显的进步,但与其他国家相比还过于抽象和简单,需要进一步完善.

  19. 理查德·卡茨和彼得·梅尔的卡特尔政党理论述评%Commenting on the Cartel Party Theory of Richard Katz and Peter Mair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈崎

    2013-01-01

    美国学者卡茨和爱尔兰学者梅尔于1992年提出了卡特尔政党理论,并在此后的近20年间不断对其加以丰富和发展,使之形成了比较完整的体系.该理论从西方政党与社会和国家之间关系的变化入手,一方面探讨了政党与国家之间的关系日益密切、主流政党结成政治卡特尔垄断国家政权、议会和政府内的政党领袖和组织日趋强势、政党的中央机构不断强化等现象,为政党的存在和发展提供了合理的解释;另一方面也注意到了政党逐渐脱离社会而导致的政党地方组织和基层组织萎缩、党员数量下降等问题,意识到政党在长远发展中将会面临合法性不足的危机.不过,卡茨和梅尔未能找到应对这些问题和危机的办法,体现出了其理论的局限性.对卡特尔政党理论加以介绍和评价,为我们揭示当代西方政党发展变化的实质并预测其未来的变化趋势提供了新的理论视角.

  20. Experiential Learning through Classroom Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, David; Johnson, Jay

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes classroom experiments in cooperative behavior as examples of experiential learning in economics classes. Several games are briefly discussed and a new game in cartel behavior is presented. In this game, Students make production decisions as a cartel and earn revenues based on their own output decision and the output decision…

  1. Secure Borders: An Arrival Zone Counterdrug National Security Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    46; Amparo Trejo, “Mexican Drug Lords Seeking New Cartel: Sources Detail Meeting of 5 Major Groups,” The Washington Post, 9 April 2001, sec. A, p...Hezbollah, Feds Say." Harrisburg (PA) Patriot News , 2 September 2002, sec. A1, p.1. Trejo, Amparo . “Mexican Drug Lords Seeking New Cartel

  2. La imagen de Sevilla y sus fiestas: creadores contemporáneos

    OpenAIRE

    Barrera García, Agustín Israel

    2016-01-01

    La imagen de Sevilla a través del “Típico y el tópico”, la iconografía de sus fiestas a través del cartel es un estudio que ahonda en la base estilística y formal de la tipología del cartel de fiestas de una ciudad cargada de tópicos. El estudio recorre la historia del cartel en Sevilla desde sus inicios, prácticamente desde que se conocen los primeros carteles en España, llegando a la actualidad, analizando pormerizadamente cada una de las obras cartelísiticas creadas en todos estos años...

  3. Bordering on Failure: Mexican Instability, Drug Wars, and the Threat to U.S. Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    late 2011, the Mexican government announced that between December 1, 2006 and September 30, 2011 Mexico experienced 47,515 narco -related homicides...Joaquin Guzman Loera (aka “El Chapo ”), (3) the Juarez Cartel to the Carrillo Fuentes family (CFO), and (4) the Gulf Cartel to Juan Garcia Abrego.22...might have dissolved and El Chapo might be at war again with the Gulf cartel.”44 Likewise, by the time a reader views this paper the entire DTO picture

  4. The Scale and Geography of Collusion in the European Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert; Levallois, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Europe has a long history of cartels, but the changes in the scale and geography of collusion in the European market from the post-war decades until the present have not been systematically investigated. Using network analysis methods and an original dataset based on decisions in EU cartel cases....... Moreover, the geographical spread of collusive activities in Europe increased considerably from 1969 to 1993. To facilitate an explanation of these and other findings, the paper presents a three-dimensional analytical framework that emphasises the importance of anti-cartel regulation, major changes...

  5. Redefining Terrorism: Why Mexican Drug Trafficking is More than Just Organized Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lt. John P. Longmire

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mexican drug traffickers are more than criminals. They are terrorists. And that's not hyperbole. The tactics, strategy, organization, and even (to a limited extent the goals of the Mexican drug cartels are all perfectly consistent with those of recognized terrorist organizations. Admittedly, the cartels lack the motivating political or religious ideology most terrorist groups display, and some argue this precludes the application of the "terrorist" label. However, we will show this objection is inclusive at best. Were the United States government to formally recognize the Mexican cartels as the terrorists they are—or at least hybrid organizations that employ terrorist tactics—a more effective range of options would become available for combating the cartels and curtailing the violence that todayengulfs the US/Mexico borderlands.

  6. 77 FR 44179 - Mechanical and Digital Phonorecord Delivery Compulsory License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... megabytes (MB). The name of the submitter and organization should appear on both the form and the face of... enable a cartel of music publishers to exercise monopoly power over the recording of music to...

  7. Time to Reassess DoD Counternarcotics Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    Tijuana in Baja California, Naco in Sonora, and through Juarez in Chihuahua.14 Recognizing this not only orients the reader but provides greater...the Beltran Leyva Organization (BLO), the Arellano Felix Organization a.k.a. the Tijuana Cartel, La Familia , the Vicente Carrillo Fuentes Organization...VCO) a.k.a. the Juarez Cartel, the Sinaloa Federation, and the Los Zetas. A closer look at the La Familia DTO provides a glimpse into the

  8. A Probabilistic Model of Illegal Drug Trafficking Operations in the Eastern Pacific and Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    region. They currently have operations worldwide to include Europe, West Africa , and the Asia-Pacific regions as well as connections to organized crime...cartel that dominated the trade in the 1980s and 1990s, have been replaced by Norte del Valle DTO. Rather than being one central cartel such as their...predecessors, the Norte del Valle consists of many smaller cells and is less hi- erarchical and more decentralized (Seelke et al., 2011). State

  9. Domestic Security Cooperation: A Unified Approach to Homeland Security and Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The Sinaloa cartel controls almost one-half of the drug trade in Mexico.33 Led by Joaquin “El Chapo ” Guzman, the cartel is organized into a...its current mission of supporting law enforcement agencies in the conduct of counterdrug/counter- narco -terrorism operations in NORTHCOM’s area of...Such an organization would enhance the comprehensive approach necessary for preventing narco -terrorism along the U.S.-Mexican border. Key to

  10. Freedom to Compete?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    Transnational corporations (TNCs) have been driving forces behind promoting policies aimed at protecting and further intensifying competition in global markets. This article aims to examine the extent to which leading European TNCs that have promoted such policies have been involved in cartels...... find that a third of these companies were convicted for participating in cartels between 1990 and 2010. Drawing on critical political economy scholarship, it is concluded that this behaviour may not be paradoxical....

  11. CRAI Verd - Redueix Reutilitza Recicla (2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. CRAI

    2015-01-01

    Objectiu de l'actuació: Mantenir una línia de compromís amb el desenvolupament sostenible, incorporant criteris ambientals a tots els nostres centres i activitats, orientant les infraestructures, els processos i els serveis cap a pràctiques respectuoses amb el medi. Descripció del producte: Cartell amb eco-consells, Diapositiva per projectar als panells informatius i Cartell per a taules de les sales de treball

  12. When Do Governments Concede to Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    which started out as a civil war and has continued 9 until today’s conflict that involves terrorists, drug cartels , and self-defense groups. What...power between the government and terrorist groups (FARC), drug cartels , and paramilitary self-defense 10 groups (AUC). It is similar to La...http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/22/world/americas/colombian- rebels-kill-19-soldiers.html Richardson, L. (2007). Britain and the IRA. In R. Art & L

  13. Mexico at the Precipice: Are Lessons from Plan Colombia Operationally Relevant to United States Northern Command?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-04

    Mora , 6290 people were killed in 2008 in Mexico‟s ongoing war against powerful and ruthless drug cartels. iv Those deaths represent more than twice...until Vincente Fox was elected president in 2000. The party so controlled every aspect of government that Mexico became a functional oligarchy...with the fall of the PRI in 2000 when Vincente Fox was elected president, Mexican authorities have taken a more aggressive stance toward the cartels

  14. Organized-crime growth and sustainment: a review of the influence of popular religion and beliefs in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, Michael E. Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 2006, Mexican President Felipe Calderon announced the war on drugs, an ongoing, low-intensity, asymmetrical war between the government and various drug cartels that has proven the bloodiest conflict since the Mexican civil war a century ago. Meanwhile, the subculture of narco-cultura continues to grow, under the influence of powerful drug cartels throughout Mexico. The narco-cultura has its own dynamic form of dress, music, literatu...

  15. Mexican Marine Corps in the Struggle for Scalable Security and Its Potential as a Guarantor of the Mexican Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    7 See Osorio, Diego Enrique. El cartel de Sinaloa: Una historia del uso político del narco.. México: Random House Mondadori... historia del uso político del narco. México: Random House Mondadori, 2009. 31 (The Zetas bloodiest leader, killed in action on November 2012, the latter...Maritime Prepositioning Force 3-32 Osorio, Diego Enrique. El cartel de Sinaloa: Una historia del uso político del narco. México: Random House

  16. The Electronic Intrusion Threat to National Security and Emergency Preparedness (NS/EP) Telecommunications. An Awareness Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Russia, the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, and the United States. Additionally, the Cali drug cartel , Russian organized crime...Xusheng, Su Jinhai, and Zhang Hong, “China: Information Revolution, Defense Security,” Chino Computerworld (iG.30, p. 21). World Wide Web, Infowar.com...telecommunications services if they had wanted to.‘“’ Also, according to a recent report, Colombian drug cartels had the phone records of millions of

  17. Mexico: The Accidental Narco?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    depending on the capabilities and will of the targeted cartels. There has been a glimpse of this with the Ciudad Juarez car bomb detonated in July...specialization of skills. One cartel may become the obvious hegemon and serve as a regulator in the hypercompetitive illegal drug market . The current...various factions and cliques that are bringing inefficiencies to the hypercompetitive illegal narcotics market . One possibility is that the New

  18. Borders, Corridors, and Economics: The Keys to Stopping Cross Border Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    aspect of their organization. According to the book La Familia Drug Cartel: Implications for U.S. Mexican Security, La Familia came onto the scene in...La Familia recruits out of over a dozen rehabilitation clinics they operate. Once a potential recruit is clean they begin their training. The...Rep. Connie. Enhanced Border Security Act. Washington D.C., 2011. Grayson, George W. La Familia Drug Cartel: Implications For U.S.-Mexican Security

  19. DIMENSIONS OF LENIENCY POLICIES IN BRICS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INDIA, SOUTH AFRICA, BRAZIL AND RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cartel is a group of similar, independent companies which join together to fix prices, limit production or share markets or customers among themselves. The most significant feature of this anticompetitive activity is its restriction of competition between the parties involved in the arrangement. The objective of a cartel is to raise prices above competitive levels, which can result in injury to consumers and to the economy. This is why cartels are considered not only harmful for the economy as a whole but also, as a catalysing factor, destructive for the idealized approach of maintaining a level playing field in the market. Thus various jurisdictions, or rather almost all competition regimes, declare cartels an illegal activity subject to severe fines and penalties. But it is well known that the enforcement mechanisms of laws against cartels differ from country to country, and yet the striking similarity is that almost all competition authorities face the same uphill task of detecting and busting cartels in a manner that leads to efficient and desired prosecution.This paper focuses on an analysis of the newly introduced leniency regulations in India and the parameters of their effectiveness through a comparative analytical study of BRICS leniency regulations, specifically the experiences shared by South Africa, Brazil and Russia in the application of leniency tools and a marker system. The paper further considers the weaknesses of the existing leniency regulations in India and in BRICS and concludes by offering a future path for possible improvements in the form of certain recommendations.

  20. 西方政党组织形态嬗变的背后——对"卡特尔"型政党组织形态的分析%Behind the Change of Patterns of Western Political Parties——an Analysis of Political Parties of the "Cartel" Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐昕

    2008-01-01

    政党政治运行的载体是政党组织.自政党问世以来.其组织形态就一直处于发展变化之中,这种发展变化是不以人的意志为转移的."卡特尔"型政党组织形态的出现,不仅反映了西方国家政党政治的发展变化.而且也反映了西方社会的发展变化.社会的发展变化必然推动政党变革.面对正处在大变革大调整之中的当今世界,政党变革已成为政党政治发展的大趋势.

  1. An Analysis on the Transitional Feature of Contemporary Korean Political politics——based on the conceptual framework of cartel parties theory%当代韩国政党政治民主化的变迁特征——以卡特尔政党理论为分析视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞晶

    2010-01-01

    1995年,欧洲学者凯茨和麦尔首先提出卡特尔政党的概念,同时总结了卡特尔政党在国家与社会中的地位转变所衍生出的特质.本文从政党与国家之间的联络、政党竞争环境和政党与市民社会之间的关系等几方面探讨韩国政党政治的一般情况.作者认为,卡特尔政党虽倡导民主与自由竞争,但实则关注操控权力的运用,此种情况无助于韩国政党的民主化进程.因此相关的制度设计是防止卡特尔政党对民主政治产生负面影响的必要措施.

  2. 中国房地产市场价格卡特尔的反垄断法规制——以价格领导行为为例证的分析%Legal Regulation on Price Cartel of Chinese Real Estate Market in Antimonopoly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储菲菲

    2009-01-01

    中国房地产市场上不断攀升的房价,极大地损害了消费者福利和社会整体利益.文章从经济学视角详细论述了中国房地产市场结构,以及由此产生的特定价格竞争行为.并以其中的价格领导行为为例证,从竞争法的视角指出其本质是房地产市场上一种以协同行为形式出现的价格卡特尔,并仔细分析其构成要件和具体要素,必须以反垄断法对其进行规制.这也是从反垄断法路径提出的平抑房价的可能性方案.

  3. On Principles of Remitting Cartel Institutions——Simultaneously on the Application of Art.46 of the Chinese Anti-Monopoly Law%论卡特尔赦免制度原理——兼议我国《反垄断法》第46条之适用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨颖

    2008-01-01

    卡特尔赦免制度是针对卡特尔内在的隐秘性特质设计的破解方案,它以博弈论作为理论基础、以"囚徒困境"作为墓本模型,符合法定条件的卡特尔成员能够得到法律责任的赦免.在实践中各国的赦免政策不尽相同,本文通过比较、例证,认为许可赦免的多重申请、准予申请人出于取证的目的继续参与卡特尔、限制赦免的自由裁量权更为有效,我国第46条仍需进行制度完善,构造双重风险体系.

  4. 论不景气卡特尔的作用与界限--从日本全面废止不景气卡特尔谈起%Study on the Role and Limits of non- boom Cartel--a example from Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐虹丽

    2004-01-01

    中国新一届政府提出了"建立法治政府"的目标,根据依法行政的原则,在处理好政府与市场经济的关系时,中国需要早日出台反垄断法.在此,纵观世界发达国家反垄断法的发展里程,无不随着市场经济的变化而几经修正与调整,这些经验会给中国许多的启示.从日本1999年全面废止不景气卡特尔看这一制度的作用与界限,并以此来讨论有关中国反垄断法适用除外制度应当坚持什么样的原则.

  5. 行业协会“权力越位”的法律反思——以“价格卡特尔”为视角%The Legal Reflection of the "Power Offside" of Trade Association——In the Perspective of "Price Cartel"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱格磊

    2013-01-01

    在我国经济转型时期,行业协会在履行行业“自治权”时,因责权边界不清经常出现“权力越位”(自治权滥用)的现象.其中,行业协会实施的限制竞争行为尤其是价格卡特尔便是其“权力越位”的典型样态.而在我国,行业协会价格卡特尔由于行业协会的生成途径及制度环境使然呈现出了独有的特征,加上相关法律规制的单薄和欠缺,都使此种“权力越位”行为成为可能且经常发生.因此,需要完善和细化相关法律规定,明确行业协会与政府的职能边界,衡平行业自治与公平竞争的冲突.“让权力理性回归”,如此,才能从根本上有效规制行业协会的“权力越位”行为.

  6. From "Monopoly of Market" to "Economic Self-defence": Cartel of Cement Industry in Modern China%从"市场垄断"到"经济自卫":近代中国水泥业同业联营问题浅探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢征良

    2011-01-01

    20世纪20-30年代,中国水泥业市场的竞争空前激烈.民族水泥行业不但要面对国 内同业问的激烈竞销,而且也面临着外国同业的倾销威胁.正是在这种形势下,中国民族水泥业间采取了同业联营的经营方式,从而形成企业间合作的优势,达到多方共同发展的目的.近代中国的这种同业间联营行为表现为被迫性、不完全垄断性和松散性等特点,它是在特殊经济环境下民族企业间形成的一种特殊垄断形式,是近代中国民族资产阶级在本身利益受到外力威胁时所采取的一种经济自卫行为.

  7. On Subject of the Negative Application of Leniency Program in Antitrust Law——Defining Standards of Role-in-the Cartel as the Core%反垄断法中宽恕制度之消极适用主体研究——以卡特尔主要作用者的认定标准为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕金平

    2010-01-01

    由于卡特尔行为具有严重的危害性和秘密性,许多国家采用宽恕制度来打击和成慑此类反竞争行为.出于公平考虑和防止宽恕制度被不当利用,各国反垄断法执行机构往往规定卡特尔主要作用者不能适用宽恕待遇.目前大体存在两种类型的卡特尔主要作用者认定标准即领导者适用标准和胁迫者适用标准.由于卡特尔领导者适用标准中领导者、发起者等在实践中很难界定以及该标准受到理论上的责难,一些原先采用该标准的国家后来采用了胁迫者适用标准,而另外一些采用卡特尔领导者适用标准的国家则对该标准进行修正.从最新的修正情况来看两标准存在趋同迹象.

  8. International Protection of Biosafety in Progress and Expectation The Second Contracting Parties' Conference on the Cartel Bio Safety Protocol%进展与期待中的生物安全国际保护——《卡塔赫纳生物安全议定书》第二次缔约方大会评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文轩

    2006-01-01

    2005年5月30日至6月3日,《卡塔赫纳生物安全议定书》第二次缔约方大会在加拿大蒙特利尔举行.来自全球118个缔约国的代表和欧盟代表、非缔约方代表、联合国及其专门机构代表、政府间组织代表、非政府组织代表、工业代表和教育科研机构代表参加了此次大会.大会除了就财务机制和资源、与其他组织、公约和倡议的合作、管理和预算事项等常设性议题进行讨论外,主要就通知、能力建设、风险评估和风险管理、公众意识和参与、生物安全资料交换所的运行和活动、其他科学技术问题等实质性议题进行了谈判,并取得了不同程度的进展.与此同时,由于各方分歧较大,大会在赔偿责任和补救问题上没有取得实体性成果,在改性活生物体的运输标识问题上甚至未能达成一致.我国派出了由国家环境保护总局牵头、由外交部、科技部、商务部、农业部、国家质检总局、中国政法大学、中科院、农科院等单位的代表组成的政府代表团,以观察员身份参加了此次大会,并积极参加了本次缔约方大会的各项活动。

  9. An 'OPEP' to the natural gas?; Uma 'OPEP' (Organizacao dos Paises Exportadores de Petroleo) para o gas natural?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Tathiany R. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Szklo, Alexandre S.; Machado, Giovani V. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    The development of the worldwide natural gas industry and the importance that this energy source has acquired in the energy matrix of various countries has given rise to certain uneasiness amongst the importing countries regarding the increase in gas dependence. This preoccupation is due to the fact that natural gas occurs in concentrated areas and that its major producers have joined together in the Gas Exporter Countries Forum, giving rise to a debate of the possibility of this Forum developing into cartel configuration. This paper aims at an analysis of the viability of cartel formation in the natural gas industry, following the same model as that of the oil industry. Considering the basic conditions necessary for successful cartel activities in the natural gas industry, the text presents some factors that can indeed contribute towards collusion among the exporting countries. However, the positive effects that a gas cartel can generate for the exporting countries are not guaranteed. On the contrary, what is actually observed are conditions favorable to the rupture of collusive deals and to an increase in the penetration of substitute energy sources, given that monopoly prices are fixed to the natural gas by the cartel. (author)

  10. Admissibility of take-or-pay clauses in gas and electricity supply contracts; Zulaessigkeit von Take-or-Pay-Klauseln im Rahmen von Gas- und Stromliefervertraegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronemeyer, Achim [Clifford Chance, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Electricity and gas supply contracts often contain so-called take-or-pay (ToP) clauses. Such clauses compel the customer to assume an unconditional payment obligation for the contractually agreed minimum quantity, regardless of actual consumption. The quantity risk thus lies with the consumer. ToP clauses can in particular give rise to questions relating to the content review of electricity and gas supply contracts pursuant to the regulations governing general terms and conditions as laid down in paragraph paragraph 305 ff. of the German Civil Code. As regards cartel law the Federal Cartel Office has recently brought about an administrative ruling on the problems associated with ToP clauses in terms of cartel law.

  11. Participation acquisitions at and between redistributors; Beteiligungserwerbe an und zwischen kommunalen Weiterverteilern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaue, S. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Publizistik- und Kommunikationswissenschaften

    2007-10-15

    In the contribution under consideration the author reports on participation acquisitions at and between redistributors. The imperfect treatment of the acquisition of minority participations at public utilities by cartel authorities and courts did not bring satisfying results for the structure to the power economy. The preconditions for more competition became worse due to the changes in the structure of power economy which were not prevented by the cartel authorities. The competitive order loses at clarity, if the previous practice of the cartel authorities is continued. It is undecided whether the development of a dominating market system by a multiplicity of minority acquisitions can be described as an improper use of a market dominating position according to paragraph 19 of the law against restraints of competition.

  12. Interlocking Directorates and Collusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Although several works have suggested that interlocking directorates are mechanisms that have the potential to facilitate collusion, few studies have investigated the matter empirically, and none have systematically considered known cartel cases. Taking a European perspective, and focusing on four...... ties and possible overlaps between them. The analysis is based on an original dataset of European Community cartel cases and data on interlocking directorates developed by others. Very few examples are found of colluding companies that were previously directly or indirectly connected via interlocking...

  13. Impactul cartelizării sistemului de partide din România asupra consolidării sistemului democratic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu-Dan Mateescu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the cartelization of the Romanian party system and its impact on citizen representation and on the consolidation of democracy. Consequently, I analyze the development of the Romanian party systems with emphasis on those electoral rules and regulations that limit open political competition as well as on the system of party finance. I show that electoral rules have gotten progressively harsher and that the system of party finance clearly handicaps new competitors. This holds true in regard to the rules for the formal registering of new political parties. Moreover the cartel has been extremely successful in keeping new competitors out of Parliament.

  14. The Scale and Geography of Collusion in the European Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert; Levallois, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Europe has a long history of cartels, but the changes in the scale and geography of collusion in the European market from the post-war decades until the present have not been systematically investigated. Using network analysis methods and an original dataset based on decisions in EU cartel cases......, this paper maps the developments in detected collusion in the European market from 1958 to 2008 and tentatively explains these developments. It appears that collusive activities increased during the 1960s and after the mid-1980s and that a long decline in the scale of collusion began in the mid-1990s...... in the business environment and the size of national economies....

  15. Fascismos, dictaduras y populismo en Europa y América Latina (años 30 y 40)

    OpenAIRE

    Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos, (EEHA-CSIC)

    2004-01-01

    Cartel y programa del Encuentro celebrado en la Facultad de Comunicación de la Universidad de Sevilla, en el marco de las II Jornadas Americanistas de Otoño organizadas por la Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. Sevilla, 2-4 de noviembre de 2004.

