Sample records for carson river drainage

  1. 43 CFR 418.17 - Truckee and Carson River water use. (United States)


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truckee and Carson River water use. 418.17... Operations and Management § 418.17 Truckee and Carson River water use. Project water must be managed to make maximum use of Carson River water and to minimize diversions of Truckee River water through the Truckee...

  2. Mercury in the Carson and Truckee River basins of Nevada (United States)

    Van Denburgh, A.S.


    Upstream from major pre-1900 ore milling in the Carson and Truckee River basins, "background" concentrations of total mercury in the upper 1 to 3 inches of sand- to clay-sized stream-bottom sediment are less than 0.1 ug/g (microgram per gram). Downstream, measured concentrations were as much as 200 times the background level. Greatest concentrations were encountered in the Carson River basin within and immediately upstream from Lahontan Reservoir. Data from for the Carson River near Fort Churchill suggest that most of the mercury in the sampled bottom sediment may be present as mercuric sulfide or as a component of one of more non-methyl organic compounds or complexes, rather than existing in the metallic state. Regardless of state, this reservoir of mercury is of concern because of its possible availability to the aquatic food chain and, ultimately, to man. Among 48 samples of surface water from 29 sites in the two basins, the maximum measured total-mercury concentration was 6.3 ug/1 (micrograms per liter), for a sample from the Carson River near Fort Churchill. Except downstream from Lahontan Reservoir, most other measured values were less than 1 ug/1. (The U.S> Environmental Protection Agency interim limit for drinking water is 5 ug/1.) The total-mercury content of stream water is related to the mercury content of bottom sediments and the rate of streamflow, because the latter affects the suspended-sediment transporting capability of the stream,. Near Fort Churchill, total-mercury concentrations that might be expected at streamflows greater than those of 1971-72 are: as much as 10-15 ug/1 or more at 2,000 cfs (cubic feet per second), and as much as 10-20 ug/1 or more at 3,000 cfs. Elsewhere, expectable concentrations are much less because the bottom sediment contains much less mercury. The mercury contents of water samples from 36 wells in the Carson and Truckee basins were all less than 1 ug/1, indicating that mercury is not a problem in ground water, even

  3. Watershed characterization for precipitation-runoff modeling system, north fork, American River and east fork, Carson River watersheds, California (United States)

    Smith, J. LaRue; Reece, Brian D.


    As part of its Global Change Hydrology Program, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating the potential effects of climate change on the water resources of several river basins in the United States. The American River Basin in California represents the windward slope of the north-central Sierra Nevada, and the California part of the Carson River Basin, most of which is in Nevada, represents the leeward slope. Parts of the American River and Carson River Basins—the North Fork American River and East Fork Carson River watersheds, both in California—were studied to determine the sensitivity of water resources to potential climate change. The water resources of both basins are derived primarily from snowmelt. A geographic information system (GIS) data base has been created to facilitate paired-basin analysis. The GIS data base incorporates (1) land-surface data, which include elevation, land use and land cover, soil type, and geology; (2) hydrologic data, such as stream networks and streamflow-gaging stations; and (3) climatic data, such as snow-course, snow-telemetry, radiosonde, and meteorological data. Precipitation-runoff models were developed and calibrated for the North Fork watershed within the American River Basin and for the East Fork watershed within the Carson River Basin. (These watersheds were selected to represent the climatic and physiographic variability of the two larger basins.) Synthesized climate scenarios then were used in the model to predict potential effects of climate change.

  4. Mercury exposure and effects on cavity-nesting birds from the Carson River, Nevada (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Hill, E.F.


    Mercury (Hg) concentrations were 15-40 times higher in the eggs and livers of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) that nested along the Carson River at and below Dayton, Nevada than in the same species above the mining-impacted areas. Hg contamination was mainly the result of processing mills in the 1800s that used Hg to separate gold and silver from ore. The exposure pattern of tree swallows and house wrens along the Carson River was consistent with their trophic status (i.e., lower levels in liver tissue of aquatic insectivores than in piscivorous birds nesting nearby). Even though they are aquatic insectivores, tree swallows and house wrens were exposed to the same amount of Hg as piscivores in the Florida Everglades; this indicated the extreme level of Hg contamination in the Carson River. Only 70-74% of the eggs hatched. This was less than the nationwide average for these two species that generally hatch ???85% of eggs. Although the sample size was small, Hg might be impacting reproductive end points in cavity-nesting birds from the Carson River. Other trace elements were present at background concentrations. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  5. Planning and design of studies for river-quality assessment in the Truckee and Carson River basins, California and Nevada (United States)

    Nowlin, Jon O.; Brown, W.M.; Smith, L.H.; Hoffman, R.J.


    The objectives of the Geological Survey 's river-quality assessment in the Truckee and Carson River basins in California and Nevada are to identify the significant resource management problems; to develop techniques to assess the problems; and to effectively communicate results to responsible managers. Six major elements of the assessment to be completed by October 1981 are (1) a detailing of the legal, institutional, and structural development of water resources in the basins and the current problems and conflicts; (2) a compilation and synthesis of the physical hydrology of the basins; (3) development of a special workshop approach to involve local management in the direction and results of the study; (4) development of a comprehensive streamflow model emcompassing both basins to provide a quantitative hydrologic framework for water-quality analysis; (5) development of a water-quality transport model for selected constituents and characteristics on selected reaches of the Truckee River; and (6) a detailed examination of selected fish habitats for specified reaches of the Truckee River. Progress will be periodically reported in reports, maps, computer data files, mathematical models, a bibliography, and public presentations. In building a basic framework to develop techniques, the basins were viewed as a single hydrologic unit because of interconnecting diversion structures. The framework comprises 13 hydrographic subunits to facilitate modeling and sampling. Several significant issues beyond the scope of the assessment were considered as supplementary proposals; water-quality loadings in Truckee and Carson Rivers, urban runoff in Reno and management alternatives, and a model of limnological processes in Lahontan Reservoir. (USGS)

  6. Adapting to Variable Water Supply in the Truckee-Carson River System, Western USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Sterle


    Full Text Available In snow-fed inland river systems in the western United States, water supply depends upon timing, form, and amount of precipitation. In recent years, this region has experienced unprecedented drought conditions due to decreased snowpack, exacerbated by exceptionally warmer winter temperatures averaging 3–4 °C above normal. In the snow-fed Truckee-Carson River System, two sets of interviews were conducted as part of a larger collaborative modeling case study with local water managers to examine local adaptation to current drought conditions. A comparative analysis of these primary qualitative data, collected during the fourth and fifth consecutive years of continued warmer drought conditions, identifies shifts in adaptation strategies and emergent adaptation barriers. That is, under continuous exposure to climate stressors, managers shifted their adaptation focus from short-term efforts to manage water demand toward long-term efforts to enhance water supply. Managers described the need to: improve forecasts and scientific assessments of snowmelt timing, groundwater levels, and soil moisture content; increase flexibility of prior appropriation water allocation rules based on historical snowpack and streamflow timing; and foster collaboration and communication among water managers across the river system. While water scarcity and insufficient water delivery infrastructure remain significant impediments in this arid region, climate uncertainty emerged as a barrier surrounding adaptation to variable water supply. Existing prior appropriation based water institutions were also described as an adaptation barrier, meriting objective evaluation to assess how to best modify these historical institutions to support dynamic adaptation to climate-induced water supply variability. This study contributes to a growing body of research that assesses drought adaptation in snow-fed inland river systems, and contributes a unique report concerning how adaptation

  7. Physical data and biological data for algae, aquatic invertebrates, and fish from selected reaches on the Carson and Truckee rivers, Nevada and California, 1993-97 (United States)

    Lawrence, S.J.; Seiler, R.L.


    This report, a product of the National Water- Quality Assessment Program, is a compilation of physical data and biological data for algae, aquatic invertebrates, and fish collected in the Carson and Truckee River Basins, Nevada and California. Most of the data were collected between 1993 and 1996 at selected reaches on the Carson and Truckee Rivers. Algae and aquatic invertebrate samples were collected from cobble riffles, submerged woody-snag habitats, and from depositional areas such as pools. Between 1993 and 1996, fish and crayfish were collected from all wadeable habitats at each of seven basic-fixed sites using either electroshocking methods or seining. Additional fish and crayfish were collected at one site on the Truckee River in 1997. Fish were identified to species, measured for total and standard length, checked for anomalies, and weighed at the collection site. Fish were returned to the stream after measurements were taken. Measurements of water depth, stream velocity, determinations of substrate type and substrate embeddedness were made at each sampling site. Algae and aquatic invertebrate samples were sent to the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Laboratory for identification and enumeration. A total of 103 semi-quantitative and 55 qualitative algae samples were collected at 20 river reaches on the Carson and Truckee Rivers between 1993 and 1996. These samples represent algae in cobble riffles, on submerged woody snags, and on sediment surfaces in depositional areas. In those 158 samples, 514 algal species, varieties, or forms were identified. Of the 8 algal phyla represented, the diatoms (Phylum Bacillariophyta) were the most abundant with 351 species, varieties, or forms. The green algae (Phylum Chlorophyta) were next in abundance with 108 species, varieties, or forms followed by the blue-green algae (Phylum Cyanophyta) with 41 species, varieties, or forms. A total of 49 semi-quantitative aquatic invertebrate samples were collected at 27

  8. Irrigation drainage: Green River basin, Utah (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Waddell, Bruce; Miller, Jerry B.


    A reconnaissance of wildlife areas in the middle Green River basin of Utah during 1986-87 determined that concentrations of selenium in water and biological tissues were potentially harmful to wildlife at the Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area and in the Ouray National Wildlife Refuge. Concentations of selenium in irrigation drainage entering Stewart Lake ranged from 14 to 140 micrograms per liter; liver tissue from coots collected from the lake contained selenium concentrations of as much as 26 micrograms per gram and samples of tissue from carp contained as much as 31 micrograms per gram. Concentrations of selenium in a pond at the Ouray National Wildlife Refuge, which receives irrigation water and shallow ground water, were as much as 93 micrograms per liter. Liver tissue from coots collected from this pond contained selenium concentrations of as much as 43 micrograms per gram; eggs of water birds contained as much as 120 micrograms per gram.

  9. Full title page pp iii Modeling erosion and overbank deposition during extreme flood conditions on the Carson River, Nevada (United States)

    Carroll, R. W. H.; Warwick, J. J.; James, A. I.; Miller, J. R.


    The Carson River in west-central Nevada is one of the most mercury contaminated fluvial systems in North America. Most of its mercury is affiliated with channel bank material and floodplain deposits, with the movement of mercury through this system being highly dependent on sediment transport processes, particularly during overbank flows. To simulate these extreme situations, a United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) hydrodynamic model (RIVMOD) was modified to include the 'divided channel approach' to estimate floodplain depths and velocities. The RIVMOD code was also augmented to allow dynamic width increases in the channel. Calibrated bank erosion functions, developed for the US EPA water quality model (WASP5), suggest that bank erosion is significantly greater at flows above bankfull discharge when compared to flows confined to the main channel. Verification of the bank erosion model matched observed width increases in 7 out of 10 reaches, with general trends matched in two of the remaining three reaches. Results also indicate that a single major flood event is responsible for nearly 87% of the total mass eroded during the period from 1991 to 1997. Overbank deposition was modeled using separate functions for coarse suspended sediment and washload material. Overbank deposition results are also in good agreement with observed values.

  10. Global to local scale simulations of streamflow in the Merced, American, and Carson Rivers, Sierra Nevada, California (United States)

    Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Mo, K.; Jeton, A.E.


    Atmospheric moisture transport and moisture budgets during winter (December-April) simulated by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) regional spectral model (RSM) are examined and used to simulate streamflow variations in the Sierra Nevada. The RSM was nested in 2"-latitude x 2"-longitude NCEPreanalyzed atmospheric-data fields (as a surrogate for a perfect forecast system operating at the global scale). Precipitation, temperature, and solar insolation simulated by the RSM on a 50-km grid were inputted directly to precipitation-runoff models of the Merced, American, and Carson Rivers in an evaluation of the potential for end-to-end forecasting of streamflow and snowmelt runoff from the Sierra Nevada, near 39"N 120"W. Over the western United States, the RSM captures both patterns and magnitudes of precipitation (e.g., Fig. I illustrates observed and simulated precipitation for winter 1982-83). The RSM has dry biases in the Southeast and over the Gulf of Mexico, but it captures interannual and intraseasonal variations well. During most El Nifios, it simulates a precipitation dipole over the western states with wetter-than-normal conditions in California and drier-than-normal in the Pacific Northwest. The Northeast is relatively dry and the southern states are wet, as in observations. The RSM did equally well during La Niiia winters.

  11. Precipitation and runoff simulations of select perennial and ephemeral watersheds in the middle Carson River basin, Eagle, Dayton, and Churchill Valleys, west-central Nevada (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.


    The effect that land use may have on streamflow in the Carson River, and ultimately its impact on downstream users can be evaluated by simulating precipitation-runoff processes and estimating groundwater inflow in the middle Carson River in west-central Nevada. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, began a study in 2008 to evaluate groundwater flow in the Carson River basin extending from Eagle Valley to Churchill Valley, called the middle Carson River basin in this report. This report documents the development and calibration of 12 watershed models and presents model results and the estimated mean annual water budgets for the modeled watersheds. This part of the larger middle Carson River study will provide estimates of runoff tributary to the Carson River and the potential for groundwater inflow (defined here as that component of recharge derived from percolation of excess water from the soil zone to the groundwater reservoir). The model used for the study was the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Models were developed for 2 perennial watersheds in Eagle Valley having gaged daily mean runoff, Ash Canyon Creek and Clear Creek, and for 10 ephemeral watersheds in the Dayton Valley and Churchill Valley hydrologic areas. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for the 2 perennial watersheds and for the 10 ephemeral watersheds by limited indirect runoff estimates and by mean annual runoff estimates derived from empirical methods. The models were further constrained by limited climate data adjusted for altitude differences using annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study. The calibration periods were water years 1980-2007 for Ash Canyon Creek, and water years 1991-2007 for Clear Creek. To

  12. Mercury and drought along the lower Carson River, Nevada: II. Snowy egret and black-crowned night-heron reproduction on Lahontan Reservoir, 1997-2006 (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Henny, C.J.; Grove, R.A.


    Mercury concentrations in the floodplain of the Carson River Basin in northwestern Nevada are some of the highest ever reported in a natural system. Thus, a portion of the basin including Lahontan Reservoir was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Natural Priorities List for research and cleanup. Preliminary studies indicated that reproduction in piscivorous birds may be at risk. Therefore, a 10-year study (1997-2006) was conducted to evaluate reproduction of snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) nesting on Gull Island in Lahontan Reservoir. Special attention was given to the annual flow of the Carson River, the resultant fluctuation of this irrigation reservoir, and the annual exposure of snowy egrets and night-herons to methylmercury (MeHg). The dynamic character of the river due to flooding and drought (drought effect) influenced snowy egret and night-heron reproduction more so than did MeHg contamination of eggs. During an extended drought (2000-2004) in the middle of the study, snowy egret nests containing eggs with concentrations of MeHg (measured as total mercury [THg] ??? 100% MeHg) ???0.80 ??g THg/g, ww, all failed, but in 1997 and 2006 (wet years with general flooding), substantial numbers of young were produced (but fewer than at nests where eggs contained Science+Business Media, LLC.

  13. Nitrogen budget in the Changjiang River drainage area (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Cao, Xihua


    We established a budget model of nitrogen (N) inputs and outputs between watersheds and waterbodies to determine the sources of riverine N in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River drainage area. Nitrogen inputs in the budget included N from synthetic fertilizer, biological fixation by leguminous and other crops, wet/dry atmospheric deposition, excreta from humans and animals, and crop residues. The total N input was estimated to be 17.6 Tg, of which 20% or 3.5 Tg N was transported into waterbodies. Of the total N transported into waterbodies, the largest proportion was N from animal waste (26%), followed by N from atmospheric wet/dry deposition (25%), synthetic fertilizer N (17%), N in sewage wastes (17%), N in human waste from rural areas (6%) and industrial wastewater N (9%). We studied the spatial patterns of N inputs and outputs by dividing the Changjiang River drainage area into four sub-basins, from upstream to downstream: the Tongtian River drainage area (TTD, the headwater drainage area, 138 000 km2, less disturbed by human activities); the Jinsha River drainage area (JSD, 347 000 km2, less disturbed by human activities, approx. 3 500 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary); the Pingshan-Yichang drainage area (PYD, 520 500 km2, large-scale human disturbance, about 2 000 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary); and the Yichang-Datong drainage area (YDD, 699 900 km2, large-scale human disturbance, approx. 620 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary). The average N input into waterbodies was 2.3, 7.3, 24.1, and 28.2 kg N/ha in the TTD, JSD, PYD, and YDD sub-basins, respectively, suggesting an increase of N-components of more than 10 times from upstream to downstream areas.

  14. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Carson River basin, Nevada and California; analysis of available water-quality data through 1987 (United States)

    Welch, A.H.; Plume, R.W.; Frick, E.A.; Hughes, J.L.


    Data on groundwater quality, hydrogeology, and land and water use for the Carson River basin, Nevada and California were analyzed as part of the U. S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program. The basin consists of six hydrographic areas--a mountainous headwaters area and five downstream areas interconnected by the Carson River. Each valley contains one or more basin-fill aquifers. The data on groundwater quality came from several agencies and were screened to verify site location and to avoid analyses of treated water. The screened data are stored in the U. S. Geological Survey National Water Information System data base. Differences in sample-collection and preservation procedures among some of the data-collection agencies restrict use of the data to a descriptive analysis. Drinking water standards were employed as the basis for evaluating reported concentrations. Frequencies with which primary or secondary standards are exceeded increase from upstream parts of the basin to downstream parts. Primary standards commonly exceeded are fluoride in upstream areas and arsenic and fluoride in downstream areas. Secondary standards commonly exceeded are iron and manganese in upstream areas and chloride, dissolved solids, iron, manganese, and sulfate in downstream areas. The poorer-quality groundwater generally is a result of natural geochemical reactions, rather than the introduction of chemicals by man. Limited data indicate, however , that manmade organic compounds are present, mostly at or near urban land. (USGS)

  15. Long-term trends of surface-water mercury and methylmercury concentrations downstream of historic mining within the Carson River watershed (United States)

    Morway, Eric D.; Thodal, Carl E.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.


    The Carson River is a vital water resource for local municipalities and migratory birds travelling the Pacific Flyway. Historic mining practices that used mercury (Hg) to extract gold from Comstock Lode ore has left much of the river system heavily contaminated with Hg, a practice that continues in many parts of the world today. Between 1998 and 2013, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) collected and analyzed Carson River water for Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations resulting in a sixteen year record of unfiltered total mercury (uf.THg), filtered (dissolved) Hg (f.THg), total methylmercury (uf.MeHg), filtered MeHg (f.MeHg), and particulate-bound THg (p.THg) and MeHg (p.MeHg) concentrations. This represents one of the longest continuous records of Hg speciation data for any riverine system, thereby providing a unique opportunity to evaluate long-term trends in concentrations and annual loads. During the period of analysis, uf.THg concentration and load trended downward at rates of −0.85% and −1.8% per year, respectively. Conversely, the f.THg concentration increased at a rate of 1.7% per year between 1998 and 2005, and 4.9% per year between 2005 and 2013. Trends in flow-normalized partition coefficients for both Hg and MeHg suggest a statistically significant shift from the particulate to the filtered phase. The upwardly accelerating f.THg concentration and observed shift from the solid phase to the aqueous phase among the pools of Hg and MeHg within the river water column signals an increased risk of deteriorating ecological conditions in the lower basin with respect to Hg contamination. More broadly, the 16-year trend analysis, completed 140 years after the commencement of major Hg releases to the Carson River, provides a poignant example of the ongoing legacy left behind by gold and silver mining techniques that relied on Hg amalgamation, and a cautionary tale for regions still pursuing the practice in other countries.

  16. Long-term trends of surface-water mercury and methylmercury concentrations downstream of historic mining within the Carson River watershed. (United States)

    Morway, Eric D; Thodal, Carl E; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark


    The Carson River is a vital water resource for local municipalities and migratory birds travelling the Pacific Flyway. Historic mining practices that used mercury (Hg) to extract gold from Comstock Lode ore has left much of the river system heavily contaminated with Hg, a practice that continues in many parts of the world today. Between 1998 and 2013, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) collected and analyzed Carson River water for Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations resulting in a sixteen year record of unfiltered total mercury (uf.THg), filtered (dissolved) Hg (f.THg), total methylmercury (uf.MeHg), filtered MeHg (f.MeHg), and particulate-bound THg (p.THg) and MeHg (p.MeHg) concentrations. This represents one of the longest continuous records of Hg speciation data for any riverine system, thereby providing a unique opportunity to evaluate long-term trends in concentrations and annual loads. During the period of analysis, uf.THg concentration and load trended downward at rates of -0.85% and -1.8% per year, respectively. Conversely, the f.THg concentration increased at a rate of 1.7% per year between 1998 and 2005, and 4.9% per year between 2005 and 2013. Trends in flow-normalized partition coefficients for both Hg and MeHg suggest a statistically significant shift from the particulate to the filtered phase. The upwardly accelerating f.THg concentration and observed shift from the solid phase to the aqueous phase among the pools of Hg and MeHg within the river water column signals an increased risk of deteriorating ecological conditions in the lower basin with respect to Hg contamination. More broadly, the 16-year trend analysis, completed 140 years after the commencement of major Hg releases to the Carson River, provides a poignant example of the ongoing legacy left behind by gold and silver mining techniques that relied on Hg amalgamation, and a cautionary tale for regions still pursuing the practice in other countries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Streamflow distribution maps for the Cannon River drainage basin, southeast Minnesota, and the St. Louis River drainage basin, northeast Minnesota (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Sanocki, Chris A.; Lorenz, David L.; Jacobsen, Katrin E.


    Streamflow distribution maps for the Cannon River and St. Louis River drainage basins were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Legislative-Citizen Commission on Minnesota Resources, to illustrate relative and cumulative streamflow distributions. The Cannon River was selected to provide baseline data to assess the effects of potential surficial sand mining, and the St. Louis River was selected to determine the effects of ongoing Mesabi Iron Range mining. Each drainage basin (Cannon, St. Louis) was subdivided into nested drainage basins: the Cannon River was subdivided into 152 nested drainage basins, and the St. Louis River was subdivided into 353 nested drainage basins. For each smaller drainage basin, the estimated volumes of groundwater discharge (as base flow) and surface runoff flowing into all surface-water features were displayed under the following conditions: (1) extreme low-flow conditions, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.95; (2) low-flow conditions, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.90; (3) a median condition, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.50; and (4) a high-flow condition, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.02.Streamflow distribution maps were developed using flow-duration curve exceedance-probability quantiles in conjunction with Soil-Water-Balance model outputs; both the flow-duration curve and Soil-Water-Balance models were built upon previously published U.S. Geological Survey reports. The selected streamflow distribution maps provide a proactive water management tool for State cooperators by illustrating flow rates during a range of hydraulic conditions. Furthermore, after the nested drainage basins are highlighted in terms of surface-water flows, the streamflows can be evaluated in the context of meeting specific ecological flows under different flow regimes and potentially assist with decisions regarding groundwater and surface

  18. Does fish ecology predict dispersal across a river drainage divide? (United States)

    Burridge, Christopher P; Craw, Dave; Jack, Daniel C; King, Tania M; Waters, Jonathan M


    Obligate freshwater taxa are frequently distributed among catchments isolated by marine and terrestrial barriers. Such distributions can arise through vicariant changes in drainage geometry, or dispersal via intermittent freshwater connections. We employed two adjacent rivers in southern New Zealand to test for interdrainage dispersal while controlling for historical drainage geometry, and analyzed four ecologically distinct freshwater-limited fish taxa to assess any relationship with habitat preference. Individuals from the Mararoa and Oreti catchments (n >100 per species) were sequenced for a minimum of 1297 bp of mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b and control region). Phylogeographic relationships were consistent with ecological expectations of interdrainage dispersal capability, with the two obligate riverine taxa each exhibiting reciprocal monophyly between catchments, whereas the two facultative swamp dwellers revealed paraphyletic relationships, one of which shared a haplotype between catchments. Statistical phylogeography, accommodating taxon-specific mutation rates and the known age of the last major riverine connection between these catchments, rejected complete isolation of populations for one of the swamp dwellers. Therefore, dispersal across a young (145-240 kyr) drainage divide is inferred for one species, and can be predicted to some extent by species ecology. Moreover, our study highlights the importance of historical drainage geometry when assessing the causes of contemporary genetic structuring in freshwater taxa.

  19. Hampton Lawrence Carson

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    visiting scientists who wished to study Hawaiian fauna,. Carson acted as a focal point for facilitating field studies by visiting scientists. Carson also served as president of both the. Society for the Study of Evolution and the American Society of Naturalists, and was elected to the National Academy of. Sciences USA in 1979, ...

  20. Erosion in the juniata river drainage basin, Pennsylvania (United States)

    Sevon, W.D.


    Previously calculated erosion rates througouth the Appalachians range from 1.2 to 203 m Myr-1. Calculation of erosion rates has been accomplished by: (1) evaluation of riverine solute and sediment load in either large or small drainage basins; (2) estimation from the volume of derived sediments; and (3) methods involving either 10Be or fission-track dating. Values of specific conductance and suspended sediment collected at the Juniata River gauging station at Newport, Pennsylvania are used, with corrections, along with a bedload estimate to determine the total amount eroded from the 8687 km2 drainage basin during the water years 1965-1986. The amount eroded is used to calculate a present erosion rate of 27 m Myr-1. ?? 1989.

  1. Mercury and drought along the lower Carson River, Nevada: I. Snowy egret and black-crowned night-heron annual exposure to mercury, 1997-2006 (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Hill, E.F.; Grove, R.A.; Kaiser, J.L.


    The dynamic nature of the annual volume of water discharged down the Carson River over a 10-year period, which included a century flood and drought, was examined in order to gain a better understanding of mercury movement, biological availability, and exposure to waterbirds nesting at Lahontan Reservoir. Total annual water discharge directly influenced total mercury (THg) in unfiltered water above the reservoir and downstream of a mining area, whereas methyl mercury (MeHg) at the same site was negatively related to annual discharge. Annual water storage at Lahontan Reservoir in the spring and early summer, as expected, was directly related to annual Carson River discharge. In contrast to the findings from above the reservoir, annual MeHg concentrations in water sampled below the reservoir were positively correlated with the total discharge and the amount of water stored in the reservoir on 1 July; that is, the reservoir is an important location for mercury methylation, which agrees with earlier findings. However, unfiltered water MeHg concentrations were about 10-fold higher above than below the reservoir, which indicated that much MeHg that entered as well as that produced in the reservoir settled out in the reservoir. Avian exposure to mercury at Lahontan Reservoir was evaluated in both eggs and blood of young snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax). Annual MeHg concentrations in unfiltered water below the reservoir, during the time period (Julian Days 90-190) when birds were present, correlated significantly with mercury concentrations in night-heron blood (r 2= 0.461, p = 0.027), snowy egret blood (r 2= 0.474, p = 0.024), and night-heron eggs (r 2 = 0.447, p = 0.029), but not snowy egret eggs. A possible reason for lack of an MeHg water correlation with snowy egret eggs is discussed and relates to potential exposure differences associated with the food habits of both species. THg concentrations in water collected

  2. Simulated hydrologic responses to climate variations and change in the Merced, Carson, and American River basins, Sierra Nevada, California, 1900-2099 * (United States)

    Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Meyer, M.K.; Jeton, A.


    Hydrologic responses of river basins in the Sierra Nevada of California to historical and future climate variations and changes are assessed by simulating daily streamflow and water-balance responses to simulated climate variations over a continuous 200-yr period. The coupled atmosphere-ocean-ice-land Parallel Climate Model provides the simulated climate histories, and existing hydrologic models of the Merced, Carson, and American Rivers are used to simulate the basin responses. The historical simulations yield stationary climate and hydrologic variations through the first part of the 20th century until about 1975 when temperatures begin to warm noticeably and when snowmelt and streamflow peaks begin to occur progressively earlier within the seasonal cycle. A future climate simulated with business-as-usual increases in greenhouse-gas and aerosol radiative forcings continues those recent trends through the 21st century with an attendant +2.5??C warming and a hastening of snowmelt and streamflow within the seasonal cycle by almost a month. The various projected trends in the business-as-usual simulations become readily visible despite realistic simulated natural climatic and hydrologic variability by about 2025. In contrast to these changes that are mostly associated with streamflow timing, long-term average totals of streamflow and other hydrologic fluxes remain similar to the historical mean in all three simulations. A control simulation in which radiative forcings are held constant at 1995 levels for the 50 years following 1995 yields climate and streamflow timing conditions much like the 1980s and 1990s throughout its duration. The availability of continuous climate-change projection outputs and careful design of initial conditions and control experiments, like those utilized here, promise to improve the quality and usability of future climate-change impact assessments.

  3. Habitat use of age 0 Alabama shad in the Pascagoula River drainage, USA (United States)

    P. F. Mickle; J.F. Schaefer; S.B. Adams; B.R. Kreiser


    Alabama shad (Alosa alabamae) is an anadromous species that spawns in Gulf of Mexico drainages and is a NOAA Fisheries Species of Concern. Habitat degradation and barriers to migration are considered contributing factors to range contraction that has left just the Pascagoula River drainage population in Mississippi. We studied juvenile life history and autecology in...

  4. LBA-ECO CD-06 Amazon River Basin Land and Stream Drainage Direction Maps (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides high-resolution (~500 m) gridded land and stream drainage direction maps for the Amazon River basin, excluding the Rio Tocantins basin. These...

  5. LBA-ECO CD-06 Amazon River Basin Land and Stream Drainage Direction Maps (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides high-resolution (~500 m) gridded land and stream drainage direction maps for the Amazon River basin, excluding the Rio Tocantins...

  6. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River and Salmon River Drainages, Idaho, 2009 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher [Idaho Department of Fish and Game


    Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have received little attention in fishery science until recently, even though abundance has declined significantly along with other anadromous fish species in Idaho. Pacific lamprey in Idaho have to navigate over eight lower Snake River and Columbia River hydroelectric facilities for migration downstream as juveniles to the Pacific Ocean and again as adults migrating upstream to their freshwater spawning grounds in Idaho. The number of adult Pacific lamprey annually entering the Snake River basin at Ice Harbor Dam has declined from an average of over 18,000 during 1962-1969 to fewer than 600 during 1998-2006. Based on potential accessible streams and adult escapement over Lower Granite Dam on the lower Snake River, we estimate that no more than 200 Pacific lamprey adult spawners annually utilize the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho for spawning. We utilized electrofishing in 2000-2006 to capture, enumerate, and obtain biological information regarding rearing Pacific lamprey ammocoetes and macropthalmia to determine the distribution and status of the species in the Clearwater River drainage, Idaho. Present distribution in the Clearwater River drainage is limited to the lower sections of the Lochsa and Selway rivers, the Middle Fork Clearwater River, the mainstem Clearwater River, the South Fork Clearwater River, and the lower 7.5 km of the Red River. In 2006, younger age classes were absent from the Red River.

  7. Mercury and drought along the lower Carson River, Nevada: IV. Snowy egret post-fledging dispersal, timing of migration and survival, 2002–2004 (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.; Hill, Elwood F.; Grove, Robert A.; Chelgren, Nathan; Haggerty, Patricia K.


    This telemetry study is an extension of our 1997–2006 research on historical mercury contamination on snowy egrets (Egretta thula) up to ~ 20 days of age. Findings from initial studies at the mercury-contaminated Carson River colony at Lahontan Reservoir (LR) and a similar-sized reference (REF) colony on the Humboldt River included mercury-related physiological, biochemical, histopathological and reproductive effects up to ~20 days of age; with poor water years (2000–04), i.e., reduced prey availability, exacerbating effects. Herein, we compare timing of dispersal and migration at LR vs. REF, but the primary question now addressed is “whether survival of young mercury-exposed snowy egrets from LR would be further compromised beyond ~20 days of age? ” Based upon telemetry signals until 90–110 days of age (including dead bird counts and survival rate estimates), we conclude that mercury did not further compromise survival. Dead bird counts and survival rate estimates included time in the colony when fed by adults, plus the critical period when young dispersed from the colony to forage independently. The extended drought during this 3-year study was most critical in 2002 when production of ~20 d old egrets at LR was only 0.24 young/nest. In 2002, survival rates were low at both colonies and we documented the highest counts of dead egrets for both colonies. We suggest the losses in 2002 beyond 20 days of age were more a function of prey availability influenced by drought than exposure to mercury, especially at LR, because higher mercury concentrations, higher survival rates and fewer dead birds were documented at LR in 2003 when water conditions improved. Furthermore, total mercury (THg) in blood in 2003 was more than double 2002 (geometric mean, 3.39 vs 1.47 µg/g wet weight (ww). This higher THg exposure at LR in 2003 was associated with a redistribution of parent and post-dispersal feeding activities upstream (where there was higher mercury from historic

  8. Oxynoemacheilus zarzianus, a new loach from the Lesser Zab River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae). (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Geiger, Matthias


    Oxynoemacheilus zarzianus, new species, is described from the Lesser Zab River drainage, a tributary of the lower Tigris. It is distinguished from other Oxynoemacheilus species in the Tigris drainage by having a slightly emarginate caudal fin, no suborbital groove in males, a complete lateral line, the posterior process of the bony air-bladder capsule directed posteriorly, the flank and posterior part of back covered by scales, short barbels and a deep caudal peduncle. It is the fourth Oxynoemacheilus species known from the Lesser Zab drainage, where such loaches seem to be highly isolated in headwaters. Oxynoemacheilus species diversity in the Euphrates and Tigris drainage is exceptional high. Today 22 species are known from the entire Euphrates and Tigris drainage and 15 from the Tigris drainage alone.

  9. Macroinvertebrate community response to acid mine drainage in rivers of the High Andes (Bolivia).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damme, P.A. van; Hamel, C.; Ayala, A.; Bervoets, L.


    Several High Andes Rivers are characterized by inorganic water pollution known as acid mine drainage (AMD). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between metal concentrations in the sediments and the macroinvertebrate communities in two river basins affected by AMD. In general, the

  10. Power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins (United States)

    Veitzer, S.A.; Troutman, B.M.; Gupta, V.K.


    The significance of power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins was discussed. The convergence to a power law was not observed for all underlying distributions, but for a large class of statistical distributions with specific limiting properties. The article also discussed about the scaling properties of topologic and geometric network properties in river basins.

  11. Reconstruction of North American drainage basins and river discharge since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Wickert


    Full Text Available Over the last glacial cycle, ice sheets and the resultant glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA rearranged river systems. As these riverine threads that tied the ice sheets to the sea were stretched, severed, and restructured, they also shrank and swelled with the pulse of meltwater inputs and time-varying drainage basin areas, and sometimes delivered enough meltwater to the oceans in the right places to influence global climate. Here I present a general method to compute past river flow paths, drainage basin geometries, and river discharges, by combining models of past ice sheets, glacial isostatic adjustment, and climate. The result is a time series of synthetic paleohydrographs and drainage basin maps from the Last Glacial Maximum to present for nine major drainage basins – the Mississippi, Rio Grande, Colorado, Columbia, Mackenzie, Hudson Bay, Saint Lawrence, Hudson, and Susquehanna/Chesapeake Bay. These are based on five published reconstructions of the North American ice sheets. I compare these maps with drainage reconstructions and discharge histories based on a review of observational evidence, including river deposits and terraces, isotopic records, mineral provenance markers, glacial moraine histories, and evidence of ice stream and tunnel valley flow directions. The sharp boundaries of the reconstructed past drainage basins complement the flexurally smoothed GIA signal that is more often used to validate ice-sheet reconstructions, and provide a complementary framework to reduce nonuniqueness in model reconstructions of the North American ice-sheet complex.

  12. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher


    In 2002 Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, and Middle Fork Clearwater River subbasins. Five-hundred forty-one ammocoetes were captured electroshocking 70 sites in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, Middle Fork Clearwater River, Clearwater River, and their tributaries in 2002. Habitat utilization surveys in Red River support previous work indicating Pacific lamprey ammocoete densities are greater in lateral scour pool habitats compared to riffles and rapids. Presence-absence survey findings in 2002 augmented 2000 and 2001 indicating Pacific lamprey macrothalmia and ammocoetes are not numerous or widely distributed. Pacific lamprey distribution was confined to the lower reaches of Red River below rkm 8.0, the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River (Ginger Creek to mouth), Selway River (Race Creek to mouth), Middle Fork Clearwater River, and the Clearwater River (downstream to Potlatch River).

  13. Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India (United States)

    Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish


    Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

  14. Explanation of the values of Hack's drainage basin, river length scaling exponent (United States)

    Hunt, A. G.


    Percolation theory can be used to find water flow paths of least resistance. The application of percolation theory to drainage networks allows identification of the range of exponent values that describe the tortuosity of rivers in real river networks, which is then used to generate the observed scaling between drainage basin area and channel length, a relationship known as Hack's law. Such a theoretical basis for Hack's law allows interpretation of the range of exponent values based on an assessment of the heterogeneity of the substrate.

  15. Brief communication: Possible explanation of the values of Hack's drainage basin, river length scaling exponent (United States)

    Hunt, Allen G.


    Percolation theory can be used to find water flow paths of least resistance. Application of percolation theory to drainage networks allows identification of the range of exponent values that describe the tortuosity of rivers in real river networks, which is then used to generate the observed scaling between drainage basin area and channel length, a relationship known as Hack's law. Such a theoretical basis for Hack's law may allow interpretation of the range of exponent values based on an assessment of the heterogeneity of the substrate.

  16. Assessing potential effects of changes in water use with a numerical groundwater-flow model of Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada, and Alpine County, California (United States)

    Yager, Richard M.; Maurer, Douglas K.; Mayers, C.J.


    -capacity data. The estimated vertical anisotropy for the Quaternary fluvial sediments (9,000) is comparable to the value estimated for a previous model of Carson Valley. The estimated total volume of mountain-front recharge is equivalent to a previous estimate from the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) watershed models, but less recharge is estimated for the Carson Range and more recharge is estimated for the Pine Nut Mountains than the previous estimate. Simulated flow paths indicate that groundwater flows faster through the center of Carson Valley and slower through the lower hydraulic-conductivity Tertiary sediments to the east. Shallow flow in the center of the valley is towards drainage channels, but deeper flow is generally directed toward the basin outlet to the north. The aquifer system is in a dynamic equilibrium with large inflows from storage in dry years and large outflows to storage in wet years. Pumping has historically been less than 10 percent of outflows from the groundwater system, and agricultural recharge has been less than 10 percent of inflows to the groundwater system. Three principal sources of uncertainty that affect model results are: (1) the hydraulic characteristics of the Tertiary sediments on the eastern side of the basin, (2) the composition of sediments beneath the alluvial fans and (3) the extent of the confining unit represented within fluvial sediments in the center of the basin. The groundwater-flow model was used in five 55-year predictive simulations to evaluate the long-term effects of different water-use scenarios on water-budget components, groundwater levels, and streamflow in the Carson River. The predictive simulations represented water years 2006 through 2060 using quarterly stress periods with boundary conditions that varied cyclically to represent the transition from wet to dry conditions observed from water years 1995 through 2004. The five scenarios included a base scenario with 2005 pumping rates held constant

  17. Fort Carson Wind Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.


    This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and economic potential of a wind turbine project on a ridge in the southeastern portion of the Fort Carson Army base.

  18. Development of storm hydrographs for three rivers within drainage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design storm hydrographs corresponding to.the excess rainfall values were determined based on the unit hydrograph ordinates established through convolution. The design storm hydrograph obtain~d for Moro River catchment based on 5-yr, 20~yr~ 50-yr, 100-yr and 200-yr return period ranged between 245.29m3/s ...

  19. River piracy and drainage basin reorganization led by climate-driven glacier retreat (United States)

    Shugar, Daniel H.; Clague, John J.; Best, James L.; Schoof, Christian; Willis, Michael J.; Copland, Luke; Roe, Gerard H.


    River piracy--the diversion of the headwaters of one stream into another one--can dramatically change the routing of water and sediment, with a profound effect on landscape evolution. Stream piracy has been investigated in glacial environments, but so far it has mainly been studied over Quaternary or longer timescales. Here we document how retreat of Kaskawulsh Glacier--one of Canada's largest glaciers--abruptly and radically altered the regional drainage pattern in spring 2016. We use a combination of hydrological measurements and drone-generated digital elevation models to show that in late May 2016, meltwater from the glacier was re-routed from discharge in a northward direction into the Bering Sea, to southward into the Pacific Ocean. Based on satellite image analysis and a signal-to-noise ratio as a metric of glacier retreat, we conclude that this instance of river piracy was due to post-industrial climate change. Rapid regional drainage reorganizations of this type can have profound downstream impacts on ecosystems, sediment and carbon budgets, and downstream communities that rely on a stable and sustained discharge. We suggest that the planforms of Slims and Kaskawulsh rivers will adjust in response to altered flows, and the future Kaskawulsh watershed will extend into the now-abandoned headwaters of Slims River and eventually capture the Kluane Lake drainage.

  20. Discovery of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae, Pterygoplichthys spp.) in the Santa Fe River drainage, Suwannee River basin, USA (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Butt, Peter L.; Johnston, Gerald R.; Jelks, Howard L.; Kail, Matthew; Walsh, Stephen J.


    We report on the occurrence of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) in the Suwannee River basin, southeastern USA. Over the past few years (2009-2012), loricariid catfishes have been observed at various sites in the Santa Fe River drainage, a major tributary of the Suwannee in the state of Florida. Similar to other introduced populations of Pterygoplichthys, there is high likelihood of hybridization. To date, we have captured nine specimens (270-585 mm, standard length) in the Santa Fe River drainage. One specimen taken from Poe Spring best agrees with Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps (Kner, 1854) or may be a hybrid with either P. pardalis or P. disjunctivus. The other specimens were taken from several sites in the drainage and include seven that best agree with Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991); and one a possible P. disjunctivus x P. pardalis hybrid. We observed additional individuals, either these or similar appearing loricariids, in Hornsby and Poe springs and at various sites upstream and downstream of the long (> 4 km) subterranean portion of the Santa Fe River. These specimens represent the first confirmed records of Pterygoplichthys in the Suwannee River basin. The P. gibbiceps specimen represents the first documented record of an adult or near adult of this species in open waters of North America. Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus or its hybrids (perhaps hybrid swarms) are already abundant and widespread in other parts of peninsular Florida, but the Santa Fe River represents a northern extension of the catfish in the state. Pterygoplichthys are still relatively uncommon in the Santa Fe drainage and successful reproduction not yet documented. However, in May 2012 we captured five adult catfish (two mature or maturing males and three gravid females) from a single riverine swallet pool. One male was stationed at a nest burrow (no eggs present). To survive the occasional harsh Florida winters, these South American catfish apparently use

  1. 137Cs distribution and geochemistry of Lena River (Siberia) drainage basin lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson-Pyrtle, A.; Scott, M.R.; Laing, T.E.; Smol, J.P.


    The Lena River is the second largest river that discharges into the Arctic Ocean. It is therefore important to determine not only the direct impact its discharge has on the 137Cs concentration of the Arctic, but also the potential its drainage basin has as a 137Cs source. 137Cs surface sediment concentrations and inventory values, which range from 4.97 to 338 Bq kg -1 and 357 to 1732 Bq m -2 , respectively, were determined for the Lena River drainage basin lake samples, via gamma analysis. The average geochemical and mineralogical composition of a subset of samples was also determined using neutron activation analysis, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry techniques. Results of these geochemical analyses allowed for the identification of key geochemical factors that influence the distribution of 137Cs in the Lena River drainage basin. 137Cs profiles indicate that Lena River drainage basin lacustrine sediments serve as a record of 137Cs fallout. Based on the downcore 137Cs, %illite, %smectite, %Al and %Mn distribution patterns, it was concluded that a small fraction of non-selectively bound 137Cs was remobilized at depth in some cores. Inconsistencies between the actual 137Cs fallout record and the 137Cs profiles determined for the lake sediments were attributed to 137Cs remobilization in subsurface sediments. In addition to establishing the agreement between the global atmospheric fallout record and the downcore 137Cs distribution patterns determined for these sediments, results indicate that 137Cs deposited during periods of maximum atmospheric release was buried and is not susceptible to surface erosion processes. However, mean 137Cs concentrations of the lacustrine surface sediments (125 Bq kg -1 ) are still significantly higher than those of the nearby Lena River estuary (11.22 Bq kg -1 ) and Laptev Sea (6.00 Bq kg -1 ). Our study suggests that the Lena River drainage basin has the potential to serve as a source of 137Cs to the adjacent Arctic

  2. A multimedia fugacity river model of pentachlorophenol in South Drainage Canal, China. (United States)

    Chi, Jie; Huang, Guo-Lan


    An investigation of Pentachlorophenol (PCP) in South Drainage Canal and Haihe Estuary, Tianjin, China was carried out from 1998 to 1999. PCP was found in each sample of the surface microlayer, subsurface water, sediment and air. The waste drainage from a PCP-producing plant was the main pollution source of PCP to Haihe Estuary. The enrichment phenomenon of PCP in the surface microlayer was reported for the first time. The maximum enrichment factor was 4.11. A multimedia (including air, the surface microlayer, water and sediment) fugacity river model was established and successfully applied to fate data for pentachlorophenol in South Drainage Canal. The results showed that under steady state, 97.09% of the loaded PCP was removed by advective outflow into Bohai Bay and 2.46% was by the biodegradation in the water phase. The residue of PCP in South Drainage Canal mainly distributed (99.56%) in the water phase. The discharge rate of PCP from South Drainage Canal to Bohai Bay was 53.4 kg/h.

  3. Study of environmental pollution and mineralogical characterization of sediment rivers from Brazilian coal mining acid drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development – IPADH, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Fdez- Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Castro, Kepa [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV), P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development – IPADH, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Sampaio, Carlos H.; Brum, Irineu A.S. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Leão, Felipe B. de; Taffarel, Silvio R. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Madariaga, Juan M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV), P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)


    Acid drainage from coal mines and metal mining is a major source of underground and surface water contamination in the world. The coal mining acid drainage (CMAD) from mine contains large amount of solids in suspension and a high content of sulphate and dissolved metals (Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, etc.) that finally are deposited in the rivers. Since this problem can persist for centuries after mine abandonment, it is necessary to apply multidisciplinary methods to determine the potential risk in a determinate area. These multidisciplinary methods must include molecular and elemental analysis and finally all information must be studied statistically. This methodology was used in the case of coal mining acid drainage from the Tubarao River (Santa Catarina, Brazil). During molecular analysis, Raman Spectroscopy, electron bean, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been proven very useful for the study of minerals present in sediment rivers near this CMAD. The obtained spectra allow the precise identification of the minerals as jarosite, quartz, clays, etc. The elemental analysis (Al, As, Fe, K, Na, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ti, V, Zn, Ag, Co, Li, Mo, Ni, Se, Sn, W, B, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sr) was realised by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis) of these dates of concentration reveals the existence of different groups of samples with specific pollution profiles in different areas of the Tubarao River. Highlights: ► Increasing coal drainage sediments geochemical information will increase human health information in this area. ► Brazilian coal mining information will increase recuperation planning information. ► The nanominerals showed strong sorption ability to aqueous hazardous elements.

  4. Study of environmental pollution and mineralogical characterization of sediment rivers from Brazilian coal mining acid drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luis F.O.; Fdez- Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Castro, Kepa; Oliveira, Marcos L.S.; Sampaio, Carlos H.; Brum, Irineu A.S. de; Leão, Felipe B. de; Taffarel, Silvio R.; Madariaga, Juan M.


    Acid drainage from coal mines and metal mining is a major source of underground and surface water contamination in the world. The coal mining acid drainage (CMAD) from mine contains large amount of solids in suspension and a high content of sulphate and dissolved metals (Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, etc.) that finally are deposited in the rivers. Since this problem can persist for centuries after mine abandonment, it is necessary to apply multidisciplinary methods to determine the potential risk in a determinate area. These multidisciplinary methods must include molecular and elemental analysis and finally all information must be studied statistically. This methodology was used in the case of coal mining acid drainage from the Tubarao River (Santa Catarina, Brazil). During molecular analysis, Raman Spectroscopy, electron bean, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been proven very useful for the study of minerals present in sediment rivers near this CMAD. The obtained spectra allow the precise identification of the minerals as jarosite, quartz, clays, etc. The elemental analysis (Al, As, Fe, K, Na, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ti, V, Zn, Ag, Co, Li, Mo, Ni, Se, Sn, W, B, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sr) was realised by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis) of these dates of concentration reveals the existence of different groups of samples with specific pollution profiles in different areas of the Tubarao River. Highlights: ► Increasing coal drainage sediments geochemical information will increase human health information in this area. ► Brazilian coal mining information will increase recuperation planning information. ► The nanominerals showed strong sorption ability to aqueous hazardous elements

  5. Arsenic and chloride data for five stream sites in the Madison River drainage, Montana, 1988 (United States)

    Knapton, J.R.; Brosten, Tordis M.


    Enriched geothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park contribute large quantities of arsenic to the Madison River. Because arsenic may be acutely or chronically toxic to humans when ingested, it is of concern in the upper Missouri River basin where the water is used for domestic purposes. In passage of water downstream, concentrations of arsenic in the Madison and Missouri Rivers are diluted by tributary inflows. However, insufficient information existed to describe concentrations during runoff at specific locations. As a result, a monitoring network was established to better define arsenic concentrations during the 1988 peak runoff and during periods prior to and following the runoff. In addition to arsenic, samples were analyzed for chloride because of its association with geothermal water and specific conductance because it is a surrogate measure of dissolved-solids concentration. This report presents data acquired during 1988 at five sampling stations in the Madison River drainage. (USGS)

  6. The role of discharge variation in scaling of drainage area and food chain length in rivers (United States)

    Sabo, John L.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Post, David M.


    Food chain length (FCL) is a fundamental component of food web structure. Studies in a variety of ecosystems suggest that FCL is determined by energy supply, environmental stability, and/or ecosystem size, but the nature of the relationship between environmental stability and FCL, and the mechanism linking ecosystem size to FCL, remain unclear. Here we show that FCL increases with drainage area and decreases with hydrologic variability and intermittency across 36 North American rivers. Our analysis further suggests that hydrologic variability is the mechanism underlying the correlation between ecosystem size and FCL in rivers. Ecosystem size lengthens river food chains by integrating and attenuating discharge variation through stream networks, thereby enhancing environmental stability in larger river systems.

  7. Nature of solute loads in the rivers of the Bengal drainage basin, Bangladesh (United States)

    Datta, Dilip K.; Subramanian, V.


    The Bengal drainage basin is geologically one of the youngest and tectonically most active denudation regimes of the world, and encompasses the total lower reaches of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) drainage basin. The GBM river system contributes around 4.5% of the total annual global freshwater flux to the oceans. The solute load of the GBM river system is dominated by the carbonate weathering products of the transport-limited denudation regime. However, in the Meghna basin, which drains a mountainous region, silicate weathering is slightly more predominant, and the solute load tends to be more influenced by the atmospheric contribution. The river system represents about 5% (152×10 6 t yr -1) of the annual global chemical flux to the world's oceans. The chemical denudation rate of the GBM system in the Bengal basin, is one of the world's highest (79-114 t km -2 yr -1), suggesting intensive weathering and erosion in the drainage basin both in Bangladesh as well as in the hinterlands of India and China.

  8. Drainage-basis-scale geomorphic analysis to determine refernce conditions for ecologic restoration-Kissimmee River, Florida (United States)

    Warne, A.G.; Toth, L.A.; White, W.A.


    Major controls on the retention, distribution, and discharge of surface water in the historic (precanal) Kissimmee drainage basin and river were investigated to determine reference conditions for ecosystem restoration. Precanal Kissimmee drainage-basin hydrology was largely controlled by landforms derived from relict, coastal ridge, lagoon, and shallow-shelf features; widespread carbonate solution depressions; and a poorly developed fluvial drainage network. Prior to channelization for flood control, the Kissimmee River was a very low gradient, moderately meandering river that flowed from Lake Kissimmee to Lake Okeechobee through the lower drainage basin. We infer that during normal wet seasons, river discharge rapidly exceeded Lake Okeechobee outflow capacity, and excess surface water backed up into the low-gradient Kissimmee River. This backwater effect induced bankfull and peak discharge early in the flood cycle and transformed the flood plain into a shallow aquatic system with both lacustrine and riverine characteristics. The large volumes of surface water retained in the lakes and wetlands of the upper basin maintained overbank flow conditions for several months after peak discharge. Analysis indicates that most of the geomorphic work on the channel and flood plain occurred during the frequently recurring extended periods of overbank discharge and that discharge volume may have been significant in determining channel dimensions. Comparison of hydrogeomorphic relationships with other river systems identified links between geomorphology and hydrology of the precanal Kissimmee River. However, drainage-basin and hydraulic geometry models derived solely from general populations of river systems may produce spurious reference conditions for restoration design criteria.

  9. Efficient meltwater drainage through supraglacial streams and rivers on the southwest Greenland ice sheet. (United States)

    Smith, Laurence C; Chu, Vena W; Yang, Kang; Gleason, Colin J; Pitcher, Lincoln H; Rennermalm, Asa K; Legleiter, Carl J; Behar, Alberto E; Overstreet, Brandon T; Moustafa, Samiah E; Tedesco, Marco; Forster, Richard R; LeWinter, Adam L; Finnegan, David C; Sheng, Yongwei; Balog, James


    Thermally incised meltwater channels that flow each summer across melt-prone surfaces of the Greenland ice sheet have received little direct study. We use high-resolution WorldView-1/2 satellite mapping and in situ measurements to characterize supraglacial water storage, drainage pattern, and discharge across 6,812 km(2) of southwest Greenland in July 2012, after a record melt event. Efficient surface drainage was routed through 523 high-order stream/river channel networks, all of which terminated in moulins before reaching the ice edge. Low surface water storage (3.6 ± 0.9 cm), negligible impoundment by supraglacial lakes or topographic depressions, and high discharge to moulins (2.54-2.81 cm⋅d(-1)) indicate that the surface drainage system conveyed its own storage volume every importance of supraglacial river drainage to true outflow from the ice edge. However, Isortoq discharges tended lower than runoff simulations from the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR) regional climate model (0.056-0.112 km(3)⋅d(-1) vs. ∼0.103 km(3)⋅d(-1)), and when integrated over the melt season, totaled just 37-75% of MAR, suggesting nontrivial subglacial water storage even in this melt-prone region of the ice sheet. We conclude that (i) the interior surface of the ice sheet can be efficiently drained under optimal conditions, (ii) that digital elevation models alone cannot fully describe supraglacial drainage and its connection to subglacial systems, and (iii) that predicting outflow from climate models alone, without recognition of subglacial processes, may overestimate true meltwater export from the ice sheet to the ocean.

  10. Fecal bacteria in the rivers of the Seine drainage network (France): sources, fate and modelling. (United States)

    Servais, Pierre; Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; George, Isabelle; Billen, Gilles


    The Seine river watershed (France) is a deeply anthropogenically impacted area, due to the high population density, intense industrial activities and intensive agriculture. The water quality and ecological functioning of the different rivers of the Seine drainage network have been extensively studied during the last fifteen years within the framework of a large French multidisciplinary scientific program (PIREN Seine program). This paper presents a synthesis of the main data gained in the scope of this program concerning the microbiological water contamination of the rivers of the Seine drainage network. The more common indicator of fecal contamination (fecal coliforms) was mainly used; some complementary works used E. coli and intestinal enterococci as alternative fecal indicators. Point sources (outfall of wastewater treatment plants) and non point sources (surface runoff and soil leaching) of fecal pollution to the rivers of the watershed were quantified. Results showed that, at the scale of a large urbanised watershed as the Seine basin, the input of fecal micro-organisms by non-point sources is much lower than the inputs by point sources. However, the local impact of diffuse non-human sources (especially surface runoff of pastured fields) can be of major importance on the microbiological quality of small headwater rivers. Fecal contamination of the main rivers of the Seine watershed (Seine, Marne, Oise rivers) was studied showing high level of microbiological pollution when compared to European guidelines for bathing waters. The strong negative impact of treated wastewater effluents outfall on the microbiological quality of receiving rivers was observed in different areas of the watershed. Once released in rivers, culturable fecal bacteria disappeared relatively rapidly due to mortality (protozoan grazing, lysis) or loss of culturability induced by stress conditions (sunlight effect, nutrient concentration, temperature). Mortality rates of E. coli were studied

  11. Urban rivers - the principle of immissions as a new planning strategy in urban drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittenberg, D.


    A new planning strategy for urban drainage systems is developed and applicated on two case studies. The concept is basing on the idea of inclusion of water quality aspects of the receiving systems as limiting values into planning guidelines. As a new instrument for the execution of this immission oriented planning a hydrodynamic water quality model for urban rivers is developed in the central part of the treatise. Two case studies are used for the application of the immission oriented planning strategy. As a main result from these applications it is easily to be seen that the inclusion of water quality aspects into the main standards for dimensioning and construction of sewer systems and treatment plants leads to a better protection of water quality in urban waters. A set up of the principle of immissions unconditionally requires a new definition of several normally used official standards for urban drainage systems. (orig.) [de

  12. Generalization of the Sitnica river drainage system with potential pollution of tributaries

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    Valjarević Aleksandar


    Full Text Available Maps are miniature graphic representation of distinct area and as not being completely real require generalization. Cartographic generalization represents a specific investigation method in cartography. Generalization includes the processes of selection, simplification, and symbolization of details according to the purpose and the map scale. The river generalization requires the phase classification, selection, magnification and simplification to being used. Linear symbols are given on the map by their corresponding/characteristic length and remained unchanged even after the generalization. Particular cartographic criterions need to be applied during generalization. In the given case of the Sitnica river drainage system were applied the computer supported generalization based on the software Global Mapper 16.1 and the Open source software QGIS 2.6.1. The Sitnica drainage system is generalized in three levels. The first included digitalization of all linear objects related to the river Sitnica and its tributaries. Second level resulted in vector generalized data that indicate on polluted tributaries, whereas the final, third stage led to construction of multilayered vector map of the Sitnica catchments area with polluted tributaries.

  13. Subglacial drainage patterns of Devon Island, Canada: detailed comparison of rivers and subglacial meltwater channels (United States)

    Grau Galofre, Anna; Jellinek, A. Mark; Osinski, Gordon R.; Zanetti, Michael; Kukko, Antero


    Subglacial meltwater channels (N-channels) are attributed to erosion by meltwater in subglacial conduits. They exert a major control on meltwater accumulation at the base of ice sheets, serving as drainage pathways and modifying ice flow rates. The study of exposed relict subglacial channels offers a unique opportunity to characterize the geomorphologic fingerprint of subglacial erosion as well as study the structure and characteristics of ice sheet drainage systems. In this study we present detailed field and remote sensing observations of exposed subglacial meltwater channels in excellent preservation state on Devon Island (Canadian Arctic Archipelago). We characterize channel cross section, longitudinal profiles, and network morphologies and establish the spatial extent and distinctive characteristics of subglacial drainage systems. We use field-based GPS measurements of subglacial channel longitudinal profiles, along with stereo imagery-derived digital surface models (DSMs), and novel kinematic portable lidar data to establish a detailed characterization of subglacial channels in our field study area, including their distinction from rivers and other meltwater drainage systems. Subglacial channels typically cluster in groups of ˜ 10 channels and are oriented perpendicular to active or former ice margins. Although their overall direction generally follows topographic gradients, channels can be oblique to topographic gradients and have undulating longitudinal profiles. We also observe that the width of first-order tributaries is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude larger than in Devon Island river systems and approximately constant. Furthermore, our findings are consistent with theoretical expectations drawn from analyses of flow driven by gradients in effective water pressure related to variations in ice thickness. Our field and remote sensing observations represent the first high-resolution study of the subglacial geomorphology of the high Arctic, and provide

  14. Hybridization of two megacephalic map turtles (testudines: emydidae: Graptemys) in the Choctawhatchee River drainage of Alabama and Florida (United States)

    Godwin, James; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Kreiser, Brian R.; Folt, Brian; Lechowicz, Chris


    Map turtles of the genus Graptemys are highly aquatic and rarely undergo terrestrial movements, and limited dispersal among drainages has been hypothesized to drive drainage-specific endemism and high species richness of this group in the southeastern United States. Until recently, two members of the megacephalic “pulchra clade,” Graptemys barbouri andGraptemys ernsti, were presumed to be allopatric with a gap in both species' ranges in the Choctawhatchee River drainage. In this paper, we analyzed variation in morphology (head and shell patterns) and genetics (mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite loci) from G. barbouri, G. ernsti, and Graptemys sp. collected from the Choctawhatchee River drainage, and we document the syntopic occurrence of those species and back-crossed individuals of mixed ancestry in the Choctawhatchee River drainage. Our results provide a first counter-example to the pattern of drainage-specific endemism in megacephalic Graptemys. Geologic events associated with Pliocene and Pleistocene sea level fluctuations and the existence of paleo-river systems appear to have allowed the invasion of the Choctawhatchee system by these species, and the subsequent introgression likely predates any potential human-mediated introduction.

