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Sample records for carson river drainage

  1. High levels of mercury contamination in multiple media of the Carson River drainage basin of Nevada: implications for risk assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Gustin; Taylor, G. E.; Leonard, T L

    1994-01-01

    Approximately 5.5 x 109 g (4.0 x 105) of mercury was discharged into the Carson River Drainage Basin of west-central Nevada during processing of the gold- and silver-rich Comstock ore in the late 1800s. For the past 13 decades, mercury has been redistributed throughout 500 km2 of the basin, and concentrations are some of the highest reported values in North America. This article documents the concentrations of mercury in the air, water, and substrate at both contaminated and noncontaminated s...

  2. Study of effects of discharges of Carson River below Lahontan Reservoir on Stillwater Marsh

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains tables of recorded flows in the Carson River below Lahontan Reservoir for the water years 1956-57 to 1962-63. The report states that Stillwater...

  3. Areas permitted for irrigation, storage, evaporation, and disposal of treated sewage effluent in the upper Carson River Basin, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of areas permitted for irrigation, storage, evaporation, and disposal of treated sewage effluent in the Upper Carson River Basin, California...

  4. Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge (Little River Division) [Land Status Map: Sheet 2 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  5. Mercury partitioning within alluvial sediments of the Carson river valley, Nevada: Implications for sampling strategies in tropical environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jerry R.; Lechler, Paul J.

    The Carson River system of west-central Nevada was subjected to a massive influx of mercury-enriched tailings derived from mining and milling of the Comstock Lode near the end of the 1800s. Detailed investigations have shown that these contaminated tailings were deposited along the Carson River Valley during a period of channel and floodplain aggradation. Following cessation of mining, incision re-exposed the historical sediment in banks of the modern channel. Concentrations of mercury in these deposits are commonly two to three orders of magnitude above background levels observed in other sediments and soils of the region. Most of the mercury is carried on fine-grained particles as would be expected from previous studies of trace metal partitioning in alluvial deposits. However, erosion and reworking of the historical sediment during lateral channel migration leads to a loss of fine-grained particles and a concentration of mercury-gold/silver amalgam grains in the modern channel bed. As a result, mercury is distributed in both fine- and coarse-grained sediment fractions of the channel floor. The enrichment of trace metals in fine-grained sediment of most aquatic systems has caused some investigators to argue that geographical and temporal trends in trace metal concentrations should be determined only after applying one of the several methodologies developed to correct for the effects of varying grain size. While this concept seems to apply well to the historical deposits of the Carson River, it would lead to erroneous conclusions if applied to the modern channel bed sediments. In addition, mercury, gold and silver are partitioned along the channel in to specific depositional sites, possibly in the form of amalgam grains that are concentrated as placers. It is therefore imperative that downstream trends in mercury concentrations are assessed by examining data collected from similar depositional environments.

  6. Geohydrology and simulated response to groundwater pumpage in Carson Valley, a river-dominated basin in Douglas County, Nevada, and Alpine County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical model was used to simulate the effect of development of the groundwater reservoir in Carson Valley on Carson River outflow, evapotranspiration, and groundwater levels and storage. The basin-fill groundwater reservoir consists of: (1) confined and unconfined sedimentary deposits of Quaternary age that underlie the valley floor, and (2) sedimentary deposits of Tertiary age that are exposed mainly on the east side of the valley. Water levels indicate the presence of two confined aquifer systems: one River flow, 360,000; (2) direct precipitation, 70,000; (3) runoff from perennial and ephemeral streams, 24,000: and (4) subsurface inflow, 38,000. Approximate estimates of outflow components were, in acre-ft/yr; (1) mainstem Carson River flow, 291,000; (2) potential evapotranspiration, 200,000. Both inflow and outflow totaled about 490,000 acre-ft/yr. These flow volumes show that the hydrologic regimen of the basin is dominated by surface water flow of the Carson River. Steady-state and transient calibration of the model provided an unacceptable fit of observed versus simulated groundwater level fluctuations and storage, and surface water outflow from the valley. These values provide a reasonable balance for the simulated steady-state water budget. Simulations show that surface water flow is the ultimate source of about 75% of pumped water for six scenarios of possible future ground-water development. Model simulations indicate that changes from agricultural to urban land uses could decrease the loss of Carson River outflow to pumpage when streamflow is not used for flood irrigation in that area. (Lantz-PTT)

  7. Ciaran Carson

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Neal

    2012-01-01

    Ciaran Carson is one of the most challenging and inventive of contemporary Irish writers, exhibiting verbal brilliance, formal complexity, and intellectual daring across a remarkably varied body of work. This study considers the full range of his oeuvre, in poetry, prose, and translations, and discusses the major themes to which he returns, including: memory and history, narrative, language and translation, mapping, violence, and power. It argues that the singularity of Carson’s writing is to...

  8. A STUDY OF VARIABLES CHARACTERIZING DRAINAGE PATTERNS IN RIVER NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In GIS and in terrain analysis, drainage systems are important components. Due to local topography and subsurface geology, a drainage system achieves a particular drainage pattern based on the form and texture of its network of stream channels and tributaries. Drainage pattern recognition helps to provide a qualitative description of the terrain for analysis and classification and is useful for terrain modelling and visualization and applications in environment. Much research has been done on the description of drainage patterns in geography and hydrology. However automatic drainage pattern recognition in river networks is not well developed. This paper introduces a method based on geometric quantitative indicators to recognize drainage patterns in a river network automatically. Experiment results are presented and discussed.

  9. Agricultural Drainage Water Management in the Upper Mississippi River Basin: Potential Impact and Implementation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unique soil and climate of the Upper Mississippi River Basin area provide the resources for bountiful agricultural production. Agricultural drainage (both surface and subsurface drainage) is essential for achieving economically viable crop production and management. Drainage practices alter the ...

  10. Nitrogen budget in the Changjiang River drainage area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Tao; YU Zhiming; SONG Xiuxian; CAO Xihua

    2012-01-01

    We established a budget model of nitrogen (N) inputs and outputs between watersheds and waterbodies to determine the sources of riverine N in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River drainage area.Nitrogen inputs in the budget included N from synthetic fertilizer,biological fixation by leguminous and other crops,wet/dry atmospheric deposition,excreta from humans and animals,and crop residues.The total N input was estimated to be 17.6 Tg,of which 20% or 3.5 Tg N was transported into waterbodies.Of the total N transported into waterbodies,the largest proportion was N from animal waste (26%),followed by N from atmospheric wet/dry deposition (25%),synthetic fertilizer N (17%),N in sewage wastes (17%),N in human waste from rural areas (6%) and industrial wastewater N (9%).We studied the spatial patterns of N inputs and outputs by dividing the Changjiang River drainage area into four sub-basins,from upstream to downstream:the Tongtian River drainage area (TTD,the headwater drainage area,138 000 km2,less disturbed by human activities); the Jinsha River drainage area (JSD,347 000 km2,less disturbed by human activities,approx.3 500 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary); the Pingshan-Yichang drainage area (PYD,520 500 km2,large-scale human disturbance,about 2 000 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary);and the Yichang-Datong drainage area (YDD,699 900 km2,large-scale human disturbance,approx.620 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary).The average N input into waterbodies was 2.3,7.3,24.1,and 28.2 kg N/ha in the TTD,JSD,PYD,and YDD sub-basins,respectively,suggesting an increase of N-components of more than 10 times from upstream to downstream areas.

  11. BIG SIOUX RIVER DRAINAGE BASIN INFORMATION OUTREACH PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main goal of the proposed project is to raise public awareness about the importance of protecting the Big Sioux River drainage basin. To accomplish this goal, the City and its partnering agencies are seeking to expand and improve public accessibility to a wide variety of r...

  12. Persistent organochlorine residues in sediments of Haihe River and Dagu Drainage River in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Hui; LI Xin-gang; LIU Hun; WANG Jun; SHEN Wei-ran; SUN Yi-chao; SHAO Xiao-long

    2005-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds were analyzed by means of GC-ECD in surface sediment samples from two selected rivers in Tianjin, Haihe River and Dagu Drainage River. A total of 16 surface sediment sites were selected along the both rivers. The frequency of detection of T-HCH and T-DDT in sediment samples both was up to 100%, which illustrated that the contamination of HCH and DDT was widespread in Haihe and Dagu Drainage Rivers. Results indicated that the concentrations of vadous pesticides in sediments from Haihe River were in the range of 3.30-75.96 ng/g dw for T-HCH and 1.57-211.57 ng/g dw for T-DDT. Compared with Haihe River,Dagu Drainage River was contaminated by HCHs and DDTs along the all locations and the values of T-HCH and T-DDT residues in sediments ranged from 2.30 to 124.61 ng/g dw and from 11.28 to 237.30 ng/g dw, respectively. The possible pollution sources were analyzed through monitoring results of organochlorine pesticides(OCPs) residues in sediments from the two rivers. The investigation also indicated that HCH was still used as pesticide in Tianjin partial area.

  13. Research on the conversion relationships between the river and groundwater in the Yellow River drainage area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wenke; KONG Jinling; DUAN Lei; WANG Yanlin; MA Xiongde

    2004-01-01

    Conversion relationships between the river and groundwater in the Yellow River drainage area are studied in this paper based on the geologic and physiognomy conditions and the data of the groundwater regime, isotope, groundwater flow field and field survey. Then eight recharge and discharge modes on the relationships are put forward and the hydraulic characteristics of the modes are analysed, which provides a scientific basis for quantitatively simulating and assessing the conversion relationships,maintenance mechanism of the Yellow River and the regeneration ability of the groundwater in the area.

  14. Acid mine-drainage problem of the Patoka River watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, D.M.

    1969-10-01

    Of the 20,000 acres of cast overburden ground-water aquifers in Pike County, less than 4,000 acres produce acidic water. The remaining 16,000 acres produce nonacidic water, most of which is high in sulfate, and in some instances, high in chloride. The acid mine-drainage problem is a creation of past mining operations for coal, and not one of current origin as many have suspected. Most of the abandoned mine areas that produce sustained flows of acidic water, unaffected by storm runoff, are confined to disturbed areas. Acid contributions from storm runoff are usually many times greater than those from sustained flow, and most generally originate in the compacted 5 to 10% of the areas disturbed by surface mining that accelerate runoff. These compacted areas are essentially comprised of mine-waste piles, haulroads and abandoned railroad grades; open pits, and preparation plant and tipple areas. In the early 1950's several dams were constructed in the area forming lakes and reservoirs that ''bottled up'' the acidic water that would have essentially been discharged by gravity; consequently, the sustained flows from the area are still acidic, as is the water in the several lakes. It is not only impracticable but probably infeasible for the coal industry and society to correct the mine-drainage problem in the Patoka River Watershed without first removing the flushout menace. This flushout hazard can be effectively corrected through a well managed program of draining out the ''bottled up'' acidic water in lakes, ponds, and cast overburden in the areas and covering this material either with nontoxic landfill, or continual inundation with nonacidic water. Stabilization of acidic flows at a reduced level would make feasible the treatment of 5,000,000 gallons of water per day.

  15. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River and Salmon River Drainages, Idaho, 2009 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-05-07

    Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have received little attention in fishery science until recently, even though abundance has declined significantly along with other anadromous fish species in Idaho. Pacific lamprey in Idaho have to navigate over eight lower Snake River and Columbia River hydroelectric facilities for migration downstream as juveniles to the Pacific Ocean and again as adults migrating upstream to their freshwater spawning grounds in Idaho. The number of adult Pacific lamprey annually entering the Snake River basin at Ice Harbor Dam has declined from an average of over 18,000 during 1962-1969 to fewer than 600 during 1998-2006. Based on potential accessible streams and adult escapement over Lower Granite Dam on the lower Snake River, we estimate that no more than 200 Pacific lamprey adult spawners annually utilize the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho for spawning. We utilized electrofishing in 2000-2006 to capture, enumerate, and obtain biological information regarding rearing Pacific lamprey ammocoetes and macropthalmia to determine the distribution and status of the species in the Clearwater River drainage, Idaho. Present distribution in the Clearwater River drainage is limited to the lower sections of the Lochsa and Selway rivers, the Middle Fork Clearwater River, the mainstem Clearwater River, the South Fork Clearwater River, and the lower 7.5 km of the Red River. In 2006, younger age classes were absent from the Red River.

  16. Demographic characteristics of American eel in the Potomac River drainage, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, K.R.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2003-01-01

    Studies of the demographic characteristics of the American eel Anguilla rostrata over broad spatial scales are scarce. Eels in the Shenandoah River drainage and lower Potomac River tributaries of Virginia were sampled over 2 years in both inland and near-coastal areas to describe the demographic characteristics in each area and document drainagewide patterns. Eels from the inland Shenandoah River drainage were significantly longer (median = 767 mm total length) and older (median = 11.5 years) than those found in the near-coastal Potomac River tributaries (median total length = 142 mm; median age = 2.0 years). In addition, the sex ratio varied in Potomac River tributaries, but only female were found in the Shenandoah River drainage. Catch per unit effort decreased with increasing distance inland and was further depressed upstream of some dams. Eel demographics in the Shenandoah drainage were similar to those observed in other studies done at distances exceeding 300 river kilometers (rkm) inland, whereas the demographics of Potomac River tributary eels were similar to those observed in other coastal and near-coastal areas. Large female eels found 300-500 rkm inland in this study may be especially important to the population's reproductive potential because of their greater fecundity. Investigations aimed at describing the demographics of eels in a region should sample throughout drainages to ensure accurate characterization. Effective management of eels will require innovative approaches that recognize the large-scale, complex structure of the population.