  16. Losing American Students, Mexican Universities Struggle against a Scary Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Like most Mexicans, Eugenio Yarce has been deeply affected by the violence between drug cartels and the Mexican army, which has filled news coverage with accounts of kidnappings, assassinations, and torture. But for Mr. Yarce, deputy rector for outreach here at the private Autonomous Popular University of the State of Puebla, or Upaep, the…

  17. The Effective Business Practices of Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed April 25, 2013). 9 business transaction by returning profits to the supporting drug cartel. Additionally, certain...for Two-Sided Markets.” Harvard Business Review 84, no. 10 (2006): 92–101. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed April 25, 2013). Felbab

  18. The Hammer and the Anvil: The Need for A Comprehensive Southwest Border Security Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    to shrink the illicit travel networks used by human smugglers, narco -traffickers, and other transnational criminals whose activities foster...the most wanted drug smuggler in Mexico, Joaquin “El Chapo ” Guzman. The Gulf Cartel, based in Tamaulipas, is notoriously violent, involved in...1 Hal Brands, Mexico’s Narco -Insurgency and U.S. Counterdrug Policy, (Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies

  19. The Diversification of Mexican Transnational Criminal Organizations and its Effects on Spillover Violence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    Mexican TCOs .............................................. 43 Corruption and Narco -Politics...Joaquin El Chapo (Spanish meaning short, referring to his 5’8 stature) Guzman, the Sinaloa Cartel is the most powerful of all the TCOs operating in...Additionally, an understanding of the Mexican political environment and what role narco -politics play in the ability of TCOs to operate, contributes to

  20. Convergence: Special Operations Forces and Civilian Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    lords can attract surprising international attention. As an example, Joaquin Guzman, known widely as El Chapo and leader of the Sinaloa Cartel, was...available at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123206674721488169. html, accessed July 2010. 176. Todd Miller, “Mexico’s Emerging Narco -State,” North

  1. Actors of Columbian drug trade : development and transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Smolíková

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to portray the main shifts which have been taking place in Colombian drug scene since the 70’s up to the present especially in relation to actors of this business and form of their activity. At first the development of Colombian drug trade till the 80’s when two big cartels centered in Medellín and Cali arose will be briefly outlined. These cartels were able to control a great part of domestic drug trade and due to their enormous power represented serious threat to Colombian state. Thus the cartels declared open warfare with the state in the 80’s. After the cartels’ elimination in the middle of 90’s new actors represented by small drug organizations arose in Colombian drug scene. These small groups were dependent upon cooperation with foreign partners, especially with Mexican cartels. Ever more important role in drug business is played by Colombian left-wing guerilla groups which will be described in the next part of the article. The problem of right-wing paramilitary groups and their participation in Colombian drug trade will be mentioned as well.

  2. The U. S., Its Press, and the New World Information Order. Freedom of Information Center Report No. 488.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wete, Francis N.

    Criticisms of the one-way flow of international information were first voiced in the 1940s, when, in the name of free flow of information and worldwide access to news, the United States launched an offensive to dismantle European news cartels. At a UNESCO conference in 1945, the United States was chiefly responsible for making the free flow of…

  3. Bringing a Global Perspective to Economics. Field Test Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyach, Robert B.; And Others

    Eight lessons on integrated global economics provide detailed instructional materials on world food and energy systems, international cartels, and the nature and process of foreign investments. The materials are designed to help high school social studies teachers develop student understanding of key economic systems and activities and reinforce…

  4. Manifestations of the MOMM Phenomenon II: Relevant Data on Professional Darwinism and Membership Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, John J.; And Others

    Horan (1989) reported that graduates and employees of four institutions (Minnesota, Ohio State, Maryland, and Missouri - the "MOMM Cartel") heavily dominate every science and practice organ of the American Psychological Association's Division 17 governing body. Goldman (1990) provided additional data indicating that egregious exclusion…

  5. A comparative value chain analysis of burley tobacco in Malawi: 2003/04 and 2009/10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2011-01-01

    companies on the auction floors who operated as a cartel (and governed the burley supply thread); and secondly, by inefficient marketing arrangements. By the 2009/10 season the rents, governance and systemic efficiency within the supply thread had changed considerably: there was greater competition...

  6. Peddling Pablo: Escobar's Cultural Renaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobutsky, Aldona Bialowas

    2013-01-01

    Nearly two decades after his death, Pablo Escobar has reemerged in a number of autobiographical publications that revisit the era of the Medellín cartel and its most infamous capo. Rather than providing strictly historical information, these texts adopt an anecdotal and intimate angle from the positions of Escobar's hitman, his lover, his…

  7. Institutional Struggles for Recognition in the Academic Field: The Case of University Departments in German Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, Richard; Baier, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how the application of New Public Management (NPM) and the accompanying rise of academic capitalism in allocating research funds in the German academic field have interacted with a change from federal pluralism to a more stratified system of universities and departments. From this change, a tendency to build cartel-like…

  8. Geometry of Cournot-Nash Equilibrium with Application to Commons and Anticommons

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agata, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The author develops a simple geometric analysis of Cournot-Nash equilibrium in the price-quantity space by exploiting the economic content of the first-order condition. The approach makes it clear that strategic interdependency in oligopoly originates from externalities among producers. This explains why cartels are unstable and casts oligopoly…

  9. Child Welfare Research and Training: A Response to David Stoesz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brenda D.; Vandiver, Vikki L.

    2016-01-01

    In this response to David Stoesz' critique, "The Child Welfare Cartel," the authors agree that child welfare research and training must be improved. The authors disagree, however, with Stoesz' critique of social work education, his assessment of the most-needed forms of child welfare research, and his depiction of the goals and…

  10. Reformverzögerung: Eine Theorie und drei Beispiele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper revisits the notion that economic integration - modeled as a reduction of trade costs - may be anti-competitive, in the sense that it may reinforce the ability of an international cartel to maintain a collusive understanding about staying out of each other's markets. The paper is novel...

  11. A comparative value chain analysis of smallholder burley tobacco production in Malawi – 2003/4 and 2009/10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin Philip; Moyer-Lee, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Smallholders grow the majority of Malawi’s main export crop – burley tobacco. We analyse this value chain segment for the 2003/4 and 2009/10 seasons. The comparison shows smallholder profits in 2003/4 were limited by two main factors: a cartel of leaf merchants at auction and inefficient marketing...

  12. Campanya solidària Recicla Cultura (2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. CRAI

    2015-01-01

    Objectiu de l'actuació: Participar activament en la campanya solidària El teu llibre pot canviar vides difonent l’activitat i oferint diferents biblioteques del CRAI com a llocs de recollida de llibres. Descripció del producte: Cartell

  13. Campanya solidària Recicla Cultura 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. CRAI

    2016-01-01

    Objectius: Participar activament en la campanya solidària El teu llibre pot ser part d’una historia difonent l’activitat i oferint diferents biblioteques del CRAI com a llocs de recollida de llibres. Descripció: Cartell i Infografía.

  14. The New Wild West: Military Support in Border Security Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    the northern city of San Luis Potosi. Agent 3 Jaime Zapata was killed and his partner, Agent Victor Avila, was shot twice in the leg during the...was a case of mistaken identity. The Zetas had intended to ambush a rival cartel member who drove an SUV similar to the one that Agents Zapata and...

  15. Impresiones de una época de cambios…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Rodríguez Mendoza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cartel ilustrado en Colombia: década 1930-1940. Pedro José Duque López et al. Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Arte y Diseño, Bogotá, 2009, 334 págs., il.

  16. Counterinsurgency and the Mexican Drug War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    that the governors of Veracruz and Michoacán had accepted campaign funding from the Gulf DTO. The cartel also offered to reduce violence and fund...endorsement and financial backing of PRI candidates in Colima, Veracruz , and Michoacán seem to indicate this. Another objective concerns resistance

  17. OPEC behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo

    This thesis aims to contribute to a further understanding of the real dynamics of OPEC production behavior and its impacts on the world oil market. A literature review in this area shows that the existing studies on OPEC still have some major deficiencies in theoretical interpretation and empirical estimation technique. After a brief background review in chapter 1, chapter 2 tests Griffin's market-sharing cartel model on the post-Griffin time horizon with a simultaneous system of equations, and an innovative hypothesis of OPEC's behavior (Saudi Arabia in particular) is then proposed based on the estimation results. Chapter 3 first provides a conceptual analysis of OPEC behavior under the framework of non-cooperative collusion with imperfect information. An empirical model is then constructed and estimated. The results of the empirical studies in this thesis strongly support the hypothesis that OPEC has operated as a market-sharing cartel since the early 1980s. In addition, the results also provide some support of the theory of non-cooperative collusion under imperfect information. OPEC members collude under normal circumstances and behave competitively at times in response to imperfect market signals of cartel compliance and some internal attributes. Periodic joint competition conduct plays an important role in sustaining the collusion in the long run. Saudi Arabia acts as the leader of the cartel, accommodating intermediate unfavorable market development and punishing others with a tit-for-tat strategy in extreme circumstances.

  18. Dynamic Transfer Schemes and Stability of International Climate Coalitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagashima, M.N.; Dellink, R.B.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the formation and stability of coalitions in international climate agreements with a combined game-theoretic and integrated assessment model. The empirical model comprises twelve regions and investigates partial coalition formation in a one-shot cartel game. We argue that a dynam

  19. An Empire of Schools. Japan's Universities and the Molding of a National Power Elite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, Robert L.

    This book addresses issues of American-Japanese relations by focusing on how the Japanese educational system molds the Japanese people and culture. It identifies the vital determining issue in U.S.-Japan communications in the fact that all Japanese leaders emerge from the same educational treadmill or "cartels of the mind." This system,…

  20. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles; DHS’s Answer to Border Surveillance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    are not alone when they worry about how cartel violence may affect trade relations and tourism between the United States and Mexico. In border...affordable UAVs has captured the attention of military and civilian law enforcement agencies worldwide. These smaller, more durable systems are packed

  1. The Iranian Puzzle Piece: Understanding Iran in the Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    institution focused on the art and science of war and is fully engaged in and dedicated to its students’ professional military education. Through...elite. If the ahmadinejad government maintains power, the country will be ruled by a small cartel of hard-line clerics and nouveau riche Islamic

  2. Peddling Pablo: Escobar's Cultural Renaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobutsky, Aldona Bialowas

    2013-01-01

    Nearly two decades after his death, Pablo Escobar has reemerged in a number of autobiographical publications that revisit the era of the Medellín cartel and its most infamous capo. Rather than providing strictly historical information, these texts adopt an anecdotal and intimate angle from the positions of Escobar's hitman, his lover, his…

  3. West Africa Since the Cold War: Implications for U.S. Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    that the cartels are beginning to use their trafficking network to smuggle ecstasy and amphetamines back to South America.78 19 The international...during the terminal colonial period were more recognizable as mechanized police forces than as combat units.”95 Cold War competition changed that

  4. The Gang’s All Here: The Globalization of Gang Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    youth Skinhead activity (Spergel 1995). What is unique is that distinctively US-style gangs are being exported to other countries, especially Latin...cartels. Also, this’study will not focus on prison or hate-oriented gangs (i.e. Skinhead groups). Gang activity in the US has been extensively studied

  5. Energy Forecasting Models Within the Department of the Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    vulnerability of national security and the economy to supply and price manipulations were clearly demonstrated by the actions of the OPEC cartel ...PPOJBCTI 0 COPLRIS31S FT 75 USE **.. 192.184 FT 81 USE **** 212.017 CHINOS **** 10.3% PROJECTED FT 81 USE ***** 210.108 212.992 CHING 71On FT 75

  6. The Use of Special Operations Forces in Support of American Strategic Security Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    efforts. Throughout the final decades of the 20th century, Colombia was a hotbed for drugs and violence punctuated by the operations of Pablo Emilio... Escobar , the drug lord in charge of the infamous Medellín Cartel. Following limited success in counter-narcotic operations during the early 1990s

  7. Proceedings of the Summit on ANSAs: Understanding Strategic Roles and Operational Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    cartels in Mexico or Colombia, private security guards, etc., fit into the ANSA construct. He remarked that there is almost a sense of an ‘anti-state...92 DRDC Toronto TN 2010-185 Thoughts on Road Ahead o Arch iva I data • Analyze group documents, records • Can explore

  8. Lebanon: A Convergence of Political Islam and Criminality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    initiated to push the Palestinian guerrillas north of the Litani River , led to a two decade long Israeli occupation of southern Lebanon, displaced...455–475. 242 Luis Alberto Villamarin Pulido, El Cartel de las FARC, ( Bogota : Ediciones el Faraon, 1996), cited in Gregory E. Phillips, " Liberty

  9. In Support of the Common Defense: A Homeland Defense and Security Journal. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    out in our minds, it is worth remembering historic actions taken by the Army in support of civil authorities in cases like the Mississippi River ...1985 M-19 and drug cartel-coordinated attack on the Palace of Justice in Bogota , in which 115 people were killed, including 11 Supreme Court

  10. Ambtshalve toepassing van EU-recht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ancery, Alain Gaston Francois

    2012-01-01

    Private law is increasingly influenced by international law, in particular by EU law. EU law prohibits, for example, the use of a cartel and awards consumers a special form of protection, for example against the use of unfair terms in consumer contracts or against door-to-door selling. It is in prin

  11. Modeling the Combined Terrorist-Narcotics Trafficker Threat to National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    from Corpus Christi , Texas, approached a U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) informant. He was seeking the help of a Mexican drug cartel to...2004 Madrid bombers, with decentralized terrorist cells having in-house criminal capabilities, and the Taliban with coalitions between terrorist groups

  12. Creacionismo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Munro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hacía unos años que al borde de la carretera había aparecido un nuevo tipo de carteles. Desde hacía mucho tiempo había carteles que exhortaban a convertirse, o esos otros con grandes corazones rosas y electrocardiogramas planos destinados a desalentar el aborto. Lo que se exhibía ahora eran textos del Génesis: En el principio creó Dios los cielos y la tierra. / Y dijo Dios: Sea la luz; y fue la luz. / Y creó Dios el hombre a su imagen. Varón y hembra los creó.

  13. COMPETITION VERSUS COLLUSION: THE PARALLEL BEHAVIOUR IN THE ABSENCE OF THE SYMETRY ASSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Oana Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cartel detection is usually viewed as a key task of competition authorities. A special case of cartel is the parallel behaviour in terms of price selling. This type of behaviour is difficult to assess and its analysis has not always conclusive results. For evaluating such behaviour the data available are compared with theoretical values obtained by using a competitive or a collusive model. When different competitive or collusive models are considered, for the simplicity of calculations the economists use the symmetry assumption of costs and quantities produced / sold. This assumption has the disadvantage that the theoretical values obtained may deviate significantly from actual values (the real values on the market, which can sometimes lead to ambiguous results. The present paper analyses the parallel behaviour of economic agents in the absence of the symmetry assumption and study the identification of the model in this conditions.

  14. Development of monopoly abuse supervision of electricity rates. Entwicklung der kartellrechtlichen Missbrauchsaufsicht ueber die Strompreise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebel, H.R.

    1993-03-15

    Starting point for the investigation is the decision of the regional cartel office of Berlin with which it dismissed a case about a complaint against excessive electricity rates of the EBAG in East Berlin. The Berlin cartel office stated as reason for the decision that the results for 1991 of the regional electric utilities in the new Federal states, particularly also in the area of Berlin, were negative. Due to increases in cost and charges due to high capital investments also for the current year losses are expected. There is reason to believe that the prices of most electric utilities are not sufficiently calculated on the basis of costs. The rates of the electric utilities which are obviously based on average electricity rates in West Germany do not present a suitable and sufficiently reliable comparative basis for the determination of a fair price within the scope of concept of comparable market. (orig./UA)

  15. Re-Framing the United States/Mexico Border Violence Situation: Strategic Campaign Planning in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    Brands 2009, 15). This sentiment helps drug organizations perpetuate the cycle of corruption in government. The Final Line of Operation orients around...a DTO now known as La Familia . The group was initially aligned with the Gulf Cartel, then turned vigilante, intent on cleaning up the Mexican state...22 October 2009, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holdren announced the arrest of 303 La Familia members nationwide. The two-day takedown culminated

  16. The Balloon Effect and Mexican Homeland Security: What it Means to be the Weakest Link in the Americas’ Security Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Direccion de Comunicacion Social SEMAR, 2011b), arresting 19 cartel members and seizing guns, money, and communication systems (Direccion de... Comunicacion Social SEMAR, 2011a). 51 Table 1. Selected Equipment and Training Delivered to Mexico and Central America Under the Merida...history (3rd ed.). New York: Algora Publishing. Direccion de Comunicacion Social SEMAR. (2011a). Asegura la Armada a 19 Presuntos Integrantes del

  17. Santa Muerte

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, A.; The Photographers' Gallery; Trolley Books; Bar-Tur Foundation; Arts Council England

    2015-01-01

    The origins of Santa Muerte - a religion/cult that has been denounced as satanic by the Mexican Catholic Church - can be dated back hundreds of years. It was developed through a syncretism between indigenous Mesoamerican and Spanish Catholic beliefs and practices. Only in the last decade however has it become more predominant in Mexican society, where many commentators have noted its rise with the killing and violence associated with the war between rival drug cartels and the Mexican Governme...

  18. Reforming the Police in Post-Soviet States: Georgia and Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    is highly com- petitive. While in 2006 there were five applicants for each spot, in 2012 the number of candidates increased to 50 per spot. Female ...police should be able to prevent violence generated by criminal syn- dicates, drug cartels, and violent entrepreneurs . As part of these efforts...republics, see Vadim Volkov, Violent Entrepreneurs : The Use of Force in the Making of Russian Capitalism, Ithaca, NY: Cornell Uni- versity Press, 2002

  19. Mexico and the Cocaine Epidemic: The New Colombia or a New Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    wave of violence and terrorism that would rock the state of Colombia to its foundations.92 During this wave of terror orchestrated by Escobar, “judges...the Colombian National Police (CNP), which led to the eventual fall of the Medellin cartel.102 Escobar’s reign of terror would last more than...President Alberto Fujimori to have Peru’s armed forces shoot down planes that transported coca from Peruvian fields to Colombian drug labs further

  20. Ciudad Juarez: A Feral City Threat on our Doorstep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    a helpless victim of this narco -criminal activity. With 3,000 recorded murders in 20104F5, Ciudad Juarez was labeled the murder capital of the...generation gangs research: the rise of criminal ( narco ) city networks and BlackFor, realizes the possibility of feral cities based on the proliferation of... Chapo " Guzman. Joaquin “El Chapo ” Guzman and The Sinaloa Cartel The hostile takeover of Ciudad Juarez was simply another business acquisition

  1. Crisis in Mexico: Assessing the Merida Initiative and its Impact on Us-Mexican Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    strategic narcotics transportation routes in seven Mexican states. 14 The Sinaloa Cartel, headed by Joaquin “El Chapo ” Guzman Loera, operates from...further blurred the lines between civilian and military roles since September 11, 2001, with the introduction of the term “ narco -terrorism.” 71 In 2006...have evolved from the communist and autocratic rule of 25 years ago to the terrorism, narco -trafficking, money laundering, gunrunning, and human

  2. Exposición: Fondos documentales del Dr. Luis López-Francos y de la Dra. Benigna Eleizalde donados a la Biblioteca de la EEAD-CSIC

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Giménez, José Carlos; Callén Amador, Pilar; Lostres Lamarca, María Jesús; Albiñana Rodríguez, Carlos; Martínez Gil, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Copias .pdfs de documentos de donación, cartel empleado para la difusión, listas bibliográficas de títulos de ejemplares expuestos, biografías, 5 pósteres complementarios informativos. La Exposición y sus contenidos también pueden ser accesibles a través de evento dedicado creado en Facebook.

  3. 关于我国建立职业篮球联盟的探讨%Discussion on establishment of the national professional basketball league

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈树华; 许永刚; 王恒同

    2003-01-01

    通过对美国NBA职业篮球联盟体制(league system)的研究,得出结论:联盟体制--运动卡特尔(sport cartel)是NBA取得成功的制度保障,并进一步阐述了我国建立CBA职业篮球联盟是否具有可行性.

  4. What does the future hold for OPEC?; Quel avenir pour l'OPEP?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) celebrated its 50. anniversary in September 2010. For half a century now, the cartel has succeeded in playing a major role on the energy market, despite divisions and changes. But today, its future is threatened, primarily in consequence of emerging alternative energies that are likely to blossom in the years to come due to rising crude oil prices

  5. Market definition and dominance in electricity markets; Marktabgrenzung und Marktbeherrschung auf Elektrizitaetsmaerkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleave, Sandro [Bundeskartellamt, Bonn (Germany). 8. Beschlussabteilung; Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg, Rheinbach (Germany). Lehrgebiet Mikrooekonomie

    2010-06-15

    This article presents the current market definition in the different electricity markets as applied by the Bundeskartellamt (Federal Cartel Office). The market definition has been modified recently due to an increasing intensity of competition. The main focus is on the definition of the relevant product and geographic markets at the end consumer level. Moreover, the article considers implications of the market definition for competition policy. (orig.)

  6. Lack of agreement over the use and ownership of the internationally shared resources (such as air space, outer space and the oceans) leading to international conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The lack of adequate institutional mechanisms to regulate, monitor and govern the use of commonly owned world resources appears to be politically destabilizing and subject to socioeconomic pressures of overpopulation, food shortages, cartelism, terrorism, and wealth distribution to developing countries. The capacity and propensity to wage war and its potential consequences are elaborated. It is shown that technology is one of the dominant factors affecting the exploration and management of commonly shared resources.

  7. わが国ビール産業の競争政策と競争戦略

    OpenAIRE

    富田, 輝博

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the Japanese beer industry and firms from two aspects. Firstly, I consider competition policy and oligopolistic behaviors of beer industry. Secondly, I consider competitive strategy of beer firms, especially Asahi Breweries as a case study. As the Beer industry is highly oligopolistic and regulated, there are many possibilities of collusive agreements. Evidence of such collusion, was found in administered prices, cartels, and rebates for wholesalers and retailers. The sour...

  8. Mexico Burning: Does America Stand Idly By?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    economic reasons, some cartels had progressed far beyond drug dealers to collecting taxes , controlling crop production and fixing pricing for goods and...back to the program. In testimony before the House of Representatives Committee on Oversight and Government Reform , ranking member, Elijah Cummings...to avoid detection. US bilateral efforts have simply pushed the problem from one country to the next. Coca eradication efforts in Peru and Bolivia

  9. Deportation of Gang Members: Sub-Optimal Solution for Both America and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    America and Mexico Gang Assessment, Annex 4: Southern and Northern Borders of Mexico Profile, p.1 11 all. Visible gang tattoos also deter...other for market share, control over various access lanes into the U.S., and freedom of action within their claimed territory. The cartels employ...Consequently, gangs view Mexico as a low risk location, and some gangsters migrate there to enjoy greater freedom of action. Currently

  10. JIATF-SWB: Building an Operational Bridge for the Southwest Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    mexican_cartels_integr.htm. (accessed 20 March 2011). 4 Office of the President. “Obtener la base de datos de Fallecimientos ocurridos por presunta rivalidad...Obtener la base de datos de Fallecimientos ocurridos por presunta rivalidad delincuencial en el periodo diciembre 2006 a diciembre 2010... basing , technical, intelligence, and training support to JIATF-SWB. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mexico, Southwest Border, USNORTHCOM, Interagency, 16

  11. A Guerra contra as Drogas em Colômbia e México: estratégias fracassadas

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Jonathan Daniel; Zepeda Martínez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: to identify and evaluate the experience of the strategies and results of the war on drugs in Colombia and Mexico through initiatives such as Plan Colombia and the Merida Initiative.Methodology: in order to analyze programs of anti-narcotics cooperation in the Americas, particularly among the United States, Colombia and Mexico a qualitative method was used. The analysis was focused on the production and trafficking of drugs, criminal organizations or drug cartels and violence level...