  15. The role of river drainages in shaping the genetic structure of capybara populations. (United States)

    Byrne, María Soledad; Quintana, Rubén Darío; Bolkovic, María Luisa; Cassini, Marcelo H; Túnez, Juan Ignacio


    The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, is an herbivorous rodent widely distributed throughout most of South American wetlands that lives closely associated with aquatic environments. In this work, we studied the genetic structure of the capybara throughout part of its geographic range in Argentina using a DNA fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Haplotypes obtained were compared with those available for populations from Paraguay and Venezuela. We found 22 haplotypes in 303 individuals. Hierarchical AMOVAs were performed to evaluate the role of river drainages in shaping the genetic structure of capybara populations at the regional and basin scales. In addition, two landscape genetic models, isolation by distance and isolation by resistance, were used to test whether genetic distance was associated with Euclidean distance (i.e. isolation by distance) or river corridor distance (i.e. isolation by resistance) at the basin scale. At the regional scale, the results of the AMOVA grouping populations by mayor river basins showed significant differences between them. At the basin scale, we also found significant differences between sub-basins in Paraguay, together with a significant correlation between genetic and river corridor distance. For Argentina and Venezuela, results were not significant. These results suggest that in Paraguay, the current genetic structure of capybaras is associated with the lack of dispersion corridors through permanent rivers. In contrast, limited structuring in Argentina and Venezuela is likely the result of periodic flooding facilitating dispersion.

  16. Macroinvertebrate community response to acid mine drainage in rivers of the High Andes (Bolivia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Damme, Paul Andre; Hamel, Caroli; Ayala, Alfredo; Bervoets, Lieven


    Several High Andes Rivers are characterized by inorganic water pollution known as acid mine drainage (AMD). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between metal concentrations in the sediments and the macroinvertebrate communities in two river basins affected by AMD. In general, the taxon diversity of the macroinvertebrate community at the family level was low. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni at mining sites were higher than at unpolluted sites. The pH of the water was alkaline (7.0-8.5) in unpolluted sites, whereas it dropped to very low values (<3) at mining sites. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) showed that pH was the best predictor of macroinvertebrate community richness. The number of macroinvertebrate families decreased gradually with increasing acidity, both in pools and riffles, though it is suggested that riffle communities were more affected because they are in closer contact with the acid water. - Community response to AMD

  17. Human waterborne parasites in zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha) from the Shannon River drainage area, Ireland. (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Conn, David Bruce; Lucy, Frances; Minchin, Dan; Tamang, Leena; Moura, Lacy N S; DaSilva, Alexandre J


    Zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha) from throughout the Shannon River drainage area in Ireland were tested for the anthropozoonotic waterborne parasites Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. hellem, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, by the multiplexed combined direct immunofluorescent antibody and fluorescent in situ hybridization method, and PCR. Parasite transmission stages were found at 75% of sites, with the highest mean concentration of 16, nine, and eight C. parvum oocysts, G. lamblia cysts, and Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores/mussel, respectively. On average eight Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores/mussel were recovered at any selected site. Approximately 80% of all parasites were viable and thus capable of initiating human infection. The Shannon River is polluted with serious emerging human waterborne pathogens including C. parvum, against which no therapy exists. Zebra mussels can recover and concentrate environmentally derived pathogens and can be used for the sanitary assessment of water quality.

  18. Ecomorphological relationships of fish assemblages in a trans-Andean drainage, Upper Magdalena River Basin, Colombia

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    Cristhian C. Conde-Saldaña


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ecomorphological patterns of the fish community were evaluated in the trans-Andean Alvarado River drainage, Colombia. A total of 29 species using 25 ecomorphological indices were analyzed to test how well the ecomorphological patterns are related to the fish assemblage. Although a significant correlation was found (Mantel test between morphological attributes and trophic guilds, habitat use and distribution across the altitudinal gradient, only the last two were significantly independent of the phylogenetic relationships (partial Mantel test. Regarding the ecomorphological space, two main trends were defined. First, benthic periphytivores and invertivores were characterized by having dorsal or dorsolateral eyes, labial appendages, depressed bodies and well-developed pectoral, ventral and caudal fins, which provide them the ability to stabilize over the substrate and make rapid movements. Second, nektonic detritivore-invertivores and insectivores were found to have laterally compressed bodies, lateral eyes and larger eyes and anal fins. These species use vision during predation, are good continuous swimmers and possess higher maneuverability and stability. These results show that the fish assemblages in the Alvarado River drainage are structured ecomorphologically mainly by habitat and the altitudinal gradient. Therefore, this is evidence of the importance of habitat structure to maintain the functionality of the ecosystem.

  19. River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K.; Brydsten, L.


    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and

  20. River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science


    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and

  1. Global Drainage Patterns to Modern Terrestrial Sedimentary Basins and its Influence on Large River Systems (United States)

    Nyberg, B.; Helland-Hansen, W.


    Long-term preservation of alluvial sediments is dependent on the hydrological processes that deposit sediments solely within an area that has available accomodation space and net subsidence know as a sedimentary basin. An understanding of the river processes contributing to terrestrial sedimentary basins is essential to fundamentally constrain and quantify controls on the modern terrestrial sink. Furthermore, the terrestrial source to sink controls place constraints on the entire coastal, shelf and deep marine sediment routing systems. In addition, the geographical importance of modern terrestrial sedimentary basins for agriculture and human settlements has resulted in significant upstream anthropogenic catchment modification for irrigation and energy needs. Yet to our knowledge, a global catchment model depicting the drainage patterns to modern terrestrial sedimentary basins has previously not been established that may be used to address these challenging issues. Here we present a new database of 180,737 global catchments that show the surface drainage patterns to modern terrestrial sedimentary basins. This is achieved by using high resolution river networks derived from digital elevation models in relation to newly acquired maps on global modern sedimentary basins to identify terrestrial sinks. The results show that active tectonic regimes are typically characterized by larger terrestrial sedimentary basins, numerous smaller source catchments and a high source to sink relief ratio. To the contrary passive margins drain catchments to smaller terrestrial sedimentary basins, are composed of fewer source catchments that are relatively larger and a lower source to sink relief ratio. The different geomorphological characteristics of source catchments by tectonic setting influence the spatial and temporal patterns of fluvial architecture within sedimentary basins and the anthropogenic methods of exploiting those rivers. The new digital database resource is aimed to help

  2. Persistence of Metal-rich Particles Downstream Zones of Acid Drainage Mixing in Andean Rivers (United States)

    Pasten, P.; Montecinos, M.; Guerra, P. A.; Bonilla, C. A.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Dabrin, A.; Coquery, M.


    The Andes mountain range provides the setting for watersheds with high natural background of metals and for mining operations that enhance contaminant mobilization, notably in Northern and Central Chile. Dissolved and solid metal species are actively transported by streams to the Pacific Ocean from area and point sources, like acid drainage. We examine the response of metal rich particle suspensions downstream zones of mixing where shifts in the chemical environment occur. We propose a conceptual model which is used to analyze the fate of copper in the upper Mapocho watershed. The main source of copper is the Yerba Loca river, a naturally impacted stream with pH ranging from 3 to 7 and high concentrations of Cu (0.8 - 6.3 mg/L), Al (1.3 - 7.6 mg/L) and Fe (0.4 - 4.2 mg/L). Steep chemical shifts occur after the confluences with the San Francisco and the Molina rivers. We characterized stream chemistry, hydrological variables and suspended particles, including particle size distribution (PSD), turbidity, and total suspended solids. A marked seasonal behavior was observed, with a higher total Cu flux during smelting periods and a shift towards the dissolved phase during summer. When acid drainage is discharged into a receiving stream, incomplete mixing occurs thereby promoting the formation of a range of metal-rich solids with a characteristic PSD. Similarly, areas of chemical heterogeneity control the partition of metals associated to suspended geomaterials coming from bank and slope erosion. A highly dynamic process ensues where metastable phases shift to new equilibria as fully mixed conditions are reached. Depending on the reaction kinetics, some particles persist despite being exposed to thermodynamically unfavorable chemical environments. The persistence of metal-rich particles downstream zones of acid drainage mixing is important because it ultimately controls the flux of metals being delivered to the ocean by watersheds impacted by acid drainage. Funding from

  3. Concentration changeability of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in selected partial drainage basins of the River Drwęca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pius Bożena


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research conducted between November 2008 and October 2009. The research included seasonal dynamics of the flow and runoff of phosphorus compounds (TP and P-PO43-, as well as Ca2+ and Mg2+ from 13 partial drainage basins of the River Drwęca. Water levels were registered automatically every day by recorders, and measurements of the flow were conducted once a month. Major differences were found in the water abundance as indicated by specific discharges in individual, partial drainage basins: from 1.87 dm3 s-1 km-2 (Lubianka - a lower part of the River Drwęca drainage basin to 8.22 dm3 s-1 km-2 (Gizela - an upper part of the River Drwęca drainage basin. The studied rivers were characterised by very diverse average content of total phosphorus compounds: from 0.047 mg dm-3 (Iłga to 0.816 mg dm-3 (Sandela; calcium: from 47.18 mg dm-3 (Iłga to 131.65 mg dm-3 (Trynka; and magnesium: from 9.71 mg dm-3 (Wel to 36.76 mg dm-3 (Struga Rychnowska. Analysis of variance carried out on hydrochemical properties of the studied rivers divides the rivers into two separate groups: rivers with much higher content of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium compounds (Struga Rychnowska, Trynka, Ruziec, Lubianka, Kujawka, Sandela and Gizela, and a group of rivers with low content of these compounds (Brynica, Brodniczanka, Skarlanka, Wel, Iłga.

  4. Transport of fallout and reactor radionuclides in the drainage basin of the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Linsalata, P.; Olsen, C.R.; Cohen, N.; Trier, R.M.


    Fallout plutonium and radiocesium derived from both weapons testing and local reactor releases are found in the water column and sediments of the Hudson River in readily measurable amounts. The history of fallout delivery and dissolved phase runoff from the drainage basin of 80 Sr, 137 Cs, and /sup 239,240/Pu have been extensively documented since the mid-1950s. Sediment and water column concentrations of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and /sup 239,240/Pu in the Hudson have also been documented since the mid-1960's and are summarized. Since the peak fallout years, substantial portions of the fallout radionuclides in the drainage basin have become unavailable to normal weathering processes as reflected by a measured decrease in the fallout nuclide transport to the waters of the tidal Hudson. Budget calculations indicate that plutonium may be transported into the estuary from the coastal ocean, and that desorption of radiocesium from particles has allowed a substantial fraction of radiocesium to be exported from the Hudson to marine waters. 29 references, 6 figures, 8 tables

  5. Changes in water quality of a small urban river triggered by deep drainage of a construction site

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    Bartnik Adam


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the monitoring of the selected physicochemical properties of the Jasień River waters (in Łódź, the third biggest city of Poland and their changes under the influence of drainage of a railway station Łódź Fabryczna construction site. Even 25 years ago the Jasień River was a receiver for the sewage from the Łódź textile factories. The drainage of the excavations and disposal of the water into the Jasień River was started on January 2014 and changed stable hydrological, physical and chemical regime of the river once again. In a consequence, average monthly flows exceeded the Jasień River flow in its upper section by six times, and at the beginning by even ten times. Chloride concentration was systematically growing over the study period. This growth and higher water pH were probably associated with increasing level of contaminants in the discharged water and its gradually decreasing uptake. Average annual water temperature increased and a decrease in its amplitude was observed. The annual conductivity and pH patterns became more uniform and the changes in pH followed a clear trend of monthly changes. Water turbidity increased by two times and during summer floods this parameter was often even a few times higher than before the drainage commenced. Chlorides improved water conductance and sodium and potassium increased basicity.

  6. Acid mine drainage from the Panasqueira mine and its influence on Zêzere river (Central Portugal) (United States)

    Candeias, Carla; Ávila, Paula Freire; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Ferreira, Adelaide; Salgueiro, Ana Rita; Teixeira, João Paulo


    The Panasqueira hydrothermal mineralization, located in central Portugal, is the biggest Sn-W deposit of the Western Europe. The main evidences of the mining exploitation and ore treatment operations are testified with huge tailings, mainly, in the Rio and Barroca Grande areas. The mining and beneficiation processes, at the site, produces metal rich mine wastes. Oxidation of sulfides tailings and flow from open impoundments are responsible for the mobilization and migration of metals from the mine wastes into the environment. Acid mine drainage (AMD) discharged from Rio tailing has a pH around 3 and high metal concentrations. In Zêzere river, Fe and As are the most rapidly depleted downstream from AMD once As adsorbs, coprecipitate and form compounds with iron oxyhydroxides. The Zêzere river waters are oversaturated with respect to kaolinite and goethite and ferrihydrite can precipitate on stream with a near-neutral pH. At sites having low pH the dissolved Fe species in the water, mainly, occur as sulfate complexes due to a high SO4 concentration. Melanterite (Fe2+(SO4)·7(H2O)) and minor amounts of rozenite (Fe2+(SO4)·4(H2O)) and szomolnokite (Fe2+(SO4)·(H2O)) were observed on Rio tailing basement.

  7. Water-quality assessment of the Smith River drainage basin, California and Oregon (United States)

    Iwatsubo, Rick T.; Washabaugh, Donna S.


    A water-quality assessment of the Smith River drainage basin was made to provide a summary of the water-quality conditions including known or potential water-quality problems. Results of the study showed that the water quality of the Smith River is excellent and generally meets the water-quality objectives for the beneficial uses identified by the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, North Coast Region. Known and potential problems related to water quality include: Sedimentation resulting from both natural erosional processes and land-use activities such as timber harvest, road construction, and mining that accelerate the erosional processes; bacterial contamination of surface and ground waters from inundated septic tanks and drainfields, and grazing activities; industrial spills which have resulted in fish kills and oil residues; high concetrations of iron in ground water; log and debris jams creating fish migration barriers; and pesticide and trace-element contamination from timber-harvest and mining activities, respectively. Future studies are needed to establish: (1) a sustained long-term monitoring program to provide a broad coverage of water-quality conditions in order to define long-term water-quality trends; and (2) interpretive studies to determine the source of known and potential water-quality problems. (USGS)

  8. Morphometric Discharge Relationships in the Cosumnes River Drainage Basin, Sierra Nevada, California (United States)

    Cornwell, K.; Meyer, R.


    Hydrographic similarities between disparate gaging stations in the Consumnes River drainage basin suggest that it may be possible to extend stream gage records in areas with limited or missing records. This has led to an analysis of the relationship between recorded daily discharge values and bankfull channel conditions in the basin using USGS gage data from three sites in the basin [11335000 Cosumnes River at Michigan Bar (MBAR - period of record 1907-2002), 11333500 North Fork Cosumnes near El Dorado (NFELDO - period of record 1911-1941 and 1948-1987) and the 11334200 Middle Fork Cosumnes near Somerset (MFSOM - period of record 1957-1971)], 3-day mean discharge values and bank-full conditions (discharge recurrence interval of ~1.5 years) were calculated. Utilizing the bank-full discharge of the mainstem gage (MBAR) as a threshold, we compared discharge values between MBAR and two of its tributaries (NFELDO and MFSOM) and observed strong linear trends in the data sets. Mathematical expressions were derived to characterize the relations between the individual tributaries and the mainstem gage. When calibrated against the complete gage records of the tributaries we encountered overall error rates of less than 5 percent from both tributary data sets. This suggests that it is possible to extend stream gage records in areas with limited existing records or where occasional activiation and de-activation of gage sites result in incomplete long-term records.

  9. Range extension of Moenkhausia oligolepis (Günther,1864 to the Pindaré river drainage, of Mearim river basin, and Itapecuru river basin of northeastern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Erick Cristofore Guimarães


    Full Text Available The present study reports range extansion of Moenkhausia oligolepis to the Pindaré river drainage, of the Mearim river basin, and Itapecuru river basin, Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil. This species was previously known only from Venezuela, Guianas, and the Amazon River basins. In addition, we present some meristic and morphometric data of the specimens herein examined and discuss on its diagnostic characters.

  10. Modelling the Transfer and Retention of Nutrients in the Drainage Network of the Danube River (United States)

    Garnier, J.; Billen, G.; Hannon, E.; Fonbonne, S.; Videnina, Y.; Soulie, M.


    The Danube catchment basin (817 000 km 2, 76×10 6 inhabitants) is the major freshwater contributor to the Black Sea (6300 m 3 s -1, 80% of the annual river discharge into the north-western Black Sea). The aim of the modelling approach developed for the Danube River, is to establish how land use and management of the whole watershed are linked to nutrient (N, P, Si) delivery and retention by the river. The approach uses an adaptation of the RIVERSTRAHLER model, which is based on a schematic representation of the drainage network deduced from geomorphological analysis by stream orders. The whole catchment was divided into 10 sub-basins and one branch, to provide a description satisfying both the need to take into account the heterogeneity of the system and the availability of constraints and validation data. On the basis of this description, a hydrological model was developed, which adequately simulated the seasonal variations of the discharge measured at the outlet of the basin. The model itself resulted from the coupling of the hydrological model with a biogeochemical model (RIVE), which takes into account the main ecological processes. It established a link between microscopic processes, their controlling factors and their macroscopic manifestations in terms of nutrient cycling and ecological functioning at the scale of the whole drainage network. The model was validated for the period from 1988 to 1991 on the basis of available observations of the major water-quality variables involved in the eutrophication processes (inorganic nutrients, phytoplankton biomass, dissolved oxygen, etc.). A reasonable agreement was found between the simulations of the model and the observations. Nutrient fluxes to the Black Sea, calculated for our reference period, are in the same range as those obtained via other approaches. Si/P and N/P ratios suggest silicon, rather than phosphorus, limitation for diatoms and phosphorus, rather than nitrogen, limitation for overall phytoplankton

  11. The current threat level of fish in river network of individual sea-drainage areas in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusk Stanislav


    Full Text Available The assessment of changes in the population spread of individual ichthyofauna species (lampreys and fishes as well as the identification of unfavourable impacts is the necessary prerequisite for the correct selection of corrective measures. The river network in the Czech Republic belongs to the three sea-drainage areas (North Sea, Baltic Sea, and Black Sea. The species composition of the original ichthyofauna and the extent of the threat to some species differs in the individual sea-drainage areas. The original ichthyofauna in the Czech Republic consists of 4 lamprey species and 55 fish species. Out of this, only one lamprey species and 31 fish species originate in all three sea-drainage areas. There are 37 fish species considered as the original ones in the North Sea drainage area, there of 4 species are EX, 1 species EW, and 11 species (29.7% are threatened. In the Baltic Sea drainage area, there are 4 species EX, 1 species EW, and 8 species (22.8% threatened out of the total 35 assessed species. Out of 49 species in the Black Sea drainage area, there are 4 species EX and 23 species (46.9 % threatened.

  12. Time-series studies of drainage pattern and morphological features along the Leitha river (Eastern Austria) (United States)

    Zámolyi, A.; Draganits, E.; Doneus, M.; Fera, M.; Griebl, M.


    Geomorphologic mapping and drainage network analysis was conducted in the Southern Vienna Basin on the Leitha and Fischa rivers. The study area belongs to an active pull-apart basin between the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians that started to subside in Karpatian times (~ 17 Ma), but with still active faults, proven by fault scarps and earth quakes. The investigated rivers are important tributaries to the Danube river and run through a region that has been subject to settlement since Neoltihic times. Thus, interaction between land use, settlement pattern and river dynamics can be studied. Several datasets are integrated to perform a comprehensive overview of geomorphological, as well as river dynamic changes in the landscape. During an earlier stage of this investigation a map of paleochannel distribution including the location and shape of the paleochannels was extracted from color-infrared and RGB digital orthophotos. Based on this map the location, character and shape of palaeomeanders is studied on different georeferenced historic maps (Timár et al., 2006; Biszak et al., 2007) in order to derive a time-series study. The paleochannels extracted from the digital orthophotos show a good coincidence with the depicted rivers on the historic maps. This partly allows quite well constrained age estimates of the paleochannel sections. The investigated maps are the Walter maps, the First, Second and Third Military Survey of the Habsburg/Austro-Hungarian Empire. Mapping of the Walter maps was conducted 1754-56 (Ulbrich, 1952), the First, Second and Third Military Surveys were mapped in this area in the time-span of 1782-1785, 1819-1869, and 1872-1873, respectively (Kretschmer et al., 2004). This sequence of georeferenced historical maps allows to study only a very short time-span (1755 - 1873) compared to the geological time scale. However, the characteristics of river dynamics special for the study area can be derived and, considering certain assumptions, extrapolated

  13. Mosses Indicating Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition and Sources in the Yangtze River Drainage Basin, China (United States)

    Xiao, Hua-Yun; Tang, Cong-Guo; Xiao, Hong-Wei; Liu, Xue-Yan; Liu, Cong-Qiang


    Characterizing the level and sources of atmospheric N deposition in a large-scale area is not easy when using physical monitoring. In this study, we attempted to use epilithic mosses (Haplocladium microphyllum (Hedw.)) as a bioindicator. A gradient of atmospheric N deposition from 13.8 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to 47.7 kg N ha-1 yr-1 was estimated on the basis of moss tissue N concentrations and the linear equation between them. The estimated results are reliable because the highest atmospheric N deposition occurred in the middle parts of the Yangtze River, where the highest TN concentrations were also observed. Moss δ15N values in cities and forests were found in distinctly different ranges of approximately -10‰ to -6‰ and approximately -2‰ to 2‰, respectively, indicating that the main N sources in most of these cities were excretory wastes and those in forests were soil emissions. A negative correlation between moss δ15N values and the ratios of NH4-N/NO3-N in deposition (y = -1.53 x + 1.78) has been established when the ratio increased from 1.6 to 6.5. On the basis of the source information, the negative moss δ15N values in this study strongly indicate that NHy-N is the dominant N form in N deposition in the whole drainage basin. These findings are supported by the existing data of chemical composition of local N deposition.

  14. Mercury and drought along the Lower Carson River, Nevada: III. effects on blood and organ biochemistry and histopathology of snowy egrets and black-crowned night-herons on Lahontan Reservoir, 2002-2006 (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Henny, Charles J.; Hill, Elwood F.; Grove, Robert A.; Kaiser, James L.; Stebbins, Katherine R.


    A 10-year study (1997-2006) was conducted to evaluate reproduction and health of aquatic birds in the Carson River Basin of northwestern Nevada (on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Natural Priorities List) due to high mercury (Hg) concentrations from past mining activities. This part of the study evaluated physiological associations with blood Hg in young snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and organ biochemistry and histopathological effects in snowy egrets on Lahontan Reservoir (LR) from the period 2002-2006. LR snowy egret geometric mean total Hg concentrations (μg/g ww) ranged from 1.5 to 4.8 for blood, 2.4 to 3.1 liver, 1.8 to 2.5 kidneys, 1.7 to 2.4 brain, and 20.5 to 36.4 feathers over these years. For night-herons, mean Hg for blood ranged from 1.6 to 7.4. Significant positive correlations were found between total Hg in blood and five plasma enzyme activities of snowy egrets suggesting hepatic stress. Histopathological findings revealed vacuolar changes in hepatocytes in LR snowy egrets as well as correlation of increased liver inflammation with increasing blood and tissue Hg. Hepatic oxidative effects were manifested by decreased hepatic total thiol concentration and glutathione reductase activity and elevated hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation. However, other hepatic changes indicated compensatory mechanisms in response to oxidative stress, including decreased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration and decreased ratio of GSSG to reduced glutathione. In young black-crowned night-herons, fewer correlations were apparent. In both species, positive correlations between blood total Hg and plasma uric acid and inorganic phosphorus were suggestive of renal stress, which was supported by histopathological findings. Both oxidative effects and adaptive responses to oxidative stress were apparent in kidneys and brain. Vacuolar change and inflammation in

  15. Genetic integrity of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus L. 1758 within the Vienne River drainage basin after five decades of stockings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Persat


    Full Text Available European grayling of the upper Vienne River drainage basin represent the westernmost populations inside the natural distribution of the species. Since the 19th century, their extension across this sub-basin has been dramatically reduced by the harnessing of the river network for dams, initially serving mills but then hydroelectric power generation. Since the 1960s, local fishing authorities have attempted to compensate for these declines with stocking programs, but the efficiency of these efforts have never been accurately monitored. We aim to evaluate the genetic imprints of these stocking programs and thus provide an indirect measure of the long-term survival of stocked fish. Three target populations were analyzed at both mtDNA (Control Region and nDNA levels (12 µSats, and compared to populations representative of surrounding drainage basins or fish farm facilities. Among 37 "wild" fish sequenced, only three control region haplotypes were identified, all belonging to the highly divergent Loire basin lineage. Two were specific to the Upper Vienne area, and one was observed in some individuals of the most downstream location, but previously described from the upper Allier sub-drainage. Microsatellite analysis of 87 "wild" fish also demonstrated a rather low diversity within each population (but typical for the Loire drainage with all Upper Vienne individuals belonging to a single diagnosable unit. This genetic cluster was clearly distinct from all other samples including hatchery strains, which strongly supports its native origin. The only piece of evidence of a possible stocking contribution was the occurrence of the Allier haplotype, but it cannot be excluded that this haplotype was also native to this reach of river. The total lack of genetic impact of five decades of stocking deeply questions the efficacy of this management approach, at least in a regional context.

  16. Migration of global radioactive fallout to the Arctic Ocean (on the example of the Ob's river drainage basin). (United States)

    Miroshnikov, A; Semenkov, I


    This article provides an assessment of the impact of global fallout on (137)Cs contamination in the bottom sediments of Kara Sea. The erosiveness of 10th-level river basins was estimated by landscape-geochemical and geomorphological characteristics. All 10th-level basins (n=154) were separated into three groups: mountain, mountain-lowland and plain. Four different types of basins were identified depending on the geochemical conditions of the migration of radiocaesium in the plain and mountain-lowland. Classifications of types were carried out using the geographic information systems-based approach. The Ob River's macroarena covers 3.5 million km(2). Internal drainage basins cover 23 % of the macroarena and accumulate whole radiocaesium from the global fallout. The remaining territory is transitional for the (137)Cs. The field research works performed in the three plain first-level basins allow one to estimate the radiocaesium run-off. The calculations show that 7 % of (137)Cs was removed from the first-level basin in arable land. Accumulation of radiocaesium in the first-level basin under undisturbed forest is 99.8 %. The research shows that (137)Cs transfer from the humid basins is in the range of 6.9-25.5 TBq and for semi-humid basins 5.6-285.5 TBq. The areas of these basins cover 40 and 8 % of the Ob River's macroarena, respectively. Drainage lakes and reservoir drainage basins make up 22 % of the macroarena. Mountainous and semi-arid drainage basins cover 7 % of the macroarena.

  17. Metal mobility in river and sea sediments affected by mine drainage (Sestri Levante, Italy) (United States)

    Consani, Sirio; Capello, Marco; Cutroneo, Laura; Vagge, Greta; Zuccarelli, Andrea; Carbone, Cristina


    The Gromolo Torrent is a metal-polluted Apennine streamflow located near Sestri Levante (Liguria, Italy). It springs from the Monte Rocca Grande (850 m a.s.l.), and flows for 11.5 km through the Gromolo Valley before flowing into the Ligurian Sea. Inside the Gromolo basin is located the abandoned Fe-Cu mine of Libiola, which was the most important sulfide deposit of the Ligurian Apennines. In this mining site, extensive Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) processes are active, both inside the mine tunnels and in the sulfide rich waste-rock dumps; the solutions generated are characterised by low pH values and high amounts of dissolved SO42-, Fe, and other chemical elements such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Al, Co, and Ni. Moreover, exstensively precipitation of Fe and Cu-rich secondary minerals occurs both as soft crusts inside the mine adits and as loose suspensions associated with overland flow of mine drainage. AMD waters flowed into the uncontaminated Gromolo Torrent where abundant precipitation of amorphous Fe(III)-oxy-hydroxides occurred. The marine study area is characterised by the presence of the headland of Sestri Levante with two bays, the western one named "Baia delle Favole". The dynamics of the area is dominated by a permanent north-westward off-shore current flowing approximately along isobath, and an eastward counter-current along the north coast with a resulting drift of the coastal materials from the West to Est towards "Baia delle Favole". The bottom sediment are principally characterised by coarse materials, mostly consisting of fine sand, with a percentage of the fine sediment increasing inside the bay, where the dynamics is low. The aims of this work are to 1) evaluate the metal mobility of colloidal river precipitates for about 7 km up to its mouth in the Ligurian Sea; 2) verify the contamination state of the marine bottom sediments off the mouth of the Gromolo Torrent ("Baia delle Favole" of Sestri Levante), and 3) identify the main sources and diffusion ways of

  18. Biological, habitat, and water quality conditions in the upper Merced River drainage, Yosemite National Park, California, 1993-1996 (United States)

    Brown, Larry R.; Short, Terry M.


    Four studies were done in the upper Merced River drainage in Yosemite National Park and nearby areas from 1993 to 1996. First, monitoring studies of benthic algae, benthic invertebrates, fish, and habitat were undertaken at sites near Happy Isles and Pohono bridges from 1993 to 1995 as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Second, an ecological survey of benthic algae, benthic invertebrates, fish, and habitat was done in the upper Merced River drainage in 1994. Third, a special study of benthic algae, habitat, and water quality was done in the reach of the Merced River within Yosemite Valley to deter-mine whether human activities were having measurable effects on the ecosystem. Fourth, baseline data on benthic algae, benthic invertebrates, and habitat were collected in 1996 at four sites, two of which were undergoing extensive streambank restoration activities. Comparisons of the baseline data with future collections could be used to assess the effects of streambank restoration on aquatic biota.

  19. Fate, transport and effects of pollutants originating from acid mine drainage in the Olifants River, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dabrowski, JM


    Full Text Available and Effects of Pollutants Originating from Acid Mine Drainage in the Olifants 1 River, South Africa 2 J.M. Dabrowski1*, J. Dabrowski2,1, L. Hill1, P. McMillan1, Oberholster P.J.3 3 4 1 CSIR, Natural Resources and Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001... Gower AM, Myers G, Kent M, Foulkes ME 1994. Relationships between macroinvertebrate 481 communities and environmental variables in metal-contaminated streams in south-west 482 England. Freshwater Biology 32(1): 199-221. 483 Gustafsson JP. 2011. Visual...

  20. Distributed Leadership in Drainage Basin Management: A Critical Analysis of ‘River Chief Policy’ from a Distributed Leadership Perspective (United States)

    Zhang, Liuyi


    Water resources management has been more significant than ever since the official file stipulated ‘three red lines’ to scrupulously control water usage and water pollution, accelerating the promotion of ‘River Chief Policy’ throughout China. The policy launches creative approaches to include people from different administrative levels to participate and distributes power to increase drainage basin management efficiency. Its execution resembles features of distributed leadership theory, a vastly acknowledged western leadership theory with innovative perspective and visions to suit the modern world. This paper intends to analyse the policy from a distributed leadership perspective using Taylor’s critical policy analysis framework.

  1. Maps showing ground-water conditions in the Gila River drainage from Texas Hill to Dome area and in the western Mexico drainage area, Maricopa, Pima, and Yuma counties, Arizona; 1977 (United States)

    Leake, S.A.; Clay, D.M.


    The Gila River drainage from Texas Hill to Dome and the western Mexican drainage areas include about 4,700 square miles in southwestern Arizona. The main water-bearing unit is the alluvium along the Gila River and its tributaries and in the valleys that separate the mountains. Most of the ground-water development has taken place in the Wellton-Mohawk area in the northern part of the Gila River drainage from Texas Hill to Dome area. The use of imported Colorado River water for irrigation caused the water levels to rise, and in the early 1970 's the water levels were within 6 feet of the land surface in most of the area. Since 1961, a network of about 70 wells has been pumping about 200,000 acre-feet of ground water annually for drainage of the waterlogged land in the area. The ground water in the Wellton-Mohawk area is of unsuitable chemical quality for most uses. Information shown on the maps includes depth to water , well depth, altitude of the water level, irrigated area, and specific conductance and Fluoride concentration in the water, A table of historical pumpage also is included. Scale 1:125.000. (Kosco-USGS)

  2. Acid mine drainage in the Iberian Pyrite Belt: 1. Hydrochemical characteristics and pollutant load of the Tinto and Odiel rivers. (United States)

    Nieto, Jose M; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Canovas, Carlos R; Olias, Manuel; Ayora, Carlos


    Acid mine drainage in the Iberian Pyrite Belt is probably the worst case in the world of surface water pollution associated with mining of sulphide mineral deposits. The Iberian Pyrite Belt is located in SW Iberian Peninsula, and it has been mined during the last 4,500 years. The central and eastern part of the Iberian Pyrite Belt is drained by the Tinto and Odiel rivers, which receive most of the acidic leachates from the mining areas. As a result, the main channels of the Tinto and Odiel rivers are very rich in metals and highly acidic until reaching the Atlantic Ocean. A significant amount of the pollutant load transported by these two rivers is delivered during the rainy season, as is usual in rivers of Mediterranean climate regions. Therefore, in order to have an accurate estimation of the pollutant loads transported by the Tinto and Odiel rivers, a systematic sampling on a weekly basis and a high temporal resolution sampling of floods events were both performed. Results obtained show that metal fluxes are strongly dependent on the study period, highlighting the importance of inter-annual studies involving dry and wet years.

  3. Bedrock geologic map of the Spring Valley, West Plains, and parts of the Piedmont and Poplar Bluff 30'x60' quadrangles, Missouri, including the upper Current River and Eleven Point River drainage basins (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Harrison, Richard W.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Weems, Robert E.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Repetski, John E.; Pierce, Herbert A.


    This map covers the drainage basins of the upper Current River and the Eleven Point River in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province of southeastern Missouri. The two surface drainage basins are contiguous in their headwaters regions, but are separated in their lower reaches by the lower Black River basin in the southeast corner of the map area. Numerous dye-trace studies demonstrate that in the contiguous headwaters areas, groundwater flows from the Eleven Point River basin into the Current River basin. Much of the groundwater discharge of the Eleven Point River basin emanates from Big Spring, located on the Current River. This geologic map and cross sections were produced to help fulfill a need to understand the geologic framework of the region in which this subsurface flow occurs.

  4. Description of a new species of the genus Chaetostoma from the Orinoco River drainage with comments on Chaetostoma milesi Fowler, 1941 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae). (United States)

    Ballen, Gustavo A; Urbano-Bonilla, Alexander; Maldonado-Ocampo, Javier A


    Chaetostoma joropo n. sp. is described from the piedmont of the Orinoco River drainage in Colombia. The new species has been long confused with Chaetostoma milesi, a species with similar overall morphology and color pattern that is restricted to the Magdalena-Cauca River Basin. We diagnose the new species on the basis of morphology as well as a precise description of the color pattern. Chaetostoma joropo n. sp. is also easily distinguished from C. formosae the most similar species and other species inhabiting the Orinoco River drainage in Colombia. Data on ontogenetic variation and sexual dimorphism are provided, as well as natural history notes and remarks on the usage of the name Chaetostoma milesi for specimens from both the Orinoco and Magdalena-Cauca drainages. A discussion on the usage of the name Chaetostoma platyrhynchus is also provided given its current instability in the literature.

  5. [Drainage basin of the the Senegal River, sanitary conditions in 2010. Part I: Illnesses directly linked to the water]. (United States)

    Michel, R; Sondaz, D; Philip, J M; Calvet, F; Daoud, W


    Recent decades have seen an increase in the number of cases of waterborne illnesses involving humans and animals living in the Senegal River Basin. The "Senegal River Basin Development Authority" (French acronym, OMVS) decided to draft a "Water Development and Management Master Plan" (French acronym, SDAGE) for the Senegal drainage basin. The aim of ther plan is to avoid overuse of natural resources while allowing development of human activities in the area of the Senegal River. The SDAGE was designed to serve as a timetable and program for mobilizing resources and monitoring impact on the environment and local population until 2025. As part of the initial phase of the SDAGE, a study was carried out in 2009 to evaluate the status of waterborne illness in the Senegal River Basin. This study of the sanitary conditions was based on review of documents compiled from a bibliographic search. The purpose of this report is describe the main findings regarding diseases directly linked to water and national or regional programs for control of those disease in the study area.

  6. Influence of mine drainage on water quality along River Nyaba in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Drainage from underground coal mines, surface mines and coal refuse piles is the oldest industrial pollution in the Enugu coal area which is characterized by numerous surface water, hand dug wells and shallow unconfined aquifer and as such the water sources are prone to con- tamination from coal mining activities.

  7. Genetic and Phenotypic Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the interior Columbia River Basin : FY-2001 Report : Populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan and Methow River Drainages.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotter, Patrick C.


    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project was to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-2001 was year three (and final year) of a project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-2001 we worked in collaboration with the Wenatchee National Forest to catalog populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan, and Methow River drainages of Washington State.

  8. Overview of mine drainage geochemistry at historical mines, Humboldt River basin and adjacent mining areas, Nevada. Chapter E. (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas; Stillings, Lisa L.


    Reconnaissance hydrogeochemical studies of the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas of northern Nevada have identified local sources of acidic waters generated by historical mine workings and mine waste. The mine-related acidic waters are rare and generally flow less than a kilometer before being neutralized by natural processes. Where waters have a pH of less than about 3, particularly in the presence of sulfide minerals, the waters take on high to extremely high concentrations of many potentially toxic metals. The processes that create these acidic, metal-rich waters in Nevada are the same as for other parts of the world, but the scale of transport and the fate of metals are much more localized because of the ubiquitous presence of caliche soils. Acid mine drainage is rare in historical mining districts of northern Nevada, and the volume of drainage rarely exceeds about 20 gpm. My findings are in close agreement with those of Price and others (1995) who estimated that less than 0.05 percent of inactive and abandoned mines in Nevada are likely to be a concern for acid mine drainage. Most historical mining districts have no draining mines. Only in two districts (Hilltop and National) does water affected by mining flow into streams of significant size and length (more than 8 km). Water quality in even the worst cases is naturally attenuated to meet water-quality standards within about 1 km of the source. Only a few historical mines release acidic water with elevated metal concentrations to small streams that reach the Humboldt River, and these contaminants and are not detectable in the Humboldt. These reconnaissance studies offer encouraging evidence that abandoned mines in Nevada create only minimal and local water-quality problems. Natural attenuation processes are sufficient to compensate for these relatively small sources of contamination. These results may provide useful analogs for future mining in the Humboldt River basin, but attention must be given to


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlo Pereira Lima


    Full Text Available Nowadays it is discussed the necessity of preservation of the hydro resources availablefor consumption. Once the human beings have the consumption of water as somethingessencial for the life, since early they valued water near their houses. This preocupationcontinue, although during the last decade, the progressive destructions of nature waterreservoirs are observated. Among the depredating actions are: polution, contaminated riversand deforestation of ciliary woods near the rivers that become easy and fast the erosiveprocesses.The state of Maranhão, besides is in Northeast, has different physical characteristicsfrom the rest of the region. The drainage basins that are distributed through the Maranhão arecomposed of principal perennial rivers and tributaries that are sometimes perennial andtemporary. In the Munin river basin, the growing urbane evolution results in seriousenvironmental consequences in its way. The stretch studied, in Chapadinha-Maranhão, hassuffered quick erosive process and consequently the silting on the riverbanks.So in this work we intend to identify the principal agents and processes that spoil thefluvial environment provoking the erosion on the banks and the silting of the watercourse.

  10. Collaborative Modeling to Assess Drought   Resiliency of Snow‐Fed River Dependent  Communities in the Western United States:   A Case Study in the Truckee‐Carson River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Singletary


    Full Text Available Assessing the drought resilience of snow‐fed river dependent communities in the arid  Western United States has taken on critical importance in response to changing climatic conditions.  The process of assessing drought resiliency involves understanding the extent to which snow‐fed  dependent communities can absorb the effects of uncertain and variable water supplies while  acknowledging and encouraging their capacity for adaptation. Participatory research approaches  are particularly well suited to assess resiliency in this context because they rely upon local water  managers’ knowledge and perspectives. The research presented here provides measured insight  into local water managers’ perceptions of drought resiliency in the Truckee‐Carson River System in  northwestern Nevada. These findings are reported in the context of the collaborative modeling  research design developed for this case study. The objectives of this study are: (1 to define  resiliency and present a rationale for a participatory approach to assess drought resiliency in  snow‐fed arid river basins in the Western United States; (2 to outline collaborative modeling as a  participatory research design developed for the Truckee‐Carson River System case study area; (3  to  describe  the  development and implementation of a resiliency  assessment  undertaken  to  implement this research design; (4 to highlight selected results of the assessment, summarizing  interviews with 66 water managers in the case study area; (5 to discuss the use of assessment  findings to inform collaborative modeling toward adaptation strategies; and (6 to review lessons  learned  to  date  from  the  collaborative  modeling  case  study  and  note

  11. Ichthyofauna of the Kubo, Tochikura, and Ichinono river systems (Kitakami River drainage, northern Japan, with a comparison of predicted and surveyed species richness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Miyazaki


    Full Text Available The potential fish species pool of the Kubo, Tochikura, and Ichinono river systems (tributaries of the Iwai River, Kitakami River drainage, Iwate Prefecture, northern Japan, was compared with the observed ichthyofauna by using historical records and new field surveys. Based on the literature survey, the potential species pool comprised 24 species/subspecies but only 20, including 7 non-native taxa, were recorded during the fieldwork. The absence during the survey of 11 species/subspecies from the potential species pool suggested either that sampling effort was insufficient, or that accurate determination of the potential species pool was hindered by lack of biogeographic data and ecological data related to the habitat use of the species. With respect to freshwater fish conservation in the area, Lethenteron reissneri, Carassius auratus buergeri, Pseudorasbora pumila, Tachysurus tokiensis, Oryzias latipes, and Cottus nozawae are regarded as priority species, and Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Pseudorasbora parva, and Micropterus salmoides as targets for removal.

  12. Factors controlling As and U in shallow ground water, southern Carson Desert, Nevada (United States)

    Welch, A.H.; Lico, M.S.


    Unusually high As and U concentrations (> 100 ??g/L) are widespread in shallow ground water beneath the southern Carson Desert. The high concentrations, which locally exceed 1000 ??g/L, are of concern from a human health standpoint because the shallow ground water is used for domestic supply. Possible affects on wildlife are also of concern because the ground water flows into shallow lakes and marshes within wildlife refuges. Arsenic and U concentrations in ground water of the southern Carson Desert appear to be affected by evaporative concentration, redox reactions, and adsorption. The relation of these elements with Cl suggest that most of the high concentrations can be attributed to evaporative concentration of Carson River water, the primary source of recharge. Some ground water contains higher As and U concentrations that cannot be explained by evaporative concentration alone. Oxidation-reduction reactions, involving metal oxides and sedimentary-organic matter, appear to contribute As, U, inorganic C, Fe and Mn to the ground water. Arsenic in Fe-oxide was confirmed by chemical extraction and is consistent with laboratory adsorption studies. Uranium in both sedimentary-organic C and Fe-oxide coatings has been confirmed by fission tracks and petrographic examination. Arsenic concentrations in the ground water and chemical extracts of aquifer sediments are broadly consistent with adsorption as a control on some dissolved As concentrations. An apparent loss of As from some ground water as evaporative concentration proceeds is consistent with adsorption as a control on As. However, evidence for adsorption should be viewed with caution, because the adsorption model used values for the adsorbent that have not been shown to be valid for the aquifer sediments throughout the southern Carson Desert. Hydrologic and geochemical conditions in the Carson Desert are similar to other areas with high As and U concentrations in ground water, including the Salton Sea basin and

  13. A new species of Percina (Perciformes: Percidae) from the Apalachicola River drainage, southeastern United States (United States)

    Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, B.J.; Burkhead, N.M.; Straight, C.A.


    Percina crypta, the Halloween Darter, is described as a new species endemic to the Chattahoochee and Flint River systems in Georgia and Alabama. Percina crypta differs from sympatric Percina nigrofasciata in having narrowly separated dorsal saddles (inter-saddle spaces typically less than or equal to saddle width, compared to frequently wider than saddle width in P. nigrofasciata), in usually possessing a single modified scale between the pelvic bases (compared to two or more in P. nigrofasciata), and in having dark wide bands on pectoral-fin rays (versus pectoral fin clear, or with irregular dark marks or weak tessellations on fin rays in P. nigrofasciata). Phylogenetic relationships of P. crypta to other species of Percina are obscure. Percina crypta occurs in shoal and riffle habitats in the Chattahoochee and Flint River mainstems and in a few tributary systems, with the known extant range comprising four disjunct areas separated by mainstem impoundments and altered river reaches.

  14. Hydrological modeling of a watershed affected by acid mine drainage (Odiel River, SW Spain). Assessment of the pollutant contributing areas (United States)

    Galván, L.; Olías, M.; Cánovas, C. R.; Sarmiento, A. M.; Nieto, J. M.


    The Odiel watershed drains materials belonging to the Iberian Pyrite Belt, where significant massive sulfide deposits have been mined historically. As a result, a huge amount of sulfide-rich wastes are deposited in the watershed, which suffer from oxidation, releasing acidic lixiviates with high sulfate and metal concentrations. In order to reliably estimate the metal loadings along the watershed a complete series of discharge and hydrochemical data are essential. A hydrological model was performed with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to solve the scarcity of gauge stations along the watershed. The model was calibrated and validated from daily discharge data (from 1980 to 2010) at the outlet of the watershed, river inputs into an existent reservoir, and a flow gauge station close to the northern area of the watershed. Discharge data obtained from the hydrological model, together with analytical data, allowed the estimation of the dissolved pollutant load delivered annually by the Odiel River (e.g. 9140 t of Al, 2760 t of Zn). The pollutant load is influenced strongly by the rainfall regime, and can even double during extremely rainy years. Around 50% of total pollution comes from the Riotinto Mining District, so the treatment of Riotinto lixiviates reaching the Odiel watershed would reduce the AMD (Acid Mine Drainages) in a remarkable way, improving the water quality downstream, especially in the reservoir of Alcolea, currently under construction. The information obtained in this study will allow the optimization of remediation efforts in the watershed, in order to improve its water quality.

  15. Additional record of Batasio merianiensis (Chaudhuri 1913, a catfish (Teleostei: Bagridae in upper Brahmaputra River drainage in Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tamang


    Full Text Available This paper communicates the extension of the distribution range of Batasio merianiensis in Sille River in the upper Brahmaputra drainage, East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh. Detailed examinations of the specimens revealed existence of few morphological variations against those reported by Heok Hee Ng in 2009 on the following characteristics: by having a longer preanal (70.4-73.4 vs. 66.3-68.2% SL; a longer prepectoral (25.1-29.3 vs. 21.4-25.7% SL; a longer adipose-fin base (22.0-27.6 vs. 16.9-22.2% SL; a shorter post-adipose distance (11.6-13.4 vs.13.4-15.5% SL; a deeper body at anus (depth 18.3-20.8 vs.15.2-18.4% SL and broader head (width 17.6-20.0 vs.13.5-16.2 % HL. Few additional characters of the fish are included along with brief information on its habitat. The LIPUM, the semi-traditional method of fishing in the river is identified as a major threat to this species.

  16. Mineralogical characteristics of sediments and heavy metal mobilization along a river watershed affected by acid mine drainage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Xie

    Full Text Available Trace-element concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD are primarily controlled by the mineralogy at the sediment-water interface. Results are presented for a combined geochemical and mineralogical survey of Dabaoshan Mine, South China. Developed sequential extraction experiments with the analysis of the main mineralogical phases by semi-quantitative XRD, differential X-ray diffraction (DXRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were conducted to identify the quantitative relationship between iron minerals and heavy metals. Results showed that schwertmannite, jarosite, goethite and ferrihydrite were the dominant Fe-oxyhydroxide minerals which were detected alternately in the surface sediment with the increasing pH from 2.50 to 6.93 along the Hengshi River. Decreasing contents of schwertmannite ranging from 35 wt % to 6.5 wt % were detected along the Hengshi River, which was corresponding to the decreasing metal contents. The easily reducible fractions exert higher affinity of metals while compared with reducible and relatively stable minerals. A qualitative analysis of heavy metals extracted from the sediments indicated that the retention ability varied: Pb > Mn > Zn > As ≈ Cu > Cr > Cd ≈ Ni. Results in this study are avail for understanding the fate and transport of heavy metals associated with iron minerals and establishing the remediation strategies of AMD systems.

  17. Export of nutrients from the catchment of the upper Szeszupa River (drainage basin of the Neman River and its seasonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Górniak Andrzej


    Full Text Available The article presents the dynamics of concentrations and export of nitrogen, phosphorus, TOC in the upper Szeszupa River (tributary of the River Neman in the period from 2000 to 2014 (15 years based on monthly analyses performed in Poland in the scope of the National Environmental Monitoring. The lakeland river with a mean discharge of 1.6 m3 s−1 and catchment dominated by agricultural land exports approximately 20 kg ha−1 of organic carbon compounds per year. The export of nitrogen is insignificant (3.8 kg ha−1 with 55% accounting for the element in the form of organic compounds and 31% for nitrates. Phosphorus export is also relatively low (0.12 kg ha−1, with 30% of the load of TP constituted by orthophosphates. During four months (February–May, 40–60% of annual export of nutrients was discharged, whereas the load of nitrates and organic nitrogen was higher than the contribution of outflowing water. From 2010, an increasing tendency has been observed in organic nitrogen export. This may be related to the intensification of animal production in NE Poland and an increase in livestock density.

  18. An aerial radiological survey of Par Pond and associated drainage pathways of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The first of a three-phase effort to radiologically monitor the lowering of Par Pond and associated drainage pathways was conducted over three areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). The areas surveyed during this first phase included Par Pond, the Savannah River swamp from Steel Creek to Little Hell Landing, and Lower Three Runs Creek from the mouth of Lower Three Runs to the Highway 301 Bridge. The first phase was conducted to coincide with the lowering of the water level of Par Pond to an elevation of 190 feet above sea level. Additional surveys were conducted when the water level was at an elevation of 180 feet and prior to refill. The first survey began August 19, 1991, and was completed September 11, 1991. The second survey was conducted in October/November, 1991, during the SRS site-wide survey, and the third survey was conducted in August/September, 1992. Only the Par Pond area itself was surveyed during the third and final phase. The radiation detected over the Creek Plantation portion of the Savannah River swamp and Lower Three Runs areas during the August 1991 survey was consistent with the spatial distribution, quantity, and kinds of radionuclides detected during the 1983 and 1986 surveys. No migration of man-made gamma emitting materials was detected when compared to the prior surveys. The major differences occurred along the Par Pond shoreline where lowered water levels exposed the contaminated pond bed. The activity in the pond bed was attenuated by the water cover prior to the start of the lowering of Par Pond in June 1991. The data collected during each survey were processed in the field and were presented to SRS. A comparison report is being generated after the completion of each survey. A final report will be generated for the three surveys and will include a quantitative comparison of the three surveys in the Par Pond area only

  19. An aerial radiological survey of the southwest drainage basin area of the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.


    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over a 106-square-mile area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), formerly the Savannah River Plant. The survey was conducted from August 24 through September 8, 1988, to collect baseline radiological data over the area. Both natural and man-made gamma emitting radionuclides were detected in the area. The detected man-made sources were confined to creeks, branches, and SRS facilities in the surveyed area and were a result of SRS operations. Naturally-occurring radiation levels were consistent with those levels detected in adjacent areas during previous surveys. The annual dose levels were within the range of levels found throughout the United States

  20. Drainage basin security of hazardous chemical fluxe in the Yodo River basin. (United States)

    Matsui, S


    The Yodo River basin consists of three major tributary basins (and other small river basins) namely Uji, Katsura and Kizu, which overlap respectively Shiga, Kvoto and Nara prefectures' administrative areas. Lake Biwa, the largest lake in Japan, drains water through the Uji river. The water quality of the lake, in terms of BOD, continuously improved over the last decade. However, the quality in terms of COD did not show any improvement in spite of a large amount of infrastructure finance being introduced. Eutrophication of the lake still continues, showing no improvement in the nitrogen concentration level. Non-point as well as point source control is not strong enough. There is a gap between BOD and COD evaluations of the lake water quality. Hazardous chemical fluxes are estimated based upon PRTR reports of Japan (2001). PCBs are still discharged into the lake, although the report of Shiga Prefecture showed zero discharge. Dace fish monitoring clearly showed that PCB contamination of the fish had not changed since the 1980s in spite of a ban on use and production of PCBs in the 1970s. There is still leakage of PCBs into the lake. The major exposure of dioxins to Japanese is fish rather than meat and eggs. The risk of water contamination must take into consideration not only drinking water safety but also ecological magnification of food chains in water. The ecological health aspect of hazardous chemicals is also important, such as organotins with imposex of sea snails. Finally, public participation in hazardous chemical management is very important using the method of risk communication based upon the annual report of PRTR in Japan.

  1. High-efficient Extraction of Drainage Networks from Digital Elevation Model Data Constrained by Enhanced Flow Enforcement from Known River Map (United States)

    Wu, T.; Li, T.; Li, J.; Wang, G.


    Improved drainage network extraction can be achieved by flow enforcement whereby information of known river maps is imposed to the flow-path modeling process. However, the common elevation-based stream burning method can sometimes cause unintended topological errors and misinterpret the overall drainage pattern. We presented an enhanced flow enforcement method to facilitate accurate and efficient process of drainage network extraction. Both the topology of the mapped hydrography and the initial landscape of the DEM are well preserved and fully utilized in the proposed method. An improved stream rasterization is achieved here, yielding continuous, unambiguous and stream-collision-free raster equivalent of stream vectors for flow enforcement. By imposing priority-based enforcement with a complementary flow direction enhancement procedure, the drainage patterns of the mapped hydrography are fully represented in the derived results. The proposed method was tested over the Rogue River Basin, using DEMs with various resolutions. As indicated by the visual and statistical analyses, the proposed method has three major advantages: (1) it significantly reduces the occurrences of topological errors, yielding very accurate watershed partition and channel delineation, (2) it ensures scale-consistent performance at DEMs of various resolutions, and (3) the entire extraction process is well-designed to achieve great computational efficiency.

  2. Use of real-time monitoring to predict concentrations of select constituents in the Menomonee River drainage basin, Southeast Wisconsin, 2008-9 (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Graczyk, David J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.; Magruder, Christopher


    The Menomonee River drainage basin in southeast Wisconsin is undergoing changes that may affect water quality. Several rehabilitation and flood-management projects are underway, including removal of concrete channels and the construction of floodwater retention basins. The city of Waukesha may begin discharging treated wastewater into Underwood Creek, thus approximately doubling the current base-flow discharge. In addition, the headwater basins, historically dominated by agriculture and natural areas, are becoming increasingly urbanized.

  3. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, Volume II, Technical Information, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leathe, Stephen A.


    This report summarizes a study to determine the potential cumulative effects of proposed small hydro development on the fisheries of the Swan River drainage. This report contains technical information and is a support document for the main report (Leathe and Enk, 1985). Consequently, discussion of results was minimized. The sections on fish population monitoring, streambed monitoring, habitat survey comparisons, and water temperature are the only portions that were not discussed in the main report. 5 refs., 55 figs., 44 tabs.

  4. Data Sources for NetZero Ft Carson Model (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Table of values used to parameterize and evaluate the Ft Carson NetZero integrated Model with published reference sources for each value. This dataset is associated...

  5. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, First Annual Progress Report (Covering Field Season July-November 1982).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leathe, Stephen A.; Graham, Patrick J.


    This fisheries study is to determine the potential cumulative biological and economic effects of 20 small or micro-hydro-electric facilities (less than 5 megawatts) proposed to be constructed on tributaries to the Swan River, a 1738 square kilometer (671 square mile) drainage located in northwestern Montana. The study addresses portions of measure 1204 (b) (2) of the Norwthwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Aerial pre-surveys conducted during 1982 identified 102 stream reaches that may support fish populations in the Swan drainage between Swan and Lindbergh lakes. These reaches were located in 49 tributary streams and constituted 416 kilometers (258 miles) of potential fish habitat. Construction of all proposed small hydro projects would divert water from 54 kilometers (34 miles) or about 13 percent of the tributary system. Only two of the 20 proposed hydro sites did not support trout populations and most were populated by migratory bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. Potential cumulative habitat losses that could result from dewatering of all proposed project areas were predicted using a stream reach classification scheme involving stream gradient, drainage ara, and fish population data. Preliminary results of this worst case analysis indicate that 23, 19 and 6 percent of the high quality rearing habitat for cutthroat, bull, and brook trout respectively would be lost.

  6. Long-range downstream effects of urban runoff and acid mine drainage in the Debed River, Armenia: insights from lead isotope modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurkjian, Robert; Dunlap, Charles; Flegal, A. Russell


    Lead concentrations and isotopic compositions measured along 80 km of the Debed River in the Republic of Armenia provide new insights into the geochemical and physical controls on riparian Pb transport by allowing comparison of the long-range, downstream impacts of acid mine drainage with runoff from an industrialized city. The modern background Pb concentration in Armenian surface waters is estimated to be ∼0.01 μg/L, based on analyses of remote alpine rivers in Armenia. The lead concentration in the Debed River is 8 μg/L (800 times background) after passing through Vanadzor, the second largest industrial city in Armenia; it then decreases to 1 μg/L before the Debed River flows into the Alaverdi mining district. There, the Debed River receives waters from two mining drainage streams with Pb concentrations >3000 μg/L, but those concentrations decrease 3 orders of magnitude to ∼3 μg/L by the time the river exits Armenia and flows into the Republic of Georgia. Isotope mixing plots show shifts in Pb isotope composition as the river flows out of Vanadzor, evidencing the mixture of an average terrestrial Pb composition ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ∼ 1.17; 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ∼ 2.45) with past leaded gasoline and other industrial Pb emissions retained in the river's sediments within that region ( 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ≤ 2.45). The isotopic composition again shifts (e.g., 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ≥ 2.46) as the river passes through the Alaverdi mining district, where isotopic ratios in the water are characteristic of Pb in the area's massive sulfide deposits. Modeling both downstream elemental concentrations and Pb isotopic compositions further resolves the physical and chemical behavior of the contaminants in the river system. A multi-element model of concentration gradients in the acid mine drainage streams indicates Pb is attenuated by Al(OH) 3 precipitation (54% of the loss) and by adsorption onto other particles settling out of the water column (46% of the loss). Modeling of Pb

  7. Using AnnAGNPS to Predict the Effects of Tile Drainage Control on Nutrient and Sediment Loads for a River Basin. (United States)

    Que, Z; Seidou, O; Droste, R L; Wilkes, G; Sunohara, M; Topp, E; Lapen, D R


    Controlled tile drainage (CTD) can reduce pollutant loading. The Annualized Agricultural Nonpoint Source model (AnnAGNPS version 5.2) was used to examine changes in growing season discharge, sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus loads due to CTD for a ∼3900-km agriculturally dominated river basin in Ontario, Canada. Two tile drain depth scenarios were examined in detail to mimic tile drainage control for flat cropland: 600 mm depth (CTD) and 200 mm (CTD) depth below surface. Summed for five growing seasons (CTD), direct runoff, total N, and dissolved N were reduced by 6.6, 3.5, and 13.7%, respectively. However, five seasons of summed total P, dissolved P, and total suspended solid loads increased as a result of CTD by 0.96, 1.6, and 0.23%. The AnnAGNPS results were compared with mass fluxes observed from paired experimental watersheds (250, 470 ha) in the river basin. The "test" experimental watershed was dominated by CTD and the "reference" watershed by free drainage. Notwithstanding environmental/land use differences between the watersheds and basin, comparisons of seasonal observed and predicted discharge reductions were comparable in 100% of respective cases. Nutrient load comparisons were more consistent for dissolved, relative to particulate water quality endpoints. For one season under corn crop production, AnnAGNPS predicted a 55% decrease (CTD) in dissolved N from the basin. AnnAGNPS v. 5.2 treats P transport from a surface pool perspective, which is appropriate for many systems. However, for assessment of tile drainage management practices for relatively flat tile-dominated systems, AnnAGNPS may benefit from consideration of P and particulate transport in the subsurface. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Toxicity of Sodium Bicarbonate to Fish from Coal-Bed Natural Gas Production in the Tongue and Powder River Drainages, Montana and Wyoming (United States)



    This study evaluates the sensitivity of aquatic life to sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), a major constituent of coal-bed natural gas-produced water. Excessive amounts of sodium bicarbonate in the wastewater from coal-bed methane natural gas production released to freshwater streams and rivers may adversely affect the ability of fish to regulate their ion uptake. The collaborative study focuses on the acute and chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate on select fish species in the Tongue and Powder River drainages in southeastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming. Sodium bicarbonate is not naturally present in appreciable concentrations within the surface waters of the Tongue and Powder River drainages; however, the coal-bed natural gas wastewater can reach levels over 1,000 milligrams per liter. Large concentrations have been shown to be acutely toxic to native fish (Mount and others, 1997). In 2003, with funding and guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks and the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a collaborative study on the potential effects of coal-bed natural gas wastewater on aquatic life. A major goal of the study is to provide information to the State of Montana Water Quality Program needed to develop an aquatic life standard for sodium bicarbonate. The standard would allow the State, if necessary, to establish targets for sodium bicarbonate load reductions.