  17. 1986 moose census, lower Nowitna River drainage: Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A moose survey of the lower Nowitna drainage on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge was conducted from 17-21 November 1986. The 1986 population estimate for the...

  18. Drainage report for Delair Division of Great River NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Obstacles such as ground seepage, inefficient water control structures, and backwater in the Sny Ditch are all contributing to drainage problems at the Delair...

  19. Carbon isotopes and iodine concentrations in a Mississippi River delta core recording land use, sediment transport, and dam building in the river?s drainage basin

    OpenAIRE

    Santschi, Peter H.; Oktay, Sarah D.; Cifuentes, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Carbon isotopes and iodine concentrations in a Mississippi River delta core recording land use, sediment transport, and dam building in the river?s drainage basin correspondence: Corresponding author. (Santschi, Peter H.) (Santschi, Peter H.) Laboratory for Oceanographic and Environmental Research (LOER), Dept. of Marine Sciences and Oceanography, Texas A&M University at Galveston - 5007 Ave U--> , Galveston--> ...

  20. Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish

    2016-03-01

    Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

  1. Fort Carson Wind Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2012-10-01

    This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and economic potential of a wind turbine project on a ridge in the southeastern portion of the Fort Carson Army base.

  2. Explanation of the values of Hack's drainage basin, river length scaling exponent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, A. G.

    2015-08-01

    Percolation theory can be used to find water flow paths of least resistance. The application of percolation theory to drainage networks allows identification of the range of exponent values that describe the tortuosity of rivers in real river networks, which is then used to generate the observed scaling between drainage basin area and channel length, a relationship known as Hack's law. Such a theoretical basis for Hack's law allows interpretation of the range of exponent values based on an assessment of the heterogeneity of the substrate.

  3. Brief communication: Possible explanation of the values of Hack's drainage basin, river length scaling exponent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Allen G.

    2016-04-01

    Percolation theory can be used to find water flow paths of least resistance. Application of percolation theory to drainage networks allows identification of the range of exponent values that describe the tortuosity of rivers in real river networks, which is then used to generate the observed scaling between drainage basin area and channel length, a relationship known as Hack's law. Such a theoretical basis for Hack's law may allow interpretation of the range of exponent values based on an assessment of the heterogeneity of the substrate.

  4. Geochemistry of dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Dan River Drainage (China): distribution, sources, and water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingpeng; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhaoyu; Wu, Tairan

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Dan River drainage basin, which is the drinking water source area of South-to-North Water Transfer Project (China), affect large numbers of people and should therefore be carefully monitored. To investigate the distribution, sources, and quality of river water, this study integrating catchment geology and multivariate statistical techniques was carried out in the Dan River drainage from 99 river water samples collected in 2013. The distribution of trace metal concentrations in the Dan River drainage was similar to that in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, indicating that the reservoir was significantly affected by the Dan River drainage. Moreover, our results suggested that As, Sb, Cd, Mn, and Ni were the major pollutants. We revealed extremely high concentrations of As and Sb in the Laoguan River, Cd in the Qingyou River, Mn, Ni, and Cd in the Yinhua River, As and Sb in the Laojun River, and Sb in the Dan River. According to the water quality index, water in the Dan River drainage was suitable for drinking; however, an exposure risk assessment model suggests that As and Sb in the Laojun and Laoguan rivers could pose a high risk to humans in terms of adverse health and potential non-carcinogenic effects. PMID:26782327

  5. Redescription of Gobio nigrescens from the Hari River drainage (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi-Sabet, Hamed; Ganjbakhsh, Babak; Geiger, Matthias F; Geiger, Matthias F; Freyhof, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Gobio nigrescens, from the Hari River drainage, is redescribed. It represents a valid species distinguished from congeners in the adjacent Caspian and Aral Sea basins by a combination of characters: a naked breast, 16 circumpeduncular scales and 6-7 irregularly shaped, black or brown blotches on back behind dorsal-fin base. PMID:27395112

  6. Fluvial responses to late Quaternary climate change in the Shiyang River drainage system, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongshan; Li, Zongmeng; Pan, Baotian; Liu, Fenliang; Liu, Xiaopeng

    2016-04-01

    As a drainage system located in arid western China, the Shiyang River, combined with considerable fluvial strata and landform information, provides an environmental context within which to investigate fluvial responses to late Quaternary climate change. Sedimentological analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating enabled us to reconstruct the processes and fluvial styles of three sedimentary sequences of the Shagou and Hongshui rivers in the Shiyang drainage system. Our results present a variety of river behaviors during the late Quaternary in these areas. In the upstream Shiyang River, Zhangjiadazhuang (ZJDZ) profile of the Shagou was dominated by aggradation and a meandering channel pattern at 10.6-4.2 ka, while a noticeable channel incision occurred at ~ 4.2 ka followed by lateral channel migration. In the downstream Shiyang River, Datugou (DTG) profile of the Hongshui was an aggrading meandering river from 39.7 to 7.2 ka while channel incision occurred at 7.2 ka. Another downstream profile, Wudunwan (WDW) of the Hongshui was also characterized by aggradation from 22.4 to 4.8 ka; however, its channel pattern shifted from braided to meandering at ~ 13 ka. A discernable downcutting event occurred at ~ 4.8 ka, followed by three channel aggradation and incision episodes prior to 1.8 ka. The last 1.8 ka has been characterized by modern channel and floodplain development. The fluvial processes and styles investigated have a close correlation with late Quaternary climate change in the Shiyang River drainage. During cold phases, the WDW reach was dominated by aggradation with a braided channel pattern. During warm phases, the rivers that we investigated were also characterized by aggradation but with meandering channel patterns. Channel incision events and changes of fluvial style occurred mainly during climate transitions.

  7. 137Cs distribution and geochemistry of Lena River (Siberia) drainage basin lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lena River is the second largest river that discharges into the Arctic Ocean. It is therefore important to determine not only the direct impact its discharge has on the 137Cs concentration of the Arctic, but also the potential its drainage basin has as a 137Cs source. 137Cs surface sediment concentrations and inventory values, which range from 4.97 to 338 Bq kg-1 and 357 to 1732 Bq m-2, respectively, were determined for the Lena River drainage basin lake samples, via gamma analysis. The average geochemical and mineralogical composition of a subset of samples was also determined using neutron activation analysis, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry techniques. Results of these geochemical analyses allowed for the identification of key geochemical factors that influence the distribution of 137Cs in the Lena River drainage basin. 137Cs profiles indicate that Lena River drainage basin lacustrine sediments serve as a record of 137Cs fallout. Based on the downcore 137Cs, %illite, %smectite, %Al and %Mn distribution patterns, it was concluded that a small fraction of non-selectively bound 137Cs was remobilized at depth in some cores. Inconsistencies between the actual 137Cs fallout record and the 137Cs profiles determined for the lake sediments were attributed to 137Cs remobilization in subsurface sediments. In addition to establishing the agreement between the global atmospheric fallout record and the downcore 137Cs distribution patterns determined for these sediments, results indicate that 137Cs deposited during periods of maximum atmospheric release was buried and is not susceptible to surface erosion processes. However, mean 137Cs concentrations of the lacustrine surface sediments (125 Bq kg-1) are still significantly higher than those of the nearby Lena River estuary (11.22 Bq kg-1) and Laptev Sea (6.00 Bq kg-1). Our study suggests that the Lena River drainage basin has the potential to serve as a source of 137Cs to the adjacent Arctic Ocean

  8. A GIS-based approach in drainage morphometric analysis of Kanhar River Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Praveen Kumar; Mohan, Kshitij; Mishra, Sameer; Ahmad, Aariz; Mishra, Varun Narayan

    2014-11-01

    The study indicates that analysis of morphometric parameters with the help of geographic information system (GIS) would prove a viable method of characterizing the hydrological response behaviour of the watershed. It is also well observed that remote sensing satellite data is emerging as the most effective, time saving and accurate technique for morphometric analysis of a basin. This technique is found relevant for the extraction of river basin and its stream networks through ASTER (DEM) in conjunction with remote sensing satellite data (Landsat etm+, 2013 and georeferenced survey of Indian toposheet, 1972). In this study, Kanhar basin a tributaries of Son River has been selected for detailed morphometric analysis. Seven sub-watersheds are also delineated within this basin to calculate the selected morphometric parameters. Morphometric parameters viz; stream order, stream length, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, form factor, circulatory ratio, etc., are calculated. The drainage area of the basin is 5,654 km2 and shows sub-dendritic to dendritic drainage pattern. The stream order of the basin is mainly controlled by physiographic and lithological conditions of the area. The study area is designated as seventh-order basin with the drainage density value being as 1.72 km/km2. The increase in stream length ratio from lower to higher order shows that the study area has reached a mature geomorphic stage.

  9. Study of environmental pollution and mineralogical characterization of sediment rivers from Brazilian coal mining acid drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: felipeqma@hotmail.com [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development – IPADH, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Fdez- Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Castro, Kepa [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV), P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development – IPADH, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Sampaio, Carlos H.; Brum, Irineu A.S. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Leão, Felipe B. de; Taffarel, Silvio R. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Madariaga, Juan M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV), P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)

    2013-03-01

    Acid drainage from coal mines and metal mining is a major source of underground and surface water contamination in the world. The coal mining acid drainage (CMAD) from mine contains large amount of solids in suspension and a high content of sulphate and dissolved metals (Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, etc.) that finally are deposited in the rivers. Since this problem can persist for centuries after mine abandonment, it is necessary to apply multidisciplinary methods to determine the potential risk in a determinate area. These multidisciplinary methods must include molecular and elemental analysis and finally all information must be studied statistically. This methodology was used in the case of coal mining acid drainage from the Tubarao River (Santa Catarina, Brazil). During molecular analysis, Raman Spectroscopy, electron bean, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been proven very useful for the study of minerals present in sediment rivers near this CMAD. The obtained spectra allow the precise identification of the minerals as jarosite, quartz, clays, etc. The elemental analysis (Al, As, Fe, K, Na, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ti, V, Zn, Ag, Co, Li, Mo, Ni, Se, Sn, W, B, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sr) was realised by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis) of these dates of concentration reveals the existence of different groups of samples with specific pollution profiles in different areas of the Tubarao River. Highlights: ► Increasing coal drainage sediments geochemical information will increase human health information in this area. ► Brazilian coal mining information will increase recuperation planning information. ► The nanominerals showed strong sorption ability to aqueous hazardous elements.

  10. Study of environmental pollution and mineralogical characterization of sediment rivers from Brazilian coal mining acid drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid drainage from coal mines and metal mining is a major source of underground and surface water contamination in the world. The coal mining acid drainage (CMAD) from mine contains large amount of solids in suspension and a high content of sulphate and dissolved metals (Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, etc.) that finally are deposited in the rivers. Since this problem can persist for centuries after mine abandonment, it is necessary to apply multidisciplinary methods to determine the potential risk in a determinate area. These multidisciplinary methods must include molecular and elemental analysis and finally all information must be studied statistically. This methodology was used in the case of coal mining acid drainage from the Tubarao River (Santa Catarina, Brazil). During molecular analysis, Raman Spectroscopy, electron bean, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been proven very useful for the study of minerals present in sediment rivers near this CMAD. The obtained spectra allow the precise identification of the minerals as jarosite, quartz, clays, etc. The elemental analysis (Al, As, Fe, K, Na, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ti, V, Zn, Ag, Co, Li, Mo, Ni, Se, Sn, W, B, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sr) was realised by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis) of these dates of concentration reveals the existence of different groups of samples with specific pollution profiles in different areas of the Tubarao River. Highlights: ► Increasing coal drainage sediments geochemical information will increase human health information in this area. ► Brazilian coal mining information will increase recuperation planning information. ► The nanominerals showed strong sorption ability to aqueous hazardous elements

  11. Dall sheep age and sex composition in the Hulahula River drainage, Arctic National Wildlife Range, July 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A ground survey of Dall sheep age and sex composition in the Hulahula River drainage, Arctic National Wildlife Range, was undertaken in July1979. Summer composition...

  12. The Global Geometry of River Drainage Basins and the Signature of Tectonic and Autogenic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachetta, E.; Willett, S.