  12. Winning the war on drugs in Mexico? Toward an integrated approach to the illegal drug trade

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Garces, Alfonso.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The illegal drug trade has been present in Mexico since the beginning of the twentieth century when prohibition of the opium trade started. Since then, the social harm of the illegal drug trade in all its forms has been constantly increasing. Today, the most obvious example of the social harm of the illegal drug trade in Mexico is drug-related crime. As a result, Mexican authorities have launched a frontal attack against the drug cartels ...

  13. The war in Mexico and its possible solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Tomišková, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    For ten years, the Mexican government is fighting against the drug cartels. The beginnings of the drug war began in 2006 when Felipe Calderon officially declared war on organized crime in Mexico, also known as the war on drugs. The aim is to analyze the various actors involved in the drug conflict, determine their status and individual roles. The entire work is also meant to evaluate possible solutions, the positive and negative aspects and summarize final thoughts. The first part contains an...

  14. Wybrane zagadnienia współpracy badawczo-rozwojowej przedsiębiorstw w ujęciu ekonomii gałęziowej

    OpenAIRE

    Karbowski, Adam; Prokop, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze selected problems of interfirm R&D cooperation discussed in the industrial organization literature. Analyzed interrelated problems are: (i) stability of interfirm R&D cooperation, (ii) organization of interfirm R&D cooperation, (iii) asymmetries between cooperating firms and (iv) the impact of interfirm R&D cooperation on industry cartelization. On the basis of the literature review it can be concluded that the necessary condition for reaching benefits from...

  15. What We’re Getting Wrong About Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    trial testimony of former Juarez police captain Juan Fierro Mendez, cartels seek to control smuggling routes known as plazas in an effort “to...Workers’ Party (PKK) insurgent group (over 12,000). One confirming statistic is the fact that the world’s highest murder rate is found in Ciudad ... Juarez , Mexico.32 Finally, hypercompetitive markets are also characterized by other collateral crimes such as kidnappings and contract murders that are

  16. The Crime-Terror Nexus and the Threat to U.S. Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AMIA Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina CJNG Cartel de Jalisco Nueva COIN counter insurgency DEA Drug...the fact the Soviet Union was exporting their model for creating subversion. In an effort to maintain a level of deniability, the Soviet Union...Ecuador, Bolivia, and Nicaragua. However, Iran had also entered into trade agreements with Brazil and Argentina , which are not part of the Bolivarian

  17. REGARDS L’agriculture entre artificialisation des milieux et artificialisation des échanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermersch Dominique

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available L’économie agricole se trouve écartelée aujourd’hui entre une artificialisation des milieux et une artificialisation des échanges marchands. Tel est le défi que cherchent à relever les nouveaux modes de soutien public à l’agriculture. Tel est aussi l’enjeu d’une réflexion éthique renouvelée sur le rapport de l’homme à la nature.

  18. Violencia postestructural: migrantes centroamericanos y cárteles de la droga en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-structural violence refers to those situations where the victim becomes the executioner as a survival mechanism in a violent environment. This article, based on in-depth interviews with 53 Central American migrants kidnapped and forced to participate in criminal activities in Mexico, analyses the mechanisms used by Mexican drug cartels to recruit undocumented migrants, and concludes that the fear of losing their lives transforms peaceful and fearful labor migrants into ferocious criminals.

  19. Prolegomena to a Theory of Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1951-12-10

    of loyalty, the " espirit de corps," corruption, the fact that ~~me leadersof organizations seem to be able to obtain a greater effect than others...such as a cartel, labor union , etc., the cost-profit principle is immediately seen to be in grave jeopardy. We shall return to this below. But f1rst...the first case; the difficulties some highly concentrated European econo- mies have encountered may be illustrations for the second case. However

  20. Pocket-book for the fuel trade 1982/83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temming, D.

    1982-01-01

    The 'Pocket-book for the fuel trade 82/83' has been planned as a compendium of the fuel trade and as a buyer's guide for the fuel tradesman. It contains beside technical and economical informations about solid and liquid fuels indications to legal questions (competition, price and cartel laws, labor and social laws, responsability questions) and taxes and duties. A comprehensive list of the trade organizations of the fuel trade is also included.

  1. Contracting: Creating Gaps in Expeditionary Warfighting Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Education of the Middle State Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher...Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an...drug cartel related violence is estimated to be approximately 28,000.3 Violence against Americans in border towns like Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez

  2. Unstable oil front - will there soon be an end to its turmoil. A discourse on OPEC's policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuermann, H.J.

    1987-07-01

    World oil markets are characterized by fundamental market imbalances. The distruction of their historical structures featuring a vertical integration of oil companies resulted in an unstable market structure oscillating between cartel formation and dynamic competition. The sweet dreams of OPEC - to achieve rapid gains in market shares without dramatic price sacrifices - were completely frustrated. In the short run, the oil market will be rather inelastic.

  3. The Merida Initiative: Refuting the Need for a Military Hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    Quintana Roo, which includes Cancun. Mario Ernest Villanueva Madrid was allegedly paid $400,000-$500,000 per shipment of cocaine for which he provided...Mexican Army assigned a liaison officer to Northern Command in 2009, and Mexico’s Secretary of National Defense, General Guillermo Galvan, visited...Cooperation, 1. 13 Ibid., 6. 14 Bob Killebrew and Jennifer Bernal , Crime Wars: Gangs, Cartels and U.S. National Security (Washington, D.C: Center for

  4. SOF in Unlit Spaces: Understanding the World’s Dark Spots in the Context of SOF Operational Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    individuals around the world. The killing of the notorious Medellin drug cartel kingpin, Pablo Escobar , is one such example.52 Recent examples include the...incident in 1993. Moreover, entering 52 Bowden, Mark, Killing Pablo : The Hunt for The World’s Greatest Outlaw, New York: Atlantic Monthly Press...D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2013. Bowden, Mark. Killing Pablo : The Hunt for The World’s Greatest Outlaw. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press

  5. Bolivar or Escobar: The Nature of Colombian Guerrillas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Pablo Escobar , was killed in a police shootout marking the decline of the large cartels.76 Unfortunately, the demand for narcotics had not been...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited Bolivar or Escobar : The Nature of Colombian Guerrillas A Monograph by MAJ William R. Ward...or Escobar : The Nature of Colombian Guerrillas Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ward

  6. The Closest Alligator to the Boat: Mexico’s Drug-Fueled Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    organizations such as Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), Venezuela and other enemies abroad. The reason for exploring these ties is to show...an extremely muscular , cult-like Christian-based program that serves the cartel leader‟s purposes.18 Using his Christian based manifesto, González...members and deserters from the Mexican Army‟s 15 elite Grupo Aeromóvil de Fuerzas Especiales (GAFE) who were organized as an enforcement arm of the Gulf

  7. Defining the Meaning of a Major Modeling and Simulation Change as Applied to Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    Spammer not linked to known threat Variant 1b: Spammer associated with organized crime cartels 2 Background: Deep web sites found with...unknown ― deep web ‖ sites (without URLs or DNS services) containing very large numbers of suspiciously uninteresting photographs. Steganographic...the ― deep web ‖ image servers, and the performance of those image servers. Once modified, model will be used to select one of the two download

  8. Lessons Learned from U.S. Government Law Enforcement in International Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Counternarcoterrorism operations, including aerial and manual eradication and interdiction operations; U.S.-led maritime, aerial, and river - ine interdiction...America in Bogota , Colombia. • Embassy of the United States of America in Pristina, Kosovo. Qualifications and Limitations. The observations that are...by drug cartels. As a result, the United States approved a focused joint effort with Bogota known as “Plan Colombia,” which was a diplomatic

  9. Brevet du vivant : progrès ou crime ?

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Pierre Berlan

    2005-01-01

    The genetic-industrial cartel, draped in a cloak of philanthropy and progress, has succeeded in slapping a patent on the living in 1980 in the United States and in 1998 in the European Union, with the 98/44 directive which France has just transposed. The World Trade Organisation demands it to be extended to the whole world. Its consequences for people, especially those of the Third World, will be tragic in the twin domains of applied biology : agriculture and health.

  10. Colombia: Learning Institutions Enable Integrated Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    publica - tions of the “human rights cartel.” The frames whereby the parastates assessed the conflict remained virtually unchanged, and in some cases...Politica de Defensa y 144 | FRoM the FIeld PRISM 1, no. 4 Seguridad Democratica, requires slightly more pages for its presentation but is identical...capability” to “establish security force presence throughout the country” (lograr presencia fuerza publica en todo territorio nacional). Though a

  11. La politica economica del fascismo. La crisi del ‘29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Sylos Labini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Text of a speech held at the University of Rome in 1965. The author discusses the economic policy of Fascism, claiming that several of its characteristic features, e.g. the policy of industrial and financial bailouts, the policy of industry cartels and firms’ groups, and protectionism, were part of an international trend. In these areas international similitudes probably outweigh differences. What was peculiar of Fascism was the approach towards trade unions and the peculiarly corporatist policy.

  12. Exporting the Colombian Model Comparing Law Enfocement Stratregies Towards Security and Stability Operations in Colombia and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    59 Bowden, Killing Pablo, 187, 190, 193. 60 Fabio Castillo, “Los Jinetes de la Cocaína: Derechos Humanos en America...Religious Freedom Report 2006,” Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor , accessed March 9, 2014, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/2006/71467.htm...lowest cost of labor and production. Similarly, the Sinaloa cartel recently began growing marijuana in remote forests of the United States to reduce

  13. Scientific Misconduct in India: Causes and Perpetuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Pratap R

    2016-08-01

    Along with economic strength, space technology and software expertise, India is also a leading nation in fraudulent scientific research. The problem is worsened by vested interests working in concert for their own benefits. These self-promoting cartels, together with biased evaluation methods and weak penal systems, combine to perpetuate scientific misconduct. Some of these issues are discussed in this commentary, with supporting examples and possible solutions.

  14. POTENSIAL PELANGGARAN HUKUM PERSAINGAN PADA TATA NIAGA GULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Purwadi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available As a public policy instruments, implementation of sugar import commerce system should subject to fulfilling society needs especially customers, such as sugar cane farmers and sugar factories. The potential law violent towards cartel and oligopoly is based on "rule of reason" prohibition so that there is an act in accordance to elements of new related paragraphs when has been proven having negative effects.

  15. American Security and the International Energy Situation. Volume 4. Collected Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-15

    both issues are cases in which narrowly self-interested policies threaten broader community pur- poses and in which exclusivist policy takes from the...establish patterns for enhanced international management of access to future scarce resources. Second, the exclusivist pricing policy of the OPEC...breaking the OPEC cartel and its exclusivist price policy. Currently there is excess producing capacity within the world’s oil fields estimated at

  16. Bringing together an ocean of information: An extensible data integration framework for biological oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Karen I.; Condit, Chris; Qian, Xufei; Brewin, Paul E.; Gupta, Amarnath

    2009-09-01

    As increasing volumes and varieties of data are becoming available online, the challenges of accessing and using heterogeneous data resources are growing. We have developed a mediator-based data integration system called Cartel for biological oceanography data. A mediation approach is appropriate in cases where a single central warehouse is not desirable, such as when the needed data sources change frequently through time, or when there are advantages for holding heterogeneous data in their native formats. Through Cartel, data sources of a variety of types can be registered to the system, and users can query against simplified virtual schemas, without needing to know the underlying schema and computational capabilities of each data source. The system can operate on a variety of relational and geospatial data formats, and can perform joins between formats. We tested the performance of the Cartel mediator in two biological oceanography application areas, and found that the system was able to support the variety of data types needed in a typical ecology study, but that the response times were unacceptably slow when very large databases (i.e. Ocean Biogeographic Information System and the World Ocean Atlas) were used. Indexing and caching are currently being added to the system to improve response times. The mediator is an open-source product, and was developed to be a generic, extensible component available to projects developing oceanography data systems.

  17. cartazes utilizados nas campanhas de saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Lúcia Bezerra Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio de abordaje etnográfico realizado en 2003, con el objetivo de conocer el modelo explicativo popular y el del profesional de salud, de los mensajes divulgados en un cartel de una campaña del Ministerio de Salud. Los informantes conformaban distintos grupos de profesionales y usuarios de un centro de salud del municipio de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. Para cada uno de los grupos fueron dadas tres cuestiones conductoras durante la entrevista individual. Como resultados se obtuvieron modelos explicativos popular y profesional divergentes en lo referente a la comprensión del mensaje, a las reacciones/emociones despertadas, a las motivaciones para actuar en función del autocuidado, y a los elementos que dificultan la comprensión del mensaje divulgado en el cartel. Se concluye la necesidad de participación del receptor final en la elaboración del contenido y arte de los carteles utilizados en las campañas de salud, asumiendo ese receptor dimensiones del proceso comunicacional, las cuales son determinadas por los factores culturales, económicos, sociales, entre otros.

  18. Merger control in the energy sector. An empirical investigation for the Federal Republic of Germany; Fusionskontrolle in der leitungsgebundenen Energiewirtschaft. Eine empirische Untersuchung fuer Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauk, Martina Margret

    2008-11-06

    In 1998, EU legislation initiated a liberalisation process among European energy markets. The process of market opening has significantly changed the functioning of the markets and the competition conditions of the energy sector. At the same time, the industry witnessed a surge of mergers and far-reaching changes in the structure of German electricity and natural gas markets occurred. Against this background, the doctoral thesis at hand surveys the merger activities in the energy sector as well as the merger control policy of the German Federal Cartel Office during the first years of liberalisation. The study starts with a portrayal of the institutional framework of the German merger control regime and a survey of the relevant economic literature on horizontal and vertical mergers. Subsequent to the legal and theoretical considerations, the merger activities and the merger control policy of the German Federal Cartel Office are investigated empirically. The data set is based on information taken from merger control files at the archive of the Federal Cartel Office in Bonn. It contains information on more than 250 merger cases and appendant decisions in the German natural gas and electricity sector put before the Federal Cartel Office between 1999 and 2003. In order to perform a statistical analysis, the information contained in the written decisions is transformed into variables. The data set is complemented by information on electricity and gas networks taken from external data sources. The empirical part of the study is divided into two parts: The aim of the first part is to investigate the integration strategies of energy utilities with respect to basic characteristics of the firms involved as well as structural factors of the markets affected by the respective mergers. In the descriptive section, key patterns of the integration strategies of the energy utilities can be identified. The results of the discrete choice analysis show that in addition to firm size of

  19. Price abuse monitoring under paragraph 29 of the Law Against Restraints on Competition; Die Preismissbrauchskontrolle nach paragraph 29 GWB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koleva, Raliza

    2013-08-01

    Written against the backdrop of criticism levelled at paragraph 29 of the Law Against Restraints on Competition (GWB) the present study undertakes a critical discussion of this legal norm along with questions and points of criticism that have been raised in its context in the literature and case law. It first addresses the central question as to whether paragraph 29 GWB conforms to the stipulations of European law and the German constitution. It then expounds the system behind paragraph 29 GWB, making a detailed examination of the individual elements of the offences covered by the regulation while giving thorough consideration to existing case law on instruments of price abuse monitoring that have been used to date under cartel law. A further focus of the present study is on the question as to what circumstances a supply company under suspicion of price abuse may claim in attempting to justify significant differences that have been found to exist between its own prices and those of a comparable company. This aspect is of great practical relevance in lawsuits concerning price abuse under cartel law, since the option of demonstrating justification is the most important line of approach for supply companies under suspicion of price abuse in attempting to fend off such allegations. Based on an analysis of past practice of the German Federal Cartel Office and the antitrust courts the author undertakes to determine a scale for assessing the costs which the responding supply company can claim in its defence. Finally she endeavours to methodologically capture the price limit concept, making proposals for its practical application with due consideration to the findings that have transpired from the study.

  20. Beneficios del acompañamiento a la mujer por la matrona durante el trabajo de parto y puerperio

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Gallego, Isabel; Partida Márquez, Antonio Luis; Castro Guerrero, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: En 2008, el Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo lanza la “Estrategia de Atención al Parto normal en el Sistema Nacional de Salud”, dónde se reconoce el derecho de la embarazada a estar acompañada por la persona que ella elija durante el embarazo, parto y puerperio. Por otro lado, ofrecer apoyo continuo profesional está descr...

  1. La oposición política en Chile durante el período 1990-2011. Una aproximación conceptual y empírica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Avendaño

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of opposition parties and coalitions in Chile since the putting in place of the first democratic government in 1990. Assuming that opposition plays a pivotal role in the functioning of a democratic system, the paper demonstrates that –with regards to changes and alterations of an immediate context– the evolution of opposition in Chile can be characterized by its reactive attitude, sometimes combining competence with collusion and cartelization. The author argues that it is the electoral domain, in which the opposition has adopted the most offensive attitude and left the task of informal negotiation between representatives of two key coalitions to other entities.

  2. Fin de temporada

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Como una jauría de leonas enjauladas que recién son liberadas, corren cientos de mujeres a buscar aquellos coloridos y centelleantes carteles que anuncian efusivos la llegada del fin de la temporada. Las tiendas hacen todo tipo de descuentos a las mercancías un poco sucias, desgastadas, arrugadas y pasadas de  moda. No son despreciadas por aquellas mujeres a las que el recorte de la mesada no les da para comprar lo que está de moda. Por  los  amplios  pasillos  ahora ...

  3. La ciencia reta a la muerte

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Alonso, M. Carmen; Platón, María

    2016-01-01

    Cartel anunciador de la charla; Presentación del ciclo de charlas “Jam Science-Divulgación Científica” celebradas en el Moe Club (Alberto Alcocer, 32, Madrid) el penúltimo martes de cada mes de 20.00 a 22.00h, desde enero de 2015.Ponente:Dra. María Blanco. Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas. Grabación y edición de los vídeos: Agora Mundi.

  4. Programa de prevención de la salud bucal a embarazadas en atención primaria

    OpenAIRE

    González Castillo, Silvia; Roldán Roldán, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Durante el periodo de gestación se producen en la embarazada unos cambios fisiológicos que afectan a su salud general, así como a la salud oral. Muchas mujeres no entienden la importancia del cuidado oral en el embarazo, por lo que cobran gran importancia los programas educativos. El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido describir las enfe...

  5. La melatonina: ¿Una alternativa saludable para combatir el insomnio?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: la melatonina es una hormona que se encuentra de forma natural en el cuerpo, producida por la glándula pineal. Participa en procesos celulares, neuroendocrinos y neurofisiológicos. La melatonina determina el ciclo sueño-vigilia. La cantidad de melatonina producida por nuestro cuerpo disminuye a medida que envejecemos. Ob...

  6. CTC Sentinel. Volume 6, Issue 9. September 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    under increasing pressure. Malcolm Beith is a freelance journalist and author of The Last Narco : Inside the Hunt for El Chapo , the World’s Most...states.1 In recent years, its members are known to have operated in cities throughout the United States.2 At the helm of the cartel is Joaquin “El Chapo ...estimate, based on arrests and the breakdown of official estimates of Mexicans involved in the drug trade. Also see “‘Hay 500 mil narcos :’ Revela Senado

  7. Pintores españoles y portadas de discos

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Bryan Muñoz, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Con la invención del fonógrafo en el siglo XIX y el desarrollo de las compañías discográficas a mediados del XX la música ha jugado un papel fundamental en la sociedad de nuestro tiempo. Desde los primeros carteles del «Art Nouveau» la imagen ha acompañado, a través de las artes gráficas, a la industria de la cultura y el entretenimiento, siendo un reclamo para su consumo. Las portadas de discos son el resultado de la convergencia de varias sensibilidades esté...

  8. Energy markets in the conflict area between transparency and competition; Energiemaerkte im Spannungsfeld von Transparenz und Wettbewerb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundt, Andreas [Bundeskartellamt, Bonn (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    At the end of September 2010, the energy concept was submitted to the federal government. This energy concept has to strengthen the competition in the power generation markets. At the moment, the central demand is more transparency in the wholesale energy trading. On this occasion, a central observation, collection and analysis of relevant data by means of a central office (market transparency point) is essential. Due to the proximity of the target to the competition authority, the market transparency point has to be set up at the Federal Cartel Office (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany).

  9. Unbundling and regulation in the German power industry. Practical manual for application of the EnWG. 3. rev. ed.; Entflechtung und Regulierung in der deutschen Energiewirtschaft. Praxishandbuch zum Energiewirtschaftsgesetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The book provides a fast outline into the new legal boundary conditions for power supply in Germany. Apart from the legal aspects of power generation and distribution, other fields like taxes, labour, public procurement and cartel law are gone into as well. Subjects: Fundamentals, methods and current modifications of unbundling; Relevant aspects of unbundling for operators of transmission lines, grids, and power stores; Regulation by incentives and grid usage fees; Competences of state regulation authorities; Grid development planning. There is also a free online access to tools and updates. (orig./RHM)

  10. Noi contro tutti: la solidarietà aggressiva nella web communitas No Lombroso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Milicia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In November 2009 the renewed  display of the Museum  “Cesare Lombroso” opened to visitors in Turin. A “No Lombroso” cartel of Neo-bourbon and other Southern political associations moved to protest against the Museum. They went to  demand the repatriation of the brigand’s Villella skull for burial in his birthplace Motta Santa Lucia (CZ. In September 2012, I entered the No Lombroso Facebook group to conduct my online participant observation. The involvement in the day-to-day Facebook interactions highlights the performative construction of the aggressive solidarity into the web communitas.

  11. Request for information within the limits of concession contracts; Auskunftsverlangen im Rahmen von Konzessionsvertraegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahr, Christian [Sozietaet SBR Schuster Berger Bahr Ahrens Rechtsanwaelte, Duesseldorf (Germany); Sassenberg, Thomas [Sozietaet SBR Schuster Berger Bahr Ahrens Rechtsanwaelte, Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    According to paragraph 46 sect. 3 Energy Economy Law, a lot of communities currently have to announce the course of concession contracts. In connection with this announcement and the new award, the question of whether the net data have to be published by the existing authorized holders already within the limits of the announcement raises. Taking into account the common guidelines published in December 2010 by the Federal Cartel Office and the Federal Network Agency, the authors of the contribution under consideration report om this question. The authors present fundamental possibilities in order to enforce a claim.

  12. Energy law. The legal boundary conditions of power supply; Grundriss zum Energierecht. Der rechtliche Rahmen fuer die Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhlmacher, Gerd [E.ON Energy Trading SE, Duesseldorf (Germany); Stappert, Holger; Jansen, Guido (eds.) [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schoon, Heike [BDEW Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The book presents a comprehensive overview of the legal regulations governing the power supply sector; it contains a wealth of practical information on the interpretation and application of the legal regulations. The following aspects are discussed: Deregulation of power grid operation; Access to electricity and gas grids and stores; Reimbursement and regulation by incentives; Power supply contracts; Cartel law and the power industry; Energy trading OTC and stock exchange; Regulatory law and energy trading; Legal regulations governing power generation; Climate protection legislation; Investment protection.

  13. 论市场经济条件下武术(散手)运营机制的改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汝安; 黄抱雪

    2002-01-01

    采用文献资料法,分析了武术(散手)竞赛市场的现状,提出武术(散手)运营机制改革是武术(散手)运动发展的必然趋势;论述了根据运动卡特尔(sports cartel)建立武术(散手)职业运动联盟及其结构、基本框架和作用.

  14. General Considerations on the Oligopoly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Angelo Ioan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the main aspects of oligopoly, in the case of n firms. The analysis has made, as a rule, for arbitrary marginal costs, each time, however, by considering these costs constant recovering well known results of the models presented: the Stackelberg model, the case of more production leaders, the price leader, the Cournot equilibrium for duopoly, the Cournot equilibrium for oligopoly or in the case of perfect competition and cartels. We also treat the problems above for the general case of cost function, again customizing the overall results for linear functions and obtaining the corresponding classical relations.