  9. Detecting chlorinated hydrocarbon residues: Rachel Carson's villains. (United States)

    Travis, Anthony S


    In 1962, Rachel Carson's Silent Spring drew the public's attention to the deleterious effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons employed as economic poisons in agriculture. However, she did not discuss how their residues could be routinely identified and quantified. In part, this was because the introduction of instruments for use in environmental analysis had only just begun, and she was probably unaware of their existence. The development of the instrumental methods began in industry, particularly at Dow and Shell, in the mid-1950s. Dow scientists, by combining mass spectrometry with gas chromatography, developed the most powerful technique, then and now, for the separation, quantitation and identification of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Shell scientists were no less innovative, particularly with the application of highly sensitive gas chromatography detectors to trace analysis. The first of these detectors, the electron capture detector, was invented by James Lovelock at the National Institute of Medical Research, North London, at the end of the 1950s. Around the same time, Dale Coulson in the USA developed his microcoulometric detector.

  10. Women, Scientists, Agitators: Magazine Portrayal of Rachel Carson and Theo Colborn. (United States)

    Corbett, Julia B.


    Utilizes a theoretical framework of the media's role in reporting conflict and uncertain science, and feminism and science in a thematic analysis of magazine coverage given Rachel Carson and "the Rachel Carson of '90s," Theo Colborn. Notes that Carson and Colborn's identities as women, scientists, and agitators led critics to charge that…

  11. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Fort Carson: Assessment and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K.; Markel, T.; Simpson, M.; Leahey, J.; Rockenbaugh, C.; Lisell, L.; Burman, K.; Singer, M.


    The U.S. Army's Fort Carson installation was selected to serve as a prototype for net zero energy assessment and planning. NREL performed the comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of Fort Carson to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric vehicle integration. This report summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations. This study is part of a larger cross-laboratory effort that also includes an assessment of renewable opportunities at seven other DoD Front Range installations, a microgrid design for Fort Carson critical loads and an assessment of regulatory and market-based barriers to a regional secure smart grid.

  12. The influence of environmental factors and dredging on chironomid larval diversity in urban drainage systems in polders strongly influenced by seepage from large rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermonden, K.; Brodersen, Klaus Peter; Jacobsen, Dean


    , in urban waters strongly influenced by seepage of large rivers. Chironomid assemblages were studied in urban surface-water systems (man-made drainage ditches) in polder areas along lowland reaches of the rivers Rhine-Meuse in The Netherlands. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the key environmental...... factors. Taxon richness, Shannon index (H'), rareness of species, and life-history strategies at urban locations were compared with available data from similar man-made water bodies in rural areas, and the effectiveness of dredging for restoring chironomid diversity in urban waters was tested. Three......, chironomid taxon richness was negatively related to sludge layer and %% cover of lemnids. Dredging changed chironomid species composition, and increased taxon richness and life-history strategies indicative of good O2 conditions. Therefore, dredging can be regarded as an effective measure to restore...

  13. Organic matter iron and nutrient transport and nature of dissolved organic matter in the drainage basin of a boreal humic river in northern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, K.


    Organic carbon and iron transport into the Gulf of Bothnia and the seasonal changes in the nature of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were studied in 1983 and 1984 at the mouth of the River Kiiminkijoki, which crosses an area of minerotrophic mires in northern Finland. Organic and inorganic transport within the drainage basin was studied in the summer and autumn of 1985 and 1986. The results indicate that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is mainly of terrestrial origin, leaching mostly from peatlands. The DOC concentrations decrease under low flow conditions. The proportion of drifting algae as a particulate organic carbon (POC) source seems to increase in summer. The changes in the ratio of Fe/DOC, the colour of the DOM and the ratio of Fe/DOC, the colour of the DOM and the ratio of fluorescence to DOC with discharge give indications of the origin, formation, nature and fate of the DOM in the river water. Temperature-dependent microbiological processes in the formation and sedimentation of Fe-organic colloids seem to be important. Estimates are given for the amounts and transport rates of organic carbon and Fe discharged into the Gulf of Bothnia by river. High apparent molecular weight (HAMW) organic colloids are important for the organic, Fe and P transport in the basin. The DOM in the water consists mainly of fulvic acids, although humic acids are also important. The results indicate an increase in the mobilization of HAMW Fe-organic colloids in the peatlands following drainage and peat mining. The transport of inorganic nitrogen from the peatlands in the area and in the river is increasing due to peat mining. The changes in the transport of organic matter, Fe and P are less marked

  14. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Artificial Drainage (1992) and Irrigation (1997) (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.


    This tabular data set represents the estimated area of artifical drainage for the year 1992 and irrigation types for the year 1997 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data sets were derived from tabular National Resource Inventory (NRI) data sets created by the National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1995, 2000). Artificial drainage is defined as subsurface drains and ditches. Irrigation types are defined as gravity and pressure. Subsurface drains are described as conduits, such as corrugated plastic tubing, tile, or pipe, installed beneath the ground surface to collect and/or convey drainage. Surface drainage field ditches are described as graded ditches for collecting excess water. Gravity irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field by canals or pipelines open to the atmosphere; and water is distributed by the force of gravity down the field by: (1) A surface irrigation system (border, basin, furrow, corrugation, wild flooding, etc.) or (2) Sub-surface irrigation pipelines or ditches. Pressure irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field in pump or elevation-induced pressure pipelines, and water is distributed across the field by: (1) Sprinkle irrigation (center pivot, linear move, traveling gun, side roll, hand move, big gun, or fixed set sprinklers), or (2) Micro irrigation (drip emitters, continuous tube bubblers, micro spray or micro sprinklers). NRI data do not include Federal lands and are thus excluded from this dataset. The tabular data for drainage were spatially apportioned to the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD, Kerie Hitt, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2005) and the tabular data for irrigation were spatially apportioned to an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCDe, Nakagaki and others, 2007). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified

  15. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, Volume I, Summary, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leathe, Stephen A.; Enk, Michael D.


    This study was designed to develop and apply methods to evaluate the cumulative effects of 20 proposed small hydro projects on the fisheries resources of the Swan River drainage located in northwestern Montana. Fish population and reach classification information was used to estimate total populations of 107,000 brook trout, 65,000 cut-throat trout and 31,000 juvenile bull trout within the tributary system. Distribution, abundance, and life history of fish species in the drainage and their contribution to the sport fishery were considered in the cumulative impact analysis. Bull trout were chosen as the primary species of concern because of their extensive use of project areas, sensitivity to streambed sedimentation, and their importance to the lake and river sport fisheries. Dewatering of hydroelectric diversion zones and streambed sedimentation (resulting from forest and small hydro development) were the major impacts considered. The developer proposed to divert up to the entire streamflow during low flow months because maintenance of recommended minimum bypass flows would not allow profitable project operation. Dewatering was assumed to result in a total loss of fish production in these areas. 105 refs., 19 figs., 38 tabs.

  16. Dredging effects on selected nutrient concentrations and ecoenzymatic activity in two drainage ditch sediments in the lower Mississippi River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Moore


    Full Text Available Agricultural drainage ditches are conduits between production acreage and receiving aquatic systems. Often overlooked for their mitigation capabilities, agricultural drainage ditches provide an important role for nutrient transformation via microbial metabolism. Variations in ecoenzyme activities have been used to elucidate microbial metabolism and resource demand of microbial communities to better understand the relationship between altered nutrient ratios and microbial activity in aquatic ecosystems. Two agricultural drainage ditches, one in the northeast portion of the Arkansas Delta and the other in the lower Mississippi Delta, were monitored for a year. Sediment samples were collected prior to each ditch being dredged (cleaned, and subsequent post-dredging samples occurred as soon as access was available. Seasonal samples were then collected throughout a year to examine effects of dredging on selected nutrient concentrations and ecoenzymatic activity recovery in drainage ditch sediments. Phosphorus concentrations in sediments after dredging decreased 33–66%, depending on ditch and phosphorus extraction methodology. Additionally, ecoenzymatic activity was significantly decreased in most sediment samples after dredging. Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis activity, an estimate of total microbial activity, decreased 56–67% after dredging in one of the two ditches. Many sample sites also had significant phosphorus and ecoenzymatic activity differences between the post-dredge samples and the year-long follow-up samples. Results indicate microbial metabolism in dredged drainage ditches may take up to a year or more to recover to pre-dredged levels. Likewise, while sediment nutrient concentrations may be decreased through dredging and removal, runoff and erosion events over time tend to quickly replenish nutrient concentrations in replaced sediments. Understanding nutrient dynamics and microbial metabolism within agricultural drainage ditches is

  17. 43 CFR 418.20 - Diversions from the Truckee River to Lahontan Reservoir, January through June. (United States)


    ... during this period. (6) Values for TSM/J will vary with the Carson Division water demand as shown in... defined in the following table along with an example of TSM/J for Carson River water demand of 271,000... upon water availability and Project demand as expressed in the following relationship: TRD=TDD+ TCL+CDD...

  18. Contribution to the study of the weathering rate of minerals and rocks in the drainage basin of the Paraguacu river - Bahia - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaes, A.B.


    The concentrations of Na + , Mg ++ , Ca ++ , K + , SiO 2 , SO sup(=) 4 , alcalinity and pH have been determined for twenty-nine surface water samples of the Paraguacu river drainage basin, mainly in the Utinga River sub-basin. The stable isotope ratio of carbon 13 C/ 12 C as well as concentration of 14 C was determined for some samples. The ion influence on local aerosol chemistry has also been subtracted from all samples. The analytical results were used to determine the current rate of weathering the rocks of this region and study the sources of dissolved carbon in this water. The analysis of the data shows that weathering processes are influenced by the local lithology. The data from them Utinga river suggests that dissolution of limestone contributes a large percentage of ions. The influence of groundwater in the river flow also brings high concentrations of Na + , Mg ++ and Ca ++ ions from aerosols, presumeably concentrated by evapo-transpiration. The presence of aerosols in the samples used is remarkable, the contribution of salts from silicate weathering is rather small. It is proposed that the dissolution of limestone and decomposition of organic matter might explain the origin of carbon in some of the samples but others appear to have suffered equilibration with atmospheric CO 2 . (Author) [pt

  19. Subsurface drainage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Der Merwe, CJ


    Full Text Available The report describes the findings of the research project on subsurface drainage. The need for drainage was quantified by evaluating HVS tests on wet pavements. Geotextiles were investigated and various tests performed. Soil/geotextile compatibility...

  20. The Functioning of Drainage Canal Near Barrage “Brzeg Dolny” on the Odra River in 1971–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olszewska Beata


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the amount of water flowing into the drainage canal in comparison to the levels of the Odra waters in the Brzeg Dolny – Wały cross section (upper water in the barrage. The results of the measurement of the flow intensity in the canal in 1971–2009 provided the basis for the evaluation.

  1. Antibiotic resistance and community analysis of surface and subsurface drainage waters in the South Fork Iowa River watershed (United States)

    The Midwest is a center for swine production leading to application of swine manure onto lands that have artificial subsurface drainage. Previous reports have indicated elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in surface water and groundwater around confined animal feeding operations wh...

  2. Multimillion-Year Evolution of a Sublacustrine Fan System: Source-to-Sink History of the South Rukuru and Ruhuhu River Drainages, Lake Malawi (Nyasa) Rift, East Africa (United States)

    Scholz, C. A.; Shillington, D. J.; McCartney, T.


    The development of long-lived continental rifts can be markedly influenced by surface processes, including sediment input and footwall erosion. This occurs through modifying crustal thickness and loading, as well as by influencing behaviors of individual faults. Here we report on the evolution of a long-lived system of sublacustrine fans in the Central Basin of the Lake Malawi (Nyasa) rift, East Africa. An extensive suite of crustal-scale seismic reflection data was acquired in 2015 as part of the SEGMeNT project, which resulted superb images of the syn-rift section. These data are augmented by legacy single-channel high resolution reflection data that provide detailed information on facies geometries and stacking architecture of the deep-water fan systems. The ages and lithologic character of the stratal surfaces observed in the reflection seismic data are constrained by ties to the 2005 scientific drill cores acquired during the Lake Malawi Scientific Drilling Project. The South Rukuru River is an eastward flowing regional drainage (11,900 km2) that enters Lake Malawi through an incision in the western border fault of the rift's Central Basin. The Rukuru River drainage (17,230 km2) enters the eastern side of the lake at an accommodation zone margin between the North and Central Basins. Both are antecedent drainages that prior to rifting may have delivered sediments to the Indian Ocean continental margin. Both systems now deliver sediment to a highly confined and focused depocenter in the Central Basin. The complex interplay of extension, mainly on the border fault systems, and high-frequency and high-amplitude lake levels shifts, has led to unique coarse sediment facies stacking architectures, with vertical stacking controlled by hydroclimate, and lateral positioning localized by fault behavior. Focused deep-water (700 m) deposition has resulted in overpressure within the sedimentary section in the localized depocenter, producing dramatic mud diapirs. Long

  3. Water-Quality Characteristics for Sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River Drainage Basins, Wyoming and Montana, Water Years 2001-05, with Temporal Patterns of Selected Long-Term Water-Quality Data (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.


    Water-quality sampling was conducted regularly at stream sites within or near the Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana during water years 2001-05 (October 1, 2000, to September 30, 2005) to characterize water quality in an area of coalbed natural gas development. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, characterized the water quality at 22 sampling sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins. Data for general hydrology, field measurements, major-ion chemistry, and selected trace elements were summarized, and specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios were evaluated for relations with streamflow and seasonal variability. Trend analysis for water years 1991-2005 was conducted for selected sites and constituents to assess change through time. Average annual runoff was highly variable among the stream sites. Generally, streams that have headwaters in the Bighorn Mountains had more runoff as a result of higher average annual precipitation than streams that have headwaters in the plains. The Powder River at Moorhead, Mont., had the largest average annual runoff (319,000 acre-feet) of all the sites; however, streams in the Tongue River drainage basin had the highest runoff per unit area of the four major drainage basins. Annual runoff in all major drainage basins was less than average during 2001-05 because of drought conditions. Consequently, water-quality samples collected during the study period may not represent long-term water-quality con-ditions for all sites. Water-quality characteristics were highly variable generally because of streamflow variability, geologic controls, and potential land-use effects. The range of median specific-conductance values among sites was smallest in the Tongue River drainage basin. Median values in that basin ranged from 643 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (?S/cm at 25?C) on the

  4. Initial evaluations of the use of microbial measures to quantify impact of acid rock drainage on the Finniss River (east branch)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, P.J.; Wilde, K.L.; Stone, D.J.; Ben-David, E.A.; Foster, L.J.


    Biological measures assessing the impact of pollution on aquatic ecosystems have been increasingly used over the last ten years to examine ecosystem health. The focus, however, has been on diversity and abundance of higher organisms, such as fish, frogs and macroinvertebrates, and it is desirable that such measures be made across all trophic levels of the ecosystem. In this study, phospholipid-fatty acid analysis and microbial carbon substrate utilisation assays (BIOLOG) of sediment and water samples were conducted to evaluate their usefulness as a measure of the effect of acid rock drainage (ARD) on the East Branch of the Finniss River. Both PLFA, and BIOLOG assays, generate data well suited to multivariate analysis and previous studies of the impact of ARD from the Brukunga mine (South Australia) have demonstrated the ability to distinguish between the effect of ARD, nutrients and dry-land salinity on microbial populations

  5. Auxiliary variables for the mapping of the drainage network: spatial correlation between relieve units, lithotypes and springs in Benevente River basin-ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Vinicius Moreira Sampaio


    Full Text Available Process of the drainage network mapping present methodological limitations re- sulting in inaccurate maps, restricting their use in environmental studies. Such problems demand the realization of long field surveys to verify the error and the search for auxiliary variables to optimize this works and turn possible the analysis of map accuracy. This research aims at the measurement of the correlation be- tween springs, lithotypes and relieve units, characterized by Roughness Concentration Index (RCI in River Basin Benevente-ES, focusing on the operations of map algebra and the use of spatial statistical techniques. These procedures have identified classes of RCI and lithotypes that present the highest and the lowest correlation with the spatial distribution of springs, indicating its potential use as auxiliary variables to verify the map accuracy.

  6. Sensitivity of drainage morphometry based hydrological response (GIUH) of a river basin to the spatial resolution of DEM data (United States)

    Sahoo, Ramendra; Jain, Vikrant


    Drainage network pattern and its associated morphometric ratios are some of the important plan form attributes of a drainage basin. Extraction of these attributes for any basin is usually done by spatial analysis of the elevation data of that basin. These planform attributes are further used as input data for studying numerous process-response interactions inside the physical premise of the basin. One of the important uses of the morphometric ratios is its usage in the derivation of hydrologic response of a basin using GIUH concept. Hence, accuracy of the basin hydrological response to any storm event depends upon the accuracy with which, the morphometric ratios can be estimated. This in turn, is affected by the spatial resolution of the source data, i.e. the digital elevation model (DEM). We have estimated the sensitivity of the morphometric ratios and the GIUH derived hydrograph parameters, to the resolution of source data using a 30 meter and a 90 meter DEM. The analysis has been carried out for 50 drainage basins in a mountainous catchment. A simple and comprehensive algorithm has been developed for estimation of the morphometric indices from a stream network. We have calculated all the morphometric parameters and the hydrograph parameters for each of these basins extracted from two different DEMs, with different spatial resolutions. Paired t-test and Sign test were used for the comparison. Our results didn't show any statistically significant difference among any of the parameters calculated from the two source data. Along with the comparative study, a first-hand empirical analysis about the frequency distribution of the morphometric and hydrologic response parameters has also been communicated. Further, a comparison with other hydrological models suggests that plan form morphometry based GIUH model is more consistent with resolution variability in comparison to topographic based hydrological model.

  7. A simulation model for Carson Ice Co-Generation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, N.K.W.; Elmasri, M. [Thermoflow, Inc., Wellesley, MA (United States); Brownell, G. [SMUD, Sacramento, CA (United States)


    The paper describes a software system to simulate the performance of the Carson Ice Co-gen Facility operated by the Carson Energy Group. This 100 MW plant consists of a cogeneration combined cycle and a simple cycle unit powered by LM6000 gas turbine generators. Features of the system include inlet heating/absorption chilling for the gas turbines, supplementary firing capability, and a broad range of steam turbine extractions and admissions. The software enables the operator to model complex operating scenarios. It predicts technical and economic performance under a wide range of conditions, taking into account various equipment constraints and operation preferences. For any set of user-specified operating inputs, the corresponding heat and mass balance diagrams as well as economic figures may be viewed virtually instantaneously. Interactive plots of plant heat rate, incremental heat rate, operating income, and other parameters reveal issues and trade-offs involved in performance and economic optimization.

  8. Ground-water quality and geochemistry, Carson Desert, western Nevada (United States)

    Lico, Michael S.; Seiler, R.L.


    Aquifers in the Carson Desert are the primary source of drinking water, which is highly variable in chemical composition. In the shallow basin-fill aquifers, water chemistyr varies from a dilute calcium bicarbonate-dominated water beneath the irrigated areas to a saline sodium chloride- dominated water beneath unirrigated areas. Water samples from the shallow aquifers commonly have dissolved solids, chloride, magnesium, sulfate, arsenic, and manganese concentrations that exceed State of Nevada drinking-water standards. Water in the intermediante basin-fill aquifers is a dilute sodium bicarbonate type in the Fallon area and a distinctly more saline sodium chloride type in the Soda Lake-Upsal Hogback area. Dissolved solids, chloride, arsenic, fluoride, and manganese concen- trations commonly exceed drinking-water standards. The basalt aquifer contains a dilute sodium bicarbonate chloride water. Arsenic concentrations exceed standards in all sampled wells. The concen- trations of major constituents in ground water beneath the southern Carson Desert are the result of evapotranspiration and natural geochemical reactions with minerals derived mostly from igneous rocks. Water with higher concentrations of iron and manganese is near thermodynamic equilibrium with siderite and rhodochrosite and indicates that these elements may be limited by the solubility of their respective carbonate minerals. Naturally occurring radionuclides (uranium and radon-222) are present in ground water from the Carson Desert in concen- tratons higher than proposed drinking-water standards. High uranium concentrations in the shallow aquifers may be caused by evaporative concentration and the release of uranium during dissolution of iron and manganese oxides or the oxidation of sedimentary organic matter that typically has elevated uranium concentrations. Ground water in the Carson Desert does not appear to have be contaminated by synthetic organic chemicals.

  9. Evaluation of genetic toxicity caused by acid mine drainage of coal mines on fish fauna of Simsang River, Garohills, Meghalaya, India. (United States)

    Talukdar, B; Kalita, H K; Baishya, R A; Basumatary, S; Sarma, D


    Fishery ecology of the Simsang River, Meghalaya is being threatened by large scale environmental degradation due to acid mine drainage (AMD) of coal mines. In the present paper, effort has been made to evaluate the genotoxicity caused due to AMD of coal mines on Channa punctata under laboratory condition through comet assay, micronucleus and chromosome aberration tests. Water samples were collected seasonally from affected and unaffected sites of the River and physico-chemical quality of water indicated low pH (4.6), high concentration of sulphates (270mgL(-1)) and iron (7.2mgL(-1)) beyond permissible limits. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) showed highest concentration of 4-ring PAH and Benzo[a]anthracene was the most important pollutant in the water collected from affected sites. The highest and the lowest mean concentrations of PAHs were estimated in monsoon and winter season, respectively. The index of DNA damage assessed by comet assay, micronucleus and chromosome aberration tests demonstrated significant differences season wise in different sampling sites. Frequency of DNA-damaged cells was found highest in the water samples collected from affected site in monsoon season. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Arsenic Scavenging by Al-Substituted Ferrihydrites in a Circumneutral pH River Impacted by the Acid Mine Drainage of Carnoulès, Gard, France (United States)

    ADRA, A.; Morin, G.; ona-Nguema, G.; Maillot, F.; Casiot, C.; Bruneel, O.


    Ferrihydrite (Fh) is a nanocrystalline ferric oxyhydroxide involved in the retention of pollutants in natural systems and in water-treatment processes. The status and properties of major chemical impurities in natural Fh is however still scarcely documented. Here we investigated the structure and reactivity of aluminum-rich Fh from river-bed sediments collected in a circumneutral river (pH 6-7) impacted by an arsenic-rich acid mine drainage (AMD). Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy at the Fe K-edge shows that Fh is the predominant mineral phase forming after neutralization of the AMD, in association with minor amount of schwertmannite transported from the AMD. EXAFS analysis indicates that Al(III) substitutes for Fe(III) ions into the Fh structure in the natural sediment samples, with local aluminum concentration within the 20-37×7 mol%Al range, in agreement with bulk chemical compositions. Synthetic aluminous Fh analogues prepared in the present study are found to be less Al-substituted (14-18×4 mol%Al). Finally, EXAFS analysis at the arsenic K-edge indicates that As(V) form similar inner-sphere surface complexes on the natural and synthetic Al-substituted Fh studied. Our results provide direct evidences for the scavenging of arsenic by natural Al- Fh, with possible implications for other pollutants in natural or engineered systems.

  11. A geochemical approach to the restoration plans for the Odiel River basin (SW Spain), a watershed deeply polluted by acid mine drainage. (United States)

    Macías, Francisco; Pérez-López, Rafael; Caraballo, Manuel A; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Cánovas, Carlos R; Nieto, Jose M; Olías, Manuel; Ayora, Carlos


    The Odiel River Basin (SW Spain) drains the central part of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), a world-class example of sulfide mining district and concomitantly of acid mine drainage (AMD) pollution. The severe AMD pollution and the incipient state of remediation strategies implemented in this region, coupled with the proximity of the deadline for compliance with the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), urge to develop a restoration and water resources management strategy. Furthermore, despite the presence of some reservoirs with acid waters in the Odiel basin, the construction of the Alcolea water reservoir has already started. On the basis of the positive results obtained after more than 10 years of developing a specific passive remediation technology (dispersed alkaline substrate (DAS)) for the highly polluted AMD of this region, a restoration strategy is proposed. The implementation of 13 DAS treatment plants in selected acid discharges along the Odiel and Oraque sub-basins and other restoration measurements of two acidic creeks is proposed as essential to obtain a good water quality in the future Alcolea reservoir. This restoration strategy is also suggested as an economically and environmentally sustainable approach to the extreme metal pollution affecting the waters of the region and could be considered the starting point for the future compliance with the WFD in the Odiel River Basin.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H.J. Strosnider


    Full Text Available Intensive mining and processing of the polymetallic sulfide ore body of Cerro Rico de Potosí (Bolivia has occurred since 1545. To further investigate acid mine drainage (AMD discharges and their link to downstream contamination, data were gathered during two sampling events during the most extreme periods of the dry and wet seasons of one year. Concentrations of Ag, B, Ba, Mo, Sb, Se, Sn and V in AMD and receiving streams were greater than Bolivian discharge limits and receiving water body guidelines as well as international agricultural use standards. High concentrations of rare earth metals have been documented in this area. Results indicate that contamination from mining has a larger scope than previously thought and underscore the importance of remediation.

  13. Effects of landscape features on population genetic variation of a tropical stream fish, Stone lapping minnow, Garra cambodgiensis, in the upper Nan River drainage basin, northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaowalee Jaisuk


    Full Text Available Spatial genetic variation of river-dwelling freshwater fishes is typically affected by the historical and contemporary river landscape as well as life-history traits. Tropical river and stream landscapes have endured extended geological change, shaping the existing pattern of genetic diversity, but were not directly affected by glaciation. Thus, spatial genetic variation of tropical fish populations should look very different from the pattern observed in temperate fish populations. These data are becoming important for designing appropriate management and conservation plans, as these aquatic systems are undergoing intense development and exploitation. This study evaluated the effects of landscape features on population genetic diversity of Garra cambodgiensis, a stream cyprinid, in eight tributary streams in the upper Nan River drainage basin (n = 30–100 individuals/location, Nan Province, Thailand. These populations are under intense fishing pressure from local communities. Based on 11 microsatellite loci, we detected moderate genetic diversity within eight population samples (average number of alleles per locus = 10.99 ± 3.00; allelic richness = 10.12 ± 2.44. Allelic richness within samples and stream order of the sampling location were negatively correlated (P < 0.05. We did not detect recent bottleneck events in these populations, but we did detect genetic divergence among populations (Global FST = 0.022, P < 0.01. The Bayesian clustering algorithms (TESS and STRUCTURE suggested that four to five genetic clusters roughly coincide with sub-basins: (1 headwater streams/main stem of the Nan River, (2 a middle tributary, (3 a southeastern tributary and (4 a southwestern tributary. We observed positive correlation between geographic distance and linearized FST (P < 0.05, and the genetic differentiation pattern can be moderately explained by the contemporary stream network (STREAMTREE analysis, R2 = 0.75. The MEMGENE analysis

  14. The inflow of 234U and 238U from the River Odra drainage basin to the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Skwarzec


    Full Text Available In this study the activity of uranium isotopes 234U and 238U in Odra river water samples, collected from October 2003 to July2004, was measured using alpha spectrometry. The uranium concentrations were different in each of the seasons analysed; the lowest values were recorded in summer. In all seasons, uranium concentrations were the highest in Bystrzyca river waters (from 27.81 ± 0.29Bq m-3 of 234U and 17.82 ± 0.23 Bq m-3 of 238U in spring to 194.76 ± 3.43 Bq m-3 of 234U and 134.88 ± 2.85 Bq m-3 of 238U in summer. The lowest concentrations were noted in the Mała Panew (from 1.33 ± 0.02 Bq m-3 of 234U and 1.06 ± 0.02 Bq m-3 of 238U in spring to 3.52 ± 0.05 Bq m-3 of 234U and 2.59± 0.04 Bq m-3 of 238U in autumn. The uranium radionuclides 234U and 238U in the water samples were not in radioactive equilibrium. The 234U / 238U activity ratios were the highest in Odra water samples collected at Głogów (1.84 in autumn, and the lowest in water from the Noteć (1.03 in winter and spring. The 234U / 238U activity ratio decreases along the main stream of the Odra, owing to changes in the salinity of the river's waters. Annually, 8.19 tons of uranium (126.29 G Bq of 234U and 100.80 G Bq of 238U flow into the Szczecin Lagoon with Odra river waters.

  15. The Citizens and Remote Sensing Observational Network (CARSON) Guide: Merging NASA Remote Sensing Data with Local Environmental Awareness (United States)

    Acker, James; Riebeek, Holli; Ledley, Tamara Shapiro; Herring, David; Lloyd, Steven


    "Citizen science" generally refers to observatoinal research and data collection conducted by non-professionals, commonly as volunteers. In the environmental science field, citizen scientists may be involved with local nad regional issues such as bird and wildlife populations, weather, urban sprawl, natural hazards, wetlands, lakes and rivers, estuaries, and a spectrum of public health concerns. Some citizen scientists may be primarily motivated by the intellectual challenge of scientific observations. Citizen scientists may now examine and utilize remote-sensing data related to their particular topics of interest with the easy-to-use NASA Web-based tools Giovanni and NEO, which allow exploration and investigation of a wide variety of Earth remote sensing data sets. The CARSON (Citizens and Remote Sensing Observational Network) Guide will be an online resource consisting of chapters each demonstrating how to utilize Giovanni and NEO to access and analyze specific remote-sensing data. Integrated in each chapter will be descriptions of methods that citizen scientists can employ to collect, monitor, analyze, and share data related to the chapter topic which pertain to environmental and ecological conditions in their local region. A workshop held in August 2008 initiated the development of prototype chapters on water quality, air quality, and precipitation. These will be the initial chapters in the first release of the CARSON Guide, which will be used in a pilot project at the Maryland Science Center in spring 2009. The goal of the CARSON Guide is to augment and enhance citizen scientist environmental research with NASA satellite data by creating a participatory network consisting of motivated individuals, environmental groups and organizations, and science-focused institutions such as museuma and nature centers. Members of the network could potentially interact with government programs, academic research projects, and not-for-profit organizations focused on

  16. Multidisciplinary work on barium contamination of the karstic upper Kupa River drainage basin (Croatia and Slovenia); calling for watershed management. (United States)

    Francisković-Bilinski, S; Bilinski, H; Grbac, R; Zunić, J; Necemer, M; Hanzel, D


    The present work was designed as an extension of a previous study of a barium anomaly observed in stream sediments of the Kupa River. In its upper part the Kupa River drains a region underlain by a trans-boundary aquifer. The river is a significant water resource in a region of tourism, sport, and fishing in both Croatia and Slovenia. The contamination source is situated in Homer (Lokve), Croatia, where barite was mined until 10 years ago. The barium processing waste material (waste and stream sediments were analyzed using comparative techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer spectroscopy, and grain size analysis. XRD of the waste material identified the major minerals quartz, barite, and dolomite and the Fe-containing minor minerals muscovite and goethite. Barite was identified as a minor or trace mineral in the Kupica River sediments. XRF analysis of the waste material has shown Ba and Fe to be the predominant elements, Ca and K to be minor elements, and Mn, Zn, Sr, Pb, Co, Cu, As, Zr, Rb, Y, and Mo to be trace elements. Mössbauer spectroscopy performed at room temperature (RT) was used to study iron minerals, particularly to obtain information on the valence status of Fe ions. Grain size analysis of the waste material (waste disposal on human health in Lokve. At this stage of the work, concentrations of Ba and other toxic elements in the water compartment of the Kupica River (a source of drinking water) have not been monitored by Croatian Waters (name of the Croatian water authorities). The necessity of such measurements in future studies has been highlighted. A preliminary study of diseases diagnosed in Lokve shows that about 18% of the total inhabitants have serious medical problems. Diseases of the circulatory system, endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases, neoplasms, and respiratory diseases predominate. This paper calls for further multidisciplinary research on the health effects of barium and trace elements, as well

  17. Assessing the concentration, speciation, and toxicity of dissolved metals during mixing of acid-mine drainage and ambient river water downstream of the Elizabeth Copper Mine, Vermont, USA (United States)

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Seal, R.R.; Piatak, N.M.; Paul, B.


    The authors determine the composition of a river that is impacted by acid-mine drainage, evaluate dominant physical and geochemical processes controlling the composition, and assess dissolved metal speciation and toxicity using a combination of laboratory, field and modeling studies. Values of pH increase from 3.3 to 7.6 and the sum of dissolved base metal (Cd + Co + Cu + Ni + Pb + Zn) concentrations decreases from 6270 to 100 ??g/L in the dynamic mixing and reaction zone that is downstream of the river's confluence with acid-mine drainage. Mixing diagrams and PHREEQC calculations indicate that mixing and dilution affect the concentrations of all dissolved elements in the reach, and are the dominant processes controlling dissolved Ca, K, Li, Mn and SO4 concentrations. Additionally, dissolved Al and Fe concentrations decrease due to mineral precipitation (gibbsite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite), whereas dissolved concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn decrease due to adsorption onto newly formed Fe precipitates. The uptake of dissolved metals by aquatic organisms is dependent on the aqueous speciation of the metals and kinetics of complexation reactions between metals, ligands and solid surfaces. Dissolved speciation of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in the mixing and reaction zone is assessed using the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique and results of speciation calculations using the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). Data from open and restricted pore DGT units indicate that almost all dissolved metal species are inorganic and that aqueous labile or DGT available metal concentrations are generally equal to total dissolved concentrations in the mixing zone. Exceptions occur when labile metal concentrations are underestimated due to competition between H+ and metal ions for Chelex-100 binding sites in the DGT units at low pH values. Calculations using the BLM indicate that dissolved Cd and Zn species in the mixing and reaction zone are predominantly inorganic

  18. Precipitation and Runoff Simulations of the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains, and Updated Estimates of Ground-Water Inflow and the Ground-Water Budgets for Basin-Fill Aquifers of Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada, and Alpine County, California (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.


    Recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, Nevada, and California, from the adjacent Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains ranged from 22,000 to 40,000 acre-feet per year using water-yield and chloride-balance methods. In this study, watershed models were developed for watersheds with perennial streams and for watersheds with ephemeral streams in the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains to provide an independent estimate of ground-water inflow. This report documents the development and calibration of the watershed models, presents model results, compares the results with recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, and presents updated estimates of the ground-water budget for basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley. The model used for the study was the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Geographic Information System software was used to manage spatial data, characterize model drainages, and to develop Hydrologic Response Units. Models were developed for * Two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Carson Range and two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Pine Nut Mountains using measured daily mean runoff, * Ten watersheds with ungaged perennial streams using estimated daily mean runoff, * Ten watershed with ungaged ephemeral streams in the Carson Range, and * A large area of ephemeral runoff near the Pine Nut Mountains. Models developed for the gaged watersheds were used as index models to guide the calibration of models for ungaged watersheds. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for 4 gaged watersheds and for 10 ungaged watersheds in the Carson Range estimated in a previous study. The models were further constrained by annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study to provide

  19. Impact of acid mine drainage from mining exploitations on the Margajita River basin and the Hatillo reservoir (Dominican Republic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandia, F.; Salas, J.; Arcos, D.; Archambault, A.; Cottard, F.


    Mining of the Pueblo Viejo high-sulphidation epithermal deposit (Dominican Republic) leads to environmental impact due to the formation of acid mine drainage associated with the oxidative dissolution of sulphides and sulpho salts. In addition to the very low pH, the acid waters are capable of transporting away from the mining areas high concentrations of metals and metalloids in solution. In the present work, a geochemical study of sediments deposited in the Hatillo reservoir is carried out. This reservoir is fed by the Margajita and Yuna streams which transport leachates from the Pueblo Viejo and Falcondo-Bonao (Cr-Ni) mining areas, respectively. The results show that these sediments have very high concentrations of Fe, Al and sulphate, along with significant amounts of As, Zn and Te, which are of especial environmental concern. The main contributor to this metal discharge into the reservoir is the Margajita stream, whereas the Yuna stream does not transport significant amounts of metals in solution due to its neutral pH, although it is likely that metals such as Mn, Cr, Ni and Co can be mobilised as a particulate. (Author) 5 refs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto José Vervloet


    Full Text Available The issues addressed in this article refer to the concluding part entitled research Morphologic and Structural Dynamics Constraints in the river basin of Rio hydroghaphy Benevente – Espirito Santo which aimed to investigate the lithostructural, tectonic, morphologic factors as constrain the in evolution of the drainage network of Benevente, river basin located in the south of Espírito Santo, state, Brazil. In this article it’s present the fold of background, studied by Ruellan (1952, set out the basic levels in local and regional erosion process, while also affects the evolution of the drainage network, as responsible for the dynamics of sub-compartments relief associated to lithostructural interface tectonic-relief-fluvial channels evolution. This article does homage to the pioneering work of Ruellan regarding the geomorphologic studies about Brazilian territory.

  1. Water-quality characteristics and trend analyses for the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins, Wyoming and Montana, for selected periods, water years 1991 through 2010 (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.


    The Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana is an area of ongoing coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development. Waters produced during CBNG development are managed with a variety of techniques, including surface impoundments and discharges into stream drainages. The interaction of CBNG-produced waters with the atmosphere and the semiarid soils of the Powder River structural basin can affect water chemistry in several ways. Specific conductance and sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of CBNG-produced waters that are discharged to streams have been of particular concern because they have the potential to affect the use of the water for irrigation. Water-quality monitoring has been conducted since 2001 at main-stem and tributary sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins in response to concerns about CBNG effects. A study was conducted to summarize characteristics of stream-water quality for water years 2001–10 (October 1, 2000, to September 30, 2010) and examine trends in specific conductance, SAR, and primary constituents that contribute to specific conductance and SAR for changes through time (water years 1991–2010) that may have occurred as a result of CBNG development. Specific conductance and SAR are the focus characteristics of this report. Dissolved calcium, magnesium, and sodium, which are primary contributors to specific conductance and SAR, as well as dissolved alkalinity, chloride, and sulfate, which are other primary contributors to specific conductance, also are described. Stream-water quality in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins was variable during water years 2001–10, in part because of variations in streamflow. In general, annual runoff was less than average during water years 2001–06 and near or above average during water years 2007–10. Stream water of the Tongue River had the smallest specific conductance values, sodium adsorption ratios

  2. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Middle Green River basin, Utah 1988-89, with selected data for 1982-87 (United States)

    Peltz, Lorri A.; Waddell, Bruce


    Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected in the middle Green River basin, eastern Utah, between 1988 and 1989, as part of a detailed study of the effects of irrigation drainage on wetland areas. Data-collection efforts were concentrated in the Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area near Jensen, and Ouray National Wildlife Refuge near Ouray. Data also were collected from Ashley Creek near Vernal, Pelican Lake near Ouray, and in Pariette Wetlands near Myton. A limited quantity of data collected during earlier studies (1982-87), funded by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, also is included. This report contains data needed to assess the effects of selenium and other potentially toxic contaminants on streams and wetlands. Data consist of concentrations of trace elements and common elements in samples of water, sediment, plants, waterfowl, birds, fish, and invertebrates. Other data presented in the report are ground-water levels, surface-water discharges, radiochemical constituents in water, analyses of organochlorine compounds in biota, and morphonetric measurements of biota.

  3. Computationally efficient and flexible modular modelling approach for river and urban drainage systems based on surrogate conceptual models (United States)

    Wolfs, Vincent; Willems, Patrick


    Water managers rely increasingly on mathematical simulation models that represent individual parts of the water system, such as the river, sewer system or waste water treatment plant. The current evolution towards integral water management requires the integration of these distinct components, leading to an increased model scale and scope. Besides this growing model complexity, certain applications gained interest and importance, such as uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, auto-calibration of models and real time control. All these applications share the need for models with a very limited calculation time, either for performing a large number of simulations, or a long term simulation followed by a statistical post-processing of the results. The use of the commonly applied detailed models that solve (part of) the de Saint-Venant equations is infeasible for these applications or such integrated modelling due to several reasons, of which a too long simulation time and the inability to couple submodels made in different software environments are the main ones. Instead, practitioners must use simplified models for these purposes. These models are characterized by empirical relationships and sacrifice model detail and accuracy for increased computational efficiency. The presented research discusses the development of a flexible integral modelling platform that complies with the following three key requirements: (1) Include a modelling approach for water quantity predictions for rivers, floodplains, sewer systems and rainfall runoff routing that require a minimal calculation time; (2) A fast and semi-automatic model configuration, thereby making maximum use of data of existing detailed models and measurements; (3) Have a calculation scheme based on open source code to allow for future extensions or the coupling with other models. First, a novel and flexible modular modelling approach based on the storage cell concept was developed. This approach divides each

  4. Historic and Current Distributions of River Otters (Lontra canadensis) and (Lontra longicaudis) in the Río Grande or Río Bravo del Norte Drainage of Colorado and New Mexico, USA and of Chihuahua, Mexico and Adjacent Areas


    Paul Polechla; Eduardo Carrillo-Rubio


    The Río Grande drainage is an important and imperiled wetland of the US/Mexican border arid lands. There is a desire to restore otter populations in this river by interested parties. In order to follow IUCN guidelines for restoration, biologists need learn more fully the situation prior to implementation of restoration management. A prerequisite for proper restoration conservation is to know the organism’s taxonomy (i.e., what taxa or species and subspecies one is dealing with), distribution,...

  5. Fort Carson Building 1860 Biomass Heating Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, Randolph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tomberlin, Gregg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gaul, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    As part of the Army Net-Zero Energy Installation program, the Fort Carson Army Base requested that NREL evaluate the feasibility of adding a biomass boiler to the district heating system served by Building 1860. We have also developed an Excel-spreadsheet-based decision support tool--specific to the historic loads served by Building 1860--with which users can perform what-if analysis on gas costs, biomass costs, and other parameters. For economic reasons, we do not recommend adding a biomass system at this time.

  6. Effects of colloids on metal transport in a river receiving acid mine drainage, upper Arkansas River, Colorado, U.S.A. (United States)

    Kimball, Briant A.


    Inflows of metal-rich, acidic water that drain from mine dumps and tailings piles in the Leadville, Colorado, area enter the non-acidic water in the upper Arkansas River. Hydrous iron oxides precipitate as colloids and move downstream in suspension, particularly downstream from California Gulch, which has been the major source of metal loads. The colloids influence the concentrations of metals dissolved in the water and the concentrations in bed sediments. To determine the role of colloids, samples of water, colloids, and fine-grained bed sediment were obtained at stream-gaging sites on the upper Arkansas River and at the mouths of major tributaries over a 250-km reach. Dissolved and colloidal metal concentrations in the water column were operationally defined using tangential-flow filtration through 0.001-pm membranes to separate the water and the colloids. Surface-extractable and total bed sediment metal concentrations were obtained on the colloids, and bed sediments occurred just downstream from California Gulch. Iron dominated the colloid composition, but substantial concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn also occurred in the colloidal solids. The colloidal load decreased by one half in the first 50 km downstream from the mining inflows due to sedimentation of aggregated colloids to the streambed. Nevertheless, a substantial load of colloids was transported through the entire study reach to Pueblo Reservoir. Dissolved metals were dominated by Mn and Zn, and their concentrations remained relatively high throughout the 250-km reach. The composition of extractable and total metals in bed sediment for several kilometers downstream from California Gulch is similar to the composition of the colloids that settle to the bed. Substantial concentrations of Mn and Zn were extractable, which is consistent with sediment-water chemical reaction. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in bed sediment clearly result from the influence of mining near Leadville. Concentrations

  7. Forest drainage (United States)

    R.W. Skaggs; S. Tian; G.M. Chescheir; Devendra Amatya; M.A. Youssef


    Most of the world's 4030 million ha of forested lands are situated on hilly, mountainous or well-drained upland landscapes where improved drainage is not needed. However, there are millions of hectares of poorly drained forested lands where excessively wet soil conditions limit tree growth and access for harvesting and other management activities. Improved or...

  8. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the middle Green River basin, Utah, 1986-87 (United States)

    Stephens, D.W.; Waddell, Bruce; Miller, J.B.


    Reconnaissance of wildlife areas in the middle Green River basin of Utah was conducted during 1986 and 1987 to determine whether irrigation drainage has caused, or has the potential to cause significant harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of water for beneficial uses. Studies at Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area and Ouray National Wildlife Refuge indicated that concentrations of boron, selenium, and zinc in water, bottom sediment, and biological tissue were sufficiently large to be harmful to fish and wildlife, and to adversely affect beneficial uses of water. Selenium is the principal element of concern in both areas. Concentrations of dissolved selenium in irrigation drain water entering Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area ranged from 14-140 micrograms/L (ug/L) and consistently exceeded Utah standards for wildlife protection in water in two of the four drains. Concentrations of boron and zinc exceeded Utah standards only occasionally in the drain waters. Concentrations of total selenium in sediments collected where the drains discharge into the lake were 10-85 ug/gm. Liver tissue collected from American coots at Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area contained concentrations of selenium from 4.9-26 ug/gm (dry weight), and whole body samples of carp contained as much as 31 ug/gm (dry weight). Concentrations of selenium in Potamogeton and blue-green algae ranged from 2.1-27 ug/gm. Concentrations of boron, selenium, and zinc were also measured in water from Ouray National Wildlife Refuge. Liver tissue of American coots from the North Roadside Pond, which receives irrigation tailwater, contained a geometric-mean concentration of selenium of 32 ug/gm (dry weight). Five water-bird eggs collected from the North and South Roadside Ponds contained selenium concentrations of 63-120 ug/gm (dry weight). (Lantz-PTT)

  9. Precipitation and streamflow data from the Fort Carson Military Reservation and precipitation, streamflow, and suspended-sediment data from the Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site, Southeastern Colorado, 2008-2012 (United States)

    Brown, Christopher R.


    In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U. S. Department of the Army, compiled available precipitation and streamflow data for the years of 2008–2012 from the Fort Carson Military Reservation (Fort Carson) near Colorado Springs, Colo., and precipitation, streamflow, and suspended-sediment loads from the Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site (PCMS) near Trinidad, Colo. Graphical representations of the data presented herein are a continuation of work completed by the USGS in 2008 to gain a better understanding of spatial and temporal trends within the hydrologic data. Precipitation stations at Fort Carson and the PCMS were divided into groups based on their land-surface altitude (LSA) to determine if there is a spatial difference in precipitation amounts based on LSA for either military facility. Two-sample t-tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests indicated statistically significant differences exist between precipitation values at different groups for Fort Carson but not for the PCMS. All five precipitation stations at Fort Carson exhibit a decrease in median daily total precipitation from years 2002–2007 to 2008–2012. For the PCMS, median precipitation values decreased from the first study period to the second for the 13 stations monitored year-round except for Burson and Big Hills. Mean streamflow for 2008–2012 is less than mean streamflow for 1983–2007 for all stream-gaging stations at Fort Carson and at the PCMS. During the study period, each of the stream-gaging stations within the tributary channels at the PCMS accounted for less than three percent of the total streamflow at the Purgatoire River at Rock Crossing gage. Peak streamflow for 2008–2012 is less than peak streamflow for 2002–2007 at both Fort Carson and the PCMS. At the PCMS, mean suspended-sediment yield for 2008–2012 increased by 54 percent in comparison to the mean yield for 2002–2007. This increase is likely related to the destruction of groundcover by a series of

  10. The Rachel Carson Letters and the Making of Silent Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paull


    Full Text Available Environment, conservation, green, and kindred movements look back to Rachel Carson’s 1962 book Silent Spring as a milestone. The impact of the book, including on government, industry, and civil society, was immediate and substantial, and has been extensively described; however, the provenance of the book has been less thoroughly examined. Using Carson’s personal correspondence, this paper reveals that the primary source for Carson’s book was the extensive evidence and contacts compiled by two biodynamic farmers, Marjorie Spock and Mary T. Richards, of Long Island, New York. Their evidence was compiled for a suite of legal actions (1957-1960 against the U.S. Government and that contested the aerial spraying of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT. During Rudolf Steiner’s lifetime, Spock and Richards both studied at Steiner’s Goetheanum, the headquarters of Anthroposophy, located in Dornach, Switzerland. Spock and Richards were prominent U.S. anthroposophists, and established a biodynamic farm under the tutelage of the leading biodynamics exponent of the time, Dr. Ehrenfried Pfeiffer. When their property was under threat from a government program of DDT spraying, they brought their case, eventually lost it, in the process spent US$100,000, and compiled the evidence that they then shared with Carson, who used it, and their extensive contacts and the trial transcripts, as the primary input for Silent Spring. Carson attributed to Spock, Richards, and Pfeiffer, no credit whatsoever in her book. As a consequence, the organics movement has not received the recognition, that is its due, as the primary impulse for Silent Spring, and it is, itself, unaware of this provenance.

  11. Bedrock river networks of the Sierra Nevada, USA record westward tilting, large-scale drainage area loss, and distinct patterns and causes of stream incision between the northern and southern Sierra (United States)

    Beeson, H. W.; McCoy, S. W.


    The timing, rates, and spatial patterns of elevation change in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, has been the subject of vigorous debate with multiple lines of evidence supporting the contrasting hypotheses that (1) the Sierra has been topographically high throughout the Cenozoic and (2) that the range has experienced a pulse of late Cenozoic uplift. We combined 2-D landscape evolution modeling with topographic analysis of the Sierra Nevada to investigate whether river networks dissecting the range record a change in tectonic forcing during the late Cenozoic. Specifically, we quantify basin geometry, including its area-channel length scaling relationship, fluvial channel steepness, and the spatial distributions of knickzones. We show that, throughout the Sierra, short equilibrated reaches near the mountain front are consistent with an ongoing westward tilt. However, the disequilibrium forms of river profiles north of the Kaweah River reflect large-scale drainage area loss due to network beheading by the Sierra Frontal Fault and/or reestablishment of a fluvial network on an inclined planar surface. Despite these similarities along the length of the range, river network analysis reveals striking differences north and south of approximately 37° N. In the northern Sierra, topographic asymmetry of drainage divides and large differences in cross-divide steady-state elevation suggest mobile divides. Additionally, the broad distribution of normalized knickzone locations, variability in channel steepness and basin shape, and the prevalence of anomalous topology, narrow basins, unadjusted captured reaches, and wind gaps is consistent with large-scale drainage reorganization following incision into an inclined planar surface. In contrast, in the southern Sierra, drainage divides appear more stable and knickzone locations are tightly distributed. We suggest that, although the northern Sierra may currently be tilting westward, the presence of large knickzones and deeply

  12. Hot spring drainage impact on fish communities around temperate estuaries in southwestern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Yamada


    New hydrological insights: Factor analysis results obtained using water quality data show that the scale of the hot spring drainage influence on rivers differs among rivers. The inflow of hot spring drainage into the rivers affects phytoplankton more than the inflow of domestic drainage, which increases the amount of phytoplankton. Furthermore, hot spring drainage creates a better habitat for Nile tilapia, a foreign species, by increasing food availability and water temperature.

  13. Study of the dynamics of drainage of {sup 137C}s present on the catchment basins of French rivers; Etude de la dynamique de drainage du {sup 137}Cs present sur les bassins versants des cours d'eau francais. Etat d'avancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vray, F.; Debayle, Ch.; Metivier, J.M


    An operational model describing the drainage of radionuclides was selected from a bibliographical synthesis. This model supplies an expression of the dissolved flux in rivers according to the flow of the river and the activity deposited on the catchment basin. To adjust this model for {sup 137}Cs coming from the Chernobylsk accident and the main French rivers, series of data reporting the temporal evolution of the activity of {sup 137}Cs in the water are necessary.The difficulty inherent to the measure of this radionuclide in the water led to dread its activity through that, more easily measurable, sediments and water plants. Measures on these indicators, upstream to any release of industrial effluents, were notably realized since 1991 within the framework of the annual follow-up of French nuclear power plants. The model of drainage is thus adjusted essentially on these data within a multiplicative factor (this factor being K{sub d} or F{sub c}). This requires however some preliminary adaptations: K{sub d} being dependent on granulometry characteristics of the sediments samples, a standardization of their activity on granulometry criteria must be made. For the aquatic plants, it is necessary to look for their time of answer before being able to adjust the model. The obtained results, on plants as on sediments, indicate that for the big French rivers, the activity of {sup 137}Cs in aquatic environment decreases since 1987 with a period from 4 to 7 years. If the level of contamination of every river depends on the average contamination of the catchment basin (average deposit in Bq by m{sup 2}), it seems that this level is also influenced by the other parameters as the size of the catchment basin, even some characteristics of the drained soils. This part of the study remains to deepen. It joins the works led to the L.E.R.C.M. on the migration of radionuclides in soils. On the upstream part of the Rhone river, the aquatic plants indicate that the flow plays a role of

  14. Silent Spring, the 50th anniversary of Rachel Carson's book. (United States)

    Pimentel, David


    David Pimentel is a professor of ecology and agricultural sciences at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-0901. His Ph.D. is from Cornell University and had postdoctoral research at the University of Chicago, MIT, and fellowship at Oxford University (England). He was awarded a distinguished honorary degree from the University of Massachusetts. His research spans the fields of energy, population ecology, biological pest control, pesticides, sustainable agriculture, land and water conservation, livestock, and environmental policy. Pimentel has published more than 700 scientific papers and 37 books and has served on many national and government committees including the National Academy of Sciences; President's Science Advisory Council; U.S Department of Agriculture; U.S. Department of Energy; U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare; Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress; and the U.S. State Department. He is currently Editorial Advisor for BMC Ecology. In this article, he reflects on 50 years since the publication of Rachel Carson's influential book, Silent Spring.

  15. Quaternary Reorganization of North American Mid-continent Drainage Systems (United States)

    Carson, E. C.; Rawling, J. E., III; Attig, J. W.; Bates, B. R.


    Identification of ancestral drainage systems in the North American mid-continent has been a topic of research and debate among geologists since the middle of the 19th Century. Over time our understanding of the significance of Quaternary glaciations in reshaping drainage patterns has grown. The ancestral Teays River, which drained large areas of the central Appalachians and flowed westward across Indiana and western Illinois, was dammed multiple times by Quaternary glaciers before finally being rerouted to the course of the modern central Ohio River. Similarly, the northward-flowing ancestral Pittsburgh River was dammed by pre-Illinoian glaciers; subsequent stream piracy converted this river system into the modern Allegheny, Monongahela and uppermost Ohio Rivers. Deposits and geomorphic features along the westward-flowing lower Wisconsin River indicate that the modern upper Mississippi River and Wisconsin River may have experienced a similar history of ice blockage, stream piracy, and radical rerouting. Coring into the Bridgeport strath terrace along the lower Wisconsin River reveals that the bedrock surface dips to the east, indicating the valley was cut by an eastward-flowing river. We believe the most likely scenario following this interpretation is that an ancestral river flowing along the modern upper Mississippi River valley made a sharp bend at Prairie du Chien, WI, and flowed eastward along the valley occupied by the modern lower Wisconsin River. This river, referred to here as the Wyalusing River, likely flowed northeastward into the Great Lakes (St. Lawrence) drainage until that path was blocked by ice advancing from the northwest. Subsequent stream piracy immediately south of the modern confluence of the Mississippi and Wisconsin Rivers rerouted these streams, converting them to the headwaters of the greater Mississippi drainage. The combined rerouting of these river systems into entirely different drainage basins necessitates significant fundamental

  16. Analysis on Heavy Metal Distribution in Overlying Deposit and Pollution Characteristics in Drainage Basin of Xiaojiang River in Dongchuan District, China (United States)

    Huang, Qianrui; Cheng, Xianfeng; Xu, Jun; Qi, Wufu; Yang, Shuran; Dong, Tao; Zhang, Xiangqun


    The distribution characteristics of heavy metal (Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Cd) content in overlying deposit in Xiaojiang River is analyzed in this thesis, and potential ecological risk index is adopted to evaluate the potential ecological risk of heavy metal pollution in the overlying deposit. Results indicate that the heavy metal (Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Cd) content in overlying deposit in Xiaojiang River all has exceeded standard, especially the content near diggings which is much higher than the national first standard value. And this will affect the bottom mud and river system of Jinsha River to some extent. Cu and Cd are the key pollutants and should be taken as the key object of study. It can be seen from comparison between samples in wet season and that in dry season that pollutants in bottom mud will be released due to the effect of pH value, and secondary pollution of the river will be caused.

  17. A geometria fractal da rede de drenagem da bacia hidrográfica do Caeté, Alfredo Wagner-SC Fractal geometry of the drainage network of the Caeté river watershed, Alfredo Wagner-SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Redin Vestena


    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar e avaliar a dimensão fractal da rede de drenagem da bacia hidrográfica do Caeté, em Alfredo Wagner, SC, a partir de diferentes métodos, com o propósito de caracterizar as formas geomorfológicas irregulares. A rede de drenagem apresenta propriedades multifractais. As dimensões fractais para os segmentos individuais (df e para a rede de drenagem inteira (Df foram determinadas por métodos que se fundamentaram nas razões de Horton e pelo método da contagem de caixas (Box-Counting. A rede de drenagem tem característica de autoafinidade. A dimensão fractal proveniente da relação de parâmetros obtidos pelas Leis de Horton apresentou resultados dentro dos limiares da teoria da geometria fractal.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the fractal dimensions of the drainage network of the Caeté river watershed, Alfredo Wagner/SC, with different methods in order to characterize the irregular geomorphologic forms. The drainage network possesses multi-fractal properties. That is why the fractal dimensions for the individual segments (df and for the entire network (Df were evaluated with Horton's Laws and the Box-Counting method. The drainage network has self-affinity characteristics. The fractal dimension obtained through the parameters relationship of Horton's Laws showed the results within the thresholds of the fractal geometry theory.

  18. Reconnaissance of the chemical quality of water in western Utah, Part I: Sink Valley area, drainage basins of Skull, Rush, and Government Creek Valleys, and the Dugway Valley-Old River Bed area (United States)

    Waddell, K.M.


    This report presents data collected during the first part of an investigation that was started in 1963 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey. The investigation has the purpose of providing information about the chemical quality of water in western Utah that will help interested parties to evaluate the suitability of the water for various uses in a broad area of Utah where little information of this type previously has been available. The area studied includes the Sink Valley area, the drainage basins of Skull, Rush, and Government Creek Valleys, and the Dugway Valley-Old River Bed area (fig. 1). Osamu Hattori and G. L. Hewitt started the investigation, and the author completed it and prepared the report.


    McCauley, John F.; Breed, Carlos S.; Schaber, Gerald G.; McHugh, William P.; Issawi, Bahay; Haynes, C. Vance; Grolier, Maurice J.; El Kilani, Ali


    A complex history of Cenozoic fluvial activity in the presently hyperarid eastern Sahara is inferred from Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data and postflight field investigations in southwest Egypt and northwest Sudan. SIR images were coregistered with Landsat and existing maps as a guide to exploration of the buried paleodrainages (radar rivers) first discovered by SIR-A. Field observations explain the radar responses of three types of radar rivers: RR-1, RR-2, and RR-3. A generalized model of the radar rivers, based on field studies and regional geologic relations, shows apparent changes in river regimen since the large valleys were established during the late Paleogene-early Neogene eras. SIR-based mapping of these paleodrainages, although incomplete, reveals missing links in an area once thought to be devoid of master streams.