    2015-12-01

    The plan-form structure of the world's river basins contains extensive information regarding tectonic, paleo-geographic and paleo-climate conditions, but interpretation of this structure is complicated by the need to disentangle these processes from the autogenic behavior of fluvial processes. One method of interpreting this structure is by utilizing the well-established scaling between drainage area and channel slope. Integration of this scaling relationship predicts a relationship between channel length and downstream integrated drainage area, referred to in recent studies as χ (Willett et al., 2014). In this paper, we apply this methodology at a continental scale by calculating χ for the world's river networks using hydrological information from the HydroSHED (Hydrological data and maps based on SHuttleElevation Derivatives at multiple Scales) suite of geo-referenced data sets (drainage directions and flow accumulations). River pixels were identified using a minimum drainage area of 5 km2. A constant value of m/n of 0.45 was assumed. We applied a new method to correct χ within closed basins where base level is different from sea level. Mapping of χ illustrates the geometric stability of a river network, thus highlighting where tectonic or climatic forcing has perturbed the shape and geometry. Each continent shows characteristic features. Continental rift margins on all continents show clear asymmetric escarpments indicating inland migration. Active orogenic belts break up older river basins, but are difficult to interpret because of spatially variable uplift rates. Regions of recent tilting are evident even in cratonic areas by lateral reorganizations of basins. Past and pending river captures are identified on all continents. Very few regions on Earth appear to be in near-equilibrium, though some are identified; for example the Urals appears to provide a stable continental divide for Eurasia. Our analysis of maps of χ at the global scale quantifies a

  13. The role of discharge variation in scaling of drainage area and food chain length in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, John L.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Post, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Food chain length (FCL) is a fundamental component of food web structure. Studies in a variety of ecosystems suggest that FCL is determined by energy supply, environmental stability, and/or ecosystem size, but the nature of the relationship between environmental stability and FCL, and the mechanism linking ecosystem size to FCL, remain unclear. Here we show that FCL increases with drainage area and decreases with hydrologic variability and intermittency across 36 North American rivers. Our analysis further suggests that hydrologic variability is the mechanism underlying the correlation between ecosystem size and FCL in rivers. Ecosystem size lengthens river food chains by integrating and attenuating discharge variation through stream networks, thereby enhancing environmental stability in larger river systems.

  14. Drainage-basis-scale geomorphic analysis to determine refernce conditions for ecologic restoration-Kissimmee River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, A.G.; Toth, L.A.; White, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Major controls on the retention, distribution, and discharge of surface water in the historic (precanal) Kissimmee drainage basin and river were investigated to determine reference conditions for ecosystem restoration. Precanal Kissimmee drainage-basin hydrology was largely controlled by landforms derived from relict, coastal ridge, lagoon, and shallow-shelf features; widespread carbonate solution depressions; and a poorly developed fluvial drainage network. Prior to channelization for flood control, the Kissimmee River was a very low gradient, moderately meandering river that flowed from Lake Kissimmee to Lake Okeechobee through the lower drainage basin. We infer that during normal wet seasons, river discharge rapidly exceeded Lake Okeechobee outflow capacity, and excess surface water backed up into the low-gradient Kissimmee River. This backwater effect induced bankfull and peak discharge early in the flood cycle and transformed the flood plain into a shallow aquatic system with both lacustrine and riverine characteristics. The large volumes of surface water retained in the lakes and wetlands of the upper basin maintained overbank flow conditions for several months after peak discharge. Analysis indicates that most of the geomorphic work on the channel and flood plain occurred during the frequently recurring extended periods of overbank discharge and that discharge volume may have been significant in determining channel dimensions. Comparison of hydrogeomorphic relationships with other river systems identified links between geomorphology and hydrology of the precanal Kissimmee River. However, drainage-basin and hydraulic geometry models derived solely from general populations of river systems may produce spurious reference conditions for restoration design criteria.

  15. Chemical weathering in Zhujiang River Drainage%珠江流域的化学侵蚀

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高全洲; 沈承德; 孙彦敏; 易熙; 邢长平; 陶贞

    2001-01-01

    he chemical weathering processes on the continental carbonate and silicate minerals consume a large amount of carbon dioxide both from atmosphere and soil air. This gaseous substance, which is the dominating greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, was transformed into fluid substance and transported into the ocean by rivers in the form of bicarbonate ion. In this aspect, the weathering and transportation of bicarbonate ion in river system stand for an important linkage in the global carbon cycle. The range of global climate change in the geological history was weakened through this kind of negative feedback mechanism, i.e., the higher the atmospheric temperature is, the intense the chemical weathering process will be. However, an intense chemical weathering process will consume much greater amount of carbon dioxide, which can drop down the atmospheric temperature.   The Xijiang and Beijiang river drainage areas, which buildup most of the area of the Zhujiang (Pearl) river drainage, located in the typical sub tropical region in South China, are about 353 120 and 46 710 km2 in area, respectively. The discharge is about 230× 109 m3/a for Xijiang River, and 51× 109 m3/a for Beijiang River. The two drainage areas, characterized by the superposition temporarily of the high atmospheric temperature and plenty of precipitation, are the only areas of highest yield of biomass in mid low latitude zone in Northern Hemisphere. The carbonate rocks distribute widely in the two drainage basins. Red regolith crust and limestone red earth are the main soil forming material in those areas. The surficial geochemistry process taken place in the two drainage areas is intense due to the high degree of plant coverage, and due to the plenty of precipitation and a high atmospheric temperature. On the other hand, the mechanical erosion is also intense due to the precipitous topography, and due to high population density, which lead to a high ratio of cultivated area.

  16. Microbial exoenzymes as bioindicators of acid rock drainage impacts in the Finniss River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment samples were collected from several sites along the East Branch of the Finniss River during the dry season (June, 1999), when the East Branch is drying into a series of ponds. The sites included those upstream from the Rum Jungle mine site (EB8A, EB8B, FCA, FCB), a site receiving acid leachate from the waste rock (WO), sites downstream from the mine that are impacted by acid and metal contamination (EB6, TCP, EB5D, EB4U, EB2) and reference sites not subject to acid rock drainage (HS, EB4S, LFRB). Exoenzyme activities were measured with a spectrofluorometric technique that involved measuring the increase in fluorescence when an artificial fluorogenic substrate (that mimics the natural substrate) is hydrolysed to a highly fluorescent product. The present findings indicate that the acid rock drainage impacted sediments contain acidophilic, heterotrophic microorganisms, bacteria and/or fungi, producing extracellular enzymes adapted to the acid conditions. This study has demonstrated that measurements of extracellular enzyme activities in river sediments provide a rapid, sensitive technique for determining microbial activity and productivity. In aquatic ecosystems some exoenzymes, particularly leucine-aminopeptidase, could be used as bioindicators of pollution from acid rock drainage

  17. Dr. Carson K. Eoyang, Biography

    OpenAIRE

    Eoyang, Carson K.

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Carson K. Eoyang Emeritas Professor Naval Postgraduate School Dr. Eoyang retired as the Chancellor of National Intelligence University and was a former Associate Provost at the Naval Postgraduate School. He has served in the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the White House, the Chief Training Officer for the FAA, and the Director of Training forNASA. He was awarded the Presidential Rank of Meritorious Executive in 1993 after serving on the Vice President Gore's National...

  18. Drainage development of the Green River Basin in southwestern Wyoming and its bearing on fish biogeography, neotectonics, and paleoclimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Upper Green River flows southward out of the Green River Basin through a series of deep canyons across the Uinta Mountains in a course that post-dates the deposition of the Bishop Conglomerate (Oligocene). After the Eocene lakes disappeared, drainage was generally eastward across the present Continental Divide, until the Green River was captured near Green River, Wyo. by south-flowing drainage in middle Pleistocene time, ca., 600 kyr ago. Capture of the Upper Green River as recently as middle Pleistocene time, if a valid hypothesis, must take into account the marked differences between the endemic and indigenous fish fauna of the Green River and that of the North Platte. -from Author

  19. The role of river drainages in shaping the genetic structure of capybara populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, María Soledad; Quintana, Rubén Darío; Bolkovic, María Luisa; Cassini, Marcelo H; Túnez, Juan Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, is an herbivorous rodent widely distributed throughout most of South American wetlands that lives closely associated with aquatic environments. In this work, we studied the genetic structure of the capybara throughout part of its geographic range in Argentina using a DNA fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Haplotypes obtained were compared with those available for populations from Paraguay and Venezuela. We found 22 haplotypes in 303 individuals. Hierarchical AMOVAs were performed to evaluate the role of river drainages in shaping the genetic structure of capybara populations at the regional and basin scales. In addition, two landscape genetic models, isolation by distance and isolation by resistance, were used to test whether genetic distance was associated with Euclidean distance (i.e. isolation by distance) or river corridor distance (i.e. isolation by resistance) at the basin scale. At the regional scale, the results of the AMOVA grouping populations by mayor river basins showed significant differences between them. At the basin scale, we also found significant differences between sub-basins in Paraguay, together with a significant correlation between genetic and river corridor distance. For Argentina and Venezuela, results were not significant. These results suggest that in Paraguay, the current genetic structure of capybaras is associated with the lack of dispersion corridors through permanent rivers. In contrast, limited structuring in Argentina and Venezuela is likely the result of periodic flooding facilitating dispersion. PMID:26385561

  20. Laser-controlled land grading for farmland drainage in the Red River Valley: an economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted in the Red River Valley to evaluate the benefits of laser land grading for drainage. Graded fields were compared with ungraded fields to measure changes in crop yields due to better drainage on the graded fields. Cut-and-fill areas were studied in graded fields to evaluate the effect of grading on nutrient levels and crop uniformity. Potential cut-and-fill areas on an ungraded field were also studied for yield uniformity and nutrient levels and compared with the graded field. Crop maturity and yield were more uniform on graded fields (0.05 level of significance) than on ungraded fields. Aerial photographs indicated graded fields had more uniform drainage and, consequently, more uniform crop maturity at harvest. A method is presented for determining the economic feasibility of land grading based upon the percentage of land lost to drown out, the value of the crop, and the cost of grading. The economic analysis indicates that land grading on the areas studied resulted in an 8-year payback and a positive investment return for a longer period of time. (author)

  1. Macroinvertebrate community response to acid mine drainage in rivers of the High Andes (Bolivia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several High Andes Rivers are characterized by inorganic water pollution known as acid mine drainage (AMD). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between metal concentrations in the sediments and the macroinvertebrate communities in two river basins affected by AMD. In general, the taxon diversity of the macroinvertebrate community at the family level was low. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni at mining sites were higher than at unpolluted sites. The pH of the water was alkaline (7.0-8.5) in unpolluted sites, whereas it dropped to very low values (<3) at mining sites. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) showed that pH was the best predictor of macroinvertebrate community richness. The number of macroinvertebrate families decreased gradually with increasing acidity, both in pools and riffles, though it is suggested that riffle communities were more affected because they are in closer contact with the acid water. - Community response to AMD

  2. Macroinvertebrate community response to acid mine drainage in rivers of the High Andes (Bolivia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Damme, Paul Andre [Asociacion Faunagua, Cochabamba (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Centre of Limnology and Aquatic Resources, University of San Simon, Casilla 5263, Cochabamba (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Hamel, Caroli; Ayala, Alfredo [Centre of Limnology and Aquatic Resources, University of San Simon, Casilla 5263, Cochabamba (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Bervoets, Lieven [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: lieven.bervoets@ua.ac.be

    2008-12-15

    Several High Andes Rivers are characterized by inorganic water pollution known as acid mine drainage (AMD). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between metal concentrations in the sediments and the macroinvertebrate communities in two river basins affected by AMD. In general, the taxon diversity of the macroinvertebrate community at the family level was low. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni at mining sites were higher than at unpolluted sites. The pH of the water was alkaline (7.0-8.5) in unpolluted sites, whereas it dropped to very low values (<3) at mining sites. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) showed that pH was the best predictor of macroinvertebrate community richness. The number of macroinvertebrate families decreased gradually with increasing acidity, both in pools and riffles, though it is suggested that riffle communities were more affected because they are in closer contact with the acid water. - Community response to AMD.

  3. Runoff analysis by means of multiple isotope tracers in Iwami river drainage, Akita, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of three isotope tracer techniques, proportion of direct runoff and characters of groundwater runoff were studied in the Iwami River drainage during a high runoff period for about 3 days, caused by a heavy rainfall of 85 mm for 17 hours. The proportion of direct runoff is 15 % or less of the total runoff caused by the rainfall, while 65 % of river water at the peak of runoff. Differences observed in the runoff manners among 18O, 2H, and 3H are interpreted as a result of preferential runoff of previous precipitations stored in some unsaturated zone above the saturated groundwater zone. Cl- content is not conservative as a tracer to study runoff mechanisms. (author)

  4. Distribution characteristics and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Liao River drainage basin, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Liu, Congqiang; Zhang, Guoping; Zhang, Yanlin; Li, Siliang; Zhao, Zhiqi; Liu, Baojian; Guo, Qinjun

    2016-04-01

    The Liao River drainage basin, which is one of China's seven major rivers basins, is located in northeast China. This region is characterized by important industrial bases including steel factories and oil and chemical plants, all of which have the potential to contribute pollutants to the drainage basin. In this study, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the major rivers of the Liao River drainage basin were identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The total PAH concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 76.5 μg/g (dry weight) in SPM and 32.6 to 108 ng/L in surface water, respectively. Low-ring PAHs (including two- and three-ring PAHs) were dominant in all PAH samples, and the level of low-ring PAHs in surface water was higher than that in SPM. The proportion of two-ring PAHs was the highest, accounting for an average of 68.2 % of the total PAHs in surface water, while the level of three-ring PAHs was the highest in SPM, with an average of 66.3 %. When compared with other river systems, the concentrations of PAHs in the Liao River drainage basin were lower. Identification of the emission sources based on diagnostic ratios suggested petroleum and fossil fuel combustion were important contribution to PAHs in the study area. PMID:26972927

  5. Modelling microbiological water quality in the Seine river drainage network: past, present and future situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Servais