  15. 10. Duesseldorf Energy Law Day. The energy sector between climate change and regulation; 10. Duesseldorfer Energierechtstag. Die Energiewirtschaft zwischen Klimawandel und Regulierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buedenbender, Ulrich; Rosin, Peter (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the 10th Duesseldorf Energy Law Day on 16 March 2010. Many issues were touched upon, e.g. the consequences of the implementation in national law of the third instalment of EU internal market legislation; a report on the activities of the Bundesnetzagentur and on rulings of the Duesseldorf Higher Regional Court (both of them relevant institutions for the practical implementation and supervision of regulation by incentives). Legislative trends of the past 18 months were reviewed, in particular price adaptation clauses. Further subjects were the activities of the Federal Cartel Office and the international efforts to reduce CO2 emissions.

  16. Political Polarization in Taiwan: A Growing Challenge to Catch-all Parties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C. Tan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the last decade, politics in Taiwan have become increasingly polarized over the national identity issue. Yet, the bitter division between the two major parties is not really reflected in the electorate. We seek to explain this paradox by examining the changing nature of political parties, in particular the growing role of ideological activists in campaigns, the rise of cultural and identity issues, the difficulty for new parties to emerge, the decline of catch-all parties, and the tendency for major parties to engage in cartel activities.

  17. El poder de las grandes empresas petroleras: 1900–1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Mora Contreras

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1900 y 1950 las grandes corporaciones petroleras internacionales lograron imponer a los propietarios del recurso natural en el Medio Oriente y en Venezuela las normas y procedimientos que regulaban contractual y legalmente las actividades de exploración y explotación de petróleo. Lograron además crear un cartel interna-cional de empresas productoras para dividirse el mercado entre ellas e imponer a los consumidores un sistema de fijación del precio mundial del “crudo”.

  18. BARBERÍA ROMÁN [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación para la Etnografía y el Desarrollo de la Artesanía Canaria

    1990-01-01

    Antiguedad: SIGLO XX Barbería situada en una casa terrera, con un pequeño cartel ("Barbería Román") empotrada en la parte alta de la puerta de entrada a la barbería, que dispone de una cortina antimoscas. El local en sí es de planta rectangular, con 2 sillones de barbero, un lavamanos, así como espejos sobre repisas con gavetas. Calificación del suelo: URBANO CONSOLIDADO Clasificación del suelo: URBANO Declaración BIC:No El mobiliario se ha modernizado. Dos de los sillones de b...

  19. Estudio descriptivo de la dieta de pacientes diabéticos paquistaníes durante el Ramadán

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: A propósito de un estudio de investigación: “Efectividad de una dieta adaptada a los hábitos culinarios de la población paquistaní en el grado de control metabólico de la diabetes”, ensayo clínico aleatorizado multicéntrico (desarrollado en tres Equipos de Atención Primaria (EAP): EAP Fondo en Santa Coloma de Gramenet, E...

  20. L'impact du "narcotrafic" à Medellín

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Texte intégral déposé avec l'aimable autorisation de l'éditeur; International audience; L'article étudie l'impact du narcotrafic dans une ville qui était le siège du cartel le plus puissant de la drogue en Colombie au début des années 1990. Les effets du trafic de drogue sont étudiés dans leur diversité et complexité: situation politique et trouble à l'ordre public, violence et homicides, conséquences sociales et économiques.

  1. A comparative value chain analysis of smallholder burley tobacco production in Malawi – 2003/4 and 2009/10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin Philip; Moyer-Lee, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Smallholders grow the majority of Malawi’s main export crop – burley tobacco. We analyse this value chain segment for the 2003/4 and 2009/10 seasons. The comparison shows smallholder profits in 2003/4 were limited by two main factors: a cartel of leaf merchants at auction and inefficient marketing...... arrangements. In 2009/10, there was greater competition at auction, improvements in marketing, tighter state regulation (including minimum prices) and much more contract farming.The paper concludes by reflecting on aspects of the political economy of the tobacco industry at national and global levels....

  2. Colágeno asimilable. Fuente de prevención de enfermedades osteoarticuladas

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Parra, Yolanda; Quesada Martínez, María Inmaculada; Pérez Collado, Elisa María

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: El colágeno es la proteína más abundante de nuestro cuerpo humano y uno de sus componentes esencial de articulaciones, cartílago, ligamento, tendones, huesos, piel. Su especial estructura lo hacen único, presenta una estructura fibrosa, que aporta gran resistencia y flexibilidad a los tejidos de los que forma parte. Cu...

  3. Retos y mejoras en promoción de la salud

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Mª Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: han pasado veintiséis años desde la Carta de Ottawa dirigida a conseguir el objetivo “Salud para todos en el año 2000”. Actualmente, son elementos emergentes en salud pública los activos para la salud y la salutogénesis. La perspectiva salutogénica pone énfasis en el origen de la salud y no en el origen de la enfermedad....

  4. Somni: patrimoni bibliogràfic en accés obert

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La Universitat de Valencia mantiene un compromiso con la preservación y difusión del patrimonio bibliográfico y documental. Entre las obras que conserva se incluye una parte importante del patrimonio bibliográfico valenciano. En esta línea, desde el año 2000, el Servei de Biblioteques i Documentació (SBD) desarrolla la colección digital Somni, que incluye manuscritos, incunables, impresos de los siglos XVI al XIX, material hemerográfico, carteles y dibujos. Somni está destinado tanto a es...

  5. La prevención de la enfermedad como complemento de la promoción de la salud

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Mª Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: la prevención de la enfermedad abarca las medidas destinadas a prevenir la aparición de la enfermedad, reducir los factores de riesgo, detener su avance y atenuar sus consecuencias una vez establecida. La prevención primaria está dirigida a evitar la aparición inicial de una enfermedad. La secundaria y terciaria tienen p...

  6. Las redes sociales como elemento a tener en cuenta en promoción de la salud

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Mª Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: primeramente, diferenciar entre redes que existen muchas e incluyen no solo a personas sino también a objetos, y redes sociales que nos rodean en nuestro trabajo, amigos y familia. Centrándonos en las redes sociales decir que se forman cuando existe un ideal común y se consolidan cuando aparece la figura de un líder. Así...

  7. Relación enfermera-paciente: la importancia de la comunicación

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: La comunicación dentro del área de enfermería es una herramienta muy valiosa ya que, a través de ella, los profesionales de enfermería pueden conocer las necesidades de los pacientes y aplicar los cuidados acorde con sus demandas. Sin embarco, comunicarnos de forma correcta no es tarea fácil convirtiéndose esto en un pro...

  8. La importancia de una nueva actitud por parte de los profesionales sanitarios ante la prevención del dolor en los neonatos

    OpenAIRE

    Carmena Hernández, Ana Isabel; Vidal Salcedo, Ana; Cobos Carvajal, María José

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: los recién nacidos presentan una inmadurez neurológica que será aumentada a menor edad gestacional, ello le crea mayor susceptibilidad de presentar una sensación dolorosa aumentada, pudiéndoles generar una serie de repercusiones a corto y largo plazo. El dolor en el campo de la pediatría se ha tratado como si fuera inexi...

  9. PROMOTING COMPETITIVENESS BY FIGHTING AGAINST ABUSES OF A DOMINANT MARKET POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia IRINESCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Competition is a basic mechanism of the market economy involving supply and demand. The legislative framework of the European competition policy is provided by the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU(Articles 101–109. Without an effective EU competition policy, the Single Market cannot reach its full potential. Competition policy is also crucial in allowing the EU to crack down on abuses of dominant position, cartels and concerted practices that harm consumers. To be in a dominant position is not itself illegal. A dominant company has a special responsibility to ensure that its conduct does not distort competition.

  10. Mejora de la calidad asistencial en cuidadores informales

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno González, Virginia; Moreno González, Cristina; Loyza Millauro, Agostina

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Objetivos: conocer las necesidades del cuidador informal; Conocer los limites del cuidador informal; Identificar la falta de plan de cuidados para el cuidador informal. Metodología: se cogio una población diana de cuidadores informales entre edades comprendidas entre 30- 55 años.La muestra de estudio se encuentra en la zona basica...

  11. Ambigüedades urbanas en el cine de los años veinte

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Biosca, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    Los historiadores de la arquitectura nos explicarán cómo fueron trazadas y construidas las ciudades de los años veinte y evaluarán en qué medida correspondían con sus representaciones en la pintura, los carteles, la literatura o el cine. Hay, sin embargo, otra forma de abordar el asunto, probablemente más modesta y oblicua, y consiste en preguntarse qué fantasías urbanas circularon entre aquellas gentes que jamás construyeron un edificio, hicieron un plano y ni siquier...

  12. Campañas de salud y gestión de recursos: uso de pulsioximetría fetal en paritorio

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Guisado, María del Mar; Martos López, Isabel María; Guedes Arbelo, Chaxiraxi

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: La monitorización de la Frecuencia Cardiaca Fetal (FCF) es una prueba sensible frente al bienestar fetal, pero de baja especificidad.Cuando el registro cardiotocográfico (RCTG) es anormal su valor predictivo positivo desciende al 50% ; Esto hace que la monitorización electrónica de la FCF sea por sí sola insuficiente par...

  13. De la inseguridad a la incertidumbre: el desplazamiento forzado interno en el noroeste de méxico

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Emilio Ibarra Montero

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo presenta las características del desplazamiento forzado interno en el noroeste de México, caso especíco de Sinaloa; parte de la idea de que el individuo ve trastocada su identidad en tres momentos: antes, durante y después, y su finalidad es entender el proceso de desplazamiento hacia las ciudades, de miles de familias provenientes de zonas rurales, que, como consecuencia del conflicto entre Estado y carteles de la droga, son ultrajadas y transgredidos sus derechos y, por lo tan...

  14. Inteligencia emocional y personal sanitario

    OpenAIRE

    Egea Ramírez de Arellano, Nieves; Van-der Hofstadt Roman, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: La Inteligencia Emocional es la capacidad de sentir, entender, controlar y modificar estados anímicos propios y ajenos. Una buena comunicación personal sanitario-paciente incrementa la confianza del paciente, mejora el cumplimiento de los tratamientos acordados, produce mejores resultados clínicos en enfermedades crónica...

  15. La musicoterapia en neonatos como herramienta terapeútica

    OpenAIRE

    Montiel López, Mónica; Montiel López, Francisco Javier; Mata Castilla, Beatriz de la; Bataller Monzó, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: La musicoterapia es el uso de la música o elementos musicales con el fin de brindar soporte emocional e indirectamente un efecto relajante divergiendo la atención al dolor y al estrés. La musicoterapia es útil en el tratamiento del dolor del recién nacido, donde son manipulados frecuentemente y sometidos a procedimientos...

  16. Baja autoestima situacional. Psoriasis palmo-plantar

    OpenAIRE

    Romero García, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: Paciente de 62 años de edad que acude al servicio de dermatología en agosto de 2015 con Psoriasis Hiperqueratosica palmo plantar. Durante toda la vida se ha dedicado a pintar durante 8 horas diarias. Posee pequeñas fisuras molestas que le afectan psicológicamente y le impiden realizar las actividades de la vida diaria. L...

  17. The Political Economy of World Heavyweight Boxing during the Great Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad ROŞCA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to show how boxing managed to remain an affordable and consumable good for the USAmerican citizens in the times of the Great Depression of 1929-1933, when industrial production was closing. Moreover, while other economic activities faced problems, boxing continued to produce money. The research analyzes the economic market of professional heavyweight boxing, presenting some of the tools that helped promoters produce and sell the fight shows to the consumers – like price discrimination and cartel agreements, for example, and, thus, helped generating incomes and assured money circulation in the economy.

  18. Mexiko a boj s drogami

    OpenAIRE

    Kadlecová, Markéta

    2011-01-01

    This thesis concerns with the issue of war on drugs in Mexico. The paper analyses development of drug trafficking, reasons of its origin and the role of the United States. Also it observes drug policies of both states and their common programmes and operations. One of them is the Mérida Initiative, programme of financial assistance for Mexico to combat the drug trafficking. The aim of this thesis is also to present actual mexican drug production and drug cartels. The final part pays attention...

  19. Civil-Military Relations and Militarization in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    planted coffee on their plantations in the 20th century when the indigo of the previous centuries no longer sold at market. While the crops changed, the... Mexican gang Los Zetas has recruited members of Salvadoran special forces in Dorschner, “Beyond ‘Mano Dura,’” 7. 159 “Public Security Index,” 58. 45...2012).205 Since Mexico escalated its war on the Mexican drug cartels in 2006, illicit drug flows ballooned significantly in Northern Triangle

  20. Duelo por muerte perinatal, un duelo desautorizado

    OpenAIRE

    Martos López, Isabel María; Sánchez Guisado, María del Mar; Guedes Arbelo, Chaxiraxi

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: el duelo perinatal tiene unas características que lo diferencian de duelos de otros tipos: la proximidad entre el nacimiento y la muerte, la juventud de los progenitores para los que supone su primer contacto con la muerte y lo inesperado del suceso. Objetivos: conocer y profundizar en las características del duelo p...

  1. Violent Mexican Transnational Criminal Organizations in Texas: Political Discourse and an Argument for Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    crimes, including 1,620 homicides and 3,682 sexual assaults, to 98,188 “career criminal alien defendants.”310 Operation Border Star also monitors...weighs more upon the object of the violence (person or building) rather than the type of violence used (use of a weapon, physical or sexual altercation...McKinley, Jr., “Mexican Cartels Lure American Teens As Killers,” New York Times, June 22, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/23/us/23killers.html

  2. Promoción de la salud en el paciente anciano

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid El envejecimiento es una cuestión de imágenes y actitudes positivas. Aquellas personas que logran un envejecimiento placentero, conservan esas actitudes a lo largo de la última etapa de su vida, consiguiendo mayor beneficio de sus capacidades e intereses y crean nuevas ocasiones y satisfacciones para sí mismos. El objetivo de este tra...

  3. Analysis of OPEC's Monopoly in Crude Oil Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This article briefly and historically reviews the polices of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC) and analyzes the factors that facilitate or hinder OPEC's monopoly in the crude oil market. The industrial concentration ratio is chosen to measure OPEC's monopoly power based on the data from 1986 to 2004. It is concluded that OPEC possesses a long-standing cartel foundation and a rather strong monopoly in the world crude oil market. At the same time, there are unstable factors that influence and even weaken OPEC's monopoly.

  4. Los adolescentes y los estigmas

    OpenAIRE

    Janin, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se desarrolla el tema de los diagnósticos tempranos en los que se rotula a un niño como deficitario y de las dificultades de los adolescentes que llegan a esa etapa crítica de la vida portando algún “cartel" que los señala como un “sindrome" o un “trastorno de...". Este estigma suele dificultarles el rearmado narcisista, la relación con el grupo de pares y la salida exogámica. Se habla de la crisis adolescente y de los avatares particulares de la sexualidad en estos casos. ...

  5. Programa de fisioterapia y ergonomía para la prevención de lesiones por el uso de nuevas tecnologías informáticas y de comunicación

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra Vinuesa, Rocío; Cortés Fernández, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: las nuevas tecnologías informáticas y de comunicación han invadido nuestras vidas: móviles, internet, tabletas, ordenadores, libros electrónicos…tanto en nuestra vida profesional como personal; esto puede derivar en lesiones si no se usan en las posturas adecuadas o si se abusa de las mismas. Tipos de lesiones: Postura...

  6. Collusion and seasonality of market price - A case of fixed market shares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Bejger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a simple supergame model of collusion that focuses on the role of fixed(exogenous to game played system of quantity market shares. Conclusions implied by the modelcould be used to motivate data - saving markers of collusion based on market price behavior.Following conclusions of the theoretical model we propose marker of collusion based ondetecting changes in seasonal parameters of prices in periods of possible collusion. An empiricalapplication of method has been done on well known data of Lysine cartel case.

  7. Regional power supply in 1998-1999. Progress report of the association of regional utilities - Arbeitsgemeinschaft regionaler Energieversorgungs-Unternehmen - ARE e.V.; Regionale Energieversorgung 1998-1999. Taetigkeitsbericht der Arbeitsgemeinschaft regionaler Energieversorgungs-Unternehmen - ARE - e.V.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The ARE progress report discusses the following issues: Economic development and its effects on power supply; Deregulation of the electricity and gas market; Competition between regional utilities; Energy policy of the new German government; European regulations; Legislation on energy supply; Energy supply and cartel law; Regional supply in the East German states. [German] Der Taetigkeitsbericht der ARE befasst sich mit folgenden Themen: Gesamtwirtschaftliche Entwicklung und ihre Auswirkung auf die Energiewirtschaft, Oeffnung des Monopoles fuer Strom und Gas, Wettbewerb der regionalen Energieversorger, Energiepolitik der neuen Bundesregierung, Europaeische Richtlininen, energiewirtschaftsrecht, Versorgungswirtschaft und Kartellrecht und der Regionalversorgung in den neuen Bundeslaendern.

  8. Celebrado el I Encuentro Latinoamericano de Revistas Zootécnicas donde se fundó la Red Latina de Revistas de Zootecnia

    OpenAIRE

    Veterinaria.org

    2008-01-01

    ResumenSe celebró en la Universidad de Córdoba, del 12 al 14 de Diciembre de 2007, el “I Encuentro Latinoamericano de Revistas Zootécnicas”, en el cual se convocó a los responsables de la edición de las revistas más prestigiosas dentro del ámbito científico. En el cartel anunciador, figura el título y fecha del evento y debajo un arco formado por portadas de revistas del sector, entre las que está REDVET, y de fondo un mapa mundi, culminado por los logotipos institucionales de las entidades o...

  9. Protección de la salud: prevención en el inicio del consumo de tabaco en adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    Roldán Roldán, Raquel; González Castillo, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid En la adolescencia no valoran el riesgo que supone fumar, ya que los peligros se producen a largo plazo y lo creen como algo impalpable, frente a ello tenemos, lo que podríamos denominar, las “ventajas de fumar”, asociando el consumo a ser aceptado en un grupo, inicio de conversación, identidad,…, puede ser una acción de socialización...

  10. Adherencia al tratamiento en dermatología

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Salcedo, Ana; Carmena Hernández, Anabel

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: la adherencia al tratamiento se define como el contexto en el cual el comportamiento de la persona coincide con las recomendaciones e incluye la capacidad para asistir a citas programadas, tomar los medicamentos como se indican, realizar los cambios en el estilo de vida necesarios y completar los estudios y pruebas solic...

  11. Future US energy demands based upon traditional consumption patterns lead to requirements which significantly exceed domestic supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Energy consumption in the United States has risen in response to both increasing population and to increasing levels of affluence. Depletion of domestic energy reserves requires consumption modulation, production of fossil fuels, more efficient conversion techniques, and large scale transitions to non-fossile fuel energy sources. Widening disparity between the wealthy and poor nations of the world contributes to trends that increase the likelihood of group action by the lesser developed countries to achieve political and economic goals. The formation of anticartel cartels is envisioned.

  12. Telecontinuidad de cuidados al alta hospitalaria desde el servicio de Salud Responde

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Carbonell, Marta; Jiménez Cobo, Marta; Millán Reyes, María Juana

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: la fragilidad de los pacientes pluripatológicos tras el alta hospitalaria se ha puesto de manifiesto en los estudios realizados, máxime cuando esta se produce previa a un fin de semana o periodo festivo, lo cual provoca una demora en la continuidad de cuidados hasta contactar con atención primaria. Objetivos: mejora...

  13. Prevención primaria del traumatismo obstétrico y la episiotomía

    OpenAIRE

    Martos López, Isabel María; Sánchez Guisado, María del Mar; Guedes Arbelo, Chaxiraxi

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: el traumatismo obstétrico consecuencia del parto predispone a una mujer a padecer disfunción del suelo pélvico (incontinencia urinaria o fecal, dispareunia, dolor perineal persistente y debilidad de la musculatura del suelo pélvico). Objetivo: resumir la evidencia científica sobre la efectividad del fortalecimiento d...

  14. Violência e sociedade em Festa no Covil, de Juan Pablo Villalobos

    OpenAIRE

    Benatti, Andre Rezende; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ

    2015-01-01

    O presente artigo tem como objetivo uma leitura da violência no romance Festa no Covil, do escritor mexicano Juan Pablo Villalobos. Abordaremos dentre outras questões como a violência se torna parte da rotina do pequeno narrador do romance, Tochtli, tornando-se não mais uma surpresa ou estranheza ou repulsa, mas algo corriqueiro que o acompanha diariamente. No romance, Tochtli é o herdeiro de um cartel de narcotráfico e é criado em um meio no qual a violência está tão presente que o menino nã...

  15. Aprender a enseñar generando valor añadido en la percepción de la identidad corporativa de una institución cultural

    OpenAIRE

    Cano García, Josefa

    2014-01-01

    El ámbito de actuación profesional del diseñador gráfico es muy amplio, en la aplicación de su trabajo se hace necesario soportes tan diferentes como la marca de una institución cultural en un libro, un cartel, folletos, bolsas, camisetas, la señalización de un edificio, un anuncio de prensa, en vallas publicitarias, en etiquetas… Desde la Asignatura de Proyectos de Diseño Gráfico se capacita al alumno a ser diseñador de identidades corporativas de manera interdisciplinar. Un c...

  16. El cine, una herramienta útil para la docencia

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Carabias, María del Rocío; Carmena Hernández, Ana Isabel; Vidal Salcedo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: la imagen posee una importante fuerza comunicativa directa. El cine presenta posibilidades tanto de información y divulgación como de reflexión social. Debemos considerarle una herramienta más dentro de las aulas. El carácter formativo de una película lo confiere su argumento y la intencionalidad del docente que lo utili...

  17. La traducci??n en el sector tur??stico

    OpenAIRE

    Poder, Marie Eveline le; Fuentes Luque, Adri??n; Nobs, Marie-Louise; Fallada Pouget, Carmina; Perles Aguado, Marta; Mart??nez Motos, Raquel; Vencesl?? Mariscal, Isabel; Kelly, Dorothy

    2005-01-01

    A menudo, cuando viajamos, quienes estamos de alg??n modo relacionados con los idiomas o con la comunicaci??n intercultural en alguna de sus formas, nos sorprendemos leyendo, analizando, alg??n folleto tur??stico, alguna carta de restaurante, alg??n cartel promocional, y en no pocas ocasiones acompa??amos el gesto esbozando una sonrisita no exenta de tono cr??tico, grabando la situaci??n para convertirla en chascarrillo o an??cdota en reuniones futuras. Parece as?? que el...

  18. Tax incentives in fiscal federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelders, Christian; Köthenbürger, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Models of fiscal federalism rarely account for the efficiency implications of intergovernmental fiscal ties for federal tax policy. This paper shows that fiscal institutions such that federal tax deductibility, vertical revenue-sharing, and fiscal equalization (being common features of existing...... federations) encourage local taxation, but may discourage federal taxation. Furthermore, the structure of public spending is skewed towards local spending. We also show that, when considering Leviathan governments, fiscal institutions reduce confiscatory taxation by the federal government. The result...... is contrary to the Cartelization Hypothesis ( Brennan and Buchanan 1980 ). Finally, we characterize the efficient design of intergovernmental fiscal ties....

  19. El Sindrome de Möbius y sus repercusiones bucofaciales

    OpenAIRE

    González Pérez, José Manuel; Rodríguez Priego, María Esther; Pérez Heredia, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: El síndrome de Möbius es muy raro, se han diagnosticado hasta 2008 unos 500 casos en el mundo, se caracteriza por parálisis facial (pares craneales VI y VII) desde el nacimiento. Puede aparecer parálisis de otros pares craneales como trigémino (8%), hipogloso (30%) o glosofaríngeo. Presenta sintomatología múltiple con an...