  20. Social, cultural, and economic aspects of livestock ranching on the Santa Fe and Carson National Forests (United States)

    Alice M. McSweeney; Carol Raish


    We examined the cultural, social, and economic aspects of livestock operations of ranchers who have Federal grazing permits (called permittees) on the Santa Fe and Carson National Forests of northern New Mexico. This study was an expansion of the 2003 pilot study and was designed to provide much-needed information concerning the culture and economic practices of the...

  1. Utility Assessment Report for SPIDERS Phase 2: Ft. Carson (Rev 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Jonathan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hadley, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schneider, Kevin P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This document contains the Utility Assessment Report (UAR) for the Phase 2 operational Demonstration (OD) of the Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD). The UAR for Phase 2 shows that the SPIDERS system was able to meet the requirements of the Implementation Directive at Ft. Carson.

  2. Grotesque Encounters with Adolescence: Reading Carson McCullers' "The Member of the Wedding" (United States)

    Bell, Katherine


    This paper takes the grotesque as a model of subjectivity that offers compelling inroads to understanding adolescence. Bakhtin notes that the grotesque "seeks to grasp in its imagery the very act of becoming and growth, the eternal, incomplete, unfinished nature of being". I argue that Carson McCullers' novel, "The Member of the…

  3. Do rivers really obey power-laws? Using continuous high resolution measurements to define bankfull channel and evaluate downstream hydraulic-scaling over large changes in drainage area (United States)

    Scher, C.; Tennant, C.; Larsen, L.; Bellugi, D. G.


    Advances in remote-sensing technology allow for cost-effective, accurate, high-resolution mapping of river-channel topography and shallow aquatic bathymetry over large spatial scales. A combination of near-infrared and green spectra airborne laser swath mapping was used to map river channel bathymetry and watershed geometry over 90+ river-kilometers (75-1175 km2) of the Greys River in Wyoming. The day of flight wetted channel was identified from green LiDAR returns, and more than 1800 valley-bottom cross-sections were extracted at regular 50-m intervals. The bankfull channel geometry was identified using a "watershed-based" algorithm that incrementally filled local minima to a "spill" point, thereby constraining areas of local convergence and delineating all the potential channels along the cross-section for each distinct "spill stage." Multiple potential channels in alluvial floodplains and lack of clearly defined channel banks in bedrock reaches challenge identification of the bankfull channel based on topology alone. Here we combine a variety of topological measures, geometrical considerations, and stage levels to define a stage-dependent bankfull channel geometry, and compare the results with day of flight wetted channel data. Initial results suggest that channel hydraulic geometry and basin hydrology power-law scaling may not accurately capture downstream channel adjustments for rivers draining complex mountain topography.

  4. Long term remediation of highly polluted acid mine drainage: A sustainable approach to restore the environmental quality of the Odiel river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraballo, Manuel A.; Macias, Francisco; Roetting, Tobias S.; Nieto, Jose Miguel; Ayora, Carlos


    During 20 months of proper operation the full scale passive treatment in Mina Esperanza (SW Spain) produced around 100 mg/L of ferric iron in the aeration cascades, removing an average net acidity up to 1500 mg/L as CaCO 3 and not having any significant clogging problem. Complete Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ti and V removal from the water was accomplished through almost the entire operation time while Fe removal ranged between 170 and 620 mg/L. The system operated at a mean inflow rate of 43 m 3 /day achieving an acid load reduction of 597 g.(m 2 day) -1 , more than 10 times higher than the generally accepted 40 g.(m 2 day) -1 value commonly used as a passive treatment system designing criteria. The high performance achieved by the passive treatment system at Mina Esperanza demonstrates that this innovative treatment design is a simple, efficient and long lasting remediation option to treat highly polluted acid mine drainage. - Highlights: → Novel reactive mixture enable 20 month of high hydraulic conductivity. → Acid load reduction improved 10 times comparing to vertical flow wetland. → High biotic and abiotic iron oxidation and removal. → Complete Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ti and V water removal. - A high permeable alkaline reactive substrate offers a sustainable option to remediate severely polluted acid mine drainage in the Odiel basin

  5. Stormwater Drainage Wells (United States)

    Provides information for identifying stormwater drainage wells, learn how to comply with regulations for storm water drainage wells, and how to reduce the threat to ground water from stormwater injection wells.

  6. Summary of oceanographic and water-quality measurements in Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge, Wells, Maine, in 2013 (United States)

    Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Ganju, Neil K.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Borden, Jonathan; Martini, Marinna A.; Brosnahan, Sandra M.


    Suspended-sediment transport is a critical element controlling the geomorphology of tidal wetland complexes. Wetlands rely on organic material and inorganic sediment deposition to maintain their elevation relative to sea level. The U.S. Geological Survey performed observational deployments to measure suspended-sediment concentration and water flow rates in the tidal channels of the wetlands in the Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge in Wells, Maine. The objective was to characterize the sediment-transport mechanisms that contribute to the net sediment budget of the wetland complex. We deployed a meteorological tower, optical turbidity sensors, and acoustic velocity meters at sites on Stephens Brook and the Ogunquit River between March 27 and December 9, 2013. This report presents the time-series oceanographic and atmospheric data collected during those field studies. The oceanographic parameters include water velocity, depth, turbidity, salinity, temperature, and pH. The atmospheric parameters include wind direction, speed, and gust; air temperature; air pressure; relative humidity; short wave radiation; and photosynthetically active radiation.

  7. Drainage of radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Code of Practice covers all the drainage systems which may occur in the radioactive classified area of an establishment, namely surface water, foul, process and radioactive drainage. It also deals with final discharge lines. The Code of Practice concentrates on those aspects of drainage which require particular attention because the systems are in or from radioactive areas and typical illustrations are given in appendices. The Code makes references to sources of information on conventional aspects of drainage design. (author)

  8. Mine drainage treatment


    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Aleksandar


    Water flowing from underground and surface mines and contains high concentrations of dissolved metals is called mine drainage. Mine drainage can be categorized into several basic types by their alkalinity or acidity. Sulfide rich and carbonate poor materials are expected to produce acidic drainage, and alkaline rich materials, even with significant sulfide concentrations, often produce net alkaline water. Mine drainages are dangerous because pollutants may decompose in the environment. In...

  9. Strike slip faulting inferred from offsetting of drainages: Lower ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The detailed analysis of landforms,drainages and geology of the area between the rivers Amaravati and Karjan was carried out in order to understand the tectonic history of the lower Narmada basin. Movement along the various faults in the area was studied on the basis of the drainage offsetting. Horizontal offsetting of ...

  10. Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Pilot-Scale Bioventing System at Building 8200, Fort Carson, Colorado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    This Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Manual has been created as a guide for monitoring and maintaining the performance of the pilot-scale bioventing blower system and vent well plumbing at Building 8200, Fort Carson, Colorado Bioventing...

  11. Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Expanded-Scale Bioventing System at Building 8200, Fort Carson, Colorado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    This operations and maintenance (O&M) manual has been created as a guide for monitoring and maintaining the performance of the expanded-scale bioventing blower system at Building 8200, Fort Carson, Colorado...

  12. Controls on the composition of fluvial sands from a tropical weathering environment: sands of the Orinoco River drainage basin, Venezuela and Colombia (United States)

    Johnsson, M.J.; Stallard, R.F.; Lundberg, N.


    On the alluvial plains of the western Llanos, storage of orogenically derived sediment allows time for substantial chemical weathering. Through reworking of the alluvial sequences, freshly eroded sediment is exchanged for older, compositionally more mature material. The chemically weathered component increases as rivers cross the Llanos, resulting in an increase in overall compositional maturity of bed-load sand away from the orogenic terranes. -from Authors

  13. The Amazon at sea: Onset and stages of the Amazon River from a marine record, with special reference to Neogene plant turnover in the drainage basin (United States)

    Hoorn, Carina; Bogotá-A, Giovanni R.; Romero-Baez, Millerlandy; Lammertsma, Emmy I.; Flantua, Suzette G. A.; Dantas, Elton L.; Dino, Rodolfo; do Carmo, Dermeval A.; Chemale, Farid


    The Amazon submarine fan is a large sediment apron situated offshore Pará (Brazil) and represents the most distal extent of the Amazon River. The age of onset of this transcontinental river remains debated, yet is of great importance for understanding biotic evolutionary processes on land and at sea. Here we present new geochemical and palynological data from a borehole drilled at the continental slope and dated based on nannofossil biostratigraphy. We found that sediments of mixed source (craton and adjacent) occur at least from the late Oligocene (NP25) to late Miocene (NN9), and that the earliest Andes-derived sediments occur in NN10 (late Miocene). Our geochemical record indicates an onset of the transcontinental Amazon River between 9.4 and 9 Ma, which postdates the regional unconformity by 1 to 1.5 My. The shift in sediment geochemistry is more gradually replicated in the palynological record by a change from coastal plain and tropical lowland taxa to a mixture of tropical lowland, and montane forest to open Andean taxa. In particular, the appearance of taxa such as Jamesonia and Huperzia, followed by Valeriana, Polylepis-Acaena, Lysipomia and Plantago (with a current altitudinal range from 3200 to 4000 m) suggests the development of open, treeless, vegetation between 9.5 and 5.4 Ma, and highlight the presence of a high Andes in the late Miocene hinterland. Poaceae progressively increased from 9 Ma, with a notable rise from 4 Ma onwards, and percentages well above post-glacial and modern values, particularly between 2.6 and 0.8 Ma. We hypothesize that the rise of the grasses is a basin-wide phenomenon, but that the Plio-Pleistocene expansion of open, treeless vegetation on the Andean slopes and foothills are the main contributor. This rise in grasses was likely caused by climatic fluctuations, and subsequent changes in relief and erosion rates. We conclude that the onset of the Amazon River is coupled with Neogene Andean tectonism and that subsequent

  14. Long term remediation of highly polluted acid mine drainage: a sustainable approach to restore the environmental quality of the Odiel river basin. (United States)

    Caraballo, Manuel A; Macías, Francisco; Rötting, Tobias S; Nieto, José Miguel; Ayora, Carlos


    During 20 months of proper operation the full scale passive treatment in Mina Esperanza (SW Spain) produced around 100 mg/L of ferric iron in the aeration cascades, removing an average net acidity up to 1500 mg/L as CaCO(3) and not having any significant clogging problem. Complete Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ti and V removal from the water was accomplished through almost the entire operation time while Fe removal ranged between 170 and 620 mg/L. The system operated at a mean inflow rate of 43 m(3)/day achieving an acid load reduction of 597 g·(m(2) day)(-1), more than 10 times higher than the generally accepted 40 g·(m(2) day)(-1) value commonly used as a passive treatment system designing criteria. The high performance achieved by the passive treatment system at Mina Esperanza demonstrates that this innovative treatment design is a simple, efficient and long lasting remediation option to treat highly polluted acid mine drainage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Topological Analysis of Urban Drainage Networks (United States)

    Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock; McGrath, Gavan; Rao, Suresh


    Urban drainage networks are an essential component of infrastructure, and comprise the aggregation of underground pipe networks carrying storm water and domestic waste water for eventual discharge to natural stream networks. Growing urbanization has contributed to rapid expansion of sewer networks, vastly increasing their complexity and scale. Importance of sewer networks has been well studied from an engineering perspective, including resilient management, optimal design, and malfunctioning impact. Yet, analysis of the urban drainage networks using complex networks approach are lacking. Urban drainage networks consist of manholes and conduits, which correspond to nodes and edges, analogous to junctions and streams in river networks. Converging water flows in these two networks are driven by elevation gradient. In this sense, engineered urban drainage networks share several attributes of flows in river networks. These similarities between the two directed, converging flow networks serve the basis for us to hypothesize that the functional topology of sewer networks, like river networks, is scale-invariant. We analyzed the exceedance probability distribution of upstream area for practical sewer networks in South Korea. We found that the exceedance probability distributions of upstream area follow power-law, implying that the sewer networks exhibit topological self-similarity. The power-law exponents for the sewer networks were similar, and within the range reported from analysis of natural river networks. Thus, in line with our hypothesis, these results suggest that engineered urban drainage networks share functional topological attributes regardless of their structural dissimilarity or different underlying network evolution processes (natural vs. engineered). Implications of these findings for optimal design of sewer networks and for modeling sewer flows will be discussed.

  16. Assessment of the impacts of dredging and drainage on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the impact of dredging and drainage on mangrove soils of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Samples from intact/un-drained mangroves and dredged/drained soils were collected from selected rivers in the Niger Delta and analysed. The rivers included Benin, Escravos, Warri, and Gbaraun and Sego Creeks.

  17. Study design, water quality, morphometrics and age of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, in sub-watersheds of the Yamaska River drainage basin, Québec, Canada. (United States)

    Spear, Philip A; Boily, Monique; Giroux, Isabelle; Deblois, Christian; Leclair, Maria Helena; Levasseur, Marc; Leclair, Raymond


    The Yamaska River basin is renowned for its poor water quality, which has been attributed to intensive agriculture (corn, soya, high-density pork and poultry production). Six locations within the Yamaska watershed were selected to evaluate the impact of agriculture on water habitats and study the bullfrog as a sentinel species of potential exposure and effects. The selected sub-watersheds were chosen according to the percentage of surface area under cultivation and classified as low (0-19%), moderate (20-59%) or high (>60%). In 2004 and 2005, analysis of surface water samples demonstrated that pesticide concentrations and most water quality parameters increased with increasing agricultural activity. Sixteen adult bullfrogs were sampled from each site. Animals were weighed, measured for length (total, snout-vent, tibia, tympanum), sexed, and evaluated for the colour of the throat. Skeletochronology was used to estimate the growth and age of the frogs. Cross-sections of decalcified phalanges and femurs were treated in order to count LAGs (lines of arrest growth) and for the observations of other parameters related to bone growth. The bullfrogs from highly contaminated sites had the lowest mean age and the smallest snout-vent length compared to sites of low contamination.

  18. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Hong, Seong Mo; Han, Man Chung


    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was successfully made 20 times on 17 patients of obstructive jaundice for recent 1 year since June 1981 at Department of Radiology in Seoul National University Hospital. The causes of obstructive jaundice was CBD Ca in 13 cases, metastasis in 2 cases, pancreatic cancer in 1 case and CBD stone in 1 case. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is a relatively ease, safe and effective method which can be done after PTC by radiologist. It is expected that percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage should be done as an essential procedure for transient permanent palliation of obstructive jaundice

  19. The Role of Occupant Behavior in Achieving Net Zero Energy: A Demonstration Project at Fort Carson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Zalesny, Mary D.; Fernandez, Nicholas


    This study, sponsored by the U.S. General Services Administration’s Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings, aimed to understand the potential for institutional and behavioral change to enhance the performance of buildings, through a demonstration project with the Department of Defense in five green buildings on the Fort Carson, Colorado, Army base. To approach this study, the research team identified specific occupant behaviors that had the potential to save energy in each building, defined strategies that might effectively support behavior change, and implemented a coordinated set of actions during a three-month intervention.

  20. The distribution and modeling of nitrate transport in the Carson Valley alluvial aquifer, Douglas County, Nevada (United States)

    Naranjo, Ramon C.; Welborn, Toby L.; Rosen, Michael R.


    Residents of Carson Valley in Douglas County, Nevada, rely on groundwater from an alluvial aquifer for domestic use and agricultural irrigation. Since the 1970s, there has been a rapid increase in population in several parts of the valley that rely on domestic wells for drinking water and septic systems for treatment of household waste. As a result, the density of septic systems in the developed areas is greater than one septic system per 3 acres, and the majority of the domestic wells are shallow (screened within 250 feet of the land surface).

  1. adequacy of drainage channels f drainage channels in a small

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    carried out and data obtain from drainage channels. The time of concentratio version of version of Kirpich equation (new equation of time new equation of time from the drainage channels were determined using results showed that most of the drainage channels h. All the drainage channels of basin A had velocities ra.

  2. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fripp, Jon


    .... Acid mine drainage (AMD) can have severe impacts to aquatic resources, can stunt terrestrial plant growth and harm wetlands, contaminate groundwater, raise water treatment costs, and damage concrete and metal structures...

  3. Why does inverse modeling of drainage inventories work? (United States)

    White, Nicky; Roberts, Gareth


    We describe and apply a linear inverse model which calculates spatial and temporal patterns of uplift rate by minimizing the misfit between inventories of observed and predicted longitudinal river profiles. This approach builds upon a more general, non-linear, optimization model, which suggests that shapes of river profiles are dominantly controlled by upstream advection of kinematic waves of incision produced by spatial and temporal changes in regional uplift rate. We have tested both algorithms by inverting thousands of river profiles from Africa, Eurasia, the Americas, and Australia. For each continent, the drainage network was constructed from a digital elevation model and the fidelity of river profiles extracted from this network was carefully checked using satellite imagery. Spatial and temporal patterns of both uplift rate and cumulative uplift were calibrated using independent geologic and geophysical observations. Inverse modeling of these substantial inventories of river profiles suggests that drainage networks contain coherent signals that record the regional growth of elevation. In the second part of this presentation, we use spectral analysis of river profiles to suggest why drainage networks behave in a coherent, albeit non-linear, fashion. Our analysis implies that large-scale topographic signals injected into landscapes generate spectral slopes that are usually red (i.e. Brownian). At wavelengths shorter than tens of km, spectral slopes whiten which suggests that coherent topographic signals cease to exist at these shorter length scales. Our results suggest that inverse modeling of drainage networks can reveal useful information about landscape growth through space and time.

  4. The American and His Environment--A Social Sciences Course. Project Reports, Volume 2, The Rachel Carson Project. (United States)

    Tanner, R. Thomas

    This document is the second of seven volumes included in the Rachel Carson Project. The project attempts to introduce environmental lessons and units into existing courses of study within a high school rather than to implement environmental education through the introduction of new courses. This volume focuses on the social science area by…

  5. 75 FR 71414 - Questa Ranger District, Carson National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010 Master... (United States)


    ... (Phase I) projects included in the Taos Ski Valley (TSV) 2010 Master Development Plan (MDP). These..., Taos Ski Valley MDP--Phase 1 Projects, 208 Cruz Alta Road, Taos, NM 87571. Comments may also be sent... the Carson National Forest, accepted a new MDP for Taos Ski Valley, which provides a comprehensive...

  6. Tile Drainage Expansion Detection using Satellite Soil Moisture Dynamics (United States)

    Jacobs, J. M.; Cho, E.; Jia, X.


    In the past two decades, tile drainage installation has accelerated throughout the Red River of the North Basin (RRB) in parts of western Minnesota, eastern North Dakota, and a small area of northeastern South Dakota, because the flat topography and low-permeability soils in this region necessitated the removal of excess water to improve crop production. Interestingly, streamflow in the Red River has markedly increased and six of 13 major floods during the past century have occurred since the late 1990s. It has been suggested that the increase in RRB flooding could be due to change in agricultural practices, including extensive tile drainage installation. Reliable information on existing and future tile drainage installation is greatly needed to capture the rapid extension of tile drainage systems and to locate tile drainage systems in the north central U.S. including the RRB region. However, there are few reliable data of tile drainage installation records, except tile drainage permit records in the Bois de Sioux watershed (a sub-basin in southern part of the RRB where permits are required for tile drainage installation). This study presents a tile drainage expansion detection method based on a physical principle that the soil-drying rate may increase with increasing tile drainage for a given area. In order to capture the rate of change in soil drying rate with time over entire RRB (101,500 km2), two satellite-based microwave soil moisture records from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and AMSR2 were used during 2002 to 2016. In this study, a sub-watershed level (HUC10) potential tile drainage growth map was developed and the results show good agreement with tile drainage permit records of six sub-watersheds in the Bois de Sioux watershed. Future analyses will include improvement of the potential tile drainage map through additional information using optical- and thermal-based sensor products and evaluation of its

  7. Analytic solution for American strangle options using Laplace-Carson transforms (United States)

    Kang, Myungjoo; Jeon, Junkee; Han, Heejae; Lee, Somin


    A strangle has been important strategy for options when the trader believes there will be a large movement in the underlying asset but are uncertain of which way the movement will be. In this paper, we derive analytic formula for the price of American strangle options. American strangle options can be mathematically formulated into the free boundary problems involving two early exercise boundaries. By using Laplace-Carson Transform(LCT), we can derive the nonlinear system of equations satisfied by the transformed value of two free boundaries. We then solve this nonlinear system using Newton's method and finally get the free boundaries and option values using numerical Laplace inversion techniques. We also derive the Greeks for the American strangle options as well as the value of perpetual American strangle options. Furthermore, we present various graphs for the free boundaries and option values according to the change of parameters.

  8. Integrated Assessment Plan Template and Operational Demonstration for SPIDERS Phase 2: Fort Carson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Jonathan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hadley, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kreyling, Sean J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schneider, Kevin P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This document contains the Integrated Assessment Plan (IAP) for the Phase 2 Operational Demonstration (OD) of the Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability (SPIDERS) Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) project. SPIDERS will be conducted over a three year period with Phase 2 being conducted at Fort Carson, Colorado. This document includes the Operational Demonstration Execution Plan (ODEP) and the Operational Assessment Execution Plan (OAEP), as approved by the Operational Manager (OM) and the Integrated Management Team (IMT). The ODEP describes the process by which the OD is conducted and the OAEP describes the process by which the data collected from the OD is processed. The execution of the OD, in accordance with the ODEP and the subsequent execution of the OAEP, will generate the necessary data for the Quick Look Report (QLR) and the Utility Assessment Report (UAR). These reports will assess the ability of the SPIDERS JCTD to meet the four critical requirements listed in the Implementation Directive (ID).

  9. Lava and Life: New investigations into the Carson Volcanics, lower Kimberley Basin, north Western Australia (United States)

    Orth, Karin; Phillips, Chris; Hollis, Julie


    The Carson Volcanics are the only volcanic unit in the Paleoproterozoic Kimberley Basin and are part of a poorly studied Large Igneous Province (LIP) that was active at 1790 Ma. New work focussing on this LIP in 2012 and 2013 involved helicopter-supported traverses and sampling of the Carson Volcanics in remote areas near Kalumburu in far north Western Australia's Kimberley region. The succession is widespread and flat lying to gently dipping. It consists of three to six basalt units with intercalated sandstone and siltstone. The basalts are 20-40 m thick, but can be traced up to 60 km along strike. The basalt can be massive or amygdaloidal and commonly display polygonal to subhorizontal and rare vertical columnar jointing. Features of the basalt include ropy lava tops and basal pipe vesicles consistent with pahoehoe lavas. The intercalated cross-bedded quartzofeldspathic sandstone and siltstone vary in thickness up to 40 m and can be traced up to 40 km along strike. Peperite is common and indicates interaction between wet, unconsolidated sediment and hot lava. Stromatolitic chert at the top of the formation represents the oldest life found within the Kimberley region. Mud cracks evident in the sedimentary rocks, and stromatolites suggest an emergent broad tidal flat environment. The volcanics were extruded onto a wide marginal margin setting subject to frequent flooding events. Thickening of the volcanic succession south and the palaeocurrents in the underlying King Leopold Sandstone and the overlying Warton Sandstone suggest that this shelf sloped to the south. The type of basalt and the basalt morphology indicate a low slope gradient of about 1°.

  10. Discharge estimation from planform characters of the Shedhi River ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figure 1. Map showing the study area (a) the Sabarmati River basin and (b) the drainage pattern and major geomorphic zones of the Shedhi River basin. 2. The Shedhi River. The drainage of Mainland Gujarat which is con- trolled by the physiography, lithology, tectonics and climate and the enormous fluvial sedimenta-.

  11. Nutrient export in tile drainage: Comparing manure injection to fertigation (United States)

    Subsurface tile drainage of agricultural land is implicated as a major source of nutrients to the Mississippi River. To protect water quality, land application of manure should maximize crop nutrient use and minimize nutrient loss. Weather constraints and regulations restrict the period during which...

  12. Predicting tile drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Petersen, Rasmus Jes

    More than 50 % of Danish agricultural areas are expected to be artificial tile drained. Transport of water and nutrients through the tile drain system to the aquatic environment is expected to be significant. For different mitigation strategies such as constructed wetlands an exact knowledge...... of the water load coming from the tile drainage system is therefore essential. This work aims at predicting tile drainage discharge using dynamic as well as a statistical predictive models. A large dataset of historical tile drain discharge data, daily discharge values as well as yearly average values were...... used in the analysis. For the dynamic modelling, a simple linear reservoir model was used where different outlets in the model represented tile drain as well as groundwater discharge outputs. This modelling was based on daily measured tile drain discharge values. The statistical predictive model...

  13. Acid mine drainage (United States)

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.


    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  14. Percutaneous drainage of lung abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Sonnenberg, E.; D'Agostino, H.; Casola, G.; Vatney, R.R.; Wittich, G.R.; Harker, C.


    The authors performed percutaneous drainage of lung abscesses in 12 patients. Indications for drainage were septicemia and persistence or worsening of radiographic findings. These lung abscesses were refractory to intravenous antibiotics and to bronchial toilet. Etiology of the abscesses included pneumonia (most frequently), trauma, postoperative development, infected necrotic neoplasm, and infected sequestration. Guidelines for drainage included passage of the catheter through contiguously abnormal lung and pleura, inability of the patient to cough, and/or bronchial obstruction precluding bronchial drainage. Cure was achieved in 11 of 12 patients. Catheters were removed on an average of 16 days after insertion. Antibiotics were administered an average of 18 days before drainage. No major complications occurred

  15. Stormwater Drainage Manual 2008


    Burke, Christopher B.; Burke, Thomas T.


    This manual is a comprehensive catalog of procedures, design methods and criteria, and general background information which will enable the designer to quickly learn or review the basic principles of storm drainage design. Subjects included are precipitation and hydrological cycle, runoff and its estimation, open channels, flow in gutters and inlets, stormwater storage, storm sewer system design, computer applications for computing watershed runoff, and water quality. Included in the appendic...

  16. Functional Topology of Evolving Urban Drainage Networks (United States)

    Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock; McGrath, Gavan S.; Urich, Christian; Krueger, Elisabeth; Kumar, Praveen; Rao, P. Suresh C.


    We investigated the scaling and topology of engineered urban drainage networks (UDNs) in two cities, and further examined UDN evolution over decades. UDN scaling was analyzed using two power law scaling characteristics widely employed for river networks: (1) Hack's law of length (L)-area (A) [L∝Ah] and (2) exceedance probability distribution of upstream contributing area (δ) [P>(A≥δ>)˜aδ-ɛ]. For the smallest UDNs ((A≥δ>) plots for river networks are abruptly truncated, those for UDNs display exponential tempering [P>(A≥δ>)=aδ-ɛexp⁡>(-cδ>)]. The tempering parameter c decreases as the UDNs grow, implying that the distribution evolves in time to resemble those for river networks. However, the power law exponent ɛ for large UDNs tends to be greater than the range reported for river networks. Differences in generative processes and engineering design constraints contribute to observed differences in the evolution of UDNs and river networks, including subnet heterogeneity and nonrandom branching.

  17. 75 FR 76453 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EG10-65-000; EG10-66-000; EG10-67-000; EG10-68-000; EG10- 69-000; EG10-70-000; EG10-71-000] Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco Wind, LLC; Arizona Solar One LLC; Criterion...

  18. Patterns and processes of drainage network evolution on Mars (United States)

    Stucky de Quay, G.; Roberts, G. G.


    Large, complex drainage networks exist on the surface of Mars. These drainage patterns suggest that base level change, fluvial erosion, and deposition of sedimentary rock have played important roles in determining the shape of Martian topography. On Earth, base-level change plays the most important role in determining shapes of river profiles at wavelengths greater than a few kilometers. Wavelet transforms of Martian drainage patterns indicate that the same is true for most Martian drainage. For example, rivers in the Warrego Valles system have large convex-upward elevation profiles, with broad knickzones spanning more than 100 kilometers in length and few kilometers in height. More than 90% of the spectra power of rivers in this system resides at wavelengths greater than 10 kilometers. We examine the source of this long wavelength spectra power by jointly inverting suites of Martian river profiles for damped spatio-temporal histories of base-level change. Drainage networks were extracted from the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) topographic dataset using flow-routing algorithms. Calculated uplift rate histories indicate that regional uplift at wavelengths greater than 100 kilometers play an important role in determining the history of landscape evolution in Warrego Valles. In other regions (e.g. Holden and Eberswalde craters) joint inversion of families of rivers draining craters helps to constrain values of erosional parameters in a simplified version of the stream power erosional model. Integration of calculated incision rates suggest that we can perform a simple mass balance between eroded and deposited rock in regions where both depositional and erosional landforms exist.

  19. Branching pattern in natural drainage network (United States)

    Hooshyar, M.; Singh, A.; Wang, D.


    The formation and growth of river channels and their network evolution are governed by the erosional and depositional processes operating on the landscape due to movement of water. The branching structure of drainage network is an important feature related to the network topology and contain valuable information about the forming mechanisms of the landscape. We studied the branching patterns in natural drainage networks, extracted from 1 m Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of 120 catchments with minimal human impacts across the United States. We showed that the junction angles have two distinct modes an the observed modes are physically explained as the optimal angles that result in minimum energy dissipation and are linked to the exponent characterizing slope-area curve. Our findings suggest that the flow regimes, debris-flow dominated or fluvial, have distinct characteristic angles which are functions of the scaling exponent of the slope-area curve. These findings enable us to understand the geomorphological signature of hydrological processes on drainage networks and develop more refined landscape evolution models.

  20. Chemical Analyses of Ground Water in the Carson Desert near Stillwater, Churchill County, Nevada, 2005 (United States)

    Fosbury, DeEtta; Walker, Mark; Stillings, Lisa L.


    This report presents the chemical analyses of ground-water samples collected in 2005 from domestic wells located in the Stillwater area of the Carson Desert (fig. 1). These data were evaluated for evidence of mixing with nearby geothermal waters (Fosbury, 2007). That study used several methods to identify mixing zones of ground and geothermal waters using trace elements, chemical equilibria, water temperature, geothermometer estimates, and statistical techniques. In some regions, geothermal sources influence the chemical quality of ground water used for drinking water supplies. Typical geothermal contaminants include arsenic, mercury, antimony, selenium, thallium, boron, lithium, and fluoride (Webster and Nordstrom, 2003). The Environmental Protection Agency has established primary drinking water standards for these, with the exception of boron and lithium. Concentrations of some trace metals in geothermal water may exceed drinking water standards by several orders of magnitude. Geothermal influences on water quality are likely to be localized, depending on directions of ground water flow, the relative volumes of geothermal sources and ground water originating from other sources, and depth below the surface from which water is withdrawn. It is important to understand the areal extent of shallow mixing of geothermal water because it may have adverse chemical and aesthetic effects on domestic drinking water. It would be useful to understand the areal extent of these effects.

  1. Constitutive Soil Properties for Cuddeback Lake, California and Carson Sink, Nevada (United States)

    Thomas, Michael A.; Chitty, Daniel E.; Gildea, Martin L.; T'Kindt, Casey M.


    Accurate soil models are required for numerical simulations of land landings for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. This report provides constitutive material modeling properties for four soil models from two dry lakebeds in the western United States. The four soil models are based on mechanical and compressive behavior observed during geotechnical laboratory testing of remolded soil samples from the lakebeds. The test specimens were reconstituted to measured in situ density and moisture content. Tests included: triaxial compression, hydrostatic compression, and uniaxial strain. A fit to the triaxial test results defines the strength envelope. Hydrostatic and uniaxial tests define the compressibility. The constitutive properties are presented in the format of LS-DYNA Material Model 5: Soil and Foam. However, the laboratory test data provided can be used to construct other material models. The four soil models are intended to be specific only to the two lakebeds discussed in the report. The Cuddeback A and B models represent the softest and hardest soils at Cuddeback Lake. The Carson Sink Wet and Dry models represent different seasonal conditions. It is possible to approximate other clay soils with these models, but the results would be unverified without geotechnical tests to confirm similar soil behavior.

  2. The "we of me": Carson McCullers as lesbian novelist. (United States)

    Whitt, J


    Although Carson McCullers camouflaged her love for women in her fiction, gay and lesbian themes are inarguably present in her work. The loneliness that her characters face takes on allegorical intensity, and it is even more potent due to her own sexual confusion and alienation. Married twice to the same man and falling in love repeatedly with both women and men, McCullers wrestled with bisexuality throughout her personal and literary life. Her deepest attachments were to her husband Reeves McCullers; David Diamond, a musician-composer in love with both McCullers and her husband; and Anne-marie Clarac-Schwarzenbach, a Swiss writer. All three of these love interests required that McCullers deal with complicated and ultimately destructive triangles. Given that fact, it is no surprise that she created fictional worlds peopled with characters engaged in three-way relationships. In her novels, Mick (The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter), Frankie (The Member of the Wedding), Miss Amelia (The Ballad of the Sad Cafe) and Weldon Penderton (Reflections in a Golden Eye) also reflect the author's sexual ambivalence and inability to fit into the prescribed social structures of the South.

  3. Sedimentary provenance constraints on drainage evolution models for SE Tibet : Evidence from detrital K-feldspar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zengjie; Daly, J. Stephen; Li, Chang'an; Tyrrell, Shane; Sun, Xilin; Yan, Yi


    The unusual drainage pattern of the Jinsha River (upper Yangtze) is closely linked to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, but when this pattern became established is controversial. In this study we compare the Pb isotopic composition of detrital K-feldspars from the modern Jinsha River with those

  4. Sustainable Drainage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz


    Full Text Available Urban water management has somewhat changed since the publication of The Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS Manual in 2007 [1], transforming from building traditional sewers to implementing SuDS, which are part of the best management practice techniques used in the USA and seen as contributing to water-sensitive urban design in Australia. Most SuDS, such as infiltration trenches, swales, green roofs, ponds, and wetlands, address water quality and quantity challenges, and enhance the local biodiversity while also being acceptable aesthetically to the public. Barriers to the implementation of SuDS include adoption problems, flood and diffuse pollution control challenges, negative public perception, and a lack of decision support tools addressing, particularly, the retrofitting of these systems while enhancing ecosystem services. [...

  5. Producing the Drainage Layer Database for North America (WATGRID) (United States)

    Seglenieks, F. R.; Soulis, E. D.; Mackay, M.


    The hydrological component of coupled atmospheric-hydrologic models requires the creation of the drainage layer database (i.e. stream channel network, slopes, etc.). This is often done from a digital elevation model (DEM) using a lowest neighbour approach, however this method can lead to incorrect flow directions especially with large grid sizes. Using a technique developed by the Waterloo Hydrology Lab at the University of Waterloo, the drainage layer database for North America was produced at varying resolutions for a project called WATGRID. The projection used was based on the polar stereographic projection used by the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) for the Mackenzie Basin GEWEX Study (MAGS) at resolutions of 500, 200, and 51 km. The procedure involved first obtaining the best possible DEM and land cover map. Currently the best available public domain data set for elevation is the GTOPO30 database and for land cover it is the Global Land Cover Characterization database. Both of these data sets have a resolution of approximately 1 km and are available for all of North America from the USGS. The DEM was then verified so that it produced the correct derived river channels. To do this the river network derived from the DEM was compared to the river networks available in vector format from base maps of North America. The DEM was modified until the derived stream network produced drainage areas within 5% of measured values for all basins over 500 000 km2. Once the DEM was verified, the program WATMAP was used to derive the drainage layer database for various resolutions. This program divides the data sets into grid squares based on the required projection and resolution, then for each grid square it calculates the inflows and outflows around the perimeter of the grid square. From this, the program can determine the maximum outflow and inflow to derive parameters such as main drainage direction, secondary drainage direction, and channel slope. The program also

  6. Delayed drainage versus autotransfusion drainage and routine drainage after total knee arthroplasty: a comparative study (United States)


    Background The purpose of this research is to compare the clinical results of different drainage methods in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods This retrospective comparative study included 55 patients who accepted primary unilateral TKA between October 2010 and November 2012. The patients were classified according to the drainage method used: 25 patients in the autotransfusion drainage group, 12 patients in the delayed drainage group, and 18 patients in the routine drainage group. Otherwise, the same operative procedures and postoperative care were applied to all patients. The variables recorded included total amount of postoperative drainage (including intraoperative blood loss); cases of allogenic blood transfusion; body temperatures on postoperative days 1, 3, and 7; and pre- and postoperative hemoglobin level. Some other elements such as postoperative swelling, range of motion, and wound healing were also compared. Results Patients who underwent autotransfusion were found to have an amount of drainage (799.2 ± 196.7 mL) significantly greater than that in the routine drainage group (666.1 ± 155.0 mL), which in turn was significantly greater than that in the delayed drainage group (381.7 ± 129.2 mL). The postoperative hemoglobin level in the delayed drainage group (91.5 ± 7.9 g/L) was similar to that in the autotransfusion group (92.0 ± 9.6 g/L), while that in the routine drainage group (81.3 ± 9.9 g/L) was significantly lower. The patients in the autotransfusion group were observed to have higher body temperatures than those in the other two groups. In the routine drainage group, eight cases accepted allogenic blood transfusion, and the percentage (44.4%) was significantly higher than that in the other two groups. There were no significant between-group differences in swelling, healing qualities, and range of motion. Conclusions Delayed postoperative drainage may reduce blood loss and the chance of allogenic blood transfusion compared with routine

  7. Major and trace-element analyses of acid mine waters in the Leviathan Mine drainage basin, California/Nevada; October, 1981 to October, 1982 (United States)

    Ball, J.W.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk


    Water issuing from the inactive Leviathan open-pit sulfur mine has caused serious degradation of the water quality in the Leviathan/Bryant Creek drainage basin which drains into the East Fork of the Carson River. As part of a pollution abatement project of the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, the U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic and water quality data for the basin during 1981-82. During this period a comprehensive sampling survey was completed to provide information on trace metal attenuation during downstream transport and to provide data for interpreting geochemical processes. This report presents the analytical results from this sampling survey. Sixty-seven water samples were filtered and preserved on-site at 45 locations and at 3 different times. Temperature, discharge, pH, and Eh and specific conductance were measured on-site. Concentrations of 37 major and trace constituents were determined later in the laboratory on preserved samples. The quality of the analyses was checked by using two or more techniques to determine the concentrations including d.c.-argon plasma emission spectrometry (DCP), flame and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry, hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography. Additional quality control was obtained by comparing measured to calculated conductance, comparing measured to calculated Eh (from Fe-2 +/Fe-3+ determinations), charge balance calculations and mass balance calculations for conservative constituents at confluence points. Leviathan acid mine waters contain mg/L concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, T1, V and Zn, and hundreds to thousands of mg/L concentrations of Al, Fe, and sulfate at pH values as low as 1.8. Other elements including Ba, B, Be, Bi, Cd , Mo, Sb, Se and Te are elevated above normal background concentrations and fall in the microgram/L range. The chemical and 34 S/32 S isotopic analyses demonstrate that these

  8. Preoperative biliary drainage in Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Identifying patients who require percutaneous drainage after failed endoscopic drainage (United States)

    Wiggers, Jimme K; Koerkamp, Bas Groot; Coelen, Robert J; Rauws, Erik A; Schattner, Mark A; Nio, C Yung; Brown, Karen T; Gonen, Mithat; van Dieren, Susan; van Lienden, Krijn P; Allen, Peter J; Besselink, Marc GH; Busch, Olivier RC; D’Angelica, Michael I; DeMatteo, Robert P; Gouma, Dirk J; Kingham, T Peter; Jarnagin, William R; van Gulik, Thomas M


    Background and study aims Preoperative biliary drainage is often initiated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with potentially resectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC), but additional percutaneous transhepatic catheter (PTC) drainage is frequently required. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model to identify patients with a high risk of inadequate ERCP drainage. Patients and Methods Patients with potentially resectable PHC and preoperative (attempted) ERCP drainage were included from two specialty center cohorts between 2001 and 2013. Indications for additional PTC drainage were failure to place an endoscopic stent, failure to relieve jaundice, cholangitis, or insufficient drainage of the future liver remnant. A prediction model was derived from the European cohort and externally validated in the USA cohort. Results 108 of 288 patients (38%) required additional preoperative PTC after inadequate ERCP drainage. Independent risk factors for additional PTC were proximal biliary obstruction on preoperative imaging (Bismuth 3 or 4) and pre-drainage total bilirubin level. The prediction model identified three subgroups: patients with a low risk of 7%, a moderate risk of 40%, and a high risk of 62%. The high-risk group consisted of patients with a total bilirubin level above 150 μmol/L and Bismuth 3a or 4 tumours, who typically require preoperative drainage of the angulated left bile ducts. The prediction model had good discrimination (AUC 0.74) and adequate calibration in the external validation cohort. Conclusions Selected patients with potentially resectable PHC have a high risk (62%) of inadequate preoperative ERCP drainage requiring additional PTC. These patients might do better with initial PTC instead of ERCP. PMID:26382308

  9. Peritoneal Drainage Versus Pleural Drainage After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery. (United States)

    Gowda, Keshava Murty Narayana; Zidan, Marwan; Walters, Henry L; Delius, Ralph E; Mastropietro, Christopher W


    We aimed to determine whether infants undergoing cardiac surgery would more efficiently attain negative fluid balance postoperatively with passive peritoneal drainage as compared to traditional pleural drainage. A prospective, randomized study including children undergoing repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) or atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) was completed between September 2011 and June 2013. Patients were randomized to intraoperative placement of peritoneal catheter or right pleural tube in addition to the requisite mediastinal tube. The primary outcome measure was fluid balance at 48 hours postoperatively. Variables were compared using t tests or Fisher exact tests as appropriate. A total of 24 patients were enrolled (14 TOF and 10 AVSD), with 12 patients in each study group. Mean fluid balance at 48 hours was not significantly different between study groups, -41 ± 53 mL/kg in patients with periteonal drainage and -9 ± 40 mL/kg in patients with pleural drainage (P = .10). At 72 hours however, postoperative fluid balance was significantly more negative with peritoneal drainage, -52.4 ± 71.6 versus +2.0 ± 50.6 (P = .04). On subset analysis, fluid balance at 48 hours in patients with AVSD was more negative with peritoneal drainage as compared to pleural, -82 ± 51 versus -1 ± 38 mL/kg, respectively (P = .02). Fluid balance at 48 hours in patients with TOF was not significantly different between study groups. Passive peritoneal drainage may more effectively facilitate negative fluid balance when compared to pleural drainage after pediatric cardiac surgery, although this benefit is not likely universal but rather dependent on the patient's underlying physiology. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Results of percutaneous abscess drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daehnert, W.; Guenther, R.; Klose, K.; Gamstaetter, G.


    Between 1978 and 1983 fifty-two abdominal abscesses in 44 patients were drained percutaneously, 79% of the abscesses occurred as postoperative complications. The overall success rate was 60%, whereas only 42% of left subphrenic abscesses were cured. Complications were encountered in 4.5%. Reasons for drainage failures were: liver sequestration, loculation, fistulae and recurrences. Percutaneous abscess drainage in an alternative, and valuable addition, to surgery. (orig.) [de

  11. Case study of the Sarawak River Basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 20, 2012 ... for designing drainage system as well as developing plans for mitigating flood occurrence. Flood mapping ... The Department of Irrigation and Drainage Sarawak. (DIDS) has generated a flood map for .... horizontal and vertical alignments of the rivers were created, and the flood map was generated. Lastly ...

  12. Morphometry Governs the Dynamics of a Drainage Basin: Analysis and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atrayee Biswas


    Full Text Available Mountainous rivers are the most significant source of water supply in the Himalayan provinces of India. The drainage basin dynamics of these rivers are controlled by the tectonomorphic parameters, which include both surface and subsurface characteristics of a basin. To understand the drainage basin dynamics and their usefulness in watershed prioritisation and management in terms of soil erosion studies and groundwater potential assessment and flood hazard risk reduction in mountainous rivers, morphometric analysis of a Himalayan River (Supin River basin has been taken as a case study. The entire Supin River basin has been subdivided into 27 subwatersheds and 36 morphometric parameters have been calculated under four broad categories: drainage network, basin geometry, drainage texture, and relief characteristics, each of which is further grouped into five different clusters having similar morphometric properties. The various morphometric parameters have been correlated with each other to understand their underlying relationship and control over the basin hydrogeomorphology. The result thus generated provides adequate knowledge base required for decision making during strategic planning and delineation of prioritised hazard management zones in mountainous terrains.

  13. Phylogeographic structure of Terminalia franchetii (combretaceae) in southwest China and its implications for drainage geological history. (United States)

    Zhang, Ticao; Sun, Hang


    Following the rapid uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the reorganization of the major river drainages in southwest China was primarily caused by river capture events. However, the impact of these past changes in drainage patterns on the current distribution and genetic structure of the endemic flora of this region remains largely unknown. Here we report a survey of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) in Terminalia franchetii, an endemic shrub or small tree of the deep and dry-hot river valleys of this region. We surveyed AFLP variation within and among 21 populations (251 individuals) of T. franchetii, distributed disjunctively between northern and southern drainage systems. Using STRUCTURE, principal coordinates analysis, and genetic distance methods, we identified two main population genetic groups (I and II) and four subgroups within the species, as follows: (I) the Upper Jinshajiang Valley (subgroup I((north))) and the Honghe drainage area (subgroup I((south))); (II) the Middle and Lower Jinshajiang and Yalongjiang Valleys (subgroup II((north))) and the Nanpanjiang drainage area (subgroup II((south))). Genetic diversity was lower in group I than in group II. According to the genetic diversity and genetic structure results, we suggest that the modern disjunctive distribution and associated patterns of genetic structure of T. franchetii result from vicariance caused by several historical drainage capture events, involving the separation of the Upper Jinshajiang, Yalongjiang and Daduhe from the Honghe or Nanpanjiang in southwest China.

  14. Impact of acid mine drainage from mining exploitations on the Margajita River basin and the Hatillo reservoir (Dominican Republic); Impacto del drenaje acido de explotaciones mineras en la cuenca del Rio Margajita y Embalse de Hatillo (Republica Dominicana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, F.; Salas, J.; Arcos, D.; Archambault, A.; Cottard, F.


    Mining of the Pueblo Viejo high-sulphidation epithermal deposit (Dominican Republic) leads to environmental impact due to the formation of acid mine drainage associated with the oxidative dissolution of sulphides and sulpho salts. In addition to the very low pH, the acid waters are capable of transporting away from the mining areas high concentrations of metals and metalloids in solution. In the present work, a geochemical study of sediments deposited in the Hatillo reservoir is carried out. This reservoir is fed by the Margajita and Yuna streams which transport leachates from the Pueblo Viejo and Falcondo-Bonao (Cr-Ni) mining areas, respectively. The results show that these sediments have very high concentrations of Fe, Al and sulphate, along with significant amounts of As, Zn and Te, which are of especial environmental concern. The main contributor to this metal discharge into the reservoir is the Margajita stream, whereas the Yuna stream does not transport significant amounts of metals in solution due to its neutral pH, although it is likely that metals such as Mn, Cr, Ni and Co can be mobilised as a particulate. (Author) 5 refs.

  15. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent areas of the Milk River basin, northeastern Montana, 1986-87 (United States)

    Lambing, J.H.; Jones, W.E.; Sutphin, J.W.


    Concentrations of trace elements, radiochemicals, and pesticides in the Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge lakes generally were not substantially larger than those in the water supplied from Dodson South Canal or in irrigation drainage. Concentrations of arsenic (47 micrograms/L), uranium (43 microg/L), and vanadium (51 microg/L) in Dry Lake Unit, and boron (1,000 microg/L) in Lake Bowdoin were notably larger than at other sites. Zinc concentrations in an irrigation drain (56 microg/L) and two shallow domestic wells (40 and 47 microg/L) were elevated relative to other sites. Concentrations of gross alpha radiation (64 picocuries/L) and gross beta radiation (71 picocuries/L) were elevated in Dry Lake Unit. Pesticides concentrations at all sites were 0.08 microg/L or less. Water use guidelines concentrations for boron, cadmium, uranium, zinc, and gross alpha radiation were slightly exceeded at several sites. In general, trace-constituent concentrations measured in the water do not indicate any potential toxicity problems in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge; however, highwater conditions in 1986 probably caused dilution of dissolved constituents compared to recent dry years. Trace element concentrations in bottom sediments of the refuge lakes were generally similar to background concentrations in the soils. The only exception was Dry Lake Unit, which had concentrations of chromium (99 micrograms/g), copper (37 microg/g), nickel (37 microg/g), vanadium (160 microg/g), and zinc (120 microg/g) that were about double the mean background concentrations. The maximum selenium concentration in bottom sediment was 0.6 microg/g. Pesticide concentrations in bottom sediments were less than analytical detection limits at all sites. With few exceptions, concentrations of trace elements and pesticides in biota generally were less than values known to produce harmful effects on growth or reproduction. (Lantz-PTT)

  16. Percutaneous drainage of tuberculous abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, S.K.; Panicker, H.; Narang, P.; Kumar, N.; Dhall, A.; Gupta, S.B.


    To assess the role of percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) in the management of tuberculous ilio-psoas abscesses, twenty-two patients with 26 tuberculous ilio-psoas abscesses were subjected to PCD under real time US guidance taking help of a pre-procedure CT for planning the route of catheter insertion. Complete cure of the ilio-psoas abscesses could be achieved in 22 of 26 abscesses (84.6%). Average duration of drainage was 10 days. US/ CT follow-up ranged from 3-24 months. PCD was a failure in four abscesses (15.4%). Two patients, one with bilateral abscesses, had recurrent abscesses while one patient had an abscess associated with extensive spondylo-discitis. No significant complication was encountered in the study. PCD is a simple, safe and very effective (success rate 84.6%) alternative to surgical drainage in the management of tuberculous ilio-psoas abscesses. (author)

  17. Regulation of drainage canals on the groundwater level in a typical coastal wetlands (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Mou, Xia; Cui, Baoshan; Ping, Fan


    Activities related to reclamation alter wetland hydrological regimes and inevitably cause changes to groundwater level, which can result in the ecological degradation of coastal wetlands. Decreasing the groundwater level by the construction of drainage canals is an approach that has been widely used to control levels of root zone soil salinity as well as to protect freshwater wetlands or to expand agricultural land area in coastal wetlands. In this study, we assessed the influences of different drainage canal designs on the groundwater level using the Visual MODFLOW (VMOD) interface. We also provided an optimized drainage canal design suitable for the Yellow River Delta (YRD). Results showed that: (i) the groundwater level decreased in areas close to drainage canals, while only negligible effects were found on the groundwater level in areas with no drainage canals; (ii) the influence of drainage canals on the groundwater level decreased as distance increased; and (iii) a drainage canal network design of a depth of 5 m, with canal configuration of north-south direction and canal spacing of 1000 m was more effective in reducing the groundwater level in the study area. Our findings indicated that changes in groundwater level by the construction of drainage canals could help in our understanding of how groundwater influences freshwater wetlands and also aid in maintaining the integrity of coastal wetlands.

  18. ARkStorm@Tahoe: Stakeholder perspectives on vulnerabilities and preparedness for an extreme storm event in the greater Lake Tahoe, Reno, and Carson City region (United States)

    Albano, Christine M.; Cox, Dale A.; Dettinger, Michael; Shaller, Kevin; Welborn, Toby L.; McCarthy, Maureen


    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are strongly linked to extreme winter precipitation events in the Western U.S., accounting for 80 percent of extreme floods in the Sierra Nevada and surrounding lowlands. In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey developed the ARkStorm extreme storm scenario for California to quantify risks from extreme winter storms and to allow stakeholders to better explore and mitigate potential impacts. To explore impacts on natural resources and communities in montane and adjacent environments, we downscaled the scenario to the greater Lake Tahoe, Reno and Carson City region of northern Nevada and California. This ArkStorm@Tahoe scenario was presented at six stakeholder meetings, each with a different geographic and subject matter focus. Discussions were facilitated by the ARkStorm@Tahoe team to identify social and ecological vulnerabilities to extreme winter storms, science and information needs, and proactive measures that might minimize impacts from this type of event. Information collected in these meetings was used to develop a tabletop emergency response exercise and set of recommendations for increasing resilience to extreme winter storm events in both Tahoe and the downstream communities of Northern Nevada.Over 300 individuals participated in ARkStorm@Tahoe stakeholder meetings and the emergency response exercise, including representatives from emergency response, natural resource and ecosystem management, health and human services, public utilities, and businesses. Interruption of transportation, communications, and lack of power and backup fuel supplies were identified as the most likely and primary points of failure across multiple sectors and geographies, as these interruptions have cascading effects on natural and human systems by impeding emergency response efforts. Other key issues that arose in discussions included contamination risks to water supplies and aquatic ecosystems, especially in the Tahoe Basin and Pyramid Lake, interagency

  19. Technical note on drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    note is divided into four main topics: First, a short review of the precipitation in Denmark as well as how historical (actual) rainfall data can be used advantageously to those simple design methods, then how pipelines and reservoirs can be dimensioned and finally how safety in the design can......This technical note will present simple but widely used methods for the design of drainage systems. The note will primarily deal with surface water (rainwater) which on a satisfactorily way should be transport into the drainage system. Traditional two types of sewer systems exist: A combined system...

  20. Babylonian confusion of gudgeons in the west Aegean drainages inferred by the mitochondrial DNA analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Sanda


    We have analysed control region (mitochondrial non coding DNA of gudgeon populations from all larger river drainages from the west Aegean region (Pinios to Marica basins. Included were also several populations from surrounding areas of the Danube River drainage and from the Black Sea rivers. The results are not at all congruent with the proposed taxonomy. MtDNA haplotypes of Romonagobio banarescui were found not only in the Vardar, but also in the lower Aliakmon River. Haplotypes of Romanogibo elimeus were found in the Pinios, upper Aliakmon and Loudias rivers. Situation of genus Gobio is completely confusing; there is no geographic structure in the distribution of haplotypes. Many different haplogroups are shared in some basins, especially in the drainages of the Struma, Mesta and Marica rivers. This indicates complicated evolutionary history of gudgeons in the region, probably having several historical refugia, and with multiple recent contacts of lineages. Our data indicate a contact between the Danubian, Black Sea and Aegean rivers. The taxonomic status of most of the populations of Gobio from the west Aegean area remains unclear.

  1. River networks as biodiversity hotlines. (United States)

    Décamps, Henri


    For several years, measures to insure healthy river functions and to protect biodiversity have focused on management at the scale of drainage basins. Indeed, rivers bear witness to the health of their drainage basins, which justifies integrated basin management. However, this vision should not mask two other aspects of the protection of aquatic and riparian biodiversity as well as services provided by rivers. First, although largely depending on the ecological properties of the surrounding terrestrial environment, rivers are ecological systems by themselves, characterized by their linearity: they are organized in connected networks, complex and ever changing, open to the sea. Second, the structure and functions of river networks respond to manipulations of their hydrology, and are particularly vulnerable to climatic variations. Whatever the scale considered, river networks represent "hotlines" for sharing water between ecological and societal systems, as well as for preserving both systems in the face of global change. River hotlines are characterized by spatial as well as temporal legacies: every human impact to a river network may be transmitted far downstream from its point of origin, and may produce effects only after a more or less prolonged latency period. Here, I review some of the current issues of river ecology in light of the linear character of river networks. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. in remediating acid mine drainage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management and treatment of contaminated mine water is one of the most urgent problems facing the South African mining industry. The cost advantage of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) has seen their increased application as means of passively treating mine drainage. A PRB is built by placing a reactive material ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Collischonn


    Full Text Available The development and improvement of Geographic Information Systems and geoprocessing algorithms,together with the increase in computational capacity and data availability from remote sensing, becamepossible to prepare information for hydrologic studies of large areas with relative low cost and incrediblespeed. This paper describes the use of SRTM data to derive drainage network and related products, suchas accumulated drainage areas and river lengths, with application to the Uruguay river basin. Six distinctDigital Elevation Models (DEMs were used, varying the spatial resolution and applying the stream burningpre-processing technique. The main limitations of the DEM-derived drainage network refer to the incapacityof representing river meanders that are smaller than the pixel size and the problem of artificial sinuosity thatoccurs when the width of the river is larger than pixel side.

  4. The drainage information and control system of smart city (United States)

    Mao, Tonglei; Li, Lei; Liu, JiChang; Cheng, Liang; Zhang, Jing; Song, Zengzhong; Liu, Lianhai; Hu, Zichen


    At present, due to the continuous expansion of city and the increase of the municipal drainage facilities, which leads to a serious lack of management and operation personnel, the existing production management pattern already can't adapt to the new requirements. In this paper, according to river drainage management, flood control, water management, auditing, administrative license, etc. different business management requirement, an information management system for water planning and design of smart city based on WebGIS in Linyi was introduced, which can collect the various information of gate dam, water pump, bridge sensor and traffic guide terminal nodes etc. together. The practical application show that the system can not only implement the sharing, resources integration and collaborative application for the regional water information, but also improve the level of the integrated water management.

  5. Definition of the drainage filter problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaslavsky, D.


    It is common to consider the following: I. Retention of soil particles that may enter the drainage pipe and cause its clogging. For some sensitive structures it is important to prevent settlements due to soil transportation by drainage water.

  6. 49 CFR 213.319 - Drainage. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage. 213.319 Section 213.319 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.319 Drainage. Each drainage or other water carrying facility under or immediately adjacent to the roadbed shall be maintained...

  7. 49 CFR 213.33 - Drainage. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage. 213.33 Section 213.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Roadbed § 213.33 Drainage. Each drainage or other water carrying facility...

  8. Drainage under increasing and changing requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, E.; Zimmer, D.; Vlotman, W.F.


    This year the Working Group on Drainage of the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID) celebrates its 25th anniversary. This paper reviews the development of drainage for three different agro-climatic zones, i.e. the temperate (humid), the arid/semi-arid and the humid/semi-humid

  9. Final report: Initial ecosystem response of salt marshes to ditch plugging and pool creation: Experiments at Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge (Maine) (United States)

    Adamowicz, S.C.; Roman, C.T.


    This study evaluates the response of three salt marshes, associated with the Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge (Maine), to the practice of ditch plugging. Drainage ditches, originally dug to drain the marsh for mosquito control or to facilitate salt hay farming, are plugged with marsh peat in an effort to impound water upstream of the plug, raise water table levels in the marsh, and increase surface water habitat. At two study sites, Moody Marsh and Granite Point Road Marsh, ditch plugs were installed in spring 2000. Monitoring of hydrology, vegetation, nekton and bird utilization, and marsh development processes was conducted in 1999, before ditch plugging, and then in 2000 and 2001 (all parameters except nekton), after ditch plugging. Each study site had a control marsh that was monitored simultaneously with the plugged marsh, and thus, we employed a BACI study design (before, after, control, impact). A third site, Marshall Point Road Marsh, was plugged in 1998. Monitoring of the plugged and control sites was conducted in 1999 and 2000, with limited monitoring in 2001, thus there was no ?before? plug monitoring. With ditch plugging, water table levels increased toward the marsh surface and the areal extent of standing water increased. Responding to a wetter substrate, a vegetation change from high marsh species (e.g., Spartina patens) to those more tolerant of flooded conditions (e.g., Spartina alterniflora) was noted at two of the three ditch plugged sites. Initial response of the nekton community (fishes and decapod crustaceans) was evaluated by monitoring utilization of salt marsh pools using a 1m2 enclosure trap. In general, nekton species richness, density, and community structure remained unchanged following ditch plugging at the Moody and Granite Point sites. At Marshall Point, species richness and density (number of individuals per m2) were significantly greater in the experimental plugged marsh than the control marsh (control marsh was open water

  10. Water Quality Data from Two Agricultural Drainage Basins in Northwestern Indiana and Northeastern Illinois: I. Lagrangian and Synoptic Data, 1999-2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antweiler, Ronald C; Smith, Richard L; Voytek, Mary A; Boehlke, John-Karl; Richards, Kevin D


    Methods of data collection and results of analyses are presented for Lagrangian and synoptic water-quality data collected from two agricultural drainages, the Iroquois River in northwestern Indiana...