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Seine river watershed is characterized by a high population density and intense agricultural activities. Data show low microbiological water quality in the main rivers (Seine, Marne, Oise of the watershed. Today, there is an increasing pressure from different social groups to restore microbiological water quality in order to both increase the safety of drinking water production and to restore the possible use of these rivers for bathing and rowing activities, as they were in the past. A model, appended to the hydro-ecological SENEQUE/Riverstrahler model describing the functioning of large river systems, was developed to describe the dynamics of faecal coliforms (FC, the most usual faecal contamination indicator. The model is able to calculate the distribution of FC abundance in the whole drainage network resulting from land use and wastewater management in the watershed. The model was validated by comparing calculated FC concentrations with available field data for some well-documented situations in different river stretches of the Seine drainage network. Once validated, the model was used to test various predictive scenarios, as, for example, the impact of the modifications in wastewater treatment planned at the 2012 horizon in the Seine watershed in the scope of the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive. The model was also used to investigate past situations. In particular, the variations of the microbiological water quality in the Parisian area due to population increase and modifications in wastewater management were estimated over the last century. It was shown that the present standards for bathing and other aquatic recreational activities are not met in the large tributaries upstream from Paris since the middle of the 1950's, and at least since the middle of the XIXth century in the main branch of the Seine river downstream from Paris. Efforts carried out for improving urban wastewater treatment in terms or

  6. Modelling microbiological water quality in the Seine river drainage network: past, present and future situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Servais

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The Seine river watershed is characterized by a high population density and intense agricultural activities. Data show low microbiological water quality in the main rivers (Seine, Marne, Oise of the watershed. Today, there is an increasing pressure from different social groups to restore microbiological water quality in order to both increase the safety of drinking water production and to restore the possible use of these rivers for bathing and rowing activities, as they were in the past. A model, appended to the hydro-ecological SENEQUE/Riverstrahler model describing the functioning of large river systems, was developed to describe the dynamics of faecal coliforms (FC, the most usual faecal contamination indicator. The model is able to calculate the distribution of FC concentrations in the whole drainage network resulting from land use and wastewater management in the watershed. The model was validated by comparing calculated FC concentrations with available field data for some well-documented situations in different river stretches of the Seine drainage network. Once validated, the model was used to test various predictive scenarios, as, for example, the impact of the modifications in wastewater treatment planned at the 2012 horizon in the Seine watershed in the scope of the implementation of the european water framework directive. The model was also used to investigate past situations. In particular, the variations of the microbiological water quality in the Parisian area due to population increase and modifications in wastewater management were estimated over the last century. It was shown that the present standards for bathing and other aquatic recreational activities are not met in the large tributaries upstream from Paris since the middle of the 1950's, and at least since the middle of the XIXth century in the main branch of the Seine river downstream from Paris. Efforts carried out for improving urban wastewater treatment in terms

  7. River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and

  8. River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and

  9. Report on Carson Sink (Churchill Co.) Nevada : Its duck food resources and value as a Federal Migratory Bird Refuge Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Carson Sink is a low basin and drainage sump in a desert valley of west-central Nevada. It embraces parts of 14 townships but the unit here considered falls within...

  10. Clay minerals in surface sediments of the Pearl River drainage basin and their contribution to the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ZhiFei; Christophe COLIN; HUANG Wei; CHEN Zhong; Alain TRENTESAUX; CHEN JianFang

    2007-01-01

    Clay minerals have played a significant role in the study of the East Asian monsoon evolution in the South China Sea by being able to track oceanic current variations and to reveal contemporaneous paleoclimatic changes prevailing in continental source areas. As one of the most important rivers inputting terrigenous matters to the northern South China Sea, the Pearl River was not previously paid attention to from the viewpoint of clay mineralogy. This paper presents a detailed study on clay minerals in surface sediments collected from the Pearl River drainage basin (including all three main channels,various branches, and the Lingdingyang in the estuary) by using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method.The results indicate that the clay mineral assemblage consists dominantly of kaolinite (35%-65%),lesser abundance of chlorite (20%-35%) and illite (12%-42%), and very scare smectite occurrences (generally <5%). Their respective distribution does not present any obvious difference throughout the Pearl River drainage basin. However, downstream the Pearl River to the northern South China Sea, the clay mineral assemblage varies significantly: kaolinite decreases gradually, smectite and illite increase gradually. Additionally, illite chemistry index steps down and illite crystallinity steps up. These variations indicate the contribution of major kaolinite, lesser illite and chlorite, and very scarce smectite to the northern South China Sea from the Pearl River drainage basin. The maximum contribution of clay minerals from the Pearl River is 72% to the northern margin and only 15% to the northern slope of the South China Sea. In both glacials and interglacials, kaolinite indicates that the ability of mechanical erosion occurred in the Pearl River drainage basin.

  11. Concentration changeability of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in selected partial drainage basins of the River Drwęca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pius Bożena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research conducted between November 2008 and October 2009. The research included seasonal dynamics of the flow and runoff of phosphorus compounds (TP and P-PO43-, as well as Ca2+ and Mg2+ from 13 partial drainage basins of the River Drwęca. Water levels were registered automatically every day by recorders, and measurements of the flow were conducted once a month. Major differences were found in the water abundance as indicated by specific discharges in individual, partial drainage basins: from 1.87 dm3 s-1 km-2 (Lubianka - a lower part of the River Drwęca drainage basin to 8.22 dm3 s-1 km-2 (Gizela - an upper part of the River Drwęca drainage basin. The studied rivers were characterised by very diverse average content of total phosphorus compounds: from 0.047 mg dm-3 (Iłga to 0.816 mg dm-3 (Sandela; calcium: from 47.18 mg dm-3 (Iłga to 131.65 mg dm-3 (Trynka; and magnesium: from 9.71 mg dm-3 (Wel to 36.76 mg dm-3 (Struga Rychnowska. Analysis of variance carried out on hydrochemical properties of the studied rivers divides the rivers into two separate groups: rivers with much higher content of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium compounds (Struga Rychnowska, Trynka, Ruziec, Lubianka, Kujawka, Sandela and Gizela, and a group of rivers with low content of these compounds (Brynica, Brodniczanka, Skarlanka, Wel, Iłga.

  12. Geomorphic Drainage Capture Recorded by Oxygen Isotopes of Green River Formation Lacustrine Mudstone, Eocene, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebbert, A. C.; Booth, A. L.; Carroll, A.; Chamberlain, C.; Rhodes, M.

    2005-12-01

    The isotopic composition of cement and other meteoric precipitates are increasingly being used to interpret orogenic uplift histories, based on the relationship between altitude and rainwater δ18O. However, other variables such as changing regional drainage patterns may also affect the downstream composition of surface waters, especially when multiple drainages commingle in a lake. The Green River Formation contains some of the best documented lacustrine deposits in the world, making it ideal for examining such issues. Carbonate mudstone in balanced-fill facies of the lower LaClede Bed averages 3.41‰ (PDB), and records a deep, saline to brackish lake that fluctuated near its sill. In contrast, overfilled facies of the upper LaClede Bed record a freshwater lake, and δ18O reaches values as low as -9.72‰. This transition occurred shortly after deposition of the Analcite Tuff at 48.94 ± 0.12 Ma (Smith et al., 2003), and was geologically abrupt. Based on 40Ar/39Ar-calibrated sediment accumulation rates it required no more than 200-300 ky. An almost identical transition occurs in two cores separated by about 30 km, making local diagenesis an unlikely cause. The magnitude of δ18O change is similar to that in some uplift studies, but its rapidity virtually excludes uplift as a controlling mechanism. Instead, we propose that both the change in sedimentation and the sharp decrease in δ18O are the result of a drainage capture event. The addition of a new drainage to the basin may have adjusted isotopic values in two ways: by introducing runoff with relatively low δ18O, and by decreasing residence time (and therefore evaporation) of lake water. Decreasing 87Sr/86Sr across the same transition suggests that the newly added waters may have been sourced from rising volcanic topography to the north in the Absaroka province. Although this rising topography allows for the possibility of some uplift component, the rate of change in lacustrine δ18O is consistent with

  13. 2006 National Caring Awards. Ben Carson, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Ben Carson is world famous, both for his work as a physician and as a humanitarian. Dr. Carson is the director of neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins University Hospital, who made history in 1987 when he successfully separated Siamese twins joined at the head. As important as this life-saving work is to him, what is more important is the philanthropic work that he and his wife, Candy, are doing to help underprivileged youth. PMID:17153676

  14. Neotectonic formation of drainage patterns and their palaeohydrological implications for the Okwa River catchment, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Kai; Schmidt, Mareike; Shemang, Elisha; Zhang, Shuping; Frank, Riedel

    2014-05-01

    Large inter- and intramontane endorheic basins provide long term archives of environmental change, often integrating regional to continental climate driven process dynamics of huge drainage systems. On one hand the large-scale integration can be regarded as an advantage by averaging small-scale variations of either local hydrological peculiarities or random triggered drainage behaviour (e.g. internal thresholds, tectonics, etc.) and thus just recording atmospheric circulation pattern up to hemispherical scales with millennial resolution. Otherwise, with increasing basin size the process dynamic and their response system along one or more sediment cascades often become a complexity resulting in crucial problems of sedimentological archive interpretations by e.g. signal interference, equifinality or even multiple reworking. Therefore, studies of geomorphological or hydrological response processes and ecological adaption can only be undertaken on sub-catchment scale considering process dynamics along pathways. For southern-hemispheric palaeoclimate reconstruction of land-ocean linkages, Makgadikgadi Basin - as the largest (c. 37,000 km2) and deepest depression in the middle Kalahari - provides a fluvio-lacustrine archive in high-continental position since at least 300 kyr BP. Recent studies suggest a mega-lake high-stand within the basin for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) For the hydrological persistence of the lake for about 6 kyrs, the since Heinrich Event 1 (17-16 ka) inactive Okwa River seems to play a key role indicating a northward-shift of the winter rainfall zone. However, beside some dating of exposed shell bearing sediments at the river mouth, a thorough investigation of the c. 129,000 km2 drainage system is missing. Our presentation aims to point out the linkages between neotectonic activity and sediment transport. The combination of adaptive DEM-filter and multispectral remote sensing data reveals obvious traps (of neotectonic origin) of small temporary

  15. New data concerning the Late Quaternary drainage evolution on the Someş River alluvial fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia-Elena ROBU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located in the north-eastern part of the Pannonian Basin, on the romanian teritory, with a surface of over 3,600 square kilometers. With elevations of 20-30 m above the Timiş and Criş plains, is the highest low-western romanian plains (100 – 160 m absolute altitudes, the surface extending on both sides of Someş River. This study aims to report new information on Late Quaternary evolution of fluvial discharge on the surface of Someş alluvial fan.Numerous relict fluvial morphologies were recognized on the surface ofSomeşRiveralluvial Plain, by analyzing mainly the fluvial morphologies visible on the second austro-hungarian military maps (reference moment: ca. 1860, and on recent ortophotoplans (reference moment: 2005. The identified palaeochannel types (braided, meandering and morphometry (large scale meanders vs. small scale meanders, the concentration of these relict features on distinct palaeodrainage directions, the relation of them with the recent fluvial drainage of the area (intersected, partly/ totally used by present day misfit channels, suggest a complex Late Quaternary history of the lower course ofSomeşRiver

  16. Acid mine drainage from the Panasqueira mine and its influence on Zêzere river (Central Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeias, Carla; Ávila, Paula Freire; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Ferreira, Adelaide; Salgueiro, Ana Rita; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2014-11-01

    The Panasqueira hydrothermal mineralization, located in central Portugal, is the biggest Sn-W deposit of the Western Europe. The main evidences of the mining exploitation and ore treatment operations are testified with huge tailings, mainly, in the Rio and Barroca Grande areas. The mining and beneficiation processes, at the site, produces metal rich mine wastes. Oxidation of sulfides tailings and flow from open impoundments are responsible for the mobilization and migration of metals from the mine wastes into the environment. Acid mine drainage (AMD) discharged from Rio tailing has a pH around 3 and high metal concentrations. In Zêzere river, Fe and As are the most rapidly depleted downstream from AMD once As adsorbs, coprecipitate and form compounds with iron oxyhydroxides. The Zêzere river waters are oversaturated with respect to kaolinite and goethite and ferrihydrite can precipitate on stream with a near-neutral pH. At sites having low pH the dissolved Fe species in the water, mainly, occur as sulfate complexes due to a high SO4 concentration. Melanterite (Fe2+(SO4)·7(H2O)) and minor amounts of rozenite (Fe2+(SO4)·4(H2O)) and szomolnokite (Fe2+(SO4)·(H2O)) were observed on Rio tailing basement.

  17. The current threat level of fish in river network of individual sea-drainage areas in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusk Stanislav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of changes in the population spread of individual ichthyofauna species (lampreys and fishes as well as the identification of unfavourable impacts is the necessary prerequisite for the correct selection of corrective measures. The river network in the Czech Republic belongs to the three sea-drainage areas (North Sea, Baltic Sea, and Black Sea. The species composition of the original ichthyofauna and the extent of the threat to some species differs in the individual sea-drainage areas. The original ichthyofauna in the Czech Republic consists of 4 lamprey species and 55 fish species. Out of this, only one lamprey species and 31 fish species originate in all three sea-drainage areas. There are 37 fish species considered as the original ones in the North Sea drainage area, there of 4 species are EX, 1 species EW, and 11 species (29.7% are threatened. In the Baltic Sea drainage area, there are 4 species EX, 1 species EW, and 8 species (22.8% threatened out of the total 35 assessed species. Out of 49 species in the Black Sea drainage area, there are 4 species EX and 23 species (46.9 % threatened.