  20. Tabaco y lesiones premalignas. Prevención del cáncer oral

    OpenAIRE

    Costela Serrano, Carmen; Murcia Gallardo, Gloria Rosa; Perandrés Yuste, Sergio Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: el cáncer de cabeza y cuello representa el 5% de todas las neoplasias del organismo. El carcinoma oral de células escamosas es la neoplasia maligna más frecuente en la cavidad oral. Su mortalidad a los cinco años es del 50%, de ahí la importancia del diagnóstico precoz y de su prevención. El precancer es una situación pr...

  1. Cervantes a la luz de la arqueología

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Alonso, M. Carmen; Platón, María

    2016-01-01

    Cartel anunciador de la charla; Presentación del ciclo de charlas “Jam Science-Divulgación Científica” celebradas en el Moe Club (Alberto Alcocer, 32, Madrid) el penúltimo martes de cada mes de 20.00 a 22.00h, desde enero de 2015. En esta ocasión, además, queremos participar de los actos en homenaje a Miguel de Cervantes, de quien se cumple el cuarto centenario de su fallecimiento, con una charla centrada precisamente en el proyecto de búsqueda de sus restos en el Convento de las Trinitarias ...

  2. Frenando la extinción: utilidad del ADN en especies en peligro

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Alonso, M. Carmen; Platón, María

    2016-01-01

    Cartel anunciador de la charla; Presentación del ciclo de charlas “Jam Science-Divulgación Científica” celebradas en el Moe Club (Alberto Alcocer, 32, Madrid) el penúltimo martes de cada mes de 20.00 a 22.00h, desde enero de 2015.Ponente:Dr. Jose Luis Hórreo.Investigador posdoctoral, en el Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC). Grabación y edición de los vídeos: Agora Mundi.

  3. La representación artística de la biografía de Pablo Escobar en la serie Narcos (2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Dotterweich, Linda Corina Maria, 1991-

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to investigate and identify the reality content of the biography of Pablo Escobar (1949-1993), Colombia’s most famous drug cartel leader, in the Netflix series Narcos (2015) and to provide the reader with a general overview of his life, his appearance in the series and the historical background of Colombia between 1930 and 1990. In the first part, the reader is introduced to the general content of the thesis, presenting statistics of the cocaine consumptio...

  4. El papel del celador en el hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Alcocer, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: el celador es una pieza fundamental , cuando se realiza tanto un ingreso como un alta , ya que es el encargado de llevar el paciente hasta su destino e informarle de las normas del centro hospitalario. Objetivo: dar a conocer las funciones del celador. Metodología: realizamos una búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed y...

  5. Desi(g)nquitante. Aportaciones del diseño Gráfico y de moda a una iconografía contemporánea

    OpenAIRE

    SOUSA PINTO VIEIRA, MARIA ESTELA DE

    2016-01-01

    Exactamente por el interés en cuanto a la transmisión de mensajes a través la triada t-shirt (camiseta)-cartel-moda en cuanto a vehículos emitentes de información, surgió la necesidad de indagar en la evolución de la vestimenta a lo largo del tiempo, confeccionando así una cronología de la trascendencia comunicativa del vestuario. Ello nos ha llevado, indefectiblemente, a constatar la transformación que se opera en este campo hasta alcanzar el concepto de "moda" en cuanto a vehículo de comuni...

  6. Military Support to Law Enforcement Agencies Along the United States Southwestern Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    bases are: Culiacán, Sinaloa; Monterrey, Nuevo León; the cities of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, and Ojinaga, Chihuahua; Mexico City; Guadalajara, Jalisco...operates in 21 Mexican states and their operating areas exist in: Culiacán, Sinaloa; Monterrey, Nuevo León and the cities of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua...all US cocaine transits Mexico. Mexico is also the dominant source of methamphetamine production for the US market . The drug cartels have criminal

  7. Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations: A Threat to the United States National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    southern and northern borders of the U.S., to prevent DTOs from entering the U.S . . Background Mexican DTOs first entered the U.S. market in the mid...seek alternate routes into the U.S. The proximity of the U.S., one of the largest markets for illicit drugs, and the poor economic state of Mexico...Nuevo Laredo, the Zetas operate a parallel network in Reynosa and Miguel Aleman. 9 The Juare~ Cartel operates in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico

  8. La nutricion durante el embarazo

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Chanivet, Gwendolin; Aragón Flores, Jose Andrés; Cabeza Garcia, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: durante los primeros meses de embarazo, es cuando se forma los órganos vitales por lo que es muy importante , una buena dieta materna. Existe un estudio que pone de manifiesto la relación de la aparición de alergias en el recién nacido y el estado nutricional materno. Objetivo: evaluar el estado nutricional durante...

  9. Efectividad del programa Promoción de alimentación saludable en estudiantes de escuelas públicas del estado de Sonora

    OpenAIRE

    Trinidad Quizán Plata; Claudia Anaya Barragán; Julián Esparza Romero; María Esther Orozco García; Armida Espinoza López; Adriana Verónica Bolaños Villar

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto de un programa de intervención en escolares de seis a ocho años en Hermosillo, Sonora. Fue un estudio experimental aleatorio y controlado, tres escuelas intervenidas (n= 62) y tres escuelas no intervenidas (n= 64). El programa de intervención incluyó talleres educativos, carteles publicitarios, disponibilidad de alimentos saludables, premiación por consumo de alimentos saludables, copla infantil y folletos informativos. La disponibilidad de alimen...

  10. Es hora de un cambio. Entrevista motivacional

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Morales, María Irene; Manzano Felipe, María de los Ángeles; Pérez García, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introduccion: la entrevista motivacional fue ideada por William Miller y Steve Rollnich en 1991, con la intención de trabajar la motivación, centrándose en el paciente, ayudándolo a resolver contradicciones sobre conductas o hábitos insanos y a desarrollar habilidades propias. Se trata de una “estrategia” de asistencia directa centrad...

  11. Comunicación del personal sanitario ante la gestante victima de violencia de género

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Espinosa, Ana Belén; Fajardo Hervás, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: la violencia de género sigue siendo un problema importante a nivel mundial. Se define como "todo acto de violencia basado en la pertenencia al sexo femenino que tenga o pueda tener como resultado un daño o sufrimiento físico, sexual o psicológico para la mujer, así como las amenazas de tales actos, la coacción o la priva...

  12. Plan de comunicación del proyecto “Manos Seguras” de enfermería familiar y comunitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Cambil Martín, Jacobo

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: Manos Seguras es un proyecto de innovación docente que trabaja la competencia “promoción de la salud, prevención y atención comunitaria” de las asignaturas “Enfermería Familiar y Comunitaria” y “prácticas Externas B” o estancias clínicas en Atención Primaria de Salud del Grado en Enfermería. Manos Seguras incluye un plan...

  13. RESULTADO EXITOSO DE UN PROGRAMA DE TUTORÍA PERSONALIZADA DE INVESTIGACIÓN EN MEDICINA FAMILIAR

    OpenAIRE

    MA Sandoval Magaña; EA Gutiérrez Román; JE Guzmán Pantoja; MA Robles Romero

    2011-01-01

    Se analizaron los trabajos de tesis terminadas, durante el periodo del año 2006 al 2010. Se identificaron los trabajos presentados en modalidad de cartel, trabajos enviados a publicación y los publicados de un total de 86 tesis entregadas al Centro de Documentación en Salud de la Unidad de Medicina Familiar No. 51, en Guadalajara, Jalisco. México del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. 24 tesis correspondieron al año 2006, 15 al año 2007, 11 fueron realizadas en el año 2008, 15 en el 2009 y...

  14. Ondas gravitacionales y teoría de cuerdas

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Alonso, M. Carmen; Platón, María

    2016-01-01

    Cartel anunciador de la charla; Presentación del ciclo de charlas “Jam Science-Divulgación Científica” celebradas en el Moe Club (Alberto Alcocer, 32, Madrid) el penúltimo martes de cada mes de 20.00 a 22.00h, desde enero de 2015.Ponente: Dr.Fernando Marchesano. Instituto de Física Teórica (IFT-UAM-CSIC). Grabación y edición de los vídeos: Agora Mundi.

  15. Técnicas de relajación en comunicación enfermera

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Mª Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: las técnicas de relajación son procedimientos cuyo objetivo principal es enseñar a la persona a controlar su propio nivel de activación a través de ejercicios basados en la modificación directa de las condiciones fisiológicas sin ayuda de recursos externos. Las técnicas de relajación tienden a aumentar la actividad paras...

  16. La politica economica del fascismo. La crisi del ‘29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Sylos Labini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Text of a speech held at the University of Rome in 1965. The author discusses the economic policy of Fascism, claiming that several of its characteristic features, e.g. the policy of industrial and financial bailouts, the policy of industry cartels and firms’ groups, and protectionism, were part of an international trend. In these areas international similitudes probably outweigh differences. What was peculiar of Fascism was the approach towards trade unions and the peculiarly corporatist policy.    JEL codes: N14, N34, N44 Keywords: fascism, economic policy, corporatism  

  17. In the Line of Fire: The Construction of Masculinity among Tamaulipan Youth Linked to Drugs Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosío Córdova Plaza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to examine the conditions in which masculinity is constructed among the young men known as «falcons» engaged in surveillance and security for drug cartels. It analyses the ethnographic experience collected in two scenarios: Ciudad de Mante in the state of Tamaulipas and the Coatzacoalcos prison in Veracruz. We show methods of recruitment and operations, the roles these young men play and what their work means for their gender identities. We also reflect on ethnography in contexts of violence and suggest tools like cyberethnography and websites specializing in the issue with discussion forums, as a direct source of information for individuals outside the law.

  18. Extracting Geography from Trade Data

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuke; Marshall, Nicholas; Steinerberger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The gravity equation has been successful in establishing a connection between the amount of trade between two countries, their respective gross domestic products and "distance" (a complex notion including geographical, historical, linguistic and sociological components). We take the inverse route and show that it is possible to construct a meaningful 'distance' without any external information simply from knowing the bilateral trade volumes between countries. The main tool is a non-standard interpretation of trade flows data as a set of high-dimensional points and the use of mathematical tools to perform dimensionality reduction. This may have further applications for problems in long-term economic analysis, cartel detection and others.

  19. Experiencia en el seguimiento de la alimentación de población paquistaní diabética

    OpenAIRE

    Fructuoso González, Elisabeth; Calpe Cristino, Ainhoa; Ochando Aymerich, Montserrat; Rodero Nuño, Montserrat; Hidalgo Ortiz, Manuela; Chueco Ochando, Aida; Pérez-Hervada Maestre, María; Grau Bartomeu, Jordi; Plaza Espuña, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: Trabajo realizado en el marco de un Ensayo Clínico Aleatorizado multicéntrico desarrollado en 3 Centros de Salud: Besòs y Raval Sud de Barcelona, y Fondo de Santa Coloma de Gramenet, sobre ”Efectividad de una dieta adaptada a los hábitos culinarios de la población paquistaní en el grado de control metabólico de la diabet...

  20. ARE. Regional energy supplies - progress report 2000-2001; ARE. Regionale Energieversorgung 2000-2001. Taetigkeitsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    The ARE progress report discusses the following issues: Economic development and its effects on power supply; Deregulation of the electricity and gas market; Competition between regional utilities; Energy policy of the new German government; European regulations; Legislation on energy supply; Energy supply and cartel law; Regional supply in the East German states. [German] Der Taetigkeitsbericht der ARE befasst sich mit folgenden Themen: Gesamtwirtschaftliche Entwicklung und ihre Auswirkung auf die Energiewirtschaft, Oeffnung des Monopoles fuer Strom und Gas, Wettbewerb der regionalen Energieversorger, Energiepolitik der neuen Bundesregierung, Europaeische Richtlininen, energiewirtschaftsrecht, Versorgungswirtschaft und Kartellrecht und der Regionalversorgung in den neuen Bundeslaendern.

  1. Gazprom: brave new world or Alice in Wonderland?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-10-01

    This article discusses the proposal to set up a cartel of the gas producing countries to regulate the price of gas - a gas Opec - which reflects the industry's chagrin that trade is not controlled by gas companies and the liberation sweeping energy markets may not be beneficial to some of the producing countries. The question of participation in a gas Opec is raised, and the internal concerns of Gazprom which still holds a monopoly within Russia are discussed. The countries with major reserves and production of natural gas are listed. (UK)

  2. Tres poetas norteamericanos contemporáneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Uribe

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available He conocido extrañas enfermeras de Bondad. ¡Las he visto besar al enfermo, atender al anciano, darle dulces al demente! ¡Las he mirado, en la noche, oscuras y tristes, rodando sillas de ruedas cerca al mar! ¡He conocido los gordos pontífices de la, Bondad, la pequeña anciana de cabellos grises, el sacerdote de la vecindad, el famoso poeta, la madre, los he conocido a todos! los he mirado, en la noche, oscuros y tristes, pegando carteles de misericordia sobre rígidos postes en desesperación.

  3. Tax havens or tax hells? A discussion of the historical roots and present consequences of tax havens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Raposo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax havens are not recent phenomena. However, in contrast to historical precedents, tax havens in the age of mobile capital allow for non-consensual transfers and are not profitable for every citizen. We discuss the four main groups of tax havens (former Western possessions, sovereign nations, countries controlled by cartels, and emerging economies. This article also synthesizes the history of tax havens and describes their current heterogeneity, discussing the main methods available to regulate tax haven flows. Some of the most efficient methods involve unilateral measures (such as the Fiscal Transparency of Outland Societies but also encompass multilateral measures (such as Tax Harmonization and the Request for Information.

  4. Comparando Políticas de Desenvolvimento e Atuação do Estado. América Latina e Leste Asiático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Henrique Helal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deepens the quarrel on State-Society relations, and shows how it defines the possibilities of development, by making a comparative debate of State’s action in South Korea and Taiwan, on one side, and Brazil (mainly and Argentina, on the other side. The East Asiatic countries are paradigmatic cases of a fast local industrialization adjustments to changeable international markets. They are active States, that worked as substitutes of capital market less developed and at the same time led to changes in investment decisions. The Asiatic case shows that the embeddedness is necessary to the dissemination of information and implementation of development politics. However, without autonomy, the embeddedness tends to degenerate in a super cartel, focused, as all cartels, on the protection of their members against changes in status quo. In your turn, the Latin America inserts itself in combination of zairense predation with a embedded autonomy from East Asia. The equilibrium changes with time, according to the type of organization inside the State. In a general way, as a basic premise, it is necessary only a vague approximation from weberian ideal type, and from embedded autonomy model (development model to give advantage to the country.

  5. An Examination of Criminalization of Russia’s Anti-Bid Rigging Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Mosunova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates enforcement of criminal sanctions in anti-bid rigging policy in Russia. Although cartels were criminalized in 1997, parties of numerous anticompetitive agreements on tenders are punished by corporate or individual fines, or disqualified. Statistics on sentences for bid rigging are highly controversial although legislative conditions for efficient criminalization are presented not only by criminal norms but also by leniency programmes in administrative and criminal proceedings which were designed to contribute to anticartel enforcement.The aim of this research is to determine factors that have caused the very rare use of criminal sanctions for cartel enforcement with the focus on bid rigging. For the purpose of the research, the paper outlines the regulation of tendering in Russia and the system of sanctions for bid rigging, including leniency. Case analysis of the first custodial sentence for anticompetitive agreement on a public tender highlights specific features resulting in successful prosecution. Since this is one of the first attempts to assess criminalization of bid rigging in Russia, original empirical data including interviews with officials from federal competition authorities and regional representatives constitute the basis of the study.Findings of the research determine the influence of social norms on the enforcement as the main challenge for criminalization of bid rigging which is weighed down by the insufficient political influence of competition authorities. The paper’s findings may be of interest for assessing enforcement in other jurisdictions experiencing the same difficulties.

  6. Market definition, market domination and market transparency in the electricity wholesale market; Marktabgrenzung, Marktbeherrschung und Markttransparenz auf dem Stromgrosshandelsmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saecker, Franz Juergen [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer deutsches und europaeisches Wirtschafts-, Wettbewerbs- und Regulierungsrecht

    2011-04-15

    Whereas end customer markets are clearly marked by competition, in regard to wholesale markets the German Federal Cartel Office has of late held the view that E.ON and RWE have a market dominating position between them and that the four large power supply companies (RWE, E.ON, Vattenfall, EnWG) each command a market dominating position. However the market structures on which these findings were based at the time have changed markedly and in many respects, in particular through the decision of the European Commission to oblige E.ON to sell network and production capacities on the strength of Art. 9 of Council Regulation (EC) No. 1/2003. However, there is still more to be said in favour of a review of the market data which, at the time, led the cartel authorities to their assumption of a case of market domination: the development of electricity trade at the EEX exchange, with growing involvement of both domestic and foreign participants; rapid growth in the production of electricity from wind and solar energy by new competitors; and the changing market environment, as is reflected amongst other events by the Thuega merger, as a result of which E.ON sold a large part of its participations in public utilities, or by the formation of efficient electricity purchasing groups.

  7. 不完全信息下开发商Markov博弈均衡的最优策略%Optimal strategies of developer Markov games equilibrium with incomplete information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘天虎; 黄武军; 许维胜; 吴启迪

    2011-01-01

    The competition of real estate developer for the resources has the character of zero-sum games,and there has significant value for the research of developer economic game model with asymmetric information.This study considers the existence of developer Cartel alliance in the real estate market, focuses on the Markov game model and research relevant game equilibrium between Cartel alliance and competitor with incomplete information,develops the optimal strategies and algorithm for game participant.Eventually,a practical example is provided to illustrate the validity and feasibility of this model.%房地产开发商对于资源的争夺存在零和博弈的特点,在信息不对称条件下对开发商经济博弈模型的研究具有重要价值.该研究考虑到市场上存在开发商Cartel联盟的情形,以Markov博弈模型为核心,针对不完全信息下的Cartel联盟与竞争者的Markov博弈均衡进行研究,得到了博弈双方的最优策略及演算方法.最后,利用实例对该模型的有效性和可行性进行了说明.

  8. Institutional arrangements for the reduction of proliferation risks formulation, evaluation, and implementation of institutional concepts. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this supporting analysis is to provide a foundation for developing a model, an international or multinational institution capable of accomodating the back end of the fuel cycle, while meeting US nonproliferation goals. The analysis is based on a review of selected, defunct and extant institutions which, although not necessarily concerned with nonproliferation, have faced a trade-off between acceptability and effectiveness in meeting their objectives. Discussion of the various institutions is divided into three categories: international organizations, multinational consortia, and cartels or producer associations. Examples of international organizations include the International Seabed Authority, Intelsat, the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The International Seabed Authority is discussed. Multinational consortia are organizations that have been developed primarily to meet common commercial objectives. Membership includes at least three member nations. Examples include the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS), URENCO, Unilever, Royal Dutch Shell, Eurochemic, Eurodif, Euratom, European Coal and Steel Community, and Serena. Cartels or producer associations are multinational agreements that restrict market forces; viz, production, market share, customers or prices. Examples include the Intergovernmental Council of Copper Exporting Countries (CIPEC), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), and the Fifth International Tin Agreement (ITA), as well as agreements governing diamonds and uranium, bauxite and coffee. OPEC, CIPEC and ITA are discussed.

  9. Abuse of dominant position in Albania based in jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endri Papajorgji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Competition law and cartel is the basis of a modern economy. While in the US, competition law exists and is terminologically known and is part of legislation since 1890 (Sherman Law, in Europe, it has become part of the founding treaties of the EU since 1957 by the Treaty of Rome. However, at that time, “culture of competition” would be born in the member states of the EU, which traditionally favour cartel agreements, state aid and the promotion of national products. Some EU member states have included competition law in their national legislation in the early 90-s. Rules were set for the first time on competition in the coal and steel market under Articles 65 and 66 of the Treaty of Rome, constituted a new terminology for member states. Albania has worked during these 24 years of democracy, to apply the basic principles of market economy and along with it the Lisbon Treaty, Regulations and EU Directives in the frame of competition. Main purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the abuse of dominant position in the frame of the most important court decision of this legal institution in Albania.

  10. MÉXICO: ENTRE LA VIOLENCIA Y LA CONSOLIDACIÓN DEL SISTEMA DE PARTIDOS Mexico: Between Violence and the Consolidation of the Party System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESPERANZA PALMA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El año 2009 fue de particular relevancia para México. Los eventos más destacables fueron la agudización de la llamada narcoviolencia, generada por la lucha entre carteles de drogas en torno al control de territorios y entre éstos y el gobierno, la crisis económica y la realización de elecciones locales y de elecciones intermedias para renovar a los 500 diputados federales que conforman la Cámara. A la vez que se ha escalado la violencia en algunos estados del país, el sistema de partidos se ha consolidado; hay tres partidos que captan el 90% del voto y de los escaños en el Congreso y los procesos electorales durante este año se desarrollaron en un contexto de normalidad e institucionalidad muy diferente a la turbulencia de la elección presidencial de 2006. Sin duda, uno de los resultados más importantes de esta elección fue la recuperación del Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI frente al retroceso del partido gobernante, el Partido Acción Nacional (PAN y del Partido de la Revolución Democrática (PRD.The year 2009 was particularly relevant for México. The most outstanding events were increasing of the so-called narco-violence, caused by inter-drug cartels war for controlling territory, and between the government and the cartels, economic crisis, and local and mid-term elections that elected 500 deputies of the legislature. While violence has escalated in some states, the party system has become a consolidated one; three parties size 90% of the national vote and of the seats in Congress and electoral processes took place in a normal and institutional manner, a very different situation from the 2006 turbulent presidential election. One of the most important outcomes of these elections was the electoral recovery of the Partido Revolucionario Institucional and the electoral erosion of the ruling party, Partido Acción Nacional, and The Partido de la Revolución Democrática.

  11. The gains and losses of collusion: An empirical research on the market behaviors of China’s power enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruize Gao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Collusion is a common behavior of oligarch enterprises aiming to get an advantage in market competition. The purpose of the thesis is to use the empirical research methods to explore positive or negative effects that the electricity generation manufacturers’ collusion has caused at the macro level of Market Economy and the micro level of enterprises’ behaviors. Design/methodology/approach: The designed research model in the thesis is an extension of Porter’s model (Porter, 1984. It applies a more advanced measurement method, FIML. In the example of price bidding project that started by electricity generation enterprises of China’s power industry, the thesis analyzes the relevant price data of subordinate power plants of China’s five power generation groups in pilots of price bidding Policy. Findings: It is found in the thesis that power generation enterprises are facing collusion issues in the market. To be exact, it is such a situation in which non-cooperative competition and collusion alternate. Under the competition, market is relatively steady, thus forming a lower network price. It is helpful to the development of the whole industry. However, once Cartel is formed, the price will rise and clash with power enterprises and transmission-distribution companies concerning the interests conflicts. At the same time, a higher power price will form in the market, making consumers suffer losses. All of these are bad for industry development. Not only the collusion of power enterprises affects power price but also the market power that caused by long-time Cartel will reduce the market entrant in electricity generation. Market resources are centralized in the hands of Cartel, causing a low effective competition in the market, which has passive effects on users. Implications: The empirical research also indicates that collusion undoubtedly benefits the power enterprises that involved. As a cooperation pattern, collusion can lead to

  12. The H0 function, a new index for detecting structural/topological complexity information in undirected graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscema, Massimo; Asadi-Zeydabadi, Masoud; Lodwick, Weldon; Breda, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Significant applications such as the analysis of Alzheimer's disease differentiated from dementia, or in data mining of social media, or in extracting information of drug cartel structural composition, are often modeled as graphs. The structural or topological complexity or lack of it in a graph is quite often useful in understanding and more importantly, resolving the problem. We are proposing a new index we call the H0function to measure the structural/topological complexity of a graph. To do this, we introduce the concept of graph pruning and its associated algorithm that is used in the development of our measure. We illustrate the behavior of our measure, the H0 function, through different examples found in the appendix. These examples indicate that the H0 function contains information that is useful and important characteristics of a graph. Here, we restrict ourselves to undirected.