  11. Assessment of the geothermal resources of Carson-Eagle valleys and Big Smoky Valley, Nevada. First annual report, May 1, 1979-May 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, D.T.; Koenig, B.A.; Flynn, T.; Bruce, J.L.


    Two geothermal investigations were completed in three Nevada locations. The regions studied were selected from areas outlined as having direct utilization potential (Trexler and others, 1979) and included the Carson-Eagle Valley, Bis Smoky Valley and Caliente. Studies were organized around the completion of a group of tasks in each area. These tasks included: geologic reconnaissance, gravity surveys, aerial photography, fluid sampling and analysis, shallow depth temperature probe surveys, soil mercury surveys, shallow electrical resistivity measurements, and temperature gradient hole drilling. Goals of the project were to provide regional information about the nature and extent of the resources and to offer a critical evaluation of the techniques employed. Results from the work in the Carson-Eagle Valley and Big Smoky Valley are presented. (MHR)

  12. Barriers to Implementing Irrigation and Drainage Policies in An Giang Province, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, D.D.; Weger, J.


    Water management in delta floodplains worldwide faces many challenges due to the changing climate and increasing human intervention in the hydrological regimes of rivers. Irrigation and drainage systems are necessary components of a water management strategy that aims to support human habitation and

  13. Simulating the Fate and Transport of an Acid Mine Drainage Release (United States)

    On August 5, 2015, approximately 3 million gallons of acid mine drainage were released from the Gold King Mine into Cement Creek in the San Juan River watershed (CO, NM, UT). The release further mobilized additional metals, which resulted in a large mass of solids and dissolved m...

  14. A proposed drainage evolution model for Central Africa—Did the Congo flow east? (United States)

    Stankiewicz, Jacek; de Wit, Maarten J.


    Understanding the origin of Sub-Saharan biodiversity requires knowing the history of the region's paleo-ecosystems. As water is essential for sustaining of life, the evolving geometry of river basins often have influence on local speciation. With this in mind, we analyse drainage patterns in Central and East Africa. Evidence from marine fossils suggests the Congo Basin was submerged for much of the Cretaceous, and after being uplifted drained eastwards through a paleo-Congo river towards the Indian Ocean. Two remnant peneplains in the Congo Basin are interpreted as evidence that this basin was tectonically stable on at least two occasions in the past. The lower peneplain is interpreted as the base level of the drainage pattern that had its outlet in Tanzania, at the present Rufiji Delta that was once over 500 km wide. The Luangwa, today a tributary of the Zambezi river, was a part of this drainage network. This pattern was subsequently disrupted by uplift associated with the East African Rifting in the Oligocene-Eocene (30-40 Ma). The resulting landlocked system was captured in the Miocene (5-15 Ma) by short rivers draining into the Atlantic Ocean, producing the drainage pattern of Central Africa seen today.

  15. Environmentally-suspended sediment production of the Nasia River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rivers constitute an important source of surface water supply for most sectors in the world. In areas with single rainfall maximum, as in the north of Ghana, the rivers are normally intermittent or ephemeral with only few perennial ones. The Nasia River Basin is the drainage basin of the left bank tributary of the White Volta ...

  16. Effects of irrigating with wastewater on ground-water quality at Fort Carson Military Reservation golf course near Colorado Springs, Colorado (United States)

    Edelmann, Patrick


    Fort Carson Military Reservation has used treatment wastewater for irrigation of the Fort Carson golf course since 1971. The effect of applied wastewater on groundwater quality at Fort Carson golf course was evaluated using water levels and water-quality data from 20 observation wells. The water-quality constituents analyzed included dissolved solids, major ions, nutrients, detergents, dissolved organic carbon, chemical and biological oxygen demand, and trace elements. Effects of the applied wastewater on ground-water quality for most constituents were obscured by large areal variations and by high concentrations of the constituents upgradient from the golf course. The sources of nitrogen observed in the ground water beneath the golf course were applied wastewater, applied fertilizer, leachate from the organic-rich shale, and from unknown upgradient sources. Nitrogen loading at the golf course from wastewater and applied fertilizer was estimated to be 18 ,900 pounds per year. After 10 years, less than 1 percent of the nitrogen applied was actually present in the ground water. Loss of nitrogen to the atmosphere as nitrous oxides, absorption, and to fixation by grass resulted in the much smaller concentrations observed in the ground water. (USGS)

  17. Exploring Agricultural Drainage's Influence on Wetland and ... (United States)

    Artificial agricultural drainage (i.e. surface ditches or subsurface tile) is an important agricultural management tool. Artificial drainage allows for timely fieldwork and adequate root aeration, resulting in greater crop yields for farmers. This practice is widespread throughout many regions of the United States and the network of artificial drainage is especially extensive in flat, poorly-drained regions like the glaciated Midwest. While beneficial for crop yields, agricultural drains often empty into streams within the natural drainage system. The increased network connectivity may lead to greater contributing area for watersheds, altered hydrology and increased conveyance of pollutants into natural water bodies. While studies and models at broader scales have implicated artificial drainage as an important driver of hydrological shifts and eutrophication, the actual spatial extent of artificial drainage is poorly known. Consequently, metrics of wetland and watershed connectivity within agricultural regions often fail to explicitly include artificial drainage. We use recent agricultural census data, soil drainage data, and land cover data to create estimates of potential agricultural drainage across the United States. We estimate that agricultural drainage in the US is greater than 31 million hectares and is concentrated in the upper Midwest Corn Belt, covering greater than 50% of available land for 114 counties. Estimated drainage values for numerous countie

  18. Rare earth elements in river waters (United States)

    Goldstein, Steven J.; Jacobsen, Stein B.


    To characterize the input to the oceans of rare earth elements (REE) in the dissolved and the suspended loads of rivers, the REE concentrations were measured in samples of Amazon, Indus, Mississippi, Murray-Darling, and Ohio rivers and in samples of smaller rivers that had more distinct drainage basin lithology and water chemistry. It was found that, in the suspended loads of small rivers, the REE pattern was dependent on drainage basin geology, whereas the suspended loads in major rivers had relatively uniform REE patterns and were heavy-REE depleted relative to the North American Shale composite (NASC). The dissolved loads in the five major rivers had marked relative heavy-REE enrichments, relative to the NASC and the suspended material, with the (La/Yb)N ratio of about 0.4 (as compared with the ratio of about 1.9 in suspended loads).

  19. Use of Natural and Applied Tracers to Guide Targeted Remediation Efforts in an Acid Mine Drainage System, Colorado Rockies, USA


    Cowie, Rory; Williams, Mark; Wireman, Mike; Runkel, Robert


    Stream water quality in areas of the western United States continues to be degraded by acid mine drainage (AMD), a legacy of hard-rock mining. The Rico-Argentine Mine in southwestern Colorado consists of complex multiple-level mine workings connected to a drainage tunnel discharging AMD to passive treatment ponds that discharge to the Dolores River. The mine workings are excavated into the hillslope on either side of a tributary stream with workings passing directly under the stream channel. ...

  20. Ammonia-nitrogen removal from urban drainage using modified fresh empty fruit bunches: A case study in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (United States)

    Ricky, L. N. S.; Shahril, Y.; Nurmin, B.; Zahrim, AY


    Highly concentration of ammonia nitrogen in urban drainage could pollute the river and give pungent smell. The strong pungent odours that coming out from the urban drainage may degrade the image a city and could possibly reduce the present of tourist. To minimize the presence of pungent odours, the ammonia nitrogen can be removed from the urban drainage by applying proper adsorbent. In this study, an adsorbent produced through chemical modification of fresh empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers has been carried out. The maximum adsorption capacity is between 0.01-0.60 mg/g. The finding also shows that the retention time is vital when designing ammonia nitrogen filter.

  1. Mine Drainage Generation and Control Options. (United States)

    Wei, Xinchao; Rodak, Carolyn M; Zhang, Shicheng; Han, Yuexin; Wolfe, F Andrew


    This review provides a snapshot of papers published in 2015 relevant to the topic of mine drainage generation and control options. The review is broken into 3 sections: Generation, Prediction and Prevention, and Treatment Options. The first section, mine drainage generation, focuses on the characterization of mine drainage and the environmental impacts. As such, it is broken into three subsections focused on microbiological characterization, physiochemical characterization, and environmental impacts. The second section of the review is divided into two subsections focused on either the prediction or prevention of acid mine drainage. The final section focuses on treatment options for mine drainage and waste sludge. The third section contains subsections on passive treatment, biological treatment, physiochemical treatment, and a new subsection on beneficial uses for mine drainage and treatment wastes.

  2. Mineralogical correlation of surficial sediment from area drainages with selected sedimentary interbeds at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.


    Ongoing research by the US Geological Survey at the INEL involves investigation of the migration of radioactive elements contained in low-level radioactive waste, hydrologic and geologic factors affecting waste movement, and geochemical factors that influence the chemical composition of the waste. Identification of the mineralogy of the Snake River Plain is needed to aid in the study of the hydrology and geochemistry of subsurface waste disposal. The US Geological Surveys project office at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, used mineralogical data to correlate surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Greek drainages with selected sedimentary interbed core samples taken from test holes at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex), TRA (Test Reactors Area), ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant), and TAN (Test Area North). Correlating the mineralogy of a particular present-day drainage area with a particular sedimentary interbed provides information on historical source of sediment for interbeds in and near the INEL. Mineralogical data indicate that surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River drainage contained a larger amount of feldspar and pyroxene and a smaller amount of calcite and dolomite than samples from the Little Lost River and Birch Creek drainages. Mineralogical data from sedimentary interbeds at the RWMC, TRA, and ICPP correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day big Lost River drainage. Mineralogical data from a sedimentary interbed at TAN correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day Birch Creek drainage. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Mineralogical correlation of surficial sediment from area drainages with selected sedimentary interbeds at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.


    Ongoing research by the US Geological Survey at the INEL involves investigation of the migration of radioactive elements contained in low-level radioactive waste, hydrologic and geologic factors affecting waste movement, and geochemical factors that influence the chemical composition of the waste. Identification of the mineralogy of the Snake River Plain is needed to aid in the study of the hydrology and geochemistry of subsurface waste disposal. The US Geological Surveys project office at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, used mineralogical data to correlate surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Greek drainages with selected sedimentary interbed core samples taken from test holes at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex), TRA (Test Reactors Area), ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant), and TAN (Test Area North). Correlating the mineralogy of a particular present-day drainage area with a particular sedimentary interbed provides information on historical source of sediment for interbeds in and near the INEL. Mineralogical data indicate that surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River drainage contained a larger amount of feldspar and pyroxene and a smaller amount of calcite and dolomite than samples from the Little Lost River and Birch Creek drainages. Mineralogical data from sedimentary interbeds at the RWMC, TRA, and ICPP correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day big Lost River drainage. Mineralogical data from a sedimentary interbed at TAN correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day Birch Creek drainage. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Composite fibrous glaucoma drainage implant (United States)

    Klapstova, A.; Horakova, J.; Shynkarenko, A.; Lukas, D.


    Glaucoma is a frequent reason of loss vision. It is usually caused by increased intraocular pressure leading to damage of optic nerve head. This work deals with the development of fibrous structure suitable for glaucoma drainage implants (GDI). Commercially produced metallic glaucoma implants are very effective in lowering intraocular pressure. However, these implants may cause adverse events such as damage to adjacent tissue, fibrosis, hypotony or many others [1]. The aim of this study is to reduce undesirable properties of currently produced drains and improve their properties by creating of the composite fibrous drain for achieve a normal intraocular pressure. Two types of electrospinning technologies were used for the production of very small tubular implants. First type was focused for production of outer part of tubular drain and the second type of electrospinning method made the inner part of shape follows the connections of both parts. Complete implant had a special properties suitable for drainage of fluid. Morphological parameters, liquid transport tests and in-vitro cell adhesion tests were detected.

  5. Evolution of the drainage system in the SE Betic Cordillera since the Tortonian (United States)

    Loget, Nicolas; Diot, Xavier; Van Den Driessche, Jean; Gorini, Christian; Do Couto, Damien


    The emersion of Betic Cordilleras (Sierra Nevada, Sierra de Gador) and associated marine neogene basins is the result of recent tectonic processes. This emersion was followed by the installation of drainage systems (rio Andarax, rio Adra) where detrital products were trapped at their outlets with morphosedimentary shapes as deltas or alluvial fans. Starting from a simple examination of the morphology of the SE Betic area, we can note that some deltaic morphologies as Campo de Dalias (south of the Sierra de Gador) do not correspond with the current upstream drainage network. We suppose, consequently, a reorganization of the drainage network between the formation of deltaic systems, and present. A sediment budget and a geomorphological analysis were performed to study this drainage evolution since this emergence in a context of high uplift (the Sierra de Gador has raised tortonian marine deposits up to 1800m). The calculated sediment budget shows that the deposits of Campo de Dalias cannot be explained only by a feeding that comes from its current source (the south side of the Sierra de Gador). Longitudinal profiles and relief maps show that rivers have responded to the uplift by incising the landscape with numerous knickpoints and by an eastward shift of the drainage network attested by windgaps in the landscape. We conclude that the morphosedimentary shape of Campo de Dalias could be an abandoned deltaic morphology resulting from a shift of the drainage network toward the east since the Pliocene linked to the uplift of the Sierra de Gador.

  6. Solid Waste in Drainage Network of Rio do Meio Watershed, Florianópolis/SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiana Gava


    Full Text Available The urban drainage network is among the main pollution transport load factors. Researches on the identification of solid waste transported in the drainage network have been considered the allow evaluation of its impact. In this paper we analyze the main characteristics that influences the presence of solid wastes in the drainage network of the Rio do Meio basin, Florianópolis/SC. A metal net was installed in selected river section and monitored after each rain event. The results showed about 0.27 kg/ha.year of waste are carried in the drainage network. The majority being composed of plastics and building materials. Through the analysis of the data, it was possible to verify the presence of waste in the drainage network is due to poor packaging and to the lack of sweeping in some parts of the basin. It was also found that the total precipitation is directly proportional to the appearance of solid waste. It was concluded that the lack of an integrated management between the components of sanitary system leave unnoticed simple structural measures that ultimately decrease the amount of solid waste in the drainage basin, and that could eliminate this source of pollution.

  7. Flow and geochemical modeling of drainage from Tomitaka mine, Miyazaki, Japan. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kohei; Tomiyama, Shingo; Metugi, Hideya; Ii, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Akira


    The chemistry and flow of water in the abandoned Tomitaka mine of Miyazaki, western Japan were investigated. This mine is located in a non-ferrous metal deposit and acid mine drainage issues from it. The study was undertaken to estimate the quantities of mine drainage that needs to be treated in order to avoid acidification of local rivers, taking into account seasonal variations in rainfall. Numerical models aimed to reproduce observed water levels and fluxes and chemical variations of groundwater and mine drainage. Rock-water interactions that may explain the observed variations in water chemistry are proposed. The results show that: (1) rain water infiltrates into the deeper bedrock through a highly permeable zone formed largely by stopes that are partially filled with spoil from excavations (ore minerals and host rocks); (2) the water becomes acidic (pH from 3 to 4) as dissolved oxygen oxidizes pyrite; (3) along the flow path through the rocks, the redox potential of the water becomes reducing, such that pyrite becomes stable and pH of the mine drainage becomes neutral; and (4) upon leaving the mine, the drainage becomes acidic again due to oxidation of pyrite in the rocks. The present numerical model with considering of the geochemical characteristics can simulate the main variations in groundwater flow and water levels in and around the Tomitaka mine, and apply to the future treatment of the mine drainage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Quantitative analysis of drainage obtained from aerial photographs and RBV/LANDSAT images (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Formaggio, A. R.; Epiphanio, J. C. N.; Filho, M. V.


    Data obtained from aerial photographs (1:60,000) and LANDSAT return beam vidicon imagery (1:100,000) concerning drainage density, drainage texture, hydrography density, and the average length of channels were compared. Statistical analysis shows that significant differences exist in data from the two sources. The highly drained area lost more information than the less drained area. In addition, it was observed that the loss of information about the number of rivers was higher than that about the length of the channels.

  9. Streambed infiltration and ground-water flow from the trout creek drainage, an intermittent tributary to the Humboldt River, north-central Nevada: Chapter K in Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Professional Paper 1703) (United States)

    Prudic, David E.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Harrill, James R.; Wood, James L.; Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.


    Ground water is abundant in many alluvial basins of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province of the western United States. Water enters these basins by infiltration along intermittent and ephemeral channels, which originate in the mountainous regions before crossing alluvial fans and piedmont alluvial plains. Water also enters the basins as subsurface ground-water flow directly from the mountains, where infiltrated precipitation recharges water-bearing rocks and sediments at these higher elevations. Trout Creek, a typical intermittent stream in the Middle Humboldt River Basin in north-central Nevada, was chosen to develop methods of estimating and characterizing streambed infiltration and ground-water recharge in mountainous terrains. Trout Creek has a drainage area of about 4.8 × 107 square meters. Stream gradients range from more than 1 × 10–1 meter per meter in the mountains to 5 × 10–3 meter per meter at the foot of the piedmont alluvial plain. Trout Creek is perennial in short reaches upstream of a northeast-southwest trending normal fault, where perennial springs discharge to the channel. Downstream from the fault, the water table drops below the base of the channel and the stream becomes intermittent.Snowmelt generates streamflow during March and April, when streamflow extends onto the piedmont alluvial plain for several weeks in most years. Rates of streambed infiltration become highest in the lowest reaches, at the foot of the piedmont alluvial plain. The marked increases in infiltration are attributed to increases in streambed permeability together with decreases in channel-bed armoring, the latter which increases the effective area of the channel. Large quartzite cobbles cover the streambed in the upper reaches of the stream and are absent in the lowest reach. Such changes in channel deposits are common where alluvial fans join piedmont alluvial plains. Poorly sorted coarse and fine sediments are deposited near the head of the fan, while

  10. Drainage basins features and hydrological behaviour river Minateda basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Sarria, F.


    Nine basin variables (shape, size and topology) have been analyzed in four small basins with non-permanent run off (SE of Spain). These geomorphological variables have been selected for their high correlation with the Instantaneous unit hydrograph parameters. It is shown that the variables can change from one small basin to another within a very short area; because of it, generalizations about the behaviour of the run off are not possible. In conclusion, it is stated that the variations in geomorphological aspects between different basins, caused mainly by geological constraints, are a very important factor to be controlled in a study of geoecological change derived from climatic change

  11. How sulfate-rich mine drainage affected aquatic ecosystem degradation in northeastern China, and potential ecological risk. (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Guo, Fen; Zhang, Yuan; Ma, Shuqin; Jia, Xiaobo; Meng, Wei


    Mining activity is an increasingly important stressor for freshwater ecosystems. However, the mechanism on how sulfate-rich mine drainage affects freshwater ecosystems is largely unknown, and its potential ecological risk has not been assessed so far. During 2009-2016, water and macroinvertebrate samples from 405 sample sites were collected along the mine drainage gradient from circum-neutral to alkaline waters in Hun-Tai River, Northeastern China. Results of linear regressions showed that sulfate-rich mine drainage was significantly positively correlated with the constituents typically derived from rock weathering (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and HCO 3 - +CO 3 2- ); the diversity of intolerant stream macroinvertebrates exhibited a steep decline along the gradient of sulfate-rich mine drainage. Meanwhile, stressor-response relationships between sulfate-rich mine drainage and macroinvertebrate communities were explored by two complementary statistical approaches in tandem (Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis and the field-based method developed by USEPA). Results revealed that once stream sulfate concentrations in mine drainage exceeded 35mg/L, significant decline in the abundance of intolerant macroinvertebrate taxa occurred. An assessment of ecological risk posed by sulfate-rich mine drainage was conducted based on a tiered approach consisting of simple deterministic method (Hazard Quotient, HQ) to probabilistic method (Joint Probability Curve, JPC). Results indicated that sulfate-rich mine drainage posed a potential risk, and 64.62-84.88% of surface waters in Hun-Tai River exist serious risk while 5% threshold (HC 05 ) and 1% threshold (HC 01 ) were set up to protect macroinvertebrates, respectively. This study provided us a better understanding on the impacts of sulfate-rich mine drainage on freshwater ecosystems, and it would be helpful for future catchment management to protect streams from mining activity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. 21 CFR 1250.65 - Drainage. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drainage. 1250.65 Section 1250.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER... Servicing Areas for Land and Air Conveyances § 1250.65 Drainage. All platforms and other places at which...

  13. Dynamic drainage of froth with wood fibers (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; Freya Tan


    Understanding froth drainage with fibers (or simply called fiber drainage in froth) is important for improving fiber yield in the flotation deinking operation. In this study, the data of water and fiber mass in foams collected at different froth heights were used to reconstruct the time dependent and spatially resolved froth density and fiber volumetric concentration...

  14. 24 CFR 3285.604 - Drainage system. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drainage system. 3285.604 Section... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Ductwork and Plumbing and Fuel Supply Systems § 3285.604 Drainage system. (a) Crossovers. Multi-section homes with plumbing in more than one section...

  15. Percutaneous catheter drainage of tuberculous psoas abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pombo, F.; Martin-Egana, R.; Cela, A.; Diaz, J.L.; Linares-Mondejar, P.; Freire, M.


    Six patients with 7 tuberculous psoas or ilio-psoas abscesses were treated by CT-guided catheter drainage and chemotherapy. The abscesses (5 unilateral and 1 bilateral) were completely drained using a posterior or lateral approach. The abscess volume was 70 to 700 ml (mean 300 ml) and the duration of drainage 5 to 11 days (mean 7 days). Immediate local symptomatic improvement was achieved in all patients, and there were no procedural complications. CT follow-up at 3 to 9 months showed normalization in 5 patients, 2 of whom are still in medical therapy. One patient, who did not take the medication regularly, had a recurrent abscess requiring new catheter drainage after which the fluid collection disappeared. Percutaneous drainage represents an efficient and attractive alternative to surgical drainage as a supplement to medical therapy in the management of patients with large tuberculous psoas abscesses. (orig.)

  16. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Rowe, T.G.; Lico, M.S.; Burge, H.L.


    An investigation was initiated to determine whether irrigation drainage in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health or fish and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of water for beneficial uses. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert and were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements, including selenium. Other analyses included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediments and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, concentrations of the following constituents commonly were found to exceed baseline concentrations or federal and state criteria for the protection of aquatic life or the propagation of wildlife: in water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appear to be biomagnified whereas arsenic is bioaccumulated. Some radioactive substances were substantially higher at the downstream sites compared with upstream background sites, but the significance of this to wildlife is unknown at present. 88 refs., 32 figs., 19 tabs

  17. Solution to Carson’s integrals through power series; Solución de las integrales de Carson mediante series de potencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Gutiérrez Robles


    Full Text Available The problem of electromagnetic waves propagation in overhead transmission lines has apparently not been solved in a sound manner yet. While the problem does not have an exact analytical solution when considering the presence of the actual surface of the earth, its approximate solution introducing the oretical simplifications is of formidable practical interest. Using quasi-static approximations Carson obtained integral equations to calculate the electromagnetic field due to a horizontal current carrying wire which is above a lossy ground plane. Carson himself proposed the first solution to these expressions using power series expansions which does not possess uniform convergence and since then there have been efforts to get a better solution. In this sense two clear approaches have been essentially followed. The first one consists on modifying the integrand in such a way that an analytic solution can be obtained. The second one is based on using numerical integration schemes. El problema de la propagación de ondas electromagnéticas en líneas de transmisión aéreas aún no ha sido resuelto de manera definitiva. Si bien el problema no posee una solución analítica exacta cuando se considera la presencia de la superficie real de la tierra, su solución aproximada, introduciendo simplificaciones teóricas es de gran interés práctico. Usando aproximaciones cuasi-estáticas, en 1926 Carson obtuvo ecuaciones integrales para el cálculo del campo electromagnético generado por la corriente de un conductor horizontal sobre un plano de tierra imperfecto. La primera solución la propone el mismo Carson utilizando expansiones en series, las cuales no poseen convergencia uniforme y desde entonces se han hecho esfuerzos por tener una mejor aproximación. Se han seguido dos enfoques claros, el primero consiste en introducir modificaciones en el integrando de manera que sea posible obtener una solución analítica. El segundo, se basa en la utilizaci

  18. CARSON, John Samuel, The measure of merit. Talents, intelligence and inequality in the French and American Republics, 1750-1940, Princeton and Oxford, Princeton University Press, 2006.


    Chelle , Elisa


    Compte-rendu paru dans la Revue internationale de politique comparée, vol. 16, n° 2, p. 345-348.; International audience; John Carson est professeur d'histoire moderne à l'Université du Michigan. Dans son dernier ouvrage, The Measure of Merit, issu de ses travaux de recherche doctoraux et postdoctoraux, il pose la question de l'intelligence et de sa mesure comme science de différenciation des êtres humains. Comment cette création de la différence s'inscrit-elle dans un régime républicain ? Mi...

  19. Global drainage patterns and the origins of topographic relief on Earth, Mars, and Titan. (United States)

    Black, Benjamin A; Perron, J Taylor; Hemingway, Douglas; Bailey, Elizabeth; Nimmo, Francis; Zebker, Howard


    Rivers have eroded the topography of Mars, Titan, and Earth, creating diverse landscapes. However, the dominant processes that generated topography on Titan (and to some extent on early Mars) are not well known. We analyzed drainage patterns on all three bodies and found that large drainages, which record interactions between deformation and erosional modification, conform much better to long-wavelength topography on Titan and Mars than on Earth. We use a numerical landscape evolution model to demonstrate that short-wavelength deformation causes drainage directions to diverge from long-wavelength topography, as observed on Earth. We attribute the observed differences to ancient long-wavelength topography on Mars, recent or ongoing generation of long-wavelength relief on Titan, and the creation of short-wavelength relief by plate tectonics on Earth. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Andreas; Vilmann, Peter


    Pancreatic pseudocysts are fluid collections in the peripancreatic tissues associated with acute or chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage has become an established indication, having better results as compared to percutaneous drainage, nonguided endoscopic drainage...

  1. Global 30m Height Above the Nearest Drainage (United States)

    Donchyts, Gennadii; Winsemius, Hessel; Schellekens, Jaap; Erickson, Tyler; Gao, Hongkai; Savenije, Hubert; van de Giesen, Nick


    Variability of the Earth surface is the primary characteristics affecting the flow of surface and subsurface water. Digital elevation models, usually represented as height maps above some well-defined vertical datum, are used a lot to compute hydrologic parameters such as local flow directions, drainage area, drainage network pattern, and many others. Usually, it requires a significant effort to derive these parameters at a global scale. One hydrological characteristic introduced in the last decade is Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND): a digital elevation model normalized using nearest drainage. This parameter has been shown to be useful for many hydrological and more general purpose applications, such as landscape hazard mapping, landform classification, remote sensing and rainfall-runoff modeling. One of the essential characteristics of HAND is its ability to capture heterogeneities in local environments, difficult to measure or model otherwise. While many applications of HAND were published in the academic literature, no studies analyze its variability on a global scale, especially, using higher resolution DEMs, such as the new, one arc-second (approximately 30m) resolution version of SRTM. In this work, we will present the first global version of HAND computed using a mosaic of two DEMS: 30m SRTM and Viewfinderpanorama DEM (90m). The lower resolution DEM was used to cover latitudes above 60 degrees north and below 56 degrees south where SRTM is not available. We compute HAND using the unmodified version of the input DEMs to ensure consistency with the original elevation model. We have parallelized processing by generating a homogenized, equal-area version of HydroBASINS catchments. The resulting catchment boundaries were used to perform processing using 30m resolution DEM. To compute HAND, a new version of D8 local drainage directions as well as flow accumulation were calculated. The latter was used to estimate river head by incorporating fixed and

  2. Estimating cell-to-cell land surface drainage paths from digital channel networks, with an application to the Amazon basin (United States)

    Mayorga, Emilio; Logsdon, Miles G.; Ballester, Maria Victoria R.; Richey, Jeffrey E.


    Cell-to-cell surface flow paths are commonly derived from gridded digital elevation models (DEM) by choosing the direction of steepest descent to one of the eight surrounding cells. However, adequate DEMs often are not available. We developed a topography-independent method for creating gridded, land and stream drainage direction maps based on corrected vector river networks. We applied it to the Digital Chart of the World river network in the Amazon basin gridded at 0.005° resolution; in this basin, low relief and poor topographic data have prevented the effective use of DEM-based methods. We geo-registered 224 hydrographic gages against the processed network and compared extracted vs. published drainage areas. Drainage areas ranged from 227 to 4,620,000 km 2. Median relative error was 4.5%, increasing in smaller basins to 94% in basins ≤2000 km 2. The effective limit of reliability may differ from 2000 km 2 across the basin. The drainage direction map and derivative datasets represent an improvement over existing datasets for regional research in the Amazon basin. Methods exploiting vector networks complement terrain approaches, and combined they may yield advances in the automated extraction of drainage maps and handling of topologically realistic river systems.

  3. Late glacial drainage systems along the northwestern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (United States)

    Lemmen, Donald S.; Duk-Rodkin, Alejandra; Bednarski, Jan M.

    The evolution of drainage systems along the retreating northwestern Laurentide Ice Sheet was complex. The interaction of ice-margin configuration, topography and glacioisostasy resulted in a network of meltwater rivers that variably overflowed to the Arctic and Pacific Oceans and to the Gulf of Mexico. Glacial lakes also changed dramatically in size and location during the period of deglaciation. At the last (and all time) glacial maximum, the ice sheet extended into the eastern Cordillera, blocking northward and eastward drainage to the Arctic Ocean. Some meltwater and most non-glacial runoff were diverted through the mountains to the Yukon River basin, into Alaska and the Pacific Ocean. Retreat from the glacial maximum prior to 21 ka BP allowed proglacial drainage from the western margin of the ice sheet to flow into the Beaufort Sea/Arctic Ocean. Deglaciation was rapid after about 13 ka BP, with the present route of the lower Mackenzie River established between 13 and 11.5 ka BP. Continued ice retreat led to significant southward expansion of the Mackenzie/Beaufort drainage basin at about 11.5 ka BP through drainage capture of glacial Lake Peace, which previously had drained southeastward into the Missouri River and to the Gulf of Mexico. Very rapid ice retreat between 10.5 and 10 ka BP allowed glacial lake McConnell to expand down-slope in contact with the ice margin. Numerous glacial lakes occurred along the northwestern margin of the ice sheet during the maximum and retreat phases. These include ice-dammed glacial Lake Old Crow, which occupied unglaciated terrain of the northern Yukon, and glacial Lake Peace, which utilized a number of outlets as it migrated eastward with the ice front along the Peace Valley. The largest glacial lakes in the region were the result of glacioisostatic depression reversing the regional drainage. The Mackenzie Phase of glacial Lake McConnell was the second largest Pleistocene lake in North America (> 215,000 km2). Late glacial

  4. Study of morphometry to debit drainage basin (DAS) arau Padang city (United States)

    Utama, Lusi; Amrizal, Berd, Isril; Zuherna


    High intensity rain that happened in Padang city cause the happening of floods at DAS Arau. Floods that happened in Padang besides caused high rain intensity, require to be by research about morphometry that is cause parameter the happening of floods. Morphometry drainage basin physical network (DAS) quantitatively related to DAS geomorphology that is related to form of DAS, river network, closeness of stream, ramp, usage of farm, high and gradient steepness of river. Form DAS will influence rain concentration to outlet. Make an index to closeness of stream depict closeness of river stream at one particular DAS. Speed of river stream influenced by storey, level steepness of river. Steepness storey, level is comparison of difference height of river downstream and upstream. Ever greater of steepness of river stream, excelsior speed of river stream that way on the contrary. High to lower speed of river stream influence occurrence of floods, more than anything else if when influenced by debit big. Usage of farm in glove its link to process of infiltration where if geology type which is impermeable, be difficult the happening of infiltration, this matter will enlarge value of run off. Research by descriptive qualitative that is about characteristic of DAS. Method the used is method survey with data collecting, in the form of rainfall data of year 2005 until year 2015 and Image of DEM IFSAR with resolution 5 meter, analyzed use Software ARGIS. Result of research got by DAS reside in at condition of floods gristle.

  5. Analysis of Hydraulic Flood Control Structure at Putat Boro River


    Ruzziyatno, Ruhban


    Putat Boro River is one of the main drainage systems of Surakarta city which drains into Bengawan Solo river. The primary problem when flood occur is the higher water level of Bengawan Solo than Boro River and then backwater occur and inundates Putat Boro River. The objective of the study is to obtain operational method of Putat Boro River floodgate to control both inflows and outflows not only during flood but also normal condition. It also aims to know the Putat Boro rivers floodgate op...

  6. Vascular riffle flora of Appalachian streams: the ecology and effects of acid mine drainage on Justificia americana (L. ) Vahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koryak, M.; Reilly, R.J.


    Justicia americana is a stout-based colonial plant, abundant in most of the larger, low to moderate gradient streams of the upper Ohio River basin. The distribution of J. americana is related to acid drainage from bituminous coal mining operations in the upper Ohio River drainage basin. Possible fluvial and biological consequences of the colonization or absence of Justicia are considered. Luxuriant growths were noted on gravel bars and riffles of larger, unpolluted streams in the basin. Acid mine drainage severely depresses the growth of the plant, leaving gravel shoals and riffles in the acid streams either barren or dominated by other emergent species. Particular among these new species is Elecocharis acicularis. The elimination of J. americana from suitable habitat adversely affects channel morphology, substrate composition, general aesthetic quality and aquatic stream life in the region. 16 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  7. US and RTG guided percutaneous biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukowski, J.


    Under combined US and fluoroscopic guidance from anterior approach through left liver lobe a Seldinger technique was used for biliary drainage in 46 patients with nonresectable malignant biliary obstruction. In 9 cases of hilar tumor separating both hepatic ducts a second catheter was inserted through right liver lobe. In 11 cases an internal-external drainage was established. In 3 cases the externally drained bile was recycled by connecting the transhepatic catheter to a percutaneous gastrostomy also performed under US guidance. No severe complications were observed. A described drainage technique provides an effective palliative intervention for advanced biliary malignancies. (author)

  8. Phylogeography of Buddleja crispa (Buddlejaceae) and its correlation with drainage system evolution in southwestern China. (United States)

    Yue, Liang-Liang; Chen, Gao; Sun, Wei-Bang; Sun, Hang


    Southwestern China is an area of active tectonism and erosion, yielding a dynamic, deeply eroded landscape that is hypothesized to have influenced the genetic structure of the resident populations of plants and animals. However, few studies have been conducted to examine the influence of changing river channels, particularly in the Yarlung Tsangpo area, on genetic distributions in plants. We here examine the population structure of Buddleja crispa, a dominant element of the dry, warm/hot river-valley communities, seeking to delimit the current population genetic structure and its relation to past changes in the courses of the major rivers in this area. • Two chloroplast DNA fragments were used to estimate the genetic variation and phylogeographic structure of the populations, and to infer nested clades, of the species. • We detected low intrapopulational haplotype diversity and higher overall population haplotype diversity (h(S) = 0.085, h(T) = 0.781). Molecular variance was mainly observed between groups (81.42%). Robust population genetic structure were detected by AMOVA (F(ST) = 0.967), coinciding with three nested clades (identified by NCPA) and five phylo-groups linked with paleo-drainage systems (identified by SAMOVA). No support for extensive spatial or demographical expansion was obtained. • A general pattern of genetic isolation by vicariance was inferred, and detected disjunct patterns strongly indicate that currently discontinuous drainage systems were historically linked. Most importantly, population subdivisions and genetic variation perfectly reflect the putative Paleo-Red-River drainage pattern, and Yarlung Tsangpo populations are closely related to Central Yunnan Plateau populations, indicating that they were previously connected by ancient river courses. Divergence times between these river systems estimated by molecular dating (in the Pleistocene) agree with previous findings.

  9. Cholangitis following percutaneous biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audisio, R.A.; Bozzetti, F.; Cozzi, G.; Severini, A.; Belloni, M.; Friggerio, L.F.


    The binomial PTBD-cholangitis often stands under different and sometimes even opposite relations. Among its indications the procedure lists, the treatment of cholangitis which, on the other hand, may be itself a complication of biliary drainage. The present work proposes a critical review of cholangitis-PTBD correlations, from an ordinary clinical-radiological point of view. Different pathogenetic hypothesis of cholangitis (inflammation, cholestasis, surgical manipulation) are discussed together with risk factors (impaired macrophagic-phagocytic system, immunosuppresion, wide neoplastic liver involvement, multiple intrahepatic ductal obstructions, chronic liver diseases, aged patients, etc.). The authors also report about prevention and treatment of septic complications which must be carried out following technical and therapeutic strategies, such as chemoprophylaxis and focused antibiotic therapy according to coltural samples, slow injection of small amounts of contrast medium, peripheral branches approach, gentle handling of catheters and guidewires, flushing with saline solutions and brushing of the catheter itself, and finally use of large gauge catheters in the presence of bile sludge

  10. Morphotectonic control of the Białka drainage basin (Central Carpathians: Insights from DEM and morphometric analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołosiewicz Bartosz


    Full Text Available The Białka river valley is directly related to a deep NNW-SSE oriented fault zone. According to the results of previous morphometric analyses, the Białka drainage basin is one of the most tectonically active zones in the Central Carpathians. It is also located within an area of high seismic activity.

  11. Microbacter margulisiae gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel propionigenic bacterium isolated from sediments of an acid rock drainage pond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Andrea, I.; Luis Sanz, J.; Stams, A.J.M.


    A novel anaerobic propionigenic bacterium, strain ADRIT, was isolated from sediment of an acid rock drainage environment (Tinto River, Spain). Cells were small (0.4-0.6 x 1-1.7 µm), non-motile and non-spore forming rods. Cells possessed a Gram-negative cell wall structure and were vancomycin

  12. Reducing nitrate loss in tile drainage water with cover crops and water-table management systems. (United States)

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Welacky, T W; Reynolds, W D; Zhang, T Q; Oloya, T O; McLaughlin, N B; Gaynor, J D


    Nitrate lost from agricultural soils is an economic cost to producers, an environmental concern when it enters rivers and lakes, and a health risk when it enters wells and aquifers used for drinking water. Planting a winter wheat cover crop (CC) and/or use of controlled tile drainage-subirrigation (CDS) may reduce losses of nitrate (NO) relative to no cover crop (NCC) and/or traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD). A 6-yr (1999-2005) corn-soybean study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of CC+CDS, CC+UTD, NCC+CDS, and NCC+UTD treatments for reducing NO loss. Flow volume and NO concentration in surface runoff and tile drainage were measured continuously, and CC reduced the 5-yr flow-weighted mean (FWM) NO concentration in tile drainage water by 21 to 38% and cumulative NO loss by 14 to 16% relative to NCC. Controlled tile drainage-subirrigation reduced FWM NO concentration by 15 to 33% and cumulative NO loss by 38 to 39% relative to UTD. When CC and CDS were combined, 5-yr cumulative FWM NO concentrations and loss in tile drainage were decreased by 47% (from 9.45 to 4.99 mg N L and from 102 to 53.6 kg N ha) relative to NCC+UTD. The reductions in runoff and concomitant increases in tile drainage under CC occurred primarily because of increases in near-surface soil hydraulic conductivity. Cover crops increased corn grain yields by 4 to 7% in 2004 increased 3-yr average soybean yields by 8 to 15%, whereas CDS did not affect corn or soybean yields over the 6 yr. The combined use of a cover crop and water-table management system was highly effective for reducing NO loss from cool, humid agricultural soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Shrub-steppe vegetation trend, Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho (United States)

    James M. Peek


    The Middle Fork Salmon River drainage of the Frank Church River-Of-No-Return Wilderness has a history of livetock grazing from 1890 to 1950, and changes in grazing pressure from native ungulates. High mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations occurred between 1940 and 1960, and high elk (Cervus elaphus) populations occurred in...

  14. Implications of drainage rearrangement for passive margin escarpment evolution in southern Brazil (United States)

    de Sordi, Michael Vinicius; Salgado, André Augusto Rodrigues; Siame, Lionel; Bourlès, Didier; Paisani, Julio Cesar; Léanni, Laëtitia; Braucher, Régis; Do Couto, Edivando Vítor; Aster Team


    Although several authors have pointed out the importance of earth surface process to passive margin escarpments relief evolution and even drainage rearrangements, the dynamics of a consolidated capture area (after a drainage network erodes the escarpment, as the one from the Itajaí-Açu River) remain poorly understood. Here, results are presented from radar elevation and aerial imagery data coupled with in-situ-produced 10Be concentrations measured in sand-sized river-born sediments from the Serra Geral escarpment, southern Brazil. The Studied area's relief evolution is captained by the drainage network: while the Itajaí-Açu watershed relief is the most dissected and lowest in elevation, it is significantly less dissected in the intermediate elevation Iguaçu catchment, an important Paraná River tributary. These less dissected and topographically higher areas belong to the Uruguai River catchment. These differences are conditioned by (i) different lithology compositions, structures and genesis; (ii) different morphological configurations, notably slope, range, relief; and (iii) different regional base levels. Along the Serra Geral escarpment, drainage features such as elbows, underfitted valleys, river profile anomalies, and contrasts in mapped χ-values are evidence of the rearrangement process, mainly beheading, where ocean-facing tributaries of the Itajaí-Açu River capture the inland catchments (Iguaçu and Uruguai). The 10Be derived denudation rates reinforced such processes: while samples from the Caçador and Araucárias Plateaus yield weighted means of 3.1 ± 0.2 and 6.5 ± 0.4 m/Ma respectively, samples from along the escarpment yield a weighted mean of 46.8 ± 3.6 m/Ma, almost 8 times higher. Such significant denudation rate differences are explained by base-level control, relief characteristics, and the geology framework. The main regional morphological evolutionary mechanism is headward denudation and piracy by the Itajaí-Açu River tributaries

  15. Impact of farm dams on river flows; A case study in the Limpopo River basin, Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Querner, E.P.; Boesveld, H.


    The study analysed the impact of a farm dam on the river flow in the Limpopo River basin. Two methods are used to calculate the water inflow: one uses the runoff component from the catchment water balance; the other uses the drainage output of the SIMFLOW model. The impact on the flow in a

  16. Hydrogeomorphic effects of explosive volcanic eruptions on drainage basins (United States)

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Major, Jon J.


    Explosive eruptions can severely disturb landscapes downwind or downstream of volcanoes by damaging vegetation and depositing large volumes of erodible fragmental material. As a result, fluxes of water and sediment in affected drainage basins can increase dramatically. System-disturbing processes associated with explosive eruptions include tephra fall, pyroclastic density currents, debris avalanches, and lahars—processes that have greater impacts on water and sediment discharges than lava-flow emplacement. Geo-morphic responses to such disturbances can extend far downstream, persist for decades, and be hazardous. The severity of disturbances to a drainage basin is a function of the specific volcanic process acting, as well as distance from the volcano and magnitude of the eruption. Postdisturbance unit-area sediment yields are among the world's highest; such yields commonly result in abundant redeposition of sand and gravel in distal river reaches, which causes severe channel aggradation and instability. Response to volcanic disturbance can result in socioeconomic consequences more damaging than the direct impacts of the eruption itself.

  17. Investigating the ancient landscape and Cenozoic drainage development of southern Yukon (Canada), through restoration modeling of the Cordilleran-scale Tintina Fault. (United States)

    Hayward, N.; Jackson, L. E.; Ryan, J. J.


    This study of southern Yukon (Canada) challenges the notion that the landscape in the long-lived, tectonically active, northern Canadian Cordillera is implicitly young. The impact of Cenozoic displacement along the continental- scale Tintina Fault on the development of the Yukon River and drainage basins of central Yukon is investigated through geophysical and hydrological modeling of digital terrain model data. Regional geological evidence suggests that the age of the planation of the Yukon plateaus is at least Late Cretaceous, rather than Neogene as previously concluded, and that there has been little penetrative deformation or net incision in the region since the late Mesozoic. The Tintina Fault has been interpreted as having experienced 430 km of dextral displacement, primarily during the Eocene. However, the alignment of river channels across the fault at specific displacements, coupled with recent seismic events and related fault activity, indicate that the fault may have moved in stages over a longer time span. Topographic restoration and hydrological models show that the drainage of the Yukon River northwestward into Alaska via the ancestral Kwikhpak River was only possible at restored displacements of up to 50-55 km on the Tintina Fault. We interpret the published drainage reversals convincingly attributed to the effects of Pliocene glaciation as an overprint on earlier Yukon River reversals or diversions attributed to tectonic displacements along the Tintina Fault. At restored fault displacements of between 230 and 430 km, our models illustrate that paleo Yukon River drainage conceivably may have flowed eastward into the Atlantic Ocean via an ancestral Liard River, which was a tributary of the paleo Bell River system. The revised drainage evolution if correct requires wide-reaching reconsideration of surficial geology deposits, the flow direction and channel geometries of the region's ancient rivers, and importantly, exploration strategies of placer gold

  18. Economic, social, and cultural aspects of livestock ranching on the Española and Canjilon Ranger Districts of the Santa Fe and Carson National Forests: a pilot study (United States)

    Carol Raish; Alice M. McSweeney


    The ranches of northern New Mexico, composed of land and livestock, are integral components of family and community life. This pilot study examines current economic, social, and cultural aspects of livestock operations owned by ranchers with Federal grazing permits (permittees) on the Canjilon and Española Ranger Districts of the Santa Fe and Carson National...

  19. Pressure Jumps during Drainage in Macroporous Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soto, Diego; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Corral, A


    Tensiometer readings obtained at high resolution during drainage of structured soil columns revealed pressure jumps with long range correlations and burst sequences with a hierarchical structure. The statistical properties of jumps are similar to Haines jumps described in invasion percolation...

  20. Evaluating roadway subsurface drainage practices - phase II. (United States)


    Well-performing subsurface drainage systems form an important aspect of pavement design by the Iowa Department of : Transportation (DOT). The recently completed Iowa Highway Research Board (IHRB) project TR-643 provided extensive : insights into Iowa...

  1. Drainage information analysis and mapping system. (United States)


    The primary objective of this research is to develop a Drainage Information Analysis and Mapping System (DIAMS), with online inspection : data submission, which will comply with the necessary requirements, mandated by both the Governmental Accounting...

  2. VT Lakes and Ponds Drainage Basins (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The WaterHydro_LKBSPRE layer consists of drainage basins for water bodies of approximately five or more acres. The data was digitized from...

  3. Fractal Analysis of Drainage Basins on Mars (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Marinova, M. M.; McGovern, P. J.; Clifford, S. M.


    We used statistical properties of drainage networks on Mars as a measure of martian landscape morphology and an indicator of landscape evolution processes. We utilize the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to construct digital elevation maps (DEMs) of several, mostly ancient, martian terrains. Drainage basins and channel networks are computationally extracted from DEMs and their structures are analyzed and compared to drainage networks extracted from terrestrial and lunar DEMs. We show that martian networks are self-affine statistical fractals with planar properties similar to terrestrial networks, but vertical properties similar to lunar networks. The uniformity of martian drainage density is between those for terrestrial and lunar landscapes. Our results are consistent with the roughening of ancient martian terrains by combination of rainfall-fed erosion and impacts, although roughening by other fluvial processes cannot be excluded. The notion of sustained rainfall in recent Mars history is inconsistent with our findings.

  4. Social impact assessment of subsurface drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar, A.H.; Rafiq, M.; Alam, M.M.


    Social impact assessment of four drainage projects namely; Mardan SCARP Project (MSP), Fourth Drainage Project, Faisalabad (FDP), Chashma Command Area Development Project (CCADP) and Mirpurkhas Tile Drainage Project (MKOP) has been done. For this purpose, a socio-technical survey was carried out in which randomly selected farmers were interviewed. The investigations revealed that although significant population (-77%) at four study sites was educated, yet, the farmers were not satisfactorily educated to understand the operation and maintenance of drainage systems. The perusal of data revealed that 14%, 17% and 25% respondents from MSP, FOP and MKDP respectively had to migrate from their villages mainly due to pre-project water logging problem. However, installation of drainage systems in those areas improved the situation resulting in the increase of farm income, which was an attraction for them to return to their villages. The analysis of farm mechanization revealed that at MSP, FDP, CCADP and MKOP sites 71%, 42%, 40% and 75% respondents respectively were tractor owners and owners of some kind of other farm implements, whereas, remaining respondents were performing their farm operations on hire basis. Although, hire operation basis is much better than traditional ways, however, improving the farm mechanization could further enhance the benefits of drainage systems. The investigations revealed that a significant majority of respondents at four project sites had never met the Agricultural Extension Officer. The farmers' access to financing institutions such as ZTB was also negligible. There was lack of coordination among various departments such as WAPDA, Agriculture Extension and Irrigation and Power Department at four study sites. Nevertheless, the overall social impact investigations did reveal that the objectives of drainage systems installation have been achieved in terms of uplifting the socio-economic conditions of drainage areas. To make the efficient use of

  5. Percutaneous drainage of pelvic fluid collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Young; Sohn, Cheol Ho


    To evaluate safe access route and success rate of percutaneous drainage of pelvic fluid collection. The 35 percutaneous drainages of pelvic fluid collection under the CT and fluorosocpic guidance were done in 32 patients. The anterior transabdominal approach was done in 20 patients, while the nine patients used the transgluteal approach through greater sciatic foramen. Three patients, who had septated or noncommunicating abscesses, underwent drainage using both approaches. The catheter was removed when the patient's symptom and laboratory data were improved or the amount of drainage and the size of fluid collection were markedly reduced. Success, partial success and failure were classified. The causes of fluid collection were complication of intraabdominal operation in 27 patient. The diagnosis after drainage included abscess (21), loculated ascites (6), and hematoma (4). The 27 cases (30 procedure) were treated successfully and the mean duration of catheter insertion was 10 days. The partial successes were two cases (2 procedures), which had palliative purpose. Three cases (3 procedures) were failed, which were multiple loculated ascites of pancreatic origin (2) and recurrent abscess (1). The significant complication during the procedure or drainage was not noted

  6. 14 CFR 27.1187 - Ventilation and drainage. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ventilation and drainage. 27.1187 Section... and drainage. Each compartment containing any part of the powerplant installation must have provision for ventilation and drainage of flammable fluids. The drainage means must be— (a) Effective under...

  7. Failures and complications of thoracic drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivana


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Thoracic drainage is a surgical procedure for introducing a drain into the pleural space to drain its contents. Using this method, the pleura is discharged and set to the physiological state which enables the reexpansion of the lungs. The aim of the study was to prove that the use of modern principles and protocols of thoracic drainage significantly reduces the occurrence of failures and complications, rendering the treatment more efficient. Methods. The study included 967 patients treated by thoracic drainage within the period from January 1, 1989 to June 1, 2000. The studied patients were divided into 2 groups: group A of 463 patients treated in the period from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 1994 in whom 386 pleural drainage (83.36% were performed, and group B of 602 patients treated form January 1, 1995 to June 1, 2000 in whom 581 pleural drainage (96.51% were performed. The patients of the group A were drained using the classical standards of thoracic drainage by the general surgeons. The patients of the group B, however, were drained using the modern standards of thoracic drainage by the thoracic surgeons, and the general surgeons trained for this kind of the surgery. Results. The study showed that better results were achieved in the treatment of the patients from the group B. The total incidence of the failures and complications of thoracic drainage decreased from 36.52% (group A to 12.73% (group B. The mean length of hospitalization of the patients without complications in the group A was 19.5 days versus 10 days in the group B. The mean length of the treatment of the patients with failures and complications of the drainage in the group A was 33.5 days versus 17.5 days in the group B. Conclusion. The shorter length of hospitalization and the lower morbidity of the studied patients were considered to be the result of the correct treatment using modern principles of thoracic drainage, a suitable surgical technique, and a

  8. National water-quality assessment program : the Albemarle- Pamlico drainage (United States)

    Lloyd, O.B.; Barnes, C.R.; Woodside, M.D.


    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began to implement a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. Long-term goals of the NAWQA program are to describe the status and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources and to provide a sound, scientific understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting the quality of these resources. In meeting these goals, the program will produce a wealth of water quality information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at the national, State, and local levels. Study-unit investigations constitute a major component of the NAWQA program, forming the principal building blocks on which national-level assessment activities are based. The 60 study-unit investigations that make up the program are hydrologic systems that include parts of most major river basins and aquifer systems. These study units cover areas of 1,200 to more than 65,000 square miles and incorporate about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's water use and population served by public water supply. In 1991, the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage was among the first 20 NAWQA study units selected for study under the full-scale implementation plan. The Albemarle-Pamlico drainage study will examine the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of water quality issues in a coordinated investigation of surface water and ground water in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin. The quantity and quality of discharge from the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin contribute to some water quality problems in the biologically sensitive waters of Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds. A retrospective analysis of existing water quality data will precede a 3-year period of intensive data-collection and analysis activities. The data resulting from this study and the improved understanding of important processes and issues in the upstream part of the study unit will enhance understanding of the quality of

  9. Automated reconstruction of drainage basins and water discharge to the sea through glacial cycles (United States)

    Wickert, Andrew


    Over glacial cycles, ice masses and their geophysical impacts on surface topography dramatically changed drainage patterns and river discharges. These changes impacted meltwater discharge to the ocean, geomorphology, and climate. As the river systems'the threads that tied the ice sheets to the sea'were stretched, severed, and rearranged during deglaciation, they also shrank and swelled with the pulse of meltwater inputs and proglacial lake dynamics. Here I present a general method to compute past river flow paths, drainage basin geometries, and river discharges. I automate these calculations within GRASS GIS to take advantage of rapid solution techniques for drainage networks in an open-source and compute-cluster-ready environment. I combine modern topography and bathymetry with ice sheet reconstructions from the last glacial cycle and a global glacial isostatic adjustment model to build digital elevation models of the past Earth surface. I then sum ice sheet mass balance with computed precipitation and evapotranspiration from a paleoclimate general circulation model to produce grids of water input. I combine these topographic and hydrologic inputs to compute past river networks and discharges through time. These paleodrainage reconstructions connect ice sheets, sea level, and climate models to fluvial systems, which in turn generate measurable terrace and sedimentary records as they carry physical, compositional, and isotopic signatures of ice sheet melt and landscape change through their channels and to the sea. Therefore, this work provides a self-consistent paleogeographic framework within which models and geologic records may be quantitatively compared to build new insights into past glacial systems.

  10. Pollution of River Spree in Berlin from 1871 to 1914


    Winklhöfer, Karin


    Abstract In the late 19th and early 20th century, industrialization and burgeoning town populations in Europe flooded rivers with waste water; rivers with restricted drainage became noticeably polluted. Berlin exemplified these problems and challenges and the kinds of responses and solutions that were brought to bear. Upstream of Köpenick, the Müggelspree could cope with the discharge of several small industrial establishments. The situation at Dahme River was different, however, becaus...

  11. Surface runoff and tile drainage transport of phosphorus in the midwestern United States. (United States)

    Smith, Douglas R; King, Kevin W; Johnson, Laura; Francesconi, Wendy; Richards, Pete; Baker, Dave; Sharpley, Andrew N


    The midwestern United States offers some of the most productive agricultural soils in the world. Given the cool humid climate, much of the region would not be able to support agriculture without subsurface (tile) drainage because high water tables may damage crops and prevent machinery usage in fields at critical times. Although drainage is designed to remove excess soil water as quickly as possible, it can also rapidly transport agrochemicals, including phosphorus (P). This paper illustrates the potential importance of tile drainage for P transport throughout the midwestern United States. Surface runoff and tile drainage from fields in the St. Joseph River Watershed in northeastern Indiana have been monitored since 2008. Although the traditional concept of tile drainage has been that it slowly removes soil matrix flow, peak tile discharge occurred at the same time as peak surface runoff, which demonstrates a strong surface connection through macropore flow. On our research fields, 49% of soluble P and 48% of total P losses occurred via tile discharge. Edge-of-field soluble P and total P areal loads often exceeded watershed-scale areal loadings from the Maumee River, the primary source of nutrients to the western basin of Lake Erie, where algal blooms have been a pervasive problem for the last 10 yr. As farmers, researchers, and policymakers search for treatments to reduce P loading to surface waters, the present work demonstrates that treating only surface runoff may not be sufficient to reach the goal of 41% reduction in P loading for the Lake Erie Basin. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Inferring tectonic activity using drainage network and RT model: an example from the western Himalayas, India (United States)

    Sahoo, Ramendra; Jain, Vikrant


    Morphology of the landscape and derived features are regarded to be an important tool for inferring about tectonic activity in an area, since surface exposures of these subsurface processes may not be available or may get eroded away over time. This has led to an extensive research in application of the non-planar morphological attributes like river long profile and hypsometry for tectonic studies, whereas drainage network as a proxy for tectonic activity has not been explored greatly. Though, significant work has been done on drainage network pattern which started in a qualitative manner and over the years, has evolved to incorporate more quantitative aspects, like studying the evolution of a network under the influence of external and internal controls. Random Topology (RT) model is one of these concepts, which elucidates the connection between evolution of a drainage network pattern and the entropy of the drainage system and it states that in absence of any geological controls, a natural population of channel networks will be topologically random. We have used the entropy maximization principle to provide a theoretical structure for the RT model. Furthermore, analysis was carried out on the drainage network structures around Jwalamukhi thrust in the Kangra reentrant in western Himalayas, India, to investigate the tectonic activity in the region. Around one thousand networks were extracted from the foot-wall (fw) and hanging-wall (hw) region of the thrust sheet and later categorized based on their magnitudes. We have adopted the goodness of fit test for comparing the network patterns in fw and hw drainage with those derived using the RT model. The null hypothesis for the test was, the drainage networks in the fw are statistically more similar than those on the hw, to the network patterns derived using the RT model for any given magnitude. The test results are favorable to our null hypothesis for networks with smaller magnitudes (< 9), whereas for larger

  13. Assessment of trace metals in sewage water and sludge from River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of trace metals in sewage water and sludge samples from River Kubanni drainage basin in Zaria City, Nigeria were investigated in this study. The drainage basin is utilized as a source for irrigation water, during dry seasons. The sewage water quality characteristics in three month sampling periods, that ...

  14. Trace elements in bed sediments and aquatic invertebrates from three streams in Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, S. [Geological Survey, Carson City, NV (United States). Water Resources Div.


    In September 1992, the US Geological Survey, as part of the National Water Quality Assessment Program, collected crayfish (Pacifastacus Ieniusculus and Procambarus clarkii), asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea), caddis-fly larvae (Hydropsyche spp.) and bed-sediment samples from the Truckee and Carson Rivers, and Las Vegas Wash in Nevada and analyzed them for selected trace elements. This report describes and compares the concentrations of arsenic, copper, manganese, mercury, silver, and zinc in those samples. In the Truckee and Carson Rivers, concentrations of the six trace elements in aquatic invertebrate samples are similar to concentrations measured in bed sediments. In the Truckee River, concentrations of these elements in crayfish and bed-sediment samples were highest in the Reno-Sparks urban area. In the Carson River, arsenic and copper are highest in bed-sediment samples upstream of Carson City due to geothermal springs and acid-mine drainage from an abandoned sulfur mine; concentrations of manganese, mercury, silver, and zinc were highest in bed-sediment samples collected downstream of the Carson City urban area due to historic gold and silver mining, and urban runoff. The highest mercury concentration in crayfish tissue, 48 {micro}g/g dry weight, was measured in a sample from the lower Carson River. In Las Vegas Wash, bed-sediment concentrations were lower than those in the Truckee and Carson Rivers; but, trace-element concentrations in crayfish tissue tended to be higher than those in bed sediment. Samples collected during this study show that trace elements are enriched in the bed sediments of all three rivers and are bioavailable. Trace-element concentrations among samples of crayfish, asiatic clam, and caddis-fly larvae showed little similarity.

  15. Changes in macroinvertebrate community structure provide evidence of neutral mine drainage impacts. (United States)

    Byrne, P; Reid, I; Wood, P J


    Contamination of aquatic environments as a consequence of metal mining is an international issue. Most historic studies have considered the impact of acid mine drainage (pH pH impacts of historic mining activities on the benthic macroinvertebrate community of a circum-neutral river in Central Wales are assessed. Biotic and diversity indices, widely used for biomonitoring purposes, indicate aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages within the Afon Twymyn to be in a good condition, despite severe metal contamination of bed sediments and river water. However, Canonical Correspondence Analysis identifies differences in community structure between mining impacted and unimpacted reaches of the river associated with chalcophile (Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd) and common (Fe and Mn) metals. Stream pH was not a significant factor structuring the macroinvertebrate community. Widely utilised macroinvertebrate indices failed to identify impacts at the community level because they either seek to identify impacts of a specific contaminant or are dependent on a model community response to a given stress. The nature of metal mine discharges is temporally complex, having highly variable chemical signatures and as a result, care is advised when interpreting and modelling community impacts. The use of standard macroinvertebrate biotic and diversity indices in the context of the EU Water Framework Directive could lead to erroneous classifications of aquatic ecosystem health when used for bio-monitoring rivers affected by neutral mine drainage where other indicators are unavailable.