  18. Time-series studies of drainage pattern and morphological features along the Leitha river (Eastern Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámolyi, A.; Draganits, E.; Doneus, M.; Fera, M.; Griebl, M.

    2009-04-01

    Geomorphologic mapping and drainage network analysis was conducted in the Southern Vienna Basin on the Leitha and Fischa rivers. The study area belongs to an active pull-apart basin between the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians that started to subside in Karpatian times (~ 17 Ma), but with still active faults, proven by fault scarps and earth quakes. The investigated rivers are important tributaries to the Danube river and run through a region that has been subject to settlement since Neoltihic times. Thus, interaction between land use, settlement pattern and river dynamics can be studied. Several datasets are integrated to perform a comprehensive overview of geomorphological, as well as river dynamic changes in the landscape. During an earlier stage of this investigation a map of paleochannel distribution including the location and shape of the paleochannels was extracted from color-infrared and RGB digital orthophotos. Based on this map the location, character and shape of palaeomeanders is studied on different georeferenced historic maps (Timár et al., 2006; Biszak et al., 2007) in order to derive a time-series study. The paleochannels extracted from the digital orthophotos show a good coincidence with the depicted rivers on the historic maps. This partly allows quite well constrained age estimates of the paleochannel sections. The investigated maps are the Walter maps, the First, Second and Third Military Survey of the Habsburg/Austro-Hungarian Empire. Mapping of the Walter maps was conducted 1754-56 (Ulbrich, 1952), the First, Second and Third Military Surveys were mapped in this area in the time-span of 1782-1785, 1819-1869, and 1872-1873, respectively (Kretschmer et al., 2004). This sequence of georeferenced historical maps allows to study only a very short time-span (1755 - 1873) compared to the geological time scale. However, the characteristics of river dynamics special for the study area can be derived and, considering certain assumptions, extrapolated

  19. Simulating the Effects of Drainage and Agriculture on Hydrology and Sediment in the Minnesota River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, C. W.; Pradhan, N. R.; Skahill, B. E.; Banitt, A. M.; Eggers, G.; Pickett, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the Midwest region of the United States, slopes are relatively flat, soils tend to have low permeability, and local water tables are high. In order to make the region suitable for agriculture, farmers have installed extensive networks of ditches to drain off excess surface water and subsurface tiles to lower the water table and remove excess soil water in the root zone that can stress common row crops, such as corn and soybeans. The combination of tiles, ditches, and intensive agricultural land practices radically alters the landscape and hydrology. Within the watershed, tiles have outlets to both the ditch/stream network as well as overland locations, where the tile discharge appears to initiate gullies and exacerbate overland erosion. As part of the Minnesota River Basin Integrated Study we are explicitly simulating the tile and drainage systems in the watershed at multiple scales using the physics-based watershed model GSSHA (Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis). The tile drainage system is simulated as a network of pipes that collect water from the local water table. Within the watershed, testing of the methods on smaller basins shows the ability of the model to simulate tile flow, however, application at the larger scale is hampered by the computational burden of simulating the flow in the complex tile drain networks that drain the agricultural fields. Modeling indicates the subsurface drains account for approximately 40% of the stream flow in the Seven Mile Creek sub-basin account in the late spring and early summer when the tile is flowing. Preliminary results indicate that agricultural tile drains increase overland erosion in the Seven Mile Creek watershed.

  20. Mercury and drought along the Lower Carson River, Nevada: III. effects on blood and organ biochemistry and histopathology of snowy egrets and black-crowned night-herons on Lahontan Reservoir, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Henny, Charles J.; Hill, Elwood F.; Grove, Robert A.; Kaiser, James L.; Stebbins, Katherine R.

    2009-01-01

    A 10-year study (1997-2006) was conducted to evaluate reproduction and health of aquatic birds in the Carson River Basin of northwestern Nevada (on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Natural Priorities List) due to high mercury (Hg) concentrations from past mining activities. This part of the study evaluated physiological associations with blood Hg in young snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and organ biochemistry and histopathological effects in snowy egrets on Lahontan Reservoir (LR) from the period 2002-2006. LR snowy egret geometric mean total Hg concentrations (μg/g ww) ranged from 1.5 to 4.8 for blood, 2.4 to 3.1 liver, 1.8 to 2.5 kidneys, 1.7 to 2.4 brain, and 20.5 to 36.4 feathers over these years. For night-herons, mean Hg for blood ranged from 1.6 to 7.4. Significant positive correlations were found between total Hg in blood and five plasma enzyme activities of snowy egrets suggesting hepatic stress. Histopathological findings revealed vacuolar changes in hepatocytes in LR snowy egrets as well as correlation of increased liver inflammation with increasing blood and tissue Hg. Hepatic oxidative effects were manifested by decreased hepatic total thiol concentration and glutathione reductase activity and elevated hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation. However, other hepatic changes indicated compensatory mechanisms in response to oxidative stress, including decreased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration and decreased ratio of GSSG to reduced glutathione. In young black-crowned night-herons, fewer correlations were apparent. In both species, positive correlations between blood total Hg and plasma uric acid and inorganic phosphorus were suggestive of renal stress, which was supported by histopathological findings. Both oxidative effects and adaptive responses to oxidative stress were apparent in kidneys and brain. Vacuolar change and inflammation in

  1. Migration of global radioactive fallout to the arctic ocean (on the example of the Ob's river drainage basin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides an assessment of the impact of global fallout on 137Cs contamination in the bottom sediments of Kara Sea. The erosiveness of 10.-level river basins was estimated by landscape-geochemical and geo-morphological characteristics. All 10.-level basins (n5154) were separated into three groups: mountain, mountain-lowland and plain. Four different types of basins were identified depending on the geochemical conditions of the migration of radiocaesium in the plain and mountain-lowland. Classifications of types were carried out using the geographic information systems-based approach. The Ob River's macro-arena covers 3.5 million km2. Internal drainage basins cover 23 % of the macro-arena and accumulate whole radiocaesium from the global fallout. The remaining territory is transitional for the 137Cs. The field research works performed in the three plain first-level basins allow one to estimate the radiocaesium run-off. The calculations show that 7 % of 137Cs was removed from the first-level basin in arable land. Accumulation of radiocaesium in the first-level basin under undisturbed forest is 99.8 %. The research shows that 137Cs transfer from the humid basins is in the range of 6.9-25.5 TBq and for semi humid basins 5.6-285.5 TBq. The areas of these basins cover 40 and 8 % of the Ob River's macro-arena, respectively. Drainage lakes and reservoir drainage basins make up 22 % of the macro-arena. Mountainous and semi-arid drainage basins cover 7 % of the macro-arena. (authors)

  2. Genetic integrity of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus L. 1758 within the Vienne River drainage basin after five decades of stockings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Persat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available European grayling of the upper Vienne River drainage basin represent the westernmost populations inside the natural distribution of the species. Since the 19th century, their extension across this sub-basin has been dramatically reduced by the harnessing of the river network for dams, initially serving mills but then hydroelectric power generation. Since the 1960s, local fishing authorities have attempted to compensate for these declines with stocking programs, but the efficiency of these efforts have never been accurately monitored. We aim to evaluate the genetic imprints of these stocking programs and thus provide an indirect measure of the long-term survival of stocked fish. Three target populations were analyzed at both mtDNA (Control Region and nDNA levels (12 µSats, and compared to populations representative of surrounding drainage basins or fish farm facilities. Among 37 "wild" fish sequenced, only three control region haplotypes were identified, all belonging to the highly divergent Loire basin lineage. Two were specific to the Upper Vienne area, and one was observed in some individuals of the most downstream location, but previously described from the upper Allier sub-drainage. Microsatellite analysis of 87 "wild" fish also demonstrated a rather low diversity within each population (but typical for the Loire drainage with all Upper Vienne individuals belonging to a single diagnosable unit. This genetic cluster was clearly distinct from all other samples including hatchery strains, which strongly supports its native origin. The only piece of evidence of a possible stocking contribution was the occurrence of the Allier haplotype, but it cannot be excluded that this haplotype was also native to this reach of river. The total lack of genetic impact of five decades of stocking deeply questions the efficacy of this management approach, at least in a regional context.

  3. Drainage reorganization during mountain building in the river system of the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struth, Lucía; Babault, Julien; Teixell, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    The Eastern Cordillera of Colombia is a thick-skinned thrust-fold belt that is characterized by two topographic domains: (1) the axial zone, a high altitude plateau (the Sabana de Bogotá, 2500 masl) with low local relief and dominated by longitudinal rivers, and (2) the Cordillera flanks, where local relief exceeds 1000 m and transverse rivers dominate. On the basis of an analysis of digital topography and river parameters combined with a review of paleodrainage data, we show that the accumulation of shortening and crustal thickening during the Andean orogeny triggered a process of fluvial reorganization in the Cordillera. Owing to a progressive increase of the regional slope, the drainage network evolves from longitudinal to transverse-dominated, a process that is still active at present. This study provides the idea of progressive divide migration toward the inner part of the mountain belt, by which the area of the Sabana de Bogotá plateau is decreasing, the flanks increase in area, and ultimately transverse rivers will probably dominate the drainage of the Cordillera.

  4. Metal mobility in river and sea sediments affected by mine drainage (Sestri Levante, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consani, Sirio; Capello, Marco; Cutroneo, Laura; Vagge, Greta; Zuccarelli, Andrea; Carbone, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    The Gromolo Torrent is a metal-polluted Apennine streamflow located near Sestri Levante (Liguria, Italy). It springs from the Monte Rocca Grande (850 m a.s.l.), and flows for 11.5 km through the Gromolo Valley before flowing into the Ligurian Sea. Inside the Gromolo basin is located the abandoned Fe-Cu mine of Libiola, which was the most important sulfide deposit of the Ligurian Apennines. In this mining site, extensive Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) processes are active, both inside the mine tunnels and in the sulfide rich waste-rock dumps; the solutions generated are characterised by low pH values and high amounts of dissolved SO42-, Fe, and other chemical elements such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Al, Co, and Ni. Moreover, exstensively precipitation of Fe and Cu-rich secondary minerals occurs both as soft crusts inside the mine adits and as loose suspensions associated with overland flow of mine drainage. AMD waters flowed into the uncontaminated Gromolo Torrent where abundant precipitation of amorphous Fe(III)-oxy-hydroxides occurred. The marine study area is characterised by the presence of the headland of Sestri Levante with two bays, the western one named "Baia delle Favole". The dynamics of the area is dominated by a permanent north-westward off-shore current flowing approximately along isobath, and an eastward counter-current along the north coast with a resulting drift of the coastal materials from the West to Est towards "Baia delle Favole". The bottom sediment are principally characterised by coarse materials, mostly consisting of fine sand, with a percentage of the fine sediment increasing inside the bay, where the dynamics is low. The aims of this work are to 1) evaluate the metal mobility of colloidal river precipitates for about 7 km up to its mouth in the Ligurian Sea; 2) verify the contamination state of the marine bottom sediments off the mouth of the Gromolo Torrent ("Baia delle Favole" of Sestri Levante), and 3) identify the main sources and diffusion ways of

  5. Tectonic controls for transverse drainage and timing of the Xin-Ding paleolake breach in the upper reach of the Hutuo River, north China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junjie; Zhang, Shimin; Meigs, Andrew J.; Yeats, Robert S.; Ding, Rui; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-02-01

    The upper reach of the Hutuo River flows along the Xin-Ding basin and cuts a transverse drainage through the Xizhou Mountain and the Taihang Range into the North China Plain. Previous studies showed that the Xin-Ding basin was occupied by a lake during the early-middle Pleistocene. However, the timing of the paleolake breach and the mechanism for the creation of the transverse drainage are unknown. We constructed the fluvial terrace sequence in the upper reach of the Hutuo drainage combined with thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, as well as the timescale of the overlying loess-paleosol sequence. Our results reveal that (1) five terraces (T5-T1) developed along the upper reach of the Hutuo River, amongst which terraces T4-T1 were formed synchronously at ~ 600, ~ 120-130, ~ 20-26 and ~ 6-7 ka, respectively; (2) the creation of the transverse drainage and breach of the Xin-Ding paleolake occurred between ~ 600 and ~ 130 ka; and (3) the mechanism for the creation of the transverse drainage is via river piracy of paleostreams on both sides of the drainage divide. Localized differential uplift and associated tilting of the Xizhou Mountain block during the middle Pleistocene result in the formation of the transverse drainage and breach of the Xin-Ding paleolake.

  6. Contamination trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in sediments from Dagu Drainage River estuary, Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) JianXia; WANG YaWei; ZHANG QingHua; GAO ErLe; JIANG GuiBin

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and heavy metals in two sediment cores, taken from the Dagu Drainage River, were determined. The contamination trends of these three kinds of compounds were obtained. The results showed that concentrations of PBDEs increased in recent years; there were new contamination sources for OCPs in this area; contamination levels of heavy metals had no significant change in the last several years.Comparing the results of these two cores, erosion and dilution of seawater had different effects on the transportation of these compounds.