  13. European energy law. Basic texts. 3. ed.; Basistexte zum Europaeischen Energierecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, Juergen F.; Bremme, Christopher; Heitling, Tim (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The third, revised edition retains the well-established text structure. It contains excerpts from the EU treaties, i.e. the Treaty on the European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. It also presents the fundamentals of the Council Regulation for the Management of the Internal Market, the electricity and gas regulations, the regulation on cross-border exchanges of electricity and access to gas transmission networks, and the regulation establishing the ACER agency, the key element of European energy regulation. Further, there are the European regulations on security of electricity and gas supply and on energy efficiency. Important interpretative notes by the European Commission are contained in the book as well; they are presented here only in English as in the original. Finally, the book contains the legislation on European cartel law and European public procurement law. (orig./RHM)

  14. Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-08-03

    Quinine, a bitter-tasting, short-acting alkaloid drug extracted from cinchona bark, was the first drug used widely for malaria chemoprophylaxis from the 19th century. Compliance was difficult to enforce even in organized groups such as the military, and its prophylaxis potential was often questioned. Severe adverse events such as blackwater fever occurred rarely, but its relationship to quinine remains uncertain. Quinine prophylaxis was often counterproductive from a public health viewpoint as it left large numbers of persons with suppressed infections producing gametocytes infective for mosquitoes. Quinine was supplied by the first global pharmaceutical cartel which discouraged competition resulting in a near monopoly of cinchona plantations on the island of Java which were closed to Allied use when the Japanese Imperial Army captured Indonesia in 1942. The problems with quinine as a chemoprophylactic drug illustrate the difficulties with medications used for prevention and the acute need for improved compounds.

  15. New Models of International Agreement for Refugee Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan F. Martin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In June 2016, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR announced that more than 65 million persons have fled conflict and persecution. While certainly large in its own right, the number actually underestimates displacement in today’s world. Many millions more are displaced each year and cumulatively from a much broader range of life-threatening humanitarian crises than are captured by UNHCR’s figures. An average of 26.4 million were displaced annually by acute natural hazards since 2008 and an unknown but sizable number displaced by gang and cartel violence, electoral and communal violence, nuclear and industrial accidents, and a range of other human-made disasters. This article argues for new frameworks to more effectively address the situation of the totality of displaced persons, citing two recent efforts — the Nansen Initiative and Migrants in Countries in Crisis Initiative — as examples of practical ways to move forward in this regard.

  16. Contract manual for the gas industry. Practically oriented drafting and legally compliant application; Vertragshandbuch Gaswirtschaft. Praxisgerechte Gestaltung und rechtssichere Anwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgert, Caspar (ed.) [WEMAG AG, Schwerin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The handbook presents all contracts on the delivery and grid side, including their specific clauses and variants along the value chain. This includes base load and auxiliary supply, contracts for private, commercial and industrial special customers as well as re-distributors, metering contracts, grid contracts, storage contracts, and biogas and heat supply contracting. The legal problems are outlined clearly and easy to understand, and the following questions are answered: What are the boundary conditions set by the new energy industry law and general civil law? Inhowfar are the contents of contracts influenced by legal specifications? What options are available for contract drafting, and what are their consequences? What contents are of particular importance? What are the requirements that result from price regulation by civil and cartel law? What is the role of licence fees in product design? What are the chances and risks of innovative products? What options for reaction do providers have in case of (impending) customer insolvency? (orig./RHM)

  17. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  18. Service concessions in the water management; Dienstleistungkonzessionen in der Wasserwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byok, Jan; Dierkes, Mathias

    2011-04-15

    By decision of 8th May 2008 and with regard to article 234 sect. 1 EGV old version (article 267 sect. 1 AEUV), the Higher Regional Court Jena presented three questions to the European Court of Justice (Brussels, Belgium). These questions refer to the differentiation of service concessions from public contracts in the water management. The subject of the process was the intended award of a concession for water supply and sewage disposal by means of the water and sewage authority Gotha (Federal Republic of Germany). The thereupon resulted decision of the European Court of Justice throws a spotlight on the market and legal development in an economically important, dogmatic area of German water management and anchored the service concession finally as a separate legal entity next to the public order after the cartel procurement law.

  19. Award of electricity and gas supply contracts under scrutiny - on the 2010 Guide; Vergabe von Strom- und Gaskonzessionen auf dem Pruefstand. Zum Leitfaden 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gessner, Janko [Kanzlei Dombert Rechtsanwaelte, Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The award of electricity and gas supply contracts is currently a very topical issue for many energy supply companies and municipalities. It revolves around questions of local rights of way, i.e. the right to operate a local electricity or gas distribution network. Most of the 20,000 or so electricity or gas supply contracts now in force throughout Germany are due to expire within the next few years. This makes the award of new electricity and supply contracts a highly charged issue, with controversies over many legal detail questions still unresolved. The existing regulations of Article 46 of the German Energy Economy Law on the award of supply contracts are regarded as incomplete even by practitioners of the branch. A guide published by the German Federal Cartel Office and the Federal Network Agency in late 2010 is to offer orientation to municipalities and enterprises in this matter.

  20. Regulation of acccess to natural gas on the basis of European competition law; Die Regulierung des Zugangs zu Erdgas mittels europaeischen Wettbewerbsrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzel, Reto H.

    2010-07-01

    It is a fact that competition in the natural gas sector has not been established so far. The author believes that this failure of the market structure in the European gas industries is a result of the world-wide increasing demand for natural gas, which is a finite commodity. The publication comprises four parts. The first part presents the legal fundamentals of the investigation. The second part explains how the fact that newcomers cannot compete for access to natural gas prevents competition in the European gas markets. The third part shows how equal access to natural gas of all market partners can be re-established on the basis of European cartel law, which is a precondition of competition in the European gas markets. The fourth part is an appendix with tables and graphs. The investigation was carried out on behalf of the German gas industry. (orig./RHM)

  1. Awarding legal and Union legal specifications for the routing and operation of district heating pipelines in the public street space; Vergabe- und unionsrechtliche Vorgaben fuer die Verlegung und den Betrieb von Fernwaermeleitungen im oeffentlichen Strassenraum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidt, Olaf

    2012-08-15

    The contribution under consideration deals with the question which requirements arise from the national competition and procurement law under EU law for the construction, the continued existence and operation of district heating pipes in public streets. In particular, the question will be whether the planned signing of a concession agreement or the imminent expiry of a fixed-term concession agreement are to be made known throughout the Union. Various constellations in the district heating sector will comment on whether the EU law procurement directives require the compliance with the antitrust laws. Then the requirements of the European primary law are presented for such cases in which the public procurement directives and the cartel procurement law are not relevant.

  2. What has changed in the 8th amendment of the GWB for the energy industry, water resource management and district heating industry?; Was aendert sich durch die 8. GWB-Novelle fuer die Energie-, Wasser- und Fernwaermewirtschaft?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haellmigk, Christian F.; Pelka, Sascha C. [Sozietaet CMS Hasche Sigle, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Compared with the Restriction of Competition (GWB) in its actual version, the eighth amendment of the GWB provides modifications especially in the misuse control, in the fusion control, in the cartel regulation adversity law and sanctions with respect to the factual application areas of the GWB. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the modifications of the general antitrust regulations with special impacts on the energy industry, water resources management and district heating industry. Furthermore, the authors report on a prolongation of the special misuse control in the energy industry with respect to paragraph 29 GWB as well as on the transfer of the special antitrust misuse regulations for the water resource management. Innovations in the range of legal consequences of a violation of the GWB are presented.

  3. Competition and the Reference Pricing Scheme for pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislandi, Simone

    2011-12-01

    By introducing n (>1) firms with infinite cross-price elasticity (i.e. generic drugs), we explore the effects of competition on the optimal pricing strategies under a Reference Pricing Scheme (RPS). A two-stage model repeated infinite number of times is presented. When stage 1 is competitive, the equilibrium in pure strategies exists and is efficient only if the reference price (R) does not depend on the price of the branded product. When generics collude, the way R is designed is crucial for both the stability of the cartel among generics and the collusive prices in equilibrium. An optimally designed RPS must set R as a function only of the infinitely elastic side of the market and should provide the right incentives for competition.

  4. Confinement of the antitrust control of abuse in the energy sector. At the same time comment to OLG Duesseldorf from 19th October, 2011. Reference VI-3 Kart 1/11 (V) - GAG Ahrensburg; Grenzen der kartellrechtlichen Missbrauchskontrolle im Energiebereich. Zugleich Anmerkung zu OLG Duesseldorf v. 19.10.2011. Az. VI-3 Kart 1/11 (V) - GAG Ahrensburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyer, Hartmut [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Up to the amendment of the Energy Economy Law (EnWG) 2005 the legislator permitted parallel applicability of the Energy Economy law as well as the Restriction of Competition (GWB) to energy situations. Based on the GWB, especially in procedures by competition authorities key decisions on the reliable behaviour of operators of power distribution systems and natural gas distribution systems were disposed. This approach was restricted by the amendment of the EnWG 2005 with the introduction of paragraph 111 EnWG. In compliance with this, this restriction was implemented in paragraph 130 sect. 3 GWB. From now on, paragraph 111 Sect. 1 and 2 EnWG exclude the antitrust control of abuse according to the paragraphs 19, 20 and 29 GWB. With this, the competence of the cartel authorities are excluded in favour of the regulatory legal prescriptions of the EnWG.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND PARTY FUNDING: MODELS AND CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje MATAKOVIC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The first modern political parties were formed at the end of the 18th century and have, from those times up to now, undergone 4 developing phases; each of the phases is bound to ideal-type political party model: cadre parties, mass parties, catch-all parties and cartel parties. Each of these party models differentiates in various characteristics: party foundation, number of members, and way of leading the election campaigns, but also in ways of financing. This paper describes the above mentioned 4 phases of political parties’ development and 4 phases of parties' finances development; it will be analysed in detail positive and negative sides of each of the models of party financing.

  6. The first key decision of the Higher Regional Court Duesseldorf on investment budgets. Unlawfulness of the amount for the avoidance of double incentives; Erste Leitentscheidung des OLG Duesseldorf zu Investitionsbudgets. Rechtswidrigkeit des Betrags zur Vermeidung von Doppelanerkennungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruge, Reinhard

    2011-04-15

    With the decision of the Higher Regional Court Duesseldorf (Federal Republic of Germany) from 12th August, 2010, the first judicial decision was issued to permit investment budgets according to paragraph 23 ARegV. The third Cartel Division of the Higher Regional Court mainly had to deal with the practice of the Federal Network Agency to avoid double incentives. The Higher Regional Court Duesseldorf suspended this cost reduction to be unlawful and obliged the Federal Network Agency for a new contentment taking into account the legal opinion of the Higher Regional Court. Since the contribution to avoid double incentives represents a core aspect of the practice of the Federal Network Agency for the approval of investment budgets, the decision of the Higher Regional Court is a key decision of incentive regulation.

  7. Measuring energy security. Can the United States achieve oil independence?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, National Transportation Research Center, 2360 Cherahala Boulevard, Knoxville, TN 37932 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Stochastic simulation of the direct economic costs of oil dependence in an uncertain future is proposed as a useful metric of oil dependence. The market failure from which these costs arise is imperfect competition in the world oil market, chiefly as a consequence of the use of market power by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel. Oil dependence costs can be substantial. It is estimated that oil dependence costs to the US economy in 2008 will exceed $500 billion. Other costs, such as military expenditures or foreign policy constraints are deemed to be largely derivative of the actual or potential economic costs of oil dependence. The use of quantifiable economic costs as a security metric leads to a measurable definition of oil independence, or oil security, which can be used to test the ability of specific policies to achieve oil independence in an uncertain future. (author)

  8. The Economic Effect of Competition in the Air Transportation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    The air transportation industry has been described as a highly-competitive, regulated oligopoly or as a price-regulated cartel with blocked entry, resulting in excessive service and low load factors. The current structure of the industry has been strongly influenced by the hypotheses that increased levels of competition are desirable per se, and that more competing carriers can be economically supported in larger markets, in longer haul markets, with lower unit costs, and with higher fare levels. An elementary application of competition/game theory casts doubt on the validity of these hypotheses, but rather emphasizes the critical importance of the short-term non-variable costs in determining economic levels of competition.

  9. Trade Liberalization and the Degree of Competition in International Duopoly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashournia, Damoun; Hansen, Per Svejstrup; Hansen, Jonas Worm

    2013-01-01

    products. Our main finding is that trade liberalization may have an anti-competitive effect. We find that there is no unique relation between a reduction in trade costs and the degree of competition. When products are differentiated, a lowering of trade costs is pro-competitive if trade costs are initially......This paper analyzes how a reduction in trade costs influences the possibility for firms to engage in international cartels, and hence how trade liberalization affects the degree of competition. We consider a particular intra-industry trade model amended to allow for firms producing differentiated...... high, but anti-competitive if trade costs initially are low. Hence, trade policy is not necessarily a substitute for competition policy...

  10. Um currículo de masculinidades nos estádios de futebol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Andrada Bandeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El articulo busca analizar las diferentes masculinidades de los estados de fútbol y ver de que forma ellas se jerarquizan, buscando estar en evidencia con las acciones de los hinchas, sus cantos, sus ropas y carteles están relacionados con las construcciones de las masculinidades de esos sujetos. Los estadios ejercen una pedagogía: se aprende cuando deben gritar y cuando callar, lo que gritar, lo que callar, lo que y como sentir... Se argumenta que el concepto de currículo construido en los estadios de fútbol puede ser pensado como prácticas que los sujetos son reiteradamente invitados a realizar. Éstas prácticas, son sistematizadas en este estudio en cuatro puntos principales: raza, brío y lucha; violencia y socialización; un amor de macho; masculinidades subalternas.

  11. Repositorio de la Filmoteca de Catalunya: luces y sombras de una película con final feliz

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La Filmoteca de Catalunya tiene como misión la recuperación, la conservación, la investigación y la difusión del rico patrimonio cinematográfico. Películas en diversos soportes, pero también fotografías, carteles, fondos personales, etc. En el área de Documentación se gestiona un fondo de medio millón de documentos para acceder y comprender mejor la larga historia del cine catalán y universal. En abril de 2013 se inauguró el repositorio digital de la institución, y a lo largo de los práct...

  12. Praxeology and the firm: a contribution to the Austrian redefinition of the economic organization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to syntetize theory of entrepreneurship of the Austrian School of economics with the contractual theory of the firm. Transaction cost theory of Ronald Coase and his followers holds that the firm is the organization with dominant component of ordering, while market is defined by competition and rivalry. But, market also includes interdependency and cooperation, such as in the case of cartel. Therefore non-competitive forms of economic coordination are not specificity for the firm, and can be observed in the open market as well. Agency theory rejects the notion of the firm as a hierarchy, and it is based on completeness of knowledge and contract. Theory of entrepreneurship and monetary calculation of Austrian School enables us to integrate contractual theory into the theoretical setting characterized by uncertainty, information asymmetry and positive transaction costs.

  13. From War on Drugs to War against Terrorism: modeling the evolution of Colombia's counter-insurgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Catherine M; Sokolowski, John A

    2009-03-01

    Strategic and tactical planning for military intervention needs revision as the causes, methods, and means of conflict have evolved. Counter-insurgent engagement is one such intervention that governments, militaries, and non-governmental organizations seek to better understand. Modeling insurgencies is an acceptable means to gain insight into the various characteristics of asymmetric warfare to proffer prescriptive resolutions for mitigating their effects. Colombia's insurgency poses the challenge of assessing population behavior in a non-traditional revolutionary climate. Factors prevalent in traditional insurgency are not applicable in Colombia, specifically between the years 1993 and 2001 with the democratization of the drug cartels. The catastrophic events of September 11th reverberated in Colombia resulting in a new policy and strategy to the waging the counter-insurgency there. This research introduces a structured methodology to modeling the Colombian counter-insurgency incorporating qualitative assessment, mathematical representation, and a System Dynamics approach to represent the effects of the policy change.

  14. To the punishability of manipulations of the trade at the electricity market EEX in Leipzig; Zur Strafbarkeit von Manipulationen des Handels an der Stromboerse EEX in Leipzig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Matthias [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Strafrecht und Strafprozessrecht

    2009-01-15

    The reproaches of the manipulation of the price formation at the electricity market EEX (Leipzig, Federal Republic of Germany) require supervision-legal, cartel legal and European legal attention. On 12 June 2008, the European Commission (Brussels, Belgium) expressed doubts, E.ON AG (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) possibly used its dominating market position. So far, the criminal content of the manipulation reproaches was not considered yet. Circumstances can justify the first suspicion due to criminal experience on criminal offences. This is valid not only for the facts constituting an offence of the stock exchange fraud towards the electricity market EEX for the disadvantage of the customer, but also for the current trade at the EEX in accordance with paragraph 20 of the law of securities transactions.

  15. De la inseguridad a la incertidumbre: el desplazamiento forzado interno en el noroeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Emilio Ibarra Montero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta las características del desplazamiento forzado interno en el noroeste de México, caso especíco de Sinaloa; parte de la idea de que el individuo ve trastocada su identidad en tres momentos: antes, durante y después, y su finalidad es entender el proceso de desplazamiento hacia las ciudades, de miles de familias provenientes de zonas rurales, que, como consecuencia del conflicto entre Estado y carteles de la droga, son ultrajadas y transgredidos sus derechos y, por lo tanto, marginadas por instituciones estatales e internacionales, pues pasan de la inseguridad a la incertidumbre que las ciudades de destino les imponen.

  16. Elliott Erwitt : "Personal Best"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillemette Minisclou

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Le photographe américain Elliott Erwitt expose à la MEP une sélection de ses travaux intitulée « Personal Best » ou « le meilleur de ses photographies personnelles ».Si les cartels ne précisent ni le format ni le type de tirages, l’exposition réunit un ensemble éclectique de photographies exclusivement noir et blanc (à l’exception de la dernière image représentant la cérémonie d’investiture du président Barack Obama en janvier 2009. Cette rétrospective oscille entre différents genres photogr...

  17. Celebrado el I Encuentro Latinoamericano de Revistas Zootécnicas donde se fundó la Red Latina de Revistas de Zootecnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veterinaria.org

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe celebró en la Universidad de Córdoba, del 12 al 14 de Diciembre de 2007, el “I Encuentro Latinoamericano de Revistas Zootécnicas”, en el cual se convocó a los responsables de la edición de las revistas más prestigiosas dentro del ámbito científico. En el cartel anunciador, figura el título y fecha del evento y debajo un arco formado por portadas de revistas del sector, entre las que está REDVET, y de fondo un mapa mundi, culminado por los logotipos institucionales de las entidades organizadoras, colaboradoras y patrocinadoras: Archivos de Zootecnia, Red Conbiand, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Universidad de Córdoba, Junta de Andalucía y Ayuntamie y Diputación de Córdoba.

  18. Robots al servicio del ser humano

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Alonso, M. Carmen; Platón, María

    2015-01-01

    Cartel anunciador de la charla; Presentación del ciclo de charlas “Jam Science-Divulgación Científica” celebradas en el Moe Club (Alberto Alcocer, 32, Madrid) el penúltimo martes de cada mes de 20.00 a 22.00h, desde enero de 2015. Ponente: Dra. Elena García, Centro de Automática y Robótica (CSIC-UPM). Promotora y co-fundadora de Marsi-Bionics. Esta actividad formó parte de la "Semana de la Ciencia" en su edición en Madrid. Grabación y edición de los vídeos: Agora Mundi.

  19. 40th annual meeting on energy law. Review and lookout; 40. Energierechtliche Jahrestagung: Rueckblick und Ausschau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehricke, Ulrich (ed.)

    2012-11-01

    Within the 40th energy legal annual meeting at 3rd November, 2011 in Cologne (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Development of the electrical grid as a central element of the future energy supply (Matthias Kurth); (2) Practice of cartel law in times of the energy policy turnaround (Andreas Mundt); (3) The annual meetings of the Institute for Energy Law (Juergen F. Bauer); (4) On the relation between energy law and energy industry (Marc Oliver Bettzuege); (5) Constitutional issues of the nuclear power phaseout (Rupert Scholz); (6) 5 Years of price regulation of the power distribution systems: Inventory and expectations (Boris Scholtka); (7) Impacts of the energy policy turnaround on the Energy State and Industry State North Rhine-Westphalia (Harry K. Voigtsberger); (8) On the way to an environmentally friendly energy supply in Germany - what was actually achieved? Which tasks will surrender yet? (Ursula Heinen-Esser).

  20. Research on the coal enterprise society responsibility cost based on the regional oligopolistic market structure%基于区域寡占垄断市场结构的煤炭企业社会责任成本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高双喜

    2013-01-01

    本文提出如果煤炭产业处于完全竞争市场结构下,则煤炭企业无力承担社会责任成本;而在区域寡头垄断市场结构下,煤炭企业有能力承担社会责任成本.本文运用弯折的需求曲线、价格领导模式和卡特尔模式对此加以论证和说明.弯折的需求曲线证明,只要煤炭企业承担社会责任成本后,使其边际成本曲线的变动没有超出一定范围时,则煤炭企业的最优价格和最优产量决策始终不变;价格领导模式说明,如果领袖企业首先承担一定的社会责任成本,并且内化在其成本中,这样其产品的价格就会升高,因此,其产品定价策略就定位在较高价格,然后其他企业跟进定价;卡特尔模式说明,如果存在区域煤炭卡特尔,煤炭企业承担社会责任成本的可行性就比较大,因为煤炭卡特尔内各个煤炭企业在承担社会责任成本后,他们可以通过共同价格、总的产量和各自的产量的变化来消化社会责任成本,而不影响其利润.%This paper puts forward that if coal industry was a fully competitive market structure, the coal enterprise cannot afford the cost of social responsibility; and if it was a regional duopoly market structure,the coal enterprise has the ability to bear social responsibility cost. In this paper, the bending of the demand curve,price leadership style and cartel mode to argue and instructions were used demonstration and explain that. The bend demand curve proves that so long as the coal enterprise bear the social responsibility cost,its marginal cost curve's change not beyond a certain range, the best price and the optimal production decision of the coal enterprise always unchanged;Price leadership model shows that if the leader enterprise first assume certain social responsibility cost, and internalization of its cost, so its prices will rise, therefore, its product pricing strategy is high price, and then other enterprise keep up with the

  1. Early Adhesion of Structural Inequality in the Formation of Collaborative Knowledge, Wikipedia

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Jeong, Hawoong

    2016-01-01

    We perform an in-depth analysis on the inequality in 863 Wikimedia projects. We take the complete editing history of 267,304,095 Wikimedia items until 2016, which not only covers every language edition of Wikipedia, but also embraces the complete versions of Wiktionary, Wikisource, Wikivoyage, etc. Our findings of common growth pattern described by the interrelation between four characteristic growth yardsticks suggest a universal law of the communal data formation. In this encyclopedic data set, we observe the interplay between the number of edits and the degree of inequality. In particular, the rapid increasing of the Gini coefficient suggests that this entrenched inequality stems from the nature of such open-editing communal data sets, namely abiogenesis of supereditors' cartel. We show that these groups are created at the early stage of these open-editing media and still alive. Furthermore, our model taking both short-term and long-term memories into account successfully elucidates the underlying mechanis...