  16. Glaucoma Drainage Device Erosion Following Ptosis Surgery. (United States)

    Bae, Steven S; Campbell, Robert J


    To highlight the potential risk of glaucoma drainage device erosion following ptosis surgery. Case report. A 71-year-old man underwent uncomplicated superotemporal Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in the left eye in 2008. Approximately 8 years later, the patient underwent bilateral ptosis repair, which successfully raised the upper eyelid position. Three months postoperatively, the patient's glaucoma drainage implant tube eroded through the corneal graft tissue and overlying conjunctiva to become exposed. A graft revision surgery was successfully performed with no further complications. Caution and conservative lid elevation may be warranted when performing ptosis repair in patients with a glaucoma drainage implant, and patients with a glaucoma implant undergoing ptosis surgery should be followed closely for signs of tube erosion.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Altogether 327 valleys and their 314 cross-sectional profiles were analyzed on Mars, including width, depth, length, eroded volume, drainage and spatial density, as well as the network structure.According to this systematic analysis, five possible drainage network types were identified such as (a small valleys, (b integrated small valleys, (c individual, medium-sized valleys, (d unconfined,anastomosing outflow valleys, and (e confined outflow valleys. Measuring their various morphometric parameters, these five networks differ from each other in terms of parameters of the eroded volume, drainage density and depth values. This classification is more detailed than those described in the literature previously and correlated to several numerical parameters for the first time.These different types were probably formed during different periods of the evolution of Mars, and sprung from differently localized water sources, and they could be correlated to similar fluvialnetwork types from the Earth.

  18. Radiological management of abdominal surgical drainages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miotto, D.; Viglione, C.; Chiesura Corona, M.


    The authors consider their early results in radiological drainage management of abscesses and fistulas complicating abdominal surgery by integrated use of angiographic materials and interventional methods. Twenty-five patients, affected by isolated (32%) or communicating (68%) abscesses, were treated. Cavity obliteration and clinical recovery were obtained in 18 patients (72%), partial success in 1 (4%); a patient was treated unsuccessfully. Five patients were not evaluated because they died or underwent surgery again. Average drainage intervall was 54 days. Drainage management was carried out by replacement of surgical catheters and fibrin occlusion. Fibrin occlusion was performed in 7 patients with the following results: 3 successes, one partial success and one failure. Two cases were not evaluated. Although a comparison with a control group was not performed, the authors consider the procedure a safe, economic and simple method for abdominal abscess management

  19. Percutaneous epidural drainage through a burr hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila M Falsarella


    Full Text Available Intracranial extradural collection may cause an increase in intracranial pressure, requiring rapid emergency treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality. We described an alternative CT-guided percutaneous access for extradural collection drainage. We report a case of a patient with previous craniectomy for meningioma ressection who presented to the Emergency Department with symptoms of intracranial hypertension. Brains CT showed a extradural collection with subfalcine herniation. After multidisciplinary discussion a CT-guided percutaneous drainage through previous burr hole was performed. The patient was discharged after 36 hours of admission, without further symptoms. We describe a safe and effective alternative percutaneous access for extradural collection drainage in patients with previous burr hole.

  20. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Biliary Drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artifon, Everson L.A.; Ferreira, Fla'vio C.; Sakai, Paulo


    To demonstrate a comprehensive review of published articles regarding endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage. Review of studies regarding EUS-guided biliary drainage including case reports, case series and previous reviews. EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy, coledochoduodenostomy and choledoantrostomy are advanced biliary and pancreatic endoscopy procedures, and together make up the echo-guided biliary drainage. Hepaticogastrostomy is indicated in cases of hilar obstruction, while the procedure of choice is the coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy in distal lesions. Both procedures must be performed only after unsuccessful ERCPs. The indication of these procedures must be made under a multidisciplinary view while sharing information with the patient or legal guardian. Hepaticogastrostomy and coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy are feasible when performed by endoscopists with expertise in biliopancreatic endoscopy. Advanced echo-endoscopy should currently be performed under a rigorous protocol in educational institutions.

  1. Paleodrainage of the Columbia River system on the Columbia Plateau of Washington State: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.; Reidel, S.P.; Tallman, A.M.


    The evolution of the Columbia River drainage system on the Columbia Plateau of Washington in the last 17 My reflects the geologic history of the plateau. We have updated an interpretation of the evolution of the Columbia River system and defined the geomorphic and structural features that have controlled the position of ancestral streams. The sequence of geologic events and the resulting drainage system for various time intervals in the last 17 My are summarized below. 121 refs., 14 figs

  2. Ohtlik lend / Iain Carson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Carson, Iain


    Majanduslikesse raskustesse sattunud Euroopa tsiviillennukite tootjat Airbus, mis kuulub Prantsuse-Saksa-Hispaania emafirmale European Aeronautic Defence and Space (EADS), ootab ees natsionaliseerimine kolme riigi poolt

  3. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.


    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  4. Drainage - Structure Correlation in tectonically active Regions: Case studies in the Bolivian and Colombian Andes (United States)

    Zeilinger, Gerold; Parra, Mauricio; Kober, Florian


    frontal thin-skinned Neogene and Paleogene domain (FR) and the more interior lower Cretaceous an Upper Paleozoic thick-skinned region (IR). The trend of higher order channels is, as expected, parallel to the structures in the interior parts and perpendicular in the frontal part. However, the trend of lower order channels reveal no directional correlation to the structural trend in the interior, but a significant correlation to the structures in the frontal range that suffered relatively to the interior domains younger deformation phases. We therefore postulate a dependency of the directional evolution of drainage patterns on the relative timing of tectonic activity. The only weakly preferred orientation of drainages in the interior parts (EC and IR) suggests a balance between structural control and drainage occupation, and higher maturity of the landscape. In contrast, the distinct pattern of drainages oblique to the structural grain in the frontal ranges (SA and FR) highlights the alignment of tributaries and suggests an ongoing tectonic control on drainage orientation. We test the hypothesis whether the correlation between the direction of small order rivers and the direction of structures can be used as a proxy for relative tectonic activity, which might be relevant in questions on 1) dominance of tectonics over climate, 2) dynamics of deformation propagation in fault-and-thrust-belts and 3) occurrence of higher erosion rates despite "limited" relief or threshold slopes. Ongoing efforts will investigate the possibility to quantify or compare relative tectonic activity across sites.

  5. Comparison of Natural Drainage Group and Negative Drainage Groups after Total Thyroidectomy: Prospective Randomized Controlled Study (United States)

    Woo, Seung Hoon; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Park, Jung Je; Shim, Hyun Seok; Lee, Sang Ha; Lee, Ho Joong; Won, Seong Jun; Son, Hee Young; Kim, Rock Bum


    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare a negative pressure drain with a natural drain in order to determine whether a negative pressure drainage tube causes an increase in the drainage volume. Materials and Methods Sixty-two patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) were enrolled in the study between March 2010 and August 2010 at Gyeongsang National University Hospital. The patients were prospectively and randomly assigned to two groups, a negative pressure drainage group (n=32) and natural drainage group (n=30). Every 3 hours, the volume of drainage was checked in the two groups until the tube was removed. Results The amount of drainage during the first 24 hours postoperatively was 41.68±3.93 mL in the negative drain group and 25.3±2.68 mL in the natural drain group (pdrainage at postoperative day 3 was not statistically different between the two groups. In addition, the vocal cord palsy and temporary and permanent hypocalcemia were not different between the two groups. Conclusion These results indicate that a negative pressure drain may increase the amount of drainage during the first 24-48 hours postoperatively. Therefore, it is not necessary to place a closed suction drain when only a total thyroidectomy is done. PMID:23225820

  6. A look at the links between drainage density and flood statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Montanari


    Full Text Available We investigate the links between the drainage density of a river basin and selected flood statistics, namely, mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and coefficient of skewness of annual maximum series of peak flows. The investigation is carried out through a three-stage analysis. First, a numerical simulation is performed by using a spatially distributed hydrological model in order to highlight how flood statistics change with varying drainage density. Second, a conceptual hydrological model is used in order to analytically derive the dependence of flood statistics on drainage density. Third, real world data from 44 watersheds located in northern Italy were analysed. The three-level analysis seems to suggest that a critical value of the drainage density exists for which a minimum is attained in both the coefficient of variation and the absolute value of the skewness coefficient. Such minima in the flood statistics correspond to a minimum of the flood quantile for a given exceedance probability (i.e., recurrence interval. Therefore, the results of this study may provide useful indications for flood risk assessment in ungauged basins.

  7. Drainage network extraction from a high-resolution DEM using parallel programming in the .NET Framework (United States)

    Du, Chao; Ye, Aizhong; Gan, Yanjun; You, Jinjun; Duan, Qinyun; Ma, Feng; Hou, Jingwen


    High-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) can be used to extract high-accuracy prerequisite drainage networks. A higher resolution represents a larger number of grids. With an increase in the number of grids, the flow direction determination will require substantial computer resources and computing time. Parallel computing is a feasible method with which to resolve this problem. In this paper, we proposed a parallel programming method within the .NET Framework with a C# Compiler in a Windows environment. The basin is divided into sub-basins, and subsequently the different sub-basins operate on multiple threads concurrently to calculate flow directions. The method was applied to calculate the flow direction of the Yellow River basin from 3 arc-second resolution SRTM DEM. Drainage networks were extracted and compared with HydroSHEDS river network to assess their accuracy. The results demonstrate that this method can calculate the flow direction from high-resolution DEMs efficiently and extract high-precision continuous drainage networks.

  8. Curonian Lagoon drainage basin modelling and assessment of climate change impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja Čerkasova


    Full Text Available The Curonian Lagoon, which is the largest European coastal lagoon with a surface area of 1578 km2 and a drainage area of 100,458 km2, is facing a severe eutrophication problem. With its increasing water management difficulties, the need for a sophisticated hydrological model of the Curonian Lagoon's drainage area arose, in order to assess possible changes resulting from local and global processes. In this study, we developed and calibrated a sophisticated hydrological model with the required accuracy, as an initial step for the future development of a modelling framework that aims to correctly predict the movement of pesticides, sediments or nutrients, and to evaluate water-management practices. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to implement a model of the study area and to assess the impact of climate-change scenarios on the run-off of the Nemunas River and the Minija River, which are located in the Curonian Lagoons drainage basin. The models calibration and validation were performed using monthly streamflow data, and evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2 and the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE. The calculated values of the R2 and NSE for the Nemunas and Minija Rivers stations were 0.81 and 0.79 for the calibration, and 0.679 and 0.602 for the validation period. Two potential climate-change scenarios were developed within the general patterns of near-term climate projections, as defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report: both pessimistic (substantial changes in precipitation and temperature and optimistic (insubstantial changes in precipitation and temperature. Both simulations produce similar general patterns in river-discharge change: a strong increase (up to 22% in the winter months, especially in February, a decrease during the spring (up to 10% and summer (up to 18%, and a slight increase during the autumn (up to 10%.

  9. Agricultural pesticides in six drainage basins used for public water supply in New Jersey, 1990 (United States)

    Ivahnenko, Tamara; Buxton, D.E.


    A reconnaissance study of six drainage basins in New Jersey was conducted to evaluate the presence of pesticides from agricultural runoff in surface water. In the first phase of the study, surface-water public-supply drainage basins throughout New Jersey that could be affected by pesticide applications were identified by use of a Geographic Information System. Six basins--Lower Mine Hill Reservoir, South Branch of the Raritan River, Main Branch of the Raritan River, Millstone River, Manasquan River, and Matchaponix Brook--were selected as those most likely to be affected by pesticides on the basis of calculated pesticide-application rates and percentage of agricultural land. The second phase of the project was a short-term water-quality reconnaissance of the six drainage basins to determine whether pesticides were present in the surface waters. Twenty-eight surface-water samples (22 water-quality samples, 3 sequentially collected samples, and 3 trip blanks), and 6 samples from water-treatment facilities were collected. Excluding trip blanks, samples from water-treatment facilities, and sequentially collected samples, the pesticides detected in the samples and the percentage of samples in which they were detected, were as follows: atrazine and metolachlor, 86 percent; alachlor, 55 percent; simazine, 45 percent; diazinon, 27 percent; cyanazine and carbaryl, 23 percent; linuron and isophenfos, 9 percent; and chlorpyrifos, 5 percent.Diazinon, detected in one stormflow sample collected from Matchaponix Brook on August 6, 1990, was the only compound to exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended Lifetime Health Advisory Limit. Correlation between ranked metolachlor concentrations and ranked flow rates was high, and 25 percent of the variance in metolachlor concentrations can be attributed to variations in flow rate. Pesticide residues were detected in samples of pretreated and treated water from water-treatment facilities. Concentrations of all

  10. Fractal Dimension of Structurally Controlled River Networks of Pinar del Río, Cuba


    Robert Ramírez-Hernández; Alina Rodríguez-Infante; Alexis Ordaz-Hernández


    River networks were studied applying the fractal systems approach and based on morphometric parameters. Procedures are applied to Cangre, Los Pozos, Paso Viejo, San Diego, Los Palacios, Santa Cruz and San Cristóbal river basins (Pinar del Río, Cuba). Drainage areas were extracted taking into account isolevel lines configurations and river lengths. For every stream the Euclidian length was also estimated, to calculate the river network fractal dimension. It seems that Takayasu approach is the ...

  11. Drainage: 'prevention is better than cure'. (United States)

    Reilly, Nick


    Excellent standards of cleanliness are more important for healthcare facilities than in virtually every other type of building, and well-managed drainage systems play a crucial part in this. business and commercial, utilities, public sector, and facilities management clients. Nick Reilly, director at UKDN Waterflow, discusses best practice in this area for healthcare estates managers.

  12. Preoperative biliary drainage for pancreatic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heek, N. T.; Busch, O. R.; van Gulik, T. M.; Gouma, D. J.


    This review is to summarize the current knowledge about preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with biliary obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer. Most patients with pancreatic carcinoma (85%) will present with obstructive jaundice. The presence of toxic substances as bilirubin and bile

  13. Preoperative biliary drainage for pancreatic cancer. (United States)

    Van Heek, N T; Busch, O R; Van Gulik, T M; Gouma, D J


    This review is to summarize the current knowledge about preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with biliary obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer. Most patients with pancreatic carcinoma (85%) will present with obstructive jaundice. The presence of toxic substances as bilirubin and bile salts, impaired liver function and altered nutritional status due to obstructive jaundice have been characterized as factors for development of complications after surgery. Whereas PBD was to yield beneficial effects in the experimental setting, conflicting results have been observed in clinical studies. The meta-analysis from relative older studies as well as more importantly a recent clinical trial showed that PBD should not be performed routinely. PBD for patients with a distal biliary obstruction is leading to more serious complications compared with early surgery. Arguments for PBD have shifted from a potential therapeutic benefit towards a logistic problem such as patients suffering from cholangitis and severe jaundice at admission or patients who need extra diagnostic tests, or delay in surgery due to a referral pattern or waiting list for surgery as well as candidates for neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy. If drainage is indicated in these patients it should be performed with a metal stent to reduce complications after the drainage procedure such as stent occlusion and cholangitis. Considering a change towards more neoadjuvant therapy regimes improvement of the quality of the biliary drainage concept is still important.

  14. CT guidance of percutaneous hepatic abscess drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiahua; Zhang Jiaxing; Cao Chuanwu; Li Maoquan; Lu Fuming; Zheng Manhua


    Objective: To discuss the method and effectiveness of percutaneous drainage for hepatic abscess under CT guidance. Methods: 20 patients were enrolled into this retrospective research, including 13 males and 7 females with age form 18 to 84 yrs. The diagnosis were made by clinical examination, laboratory test and CT imaging. Hepatic abscess focus involved right lobe in 9 cases, left lobe of 6 cases, both lobes with 5 cases. All patients received percutaneous abscess drainage subsequently. Results: There were 14 cases with solitary abscess, in which 9 disappeared completely after single procedure of aspiration under CT guidance, 1 disappeared after twice aspirations. Multiple or multi-lobular abscesses were found in six cases, which were treated by aspirating the larger one first or by splitting multi-aspiration. In all cases, drainage catheters were placed and lavage was done with a mean time of 19.2 days together with intravenous antibiotics. There was no recurrence until the end-piont of research. Conclusions: Percutaneous CT-guided aspiration and drainage is an effective way in the treatment of hepatic abscess. (authors)

  15. Peritoneal drainage for newborn intestinal perforation: primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: intestinal perforation in newborn, necrotizing enterocolitis, primary peritoneal drainage. Department of Surgery, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University. HSC, El Paso, Texas, USA. Correspondence to Donald E. Meier, MD, Department of Surgery, Paul L. Foster. School of Medicine, Texas Tech ...

  16. CASE REPORT CAS Transcolonic pelvic abscess drainage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there are a number of reports of successful drainage of deep pelvic collections using transrectal, transvaginal, transgluteal and other routes,1,2 some collections remain difficult to access. An elderly female patient with renal failure presented with features of sepsis following a partial sigmoid colectomy for ...

  17. Urban drainage models - making uncertainty analysis simple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Deletic, Ana


    There is increasing awareness about uncertainties in modelling of urban drainage systems and, as such, many new methods for uncertainty analyses have been developed. Despite this, all available methods have limitations which restrict their widespread application among practitioners. Here, a modif...

  18. Selecting the drainage method for agricultural land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.G.


    To facilitate crop growth excess water should be drained from the rooting zone to allow root development of the crop and from the soil surface to facilitate access to the field. Basically, there are three drainage methods from which the designer can select being; surface drains, pumped tube wells

  19. Recovery of water from acid mine drainage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mulopo, J


    Full Text Available The reaction rate of sulphate removal from acid mine drainage using barium carbonate was studied for various pH, calcium concentration, and BaCO3/SO42 feed ratios in batch studies. Process synthesis concepts were used to investigate the interaction...

  20. The Heimlich Valve for Pleural Cavity Drainage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY | The ANNALS of ... valves allow for outpatient management of pleural drainage ... anesthesia. Where the procedure was not tolerable or the patient was too young to co-operate, additional sedation was used. Following insertion, all chest tubes.

  1. Determination of uranium and {sup 2}10Po in the river Odiel to assess the radioactive impact of acid mine drainage; Determinacion de uranio y {sup 2}10Po en el rio Odiel para valorar el impacto radiactivo de los drenajes acidos mineros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjon, G.; Lehritani, M.; Mantero, J.; Diaz Frances, I.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.


    Since 1986 this research group has been monitoring of radioactive environmental impact in the estuary of the river Odiel, generated by the factories of production of phosphoric acid from Huelva, that emitting NORM waste. Once closed factories, is observed a second source of contamination: mining drains. To verify this source have been studied concentration levels of natural radionuclides in the waters and sediments of the river Odiel, in areas that are incorporated drains. (Author)

  2. Drainage Characteristics of Tectonically Active Areas: An Example from Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The morphotectonic studies help in deciphering the role of tectonics and neotectonics in morphological evolution of drainage basins. On the basis of remote sensing technique, the relationship between morphology and tectonics have been investigated in Bundi-Indergarh sector of southeast Rajasthan. The area selected for present study is drained by Mej river and its tributaries and occupies the southeastern part of the Aravalli Mountain Range (AMR. The course of Mej river is mostly controlled by the Great Boundary Thrust (GBT and associated tectonic elements. GBT separates the folded, faulted and metamorphosed older rocks of the AMR in the west and relatively undeformed Vindhyan rocks in the east. This study has been carried out using digital and hard copy product of IRS 1C/1D LISS III geocoded FCC data. The morphometric and morphotectonic aspects have been studied for identification of present day tectonic activities in the area. The remote sensing data interpretation indicates that the landforms of the area are structurally controlled and mainly covered by linear and parallel strike ridges and valleys. These valleys indicate sign of stream rejuvenation and occasional presence of dynamic ravines. General morphometric parameters, bifurcation ratio, stream length and shape parameters have been computed. Longitudinal river profiles can be quantified by normalizing the elevation and the distance along rivers. Several parameters such as profile shape (concavity, gradient fluctuations, river grade and valley incision have been derived from longitudinal river profile. These quantified parameters and their interrelations are useful in comparing different drainage basins and also help drawing inferences on neotectonism. The computed values suggest that the area is covered by resistant rock and drainage network, affected by tectonic distur-bance. The valley floor ratio is very low, indicating channel down cutting vis-a-vis ground uplift. The gradient index

  3. A test for the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two different hatcheries (Study site: Warm Springs Hatchery; Stocks: Warm Springs Hatchery and Carson Hatchery; Year class: 1993): Chapter 10 (United States)

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.


    An experiment was undertaken to determine the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared in a common environment, as a companion study to our investigation of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon. Pure-strain and reciprocal crosses were made between two hatchery stocks (Carson and Warm Springs National Fish Hatcheries). The offspring were reared together in one of the hatcheries to the smolt stage, and then were transferred to a seawater rearing facility (USGS-Marrowstone Field Station). Differences in survival, growth and disease prevalence were assessed. Fish with Carson parentage grew to greater size at the hatchery and in seawater than the pure-strain Warm Springs fish, but showed higher mortality at introduction to seawater. The analyses of maternal and stock effects were inconclusive, but the theoretical responses to different combinations of maternal and stock effects may be useful in interpreting stock comparison studies.

  4. Exploring Agricultural Drainage's Influence on Wetland and Watershed Connectivity (United States)

    Artificial agricultural drainage (i.e. surface ditches or subsurface tile) is an important agricultural management tool. Artificial drainage allows for timely fieldwork and adequate root aeration, resulting in greater crop yields for farmers. This practice is widespread throughou...

  5. Land drainage and restoration of land after NCB opencast mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg, N.

    The author outlines the MAFF Field Drainage Research Unit's research into drainage of reinstated land. Current investigations have aimed at identifying the problems of reinstated soil and how they affect drainage design. Experiments on efficiency of permeable field drains and non-permeable field drains are mentioned. Further work is needed to examine long-term effects of storage on soil structure and whether existing drainage can be revitalised by secondary treatment.

  6. A Comparison of Preoperative Biliary Drainage Methods for Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Endoscopic versus Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage. (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Min; Park, Ji Won; Lee, Jong Kyun; Lee, Kwang Hyuck; Lee, Kyu Taek; Shim, Sang Goon


    Controversy remains over the optimal approach to preoperative biliary drainage in patients with resectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. We compared the clinical outcomes of endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) with those of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) in patients undergoing preoperative biliary drainage for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. A total of 106 consecutive patients who underwent biliary drainage before surgical treatment were divided into two groups the PTBD group (n=62) and the EBD group (n=44). Successful drainage on the first attempt was achieved in 36 of 62 patients (58.1%) with PTBD, and in 25 of 44 patients (56.8%) with EBD. There were no significant differences in predrainage patient demographics and decompression periods between the two groups. Procedure-related complications, especially cholangitis and pancreatitis, were significantly more frequent in the EBD group than the PTBD group (PTBD vs EBD 22.6% vs 54.5%, p<0.001). Two patients (3.8%) in the PTBD group experienced catheter tract implantation metastasis after curative resection during the follow-up period. EBD was associated with a higher risk of procedure-related complications than PTBD. These complications were managed properly without severe morbidity; however, in the PTBD group, there were two cases of cancer dissemination along the catheter tract.

  7. The foam drainage equation for drainage dynamics in unsaturated porous media (United States)

    Lehmann, P.; Hoogland, F.; Assouline, S.; Or, D.


    Similarity in liquid-phase configuration and drainage dynamics of wet foam and gravity drainage from unsaturated porous media expands modeling capabilities for capillary flows and supplements the standard Richards equation representation. The governing equation for draining foam (or a soil variant termed the soil foam drainage equation—SFDE) obviates the need for macroscopic unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function by an explicit account of diminishing flow pathway sizes as the medium gradually drains. The study provides new and simple analytical expressions for drainage rates and volumes from unsaturated porous media subjected to different boundary conditions. Two novel analytical solutions for saturation profile evolution were derived and tested in good agreement with a numerical solution of the SFDE. The study and the proposed solutions rectify the original formulation of foam drainage dynamics of Or and Assouline (2013). The new framework broadens the scope of methods available for quantifying unsaturated flow in porous media, where the intrinsic conductivity and geometrical representation of capillary drainage could improve understanding of colloid and pathogen transport. The explicit geometrical interpretation of flow pathways underlying the hydraulic functions used by the Richards equation offers new insights that benefit both approaches.

  8. Genetics of Central Valley, O. mykiss, Populations: Drainage and Watershed-scale Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Nielsen


    Full Text Available Genetic variation at 11 microsatellite loci described population genetic structure for Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Central Valley, California. Spatial and temporal variation was examined as well as relationships between hatchery and putative natural spawning anadromous stocks. Genetic diversity was analyzed at two distinct spatial scales: fine-scale within drainage for five populations on Clear Creek; between and among drainage diversity for 23 populations. Significant regional spatial structure was apparent, both within Clear Creek and among rainbow trout populations throughout the Central Valley. Significant differences in allelic frequencies were found among most river or drainage systems. Less than 1% of the molecular variance could be attributed to differences found between drainages. Hatchery populations were shown to carry similar genetic diversity to geographically proximate wild populations. Central Valley M = 0.626 (below the M < 0.68 threshold supported recent population reductions within the Central Valley. However, average estimated effective population size was relatively high (Ne = 5066. Significant allelic differences were found in rainbow trout collected above and below impassable dams on the American, Yuba, Stanislaus and Tuolumne rivers. Rainbow trout sampled in Spring Creek were extremely bottlenecked with allelic variation at only two loci and an estimated effective population size of 62, suggesting some local freshwater O. mykiss stocks may be declining rapidly. These data support significant genetic population structure for steelhead and rainbow trout populations within the Central Valley across multiple scales. Careful consideration of this genetic diversity and its distribution across the landscape should be part of future conservation and restoration efforts.

  9. River Mileages and Drainage Areas for Illinois Streams. Volume 1. Illinois Except Illinois River Basin. (United States)


    NEAR NEOGA 57.0 391959 0882856 MATTOON ?24.3 SHELHY-CUMBERLANO CO LN MATTOON 225.5 RRUkH CREEK L MATTOON 226.2 USGS GAGE 03378616 BLW CLEAR CR NR...03344000 NEAR DIONA 919 392040 0881015 TOLEDO 106.5 CUM8ERLAND-COLES CO LN TOLEDO 107.4 ROAD S23,TIINoRO9E TOLEDO 107.4 USGS GAGE 03343975 BLW FARMINGTON...FARMINGTON 894 392521 0881035 TOLEDO 115.3 USGS GAGE 03343900 BLW CHARLESTON 892 392606 0880956 TOLEDO 115.5 KICKAPO0 CREEK R TOLEDO 118.5 ROAD 525.T12N9R

  10. Geochemistry of acid mine drainage from a coal mining area and processes controlling metal attenuation in stream waters, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Acid drainage influence on the water and sediment quality was investigated in a coal mining area (southern Brazil. Mine drainage showed pH between 3.2 and 4.6 and elevated concentrations of sulfate, As and metals, of which, Fe, Mn and Zn exceeded the limits for the emission of effluents stated in the Brazilian legislation. Arsenic also exceeded the limit, but only slightly. Groundwater monitoring wells from active mines and tailings piles showed pH interval and chemical concentrations similar to those of mine drainage. However, the river and ground water samples of municipal public water supplies revealed a pH range from 7.2 to 7.5 and low chemical concentrations, although Cd concentration slightly exceeded the limit adopted by Brazilian legislation for groundwater. In general, surface waters showed large pH range (6 to 10.8, and changes caused by acid drainage in the chemical composition of these waters were not very significant. Locally, acid drainage seemed to have dissolved carbonate rocks present in the local stratigraphic sequence, attenuating the dispersion of metals and As. Stream sediments presented anomalies of these elements, which were strongly dependent on the proximity of tailings piles and abandoned mines. We found that precipitation processes in sediments and the dilution of dissolved phases were responsible for the attenuation of the concentrations of the metals and As in the acid drainage and river water mixing zone. In general, a larger influence of mining activities on the chemical composition of the surface waters and sediments was observed when enrichment factors in relation to regional background levels were used.

  11. Quantitative analysis and implications of drainage morphometry of the Agula watershed in the semi-arid northern Ethiopia (United States)

    Fenta, Ayele Almaw; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuyuki; Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Woldearegay, Kifle


    This study aimed at quantitative analysis of morphometric parameters of Agula watershed and its sub-watersheds using remote sensing data, geographic information system, and statistical methods. Morphometric parameters were evaluated from four perspectives: drainage network, watershed geometry, drainage texture, and relief characteristics. A sixth-order river drains Agula watershed and the drainage network is mainly dendritic type. The mean bifurcation ratio ( R b) was 4.46 and at sub-watershed scale, high R b values ( R b > 5) were observed which might be expected in regions of steeply sloping terrain. The longest flow path of Agula watershed is 48.5 km, with knickpoints along the main river which could be attributed to change of lithology and major faults which are common along the rift escarpments. The watershed has elongated shape suggesting low peak flows for longer duration and hence easier flood management. The drainage texture analysis revealed fine drainage which implies the dominance of impermeable soft rock with low resistance against erosion. High relief and steep slopes dominates, by which rough landforms (hills, breaks, and low mountains) make up 76% of the watershed. The S-shaped hypsometric curve with hypsometric integral of 0.4 suggests that Agula watershed is in equilibrium or mature stage of geomorphic evolution. At sub-watershed scale, the derived morphometric parameters were grouped into three clusters (low, moderate, and high) and considerable spatial variability was observed. The results of this study provide information on drainage morphometry that can help better understand the watershed characteristics and serve as a basis for improved planning, management, and decision making to ensure sustainable use of watershed resources.

  12. Estimating the benefits of improved drainage on pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drainage quality is an important parameter which affects the performance of highway pavements. In India, since last few years considerable importance has been given to the drainage as per of pavement. A poor quality of drainage results in premature deterioration of the pavement structure and necessitating large ...

  13. Role of Lithology and Rock Structure in Drainage Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lithology and Rock structure play a vital role in the development of Drainage Network in any drainage basin. The drainage patterns upon land surface develop as directed by the underlying lithology and rock structure. In fact, lithology and rock structure together shape the basin and are decisive parameters of nature and ...


    Acidic, metal-contaminated drainages are a critical problem facing many areas of the world. Acid rock drainage results when metal sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite, are oxidized by exposure to oxygen and water. The deleterious effects of these drainages on receiving streams a...

  15. Drainage of Splenic Abscess: A Case Report | Kombo | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and was managed by tube drainage. His post operative recovery was uneventful. Conclusion: Tube drainage of the splenic abscess is encouraged if there is easy access to the abscess and there is evidence of residual splenic tissue in the critically ill patient. Key Word: Tube drainage, splenic abscess, splenectomy.

  16. Landslide-driven drainage divide migration and quantifying progress toward topographic steady state (United States)

    Dahlquist, M. P.; West, A. J.; Li, G.


    Drainage divide migration is a critical process in landscape evolution. It reorganizes river basins, redistributing fluvial erosive energy to facilitate mass balance, and contributes to feedbacks between tectonics, erosion, and climate. However, it leaves little straightforward evidence in the geologic or geomorphic record, and has been subject to minimal field study, hampering understanding its role in landscape evolution. Landslides link river channels, hillslopes, and ridges in steep landscapes, and thus play a central role in divide migration. In this study, we examine landslides triggered by three events: the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in central China, the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake in Nepal, and the 2009 Typhoon Morakot in southern Taiwan, seeking new insight into the controls on divide migration. Of the 100,000 landslides triggered, we mapped 367 which caused a divide to migrate, resulting in a total exchange of about 2 km2 between basins. We use this database of divide migrations to explore relationships between the geometry of rivers and the exchange of drainage area, comparing metrics which have been proposed as indicators of divide stability across mobile divides. We find that upstream-averaged local relief and upstream-averaged channel gradient predict the We propose a new metric to describe divide mobility and the overall influence of a reorganizing event on a landscape, using it to estimate the impact of events similar to the 2009 Typhoon Morakot on the progress of Taiwan's Central Range toward topographic steady state.



    V. Kiran; Dr. Bhimasen .S; E. Mastanaiah; A. Thiruppathi


    Background: Patients with COPD will have more amount of secretions. To clear the secretions by using of different bronchial hygiene techniques like postural drainage and autogenic drainage technique, manual hyperventilation technique ,active cycle breathing technique .Hence in this study to compare the short-term effects of postural drainage with clapping (PD) and autogenic drainage (AD) on level of oxygen saturation in blood, and amount of sputum recovery. Methodology: The study was done ...

  18. [CAT-guided percutaneous drainage of abscesses]. (United States)

    Aguilera Manrique, F; Fernández Miranda, E; García Cáceres, E; Franciso Moriana Maldonado, J; Granero Molina, J; Aguilera Manrique, G


    Drainage of percutaneous abscesses guided by Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) is a technique being employed more frequently all the time by Radiodiagnostic Services. Correctly put into practice by trained professionals, this procedure can prevent patients having to undergo another series of treatments which bear greater risks, to have a longer hospital stay, or even, depending on the case, to have to undergo an operation. Nurses in a radiological unit have an overwhelming role in every step of a percutaneous abscess drainage, a role which can not be carried out by any other personnel. To achieve being up to date in this technique and to perform our function as nurses in the use of this technique are the main objectives of this review.

  19. Percutaneous drainage of 100 subphrenic abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casola, G.; Sonnenberg, E. van; D'Agostino, H.; Kothari, R.; May, S.; Taggart, S.


    PURPOSE: Percutaneous drainage of subphrenic abscesses is technically more difficult because lung and pleura may be transgressed during catheter insertion. The purpose of this paper is to determine the incidence of thoracic complications secondary to subphrenic abscess drainage and to determine factors that may alter this. The authors' series consists of 100 subphrenic abscesses that were drained percutaneously. Patients range in age from 14 to 75 years. Abscesses were secondary to surgery (splenectomy, pancreatectomy, partial hepatectomy, gastrectomy), pancreatitis, and trauma. Catheters ranged in size from 8 to 14 F and were inserted via trocar or Seldinger technique. Thoracic complications of pneumothorax or empyema were determined from follow-up chest radiographs or CT scans


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. Stanga


    Full Text Available This article covers a monographic presentation of the soils from the Tutova drainage basin. The analysis of the pedogeographic assemblage was performed based on the soil surveys of the territories corresponding to Tutova’s drainage basin, and completed with field research. The taxonomic classification was done in accordance with the Romanian System of Soil Taxonomy (2003 and the soil map was created at a 1:25.000 scale. The zonal soils dominate the region; the Chernisols are on the first rank with a share of 39.95%, followed by Luvisols with a percent of 27.62%. Among the soils with an azonal and intrazonal character, the entic soils are dominant (21.90%, followed by Anthrosols (8.89% and by Hydrisols (1.64%.

  1. Range of drainage effect of surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozanski, J.


    This paper discusses methods of calculating the range of effects of water drainage from surface coal mines and other surface mines. It is suggested that methods based on test pumping (water drainage) are time consuming, and the results can be distorted by atmospheric factors such as rain fall or dry period. So-called empirical formulae produce results which are often incorrect. The size of a cone shaped depression calculated on the basis of empirical formulae can be ten times smaller than the size of the real depression. It is suggested that using a formula based on the Dupuit formula is superior to other methods of depression calculation. According to the derived formulae the radius of the depresion cone is a function of parameters of the water bearing horizons, size of surface mine working and of water depression. The proposed formula also takes into account the influence of atmospheric factors (water influx caused by precipitation, etc.). (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  2. Preliminary results of ecotoxicological assessment of an Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) passive treatment system testing water quality of depurated lixiviates


    Miguel Sarmiento, Aguasanta; Bonnail, Estefanía; Nieto Liñán, José Miguel; Valls Casillas, Tomás Ángel del


    The current work reports on the preliminary results of a toxicity test using screening experiments to check the efficiency of an innovative passive treatment plant designed for acid mine drainage purification. Bioassays took place with water samples before and after the treatment system and in the river, once treated water is discharged. Due to the high toxicity of the water collected at the mouth of the mine (before the treatment plant), the bioassay was designed and developed with respect t...

  3. Proceedings of the international land reclamation and mine drainage conference and third international conference on the abatement of acidic drainage. Volume 2: Mine drainage -- SP 06B-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Volume 2 of these proceedings is divided into six sessions: Mine drainage--Case studies (5 papers); Control of mine drainage--General (6); Control of mine drainage--Dry covers (6); Mine hydrology (6); a Poster session of miscellaneous papers (24); and a section of 59 abstracts. 78 papers dealing with or applicable to coal or uranium mining have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  4. Factors influencing pleural drainage in parapneumonic effusions. (United States)

    Porcel, J M; Valencia, H; Bielsa, S


    The identification of parapneumonic effusions (PPE) requiring pleural drainage is challenging. We aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of radiological and pleural fluid findings in discriminating between PPE that need drainage (complicated PPE (CPPE)) and those that could be resolved with antibiotics only (uncomplicated PPE (UPPE)). A retrospective review of 641 consecutive PPE, of which 393 were categorized as CPPE and 248 as UPPE. Demographics, radiological (size and laterality on a chest radiograph) and pleural fluid parameters (pus, bacterial cultures, biochemistries) were compared among groups. Logistic regression was performed to determine variables useful for predicting chest drainage, and receiver-operating characteristic curves assisted in the selection of the best cutoff values. According to the likelihood ratios (LR), findings increasing the probability of chest tube usage the most were: effusions occupying ≥1/2 of the hemithorax (LR 13.5), pleural fluid pH ≤7.15 (LR 6.2), pleural fluid glucose ≤40mg/dL (LR 5.6), pus (LR 4.8), positive pleural fluid cultures (LR 3.6), and pleural fluid lactate dehydrogenase >2000U/L (LR 3.4). In the logistic regression analysis only the first two were selected as significant predictors of CPPE. In non-purulent effusions, the effusion's size and pleural fluid pH retained their discriminatory properties, in addition to a pleural fluid C-reactive protein (CRP) level >100mg/L. Large radiological effusions and a pleural fluid pH ≤7.15 were the best predictors for chest drainage in patients with PPE. In the subgroup of patients with non-purulent effusions, pleural fluid CRP also contributed to CPPE identification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  5. Integrated urban drainage, status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul


    This paper summarises the status of urban storm drainage as an integrated professional discipline, including the management-policy interface, by which the goals of society are implemented. The paper assesses the development of the discipline since the INTERURBA conference in 1992 and includes asp......-stream concrete solutions. The challenge is to combine the inherited approaches with the new approaches by flexibility and adaptability....

  6. Drainage Analysis of the South American Landscape and its Tectonic Implications (United States)

    Rodríguez Tribaldos, Verónica; White, Nicholas J.; Roberts, Gareth G.


    The majority of studies aimed at investigating topographic growth and landscape evolution have limited spatial coverage. Frequently, spot measurements of uplift and denudation are only available, which hampers spatial resolution of the growth of regional topographic features. This limitation can be overcome by quantitatively analysing substantial, continent-wide, drainage networks. The shapes of long wavelength longitudinal river profiles appear to be mainly controlled by regional uplift and moderated by erosional processes, both of which can vary as a function of space and time. By parametrizing erosional histories, it is feasible to develop inverse models that permit spatial and temporal patterns of regional uplift to be reliably retrieved. Here, a drainage inventory for South America consisting of 1827 rivers has been inverted. River profiles were extracted from the SRTM topographic dataset and modelled using a simplified version of the stream-power law, in which erosional processes are described using a linear advective formulation. The inverse problem is then solved by seeking smooth uplift rate histories that minimize the misfit between observed and calculated river profiles using a linearized, damped, non-negative, least squares algorithm. Calibration of erosional processes is achieved by inverting the complete drainage inventory and seeking a calculated uplift history that best honours independent geological observations from the Borborema Province of northeast Brazil. This province experienced regional Cenozoic uplift. Calculated uplift rate histories for South America suggest that the bulk of its topography developed during Cenozoic times. The model suggests, for instance, that the Andean mountain chain mostly arose in late Eocene-Oligocene (i.e. 40-28 Ma) times with an increase in elevation during Miocene times (i.e. the last 20 Ma). Uplift of the Central Andean Altiplano from an elevation of ~ 1 km to its present-day height of ~ 4 km occurred within the

  7. Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus from the Tigris drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae). (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir


    Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus are described from the Sirvan River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. Oxynoemacheilus gyndes, new species, is distinguished by having a very short lateral line, reaching behind the pectoral-fin base, no scales except on the posteriormost part of the caudal peduncle, a slightly emarginate caudal fin and no suborbital groove in males. Oxynoemacheilus hanae, new species, is distinguished by having a midlateral row of elongated blotches, isolated patches of dark-brown spots or blotches on lower flank, a deeply emarginate caudal fin and a suborbital groove in males.

  8. Is routine drainage necessary after pancreaticoduodenectomy? (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Yong-Jian; Li, Ji; Yang, Feng; Di, Yang; Yao, Lie; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang


    With the development of imaging technology and surgical techniques, pancreatic resections to treat pancreatic tumors, ampulla tumors, and other pancreatic diseases have increased. Pancreaticoduodenectomy, one type of pancreatic resection, is a complex surgery with the loss of pancreatic integrity and various anastomoses. Complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy such as pancreatic fistulas and anastomosis leakage are common and significantly associated with patient outcomes. Pancreatic fistula is one of the most important postoperative complications; this condition can cause intraperitoneal hemorrhage, septic shock, or even death. An effective way has not yet been found to avoid the occurrence of pancreatic fistula. In most medical centers, the frequency of pancreatic fistula has remained between 9% and 13%. The early detection and routine drainage of anastomotic fistulas, pancreatic fistulas, bleeding, or other intra-abdominal fluid collections after pancreatic resections are considered as important and effective ways to reduce postoperative complications and the mortality rate. However, many recent studies have argued that routine drainage after abdominal operations, including pancreaticoduodenectomies, does not affect the incidence of postoperative complications. Although inserting drains after pancreatic resections continues to be a routine procedure, its necessity remains controversial. This article reviews studies of the advantages and disadvantages of routine drainage after pancreaticoduodenectomy and discusses the necessity of this procedure. PMID:25009383

  9. Drainage and Stratification Kinetics of Foam Films (United States)

    Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek


    Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Foam lifetime, drainage kinetics and stability are strongly influenced by surfactant type (ionic vs non-ionic), and added proteins, particles or polymers modify typical responses. The rate at which fluid drains out from a foam film, i.e. drainage kinetics, is determined in the last stages primarily by molecular interactions and capillarity. Interestingly, for certain low molecular weight surfactants, colloids and polyelectrolyte-surfactant mixtures, a layered ordering of molecules, micelles or particles inside the foam films leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification. Though stratification is observed in many confined systems including foam films containing particles or polyelectrolytes, films containing globular proteins seem not to show this behavior. Using a Scheludko-type cell, we experimentally study the drainage and stratification kinetics of horizontal foam films formed by protein-surfactant mixtures, and carefully determine how the presence of proteins influences the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of foam films.

  10. Percutaneous abscess drainage in Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strotzer, M.; Manke, C.; Feuerbach, S.; Lock, G.; Bregenzer, N.; Schoelmerich, J.


    Purpose: To evaluate the success of percutaneous, CT-guided abscess drainage (PAD) in patients with Crohn's disease. Methods: Within the last 5 years 8 patients with Crohn's disease were treated by PAD for intra-abdominal abscesses. A fistula was determined to be the cause in 4 patients. The abscesses arose spontaneously in 7 patients while one patient had a postperative abscess. We used single lumen 10F- and double lumen 12F- and 14F-catheters for drainage (duration of drainage 8-20 days). Results: In all cases the abscess was successfully drained by PAD. However, an operation-free interval of at least three months was achieved in only two patients. A healing of the fistula was not attained in any of the 4 patients with a proven fistula. No enterocutaneous fistulas arose within the course of PAD. Conclusions: PAD is also useful for patients with Crohn's disease since it improves the starting situation for the necessary operative interventions. In most cases (especially with enterogenic fistulas), however, a long-lasting therapeutic result cannot be expected. (orig.) [de

  11. Modeling of subglacial hydrological development following rapid supraglacial lake drainage (United States)

    Dow, C F; Kulessa, B; Rutt, I C; Tsai, V C; Pimentel, S; Doyle, S H; van As, D; Lindbäck, K; Pettersson, R; Jones, G A; Hubbard, A


    The rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes injects substantial volumes of water to the bed of the Greenland ice sheet over short timescales. The effect of these water pulses on the development of basal hydrological systems is largely unknown. To address this, we develop a lake drainage model incorporating both (1) a subglacial radial flux element driven by elastic hydraulic jacking and (2) downstream drainage through a linked channelized and distributed system. Here we present the model and examine whether substantial, efficient subglacial channels can form during or following lake drainage events and their effect on the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system. We force the model with field data from a lake drainage site, 70 km from the terminus of Russell Glacier in West Greenland. The model outputs suggest that efficient subglacial channels do not readily form in the vicinity of the lake during rapid drainage and instead water is evacuated primarily by a transient turbulent sheet and the distributed system. Following lake drainage, channels grow but are not large enough to reduce the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system, unless preexisting channels are present throughout the domain. Our results have implications for the analysis of subglacial hydrological systems in regions where rapid lake drainage provides the primary mechanism for surface-to-bed connections. Key Points Model for subglacial hydrological analysis of rapid lake drainage events Limited subglacial channel growth during and following rapid lake drainage Persistence of distributed drainage in inland areas where channel growth is limited PMID:26640746

  12. Modeling of subglacial hydrological development following rapid supraglacial lake drainage. (United States)

    Dow, C F; Kulessa, B; Rutt, I C; Tsai, V C; Pimentel, S; Doyle, S H; van As, D; Lindbäck, K; Pettersson, R; Jones, G A; Hubbard, A


    The rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes injects substantial volumes of water to the bed of the Greenland ice sheet over short timescales. The effect of these water pulses on the development of basal hydrological systems is largely unknown. To address this, we develop a lake drainage model incorporating both (1) a subglacial radial flux element driven by elastic hydraulic jacking and (2) downstream drainage through a linked channelized and distributed system. Here we present the model and examine whether substantial, efficient subglacial channels can form during or following lake drainage events and their effect on the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system. We force the model with field data from a lake drainage site, 70 km from the terminus of Russell Glacier in West Greenland. The model outputs suggest that efficient subglacial channels do not readily form in the vicinity of the lake during rapid drainage and instead water is evacuated primarily by a transient turbulent sheet and the distributed system. Following lake drainage, channels grow but are not large enough to reduce the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system, unless preexisting channels are present throughout the domain. Our results have implications for the analysis of subglacial hydrological systems in regions where rapid lake drainage provides the primary mechanism for surface-to-bed connections. Model for subglacial hydrological analysis of rapid lake drainage eventsLimited subglacial channel growth during and following rapid lake drainagePersistence of distributed drainage in inland areas where channel growth is limited.

  13. Ultrasound-guided drainage of deep pelvic abscesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Torben; Nolsøe, Christian; Skjoldbye, Bjørn


    The aim of this study was to demonstrate and evaluate the ultrasound-guided drainage of deep pelvic abscesses in which transabdominal percutaneous access could not be performed because of overlying structures. A retrospective analysis of 32 consecutive patients with 33 deep pelvic abscesses...... (median diameter 7 cm), 19 were treated with catheter drainage and 18 of these cases resulted in favorable clinical outcomes. Of the smaller abscesses (median diameter 4 cm), 14 were treated with needle drainage. In two of these cases, follow-up US showed that a repeat puncture and drainage was necessary....... All needle drainages resulted in favorable clinical outcomes. Sixteen of the 29 transrectal or transvaginal drainage procedures were performed without any anesthesia (10 were performed with a needle and six were performed with a catheter). Apart from minor discomfort during the drainage procedure...

  14. Geochemistry of the Birch Creek Drainage Basin, Idaho (United States)

    Swanson, Shawn A.; Rosentreter, Jeffrey J.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Knobel, LeRoy L.


    The U.S. Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, are conducting studies to describe the chemical character of ground water that moves as underflow from drainage basins into the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer (ESRPA) system at and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the effects of these recharge waters on the geochemistry of the ESRPA system. Each of these recharge waters has a hydrochemical character related to geochemical processes, especially water-rock interactions, that occur during migration to the ESRPA. Results of these studies will benefit ongoing and planned geochemical modeling of the ESRPA at the INEEL by providing model input on the hydrochemical character of water from each drainage basin. During 2000, water samples were collected from five wells and one surface-water site in the Birch Creek drainage basin and analyzed for selected inorganic constituents, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, tritium, measurements of gross alpha and beta radioactivity, and stable isotopes. Four duplicate samples also were collected for quality assurance. Results, which include analyses of samples previously collected from four other sites, in the basin, show that most water from the Birch Creek drainage basin has a calcium-magnesium bicarbonate character. The Birch Creek Valley can be divided roughly into three hydrologic areas. In the northern part, ground water is forced to the surface by a basalt barrier and the sampling sites were either surface water or shallow wells. Water chemistry in this area was characterized by simple evaporation models, simple calcite-carbon dioxide models, or complex models involving carbonate and silicate minerals. The central part of the valley is filled by sedimentary material and the sampling sites were wells that are deeper than those in the northern part. Water chemistry in this area was characterized by simple calcite-dolomite-carbon dioxide

  15. Charles River (United States)

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  16. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figure 3). These rivers seem to have maintained ... the river cuts a deep can- yon with practically vertical walls (valley slopes). ... furiously at work, cutting channel beds, eroding slopes, and denuding watersheds. This ever-youthfulness of the.

  17. Pollution of Indus water and the drainage system of Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohaq, M.A.; Mahessar, A.A.; Bohio, I.A.


    Adequate supply of fresh and clean drinking water is basic need for all human beings on the earth yet it has been observed that millions of people worldwide are deprived of this essential facility. Freshwater resources all over the world are being threatened not only by over-exploitation and poor management but also by ecological degradation. The main sources of freshwater pollution can be attributed to discharge of untreated waste, dumping of industrial effluent, and run-off from agricultural fields. Industrial growth, urbanization and the increasing use of synthetic organic substances have serious and adverse impacts on fresh water bodies. Piles of garbage and fouling of air and water resources are one of the most common sights in Pakistan. These are, in fact, one of the consequences of the process of rapid urbanization, coupled with increased industrialization that country is witness. It goes doubt that environmental deterioration is a natural outcome of rapid population growth, increase in agricultural practices, industrialization, mechanization and mobilization of society. River Indus and drainage system of the Sindh province nowadays are facing severe problem of industrial pollution by the discharge of untreated effluent of different industries. In that context, several field surveys of sugar industries located in interior Sindh and pharmaceutical Company, Jamshoro, were carried out to asses the quality and quantity of pollution. (author)

  18. Acid drainage (AD) in nature and environmental impact of acid mine drainage (AMD) in Southern Tuscany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Lella, Luigi Antonello; Protano, Giuseppe; Riccobono, Francesco


    Acid drainage (AD) is a natural process occurring locally at the Earth's surface. It consists in a substantial increase of acidity of surface waters as a result of chemical reactions occurring in the atmosphere (i.e. acid rain) or involving reactive phases (i.e. pyrite) present in the percolated medium. Acidic surface waters (usually pH < 4) can be produced by oxidation of sulphides (mainly pyrite and other iron sulphides) exposed to atmospheric oxygen, while human activities, such as mining, can greatly enhance this process. Acid drainage promoted by mining activities is called acid mine drainage (AMD) and is a primary source of environmental pollution and a world-wide problem in both active and abandoned mining areas. In fact, exposure of iron sulphides to oxidising conditions produces strongly acidic drainage waters rich in sulphate and a variety of heavy elements (i.e. As, Cd, Pb, Sb). Several occurrences of active acid mine drainage have been found in the Metalliferous Hills (southern Tuscany). The most important AMD phenomena were observed in the Fenice Capanne and Niccioleta mining areas

  19. In-stream chemical neutralization: A whole watershed approach to mitigating acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britt, D.L.


    The North Branch of the Potomac River is adversely affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) throughout its entire length. As an alternative to mine-mouth treatment methods an in-stream AMD-neutralization demonstration program for an approximately 25-mile segment of the North Branch of the Potomac River was designed and implemented. This river segment was ranked as the highest priority site in Maryland for a demonstration project owing to its combination of very poor water quality and excellent potential for supporting a recreational sport fishery in the absence of toxic metal and acid loadings. A whole-watershed approach employing Scandinavian doser technologies and calcium carbonate neutralizing agents is the basis for the North Branch Potomac River demonstration project. The project involves four phases: feasibility (1), design (2), implementation (3), and monitoring (4). This watershed approach to mitigating AMD is expected to restore circumneutrial water quality and to promote desirable fishery resources throughout the mainstem and selected tributaries of the North Branch of the Potomac River Upstream of Jennings Randolph Dam. This paper summarizes Phases 1--3 of the demonstration project

  20. Community-based restoration of desert wetlands: the case of the Colorado River delta (United States)

    Osvel Hinojosa-Huerta; Mark Briggs; Yamilett Carrillo-Guerroro; Edward P. Glenn; Miriam Lara-Flores; Martha Roman-Rodriguez


    Wetland areas have been drastically reduced through the Pacific Flyway and the Sonoran Desert, with severe consequences for avian populations. In the Colorado River delta, wetlands have been reduced by 80 percent due to water management practices in the Colorado River basin. However, excess flows and agricultural drainage water has restored some areas, providing...

  1. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...

  2. Comparison between autologous blood transfusion drainage and closed-suction drainage/no drainage in total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Hong, Kun-Hao; Pan, Jian-Ke; Yang, Wei-Yi; Luo, Ming-Hui; Xu, Shu-Chai; Liu, Jun


    Autologous blood transfusion (ABT) drainage system is a new unwashed salvaged blood retransfusion system for total knee replacement (TKA). However, whether to use ABT drainage, closed-suction (CS) drainage or no drainage in TKA surgery remains controversial. This is the first meta-analysis to assess the clinical efficiency, safety and potential advantages regarding the use of ABT drains compared with closed-suction/no drainage. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were comprehensively searched in March 2015. Fifteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified and pooled for statistical analysis. The primary outcome evaluated was homologous blood transfusion rate. The secondary outcomes were post-operative haemoglobin on days 3-5, length of hospital stay and wound infections after TKA surgery. The pooled data included 1,721 patients and showed that patients in the ABT drainage group might benefit from lower blood transfusion rates (16.59 % and 37.47 %, OR: 0.28 [0.14, 0.55]; 13.05 % and 16.91 %, OR: 0.73 [0.47,1.13], respectively). Autologous blood transfusion drainage and closed-suction drainage/no drainage have similar clinical efficacy and safety with regard to post-operative haemoglobin on days 3-5, length of hospital stay and wound infections. Autologous blood transfusion drainage offers a safe and efficient alternative to CS/no drainage with a lower blood transfusion rate. Future large-volume high-quality RCTs with extensive follow-up will affirm and update this system review.

  3. Advances in drainage: Selected works from the Tenth International Drainage Symposium (United States)

    Strock, Jeffrey S.; Hay, Christopher; Helmers, Matthew; Nelson, Kelly A.; Sands, Gary R.; Skaggs, R. Wayne; Douglas-Mankin, Kyle R.


    This article introduces a special collection of fourteen articles accepted from among the 140 technical presentations, posters, and meeting papers presented at the 10th International ASABE Drainage Symposium. The symposium continued in the tradition of previous symposia that began in 1965 as a forum for presenting and assessing the progress of drainage research and implementation throughout the world. The articles in this collection address a wide range of topics grouped into five broad categories: (1) crop response, (2) design and management, (3) hydrology and scale, (4) modeling, and (5) water quality. The collection provides valuable information for scientists, engineers, planners, and others working on crop production, water quality, and water quantity issues affected by agricultural drainage. The collection also provides perspectives on the challenges of increasing agricultural production in a changing climate, with ever-greater attention to water quality and quantity concerns that will require integrated technical, economic, and social solutions.

  4. Analysis of vertical flow during ambient and pumped conditions in four monitoring wells at the Pantex Plant, Carson County, Texas, July-September 2008 (United States)

    Stanton, Gregory P.; Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stoval, Jeffery


    The Pantex Plant is a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (USDOE/NNSA)-owned, contractor-operated facility managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Pantex, LLC (B&W Pantex) in Carson County, Texas, approximately 17 miles northeast of Amarillo. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with B&W Pantex through the USDOE/NNSA, made a series of flowmeter measurements and collected other borehole geophysical logs during July–September 2008 to analyze vertical flow in screened intervals of four selected monitoring wells (PTX01–1012, PTX06–1044, PTX06–1056, and PTX06–1068) at the Pantex Plant. Hydraulic properties (transmissivity values) of the section of High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer penetrated by the wells also were computed. Geophysical data were collected under ambient and pumped flow conditions in the four monitoring wells. Unusually large drawdowns occurred at two monitoring wells (PTX06–1044 and PTX06–1056) while the wells were pumped at relatively low rates. A decision was made to redevelop those wells, and logs were run again after redevelopment in the two monitoring wells.

  5. Deformation and evolution of an experimental drainage network subjected to oblique deformation: Insight from chi-maps (United States)

    Guerit, Laure; Goren, Liran; Dominguez, Stéphane; Malavieille, Jacques; Castelltort, Sébastien


    The morphology of a fluvial landscape reflects a balance between its own dynamics and external forcings, and therefore holds the potential to reveal local or large-scale tectonic patterns. Commonly, particular focus has been cast on the longitudinal profiles of rivers as they constitute sensitive recorders of vertical movements, that can be recovered based on models of bedrock incision. However, several recent studies have suggested that maps of rescaled distance along channel called chi (χ), derived from the commonly observed power law relation between the slope and the drainage area , could reveal transient landscapes in state of reorganization of basin geometry and location of water divides. If river networks deforms in response to large amount of distributed strain, then they might be used to reconstruct the mode and rate of horizontal deformation away from major active structures through the use of the parameter χ. To explore how streams respond to tectonic horizontal deformation, we develop an experimental model for studying river pattern evolution over a doubly-vergent orogenic wedge growing in a context of oblique convergence. We use a series of sprinklers located about the experimental table to activate erosion, sediment transport and river development on the surface of the experimental wedge. At the end of the experiment, the drainage network is statistically rotated clockwise, confirming that rivers can record the distribution of motion along the wedge. However, the amount of rotation does not match with the imposed deformation, and thus we infer that stream networks are not purely passive markers. Based on the comparison between the observed evolution of the fluvial system and the predictions made from χ maps, we show that the plan-view morphology of the streams results from the competition between the imposed deformation and fluvial processes of drainage reorganization.

  6. Developing Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhik Chakraborty


    Full Text Available This article explores the reasons behind the continuation of contentious dam projects in Japanese river basins. Though the River Law of the country was reformed in 1997, and subsequent sociopolitical developments raised hopes that river governance would progress toward a more environment-oriented and bottom-up model, basin governance in Japan remains primarily based on a utilitarian vision that sees rivers as waterways. This article reviews the Achilles heel of the 1997 River Law by examining some most contentious river valley projects, and concludes that a myth of vulnerability to flooding, short-sightedness of river engineers, and bureaucratic inertia combine to place basin governance in a time warp: as projects planned during postwar reconstruction and economic growth continue to be top priorities in policymaking circles while concerns over environment remain largely unaddressed.

  7. Pleistocene-Recent Drainage Evolution in the Western Himalayan Foreland Basin (United States)

    Clift, P. D.; Giosan, L.; Macklin, M.; Carter, A.; Tabrez, A. R.