  7. Psilorhynchus tysoni, a new species of torrent minnow from the Salween River drainage, western Thailand (Teleostei: Psilorhynchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Kevin W; Pinion, Amanda K

    2016-01-01

    Psilorhynchus tysoni, new species, is described on the basis of 10 specimens, 23.3-53.8 mm SL from the Mae Nam Moei and Hue Mae Song Rivers, in the Salween River drainage in western Thailand. It belongs to the P. nudithoracicus species group and can be distinguished from other members of this group by a combination of characters, including features of body and fin coloration, head shape, and caudal fin-ray, vertebrae, and cephalic lateral-line canal pore counts. Phylogenetic analyses of a mitochondrial DNA data set (comprising 642 bp of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 1140 bp of cytochrome b) for 12 species of Psilorhynchus and one outgroup taxon resulted in phylogenetic hypotheses in which P. tysoni is a member of a clade equivalent to the P. nudithoracicus species group. Within this group P. tysoni is placed as the sister taxon of a putatively undescribed species of Psilorhynchus from Myanmar. PMID:27395735

  8. Spinitectus osorioi (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) in the Mexican endemic fish Atherinella alvarezi (Atherinopsidae) from the Atlantic River drainage system in Chiapas, Southern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    František Moravec; Guillermo Salgado-Maldonado; Juan M Caspeta-Mandujano

    2010-01-01

    Specimens of Spinitectus osorioi Choudhury and Pérez-Ponce de León, an intestinal nematode species previously considered to be specific to Chirostoma spp and endemic to some lakes in the Pacific drainage in Michoacán, were collected from the freshwater fish Atherinella alvarezi (Díaz-Pardo) (Atherinopsidae) of the Michol River near Palenque, Chiapas, Southern Mexico, which belongs to the Atlantic drainage system. Studies using light and scanning electron microscopy revealed some taxonomically...

  9. Use of man-made impoundment in mitigating acid mine drainage in the North Branch Potomac River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of the Army, Baltimore District Corps of Engineers, oversees a long-term monitoring study to assess and evaluate effects of the Jennings-Randolph reservoir on biota in the North Branch Potomac River. The reservoir was intended, in part, to mitigate effects of acid mine drainage originating in upstream and headwater area. The present study assessed recovery of benthos and fish in this system, six years after completion of the reservoir. Higher pH and lower iron and sulfate concentrations were observed upstream of the reservoir compared to preimpoundment conditions, suggesting better overall water quality in the upper North Branch. Water quality improved slightly directly downstream of the reservoir. However, the reservoir itself was poorly colonized by macrophytes and benthic organisms, and plankton composition suggested either metal toxicity and/or nutrient limitation. One large tributary to the North Branch and the reservoir (Stony River) was shown to have high (and possibly toxic) levels of manganese, iron, zinc, and aluminum due to subsurface coal mine drainage. Macroinvertebrate diversity and number of taxa were higher in sites downstream of the reservoir in the present study. Compared with previous years, the present study suggested relatively rapid recovery in the lower North Branch due to colonization from two major unimpacted tributaries in this system: Savage River and South Branch Potomac. Fish data were consistent with macroinvertebrate results, but site-to-site variation in species composition was greater. Results show that recovery of biota in the North Branch Potomac was attributed to decreased acid inputs from mining operations and dilution from the Savage River, which contributed better water quality. Continued improvement of North Branch Potomac biota may not be expected unless additional mitigation attempts, either within the reservoir or upstream, are undertaken

  10. Diversity and Distribution of Arsenic-Related Genes Along a Pollution Gradient in a River Affected by Acid Mine Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoeuvre, Angélique; Casiot, Corinne; Héry, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Some microorganisms have the capacity to interact with arsenic through resistance or metabolic processes. Their activities contribute to the fate of arsenic in contaminated ecosystems. To investigate the genetic potential involved in these interactions in a zone of confluence between a pristine river and an arsenic-rich acid mine drainage, we explored the diversity of marker genes for arsenic resistance (arsB, acr3.1, acr3.2), methylation (arsM), and respiration (arrA) in waters characterized by contrasted concentrations of metallic elements (including arsenic) and pH. While arsB-carrying bacteria were representative of pristine waters, Acr3 proteins may confer to generalist bacteria the capacity to cope with an increase of contamination. arsM showed an unexpected wide distribution, suggesting biomethylation may impact arsenic fate in contaminated aquatic ecosystems. arrA gene survey suggested that only specialist microorganisms (adapted to moderately or extremely contaminated environments) have the capacity to respire arsenate. Their distribution, modulated by water chemistry, attested the specialist nature of the arsenate respirers. This is the first report of the impact of an acid mine drainage on the diversity and distribution of arsenic (As)-related genes in river waters. The fate of arsenic in this ecosystem is probably under the influence of the abundance and activity of specific microbial populations involved in different As biotransformations. PMID:26603631

  11. Description of a new species of the genus Chaetostoma from the Orinoco River drainage with comments on Chaetostoma milesi Fowler, 1941 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballen, Gustavo A; Urbano-Bonilla, Alexander; Maldonado-Ocampo, Javier A

    2016-01-01

    Chaetostoma joropo n. sp. is described from the piedmont of the Orinoco River drainage in Colombia. The new species has been long confused with Chaetostoma milesi, a species with similar overall morphology and color pattern that is restricted to the Magdalena-Cauca River Basin. We diagnose the new species on the basis of morphology as well as a precise description of the color pattern. Chaetostoma joropo n. sp. is also easily distinguished from C. formosae the most similar species and other species inhabiting the Orinoco River drainage in Colombia. Data on ontogenetic variation and sexual dimorphism are provided, as well as natural history notes and remarks on the usage of the name Chaetostoma milesi for specimens from both the Orinoco and Magdalena-Cauca drainages. A discussion on the usage of the name Chaetostoma platyrhynchus is also provided given its current instability in the literature. PMID:27394772

  12. Erosion control works and the intensity of soil erosion in the upper part of the river Toplica drainage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming at the protection of the future storage 'Selova' against erosion and sediment, and also to protect the settlements and roads in the drainage basin against torrential floods, erosion control works in the upper part of the river Toplica basin, upstream of the storage 'Selova', started in 1947. The works included building-technical works (check dams) and biological works (afforestation and grassing of bare lands and other erosion risk areas). Within the period 1947-2006, the following erosion control works were executed: afforestation of bare lands on the slopes 2,257.00 ha, grassing of bare lands 1,520.00 ha, and altogether 54 dams were constructed in the river Toplica tributaries. This caused the decrease of sediment transport in the main flow of the river Toplica. This paper, based on the field research conducted in two time periods: 1988 and in the period 2004-2007, presents the state of erosion in the basin before erosion control works; type and scope of erosion control works and their effect on the intensity of erosion in the river Toplica basin upstream of the future storage 'Selova'.

  13. Study of the dynamics of drainage of 137Cs present on the catchment basins of French rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An operational model describing the drainage of radionuclides was selected from a bibliographical synthesis. This model supplies an expression of the dissolved flux in rivers according to the flow of the river and the activity deposited on the catchment basin. To adjust this model for 137Cs coming from the Chernobylsk accident and the main French rivers, series of data reporting the temporal evolution of the activity of 137Cs in the water are necessary.The difficulty inherent to the measure of this radionuclide in the water led to dread its activity through that, more easily measurable, sediments and water plants. Measures on these indicators, upstream to any release of industrial effluents, were notably realized since 1991 within the framework of the annual follow-up of French nuclear power plants. The model of drainage is thus adjusted essentially on these data within a multiplicative factor (this factor being Kd or Fc). This requires however some preliminary adaptations: Kd being dependent on granulometry characteristics of the sediments samples, a standardization of their activity on granulometry criteria must be made. For the aquatic plants, it is necessary to look for their time of answer before being able to adjust the model. The obtained results, on plants as on sediments, indicate that for the big French rivers, the activity of 137Cs in aquatic environment decreases since 1987 with a period from 4 to 7 years. If the level of contamination of every river depends on the average contamination of the catchment basin (average deposit in Bq by m2), it seems that this level is also influenced by the other parameters as the size of the catchment basin, even some characteristics of the drained soils. This part of the study remains to deepen. It joins the works led to the L.E.R.C.M. on the migration of radionuclides in soils. On the upstream part of the Rhone river, the aquatic plants indicate that the flow plays a role of dilution of the dissolved radioactivity

  14. Transport of fallout and reactor radionuclides in the drainage basin of the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport and fate of Strontium 90, Cesium 137 and Plutonium 239, 240 in the Hudson River Estuary is discussed. Rates of radionuclide deposition and accumulation over time and space are calculated for the Hudson River watershed, estuary, and continental shelf offshore. 37 references, 7 figures, 15 tables

  15. Genetic and Phenotypic Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the interior Columbia River Basin : FY-2001 Report : Populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan and Methow River Drainages.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-10-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project was to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-2001 was year three (and final year) of a project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-2001 we worked in collaboration with the Wenatchee National Forest to catalog populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan, and Methow River drainages of Washington State.

  16. Integrative Bioassessment of Acid Mine Drainage Impacts on the Upper Powell River Watershed, Southwestern Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Soucek, David John

    2001-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), a result of oxidation of minerals containing reduced forms of sulfur (pyrites, sulfides) upon exposure to water and oxygen, is an environmental problem associated with abandoned mined lands (AML). Numerous studies have documented the impacts of AMD upon aquatic communities within acidified stream reaches; these impacts include reduced taxonomic richness and abundance, and/or a shift from pollution sensitive to pollution tolerant species. This dissertation comprises ...

  17. Geographic Information Systems Methods for Determining Drainage-Basin Areas, Stream-Buffered Areas, Stream Length, and Land Uses for the Neosho and Spring Rivers in Northeastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoner, Jason R.; March, Ferrella

    2006-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems have many uses, one of which includes the reproducible computation of environmental characteristics that can be used to categorize hydrologic features. The Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality are investigating Geographic Information Systems techniques to determine partial drainage-basin areas, stream-buffer areas, stream length, and land uses (drainage basin and stream characteristics) in northeastern Oklahoma. The U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, documented the methods used to determine drainage-basin and stream characteristics for the Neosho and Spring Rivers above Grand Lake Of the Cherokees in northeastern Oklahoma and calculated the characteristics. The drainage basin and stream characteristics can be used by the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality to aid in natural-resource assessments.

  18. Stabilization of large drainage basins over geological time scales: Cenozoic West Africa, hot spot swell growth, and the Niger River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Dominique; Grimaud, Jean-Louis; Rouby, Delphine; Beauvais, Anicet; Christophoul, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Reconstructing the evolving geometry of large river catchments over geological time scales is crucial to constraining yields to sedimentary basins. In the case of Africa, it should further help deciphering the response of large cratonic sediment routing systems to Cenozoic growth of the basin-and-swell topography of the continent. Mapping of dated and regionally correlated lateritic paleolandscape remnants complemented by onshore sedimentological archives allows the reconstruction of two physiographic configurations of West Africa in the Paleogene. Those reconstructions show that the geometry of the drainage is stabilized by the late early Oligocene (29 Ma) and probably by the end of the Eocene (34 Ma), allowing to effectively link the inland morphoclimatic record to offshore sedimentation since that time, particularly in the case of the Niger catchment—delta system. Mid-Eocene paleogeography reveals the antiquity of the Senegambia catchment back to at least 45 Ma and suggests that a marginal upwarp forming a continental divide preexisted early Oligocene connection of the Niger and Volta catchments to the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Such a drainage rearrangement was primarily enhanced by the topographic growth of the Hoggar hot spot swell and caused a stratigraphic turnover along the Equatorial margin of West Africa.

  19. Drainage areas for selected stream-sampling stations, Missouri River Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA), an investigation of the Missouri River Basin is being conducted to...

  20. Background Contaminants Evaluation of the Republican River Drainage- Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Republican River Basin is a very large watershed in west-central Kansas, eastern Colorado, Wyoming and southern Nebraska. This study was conducted to determine...

  1. Seasonal water quality variations in a river affected by acid mine drainage: the Odiel River (South West Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper intends to analyse seasonal variations of the quality of the water of the Odiel River. This river, together with the Tinto River, drains the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), a region containing an abundance of massive sulphide deposits. Because of mining activity dating back to prehistoric times, these two rivers are heavily contaminated. The Odiel and Tinto Rivers drain into a shared estuary known as the Ria of Huelva. This work studies dissolved contaminant data in water of the Odiel River collected by various organisations, between October 1980 and October 2002, close to the rivers entry into the estuary. Flow data for this location were also obtained. The most abundant metals in the water, in order of abundance, are zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu). Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are also present but in much lower quantities. The quality of the river water is linked to precipitation; the maximum sulphate, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cd and Pb concentrations occur during the autumn rains, which dissolve the Fe hydroxysulphates that were precipitated during the summer months. In winter, the intense rains cause an increase in the river flow, producing a dilution of the contaminants and a slight increase in the pH. During spring and summer, the sulphate and metal concentration (except Fe) recover and once again increase. The Fe concentration pattern displays a low value during summer due to increased precipitation of ferric oxyhydroxides. The arsenic concentration displays a different evolution, with maximum values in winter, and minimum in spring and summer as they are strongly adsorbed and/or coprecipitated by the ferric oxyhydroxides. Mn and sulphates are the most conservative species in the water. Relative to sulphate, Mn, Zn and Cd, copper displays greater values in winter and lower ones in summer, probably due to its coprecipitation with hydroxysulphates during the spring and summer months. Cd and Zn also appear to be affected by the same

  2. A new species of Percina (Perciformes: Percidae) from the Apalachicola River drainage, southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, B.J.; Burkhead, N.M.; Straight, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Percina crypta, the Halloween Darter, is described as a new species endemic to the Chattahoochee and Flint River systems in Georgia and Alabama. Percina crypta differs from sympatric Percina nigrofasciata in having narrowly separated dorsal saddles (inter-saddle spaces typically less than or equal to saddle width, compared to frequently wider than saddle width in P. nigrofasciata), in usually possessing a single modified scale between the pelvic bases (compared to two or more in P. nigrofasciata), and in having dark wide bands on pectoral-fin rays (versus pectoral fin clear, or with irregular dark marks or weak tessellations on fin rays in P. nigrofasciata). Phylogenetic relationships of P. crypta to other species of Percina are obscure. Percina crypta occurs in shoal and riffle habitats in the Chattahoochee and Flint River mainstems and in a few tributary systems, with the known extant range comprising four disjunct areas separated by mainstem impoundments and altered river reaches.