  2. Abusive behaviour of grid operators within concession procedures and grid acquisitions with respect to paragraph paragraph 30, 32 EnWG; Missbraeuchliches Verhalten von Netzbetreibern bei Konzessionierungsverfahren und Netzuebernahmen nach paragraph paragraph 30, 32 EnWG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Peter [ZNER (Germany); Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin (Germany). Energierecht; Becker Buettner Held, Berlin (Germany); Templin, Wolf [Kanzlei Boos Hummel und Wegerich, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    The competition for the power distribution systems has inflamed all over in the Federal Republic of Germany due to the fact that concession contracts have a running time of only twenty years and end not later than 31st December, 1994. Those concession contracts will end currently. Thus the old affiliated companies have to fear for their market position. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the abusive behaviour of grid operators at licensing procedures and grid acquisitions with respect to paragraph paragraph 30, 32 Energy Economy Law. The authors report on the unilateral monopole consideration of the authorities and court as well as on the abusive behaviour of the old concessionaires from the standpoint of energy law and cartel law.

  3. Vías de emergencia en enfermería

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Martínez, María Encarnación; Gámiz Porcuna, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: la vía intraósea ha adquirido en las últimas décadas creciente interés y utilización debido a las nuevas recomendaciones de la Asociación Americana del Corazón (AHA) y El Consejo Europeo de Resucitación (ERC). Es una intervención de Enfermería que se encuentra recogida en la Clasificación de Intervenciones de Enfermería ...

  4. El diseño gráfico y el cine: Saul Bass, el pionero del encuentro

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Versión final del artículo publicado en Revista Contratexto 2005;13:140-148 El artículo muestra cómo la llegada de la tecnología de la televisión y el desarrollo exponencial de la industria publicitaria en los años treinta creó el espacio adecuado para la experimentación con el filme y la animación. Empezaron a irrumpir los elementos simbólicos e iconográficos desplazando a los carteles realistas estáticos en los fondos de las composiciones. Muchos exploraron el uso de la tipografía inf...

  5. El cerebro humano y sus productos. El origen del arte desde una perspectiva neurocientífica

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Alonso, M. Carmen; Platón, María

    2015-01-01

    Cartel anunciador de la charla; Presentación del ciclo de charlas “Jam Science-Divulgación Científica” celebrada en esta ocasión en Santander en el Bar Canela (Plaza de Cañadio 5) dentro de la Semana de la Ciencia de 20:00 a 21:30h.Con la colaboración de la Unidad de Cultura Científica y de la Innovación. Ponente: Dr. Manuel Martin-Loeches.Profesor de psicobiología de la UCM. Director de la Sección de Neurociencia Cognitiva del Centro de Evolución y Comportamiento Humano (UCMISCIII).Grabación...

  6. Licence fees for the wheeling of gas by third parties in accordance with Art. 2 Para. 6 of the Ordinance on Licence Fees; Konzessionsabgaben fuer die Durchleitung von Gas durch Drittlieferanten gemaess paragraph 2 Abs. 6 KAV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tittel, Frank; Otto, Stefan

    2009-12-15

    In recent times grid operators have been increasingly confronted with demands by third-party suppliers who supply their customers with gas through wheeling to charge them for third-party access at the low rates reserved for special contract customers and provide reimbursement for past overpayments. The Federal Cartel Office is of the opinion that third-party suppliers who are not primary suppliers may only be charged the low licence fees reserved for special contract customers as defined in Articles 2 Para. 3 No. 2 and 1 Para. 4 of the Ordinance on Licence Fees. This decision stands in contrast to earlier jurisdiction which ruled that it is permissible to charge third-party suppliers the high licence fees applicable to tariff customers. This calls for a thorough examination of the issue.

  7. About the carel legal and civil legal validity of take-or-play clauses in gas supply contracts with distribution; Zur kartell- und zivilrechtlichen Zulaessigkeit von Take-or-Pay-Klauseln in Gasliefervertraegen mit Weiterverteilern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegerich, Christine [Eggers Malmendier Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany); Seiferth, Conrad [Kermel und Scholtka Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    Gas supply contracts of all market stages contain ToP clauses (ToP = Take or Pay). These clauses obligate the consumers of gas to the payment of a certain minimum quantity of gas independently of the actually removed mass of gas. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the cartel legal and civil legal validity of ToP clauses in gas supply contracts with distribution. These clauses represent a control-free price agreement. A clear substantiation of an inadequate disadvantage of the consumer of gas by ToP clauses is not to be furnished. The ToP clauses do not deviate from legal or contract-typical principles. With the conclusion of a contract, the contracting parties assume that the obligation of payment of the customer corresponds to the obligation of supply by the supplier.

  8. Estrategias políticas para el tratamiento de las drogas ilegales en Colombia / Political Strategies for Treating Illegal Drugs in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ebastián Quintero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Para la década del noventa, la institucionalidad en Colombia se encontraba vulnerada frente a grandes carteles que traficaban y comercializaban con narcóticos. Fue en este contexto en el cual surgió el Plan Colombia, estrategia para recuperar la institucionalidad, reducir los cultivos ilícitos de coca y amapola, debilitar la economía de los grupos ilegales insurgentes, y finalmente recuperar la confianza inversionista. Hoy 13 años después de implementado el Plan, los cultivos ilícitos han tenido una disminución pero persisten, el tráfico y el comercio de psicoactivos han mutado y el consumo se ha incrementado, por lo tanto se cuenta con una necesidad social manifiesta por abordajes que realmente procuren un desarrollo sostenible y que den respuesta a una demanda comunitaria por acciones que procuren la prevención, la atención, el tratamiento y la rehabilitación de las personas, con servicios de salud adecuados. During the 1990's, institutionality in Colombia was negatively affected by large drug-dealing cartels. It was in this context where the Plan Colombia was born. This plan was a strategy to recover institutionality, reduce illegal coca and poppy plantations, weaken the economy of illegal insurgent groups, and restore investor confidence. Today, 13 years after the implementation of the Plan, the amount of illegal plantations has decreased. However they are still present, the traffic and trade of psychoactive substances have evolved, and consumption has increased. Therefore, there is now an evident societal need for strategies which address these issues that truly lead to sustainable development. Likewise, the community requires actions aimed at preventing this issue and promoting the care, treatment, and rehabilitation of those affected by this reality while providing adequate healthcare service

  9. Análisis de tiempos y movimientos en el proceso de contratación administrativa de medicamentos, en el Hospital México durante el año 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Cordero-García

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: Dentro de la población que atiende la Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social existe un grupo minoritario que posee necesidades excepcionales de determinados medicamentos debido a su condición clínica diferencial. Ante esta situación de importancia, a pesar que solo constituye la menor parte de los casos, la CCSS ofrece un sistema para adquirir los medicamentos tránsito y los que se encuentran fuera de la Lista Oficial de Medicamentos (LOM. Este proceso de adquisición conlleva una variedad de trámites de Contratación Administrativa, establecidos en la Ley, los cuales afectan la prescripción del medicamento al paciente. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo analizar la duración del proceso de contratación administrativa en las compras directas y licitaciones de medicamentos no LOM en el Hospital México durante el año 2009. Métodos: En esta investigación se revisó un 47.26% de la población total de expedientes de compra, que corresponden a 112 de las 237 compras directas y de licitación que aparecen registradas en el año 2009, según el Histórico de Compras 2009. Resultados y Conclusión: Se determinó que existe una alta variabilidad entre las diferentes compras (carteles de medicamentos, y entre los diferentes procesos que se llevan a cabo en cada uno de estos carteles. No existe una uniformidad en relación a los procesos de adquisición de medicamentos, lo cual dificulta el poder determinar los factores que obstaculizan este proceso.

  10. Impacto de las corporaciones y organizaciones sin ánimo de lucro en la gobernabilidad en Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraín José Martínez Meneses

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:La transferencia del poder que ha venido ocurriendo desde hace 30 años en Medellín y concretamente en sus comunas deprimidas, ha evidenciado el olvido al que sometió el Estado a los barrios estigmatizados por el flagelo del narcotráfico. Es precisamente toda esta organización criminal de los llamados capos de la droga, la que paulatinamente ha venido dejando el poder a la deriva, y la recuperación del mismo se ha realizado con herramientas sociales provenientes de entidades sin ánimo de lucro que a través de programas de ayuda y educación han arrebatado a los aún persistentes carteles del narcotráfico, gran cantidad de miembros y posibles miembros.Palabras clave:Corporación social, derechos humanos, ONG, emprendimiento social, educación.Abstract:The transfer of power has been happening for 30 years in Medellin and specifically in their communes depressed, it became obvious oblivion to which the state submitted to the neighborhoods stigmatized by the scourge of drug trafficking. It is precisely all this criminal organization called drug lords, which have been gradually leaving the power to drift, and its recovery has been made with social tools from nonprofit organizations through programs that help and education have taken the drug cartels still persistent, large numbers of members and potential members.Palabras clave:Corporación social, derechos humanos, ONG, emprendimiento social, educación.

  11. Las estrategias de los partidos políticos españoles hacia las organizaciones sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verge, Tània

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the strategies used by the three state-level Spanish political parties (Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party, Popular Party and United Left in relation to civil society and their evolution during the period 1977-2004. It will be shown that competition and co-optation were replaced by different collaboration mechanisms along the 1990s. On the one hand, collaboration might be functional to electoral mobilization and, on the other hand, it facilitates the obtaining of the necessary inputs to elaborate party manifestos. Furthermore, it reinforces parties’ credibility before the electorate regarding their commitment to certain social demands. Against the cartel party thesis, access to public financing is compatible with a new rapprochement to society.

    En este artículo se analizan las estrategias utilizadas por los tres partidos políticos españoles de ámbito estatal (PSOE, PP e IU en relación con la sociedad civil organizada y su evolución en el período 1977-2004. Se demostrará que las estrategias de competición y cooptación cedieron paso a partir de los años noventa a distintas fórmulas de colaboración con las organizaciones sociales. Por un lado, esta última estrategia puede ser funcional a la movilización electoral y, por otro, facilita la obtención de los inputs necesarios para elaborar los programas electorales. Asimismo, permite a los partidos hacer creíble ante el electorado su compromiso con ciertas demandas sociales y recuperar cierta legitimidad pública. En contra de las tesis del cartel party, el acceso a la financiación pública resulta compatible con un nuevo acercamiento a la sociedad.

  12. Study on Industrial Generic Technology R&D Organization Model Based on Mixed Spillovers%基于混合溢出效应的产业共性技术研发组织模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏素; 肖阿妮

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies three basic organizational models of generic technology: R&D competition, R&.D cartels and RJV. We assume that it is the mixture of input and output of the R&D process which is the sopill over. Concerning the mixed overflow and the total overflow volume changes with time T, our model consider the hazard rate function in R&D and compare the producer surplus, consumer surplus and the rate of investment. The conclusion is that in the market, enterprises will not necessarily choose RJV; the social surplus generated by RJV is greater than R & D cartel and the R & D competition from the perspective of social surplus; to make the greatest social welfare, the government should guide enterprises to form a RJV.%研究了共性技术的R&D竞争、R&D卡特尔、RJV(Research Joint Venture)竞争3种基本研发组织模式;在考虑投入溢出和成果溢出共存、溢出总量随时间T变化的基础上,引入研发风险率函数,通过对各组织模式的生产者剩余、消费者剩余和R&D投资率进行比较,总结出更适合共性技术研发和扩散的组织模式.结果表明:市场机制下,企业不一定会选择RJV;从社会福利角度,RJV产生的社会剩余大于R&D卡特尔和R&D竞争模式的社会剩余;为使社会福利最大化,政府应引导企业形成RJV.

  13. On the legal effectiveness of grid gas supply contracts; Zur Wirksamkeit von Ferngaslieferungsvertraegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Sebastian Friedrich

    2012-07-01

    The author shows how until today energy suppliers have only had to deal with the phenomenon of competition to a very limited degree. The players in this business had contracts in place based on solitary rulings which protected them against the intrusion of competitors in their markets. Competition was practically non-existent. The contracts in force today are to some extent still designed so as to exploit the liberties provided by the old legal framework. They contain provisions that were formulated under the regime of solitary rulings that gave legitimacy to restraints of competition. The rulings on which they are based are aimed at preventing competition, and the fact they still exist today is owed solely to their long term of validity. This inevitably leads to the question whether it can be tolerated that new legislation is rendered ineffective for years to come by pre-existing contracts. And conversely: Can existing grid gas supply contracts be rendered void by the fact that they threaten to frustrate a goal pursued by the legislature? Must the principle of ''pacta sunt servanda'', i.e. agreements must be kept, give way in a case such as this? The present study is divided into three parts. The first gives an assessment the contracts according to European cartel law, while the second is devoted to German general civil law. The third part finally resolves the question as to the legal consequences of the conclusions reached in the preceding sections. The present study thus abstains from an assessment specifically on the basis of German cartel law.

  14. Antimonopoly Analysis on Maintenance of Resale Price%转售价格维持的反垄断法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许光耀

    2011-01-01

    对于转售价格维持行为,传统反垄断法上强调其便利零售卡特尔以及生产商卡特尔等负面效果,因而长期适用本身违法规则。2007年美国最高法院的Leegin案判决则改而采用合理规则,这对我国《反垄断法》第14条、第15条的实施具有重大的启发意义。但另一方面,合理规则的适用十分复杂,因而应当在进行合理性分析之前,先对相关市场的情况进行考察,以明确该行为是否符合产生反竞争效果的结构条件,对于不满足这些条件的行为,则认定其合法,而不需要进行进一步的合理性分析。这样可以大大减少需要进行深入分析的案件的范围,简化合理规则的适%Traditional antimonopoly law,which focused on the negative effects of maintenance of resale price such as the facilitation of dealer cartel or manufacturer cartel,applied to this kind of restraint.In 2007,the Supreme Court of the United States overruled t

  15. Assessment of Correspondent Banks Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer F.A.A. Abbadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study aims at evaluating corresponding banks in Jordan. Characterizing the goals, instruments and profitability under unfavorable conditions of financial setbacks and unfair competition among banks. Focuses on the feasibility and profitability of Philadelphia Investment Bank in its international trade via its Correspondent banks. Approach: Problems and setbacks shall be screened out; reasoned and appropriate optimal recommendations are to be presented. Results: The study followed the analytical approach and depended on “History Documents” and “In depth Interview” techniques and puts a major emphasis on the fact that correspondent banking has become an essential cornerstone of international business amid the new era of world trade, globalization, external competition and cartels from the major opponents to Jordanian Banks, the main conclusion is realized the importance of correspondent banks in the international trade, so Philadelphia bank benefited from correspondent banks for the cheap cost of market entry and services were tailored to the scale of required locale. But there was no big investment in staff facilities. And there are setbacks in dealing with correspondent banks, such as fund delay in reaching destinations on time. Moreover, Jordanian banks have suffered in general from these correspondent banks because they deal with these correspondent banks individually. Conclusion/Recommendations: The recommendation of the study is, it is the time to consider solidification and forming one financial block, or a sort of cartel and face these correspondent banks in one unit. They are also called for developing collective strategies. Small banks should merge and form huge capital blocks. Another strategy is that Jordanian banks should minimize the reliance on foreign banks and should develop their own, by establishing international branches abroad to help financing their international activities.

  16. Labor Migration, Drug Trafficking Organizations, and Drug Use: Major Challenges for Transnational Communities in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In our article, we present the recent findings of our ethnographic field study on drug use and the emergence of a drug use culture in transnational communities in Mexico. Transnational communities are part of a larger migratory labor circuit that transcends political borders and are not restricted to a single locality. Transnational migrants and returning immigrants link the multiple localities through their social networks. In southern Guanajuato, Mexico, using a transnational migration paradigm, we examined the manner in which transnational migration and drug trafficking organizations are contributing to a growing drug problem in these communities. We found that transnational migrants and returning immigrants, including deported workers, introduce drugs and drug use practices, and contribute to the creation of a drug use culture within the communities. The social conditions in the community that foster and proliferate drug use are many: the erosion of the traditional family, truncated kinship bases, and new social formations. These conditions are all consequences of migration and emigration. Recent drug cartel activities are also contributing to this growing drug problem. The cartels have aggressively targeted these communities because of availability of money, existing drug use, a drug use culture, and the breakdown of traditional deterrents to substance abuse. Although a number of communities in three municipalities were part of our study, we focus on two: Lindavista, a rancho, Progreso, a municipal seat. Our field study in Mexico, one of four sequential ethnographic field studies conducted in Guanajuato and Pennsylvania, was completed over a six month period, from September, 2008, through February, 2009, using traditional ethnography. The four field studies are part of a larger, ongoing, three-year bi-national study on drug use among transnational migrants working in southeastern Pennsylvania. This larger study, near its third and final year, is funded by the

  17. The Analysis and Improvement on the Invalidity of the Exemption from the Antimonopoly of the Foreign Trade in China%我国对外贸易反垄断豁免失当性分析及其完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘廷涛

    2015-01-01

    Article 15 in Antimonopoly Law of China provides that the exemption from the foreign trade includes the exemption from im⁃port and export. The basis of the exemption from import cartel is that the protection of competitor is prior to the protection of competi⁃tion, which is adverse to the competition ability promotion of Chinese import industry at present and in the future and may be contrary to the National Treatment of WTO, and it should be prohibited. The regulation of export cartel of China is reasonable in some degree, however, the constitutive requirement of “just benefit” exemption should be explained in restriction so that the abuse of the regulation is prevented to cause unnecessary harm.%我国《反垄断法》第15条规定的对外贸易豁免包括进口豁免和出口豁免。进口卡特尔豁免的基础系竞争者保护优先于竞争保护,其不利于我国当前及未来进口产业的竞争力提高,并有可能违反WTO国民待遇原则,应予以禁止适用。我国出口的卡特尔豁免规定虽具一定合理性,但必须对其中的“正当利益”豁免要件进行限缩性解释,防止对此条款的滥用并引起不必要的损害。

  18. 晋商衰落的原因探析——以介休范氏为切入点的考察%On Causes of Jin Merchants' Decline --A Case Study of the Fan Family of Jiexiu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓媛

    2012-01-01

    Jin merchants was one of the earliest business cartels in the Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty, ranking first in its field in China. However in the middle of Qing Dynasty, the Jin merchants' business cartel began to decline, and ultimately unknown in history. The Fan family of Jiexiu in Jin merchants had once been a prominent family, bearing special status and conducting special business activities. In Ming and Qing dynasties, the Fan family had under- gone the process of rise, prosperity and decline. The decline and fall of the them may be due to historical inevitability, but has their own reasons. The study of the process of the Fans' rise, development and fall may provide reference for the study of Jin merchants.%晋商是中国最早的商帮之一,在明代及清代初期,都是国内商帮中的佼佼者。但从清代中期开始,晋商开始走下坡路,最终默默无闻,淹没在历史的长河中。介休范氏是晋商中身份、地位以及经营活动都比较特殊的一个望族。明清两代,介休范氏经历发端、崛起、鼎盛乃至衰亡的过程。介休范氏的衰亡,有其历史必然性,也有其自身的原因。研究介休范氏兴起、发展乃至消亡的过程,对研究晋商具有一定的借鉴意义。

  19. 反垄断从宽处理制度及其中国化%Leniency program in anti-monopoly and its Sinolization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊峰

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at attracting cartel members to surrender or expose illegal acts of others by reducing or exempting them from public law responsibilities, the leniency program in anti-monopoly law is an effective mechanism throughout the world to discover and crack cartels. The leniency program can be divided into various categories, all of which are based on three preconditions: Filing an application, providing effective information and fully cooperating with anti-monopoly authorities. China has a legal tradition similar to the program as well as legal grounds for establishing such program. However, implementation of the program in China may face potential problems arising from various factors including inner conflicts of the anti-monopoly legal regime, ambiguity of enforcement rights and weakness and lack of administrative law liabilities.%反垄断从宽处理制度旨在减免公法责任,以吸引卡特尔成员主动投案并揭发他人的违法事实,这是国际上通行的一种发现和打击卡特尔的有效机制.从宽处理制度分为多种类型,其共同的先决条件有三:提出申请、提供有效信息、完全配合反垄断执法机构的查处.中国具有与该制度相契合的传统法律土壤,也具备建构该制度的法律依据,但是中国反垄断法律体系内部的冲突、执法权归属的模糊、行政法律责任的薄弱与缺失等因素,使得该制度在中国的实施面临隐忧.

  20. 限制转售价格的违法性认定研究%A Study on Illegality Determination of Resale Price Restrictions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾扬阳; 原旷怡

    2014-01-01

    Several major resale prices restrictions cases triggered a fierce debate on its illegality. However, whether it is illegal or not depends on the awareness of the“dual effects”of the resale behavior. Resale price restrictions may lead to producer cartel, retailer cartel, bilateral monopoly of manufacturers and distributors and other negative effects. On the other hand, they have positive effects as to solve the“free rider”problem, and to eliminate double prices. Therefore regulations on the behavior should be implemented accordingly and careful choice should be made between the per se illegal principle and rational principle. Based on China’s current regulatory model, a“safe harbor”system should be established, exemption clauses should be perfected in order to improve its operating efficiency, thus promoting the progress in price and antitrust enforcement.%几起关于限制转售价格的大案引发对其违法性的激烈争论,而是否违法从根本上取决于对此行为“双重效应”的认识。限制转售价格既可能导致生产商卡特尔、销售商卡特尔、生产商与经销商双边垄断等负面效应,又具有解决“搭便车”问题、消除双重涨价等正面效应。这使得对该行为的规制应该区分情况,慎重在本身违法原则与合理原则中做出选择。基于我国目前的规制模式,应建立“安全港”制度、完善豁免条款,以提高其运行效率,从而推动我国价格与反垄断执法的进步。

  1. Multi-Period Natural Gas Market Modeling. Applications, Stochastic Extensions and Solution Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egging, R.G.