    The rivers of the upper Indus flood plains support large populations in an area where rainfall is relatively weak. Nonetheless, the region has been one in which early civilizations flourished and then dispersed, most notably the Indus Valley or Harappan Culture. We investigated potential links between human settlement and drainage evolution by drilling abandoned and filled river channels on the northern edge of the Thar Desert to see how they have evolved. Pb isotope data from single K-feldspar grains from Holocene and Pleistocene sands showed that the channels were sourced from Himalayan rivers before and at 6-8 ka, but that after that time the proportion of high isotopic ratio grains rose, indicating increased contribution from the Thar Desert dunes prior to ~4.5 ka when flow in the Ghaggar-Hakra ceased entirely. U-Pb dating of single zircon sand grains confirms this general pattern. Grain ages <300 Ma are typical of the Thar Desert and become more common around 6-8 ka as the river flux decreased and desert began to encroach. Zircons ages at ~1900 Ma can be linked to a westward flow of the Yamuna River into the Indus but this flow may have finished as early as 49 ka, so that this capture does not affect the Harappan Culture. After this time the Sutlej and Beas River flowed through the region until they were both captured away to the north prior to 6-8 ka. The Harappan centers on the north of the Thar Desert likely dispersed because of unpredictable water supply as the monsoon weakened and because the flow of major rivers had ceased well before 4 ka.

  8. Influence of mantle flow on the drainage of eastern Australia since the Jurassic Period (United States)

    Salles, T.; Flament, N.; Müller, D.


    Recent studies of the past eastern Australian landscape from present-day longitudinal river profiles and from mantle flow models suggest that the interaction of plate motion with mantle convection accounts for the two phases of large-scale uplift of the region since 120 Ma. We coupled the dynamic topography predicted from one of these mantle flow models to a surface process model to study the evolution of the eastern Australian landscape since the Jurassic Period. We varied the rainfall regime, erodibility, sea level variations, dynamic topography magnitude, and elastic thickness across a series of experiments. The approach accounts for erosion and sedimentation and simulates catchment dynamics. Despite the relative simplicity of our model, the results provide insights on the fundamental links between dynamic topography and continental-scale drainage evolution. Based on temporal and spatial changes in longitudinal river profiles as well as erosion and deposition maps, we show that the motion of the Australian plate over the convecting mantle has resulted in significant reorganization of the eastern Australian drainage. The model predicts that the Murray river drained eastward between 150 and ˜120 Ma, and switched to westward draining due to the tilting of the Australian plate from ˜120 Ma. First order comparisons of eight modeled river profiles and of the catchment shape of modeled Murray-Darling Basin are in agreement with present-day observations. The predicted denudation of the eastern highlands is compatible with thermochronology data and sedimentation rates along the southern Australian margin are consistent with cumulative sediment thickness.

  9. Cenozoic North American Drainage Basin Evolution, Sediment Yield, and Accumulation in the Gulf of Mexico Basin (United States)

    Galloway, W.; Ganey-Curry, P. E.


    The Cenozoic fill of the Gulf of Mexico basin contains a continuous record of sediment supply from the North American continental interior for the past 65 million years. Regional mapping of unit thickness and paleogeography for 18 depositional episodes defines patterns of shifting entry points of continental fluvial systems and quantifies the total volume of sediment supplied during each episode. Eight fluvio-deltaic depocenters, named for geographic similarities to entry points and drainage basins of modern rivers, are present. From southwest to northeast, they are the Rio Bravo, Rio Grande, Guadalupe, Colorado, Houston-Brazos, Red, Mississippi, and Tennessee axes. Sediment volume was calculated from hand-contoured unit thickness maps compiled from basin-wide well and seismic control. Using a GIS algorithm to sum volumes within polygons bounding interpreted North American river contribution, the total extant volume was then calculated. General compaction factors were used to convert modern volume to quantitative approximations of total grain volume. Grain volume rate of supply for each depositional episode was then calculated. Values vary by more than an order of magnitude. Supply rate has commonly varied by two-fold or more between successive depositional episodes. Sediment supply is a significant, independent variable in development of stratigraphic sequences within the Gulf basin. Paleogeographic maps of the continental interior for eleven Cenozoic time intervals display the evolving and complex interplay of intracontinental tectonism, climate change, and drainage basin evolution. Five tectono-climatic eras are differentiated: Paleocene late Laramide era; early to middle Eocene terminal Laramide era; middle Cenozoic (Late Eocene—Early Miocene) dry, volcanogenic era; middle Neogene (Middle—Late Miocene) arid, extensional era; and late Neogene (Plio—Pleistocene) monsoonal, epeirogenic uplift era. Sediment supply to the GOM reflects the interplay of (1

  10. Using GIS and logistic regression to estimate agricultural chemical concentrations in rivers of the midwestern USA (United States)

    Battaglin, W.A.


    Agricultural chemicals (herbicides, insecticides, other pesticides and fertilizers) in surface water may constitute a human health risk. Recent research on unregulated rivers in the midwestern USA documents that elevated concentrations of herbicides occur for 1-4 months following application in spring and early summer. In contrast, nitrate concentrations in unregulated rivers are elevated during the fall, winter and spring. Natural and anthropogenic variables of river drainage basins, such as soil permeability, the amount of agricultural chemicals applied or percentage of land planted in corn, affect agricultural chemical concentrations in rivers. Logistic regression (LGR) models are used to investigate relations between various drainage basin variables and the concentration of selected agricultural chemicals in rivers. The method is successful in contributing to the understanding of agricultural chemical concentration in rivers. Overall accuracies of the best LGR models, defined as the number of correct classifications divided by the number of attempted classifications, averaged about 66%.

  11. Baseline limnological investigation of the Utor River in Esan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the four sampling stations. The environmental conditions studied have been discussed in relation to the drainage characteristics, rainfall regime, potability, equivalent ecosystems and general water quality standards. Keywords: Utor River, water quality, seasonal dynamics. Tropical Freshwater Biology 2003/2004 Vol.

  12. Discharge estimation from planform characters of the Shedhi River ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the absence of long-term hydrologic and streamflow records an understanding of river morphology (present and past) can help delineate changes in magnitudes of water and sediment discharges. The relict drainage system of Gujarat alluvial plain provides an opportunity to reconstruct the palaeochannel ...

  13. Pitfalls in Cutaneous Melanoma Lymphatic Drainage. (United States)

    Voinea, Silviu; Sandru, Angela; Gherghe, Mirela


    Sentinel node (SN) biopsy has become standard in staging of cutaneous melanoma. As skin lymphatic drainage is complex, preoperative empirical assessment of SN localization is virtually impossible. Therefore in order to identify all regional lymphatic basins corresponding to a specific primary tumor is mandatory to carry out preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. In this paper we present a clinical case that highlights the importance of identifying, biopsy and histological analysis of all SN in order to achieve a correct staging of the patient, followed by appropriate treatment according to the real clinical stage of the disease. Celsius.

  14. Button self-retaining drainage catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caridi, James G.; Hawkins, Irvin F.; Akins, E. William; Young, Ronald S.


    To help improve patient acceptance of long-term internal/external catheter access to the biliary tract in those with benign biliary obstruction, a simple design allows the catheter end to remain flush with the skin. It consists of a clothes button affixed to the drainage catheter with a wood screw after the catheter has been cut off at the skin exit. This button/screw device has been used successfully in 22 patients over the last 10 years; catheter exchanges were easily accomplished

  15. Percutaneous biliary drainage in patients with cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, A.C.; Gobel, R.J.; Rose, S.C.; Hayes, J.K.; Miller, F.J.


    This paper determines whether radiation therapy (RT) is a risk factor for infectious complications (particularly hepatic abscess formation) related to percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD). The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of 98 consecutive patients who had undergone PBD for obstruction. In 34 patients with benign obstruction, three infectious complications occurred, none of which were hepatic abscess or fatal sepsis. In 39 patients who had malignant obstruction but did not have cholangiocarcinoma, 13 infectious complications occurred, including two hepatic abscesses and three cases of fatal sepsis. Of the 25 patients with cholangiocarcinoma, 15 underwent RT; in these 15 patients, 14 infectious complications occurred, including six hepatic abscesses and two cases of fatal sepsis

  16. Percutaneous drainage of diverticular abscess: Adjunct to resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.R.; Saini, S.; Butch, R.J.; Simeone, J.F.; Rodkey, G.V.; Bousquet, J.C.; Ottinger, L.W.; Wittenberg, J.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.


    Traditional surgical management of acute diverticulitis with abscess may require a one-, two-, or three-stage procedure. Because of recent interest in CT diagnosis of diverticulitis, and novel access routes for interventional drainage of deep pelvic abscesses, the authors investigated the potential for converting complex two- and three-stage surgical procedures to simpler, safer one-stage colon resections by percutaneous drainage of the associated abscess. Of 23 patients with acute perforated diverticulitis who were referred for catheter drainage under radiologic guidance, successful catheter drainage and subsequent single-stage colon resection were carried out in 15. In three patients catheter drainage was unsuccessful and a multistage procedure was required. In three patients only percutaneous drainage was performed and operative intervention was omitted entirely

  17. Spatial and temporal uplift history of South America from calibrated drainage analysis (United States)

    Rodríguez Tribaldos, V.; White, N. J.; Roberts, G. G.; Hoggard, M. J.


    A multidisciplinary approach is used to analyze the Cenozoic uplift history of South America. Residual depth anomalies of oceanic crust abutting this continent help to determine the pattern of present-day dynamic topography. Admittance analysis and crustal thickness measurements indicate that the elastic thickness of the Borborema and Altiplano regions is ≤10 km with evidence for sub-plate support at longer wavelengths. A drainage inventory of 1827 river profiles is assembled and used to investigate landscape development. Linear inverse modeling enables river profiles to be fitted as a function of the spatial and temporal history of regional uplift. Erosional parameters are calibrated using observations from the Borborema Plateau and tested against continent-wide stratigraphic and thermochronologic constraints. Our results predict that two phases of regional uplift of the Altiplano plateau occurred in Neogene times. Regional uplift of the southern Patagonian Andes also appears to have occurred in Early Miocene times. The consistency between observed and predicted histories for the Borborema, Altiplano, and Patagonian plateaux implies that drainage networks record coherent signals that are amenable to simple modeling strategies. Finally, the predicted pattern of incision across the Amazon catchment constrains solid sedimentary flux at the Foz do Amazonas. Observed and calculated flux estimates match, suggesting that erosion and deposition were triggered by regional Andean uplift during Miocene times.

  18. Enhancing the natural removal of As in a reactive fluvial confluence receiving acid drainage (United States)

    Abarca, M. I.; Arce, G.; Montecinos, M.; Guerra, P. A.; Pasten, P.


    Fluvial confluences are natural reactors that can determine the fate of contaminants in watersheds receiving acid drainage. Hydrological, hydrodynamic and chemical factors determine distinct conditions for the formation of suspended particles of iron and aluminum oxyhydroxides. The chemical and physical properties of these particle assemblages (e.g. particle size, chemical composition) can vary according to inflow mixing ratios, hydrodynamic velocity profiles, and chemical composition of the flows mixing at the confluence. Due to their capacity to sorb metals, it is important to identify the optimal conditions for removing metals from the aqueous phase, particularly arsenic, a contaminant frequently found in acid drainage. We studied a river confluence in the Lluta watershed, located in the arid Chilean Altiplano. We performed field measurements and laboratory studies to find optimal mixing ratio for arsenic sorption onto oxyhydroxide particles at the confluence between the Azufre (pH=2, As=2 mg/L) and the Caracarani river (pH=8, Ascontaminants. An analogy between confluences and coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation drinking water plants could be used to engineer such intervention.Acknowledgements: Proyecto Fondecyt 1130936 and Proyecto CONICYT FONDAP 15110020

  19. Eco policy: Environmental Stress and Conflicts in Africa. Case Study of Drainage Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okidi, C.O


    The main cause for African misery is limited supply of water which has a direct impact on agricultural production. The continent of Africa has a reticulation of 54 drainage basins including rivers which either traverse boundaries or form part of such boundaries. These basins cover approximately half of the continent but only 2% of the total water is utilized leaving 98% to replenish the oceans. In future Africa should focus attention on control, apportionment and utilization of the waters of it's drainage basins in order to ameliorate the the problems brought about by scarcity of rainfall and consequent drought and famine. After the drought in the late 1970s and mid-1980s, there has been efforts to control the promising rivers and transfer the water to to centres of agriculture and human settlements and this is likely to cause international conflicts. The author recommends that, in order to control such conflicts the basin states there should be systematic collaboration among the basin states in the management of such waters

  20. Arterial Pulsations cannot Drive Intramural Periarterial Drainage: Significance for Aβ Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra K. Diem


    Full Text Available Alzheimer's Disease (AD is the most common form of dementia and to date there is no cure or efficient prophylaxis. The cognitive decline correlates with the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ in the walls of capillaries and arteries. Our group has demonstrated that interstitial fluid and Aβ are eliminated from the brain along the basement membranes of capillaries and arteries, the intramural periarterial drainage (IPAD pathway. With advancing age and arteriosclerosis, the stiffness of arterial walls, this pathway fails in its function and Aβ accumulates in the walls of arteries. In this study we tested the hypothesis that arterial pulsations drive IPAD and that a valve mechanism ensures the net drainage in a direction opposite to that of the blood flow. This hypothesis was tested using a mathematical model of the drainage mechanism. We demonstrate firstly that arterial pulsations are not strong enough to produce drainage velocities comparable to experimental observations. Secondly, we demonstrate that a valve mechanism such as directional permeability of the IPAD pathway is necessary to achieve a net reverse flow. The mathematical simulation results are confirmed by assessing the pattern of IPAD in mice using pulse modulators, showing no significant alteration of IPAD. Our results indicate that forces other than the cardiac pulsations are responsible for efficient IPAD.

  1. Late Pliocene establishment of exorheic drainage in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau as evidenced by the Wuquan Formation in the Lanzhou Basin (United States)

    Guo, Benhong; Liu, Shanpin; Peng, Tingjiang; Ma, Zhenhua; Feng, Zhantao; Li, Meng; Li, Xiaomiao; Li, Jijun; Song, Chunhui; Zhao, Zhijun; Pan, Baotian; Stockli, Daniel F.; Nie, Junsheng


    The fluvial archives in the upper-reach Yellow River basins provide important information about drainage history of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) associated with geomorphologic evolution and climate change. However, the Pliocene fluvial strata within this region have not been studied in detail, hence limiting the understanding of the late Cenozoic development of regional fluvial systems. In this paper, we present the results of a study of the geochronology, sedimentology, and provenance of the fluvial sequence of the Wuquan Formation in the Lanzhou Basin in the northeastern TP. Magnetostratigraphic and cosmogenic nuclide burial ages indicate that the Wuquan Formation was deposited during 3.6-2.2 Ma. Furthermore, sedimentary facies, gravel composition, paleocurrent data, and detrital zircon Usbnd Pb age spectra reveal that the fluvial sequence resembles the terraces of the Yellow River in terms of source area, flow direction, and depositional environment. Our results indicate that a paleo-drainage system flowing out of the northeastern TP was established by ca. 3.6 Ma and that the upstream parts of the Yellow River must have developed subsequently from this paleo-drainage system. The late Pliocene drainage system fits well with the dramatic uplift of the northeastern TP, an intensified Asian summer monsoon, and global increase in erosion rates, which may reflect interactions between geomorphic evolution, tectonic deformation, and climate change.

  2. Comparison of performance of tile drainage routines in SWAT 2009 and 2012 in an extensively tile-drained watershed in the Midwest (United States)

    Guo, Tian; Gitau, Margaret; Merwade, Venkatesh; Arnold, Jeffrey; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Hirschi, Michael; Engel, Bernard


    Subsurface tile drainage systems are widely used in agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern US and enable the Midwest area to become highly productive agricultural lands, but can also create environmental problems, for example nitrate-N contamination associated with drainage waters. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been used to model watersheds with tile drainage. SWAT2012 revisions 615 and 645 provide new tile drainage routines. However, few studies have used these revisions to study tile drainage impacts at both field and watershed scales. Moreover, SWAT2012 revision 645 improved the soil moisture based curve number calculation method, which has not been fully tested. This study used long-term (1991-2003) field site and river station data from the Little Vermilion River (LVR) watershed to evaluate performance of tile drainage routines in SWAT2009 revision 528 (the old routine) and SWAT2012 revisions 615 and 645 (the new routine). Both the old and new routines provided reasonable but unsatisfactory (NSE SWAT with the old and new tile drainage routines were compared with observed values. Generally, the new routine provided acceptable simulated tile flow (NSE = 0.48-0.65) and nitrate in tile flow (NSE = 0.48-0.68) for field sites with random pattern tile and constant tile spacing, while the old routine simulated tile flow and nitrate in tile flow results for the field site with constant tile spacing were unacceptable (NSE = 0.00-0.32 and -0.29-0.06, respectively). The new modified curve number calculation method in revision 645 (NSE = 0.50-0.81) better simulated surface runoff than revision 615 (NSE = -0.11-0.49). The calibration provided reasonable parameter sets for the old and new routines in the LVR watershed, and the validation results showed that the new routine has the potential to accurately simulate hydrologic processes in mildly sloped watersheds.

  3. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Madsen, P


    Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure was measured in 10 patients undergoing drainage operations for painful chronic pancreatitis. The pressure was measured by the needle technique in the three anatomic regions of the pancreas before and at different stages of the drainage procedure, and the results...... a decrease in pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for pain in chronic pancreatitis. Regional pressure decrease were apparently unrelated to ERCP findings....

  4. Modeling of subglacial hydrological development following rapid supraglacial lake drainage


    Dow, C F; Kulessa, B; Rutt, I C; Tsai, V C; Pimentel, S; Doyle, S H; van As, D; Lindb?ck, K; Pettersson, R; Jones, G A; Hubbard, A


    The rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes injects substantial volumes of water to the bed of the Greenland ice sheet over short timescales. The effect of these water pulses on the development of basal hydrological systems is largely unknown. To address this, we develop a lake drainage model incorporating both (1) a subglacial radial flux element driven by elastic hydraulic jacking and (2) downstream drainage through a linked channelized and distributed system. Here we present the model and exa...

  5. Planning Of Drainage Channel Dimension In The Core Zone Of Muara Takus Temple (United States)

    Saleh, Alfian


    Preservation of Cultural Heritage is a dynamic effort to maintain the existence of cultural heritage by protecting, developing, and utilizing the cultural heritage in the contemporary context. To protect the cultural heritage in term of conservation called protection of which the effort to prevent and overcome from damage, it needs to do destruction or obliteration through rescue, security, zoning, maintenance, and restoration of cultural heritage. The most fundamental issue is the hydrological impact of the existence of Hydroelectric Power Koto Panjang located around Muara Takus temple that could threaten the sustainability of the region. In this case, hydroelectric dam frequently causes Kampar Kanan River overflowed thus potentially floods, especially in the rainy season that could eventually submerges Muara Takus area. The total area of the region Muara Takus enshrinement is ± 94.5 hectares that are divided into two main parts. Those are the terrestrial land of ± 56.44 m², and PLTA Koto Panjang lake of ± 38.06 m². Consequently, it is necessary for drainage planning of economical dimension in the core zone of Muara Takus temple. Furthermore, from the data of the maximum rainfall of 101 mm/day obtained a discharge of rainfall of 0.38 m3/second so that this discharge of rainfall can be designed drainage channel dimension to accommodate the discharge of rainfall. From the analysis of dimension designed drainage is the size of 30 cm x 45 cm. this dimension can accommodate the discharge rainfall that is equal to 0.43 m3 / second. Regarding the finding, it can be concluded that the discharge of rainfall that occurred less than discharge calculation of dimensional analysis of drainage channel so that the size of this dimension can accommodate discharge rainfall occurs.

  6. Diatoms as an indicator for tile drainage flow in a German lowland catchment. (United States)

    Wu, Naicheng; Faber, Claas; Ulrich, Uta; Fohrer, Nicola


    The separation of runoff components within a model simulation is of great importance for a successful implementation of management measures. Diatoms could be a promising indicator for tile drainage flow due to their diverse preferences to different aquatic habitats. In this study, we collected diatom samples of 9 sites (4 tile drainage, TD, and 5 river sites, Ri) in a German lowland catchment at a weekly or biweekly time step from March to July 2013 with the aim of testing the suitability of diatoms for tile drainage flow, which is typical for lowland catchment. Planothidium lanceolatum , Ulnaria biceps , and Navicula gregaria dominated in TD sites with relative abundances of 22.2, 21.5, and 10.9%, respectively. For Ri sites, the most abundant species was Navicula lanceolata (20.5%), followed by Ulnaria biceps (12.9%), Cyclotella meneghiniana (9.5%), and Planothidium lanceolatum (9.3%). Compared with Ri sites, TD had a lower diatom density, biomass, species richness, and percentage of Aquatic/Riparian diatoms (AqRi%). However, the proportion of Riparian diatoms (RiZo%) increased at TD. Indicator value method (IndVal) revealed that the two groups (Ri and TD) were characterized by different indicator species. Fifteen taxa, including Cocconeis placentula , Cyclotella meneghiniana , N. lanceolata , and U. biceps , were significant indicators for Ri sites. Planothidium lanceolatum , Achnanthidium minutissimum , and Navicula gregaria were significant indicators for TD sites. A pronounced variation was found in the species lists of diatom community between Ri and TD water body types associated with different indicator species. With respect to hydrograph separation, these findings highlight the suitability of diatoms as an indicator for tile drainage flow. However, spatial and temporal variations of diatoms should be considered in future surveys.

  7. The construction technology of Chinese ancient city drainage facilities (United States)

    Hequn, Li; Yufengyun


    In ancient china, according to the local natural environment, a variety of drainage facilities were built in order to excrete rainwater, domestic sewage, production wastewater and so on. These drainage facilities were mainly made of pottery, bricks, wood, stone, etc. For example, ceramic water pipelines, buried in the ground, connect together one by one, and there was a slight drop from one end to the other in favor of drainage. These measures can also be used for reference in today’s urban drainage and flood control.

  8. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Madsen, P


    Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure was measured in 10 patients undergoing drainage operations for painful chronic pancreatitis. The pressure was measured by the needle technique in the three anatomic regions of the pancreas before and at different stages of the drainage procedure, and the results...... were compared with preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) morphology. The preoperatively elevated pressure decreased in all patients but one, to normal or slightly elevated values. The median pressure decrease was 50% (range, 0-90%; p = 0.01). The drainage anastomosis (a...... a decrease in pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for pain in chronic pancreatitis. Regional pressure decrease were apparently unrelated to ERCP findings....

  9. Extension of geographic distribution of Chrysobrycon hesperus and C. myersi (Characiformes, Characidae, Stevardiinae for several drainages flowing into the Amazon River Basin in Peru and Colombia Extensión de la distribución geográfica de Chrysobrycon hesperus y C. myersi (Characiformes, Characidae, Stevardiinae para varios drenajes fluyendo hacia la cuenca del Amazonas en Perú y Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Anyelo Vanegas-Ríos


    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of Chrysobrycon hesperus (Böhlke and C. myersi Weitzman and Menezes is extended to new localities from the upper Amazon Basin in Peru and Colombia. Chrysobrycon hesperus is recorded for the first time for the Putumayo River Basin in Colombia.Se amplía la distribución geográfica de Chrysobrycon hesperus (Böhlke y C. myersi Weitzman y Menezes para nuevas localidades de la cuenca alta del Amazonas en Perú y Colombia. Chrysobrycon hesperus se registra por primera vez para la cuenca del río Putumayo en Colombia.

  10. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    River nomads is a movie about people on the move. The documentary film explores the lifestyle of a group of nomadic fishermen whose mobility has been the recipe of success and troubles. Engaged in trade and travel, twice a year the river nomads form impressive convoys of majestic pirogues and set...... and liberated lifestyle and the breath-taking landscapes and vistas offered by the Niger River. River Nomads is also a personal account of the Kebbawa’s way of life and their current struggles as nomadic folk living in a world divided by borders and ruled by bureaucrats....

  11. Acid mine-water and agriculture pollution in a river skirting the Donana National Park (Guadiamar River, South West Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, F.; Toca, C.G.; Diaz, E.; De Arambarri, P.


    The Agrio river receives the drainage waters from Aznalcollar opencast-worked polymetallic sulfide deposits and the old mine spoil heaps. Some 7 km downstream, the Agrio river joins the Guadiamar river, which is the last tributary on the right of the Guadalquivir river. Drainage waters from the mine and old spoil heaps are the source of high concentrations of heavy metals in the water and sediments of the Agrio and Guadiamar rivers. When river flows increase because of heavy rains or reservoir discharges, sediments are resuspended and transported downstream. The presence of other effluents rich in organic matter with active chelating agents facilitates the dissolution and transport of the metals. Consequently, 30 km downstream from the mine heavy metal concentrations in Guadiamar river are still higher than those in other unpolluted rivers of this zone. Pollution by olive mill effluents (alpechines) is important during the grinding season, causing increases in the K, P and organic matter, and decreases in dissolved oxygen. Nitrogen and P fertilization of rice fields at present does not produce abnormal increases in the concentration of these elements in the water. Concentrations of herbicides in rice field canals and Donana National Park waters reach values considered as the limit of safety for aquatic life. 37 references, 8 figures, 7 tables.

  12. A novel approach for acid mine drainage pollution biomonitoring using rare earth elements bioaccumulated in the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea. (United States)

    Bonnail, Estefanía; Pérez-López, Rafael; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Nieto, José Miguel; DelValls, T Ángel


    Lanthanide series have been used as a record of the water-rock interaction and work as a tool for identifying impacts of acid mine drainage (lixiviate residue derived from sulphide oxidation). The application of North-American Shale Composite-normalized rare earth elements patterns to these minority elements allows determining the origin of the contamination. In the current study, geochemical patterns were applied to rare earth elements bioaccumulated in the soft tissue of the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea after exposure to different acid mine drainage contaminated environments. Results show significant bioaccumulation of rare earth elements in soft tissue of the clam after 14 days of exposure to acid mine drainage contaminated sediment (ΣREE=1.3-8μg/gdw). Furthermore, it was possible to biomonitor different degrees of contamination based on rare earth elements in tissue. The pattern of this type of contamination describes a particular curve characterized by an enrichment in the middle rare earth elements; a homologous pattern (E MREE =0.90) has also been observed when applied NASC normalization in clam tissues. Results of lanthanides found in clams were contrasted with the paucity of toxicity studies, determining risk caused by light rare earth elements in the Odiel River close to the Estuary. The current study purposes the use of clam as an innovative "bio-tool" for the biogeochemical monitoring of pollution inputs that determines the acid mine drainage networks affection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Exact solutions for nonlinear foam drainage equation (United States)

    Zayed, E. M. E.; Al-Nowehy, Abdul-Ghani


    In this paper, the modified simple equation method, the exp-function method, the soliton ansatz method, the Riccati equation expansion method and the ( G^' }/G)-expansion method are used to construct exact solutions with parameters of the nonlinear foam drainage equation. When these parameters are taken to be special values, the solitary wave solutions and the trigonometric function solutions are derived from the exact solutions. The obtained results confirm that the proposed methods are efficient techniques for analytic treatments of a wide variety of nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics. We compare our results together with each other yielding from these integration tools. Also, our results have been compared with the well-known results of others.

  14. Drainage basins and channel incision on Mars (United States)

    Aharonson, Oded; Zuber, Maria T.; Rothman, Daniel H.; Schorghofer, Norbert; Whipple, Kelin X.


    Measurements acquired by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on board the Mars Global Surveyor indicate that large drainage systems on Mars have geomorphic characteristics inconsistent with prolonged erosion by surface runoff. We find the topography has not evolved to an expected equilibrium terrain form, even in areas where runoff incision has been previously interpreted. By analogy with terrestrial examples, groundwater sapping may have played an important role in the incision. Longitudinally flat floor segments may provide a direct indication of lithologic layers in the bedrock, altering subsurface hydrology. However, it is unlikely that floor levels are entirely due to inherited structures due to their planar cross-cutting relations. These conclusions are based on previously unavailable observations, including extensive piece-wise linear longitudinal profiles, frequent knickpoints, hanging valleys, and small basin concavity exponents.

  15. Kinbasket Reservoir and Upper Columbia River Kokanee spawner index 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, H.; Porto, L.


    The results of an escapement survey for tributaries to the Kinbasket Reservoir and the Upper Columbia River were provided. Two aerial surveys were conducted during October, 2005. The Kokanee were grouped in schools and summed in order to provide independent estimates. Otoliths of the fish were also extracted in order to determine their age. Results of the survey showed that an estimated 236,760 Kokanee fish were spawning within 11 index streams and rivers within the Kinbasket Reservoir drainage area. Mean fork length was estimated at 24.7 cm. While the Columbia River continues to be the most important Kokanee spawning location in the Kinbasket Reservoir drainage area, the 2005 Kokanee escapement index was the third lowest recorded since 1996. It was concluded that declining fish size and declining abundance may indicate reduced reservoir productivity. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  16. Estimating the benefits of improved drainage on pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The drainage quality is an important parameter which affects the performance of highway pavements. In India ... pavement performance and maintenance needs; and (iii) to quantify the benefits in terms of cost due to the improved drainage ...... Jain was the founder Head of Excellence in Transportation Systems (CTRANS),.

  17. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (United States)

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.


    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  18. Development Of An Agricultural Land Drainage And Reclamation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development Of An Agricultural Land Drainage And Reclamation Design Software. ... Journal of the Ghana Institution of Engineers ... The design of appropriate drainage structures however often involves complex hydrological, hydraulic and engineering computations and the use of charts, tables and nomographs, etc.

  19. The Random Walk Drainage Simulation Model as a Teaching Exercise (United States)

    High, Colin; Richards, Paul


    Practical instructions about using the random walk drainage network simulation model as a teaching excercise are given and the results discussed. A source of directional bias in the resulting simulated drainage patterns is identified and given an interpretation in the terms of the model. Three points of educational value concerning the model are…

  20. Coupling between drainage and coarsening in wet foam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adjacent bubbles coalesce when the liquid border becomes too thin. In addition to drainage, the other process, which changes the macroscopic appearance of foam is the coars- ening. This occurs due to the gas diffusion from smaller to larger bubbles following the well-known Laplace–Young law [1]. Both effects, drainage ...

  1. Coupling between drainage and coarsening in wet foam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Drainage and coarsening are two coupled phenomena during the evolution of wet foam. We show the variation in the growth rate of bubble size, along the height in a column of Gillette shaving foam, by microscope imaging. Simultaneously, the drainage of liquid at the same heights has been investigated by Raman ...

  2. Adequacy of Drainage Channels in a Small Urban Watershed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research presents an analysis for the adequacy of drainage channels. Topographical and location map was used as a guide to locate the drainage channels. Rainfall records for a period of four years (2008-2011) were used to develop the intensity bdurationB B frequency of the study area . Field survey and geometrical ...

  3. Assessment of drainage techniques for evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjåvik, Kristin; Bartek, Jiri; Sagberg, Lisa Millgård


    OBJECTIVE Surgery for chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the most common neurosurgical procedures. The benefit of postoperative passive subdural drainage compared with no drains has been established, but other drainage techniques are common, and their effectiveness compared with passive s...

  4. A new approach in research into drainage materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuyt, L.C.P.M.


    In the past decades in many countries installation of agricultural drainage systems' has evolved into an almost completely mechanized operation. Progress in technology has been remarkable and drainage engineers obviously could not keep pace with enhanced research requirements:introduction of new

  5. Urban drainage in Barcelona: From hazard to resource?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Saurí


    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to trace the historical trajectory of urban drainage in Barcelona from the 19th century to the present highlighting the main changes in approach, from the 'everything down the drain' philosophy of the 19th century to the sustainable urban drainage systems of the early 21st century. In this trajectory we identify four main historical periods. The first period corresponds to the 'Garcia Faria Plan' of the late 19th century which initiated the construction of modern drainage in Barcelona. The second period, lasting for much of the 20th century, showed the expansion of the centralised sewer system that, however, could not solve the chronic problems of flooding and pollution created by fast urbanisation. The third period, governed by the Olympic Games of 1992 and the rehabilitation of the beach front, entailed a massive reconfiguration of the sewer system now connected to wastewater treatment plants and enhanced with a number of large underground stormwater reservoirs. Finally, since the early 2000s, urban drainage is increasingly adopting decentralised, smallscale solutions to drainage such as Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS. While signs of the transition towards a more sustainable approach to urban drainage are already present, the conventional approach remains strong and appears to be evolving also towards more sustainable solutions. Hence, system coexistence rather than substitution appears to be the outcome of the transition in urban drainage in this city.

  6. Coupling between drainage and coarsening in wet foam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Drainage and coarsening are two coupled phenomena during the evolution of wet foam. We show the variation in the growth rate of bubble size, along the height in a column of Gillette shaving foam, by microscope imaging. Simultaneously, the drainage of liquid at the same heights has been investigated by ...

  7. 13 Morphometric Analysis of Ogunpa and Ogbere Drainage Basins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The paper analysed the morphometric parameters of Ogbere and Ogunpa drainage basins located on basement complex rock in ... properties of Ogunpa drainage basin are likely to induce high magnitude flood compared to morphometric properties of Ogbere ..... Bs = VI/HE where Bs = Basin slope, VI = Vertical Interval and.

  8. Preoperative percutaneous transhepatic drainage: use or abuse. A clinical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouma, D. J.; Moody, F. G.


    The benefit of preoperative percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in patients with obstructive jaundice was reviewed in the literature from 1974 to July 1984. The role of preoperative drainage cannot be definitively assessed. Significant reduction of morbidity and mortality has been reported in

  9. 33 CFR 157.134 - Cargo tank drainage. (United States)


    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.134 Cargo tank drainage. Each cargo tank must be designed for longitudinal and transverse drainage of crude oil to allow...

  10. Using bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) as a field drainage material in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris), one of the most widespread member of its genus, was used as field drainage material in Akure, Nigeria. Pre-determined sizes of bamboo with uniform lengths and diameters were installed as sub-drains in agricultural field for drainage purposes, especially in developing countries like Nigeria.

  11. 7 CFR 1924.108 - Grading and drainage. (United States)


    ... drainage. (a) General. Soil and geologic conditions must be suitable for the type of construction proposed... affect the structure and show proposed solutions. Grading will promote drainage of surface water away... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...

  12. Thematic survey of subsurface drainage systems in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tlapáková, L.; Žaloudík, J.; Kolejka, Jaromír


    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 55-65 ISSN 1744-5647 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : subsurface drainage system * remote sensing * image interpretation * drainage recognition and mapping Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2016

  13. Pancreaticoduodenectomy with External Drainage of the Pancreatic Remnant


    Suvit Sriussadaporn; Rattaplee Pak-art; Sukanya Sriussadaporn; Kritaya Kritayakirana; Supparerk Prichayudh


    Leakage of the pancreaticojejunal anastomosis is a serious complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy. External drainage of the pancreatic remnant is one of several methods for reducing pancreaticojejunal anastomotic leakage or fistula. We investigated complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy with and without external drainage of the pancreatic remnant. METHODS: Patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand from November 1991 t...

  14. Modeling of subglacial hydrological development following rapid supraglacial lake drainage (United States)

    Dow, C. F.; Kulessa, B.; Rutt, I. C.; Tsai, V. C.; Pimentel, S.; Doyle, S. H.; van As, D.; Lindbäck, K.; Pettersson, R.; Jones, G. A.; Hubbard, A.


    The rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes injects substantial volumes of water to the bed of the Greenland ice sheet over short timescales. The effect of these water pulses on the development of basal hydrological systems is largely unknown. To address this, we develop a lake drainage model incorporating both (1) a subglacial radial flux element driven by elastic hydraulic jacking and (2) downstream drainage through a linked channelized and distributed system. Here we present the model and examine whether substantial, efficient subglacial channels can form during or following lake drainage events and their effect on the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system. We force the model with field data from a lake drainage site, 70 km from the terminus of Russell Glacier in West Greenland. The model outputs suggest that efficient subglacial channels do not readily form in the vicinity of the lake during rapid drainage and instead water is evacuated primarily by a transient turbulent sheet and the distributed system. Following lake drainage, channels grow but are not large enough to reduce the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system, unless preexisting channels are present throughout the domain. Our results have implications for the analysis of subglacial hydrological systems in regions where rapid lake drainage provides the primary mechanism for surface-to-bed connections.

  15. Evaluating the Acid Mine Drainage Potential at Abosso Goldfields ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of Acid Rock Drainae (ARD) affects both plants and animals that are present in a drainage system. In some base metal and coal mining environments, the presence of sulphide minerals especially pyrite and their exposure to oxygen and water may trigger Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). Evaluation of the potential for ...

  16. Managing the Economics of Soil Salinity in the Red River Valley of North Dakota


    Hadrich, Joleen


    Saline soils result in decreased crop growth and yield with the potential for losing productive farm land. Enterprise budget analysis was extended to include the fixed costs of installing tile drainage to manage soil salinity in the Red River Valley of North Dakota for corn, soybeans, wheat, sugar beets, and barley. Installing tile drainage decreased per acre crop profitability from 19 to 49 percent. Lost revenues were estimated to be $150 million due to 1.2 million acres of slightly saline s...

  17. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike


    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. The linking of the upper-middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River as a result of fluvial entrenchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Zhenbo; Pan, Bao Tian; Bridgland, David; Vandenberghe, Jef; Guo, Lian Yong; Fan, Yun Long; Westaway, Rob


    The upper–middle Yellow River flows through the Fenwei graben, a structure resulting from extensional tectonism that was formed and repeatedly extended during the Cenozoic. The drainage system within this graben was formerly isolated from the lower reaches of the Yellow River system by the Xiaoshan

  19. Numerical Three-Dimensional Model of Airport Terminal Drainage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strzelecki Michał


    Full Text Available During the construction of an airport terminal it was found that as a result of the hydrostatic pressure of underground water the foundation plate of the building had dangerously shifted in the direction opposite to that of the gravitational forces. The only effective measure was to introduce a drainage system on the site. The complex geology of the area indicated that two independent drainage systems, i.e., a horizontal system in the Quaternary beds and a vertical system in the Tertiary water-bearing levels, were necessary. This paper presents numerical FEM calculations of the two drainage systems being part of the airport terminal drainaged esign. The computer simulation which was carried out took into consideration the actual effect of the drainage systems and their impact on the depression cone being formed in the two aquifers.

  20. Drainage filter technologies to mitigate site-specific phosphorus losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Iversen, Bo Vangsø


    of implementing the drainage filter technologies including surface-flow constructed wetlands, subsurface flow constructed wetlands, and drainage well filters ( We will present results on P retention from (i) controlled column experiments with permeable filter substrates, and (ii) a full...... high risks areas of P loss and applying site-specific measures therefore seems a more cost-efficient approach. The Danish Commission for Nature and Agriculture has now called for a shift of paradigm towards targeted mitigation and development of new, cost-efficient technologies to mitigate site......-specific nutrient losses in drainage. The “SUPREME-TECH” project (2010-2015), funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council, aims at providing the scientific basis for developing cost-effective drainage filter technologies to retain P in agricultural drainage waters. The project studies different approaches...

  1. Proceedings of the international land reclamation and mine drainage conference and third international conference on the abatement of acidic drainage. Volume 1: Mine drainage -- SP 06A-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Volume 1 of these proceedings is divided into the following sections: Modeling mine water quality; Water treatment with wetlands; Predicting mine water quality; Water treatment--Chemical; Control of acid mine drainage--Wet covers; Site characterization monitoring; Control of acid mine drainage--Alkaline addition; and Mine water geochemistry. Papers dealing with or applicable to coal or uranium mining have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  2. Preoperative Biliary Drainage in Patients with Resectable Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Is Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage Safer and More Effective than Endoscopic Biliary Drainage? A Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Al Mahjoub, Aimen; Menahem, Benjamin; Fohlen, Audrey; Dupont, Benoit; Alves, Arnaud; Launoy, Guy; Lubrano, Jean


    To determine the best initial procedure for performing preoperative biliary drainage in patients with resectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHCC). MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane database were searched for all studies published until June 2016 comparing endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) for preoperative biliary drainage. Meta-analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.3 software. Four retrospective studies were identified that met the criteria. The analysis was performed on 433 patients who underwent preoperative biliary drainage for resectable PHCC. Of those, 275 (63.5%) had EBD and 158 (36.5%) had PTBD as the initial procedure. The overall procedure-related morbidity rate was significantly lower in the PTBD group than in the EBD group (39 of 147 [26.5%] vs 82 of 185 [44.3%]; odds ratio [OR], 2.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-3.57; P = .0009). The rate of conversion from one procedure to the other was significantly lower in the PTBD group than in the EBD group (8 of 158 [5.0%] vs 73 of 275 [26.5%]; odds ratio, 4.76; 95% CI, 2.71-8.36; P drainage in resectable PHCC. PTBD is associated with less conversion and lower rates of pancreatitis and cholangitis. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Using Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli data and Bayesian microbial risk assessment to examine public health risks in agricultural watersheds under tile drainage management. (United States)

    Schmidt, P J; Pintar, K D M; Fazil, A M; Flemming, C A; Lanthier, M; Laprade, N; Sunohara, M D; Simhon, A; Thomas, J L; Topp, E; Wilkes, G; Lapen, D R


    Human campylobacteriosis is the leading bacterial gastrointestinal illness in Canada; environmental transmission has been implicated in addition to transmission via consumption of contaminated food. Information about Campylobacter spp. occurrence at the watershed scale will enhance our understanding of the associated public health risks and the efficacy of source water protection strategies. The overriding purpose of this study is to provide a quantitative framework to assess and compare the relative public health significance of watershed microbial water quality associated with agricultural BMPs. A microbial monitoring program was expanded from fecal indicator analyses and Campylobacter spp. presence/absence tests to the development of a novel, 11-tube most probable number (MPN) method that targeted Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. These three types of data were used to make inferences about theoretical risks in a watershed in which controlled tile drainage is widely practiced, an adjacent watershed with conventional (uncontrolled) tile drainage, and reference sites elsewhere in the same river basin. E. coli concentrations (MPN and plate count) in the controlled tile drainage watershed were statistically higher (2008-11), relative to the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed, but yearly variation was high as well. Escherichia coli loading for years 2008-11 combined were statistically higher in the controlled watershed, relative to the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed, but Campylobacter spp. loads for 2010-11 were generally higher for the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed (but not statistically significant). Using MPN data and a Bayesian modelling approach, higher mean Campylobacter spp. concentrations were found in the controlled tile drainage watershed relative to the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed (2010, 2011). A second-order quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was used, in a relative way, to identify

  4. River Water Quality Zoning: A Case Study of Karoon and Dez River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karamouz, N Mahjouri, R Kerachian


    Full Text Available Karoon-Dez River basin, with an area of 67000 square kilometers, is located in southern part of Iran. This river system supplies the water demands of 16 cities, several villages, thousands hectares of agricultural lands, and several hydropower plants. The increasing water demands at the project development stage including agricultural networks, fish hatchery projects, and inter-basin water transfers, have caused a gloomy future for water quality of the Karoon and Dez Rivers. A good part of used agricultural water, which is about 8040 million cubic meters, is returned to the rivers through agricultural drainage systems or as non-point, return flows. River water quality zoning could provide essential information for developing river water quality management policies. In this paper, a methodology is presented for this purpose using methods of -mean crisp classification and a fuzzy clustering scheme. The efficiency of these clustering methods was evaluated using water quality data gathered from the monitoring sampling points along Karoon and Dez Rivers. The results show that the proposed methodology can provide valuable information to support decision-making and to help river water quality management in the region.

  5. Characterize the hydraulic behaviour of grate inlet in urban drainage to prevent the urban's flooding (United States)

    Tellez Alvarez, Jackson David; Gomez, Manuel; Russo, Beniamino; Redondo, Jose M.


    One of the most important problems that have some cities is the urban floods because of poor drainage design. Therefore the systems the drainage do not have the capacity of capture the flow of discharge generated in a rain event and insert it into the drainage network. Even though the two problems that have caught the main attention are the evaluation of the volumes falling in the river basin because extreme rainfall events often lead to urban pluvial flooding being a hydrologic problem and the hydraulic design of the sewer network being a hydraulic problem to limiting capacity of the drainage system, there is an intermediate step between these two processes that is necessary to solve that is the hydraulic behavior of the grate inlet. We need to collect the runoff produced on the city surface and to introduce it in the sewer network. Normally foundry companies provide complete information about drainage grate structural capacity but provide nothing about their hydraulic capacity. This fact can be seen because at the moment does not exist any official regulation at national or international level in this field. It's obvious that, nowadays, there is a great gap in this field at the legislative level owing to the complexity of this field and the modernity of the urban hydrology as science [1]. In essence, we shows the relevance to know the inlet hydraulic interception capacity because surface drainage requires a satisfactory knowledge on storm frequency, gutter flow and above all inlet capacity. In addition, we development an important achievement is the invention and development of techniques for measurement of field velocities in hydraulics engineering applications. Hence knowledge the technological advances in digital cameras with high resolution and high speed found in the environmental, and the advances in image processing techniques, therefore now is a tremendous potential to obtain of behavior of the water surface flow [2]. A novel technique using particle

  6. Unilobar versus bilobar biliary drainage: effect on quality of life and bilirubin level reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Gamanagatti


    Conclusion: Percutaneous biliary drainage provides good palliation of malignant obstructive jaundice. Partial-liver drainage achieved results as good as those after complete liver drainage with significant improvements in QOL and reduction of the bilirubin level.

  7. Distinguishing the Transition Reach between Torrent and River Using Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Morphology in River Course (United States)

    Chu, F. Y.; Chen, S. C.; An, H. P.


    To distinguish a transition reach between river and torrent, this study designed a method to quantify the morphology of channel cross-section. The 5m DEM, which administered by central government, was used to obtain cross-sections from third and fourth order river of 10 main drainages in Taiwan with an interval of 140 to 150 m. We designed a Cross-Sectional Complex-Index (Ics) to determine the morphological complexity and quantify the degrees of wide-shallow for each sections. This index can be applied to define the location of notch, because it can be knew form river regime that a notch is defined as a narrow-deep cross-section and narrow-deep and relatively large slope to adjacent reach. Therefore, this study defined notch index (Inotch) as the gradient divided by cross-sectional complex-index, and applied it to present the distribution of notch-type sections in study drainages, and the results of field investigation in 22 site showed that a section can be defined as notch while Inotch is lager then 60. The distribution of notch in a drainage shown that the notch which conform our quantitative definitions almost concentrated into several reaches intersecting with some broad-shallow section, and the gradient of these reaches are between 2% to 3%. Therefore, we can define that these reaches are the transition reaches between river and torrent. There are 54 sites of transition reach in our study drainages, 80% of the sites had a watershed area within a range of 2000 to 6000 ha. It proof that our method can define transition reach effectively and consistently. In addition, because of the type of disaster is collapse and debris flow in torrent and flood damages in river. It can be found that type of disaster are derived from the river morphology. Therefore, our method and result can be applied to determine the disaster type and strategic planning of disaster prevention as a reference.

  8. Herbicide and nutrient transport from an irrigation district into the South Saskatchewan River. (United States)

    Cessna, A J; Elliott, J A; Tollefson, L; Nicholaichuk, W


    Pesticides and nutrients can be transported from treated agricultural land in irrigation runoff and thus can affect the quality of receiving waters. A 3-yr study was carried out to assess possible detrimental effects on the downstream water quality of the South Saskatchewan River due to herbicide and plant nutrient inputs via drainage water from an irrigation district. Automated water samplers and flow monitors were used to intensively sample the drainage water and to monitor daily flows in two major drainage ditches, which drained approximately 40% of the flood-irrigated land within the irrigation district. Over three years, there were no detectable inputs of ethalfluralin into the river and those of trifluralin were less than 0.002% of the amount applied to flood-irrigated fields. Inputs of MCPA, bromoxynil, dicamba and mecoprop were 0.06% or less of the amounts applied, whereas that for clopyralid was 0.31%. The relatively higher input (1.4%) of 2,4-D to the river was probably due its presence in the irrigation water. Corresponding inputs of P (as total P) and N (as nitrate plus ammonia) were 2.2 and 1.9% of applied fertilizer, respectively. Due to dilution of the drainage water in the river, maximum daily herbicide (with the exception of 2,4-D) and nutrient loadings to the river would not have resulted in significant concentration increases in the river water. There was no consistent remedial effect on herbicides entering the river due to passage of the drainage water through a natural wetland. In contrast, a considerable portion of the nutrients entering the river originated from the wetland.

  9. Estimated future water balance of Euphrates River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhail, W.


    In order to achieve national socio-economic development, the three riparian countries of the Euphrates river (i.e. Syria, Iraq and Turkey) are separately formulating and executing large scale irrigation and hydropower projects. If all these projects are to be completed as planned, the total irrigated area will increase to 3,350,000 ha. However, the water requirements of the planned irrigated area and the evaporation losses from dam reservoirs, in addition to municipal and industrial water needs, will exceed by 12 billion cubic m/year the hydrological potential of the Euphrates river. Furthermore, the water quality of the river will deteriorate as a result of the downstream increase of drainage return flow, water salinity will reach harmful levels, and there will be contamination by nitrate and pesticide residues. Cooperation between the three countries is therefore urgently needed to ensure sustainable agricultural development and to preserve the environment of the basin. 34 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Information technology and decision support tools for stakeholder-driven river basin salinity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T; Cozad, D.B.; Lee, G.


    Innovative strategies for effective basin-scale salinity management have been developed in the Hunter River Basin of Australia and more recently in the San Joaquin River Basin of California. In both instances web-based stakeholder information dissemination has been a key to achieving a high level of stakeholder involvement and the formulation of effective decision support salinity management tools. A common element to implementation of salinity management strategies in both river basins has been the concept of river assimilative capacity for controlling export salt loading and the potential for trading of the right to discharge salt load to the river - the Hunter River in Australia and the San Joaquin River in California. Both rivers provide basin drainage and the means of exporting salt to the ocean. The paper compares and contrasts the use of monitoring, modeling and information dissemination in the two basins to achieve environmental compliance and sustain irrigated agriculture in an equitable and socially and politically acceptable manner.

  11. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Salton Sea area, California, 1988-90 (United States)

    Schroeder, R.A.; Rivera, Mick


    This report contains physical, chemical, and biological data associated with irrigation drainage in the Salton Sea area collected during the late 1980's. The data were collected in support of the u.S. Department of the Interior's National Irrigation Water Quality Program in the Western United States to evaluate effects on the environment from potential toxics in irrigation-induced drainage. The data have been used to support interpretations in several recent publications. This data report is the companion to a comprehensive U.S. Geological Survey interpretive report that describes the geochemical and biological pathways of potential toxics, especially selenium, in the study area. The report contains data on concentra- tions of a broad suite of trace elements in soil, irrigation (Colorado River) water, drainwater, surface water (including the Salton Sea), ground- water, aquatic plants, invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, fish, birds, bird eggs, and turtle eggs. Included, also, are light stable isotope (hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur), tritium, and radiocarbon data for selected aqueous samples and organochlorine-pesticide concentrations in biota. Geochemical samples were collected from more than 100 drainwater-collection sites, several surface- water locations, 15 fields, 3 multiple-depth lysimeter and piezometer installations, and the Alamo River Delta on the southeastern shore of the Salton Sea, and from laboratory evaporations of Colorado River water. Biological samples were collected from 39 sites, including 16 Salton Sea shore locations, 5 streams, 7 freshwater impound- ments, 11 drainwater ditches, and 2 additional locations in the Imperial Valley. (USGS)

  12. Implantation of a second glaucoma drainage device. (United States)

    Francis, Brian A; Fernandes, Rodrigo A B; Akil, Handan; Chopra, Vikas; Diniz, Bruno; Tan, James; Huang, Alex


    To evaluate success rates in controlling intraocular pressure (IOP) after implantation of a second glaucoma drainage device (GDD) with a Baerveldt glaucoma implant in patients with refractory glaucoma, with a secondary aim of reducing the need for postoperative glaucoma medications. This retrospective, noncomparative, interventional study included patients undergoing a second GDD for uncontrolled glaucoma from a tertiary care glaucoma service. Data were obtained from the medical records for the preoperative period and after the 1st, 15th, and 30th day, 3, 6, and 12 months, and then yearly until the last postoperative visit. Visual acuity, IOP, and number of glaucoma medications (NGM) from the follow-up visits were compared to baseline. Success and failure criteria were analyzed based on IOP level or need of glaucoma medications. Forty-nine patients were studied, with a mean follow-up time of 25 ± 21 months. The mean preoperative IOP was 23.7 ± 8.2 mmHg, and decreased to 14.8 ± 4.0 mmHg after 1 year, 14.4 ± 3.9 mmHg after 2 years, and 16.6 ± 8.5 mmHg after 3 years. The mean preoperative NGM was 3.4 ± 1.3, and decreased to 2.0 ± 1.8 after 1 year, 2.5 ± 1.6 after 2 years, and 2.8 ± 2.0 after 3 years. Absolute success was 9% after 1 year for a postoperative IOP between 5 and 18 mmHg, and 76% for a postoperative IOP between 5 and 21 mmHg. The qualified success was 88% at the first and second years and 83% at the third year. With up to 3 years of follow-up, a second glaucoma drainage device was successful in reducing IOP to below 21 mmHg, but not as successful below 18 mmHg. The success rate is improved with the use of glaucoma medications with up to 3 years of follow-up.

  13. Copper isotope fractionation in acid mine drainage (United States)

    Kimball, B.E.; Mathur, R.; Dohnalkova, A.C.; Wall, A.J.; Runkel, R.L.; Brantley, S.L.


    We measured the Cu isotopic composition of primary minerals and stream water affected by acid mine drainage in a mineralized watershed (Colorado, USA). The ??65Cu values (based on 65Cu/63Cu) of enargite (??65Cu = -0.01 ?? 0.10???; 2??) and chalcopyrite (??65Cu = 0.16 ?? 0.10???) are within the range of reported values for terrestrial primary Cu sulfides (-1??? waters (1.38??? ??? ??65Cu ??? 1.69???). The average isotopic fractionation (??aq-min = ??65Cuaq - ??65Cumin, where the latter is measured on mineral samples from the field system), equals 1.43 ?? 0.14??? and 1.60 ?? 0.14??? for chalcopyrite and enargite, respectively. To interpret this field survey, we leached chalcopyrite and enargite in batch experiments and found that, as in the field, the leachate is enriched in 65Cu relative to chalcopyrite (1.37 ?? 0.14???) and enargite (0.98 ?? 0.14???) when microorganisms are absent. Leaching of minerals in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans results in smaller average fractionation in the opposite direction for chalcopyrite (??aq-mino = - 0.57 ?? 0.14 ???, where mino refers to the starting mineral) and no apparent fractionation for enargite (??aq-mino = 0.14 ?? 0.14 ???). Abiotic fractionation is attributed to preferential oxidation of 65Cu+ at the interface of the isotopically homogeneous mineral and the surface oxidized layer, followed by solubilization. When microorganisms are present, the abiotic fractionation is most likely not seen due to preferential association of 65Cuaq with A. ferrooxidans cells and related precipitates. In the biotic experiments, Cu was observed under TEM to occur in precipitates around bacteria and in intracellular polyphosphate granules. Thus, the values of ??65Cu in the field and laboratory systems are presumably determined by the balance of Cu released abiotically and Cu that interacts with cells and related precipitates. Such isotopic signatures resulting from Cu sulfide dissolution should be useful for acid mine drainage

  14. Evaluation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for Roadway Drainage Systems. (United States)

    Byrne, Diana M; Grabowski, Marta K; Benitez, Amy C B; Schmidt, Arthur R; Guest, Jeremy S


    Roadway drainage design has traditionally focused on cost-effectively managing water quantity; however, runoff carries pollutants, posing risks to the local environment and public health. Additionally, construction and maintenance incur costs and contribute to global environmental impacts. While life cycle assessment (LCA) can potentially capture local and global environmental impacts of roadway drainage and other stormwater systems, LCA methodology must be evaluated because stormwater systems differ from wastewater and drinking water systems to which LCA is more frequently applied. To this end, this research developed a comprehensive model linking roadway drainage design parameters to LCA and life cycle costing (LCC) under uncertainty. This framework was applied to 10 highway drainage projects to evaluate LCA methodological choices by characterizing environmental and economic impacts of drainage projects and individual components (basin, bioswale, culvert, grass swale, storm sewer, and pipe underdrain). The relative impacts of drainage components varied based on functional unit choice. LCA inventory cutoff criteria evaluation showed the potential for cost-based criteria, which performed better than mass-based criteria. Finally, the local aquatic benefits of grass swales and bioswales offset global environmental impacts for four impact categories, highlighting the need to explicitly consider local impacts (i.e., direct emissions) when evaluating drainage technologies.

  15. Thoracoscopic Surgery for Pneumothorax Following Outpatient Drainage Therapy. (United States)

    Sano, Atsushi; Yotsumoto, Takuma


    We investigated the outcomes of surgery for pneumothorax following outpatient drainage therapy. We reviewed the records of 34 patients who underwent operations following outpatient drainage therapy with the Thoracic Vent at our hospital between December 2012 and September 2016. Indications for outpatient drainage therapy were pneumothorax without circulatory or respiratory failure and pleural effusion. Indications for surgical treatment were persistent air leakage and patient preference for surgery to prevent or reduce the incidence of recurrent pneumothorax. Intraoperatively, 9 of 34 cases showed loose adhesions around the Thoracic Vent, all of which were dissected bluntly. The preoperative drainage duration ranged from 5 to 13 days in patients with adhesions and from 3 to 19 days in those without adhesions, indicating no significant difference. The duration of preoperative drainage did not affect the incidence of adhesions. The operative duration ranged from 30 to 96 minutes in patients with adhesions and from 31 to 139 minutes in those without adhesions, also indicating no significant difference. Outpatient drainage therapy with the Thoracic Vent was useful for spontaneous pneumothorax patients who underwent surgery, and drainage for less than 3 weeks did not affect intraoperative or postoperative outcomes.

  16. Systematic review comparing endoscopic, percutaneous and surgical pancreatic pseudocyst drainage (United States)

    Teoh, Anthony Yuen Bun; Dhir, Vinay; Jin, Zhen-Dong; Kida, Mitsuhiro; Seo, Dong Wan; Ho, Khek Yu


    AIM: To perform a systematic review comparing the outcomes of endoscopic, percutaneous and surgical pancreatic pseudocyst drainage. METHODS: Comparative studies published between January 1980 and May 2014 were identified on PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane controlled trials register and assessed for suitability of inclusion. The primary outcome was the treatment success rate. Secondary outcomes included were the recurrence rates, re-interventions, length of hospital stay, adverse events and mortalities. RESULTS: Ten comparative studies were identified and 3 were randomized controlled trials. Four studies reported on the outcomes of percutaneous and surgical drainage. Based on a large-scale national study, surgical drainage appeared to reduce mortality and adverse events rate as compared to the percutaneous approach. Three studies reported on the outcomes of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and surgical drainage. Clinical success and adverse events rates appeared to be comparable but the EUS approach reduced hospital stay, cost and improved quality of life. Three other studies compared EUS and esophagogastroduodenoscopy-guided drainage. Both approaches were feasible for pseudocyst drainage but the success rate of the EUS approach was better for non-bulging cyst and the approach conferred additional safety benefits. CONCLUSION: In patients with unfavorable anatomy, surgical cystojejunostomy or percutaneous drainage could be considered. Large randomized studies with current definitions of pseudocysts and longer-term follow-up are needed to assess the efficacy of the various modalities. PMID:27014427

  17. Mortality of centrarchid fishes in the Potomac drainage: Survey results and overview of potential contributing factors (United States)

    Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Starliper, Clifford E.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Barbash, P.; Hedrick, J.D.; Reeser, S.J.; Mullican, J.E.; Kelble, J.


    Skin lesions and spring mortality events of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu and selected other species were first noted in the South Branch of the Potomac River in 2002. Since that year morbidity and mortality have also been observed in the Shenandoah and Monocacy rivers. Despite much research, no single pathogen, parasite, or chemical cause for the lesions and mortality has been identified. Numerous parasites, most commonly trematode metacercariae and myxozoans; the bacterial pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, and Flavobacterium columnare; and largemouth bass virus have all been observed. None have been consistently isolated or observed at all sites, however, nor has any consistent microscopic pathology of the lesions been observed. A variety of histological changes associated with exposure to environmental contaminants or stressors, including intersex (testicular oocytes), high numbers of macrophage aggregates, oxidative damage, gill lesions, and epidermal papillomas, were observed. The findings indicate that selected sensitive species may be stressed by multiple factors and constantly close to the threshold between a sustainable (healthy) and nonsustainable (unhealthy) condition. Fish health is often used as an indicator of aquatic ecosystem health, and these findings raise concerns about environmental degradation within the Potomac River drainage. Unfortunately, while much information has been gained from the studies conducted to date, due to the multiple state jurisdictions involved, competing interests, and other issues, there has been no coordinated approach to identifying and mitigating the stressors. This synthesis emphasizes the need for multiyear, interdisciplinary, integrative research to identify the underlying stressors and possible management actions to enhance ecosystem health.