  3. Dissolved constituents and Sr isotopes in river waters from a mountainous island - The Danshuei drainage system in northern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taiwan is a typical active orogenic belt situated at the collision boundary between the Eurasian Continental Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate. Dissolved major and trace constituents, as well as Sr and Sr isotopes in river waters collected from the Danshuei River basin in northern Taiwan have been studied to evaluate chemical weathering processes. The results of principal component analysis show that the ion sources in these river waters can be categorized into 3 major components: chemical weathering, seasalt contribution and local anthropogenic input. The chemical weathering is the most dominant factor that contributes about 85% of total variances. Significantly increased Na/Cl and Ca/Cl, as well 87Sr/86Sr, were observed in most upper stream samples. The Na/Cl and Ca/Cl ratios in the Dahan Stream, however, are much higher than the Shindien Stream. Even though average rainfall is stronger in the Shindien drainage basin, chemical evidence from river waters supports less intense weathering in the region. Selective dissolution of secondary calcites explains the observed high Ca/Cl, Sr/Cl and Ca/Na in the Dahan Stream. These results highlight the potential importance of tectonic factors, such as uplift and physical erosion in studying chemical weathering in an active orogenic belt. The variations of 87Sr/86Sr in the Danshuei River are quite large, reflecting some strata that released Sr. Most of the upstream waters exhibit more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr, 0.713243-0.714338, due to weathering of ambient low-grade metamorphic rocks, 0.71678-0.72216. The distributions of Cl, Sr and 87Sr/86Sr in the main stream were affected by somewhat conservative mixing with sources varing between ambient rocks and seasalt. In the upper Dahan Stream, heavy 87Sr/86Sr ratios were coincident with large deviations of Na/Cl from the average seawater value, as high as 40. The degree of chemical weathering in ambient rocks plays a dominant role in affecting the distribution of Sr and 87Sr/86Sr in

  4. Additional record of Batasio merianiensis (Chaudhuri 1913, a catfish (Teleostei: Bagridae in upper Brahmaputra River drainage in Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tamang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper communicates the extension of the distribution range of Batasio merianiensis in Sille River in the upper Brahmaputra drainage, East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh. Detailed examinations of the specimens revealed existence of few morphological variations against those reported by Heok Hee Ng in 2009 on the following characteristics: by having a longer preanal (70.4-73.4 vs. 66.3-68.2% SL; a longer prepectoral (25.1-29.3 vs. 21.4-25.7% SL; a longer adipose-fin base (22.0-27.6 vs. 16.9-22.2% SL; a shorter post-adipose distance (11.6-13.4 vs.13.4-15.5% SL; a deeper body at anus (depth 18.3-20.8 vs.15.2-18.4% SL and broader head (width 17.6-20.0 vs.13.5-16.2 % HL. Few additional characters of the fish are included along with brief information on its habitat. The LIPUM, the semi-traditional method of fishing in the river is identified as a major threat to this species.

  5. Hydrological modeling of a watershed affected by acid mine drainage (Odiel River, SW Spain). Assessment of the pollutant contributing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, L.; Olías, M.; Cánovas, C. R.; Sarmiento, A. M.; Nieto, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Odiel watershed drains materials belonging to the Iberian Pyrite Belt, where significant massive sulfide deposits have been mined historically. As a result, a huge amount of sulfide-rich wastes are deposited in the watershed, which suffer from oxidation, releasing acidic lixiviates with high sulfate and metal concentrations. In order to reliably estimate the metal loadings along the watershed a complete series of discharge and hydrochemical data are essential. A hydrological model was performed with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to solve the scarcity of gauge stations along the watershed. The model was calibrated and validated from daily discharge data (from 1980 to 2010) at the outlet of the watershed, river inputs into an existent reservoir, and a flow gauge station close to the northern area of the watershed. Discharge data obtained from the hydrological model, together with analytical data, allowed the estimation of the dissolved pollutant load delivered annually by the Odiel River (e.g. 9140 t of Al, 2760 t of Zn). The pollutant load is influenced strongly by the rainfall regime, and can even double during extremely rainy years. Around 50% of total pollution comes from the Riotinto Mining District, so the treatment of Riotinto lixiviates reaching the Odiel watershed would reduce the AMD (Acid Mine Drainages) in a remarkable way, improving the water quality downstream, especially in the reservoir of Alcolea, currently under construction. The information obtained in this study will allow the optimization of remediation efforts in the watershed, in order to improve its water quality.

  6. Carbon isotopes and iodine concentrations in a Mississippi River delta core recording land use, sediment transport, and dam building in the river's drainage basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santschi, Peter H; Oktay, Sarah D; Cifuentes, Luis

    2007-04-01

    Sedimentary material from coastal and nearshore areas in the Mississippi Delta region are comprised of different organic carbon sources with diverse ages that require isotopic and elemental records for resolving the various sources of plant residues. Carbon isotopic ((13)C, (14)C) values were used to differentiate contributions from plants using the C3, C4, and/or CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) carbon fixation pathways., and iodine concentrations indicated that wetland plant residues are a significant source of organic carbon in a sediment core from the Mississippi River delta region collected at a 60 m water depth. This sediment core had been extensively described in Oktay et al. [Oktay, S.D., Santschi, P.H., Moran, J.E., Sharma, P., 2000. The (129)Iodine Bomb Pulse Recorded in Mississippi River delta Sediments: Results from Isotopes of I, Pu, Cs, Pb, and C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64 (6), 989-996.] and significantly, includes unique features that had not previously been seen in the marine environment. These special features include a plutonium isotopic close-in fallout record that indicates a purely terrestrial source for these sediment particles and the elements associated with it, and a distinct iodine isotopic peak (as well as peaks for plutonium and cesium isotopes) that indicate little bioturbation in this core. Our carbon isotopic and iodine data can thus be compared to published records of changes in drainage basin land use, river hydrology, and hydrodynamic sorting of suspended particles to elucidate if these changes are reflected in nearshore sediments. This comparison suggests a significant contribution for organic carbon (OC) from C4 plants to these sediments during the 1950's to early 1960's. Relative older carbon isotopes, and episodically high iodine concentrations (up to 34 ppm) were observed during this time period that (1) indicate sediment deposition that is coincident with the times of major hydrological changes induced from dam and levee

  7. An aerial radiological survey of Par Pond and associated drainage pathways of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first of a three-phase effort to radiologically monitor the lowering of Par Pond and associated drainage pathways was conducted over three areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). The areas surveyed during this first phase included Par Pond, the Savannah River swamp from Steel Creek to Little Hell Landing, and Lower Three Runs Creek from the mouth of Lower Three Runs to the Highway 301 Bridge. The first phase was conducted to coincide with the lowering of the water level of Par Pond to an elevation of 190 feet above sea level. Additional surveys were conducted when the water level was at an elevation of 180 feet and prior to refill. The first survey began August 19, 1991, and was completed September 11, 1991. The second survey was conducted in October/November, 1991, during the SRS site-wide survey, and the third survey was conducted in August/September, 1992. Only the Par Pond area itself was surveyed during the third and final phase. The radiation detected over the Creek Plantation portion of the Savannah River swamp and Lower Three Runs areas during the August 1991 survey was consistent with the spatial distribution, quantity, and kinds of radionuclides detected during the 1983 and 1986 surveys. No migration of man-made gamma emitting materials was detected when compared to the prior surveys. The major differences occurred along the Par Pond shoreline where lowered water levels exposed the contaminated pond bed. The activity in the pond bed was attenuated by the water cover prior to the start of the lowering of Par Pond in June 1991. The data collected during each survey were processed in the field and were presented to SRS. A comparison report is being generated after the completion of each survey. A final report will be generated for the three surveys and will include a quantitative comparison of the three surveys in the Par Pond area only

  8. Holocene Evolution of the Indus River Basin: the effect of climate and drainage reorganization on the Harappan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizai, A. H.; Clift, P. D.; Vanlaningham, S.; Giosan, L.; Carter, A.; Hillier, S.; Macklin, M. G.; Duller, G. A.; Durcan, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Indus River basin has evolved significantly during the Holocene and may have affected the Harappan Civilization which is believed to have collapsed around 2000 BC. We aim to understand the links between drainage evolution, the intensity of the South Asian Monsoon and the development of this early human society. Sediment was sampled from modern rivers, pits and shallow boreholes in the alluvial plains of the Indus and the inactive Ghaggar-Hakra tributary. A suite of techniques are used to resolve sediment source changes during, the Holocene, including bulk and clay mineralogy (XRD), garnet geochemistry, U-Pb dating of zircon grains, Ar-Ar dating of mica, and bulk Nd isotopic analyses. We report preliminary 14C and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages, U-Pb dating of zircon and mineralogical data from a delta core site (Keti Bandar), as well as two core sites and two shallow pits from the eastern upper Indus flood plain. Sediments from the delta show that the mineralogical changes are coherent with the regional climate changes in the Early Holocene. XRD mineralogy shows that illite concentrations peak around 14% in Early Holocene and decrease to 4% around 8 ka, while plagioclase feldspar ranges from 9% in the Early Holocene to 17% at the peak of the monsoon. The mineralogy in general shows a coherent trend when plotted against oxygen isotope measurements from speleothems. 14C and OSL age results from the eastern Indus flood plain cluster around 5-6 ka suggesting an active river at and before this time, and coincide with when the Harappan flourished. This eastern palaeo-tributary (Ghaggar-Hakra) of Indus drains the Lesser and the Higher Himalayas and is different from the trunk Indus stream which has sediment derived mainly from the Karakoram, Transhimalayas, Hindu Kush and Kohistan ranges. U-Pb zircon ages from Mid-Holocene sands along the path of the Ghaggar-Hakra River are very similar to the Indus and Thar Desert sands. We suggest that the Ghaggar

  9. An aerial radiological survey of the southwest drainage basin area of the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over a 106-square-mile area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), formerly the Savannah River Plant. The survey was conducted from August 24 through September 8, 1988, to collect baseline radiological data over the area. Both natural and man-made gamma emitting radionuclides were detected in the area. The detected man-made sources were confined to creeks, branches, and SRS facilities in the surveyed area and were a result of SRS operations. Naturally-occurring radiation levels were consistent with those levels detected in adjacent areas during previous surveys. The annual dose levels were within the range of levels found throughout the United States

  10. Ground-water monitoring sites for Carson Valley, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the monitoring sites where water levels were collected and used to develop a spatial ground-water data base in Carson Valley, west-central...

  11. Inventory and Monitoring Plan for Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan documents and prioritizes inventory and monitoring surveys and research currently conducted, and proposed to be conducted, at the Rachel Carson National...

  12. CONCENTRATION OF URANIUM IN WATERS OF THE BIGGEST LAKES OF THE TYWA RIVER DRAINAGE BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Kubiak; Sylwia Machula

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research of uranium concentrations in its different kinds – suspended and dissolved – in waters of the largest lakes located in the catchment area of the River Tywa – Strzeszowskie Lake, Dłużyna Lake, Długie Lake and Dłuzec Lake. Small (or the order of several 0,01 µg/l) variations in concentration of uranium in different lakes were noted. The study has also shown a seasonal variation – in a similar range – in concentrations of the above species of uranium, a...

  13. DIFFERENTIATED CHANGES OF DRAINAGE IN THE BASINS OF THE CIULUC AND CULA RIVERS IN THE 20 TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Codreanu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the content of the article reflects a comparative analysis of the evolution of drainage in two basins: the Ciuluc and Cula rivers in Moldova. Modifications of morphometric differences are caused by the impact of the environment factors in these basins agricultural regime react primarily the structure and apparent density of the soil.. These cause the soil porosity, therefore, pore space is a comprising index of physical change processes showing certain dependencies on the impact upon soil. In case of conventional agricultural soil working systems, based on ploughing, the physical degradation processes (compaction. dismantling have major ratios and lead to the constitution of a faulty pore space in soil, which affects the processes of reproducing the chernozems type of pedogenesis. The alternative (conservative tillage systems diminish the stratification, reduce soil profile stratification and ensure the stability as well as the continuity of pore space. During the whole year, the optimal conditions for ecosystem functioning and reproduction of soil type chernozem soil formation are created.