    2010-11-15

    This dissertation develops deterministic and stochastic multi-period mixed complementarity problems (MCP) for the global natural gas market, as well as solution approaches for large-scale stochastic MCP. The deterministic model is unique in the combination of the level of detail of the actors in the natural gas markets and the transport options, the detailed regional and global coverage, the multi-period approach with endogenous capacity expansions for transportation and storage infrastructure, the seasonal variation in demand and the representation of market power according to Nash-Cournot theory. The model is applied to several scenarios for the natural gas market that cover the formation of a cartel by the members of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum, a low availability of unconventional gas in the United States, and cost reductions in long-distance gas transportation. The results provide insights in how different regions are affected by various developments, in terms of production, consumption, traded volumes, prices and profits of market participants. The stochastic MCP is developed and applied to a global natural gas market problem with four scenarios for a time horizon until 2050 with nineteen regions and containing 78,768 variables. The scenarios vary in the possibility of a gas market cartel formation and varying depletion rates of gas reserves in the major gas importing regions. Outcomes for hedging decisions of market participants show some significant shifts in the timing and location of infrastructure investments, thereby affecting local market situations. A first application of Benders decomposition (BD) is presented to solve a large-scale stochastic MCP for the global gas market with many hundreds of first-stage capacity expansion variables and market players exerting various levels of market power. The largest problem solved successfully using BD contained 47,373 variables of which 763 first-stage variables, however using BD did not result in

  2. Multi-period natural gas market modeling Applications, stochastic extensions and solution approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egging, Rudolf Gerardus

    This dissertation develops deterministic and stochastic multi-period mixed complementarity problems (MCP) for the global natural gas market, as well as solution approaches for large-scale stochastic MCP. The deterministic model is unique in the combination of the level of detail of the actors in the natural gas markets and the transport options, the detailed regional and global coverage, the multi-period approach with endogenous capacity expansions for transportation and storage infrastructure, the seasonal variation in demand and the representation of market power according to Nash-Cournot theory. The model is applied to several scenarios for the natural gas market that cover the formation of a cartel by the members of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum, a low availability of unconventional gas in the United States, and cost reductions in long-distance gas transportation. 1 The results provide insights in how different regions are affected by various developments, in terms of production, consumption, traded volumes, prices and profits of market participants. The stochastic MCP is developed and applied to a global natural gas market problem with four scenarios for a time horizon until 2050 with nineteen regions and containing 78,768 variables. The scenarios vary in the possibility of a gas market cartel formation and varying depletion rates of gas reserves in the major gas importing regions. Outcomes for hedging decisions of market participants show some significant shifts in the timing and location of infrastructure investments, thereby affecting local market situations. A first application of Benders decomposition (BD) is presented to solve a large-scale stochastic MCP for the global gas market with many hundreds of first-stage capacity expansion variables and market players exerting various levels of market power. The largest problem solved successfully using BD contained 47,373 variables of which 763 first-stage variables, however using BD did not result in

  3. La guerre contre les drogues illicites : Est-ce qu’elle est perdue ? - Has the war against drugs been lost ? - La guerra contro le droghe è persa ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick M.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Le système légal du Mexique est dans un état de ruine à cause des cartels de la drogue soutenus et subventionnés par les États-Unis d'Amerique. En effet, les États-Unis sont le marché principal de la marijuana, de la cocaine et, en moindre quantité, des drogues synthétiques provénantes du Mexique. L’article met en évidence que les régions frontalières du Mexique sont pris en otage entre d’une part, les principaux producteurs mondiaux de coca et d’autre part, les principaux consommateurs (de l’Amerique du Nord et de l’Europe. Pour cela, l’avis de l’autrice et de son collaborateur est que le Mexique ne peut résoudre seul les problèmes liés au narcotrafique. The Mexican legal system is in a state of ruin because of illegal drug cartels supported, sustained and subsidized by the United States of America. It is the U.S. which is the market for marijuana, cocaine and to a lesser extent synthetic drugs trafficked through Mexico. This article evidences that especially the frontier regions of Mexico have been taken hostage between, on the one hand, the principal world producers of cocaine and, on the other hand, the principal consumers (from North America and from Europe. Accordingly, it is the view of the author and her collaborator that Mexico cannot resolve in isolation the problems involved in narco-trafficking.Il sistema legale messicano versa in uno stato disastroso a causa dei cartelli della droga sostenuti e sovvenzionati dagli Stati Uniti d’America. Infatti, gli USA rappresentano il principale mercato della marijuana, della cocaina e delle droghe sintetiche (queste ultime in misura minore provenienti dal Messico. L’articolo mette in evidenza che le regioni frontaliere del Messico sono prese in ostaggio, da una parte, dai principali produttori modiali di cocaina e, dall’altra, dai principali consumatori (che si trovano nell’America del Nord ed in Europa. Pertanto, secondo l’autrice ed il suo collaboratore

  4. Necropolitics, narcopolitics, and femicide: gendered violence on the Mexico-U.S. border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Melissa W

    2011-01-01

    In 1993, a group of women shocked Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, with the news that dozens of girls and women had been murdered and dumped, like garbage, around the city during the year. As the numbers of murders grew over the years, and as the police forces proved unwilling and unable to find the perpetrators, the protestors became activists. They called the violence and its surrounding impunity "femicide," and they demanded that the Mexican government, at the local, state, and federal levels, stop the violence and capture the perpetrators. Nearly two decades later, the city's infamy as a place of femicide is giving way to another terrible reputation as a place of unprecedented drug violence. Since 2006, more than six thousand people have died in the city, as have more than twenty-eight thousand across the country, in relation to the violence associated with the restructuring of the cartels that control the production and distribution of illegal drugs. In response to the public outcry against the violence, the Mexican government has deployed thousands of troops to Ciudad Juárez as part of a military strategy to secure the state against the cartels. In this essay, I argue that the politics over the meaning of the drug-related murders and femicide must be understood in relation to gendered violence and its use as a tool for securing the state. To that end, I examine the wars over the interpretation of death in northern Mexico through a feminist application of the concept of necropolitics as elaborated by the postcolonial scholar Achille Mbembe. I examine how the wars over the political meaning of death in relation both to femicide and to the events called "drug violence" unfold through a gendering of space, of violence, and of subjectivity. My objective is twofold: first, to demonstrate how the antifemicide movement illustrates the stakes for a democratic Mexican state and its citizens in a context where governing elites argue that the violence devastating Ciudad Ju

  5. La editorial Ricordi y su aportación a la publicidad italiana de principios del siglo XX / The publisher Ricordi and his contribution to the Italian advertising early twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rut Francia Ferrero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El objeto de estudio de la presente investigación es el nacimiento de las campañas publicitarias gráficas orquestadas por la fructífera colaboración entre empresarios, editores e ilustradores entre los siglos XIX y XX en Italia. El estudio se centra en la Casa Editorial Ricordi porque fue la creadora e impulsora del moderno cartel artístico y publicitario italiano, con un vasta producción de ejemplares, hoy considerados obras maestras del género. La etapa de oro del cartel italiano coincide, no por casualidad, con el predominio técnico y artístico de esta empresa en Italia que nada tenía que envidiar a sus competidoras francesas (como la prestigiosa Imprimerie Chaix parisina, tan querida por Jules Chéret, alemanas o inglesas. El período analizado (1890-1914 es el de mayor actividad y esplendor artístico en las artes gráficas. Son los años de los primeros pasos en el campo de la publicidad. Como en todos los comienzos, abundan las ideas, la energía, la ingenuidad y las ganas de experimentar. Es un tiempo lleno de cambios: la transformación económica, social e industrial que vivió Europa en un lapso tan corto de  tiempo es probablemente la mayor de su historia.The purpose of this research is the birth of graphic advertising campaigns orchestrated by the fruitful collaboration between employers, publishers and illustrators between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in Italy. The study focuses on the Ricordi publishing house because it was the creator and driving force of the modern Italian poster art and advertising with a vast production of copies, today considered masterpieces of the genre. The golden age of Italian poster coincides, not coincidentally, with the technical and artistic dominance of this company in Italy that had nothing to envy their French competitors (including the prestigious Paris Imprimerie Chaix, so beloved by Jules Cheret, German or England. The period analyzed (1890-1914 is the most active and

  6. Making Sense of an Unstable Legislature: Committee Assignments in the Argentine Chamber of Deputies, 1946–2001 La lógica de una legislatura inestable: la distribución de comisiones en la Cámara de Diputados Argentina, 1946-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Lilian Danesi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Latin American legislatures have gone largely unstudied, with the functioning of the Argentine Chamber of Deputies prior to the 1980s being an entirely unexplored subject. This paper fills that gap by examining the organization of the Chamber, with particular focus on its standing committee system from 1946 to 2001. We assess the portability of two U.S.-based theoretical approaches to legislative organization by applying them to committee assignments. An original data set of Argentine deputies was constructed and a way of measuring political power in committees was devised for this study. Despite weak democratic governments, military interventions, and changes to the electoral system, we find that ruling parties have consistently influenced the committee system, shaping its structure and securing an over-proportion of their deputies in key committee positions. These results support the applicability of the U.S. originated Cartel Theory of legislative organization to understanding and studying legislatures outside that country.Las legislaturas latinoamericanas no han recibido debida atención. Un caso emblemático es la Cámara de Diputados Argentina, cuyo funcionamiento previo a los 1980’s ha sido inexplorado. Este artículo persigue llenar ese vacío examinando la organización de su sistema de comisiones permanentes desde 1946 hasta 2001. Para ello, evaluamos la aplicabilidad de dos teorías norteamericanas sobre organización legislativa para analizar la integración de comisiones, creamos una base de datos de diputados argentinos y diseñamos una forma de medir su poder político en las comisiones. A pesar de la inestabilidad institucional y los cambios de sistema electoral, los resultados demuestran que los partidos que controlaron la Cámara influenciaron en forma sistemática el sistema de comisiones, cambiando su estructura y asegurando la sobrerrepresentación de sus diputados en cargos clave. El estudio confirma, asimismo, la

  7. Humanitarian Protection for Children Fleeing Gang-Based Violence in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Carlson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available By the end of 2011, the US Customs and Border Protection (CBP began to see a steady rise in the number of Unaccompanied Alien Children (UAC from Central America, particularly from the Northern Triangle countries—El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala—arriving to the US-Mexico border. The number of children entering the United States from these countries more than doubled during fiscal year (FY 2012 and continued to grow through FY 2014. In FY 2013, CBP apprehended over 35,000 children. That number almost doubled to 66,127 in FY 2014, with Central American children outnumbering their Mexican counterparts for the first time. Research has identified high levels of violence perpetrated by gangs and drug cartels in the Northern Triangle countries and Mexico as a primary reason for this surge. Under the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA passed with bi-partisan support in 2008, children from Central America cannot be immediately deported and must be given a court hearing.In contrast, unless there are indicia of trafficking, Mexican children are returned immediately to their country. Advocates have expressed concern that expedited removal of Mexican children places children with valid humanitarian claims at risk of being returned to harm, including forcible recruitment into drug cartels and trafficking rings. After the spike in arrivals in FY 2014, several members of Congress called for a change in the TVPRA, urging that Central American children be treated like Mexican children and undergo expedited procedures for their removal. Many of their constituents supported such measures. The Obama administration requested additional funds to strengthen border security, speed up deportation procedures and implement measures to address the humanitarian crisis in Central America. Groups and individuals across the country came together to provide shelter, medical and psychological care and legal representation to many

  8. Honorary authorship epidemic in scholarly publications? How the current use of citation-based evaluative metrics make (pseudo)honorary authors from honest contributors of every multi-author article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Jozsef

    2013-08-01

    The current use of citation-based metrics to evaluate the research output of individual researchers is highly discriminatory because they are uniformly applied to authors of single-author articles as well as contributors of multi-author papers. In the latter case, these quantitative measures are counted, as if each contributor were the single author of the full article. In this way, each and every contributor is assigned the full impact-factor score and all the citations that the article has received. This has a multiplication effect on each contributor's citation-based evaluative metrics of multi-author articles, because the more contributors an article has, the more undeserved credit is assigned to each of them. In this paper, I argue that this unfair system could be made fairer by requesting the contributors of multi-author articles to describe the nature of their contribution, and to assign a numerical value to their degree of relative contribution. In this way, we could create a contribution-specific index of each contributor for each citation metric. This would be a strong disincentive against honorary authorship and publication cartels, because it would transform the current win-win strategy of accepting honorary authors in the byline into a zero-sum game for each contributor.

  9. DIREITOS DOS USUÁRIOS DA SAÚDE: ESTRATÉGIAS PARA EMPODERAR AGENTES COMUNITÁRIOS DE SAÚDE E COMUNIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Marcellino de Melo Lanzoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigación Convergente Asistencial bajo el punto de vista teórico de Paulo Freire, cuyo objetivo fue desvelar críticamente la Carta de los Derechos de los Usuarios de la Salud y crear estrategias de poderío de la comunidad mediante la realización de talleres educativos. Participaron 470 Agentes Comunitarios de Salud de Florianópolis/SC, organizados en pequeños grupos de dialogo, que elaboraron cinco estrategias para lograr el cumplimiento de los derechos y obligaciones de los usuarios, a saber: divulgar la importancia del Consejo Local de Salud en las visitas a domicilio; El plan de orientación a los usuarios acerca de los medicamentos; Fijar carteles en la Unidad Local de Salud sobre el primer principio de la Carta; Divulgar otros servicios de apoyo a la salud; y, Divulgación y poderío de la comunidad sobre sus derechos y deberes. Las intervenciones señaladas inspiran el fortalecimiento de las acciones en educación y salud, con miras a la instrumentalización del equipo de salud, sin exigir del Estado demandas en la estructura socio-económica.

  10. Entramados institucionales y delincuencia. El caso de Michoacán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerjes Aguirre Ochoa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la emergencia social que ha significado la inseguridad en México existe poco debate académico sobre las políticas públicas que deben darse en el corto y mediano plazo para resolver el problema. Desde la perspectiva del Estado Federal Mexicano, la médula de la inseguridad la constituye la alta demanda de drogas en los Estados Unidos que alienta el crecimiento de carteles delincuenciales dedicados al tráfico de enervantes. En esta misma perspectiva, la facilidad en tráfico de armas de asalto contribuye a agravar la situación. La realidad, sin embargo, es que existen problemas institucionales severos que han minado la capacidad del Estado por normar la convivencia entre los ciudadanos. El caso de Michoacán refleja entramados institucionales débiles producto de una transición política que no ha logrado consolidar instituciones a nivel de gobierno estatal y municipal, lo suficiente solidas para normar efectivamente la convivencia entre los michoacanos.

  11. Alkali-Metal-Mediated Magnesiations of an N-Heterocyclic Carbene: Normal, Abnormal, and "Paranormal" Reactivity in a Single Tritopic Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Antonio J; Fuentes, M Ángeles; Hernán-Gómez, Alberto; Hevia, Eva; Kennedy, Alan R; Mulvey, Robert E; O'Hara, Charles T

    2015-11-16

    Herein the sodium alkylmagnesium amide [Na4Mg2(TMP)6(nBu)2] (TMP=2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide), a template base as its deprotonating action is dictated primarily by its 12 atom ring structure, is studied with the common N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) IPr [1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene]. Remarkably, magnesiation of IPr occurs at the para-position of an aryl substituent, sodiation occurs at the abnormal C4 position, and a dative bond occurs between normal C2 and sodium, all within a 20 atom ring structure accommodating two IPr(2-). Studies with different K/Mg and Na/Mg bimetallic bases led to two other magnesiated NHC structures containing two or three IPr(-) monoanions bound to Mg through abnormal C4 sites. Synergistic in that magnesiation can only work through alkali-metal mediation, these reactions add magnesium to the small cartel of metals capable of directly metalating a NHC.

  12. Gonzo Strategies of Deceit: An Interview with Joaquin Segura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett W. Schultz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The interview that follows is a dialogue between artist and gallerist with the intent of unearthing the artist’s working strategies for a general public. Joaquin Segura is at once an anomaly in Mexico’s contemporary art scene at the same time as he is one of the most emblematic representatives of a larger shift toward a post-national identity among its youngest generation of artists. If Mexico looks increasingly like a foreclosed home burning to the ground, Segura could likely be the one walking away, charred matchstick between thumb and forefinger and shit-eating grin on his face. His corrosive attacks on institutions, ideologies, and power reflect a deep general distrust of authority, increasingly evident within the work of younger Mexican artists. It is perhaps most directly the result of President Calderon’s deeply unpopular war against the cartels but no doubt equally the product of decades upon decades of rampant corruption and errant policy within Mexico.

  13. Admissibility and policies of public-private partnerships on communal level in the field of energy supply; Rechtliche Zulaessigkeit und Handlungsvorgaben gemischt-wirtschaftlicher Unternehmen mit kommunaler Beteiligung im Bereich der Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsing-An

    2012-11-01

    The investigation comprised four steps. In the first step, background information on public-private partnerships is presented, and trends are outlined. The relationship between PPP and privatisation is discussed, definitions are given, and basic models of PPP are presented before proceeding to a discussion of public-private partnerships in the energy supply sector. The second part focuses on communal energy supply. The role of energy supply within the range of services provided by communal administration is defined, and public-private partnerships in the communal sector are gone into. In the third section, legal boundary conditions for the establishment of public-private energy utilities in the communal sector are analyzed. The emphasis is on the legal requirements and limitations to be observed by communities intending to establish public-private energy utilities or cooperate in them. Finally, the fourth section goes into the policies that should be adapted by communal PPP utilities under energy industry law. A distinction is made between the different activities of energy utilities, i.e. as grid operators and power suppliers, and the different legal obligations involved. Pricing is another important consideration. For this reason, the regulations of cartel law and energy industry law concerning pricing in power supply are investigated in detail, especially as grid connection, grid access and base load power supply are concerned.

  14. Energy industry law in the field of tension between freedom of the market and governmental restrictions; Energiewirtschaftrecht im Spannungsfeld von marktlicher Freiheit und hoheitlichen Einschraenkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehricke, Ulrich (ed.) [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer das Recht der Europaeischen Union; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energierecht

    2011-07-01

    The book contains the papers presented at the 39th annual meeting on energy law of the Institute of Energy Law of Cologne University, held on 4 November 2010: Problems of recommunalisation from the view of the communities as illustrated by the example of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg; The development of market definition in the light of the market dynamics of the electricity and gas markets; Legal problems of long-term capacity bookings in the gas infrastructure; Interconnection of the European electricity markets, reality or chimera?; The European energy stock exchange in the point of intersection of energy regulation and bank supervision - current information on the development of the supervision regime for the energy market; Problems of the new energy competence title in Art. 194A EnV; Current rulings of the 3th cartel senate of the Duesseldorf Higher Regional Court on energy law; New lines for environmental protection: Obstacles to the grid integration of renewable energy sources. (orig./RHM)

  15. Law of the energy economy. A practical manual. 4. new rev. ed.; Recht der Energiewirtschaft. Praxishandbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Jens-Peter [Freiburg Univ. (Germany); Theobald, Christian (ed.)

    2013-07-01

    This manual presents the laws governing the electricity and gas markets, a field that has evolved at ever greater speed since the onset of liberalisation. Its content is of practical relevance and well-founded, yet nonetheless readily comprehensible to the layman. Following introductory sections on the technical and economic as well as national and European foundations of energy law are a wealth of contributions offering detailed analyses of the regulation of market structures; planning and licensing of energy infrastructure and energy installations; granting of municipal concessions to energy supply companies; trade in energy and emission permits as well as grid operation and grid utilisation; energy regulatory authorities and procedures; promotion of renewable energy, cogeneration and energy saving. The manual consistently takes account of the relevant regulations of cartel, municipal, environmental, tax, contractual and financial market law. Links to energy law proper are duly covered wherever practically relevant. The following legislation in particular has been incorporated in this new edition: 2011 amendment to the Energy Economy Law (unbundling, transmission system operator, grid development plans, modernisation in metrology, new consumer rights); 2012 amendment to the Nuclear Energy Law; Grid Expansion Acceleration and Transmission System Law of 2011 (NABEG); Renewable Energy Law of 2012; and Cogeneration Law of 2012.

  16. Political corruption and weak state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author starts from the hypothesis that it is essential for the countries of the region to critically assess the synergy established between systemic, political corruption and a selectively weak, “devious” nature of the state. Moreover, the key dilemma is whether the expanded practice of political rent seeking supports the conclusion that the root of all corruption is in the very existence of the state - particularly in excessive, selective and deforming state interventions and benefits that create a fertile ground for corruption? The author argues that the destructive combination of weak government and rampant political corruption is based on scattered state intervention, while also rule the parties cartel in the executive branch subordinate to parliament, the judiciary and the police. Corrupt exchange takes place with the absence of strong institutional framework and the precise rules of the political and electoral games, control of public finances and effective political and anti-monopoly legislation and practice included. Exit from the current situation can be seen in the realization of effective anti­corruption strategy that integrates preventive and repressive measures and activities and lead to the establishment of principles of good governance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179076: Politički identitet Srbije u regionalnom i globalnom kontekstu

  17. The surveillance of the electricity wholesale market and emission trading market; Die Ueberwachung von Stromgrosshandelsmarkt und Emissionshandelsmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luedemann, Volker [Hochschule Osnabrueck (Germany). Forschungszentrum Energiewirtschaft/Energierecht (fee); Hochschule Osnabrueck (Germany). Wirtschafts- und Wettbewerbsrecht; Konar, Selma [Sozietaet Becker Buettner Held, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    The Regulation on Wholesale Market Integrity and Transparency (REMIT) and the German Law on the Establishment of a Market Transparency Office for Wholesale Trade in Electricity and Gas (MTS-G) have fundamentally changed the surveillance of electricity wholesale trade in Germany. From now on the Federal Network Agency and the Federal Cartel Office will be jointly responsible for monitoring the electricity wholesale trade for suspicious market phenomena and abusive behaviour. The REMIT specifies that the electricity trade must be surveilled ''with due consideration to interactions'' with the emission trade system. However, occurrences observed in recent years have shown that the emission trading system is in need of reform. This has also been recognised and has prompted extensive corrective action by the regulatory authorities of the European Union. These changes have yet to be transposed into the national surveillance regimes. The present article explains why the new role accorded to the Federal Network Agency under the REMIT fails to eliminate the structural shortcomings of the old surveillance system. At least the decision to put the collection and evaluation of data exclusively in the hands of the market transparency office and the cooperation this will prompt between the supervisory authorities responsible will make the task of surveilling the energy wholesale trading market a lot easier for the authorities. The energy transition and its exigencies will yet lead to further changes in the market and its surveillance regime.

  18. REGULATING FIRMS’ BEHAVIOR IN THE MARKET UNDER THE COMPETITION LAW: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasarudin Abdul Rahman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of competition law is to protect the process of rivalry between firms in the market.  It prohibits any anti-competitive behaviors such as cartel and abuse of dominant position. However, in practice regulating firms’ behaviors in the market is not an easy task.  It requires both legal and economic analysis to determine whether a firm is occupying a dominant position and whether the conduct is abusive. This paper seeks to identify the important provisions of “anti-competitive agreements” and “abuse of dominant position” under the Malaysian Competition Act 2010. It is observed that competition law across the counties have been heavily influenced by the UK and EU competition law. Despite the similar concepts applied across the jurisdictions, in practice the implementation differs. This paper seeks to explore the benefits of adopting foreign concepts on competition law and how the rules will be implemented especially in response to the different political, economic and social environment. This paper will also include the approach taken by Indonesia with regard to implementation of foreign ideas on competition law to suit the local need.

  19. Compliance in public utilities. A practice handbook; Compliance in Energieversorgungsunternehmen. Ein Praxishandbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenke, Ines; Schaefer, Ralf [BBH Becker Buettner Held, Berlin (Germany); Brocke, Holger [Staatsanwaltschaft Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The concept of compliance comprises all measures taken to prevent violations of the law and their consequences. This implies the allocation of competences and supervision as well as behaviour guidelines to prevent violations of the law by staff members. Together with measures to detect and remedy deficits, effective organization of compliance is achieved, the risk of liability is minimized, and corporate management is made more transparent. In view of the high risk of liability, compliance is rapidly becoming part of corporate culture in Germany. The recommendations of this book are aimed not only at big utilities but also at small and medium-sized private and public utilities that may profit from compliance measures. The contributions present practically relevant recommmendations for action and examples for compliance organization in the various fields of law, i.e. industrial law, data protection law, energy industry law, energy cartel law, electricity and energy taxation law, corporate law, capital market law, pnal law, taxation penal law, and the Public Corporate Governance Codex. The complex matter is presented in a manner that is clear and understandable even for non-expert readers.

  20. Absolut Revolution: Revisiting the Cuban image of the sixties (1959-1969 Absolut Revolution: Revisitando la imagen cubana de los años 60 (1959-1969

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grethel Morell Otero

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the photographic images produced in Cuba between 1959 and 1969, analyses the formation in the advertising world for most photographers that reflect the revolution, compares their visions with the prospects offered by photographers who visited Cuba in mentioned period, traces the subsequent uses of these photos on the poster, the policy graph and international exhibitions, and puts into perspective the hegemonic historiographical discourses on the image “revolutionary.” El ensayo está enfocado sobre las imágenes fotográficas producidas en Cuba entre 1959 y 1969, analiza la formación en el mundo publicitario de la mayoría de los fotógrafos que reflejan la Revolución, compara sus visiones con las perspectivas ofrecidas por fotógrafos que visitaron Cuba en el período mencionado, traza los usos posteriores de estas fotos en el cartel, la gráfica política y las exposiciones internacionales, y sitúa en perspectiva los discursos historiográficos hegemónicos sobre la imagen “revolucionaria”.