  18. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . There is allusion to the disappearance of the river in Van. Parva of the Mahabharat, and also in the Siddhant Shiromani. Great Betrayal. The Aravali continued to rise. The newly formed Yamuna was forced to migrate progressively eastward.

  19. Superficial drainage studies in open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira Junior, P.B.; Leite, C.B.B.


    Drainage studies concerning large open-pit mining projects can be of vital importance throughout the mining activity itself as they may assist in avoiding activity interruptions due to drainage problems, therefore representing substantial savings. These studies should, in fact, be carried out from the initial activity stages and shall be considered in operational, project and planning decisions in order to optimize results and reduce costs. This specific study presents a drainage study systematization proposal, enphasazing economic decision criteria. The authors comment on studies of this nature developed at the Caldas uranium mine - NUCLEBRAS. (D.J.M.) [pt

  20. Vacuum-assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass: advantages and disadvantages. (United States)

    Carvalho Filho, Elio Barreto de; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Costa, Loredana Nilkenes Gomes da; Antunes, Nilson


    Systematic review of vacuum assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrating its advantages and disadvantages, by case reports and evidence about its effects on microcirculation. We conducted a systematic search on the period 1997-2012, in the databases PubMed, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO. Of the 70 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Although the vacuum assisted drainage has significant potential for complications and requires appropriate technology and professionalism, prevailed in literature reviewed the concept that vacuum assisted drainage contributed in reducing the rate of transfusions, hemodilutions, better operative field, no significant increase in hemolysis, reduced complications surgical, use of lower prime and of smaller diameter cannulas.

  1. Prognostic factors after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castoldi, M.C.; Cozzi, G.; Severini, A.; Pisani, P.; Ideo, G.; Bellomi, M.


    The authors reviewed the clinical charts and the radiographic files of 93 patients with obsructive jaundice -in 86 cases due to neoplasms -treated with PTBD. The test of differences from survival curves was used to identify the clinical parameters predictive of short survival after PTBD. The difference in survival curves was significant relative to serum indirect bilirubin (cut point: 7.6 mg%), to serum cholinesterase (cut point: 1290 mU/ml), to white blood cells counts (cut point: 8600/mm 3 ), to blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels (cut point: 60 mg%). Because of the market negative prognostic value of high BUN levels, our data seemto indicate that PTBD should not be performed when severe renal insufficiency is present. Other parameters correlated with a short survival after PTBD were the histotype of metastasis (in comparison with the other ones) and in large neoplastic volume (in comparison with a small and medium ones). Through pre-PTBD radiological and laboratory data analysis, a group of patients can be selected in whom the procedure will increase neither well-being nor survival, as plotted against those patients who are likely to benefit from biliary drainage

  2. Integrated urban drainage, status and perspectives. (United States)

    Harremoës, P


    This paper summarises the status of urban storm drainage as an integrated professional discipline, including the management-policy interface, by which the goals of society are implemented. The paper assesses the development of the discipline since the INTERURBA conference in 1992 and includes aspects of the papers presented at the INTERURBA-II conference in 2001 and the discussions during the conference. Tools for integrated analysis have been developed, but there is less implementation than could be expected. That is due to lack of adequate knowledge about important mechanisms, coupled with a significant conservatism in the business. However, significant integrated analyses have been reported. Most of them deal with the sewer system and the treatment plant, while few incorporate the receiving water as anything but the object of the loads to be minimised by engineering measures up-stream. Important measures are local infiltration, source control, storage basins, local treatment and real time control. New paradigms have been introduced: risk of pollution due to system failure, technology for water reuse, sustainability, new architecture and greener up-stream solutions as opposed to down-stream concrete solutions. The challenge is to combine the inherited approaches with the new approaches by flexibility and adaptability.

  3. Lignor process for acidic rock drainage treatment. (United States)

    Zhuang, J M; Walsh, T


    The process using lignosulfonates for acidic rock drainage (ARD) treatment is referred to as the Lignor process. Lignosulfonates are waste by-products produced in the sulfite pulping process. The present study has shown lignosulfonates are able to protect lime from developing an external surface coating, and hence to favor its dissociation. Further, the addition of lignosulfonates to ARD solutions increased the dotting and settling rate of the formed sludge. The capability of lignosulfonates to form stable metal-lignin complexes makes them very useful in retaining metal ions and thus improving the long-term stability of the sludge against leaching. The Lignor process involves metal sorption with lignosulfonates, ARD neutralization by lime to about pH 7, pH adjustment with caustic soda to 9.4 - 9.6, air oxidation to lower the pH to a desired level, and addition of a minimum amount of FeCl3 for further removal of dissolved metals. The Lignor process removes all concerned metals (especially Al and Mn) from the ARD of the Britannia Mine (located at Britannia Beach, British Columbia, Canada) to a level lower than the limits of the B.C. Regulations. Compared with the high-density sludge (HDS) process, the Lignor process has many advantages, such as considerable savings in lime consumption, greatly reduced sludge volume, and improved sludge stability.

  4. Inertial gravity currents from edge drainage (United States)

    Momen, Mostafa; Zheng, Zhong; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Stone, Howard


    Gravity currents are formed due to a density gradient in the horizontal direction between the current and an ambient fluid. In this work, we present theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies of the release of a finite volume of fluid instantaneously from the edge of a rectangular domain for high-Reynolds-number flows. The setup is relevant in geophysical and engineering applications such as open channels, and dam-break problems. For the cases we considered, the results indicate that about half of the initial volume exits during an early adjustment period. Then, the inertial gravity current reaches a self-similar phase during which about 40% of its volume drains and its height decreases as τ-2, where τ is a dimensionless time that is derived with the typical gravity wave speed and the horizontal length of the domain. Based on scaling arguments, we reduce the shallow-water PDEs into two nonlinear ODEs, which are then solved analytically. The new self-similar solutions are in good agreement with the performed experiments and direct numerical simulations for various geometries and fluid densities. This study provides new insights into the dynamical behavior of edge drainage flows, particularly during the inertial regime. The simulations were performed on the Della computer clusters of Princeton University.

  5. Origin of acid mine drainage in Enugu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma, K.O.


    Mine flooding is a serious problem in the Enugu Coal Mines and has led to the abandonment of two of the four mines. About 1800 m 3 of water is pumped out daily from the mines into the nearby streams. The source of this enormous volume of water has been established based on the hydrodynamics and hydrology of the area. Two prolific aquifers - an unconfined and a confined system - overlie the mines, but the mine water is derived principally from the unconfined aquifer. The pathway of flow is, provided by the numerous fractures connecting the two aquifers and the mine tunnel. The major hydrochemical activity resulting in pollution of the mine water occurs within the sumps in the floor of the longwalls. These sumps act as oxidation chambers where groundwater from the fractures mixes and subsequently reacts with sulfur-rich solutes released by coal mining. Contrary to general belief, the mine drainage has not seriously degraded the chemistry of receiving streams. The pH and electric conductivity, representing, the dissolved ions, were increased less than 10% of the values in the unaffected region

  6. Long hole waterjet drilling for gas drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Stockwell; M. Gledhill; S. Hildebrand; S. Adam; Tim Meyer [CMTE (Australia)


    In-seam drilling for gas drainage is now an essential part of operations at many Australian underground coalmines. The objective of this project is to develop and trial a new drilling method for the accurate and efficient installation of long inseam boreholes (>1000 metres). This involves the integration of pure water-jet drilling technology (i.e. not water-jet assisted rotary drilling) developed by CMTE with conventional directional drilling technology. The system was similar to conventional directional drilling methods, but instead of relying on a down-hole-motor (DHM) rotating a mechanical drill bit for cutting, high pressure water-jets were used. The testing of the system did not achieve the full objectives set down in the project plan. A borehole greater than 1000 metres was not achieved. The first trial site had coal that was weathered, oxidized and dry. These conditions significantly affected the ability of the drilling tool to stay 'in-seam'. Due to the poor conditions at the first trial, many experimental objectives were forwarded to the second field trial. In the second trial drilling difficulties were experienced, this was due to the interaction between the confinement of the borehole and the dimensions of the down hole drilling assembly. This ultimately reduced the productivity of the system and the distance that could be drilled within the specified trial periods. Testing in the first field trial did not show any indication that the system would have this difficulty.

  7. Tectonics and paleogeography along the Amazon river (United States)

    Costa, João Batista Sena; Léa Bemerguy, Ruth; Hasui, Yociteru; da Silva Borges, Maurício


    The main structural and geomorphological features along the Amazon River are closely associated with Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic events. The Mesozoic tectonic setting is characterised by the Amazonas and Marajó Basins, two distinct extensional segments. The Amazonas Basin is formed by NNE-SSW normal faults, which control the emplacement of dolerite dykes and deposition of the sedimentary pile. In the more intense tectonic phase (mid-Late Cretaceous), the depocentres were filled with fluvial sequences associated with axial drainage systems, which diverge from the Lower Tapajós Arch. During the next subsidence phase, probably in the Early Tertiary, and under low rate extension, much of the drainage systems reversed, directing the paleo-Amazon River to flow eastwards. The Marajó Basin encompasses NW-SE normal faults and NE-SW strike-slip faults, with the latter running almost parallel to the extensional axes. The normal faults controlled the deposition of thick rift and post-rift sequences and the emplacement of dolerite dykes. During the evolution of the basin, the shoulder (Gurupá Arch) became distinct, having been modelled by drainage systems strongly controlled by the trend of the strike-slip faults. The Arari Lineament, which marks the northwest boundary of the Marajó Basin, has been working as a linkage corridor between the paleo and modern Amazon River with the Atlantic Ocean. The neotectonic evolution since the Miocene comprises two sets of structural and geomorphological features. The older set (Miocene-Pliocene) encompasses two NE-trending transpressive domains and one NW-trending transtensive domain, which are linked to E-W and NE-SW right-lateral strike-slip systems. The transpressive domains display aligned hills controlled by reverse faults and folds, and are separated by large plains associated with pull-apart basins along clockwise strike-slip systems (e.g. Tupinambarana Lineament). Many changes were introduced in the landscape by the

  8. Hydrochemistry, mineralogy and sulfur isotope geochemistry of acid mine drainage at the Mt. Morgan mine environment, Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edraki, M.; Golding, S.D.; Baublys, K.A.; Lawrence, M.G.


    Mineralogical, hydrochemical and S isotope data were used to constrain hydrogeochemical processes that produce acid mine drainage from sulfidic waste at the historic Mount Morgan Au-Cu mine, and the factors controlling the concentration of SO 4 and environmentally hazardous metals in the nearby Dee River in Queensland, Australia. Some highly contaminated acid waters, with metal contents up to hundreds of orders of magnitude greater than the Australia-New Zealand environmental standards, by-pass the water management system at the site and drain into the adjacent Dee River. Mine drainage precipitates at Mt. Morgan were classified into 4 major groups and were identified as hydrous sulfates and hydroxides of Fe and Al with various contents of other metals. These minerals contain adsorbed or mineralogically bound metals that are released into the water system after rainfall events. Sulfate in open pit water and collection sumps generally has a narrow range of S isotope compositions (δ 34 S = 1.8-3.7%o) that is comparable to the orebody sulfides and makes S isotopes useful for tracing SO 4 back to its source. The higher δ 34 S values for No. 2 Mill Diesel sump may be attributed to a difference in the source. Dissolved SO 4 in the river above the mine influence and 20 km downstream show distinctive heavier isotope compositions (δ 34 S = 5.4-6.8%o). The Dee River downstream of the mine is enriched in 34 S (δ 34 S = 2.8-5.4%o) compared with mine drainage possibly as a result of bacterial SO 4 reduction in the weir pools, and in the water bodies within the river channel. The SO 4 and metals attenuate downstream by a combination of dilution with the receiving waters, SO 4 reduction, and the precipitation of Fe and Al sulfates and hydroxides. It is suggested here that in subtropical Queensland, with distinct wet and dry seasons, temporary reducing environments in the river play an important role in S isotope systematics

  9. New records and distribution extension of Hyphessobrycon itaparicensis Lima & Costa, 2001 (Characiformes: Characidae) in coastal drainages of Sergipe state, northeastern Brazil


    Brito, Marcelo; Lima, Sergio; Berbel-Filho, Waldir; Torres, Rodrigo


    The present study reports the first record of the small characid fish Hyphessobrycon itaparicensis Lima and Costa, 2001 in two coastal drainages of Sergipe State, Brazil. This species was collected in three sampling sites from Piauí and Sergipe river basins, both in the hydrographic ecoregion of Northeastern Mata Atlantica. Aspects of habitat, diet composition, phenotypic variation, molecular identification and distribution of H. itaparicensis are herein discussed.

  10. Geometry of river networks. III. Characterization of component connectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Rothman, Daniel H.


    Essential to understanding the overall structure of river networks is a knowledge of their detailed architecture. Here we explore the presence of randomness in river network structure and the details of its consequences. We first show that an averaged view of network architecture is provided by a proposed self-similarity statement about the scaling of drainage density, a local measure of stream concentration. This scaling of drainage density is shown to imply Tokunaga's law, a description of the scaling of side branch abundance along a given stream, as well as a scaling law for stream lengths. We then consider fluctuations in drainage density and consequently the numbers of side branches. Data are analyzed for the Mississippi River basin and a model of random directed networks. Numbers of side streams are found to follow exponential distributions, as are intertributary distances along streams. Finally, we derive a joint variation of side stream abundance with stream length, affording a full description of fluctuations in network structure. Fluctuations in side stream numbers are shown to be a direct result of fluctuations in stream lengths. This is the last paper in a series of three on the geometry of river networks

  11. Bibliography for acid-rock drainage and selected acid-mine drainage issues related to acid-rock drainage from transportation activities (United States)

    Bradley, Michael W.; Worland, Scott C.


    Acid-rock drainage occurs through the interaction of rainfall on pyrite-bearing formations. When pyrite (FeS2) is exposed to oxygen and water in mine workings or roadcuts, the mineral decomposes and sulfur may react to form sulfuric acid, which often results in environmental problems and potential damage to the transportation infrastructure. The accelerated oxidation of pyrite and other sulfidic minerals generates low pH water with potentially high concentrations of trace metals. Much attention has been given to contamination arising from acid mine drainage, but studies related to acid-rock drainage from road construction are relatively limited. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Transportation, is conducting an investigation to evaluate the occurrence and processes controlling acid-rock drainage and contaminant transport from roadcuts in Tennessee. The basic components of acid-rock drainage resulting from transportation activities are described and a bibliography, organized by relevant categories (remediation, geochemical, microbial, biological impact, and secondary mineralization) is presented.

  12. Drainage filter technologies to mitigate site-specific phosphorus losses in agricultural drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Canga, Eriona

    Losses of phosphorus (P) in drainage waters contribute an estimated 33% to the total agricultural P load in Denmark. Mitigating agricultural P losses is challenging, as critical P losses comprise only a very small fraction of actual soil P contents and are not directly related to fertilizer P input...... filters and constructed wetlands (CWs). Various natural and industrial P filter substrates (granulated Fe-oxides, crushed seashells, Filtralite-PTM, granulated lime, calcined diatomitic earth) have been tested for their affinity and long-term capacity to reduce inlet P concentrations to below...

  13. Are calanco landforms similar to river basins? (United States)

    Caraballo-Arias, N A; Ferro, V


    In the past badlands have been often considered as ideal field laboratories for studying landscape evolution because of their geometrical similarity to larger fluvial systems. For a given hydrological process, no scientific proof exists that badlands can be considered a model of river basin prototypes. In this paper the measurements carried out on 45 Sicilian calanchi, a type of badlands that appears as a small-scale hydrographic unit, are used to establish their morphological similarity with river systems whose data are available in the literature. At first the geomorphological similarity is studied by identifying the dimensionless groups, which can assume the same value or a scaled one in a fixed ratio, representing drainage basin shape, stream network and relief properties. Then, for each property, the dimensionless groups are calculated for the investigated calanchi and the river basins and their corresponding scale ratio is evaluated. The applicability of Hack's, Horton's and Melton's laws for establishing similarity criteria is also tested. The developed analysis allows to conclude that a quantitative morphological similarity between calanco landforms and river basins can be established using commonly applied dimensionless groups. In particular, the analysis showed that i) calanchi and river basins have a geometrically similar shape respect to the parameters Rf and Re with a scale factor close to 1, ii) calanchi and river basins are similar respect to the bifurcation and length ratios (λ=1), iii) for the investigated calanchi the Melton number assumes values less than that (0.694) corresponding to the river case and a scale ratio ranging from 0.52 and 0.78 can be used, iv) calanchi and river basins have similar mean relief ratio values (λ=1.13) and v) calanchi present active geomorphic processes and therefore fall in a more juvenile stage with respect to river basins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. National Water-Quality Assessment Program, western Lake Michigan drainages: Summaries of liaison committee meeting, Green Bay, Wisconsin, March 28-29, 1995 (United States)

    Peters, Charles A.


    The Western Lake Michigan Drainages (WMIC) study unit, under investigation since 1991, drains 20,000 square miles (mi2) in eastern Wisconsin and Upper Michigan (fig. 1). The major water-quality issues in the WMIC study unit are: (1) nonpoint-source contamination of surface and ground water by agricultural chemicals, (2) contamination in bottom sediments of rivers and harbors by toxic substances, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), other synthetic organic compounds, and trace elements, (3) nutrient enrichment of rivers and lakes resulting from nonpoint- and point-source discharges, and (4) acidification and mercury contamination of lakes in poorly buffered watersheds in the northwestern part of the study unit.

  15. 21Pb dating of sediments in a heavily contaminated drainage channel to the La Plata estuary in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Gregorio, D.E.; Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Huck, H.; Somacal, H.; Curutchet, G.


    Concentrations of 21 Pb and 137 Cs in sediment samples collected from two cores at a drainage channel to the La Plata river estuary in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were measured using ultralow-background detection systems. The 21 Pb data were used to determine the rate of sediment accumulation of the sites. These results were correlated with some heavy metal (chromium and lead) concentrations of the samples in an attempt to characterize the historical input of contaminants due to the industrial development, which has taken place in this area over the last century. The 137 Cs measurements demonstrate that cesium dating is not adequate in regions of the southern hemisphere

  16. Documenting feedbacks between surface processes and structural deformation in East Timor using stream profile and drainage network analysis (United States)

    Tate, G. W.; Willett, S.; McQuarrie, N.; Goren, L.; Fox, M.


    While river profile analyses have long been used to evaluate the development of landforms, recent advances in analyzing drainage networks have significantly improved the ability to positively link stream profiles with surface uplift. In one such method, Perron and Royden (2012) define the value chi, an integral quantity based on the steady-state stream power equation which aids in determining the conformity of rivers and drainage basins to steady-state behavior. East Timor is an ideal location to test new methods using chi, as it is an active and unglaciated orogen with independent constraints of the deformational history through thermochronology and structural geology. We utilize the calculation of chi in our analyses of the drainage network to provide new constraints on the most recent uplift history of the island of Timor. Discontinuities in chi across drainage divides imply different steady state baselevel for hillslopes and therefore active migration of the divide. We confirm this by noting visible landslides in satellite images and asymmetries in hillslope steepness. Analyses of chi and elevation reveal in some locations that tributaries within a single basin have experienced distinctly different histories, documenting instances where previous river capture has occurred. In other locations the relationships between chi and elevation along single rivers denote spatial changes in surface uplift rate. Many of these observations from the drainage network correspond well to patterns of recent exhumation identified from thermochronologic analyses as well as structural constraints from field mapping and balanced cross-sections. Much of the fastest exhumation on the island (as indicated by zircon (U-Th)/He ages of 1.5-3.8 Ma and modeled exhumation rates of 1-3 mm/yr) is in the hinterland slate belt, which also contains the most stream profile remnants of paleo-capture events. Many locations of active river capture correspond well to independently constrained

  17. The use of constructed wetlands in the treatment of acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, A.; Kleinmann, R.L.P.


    US government regulations require that all effluents from industrial operations, including mining, meet certain water quality standards. Constructed wetlands have proven to be useful in helping to attain those standards. Application of this biotechnology to mine water drainage can reduce water treatment costs and improve water quality in streams and rivers adversely affected by acidic mine water drainage from abandoned mines. Over 400 constructed wetland water treatment systems have been built on mined lands largely as a result of research by the US Bureau of Mines. Wetlands are passive biological treatment systems that are relatively inexpensive to construct and require minimal maintenance. Chemical treatment costs are reduced sufficiently to repay the cost of construction in less than a year. The mine waste water is typically treated in a series of excavated ponds that resemble small marsh areas. The ponds are engineered to facilitate bacterial oxidation of iron. Ideally, the water then flows through a composted organic substrate supporting a population of sulphate-reducing bacteria which raises the pH. Constructed wetlands in the USA are described - their history, functions, construction methodologies, applicabilities, limitations and costs. (author). 26 refs, 2 figs

  18. How rivers split (United States)

    Seybold, H. F.; Yi, R.; Devauchelle, O.; Petroff, A.; Rothman, D.


    River networks have fascinated mankind for centuries. They exhibit a striking geometry with similar shapes repeating on all scales. Yet, how these networks form and create these geometries remains elusive. Recently we have shown that channels fed by subsurface flow split at a characteristic angle of 2π/5 unambiguously consistent with our field measurements in a seepage network on the Florida Panhandle (Fig.1). Our theory is based only on the simple hypothesis that the channels grow in the direction at which the ground water enters the spring and classical solutions of subsurface hydrology. Here we apply our analysis to the ramification of large drainage basins and extend our theory to include slope effects. Using high resolution stream networks from the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD), we scrutinize our hypothesis in arbitrary channel networks and investigate the branching angle dependence on Horton-Strahler order and the maturity of the streams.; High-resolution topographic map of valley networks incised by groundwater flow, located on the Florida Panhandle near Bristol, FL.

  19. Adaptive Drainage Slots for Acoustic Noise Attenuation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to demonstrate feasibility in the reduction of noise attributed to drainage slots in jet engine acoustic liners....

  20. Adaptive Drainage Slots for Acoustic Noise Attenuation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG) demonstrated feasibility in the reduction of noise attributed to drainage slots in jet engine acoustic liners. This was...

  1. Pre-operative biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Wang, Qin; Davidson, Brian R; Lin, He; Xie, Xiaodong; Wang, Chaohua


    Background Patients with obstructive jaundice have various pathophysiological changes that affect the liver, kidney, heart, and the immune system. There is considerable controversy as to whether temporary relief of biliary obstruction prior to major definitive surgery (pre-operative biliary drainage) is of any benefit to the patient. Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of pre-operative biliary drainage versus no pre-operative biliary drainage (direct surgery) in patients with obstructive jaundice (irrespective of a benign or malignant cause). Search methods We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until February 2012. Selection criteria We included all randomised clinical trials comparing biliary drainage followed by surgery versus direct surgery, performed for obstructive jaundice, irrespective of the sample size, language, and publication status. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), rate ratio (RaR), or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on the available patient analyses. We assessed the risk of bias (systematic overestimation of benefit or systematic underestimation of harm) with components of the Cochrane risk of bias tool. We assessed the risk of play of chance (random errors) with trial sequential analysis. Main results We included six trials with 520 patients comparing pre-operative biliary drainage (265 patients) versus no pre-operative biliary drainage (255 patients). Four trials used percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and two trials used endoscopic sphincterotomy and stenting as the method of pre-operative biliary drainage. The risk of bias was high in all trials. The proportion of patients with malignant obstruction varied between 60

  2. Vegetation damage and recovery after Chiginagak Volcano Crater drainage event (United States)

    Department of the Interior — From August 20 — 23, 2006, I revisited Chiginigak volcano to document vegetation recovery after the crater drainage event that severely damaged vegetation in May of...

  3. Drainage facility management system : final report, June 2009. (United States)


    This research project identified requirements for a drainage facility management system for the Oregon Department of Transportation. It also estimated the personnel resources needed to collect the inventory to populate such a system with data. A tota...

  4. Drainage identification analysis and mapping, phase 2 : technical brief. (United States)


    This research studied, tested and rectified the compatibility issue related to the recent upgrades of : NJDOT vendor inspection software, and uploaded all collected data to make Drainage Identification : Analysis and Mapping System (DIAMS) current an...

  5. Ross Ice Drainage System (RIDS) Glaciochemical Analysis, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Ross Ice Drainage System (RIDS) project provides a high-resolution record of atmospheric chemical deposition taken from several ice cores and snow pits located...

  6. A skin abscess model for teaching incision and drainage procedures. (United States)

    Fitch, Michael T; Manthey, David E; McGinnis, Henderson D; Nicks, Bret A; Pariyadath, Manoj


    Skin and soft tissue infections are increasingly prevalent clinical problems, and it is important for health care practitioners to be well trained in how to treat skin abscesses. A realistic model of abscess incision and drainage will allow trainees to learn and practice this basic physician procedure. We developed a realistic model of skin abscess formation to demonstrate the technique of incision and drainage for educational purposes. The creation of this model is described in detail in this report. This model has been successfully used to develop and disseminate a multimedia video production for teaching this medical procedure. Clinical faculty and resident physicians find this model to be a realistic method for demonstrating abscess incision and drainage. This manuscript provides a detailed description of our model of abscess incision and drainage for medical education. Clinical educators can incorporate this model into skills labs or demonstrations for teaching this basic procedure.

  7. Accelerating transient drainage from UMTRA Project tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The period between the completion of construction of the tailings disposal cell and the establishment of equilibrium moisture content and seepage conditions is considered to be the period of transient drainage. Transient drainage may be due to factors such as construction water, precipitation, or residual water from the milling process. Transient seepage rates usually exceed steady state seepage rates. If the transient seepage rate causes contaminant levels to exceed groundwater compliance standards, then an alternative groundwater compliance strategy or technical approach to reduce or mitigate the effects of the drainage must be adopted. This study examines methods to accelerate the transient drainage of soils and hence to remove excess pore water from tailings in UMTRA Project disposal cells. The technical and economic feasibility of possible methods is examined. In order to perform comparative economical analyses of the various methods, an example tailings pile is postulated. This pile is considered to be 300 meters by 300 meters by 10 meters in thickness

  8. A river (used to) run through it: piracy in the Yukon (United States)

    Shugar, D. H.; Clague, J. J.; Best, J.; Schoof, C.; Willis, M. J.; Copland, L.; Roe, G.


    In Spring 2016, Slims River, Yukon, Canada, underwent piracy, leading to virtually all of its flow being captured by Kaskawulsh River. This large-scale geomorphic change was triggered by retreat of the Kaskawulsh Glacier, which allowed reorganisation of the drainage in front of the ice, permitting the rerouting of most glacially-derived water flow into the Kaskawulsh valley and away from Slims River. Because of the location of these two rivers, this combined flow now drains into the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Slims River used to drain, via Kluane Lake, to the Bering Sea. This river piracy likely occurred over a period of 4 days in May 2016, and statistical analyses have shown that the glacier retreat responsible was due to warming within the industrial era. This paper will detail the nature of this river capture and it consequences as revealed by fieldwork in the summers of 2016 and 2017, and time series of satellite imagery. Initial surveying of the ice front in August 2016 documented the drainage of two lakes in the immediate pro-glacial region, formation of an ice canyon at the front of Kaskawulsh Glacier and generation of mud flows on the newly exposed sediments. Downstream at Kluane Lake, into which the now abandoned Slims River used to flow, the lake level was lowered and the newly exposed delta top was subject to intense wind erosion that generated appreciable dust storms. Renewed field study in August 2017 has documented the continued evolution of the drainage and aims to provide data on how the ice front is responding to this new drainage pattern, including expansion/contraction of lakes and reworking on older pro-glacial sediments. Time series of satellite imagery will be shown to analyse the nature of glacial retreat leading to the river piracy, including asymmetric advance/melting on opposite sides of the glacier front.

  9. Properties of the subglacial till inferred from supraglacial lake drainage (United States)

    Neufeld, J. A.; Hewitt, D.


    The buildup and drainage of supraglacial lakes along the margins of the Greenland ice sheet has been previously observed using detailed GPS campaigns which show that rapid drainage events are often preceded by localised, transient uplift followed by rapid, and much broader scale, uplift and flexure associated with the main drainage event [1,2]. Previous models of these events have focused on fracturing during rapid lake drainage from an impermeable bedrock [3] or a thin subglacial film [4]. We present a new model of supraglacial drainage that couples the water flux from rapid lake drainage events to a simplified model of the pore-pressure in a porous, subglacial till along with a simplified model of the flexure of glacial ice. Using a hybrid mathematical model we explore the internal transitions between turbulent and laminar flow throughout the evolving subglacial cavity and porous till. The model predicts that an initially small water flux may locally increase pore-pressure in the till leading to uplift and a local divergence in the ice velocity that may ultimately be responsible for large hydro-fracturing and full-scale drainage events. Furthermore, we find that during rapid drainage while the presence of a porous, subglacial till is crucial for propagation, the manner of spreading is remarkably insensitive to the properties of the subglacial till. This is in stark contrast to the post-drainage relaxation of the pore pressure, and hence sliding velocity, which is highly sensitive to the permeability, compressibility and thickness of subglacial till. We use our model, and the inferred sensitivity to the properties of the subglacial till after the main drainage event, to infer the properties of the subglacial till. The results suggest that a detailed interpretation of supraglacial lake drainage may provide important insights into the hydrology of the subglacial till along the margins of the Greenland ice sheet, and the coupling of pore pressure in subglacial till

  10. Aquatic invertebrates of the Ribnica and Lepenica Rivers: Composition of the community and water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Aleksandra


    Full Text Available Results of investigating the community of aquatic invertebrates in the Ribnica and Lepenica Rivers (Kolubara River drainage area are given in the present work. Forty-three taxa are recorded. In relation to other studied streams in Serbia, the investigated rivers are characterized by high diversity of macroinvertebrates. Cluster analysis indicates that the locality on the Lepenica stands apart from those on the Ribnica, which is a consequence of the difference of habitats found at them. Results of saprobiological analysis of the macrozoobenthos in the given rivers indicate that their waters belong to quality classes I and II.

  11. Thematic survey of subsurface drainage systems in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tlapáková, L.; Žaloudík, Jiří; Kolejka, Jaromír


    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2017), s. 55-65 ISSN 1744-5647 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68145535 Keywords : subsurface drainage system * remote sensing * image interpretation * drainage recognition and mapping Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality; DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography (UGN-S) OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7); Physical geography (UGN-S) Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2016

  12. Infected Baerveldt Glaucoma Drainage Device by Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul-Laila Salim


    Full Text Available Fungal endophthalmitis is rare but may complicate glaucoma drainage device surgery. Management is challenging as the symptoms and signs may be subtle at initial presentation and the visual prognosis is usually poor due to its resistant nature to treatment. At present there is lesser experience with intravitreal injection of voriconazole as compared to Amphotericin B. We present a case of successfully treated Aspergillus endophthalmitis following Baerveldt glaucoma drainage device implantation with intravitreal and topical voriconazole.

  13. Percutaneous drainage of complicated abscesses and fluid collections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittich, G.R.; Karnel, F.; Kumpan, W.; Herold, C.; Schurawitzki, H.; Van Sonnenberg, E.; Casola, G.; Jantsch, H.


    The original concept of percutaneous, radiological abscess drainage was confined to well circumscribed, solitary abscesses, that could be reached by a short access avoiding transgression of uninvolved organs or compartments. With increasing experience criteria for percutaneous abscess drainage have been expanded to radiological treatment of pancreatic, periappendiceal, diverticular, interloop and mediastinal abscesses and fluid collections. The authors present their experience with percutaneous treatment of such 'complicated' abscesses in 140 patients. (orig.) [de

  14. Is routine abdominal drainage necessary after liver resection? (United States)

    Wada, Seidai; Hatano, Etsuro; Yoh, Tomoaki; Seo, Satoru; Taura, Kojiro; Yasuchika, Kentaro; Okajima, Hideaki; Kaido, Toshimi; Uemoto, Shinji


    Prophylactic abdominal drainage is performed routinely after liver resection in many centers. The aim of this study was to examine the safety and validity of liver resection without abdominal drainage and to clarify whether routine abdominal drainage after liver resection is necessary. Patients who underwent elective liver resection without bilio-enteric anastomosis between July, 2006 and June, 2012 were divided into two groups, based on whether surgery was performed before or after, we adopted the no-drain strategy. The "former group" comprised 256 patients operated on between July, 2006 and June, 2009 and the "latter group" comprised 218 patients operated between July, 2009 and June, 2012. We compared the postoperative complications, percutaneous drainage, and postoperative hospital stay between the groups, retrospectively. There were no significant differences in the rates of postoperative bleeding, intraabdominal infection, or bile leakage between the groups. Drain insertion after liver resection did not reduce the rate of percutaneous drainage. Postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter in the latter group. Routine abdominal drainage is unnecessary after liver resection without bilio-enteric anastomosis.

  15. Percutaneous catheter drainage of intraabdominal abscesses and fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Tae; Kwon, Tae Hee; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Suh, Jung Ho; Lee, Young Ho


    Percutaneous catheter drainage has been reported to be an effective method in the management of selected patients with abscess and fluid collection. Its high success rate and relatively low complications make the procedure an alternative to surgery in the individual cases. During past two years percutaneous catheter drainage in 25 patients with intraabdominal abscesses and fluid collection was performed at the Department of Radiology, Yonsei University College of medicine. Here the technique and author's results were summarized. 1. The total 25 patients who had percutaneous catheter drainage are 10 liver abscesses, 3 subphrenic, one subhepatic, 4 renal and perirenal, 2 pelvic, one psoas, one anterior pararenal fluid from acute pancreatitis, one pancreas pseudocyst and 2 malignant tumor necrosis. 2. The modified Seldinger technique used for all cases of abscess and fluid drainage under guidance of ultrasound scan. The used catheters were 10F. Pigtail and 14F. Malecot (Cook c/o) catheters. 3. The abscesses and fluid of 17 patients among 25 were cured by the percutaneous catheter drainage and 4 patients were clinically improved. The catheter drainage was failed in 2 patients and 3 complication were developed. 4. The success rate of this procedure was 91.3%, failure rate was 8.7% and complication rate was 12%.

  16. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: analysis of 175 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Kyung Jin; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kim, Tae Hun; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duk Sik


    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is a safe, effective and palliative means of treatment in biliary obstruction, especially in cases with malignant obstruction which are inoperable. 175 cases of transhepatic biliary drainage were performed on 119 patients with biliary obstruction from January 1985 to June 1989 at Kyung-pook National University Hospital. The causes of obstructive jaundice were 110 malignant diseases and 9 benign diseases. The most common indication for drainage was palliative intervention of obstruction secondary to malignant tumor in 89 cases. 86 cases of external drainage were performed including 3 cases of left duct approach, 29 cases of external-internal drainage and 60 cases of endoprosthesis. In external and external-internal drainages, immediate major complications (11.9%) occurred, including not restricted to, but sepsis, bile peritonitis and hemobilia. Delayed major complications (42.9%) were mainly catheter related. The delayed major complication of endoprosthesis resulted from obstruction of the internal stent. The mean time period to reobstruction of the internal stent was about 12 weeks. To improve management status, regular follow-up is required, as is education of both patients and their families as to when immediate clinical attention is mandated. Close communication amongst the varying medical specialities involved will be necessary to provide optional treatment for each patient

  17. Do general dental practitioners leave teeth on 'open drainage'? (United States)

    Eliyas, S; Barber, M W; Harris, I


    There is a need to ascertain the use of evidence-based dentistry in both primary and secondary care in order to tailor education. This study aims to evaluate the use of 'open drainage' as part of endodontic treatment in primary care in South Yorkshire. A questionnaire was circulated to 141 randomly selected general dental practitioners in the South Yorkshire area between January 2012 and January 2013. The response rate was 79% (112/141). Five of the returned questionnaires were incomplete and therefore not usable. Seventy-nine percent of respondents were general dental practitioners (GDPs) working in mainly NHS or mixed practices. The year of graduation varied between 1970 and 2011. Forty-one percent (44/107) stated that they had never left a tooth on open drainage. Twenty-nine percent (31/107) stated that they sometimes leave teeth on open drainage. Of those respondents who currently leave teeth on open drainage, most (68%) would leave teeth on open drainage for one to two days or less. This survey revealed that the practice of leaving teeth on open drainage is still present in general dental practice. Current guidelines do not comment on the use of this treatment modality. There is a need to ascertain further information about practices throughout the United Kingdom in order to provide clear evidence-based guidelines.

  18. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    policy making, decision drivers and framing of large hydropower projects in China. Hydropower is a complex and interesting field to explore as the consequences go beyond the immediate locality and interacts with local as well as the global contexts. Inspired by Tsing (2003) and Zhan (2008) the paper...... explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...... after running through the Thai-Burmese border. In 2003, a cascade of up to 13 dams were approved by the Chinese government, however, as of yet no dams have been built due to a prolonged controversy between Chinese government officials, Chinese and international environmental NGOs, the media, social...

  19. 46 CFR 116.1120 - Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Drainage and Watertight Integrity of Weather Decks § 116.1120 Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats. Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck...

  20. The Amazon River reversal explained by tectonic and surface processes (United States)

    Sacek, V.


    The drainage pattern in Amazonia was expressively modified during the mountain building of central and northern Andes. In Early Miocene, the fluvial systems in western Amazonia flowed to the foreland basins and northward to the Caribbean. By Late Miocene the drainage reversal occurred and formed the transcontinental Amazon River, connecting the Andes and the equatorial Atlantic margin. This event is recorded in the stratigraphic evolution of the Foz do Amazonas Basin by the onset of Andean-derived sedimentation. Additionally, an abrupt increase in sedimentation rate after the reversal occurred in the Foz do Amazonas Basin. Based on three-dimensional numerical models that couple surface processes, flexural isostasy and crustal thickening due to orogeny, I concluded that the Miocene drainage reversal can be explained by the flexural and surface processes response to the Andes formation with no need to invoke dynamic topography induced by mantle convection, as previously proposed. I observed that the instant of drainage reversal is directly linked to the rate of crustal thickening in the orogeny, the rate of erosion and, mainly, the efficiency of sediment transport. Moreover, the numerical experiments were able to predict the increase in sedimentation rate in the Amazon fan after the drainage reversal of the Amazon River as observed in the Late Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary record. However, the present numerical model fails to fully reproduce the evolution of the Pebas system, a megawetland in western Amazonia that preceded the drainage reversal. Therefore, further investigation is necessary to evaluate the mechanisms that generated and sustained the Pebas system.

  1. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin (United States)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey


    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems

  2. Wind River Watershed Restoration 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G. [U.S. Geological Survey


    During 2004, researchers from U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize physical habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. Juvenile salmonid population surveys were conducted within select study areas throughout the subbasin. We expanded our survey coverage of the mainstem Wind River to a reach in the vicinity of Carson National Fish Hatchery to assess effects of non-indigenous Chinook on native steelhead. These efforts add to a database of habitat and fish data collected in the Wind River since 1996. This research contributes to the Wind River Restoration Project, which includes active stream habitat restoration and monitoring of adult and juvenile steelhead populations. We maintained a network of 32 thermographs in the Wind River subbasin during 2004. Additionally, Underwood Conservation District provided us with data from seven thermographs that they maintained during 2004. Thermograph data are identifying areas with chronic high water temperatures and stream sections where high rates of warming are occurring. During 2004, water temperatures at 26 thermograph sites exceeded the 16 C limit for surface waters set by the Washington Department of Ecology. Water temperatures exceeded 20 C at five sites in the Trout Creek watershed. Our thermograph dataset includes information from as early as 1996 at some sites and has become a valuable long-term dataset, which will be crucial in determining bioenergetic relationships with habitat and life-histories. We have monitored salmonid populations throughout the Wind River subbasin by electrofishing and snorkeling. We electrofished four stream sections for population estimates during 2004. In these sections, and others where we simply collected fish without a population estimate, we tagged juvenile steelhead and Chinook salmon with Passive Integrated Transponder

  3. Greenhouse gases emission from the sewage draining rivers. (United States)

    Hu, Beibei; Wang, Dongqi; Zhou, Jun; Meng, Weiqing; Li, Chongwei; Sun, Zongbin; Guo, Xin; Wang, Zhongliang


    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) concentration, saturation and fluxes in rivers (Beitang drainage river, Dagu drainage rive, Duliujianhe river, Yongdingxinhe river and Nanyunhe river) of Tianjin city (Haihe watershed) were investigated during July and October in 2014, and January and April in 2015 by static headspace gas chromatography method and the two-layer model of diffusive gas exchange. The influence of environmental variables on greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentration under the disturbance of anthropogenic activities was discussed by Spearman correlative analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that the concentration and fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O were seasonally variable with >winter>fall>summer, spring>summer>winter>fall and summer>spring>winter>fall for concentrations and spring>summer>fall>winter, spring>summer>winter>fall and summer>spring>fall>winter for fluxes respectively. The GHGs concentration and saturation were higher in comprehensively polluted river sites and lower in lightly polluted river sites. The three GHGs emission fluxes in two sewage draining rivers of Tianjin were clearly higher than those of other rivers (natural rivers) and the spatial variation of CH 4 was more obvious than the others. CO 2 and N 2 O air-water interface emission fluxes of the sewage draining rivers in four seasons were about 1.20-2.41 times and 1.13-3.12 times of those in the natural rivers. The CH 4 emission fluxes of the sewage draining rivers were 3.09 times in fall to 10.87 times in spring of those in the natural rivers in different season. The wind speed, water temperature and air temperature were related to GHGs concentrations. Nitrate and nitrite (NO 3 - +NO 2 - -N) and ammonia (NH 4 + -N) were positively correlated with CO 2 concentration and CH 4 concentration; and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was negatively correlated with CH 4 concentration and N 2 O concentration. The effect of

  4. Large Rivers in the Anthropocene: Insights and tools for understanding climatic, land use, and reservoir influences (United States)

    Habersack, Helmut; Haspel, Daniel; Kondolf, Mathias


    Since the industrial revolution, human impacts on landscapes and river systems globally have intensified significantly. Humans nowadays artificially increase and decrease fluxes of water, sediment and nutrients on a scale far exceeding natural fluxes. Rivers integrate such changes occurring throughout their drainage basins, and thus can be considered as indicators of landscape processes and river basin "health" more broadly. This special issue brings together a set of papers that explore interactions of climate change and river processes, influences of land use changes, effects of reservoirs, as well as new approaches to sorting out the relative importance of these diverse influences on rivers and uncertainties in modeling future behavior. These papers contribute to a growing body of work demonstrating the fundamental differences between large rivers in the Anthropocene and rivers in prior time periods.

  5. Sensitivity of drainage efficiency of cranberry fields to edaphic conditions (United States)

    Periard, Yann; José Gumiere, Silvio; Rousseau, Alain N.; Caron, Jean; Hallema, Dennis W.


    Water management on a cranberry farm requires intelligent irrigation and drainage strategies to sustain strong productivity and minimize environmental impact. For example, to avoid propagation of disease and meet evapotranspiration demand, it is imperative to maintain optimal moisture conditions in the root zone, which depends on an efficient drainage system. However, several drainage problems have been identified in cranberry fields. Most of these drainage problems are due to the presence of a restrictive layer in the soil profile (Gumiere et al., 2014). The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of a restrictive layer on the drainage efficiency by the bias of a multi-local sensitivity analysis. We have tested the sensitivity of the drainage efficiency to different input parameters set of soil hydraulic properties, geometrical parameters and climatic conditions. Soil water flux dynamic for every input parameters set was simulated with finite element model Hydrus 1D (Simanek et al., 2008). Multi-local sensitivity was calculated with the Gâteaux directional derivatives with the procedure described by Cheviron et al. (2010). Results indicate that drainage efficiency is more sensitive to soil hydraulic properties than geometrical parameters and climatic conditions. Then, the geometrical parameters of the depth are more sensitive than the thickness. The drainage efficiency was very insensitive to the climatic conditions. Understanding the sensitivity of drainage efficiency according to soil hydraulic properties, geometrical and climatic conditions are essential for diagnosis drainage problems. However, it becomes important to identify the mechanisms involved in the genesis of anthropogenic soils cranberry to identify conditions that may lead to the formation of a restrictive layer. References: Cheviron, B., S.J. Gumiere, Y. Le Bissonnais, R. Moussa and D. Raclot. 2010. Sensitivity analysis of distributed erosion models: Framework. Water Resources Research

  6. Hinterland tectonics and drainage evolution recorded by foreland basin archives: the Neogene Siwaliks of the Himalaya (United States)

    Huyghe, Pascale; van der Beek, Peter; Matthias, Bernet; Catherine, Chauvel; Jean-Louis, Mugnier; Laurent, Husson; François, Chirouze


    propagation of the main faults. The evolution of the sedimentary provenance can be explained by overall forward propagation of deformation in the Himalayan fold-thrust belt. In both the eastern and western syntaxes, it also shows stability of the major drainage systems of the Yarlung-Brahmaputra and Indus, respectively, suggesting that hinterland river incision kept pace with uplift of the syntaxes during the Neogene. Drainage reorganization may take place in the foreland basin because of thin-skinned tectonics but did not significantly affect sediment routing and the contribution of different sources of the upper catchment to the overall sediment budget. In contrast, major rivers in the Central Himalaya (such as the Kali Gandaki or the Karnali) could have been affected by changes in their upper catchment.

  7. Analysis of the Transport and Fate of Metals Released From the Gold King Mine in the Animas and San Juan Rivers (United States)

    This project’s objectives were to provide analysis of water quality following the release of acid mine drainage in the Animas and San Juan Rivers in a timely manner to 1) generate a comprehensive picture of the plume at the river system level, 2) help inform future monitoring eff...

  8. Uranium pollution in an estuary affected by pyrite acid mine drainage and releases of naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, M.; Manjon, G.; Hurtado, S.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.


    Highlights: → Huelva estuary is affected by former phosphogypsum releases and pyrite acid mine drainage. → Time evolution of uranium concentration is analyzed after halting of NORM releases. → Two new contamination sources are preventing the complete uranium cleaning: (1) The leaching of phosphogypsum stacks located close to Tinto River. (2) Pyrite acid mine drainage. → High uranium concentrations are dissolved in water and precipitate subsequently. - Abstract: After the termination of phosphogypsum discharges to the Huelva estuary (SW Spain), a unique opportunity was presented to study the response of a contaminated environmental compartment after the cessation of its main source of pollution. The evolution over time of uranium concentrations in the estuary is presented to supply new insights into the decontamination of a scenario affected by Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) discharges. The cleaning of uranium isotopes from the area has not taken place as rapidly as expected due to leaching from phosphogypsum stacks. An in-depth study using various techniques of analysis, including 234 U/ 238 U and 230 Th/ 232 Th ratios and the decreasing rates of the uranium concentration, enabled a second source of uranium contamination to be discovered. Increased uranium levels due to acid mine drainage from pyrite mines located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain) prevent complete uranium decontamination and, therefore, result in levels nearly twice those of natural background levels.

  9. Use of natural and applied tracers to guide targeted remediation efforts in an acid mine drainage system, Colorado Rockies, USA (United States)

    Cowie, Rory; Williams, Mark W.; Wireman, Mike; Runkel, Robert L.


    Stream water quality in areas of the western United States continues to be degraded by acid mine drainage (AMD), a legacy of hard-rock mining. The Rico-Argentine Mine in southwestern Colorado consists of complex multiple-level mine workings connected to a drainage tunnel discharging AMD to passive treatment ponds that discharge to the Dolores River. The mine workings are excavated into the hillslope on either side of a tributary stream with workings passing directly under the stream channel. There is a need to define hydrologic connections between surface water, groundwater, and mine workings to understand the source of both water and contaminants in the drainage tunnel discharge. Source identification will allow targeted remediation strategies to be developed. To identify hydrologic connections we employed a combination of natural and applied tracers including isotopes, ionic tracers, and fluorescent dyes. Stable water isotopes (δ18O/δD) show a well-mixed hydrological system, while tritium levels in mine waters indicate a fast flow-through system with mean residence times of years not decades or longer. Addition of multiple independent tracers indicated that water is traveling through mine workings with minimal obstructions. The results from a simultaneous salt and dye tracer application demonstrated that both tracer types can be successfully used in acidic mine water conditions.

  10. Assessing the Global Extent of Rivers Observable by SWOT (United States)

    Pavelsky, T.; Durand, M. T.; Andreadis, K.; Beighley, E.; Allen, G. H.; Miller, Z.


    Flow of water through rivers is among the key fluxes in the global hydrologic cycle and its knowledge would advance the understanding of flood hazards, water resources management, ecology, and climate. However, gauges providing publicly accessible measurements of river stage or discharge remain sparse in many regions. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission is a joint project of NASA and the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) that would provide the first high-resolution images of simultaneous terrestrial water surface height, inundation extent, and ocean surface elevation. Among SWOT's primary goals is the direct observation of variations in river water surface elevation and, where possible, estimation of river discharge from SWOT measurements. The mission science requirements specify that rivers wider than 100 m would be observed globally, with a goal of observing rivers wider than 50m. However, the extent of anticipated SWOT river observations remains fundamentally unknown because no high-resolution, global dataset of river widths exists. Here, we estimate the global extent of rivers wider than 50 m-100 m thresholds using established relationships among river width, discharge, and drainage area. We combine a global digital elevation model with in situ river discharge data to estimate the global extent of SWOT-observable rivers, and validate these estimates against satellite-derived measurements of river width in two large river basins (the Yukon and the Ohio). We then compare the extent of SWOT-observed rivers with the current publicly-available, global gauge network included in the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) database to examine the impact of SWOT on the availability of river observation over continental and global scales. Results suggest that if SWOT observes 100 m wide rivers, river basins with areas greater than 50,000 km2 will commonly be measured. If SWOT could observe 50 m wide rivers, then most 10,000 km2 basins

  11. Endoscopic computerized tomography guided percutaneous trans-gastric drainage: A case report on this hybrid approach


    Tsutsui, Nobuhiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Saito, Nobuhiro; Ohdaira, Hironori; Yamanouchi, Eigoro; Yoshida, Masashi


    Percutaneous drainage, percutaneous transgastric drainage, and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided transgastric drainage are primarily utilized for drainage of fluid collections dorsal to the stomach. Percutaneous transgastric drainage is performed with computed tomography (CT) guidance, but it requires inflation of a balloon in the stomach, and gastric peristalsis makes it difficult to ensure a reliable puncture route via the stomach. Using endoscopy-assisted CT-guidance, we were able to safe...

  12. Profile of thoracic trauma victims submitted to chest drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to describe and compare the variables involved in trauma victims undergoing thoracic drainage. Methods: we conducted a retrospective, analytical, descriptive, cross-sectional study, with medical records of patients attended at the Trauma Service of the Curitiba Evangelical University Hospital between February 2011 and January 2014. Results: there were 488 patients undergoing chest drainage, 84.7% men and 15.3% women, with an average age of 38.2 years. Attendances usually occurred at night, without predominance between open or closed mechanism, gender or age group. The majority of patients with thoracic trauma requiring drainage were diagnosed by anamnesis and physical examination (41.1% and drained in the emergency room (80.8%. Most of the patients (66.2% had another associated lesion, mostly some abdominal viscera. Complications were present in 16.6% (81 patients, most of them due to drainage positioning error (9.2%. The mean hospital stay was 15 days and drainage lasted for an average of 8.1 days, with no statistical difference between open and closed trauma. The clinical outcome was discharge in most cases. Conclusion: the profile of patients with thoracic trauma is that of young men, attended at night, with some other associated lesion. Although diagnosis and treatment were rapid and most often without the need for complex examinations, the time of drainage, hospitalization and complications were higher than in the literature, which can be explained by the drainage being made at the Emergency Room and the presence of associated injuries.

  13. A novel high vacuum chest drainage system - a pilot study. (United States)

    Mrówczyński, Wojciech; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Khabiri, Ebrahim; Giliberto, Jean-Pierre; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Kalangos, Afksendiyos; Walpoth, Beat H


    To assess the safety and feasibility of use of a novel high vacuum chest drainage system (HVCDS) and its influence on the cardiovascular system compared to a conventional system (CCDS). Five anesthetized pigs underwent a median sternotomy. Three drains were placed in retrocardiac, retrosternal and left pleural positions. The animals received a HVCDS (22 Fr with 180 2-mm holes, n = 2) or a CCDS (n = 2). In the fifth animal off pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCABG) stabilizers were tested. After chest closure animals had three 30 min runs of artificial bleeding (5 ml/min) under different negative aspiration pressures (-2, -20, -40 kPa) for both groups, followed by standardized surgical bleeding (-40 kPa - HVCDS, - 2 kPa - CCDS). Hemodynamic parameters and each drain's output were registered every 5 minutes and the residual blood was assessed. All catheters, the heart and left lung underwent macroscopic and histopathological examination. The application of the different pressures showed neither hemodynamic changes nor differences in blood drainage with both systems in two bleeding models. The HVCDS enabled drainage comparable to the CCDS but showed relevant clotting. Application of -20 kPa and -40 kPa caused macroscopic epicardial and pulmonary lesions in all tested devices including OPCABG stabilizers consisting of sub-epicardial or sub-pleural hemorrhage without myocyte or alveolar damage. The novel and conventional chest drainage systems used at pressures up to 40 kPa induced no hemodynamic instability. Both systems showed adequate equal drainage, despite major HVCDS clotting. High negative pressure drainage with both systems showed focal sub-epicardial and subpleural hemorrhage. Thus, long-term assessment of high pressure drainage and potential interaction with fragile structures (coronary bypass graft) should be carried out.

  14. Exocrine drainage in vascularized pancreas transplantation in the new millennium. (United States)

    El-Hennawy, Hany; Stratta, Robert J; Smith, Fowler


    The history of vascularized pancreas transplantation largely parallels developments in immunosuppression and technical refinements in transplant surgery. From the late-1980s to 1995, most pancreas transplants were whole organ pancreatic grafts with insulin delivery to the iliac vein and diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions to the urinary bladder (systemic-bladder technique). The advent of bladder drainage revolutionized the safety and improved the success of pancreas transplantation. However, starting in 1995, a seismic change occurred from bladder to bowel exocrine drainage coincident with improvements in immunosuppression, preservation techniques, diagnostic monitoring, general medical care, and the success and frequency of enteric conversion. In the new millennium, pancreas transplants are performed predominantly as pancreatico-duodenal grafts with enteric diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions coupled with iliac vein provision of insulin (systemic-enteric technique) although the systemic-bladder technique endures as a preferred alternative in selected cases. In the early 1990s, a novel technique of venous drainage into the superior mesenteric vein combined with bowel exocrine diversion (portal-enteric technique) was designed and subsequently refined over the next ≥ 20 years to re-create the natural physiology of the pancreas with first-pass hepatic processing of insulin. Enteric drainage usually refers to jejunal or ileal diversion of the exocrine secretions either with a primary enteric anastomosis or with an additional Roux limb. The portal-enteric technique has spawned a number of newer and revisited techniques of enteric exocrine drainage including duodenal or gastric diversion. Reports in the literature suggest no differences in pancreas transplant outcomes irrespective of type of either venous or exocrine diversion. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on exocrine drainage in the new millennium (the purported "enteric

  15. Geochemical characterisation of seepage and drainage water quality from two sulphide mine tailings impoundments: Acid mine drainage versus neutral mine drainage (United States)

    Heikkinen, P.M.; Raisanen, M.L.; Johnson, R.H.


    Seepage water and drainage water geochemistry (pH, EC, O2, redox, alkalinity, dissolved cations and trace metals, major anions, total element concentrations) were studied at two active sulphide mine tailings impoundments in Finland (the Hitura Ni mine and Luikonlahti Cu mine/talc processing plant). The data were used to assess the factors influencing tailings seepage quality and to identify constraints for water treatment. Changes in seepage water quality after equilibration with atmospheric conditions were evaluated based on geochemical modelling. At Luikonlahti, annual and seasonal changes were also studied. Seepage quality was largely influenced by the tailings mineralogy, and the serpentine-rich, low sulphide Hitura tailings produced neutral mine drainage with high Ni. In contrast, drainage from the high sulphide, multi-metal tailings of Luikonlahti represented typical acid mine drainage with elevated contents of Zn, Ni, Cu, and Co. Other factors affecting the seepage quality included weathering of the tailings along the seepage flow path, process water input, local hydrological settings, and structural changes in the tailings impoundment. Geochemical modelling showed that pH increased and some heavy metals were adsorbed to Fe precipitates after net alkaline waters equilibrated with the atmosphere. In the net acidic waters, pH decreased and no adsorption occurred. A combination of aerobic and anaerobic treatments is proposed for Hitura seepages to decrease the sulphate and metal loading. For Luikonlahti, prolonged monitoring of the seepage quality is suggested instead of treatment, since the water quality is still adjusting to recent modifications to the tailings impoundment.

  16. Impact assessment of mine drainage water and municipal wastewater on the surface water in the vicinity of Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardić Vojka R.


    impact on the environment. The study included the following sources of pollution: mining waste and drainage water originating from the active mine (Bor pit , field 1 Krivelj large tailings, flotation tailings in Bor RTH, metallurgical water, as well as the drainage water from the flotation tailings, which are no longer in operation (field 2 flotation tailings Great Krivelj, drainage water from the old Bor flotation tailings, the old inactive landfill mine gangue (Saraka landfill, Veliki planir - tailings from the old Bor mine, landfill mine gangue from mine RTH and the city - urban waste water, which are discharged without treatment directly into the watercourse Bor River. Wastewater directly pollute Bor River and Krivalj River.

  17. Effect of human activities on overall trend of sedimentation in the lower Yellow River, China. (United States)

    Jiongxin, Xu


    The Yellow River has been intensively affected by human activities, particularly in the past 50 years, including soil-water conservation in the upper and middle drainage basin, flood protection in the lower reaches, and flow regulation and water diversion in the whole drainage basin. All these changes may impact sedimentation process of the lower Yellow River in different ways. Assessing these impacts comprehensively is important for more effective environmental management of the drainage basin. Based on the data of annual river flow, sediment load, and channel sedimentation in the lower Yellow River between 1950 and 1997, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the overall trend of channel sedimentation rate at a time scale of 50 years, and its formative cause. It was found in this study that erosion control measures and water diversion have counteractive impacts on sedimentation rate in the lower Yellow River. Although both annual river flow and sediment decreased, there was no change in channel sedimentation rate. A regression analysis indicated that the sedimentation in the lower Yellow River decreased with the sediment input to the lower Yellow River but increased with the river flow input. In the past 30-40 years, the basin-wide practice of erosion and sediment control measures resulted in a decline in sediment supply to the Yellow River; at the same time, the human development of water resources that required river flow regulation and water diversion caused great reduction in river flow. The former may reduce the sedimentation in the lower Yellow River, but the reduction of river flow increased the sedimentation. When their effects counterbalanced each other, the overall trend of channel sedimentation in the lower Yellow River remained unchanged. This fact may help us to better understand the positive and negative effects of human activities in the Yellow River basin and to pay more attention to the negative effect of the development of water resources. The

  18. First collection of rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus (Cyprinidae), in the New River, West Virginia (United States)

    Easton, R.S.; Orth, D.J.; Burkhead, N.M.


    We collected the first rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus (Cyprinidae), from the New (Kanawha) River drainage, West Virginia. The rudd has now been reported from 12 states (Arkansas, Kansas, Illinois, Massachusetts, Maine, Missouri, New York, Oklahoma, Virginia, Wisconsin, and West Virginia) and several major river systems. The rapid spread of the rudd has apparently been facilitated by bait dealers. Despite its widespread distribution, there have been no investigations of potential interactions with native aquatic fauna.

  19. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 5. River Piracy Saraswati that Disappeared. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 19-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Author Affiliations.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender on leadership styles and administrative effective~~ess of secondary school principals in selected sctiools in Cross River State. In pursuance of this study, two hypothesis were formulated. Two sets of questionnaires, Principal's Self-Evaluation. Questionnaire ...