  14. A new species of Hemibrycon (Characiformes, Characidae) from the upper San Juan River drainage, Pacific versant, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Valencia, César; Ruiz-C, Raquel I; Taphorn, Donald C; García-Alzate, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    Hemibryconsanjuanensis, new species, is described from the upper San Juan River drainage, Pacific versant, Colombia. It is distinguished from Hemibryconboquiae, Hemibryconbrevispini, Hemibryconcairoense, Hemibryconcolombianus, Hemibryconmikrostiktos, Hemibryconmetae, Hemibryconpalomae, Hemibryconrafaelense and Hemibrycontridens by the presence of a circular or oblong humeral spot that is located two scales posterior to the opercle (vs. 3-4 scales in Hemibryconpalomae, Hemibryconrafaelense, Hemibryconbrevispini and Hemibryconcairoense, and 0-1 scales, in Hemibryconmetae and Hemibryconboquiae). It further differs from Hemibryconcolombianus in having a round or oblong humeral spot (vs. rectangular). It differs from Hemibryconbeni, Hemibrycondariensis, Hemibrycondivisorensis, Hemibryconhelleri, Hemibryconhuambonicus, Hemibryconinambari, Hemibryconjabonero, Hemibryconjelskii, Hemibryconmikrostiktos, Hemibryconpolyodon, Hemibryconquindos, Hemibryconraqueliae, Hemibryconsantamartae, Hemibryconsurinamensis, Hemibrycontaeniurus, Hemibrycontridens, and Hemibryconyacopiae in having melanophores on the posterior margins of the scales along the sides of body (vs. lacking melanophores on margins of scales along entire length of the sides of body). The new species differs from all congeners mentioned above in having, among other features, six teeth in the outer premaxillary row arranged in a straight line (vs. five or fewer teeth not arranged in straight line except Hemibryconcairoense with two to six teeth in the outer premaxillary row). PMID:25493068

  15. A new species of Hemibrycon (Characiformes, Characidae from the upper San Juan River drainage, Pacific versant, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cèsar Román-Valencia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hemibrycon sanjuanensis, new species, is described from the upper San Juan River drainage, Pacific versant, Colombia. It is distinguished from H. boquiae, H. brevispini, H. cairoense, H. colombianus, H. mikrostiktos, H. metae, H. palomae, H. rafaelense and H. tridens by the presence of a circular or oblong humeral spot that is located two scales posterior to the opercle (vs. 3–4 scales in H. palomae, H. rafaelense, H. brevispini and H. cairoense, and 0–1 scales, in H. metae and H. boquiae. It further differs from H. colombianus in having a round or oblong humeral spot (vs. rectangular. It differs from H. beni, H. dariensis, H. divisorensis, H. helleri, H. huambonicus, H. inambari, H. jabonero, H. jelskii, H. mikrostiktos, H. polyodon, H. quindos, H. raqueliae, H. santamartae, H. surinamensis, H. taeniurus, H. tridens, and H. yacopiae in having melanophores on the posterior margins of the scales along the sides of body (vs. lacking melanophores on margins of scales along entire length of the sides of body. The new species differs from all congeners mentioned above in having, among other features, six teeth in the outer premaxillary row arranged in a straight line (vs. five or fewer teeth not arranged in straight line except H. cairoense with two to six teeth in the outer premaxillary row.

  16. Quantification of Tinto River Sediment Microbial Communities: Importance of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Their Role in Attenuating Acid Mine Drainage

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Andrea, I.; Knittel, K; Amann, R; Amils, R.; Sanz, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Tinto River (Huelva, Spain) is a natural acidic rock drainage (ARD) environment produced by the bio-oxidation of metallic sulfides from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. This study quantified the abundance of diverse microbial populations inhabiting ARD-related sediments from two physicochemically contrasting sampling sites (SN and JL dams). Depth profiles of total cell numbers differed greatly between the two sites yet were consistent in decreasing sharply at greater depths. Although catalyzed repor...

  17. Development and Implementation of Integrative Bioassessment Techniques to Delineate Small Order Acid Mine Drainage Impacted Streams of the North Fork Powell River, Southwestern Virginia.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Travis Scott

    2001-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) results from the oxidation of pyretic mineralogy, exposed by mining operations to oxygen and water. This reaction produces sulfuric acid and liberates heavy metals from the surrounding mineralogy and impairs water quality and freshwater communities. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has begun an ecosystem restoration project to remediate the abandoned mine land (AML) impacts to the North Fork Powell River (NFP) and is utilizing the ecotoxicological ratin...

  18. Potential for, and possible effects of, artificial recharge in Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Douglas K.; Peltz, Lorri A.

    1994-01-01

    Rapid population growth in Carson Valley, west- central Nevada, requires a dependable municipal water source. Artificial recharge of aquifers using available flow of the Carson River is one way to increase the amount of water in underground storage and maintain a dependable ground-water supply. Ground water can be artificially recharged by routing excess surface water or, after proper treatment, routing wastewater to infiltration basins or injection wells. Withdrawal wells would remove stored water when needed. As a first step, maps showing areas in Carson Valley with high, low, moderate and unknown potential for artificial recharge were developed on the basis of the distribution of geologic units, depth to water, specific yield, infiltration rate, and location of natural recharge and discharge. For recharge by means of infiltration, areas totaling 5,700 acres have high potential, 23,900 acres have moderate potential, and 6,200 acres have low potential. For recharge through injection, areas totaling 7,800 acres have high potential and 43,500 acres have moderate potential; 23,000 acres have unknown potential because data are lacking on subsurface conditions. A ground-water-flow model was used to assess the possible results of artificial recharge. Simulations with no accompanying ground-water withdrawal show that, when recharge by injection is simulated near the valley floor, heads in the semiconfined aquifer increase over much of the valley, floor; only about 20 percent of the recharged water is stored in the aquifer after 5 years and as much as 80 percent is lost to streamflow and evapotranspiration. When recharge is simulated on the eastern side of the valley, 80 percent of the recharged water remains in storage after 5 years. When recharge is simulated near the valley floor, more water is lost to discharge than when recharge is on the eastern side of the valley. When recharge is applied for long periods without accompanying withdrawal, recharged water moves

  19. Reducing Nitrogen Loss in Subsurface Tile Drainage Water with Managed Drainage and Polymer-Coated Urea in a River Bottom Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick R. Nash; Kelly A. Nelson; Motavalli, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Poorly-drained, river bottom soils can be high corn (Zea mays L.) yielding environments, but saturated soil conditions often reduce corn yields. Wabash soils located in river bottoms in Northeast Missouri have not been traditionally tile drained due to high clay content which requires narrow tile drain spacings. Increased land prices in the region have increased interest in tile draining poorly-drained bottom land soils to increase corn yields which could have a dele...

  20. Garra mondica, a new species from the Mond River drainage with remarks on the genus Garra from the Persian Gulf basin in Iran (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyadzadeh, Golnaz; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Freyhof, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Garra mondica, new species, from the Mond River drainage in Iran is distinguished from its congeners by having 7½ branched dorsal-fin rays; the breast, belly and back in front of the dorsal-fin origin naked and 9+8 branched caudal-fin rays. Garra mondica is also distinguished from all other congeners in the Persian Gulf basin, except an unidentified species from the Kol River, by having two fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region. The identity of G. gymnothorax, a nominal species from the Karun River drainage, and G. crenulata, a nominal species from Central Iran, are discussed. Garra populations examined from the Karun have a unique mtDNA COI barcode sequence, but their diagnostic characters are not consistent with the description and syntypes of G. gymnothorax. G. crenulata is considered as a synonym of G. rufa. Two populations of Garra from the Kol River have a sequence of the COI barcode region very similar to G. mondica, but cannot be identified as G. mondica and their identity cannot be resolved here. PMID:26624737

  1. 14C as a tool for evaluating riverine POC sources and erosion of the Zhujiang (Pearl River) drainage basin, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocarbon can serve as a powerful tool for identifying sources of organic carbon and evaluating the erosion intensity in river drainage basins. In this paper we present 14C-AMS measurements of particulate organic carbon (POC) collected from the three major tributaries of the Zhujiang (Pearl River) system: the Xijiang (Western River), Beijiang (Northern River) and Dongjiang (Eastern River) rivers. Furthermore, we discuss the distribution of POC 14C apparent ages and the related watersheds erosion of these rivers. Results yield Δ14C values of -425 per mille to -65 per mille which indicate that the 14C apparent ages of suspended POC in the entire area are in the range of 540-4445 years. The POC apparent ages from Xijiang are mostly between 2000 and 4000 years, while in Dongjiang they mostly range from 540 to 1010 years. These 14C apparent ages indicate that the watershed erosion of the Xijiang is more severe than that of the Dongjiang. This is in agreement with other data showing deeper erosion in Xijiang due to human activities.

  2. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, First Annual Progress Report (Covering Field Season July-November 1982).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leathe, Stephen A.; Graham, Patrick J.

    1984-03-01

    This fisheries study is to determine the potential cumulative biological and economic effects of 20 small or micro-hydro-electric facilities (less than 5 megawatts) proposed to be constructed on tributaries to the Swan River, a 1738 square kilometer (671 square mile) drainage located in northwestern Montana. The study addresses portions of measure 1204 (b) (2) of the Norwthwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Aerial pre-surveys conducted during 1982 identified 102 stream reaches that may support fish populations in the Swan drainage between Swan and Lindbergh lakes. These reaches were located in 49 tributary streams and constituted 416 kilometers (258 miles) of potential fish habitat. Construction of all proposed small hydro projects would divert water from 54 kilometers (34 miles) or about 13 percent of the tributary system. Only two of the 20 proposed hydro sites did not support trout populations and most were populated by migratory bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. Potential cumulative habitat losses that could result from dewatering of all proposed project areas were predicted using a stream reach classification scheme involving stream gradient, drainage ara, and fish population data. Preliminary results of this worst case analysis indicate that 23, 19 and 6 percent of the high quality rearing habitat for cutthroat, bull, and brook trout respectively would be lost.

  3. Long-range downstream effects of urban runoff and acid mine drainage in the Debed River, Armenia: insights from lead isotope modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead concentrations and isotopic compositions measured along 80 km of the Debed River in the Republic of Armenia provide new insights into the geochemical and physical controls on riparian Pb transport by allowing comparison of the long-range, downstream impacts of acid mine drainage with runoff from an industrialized city. The modern background Pb concentration in Armenian surface waters is estimated to be ∼0.01 μg/L, based on analyses of remote alpine rivers in Armenia. The lead concentration in the Debed River is 8 μg/L (800 times background) after passing through Vanadzor, the second largest industrial city in Armenia; it then decreases to 1 μg/L before the Debed River flows into the Alaverdi mining district. There, the Debed River receives waters from two mining drainage streams with Pb concentrations >3000 μg/L, but those concentrations decrease 3 orders of magnitude to ∼3 μg/L by the time the river exits Armenia and flows into the Republic of Georgia. Isotope mixing plots show shifts in Pb isotope composition as the river flows out of Vanadzor, evidencing the mixture of an average terrestrial Pb composition (206Pb/207Pb ∼ 1.17; 208Pb/207Pb ∼ 2.45) with past leaded gasoline and other industrial Pb emissions retained in the river's sediments within that region (208Pb/207Pb ≤ 2.45). The isotopic composition again shifts (e.g., 208Pb/207Pb ≥ 2.46) as the river passes through the Alaverdi mining district, where isotopic ratios in the water are characteristic of Pb in the area's massive sulfide deposits. Modeling both downstream elemental concentrations and Pb isotopic compositions further resolves the physical and chemical behavior of the contaminants in the river system. A multi-element model of concentration gradients in the acid mine drainage streams indicates Pb is attenuated by Al(OH)3 precipitation (54% of the loss) and by adsorption onto other particles settling out of the water column (46% of the loss). Modeling of Pb transport in the

  4. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Fort Carson: Assessment and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K.; Markel, T.; Simpson, M.; Leahey, J.; Rockenbaugh, C.; Lisell, L.; Burman, K.; Singer, M.

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. Army's Fort Carson installation was selected to serve as a prototype for net zero energy assessment and planning. NREL performed the comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of Fort Carson to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric vehicle integration. This report summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations. This study is part of a larger cross-laboratory effort that also includes an assessment of renewable opportunities at seven other DoD Front Range installations, a microgrid design for Fort Carson critical loads and an assessment of regulatory and market-based barriers to a regional secure smart grid.

  5. Toxicity of Sodium Bicarbonate to Fish from Coal-Bed Natural Gas Production in the Tongue and Powder River Drainages, Montana and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of aquatic life to sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), a major constituent of coal-bed natural gas-produced water. Excessive amounts of sodium bicarbonate in the wastewater from coal-bed methane natural gas production released to freshwater streams and rivers may adversely affect the ability of fish to regulate their ion uptake. The collaborative study focuses on the acute and chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate on select fish species in the Tongue and Powder River drainages in southeastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming. Sodium bicarbonate is not naturally present in appreciable concentrations within the surface waters of the Tongue and Powder River drainages; however, the coal-bed natural gas wastewater can reach levels over 1,000 milligrams per liter. Large concentrations have been shown to be acutely toxic to native fish (Mount and others, 1997). In 2003, with funding and guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks and the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a collaborative study on the potential effects of coal-bed natural gas wastewater on aquatic life. A major goal of the study is to provide information to the State of Montana Water Quality Program needed to develop an aquatic life standard for sodium bicarbonate. The standard would allow the State, if necessary, to establish targets for sodium bicarbonate load reductions.

  6. [A new species of Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes: Characidae) from the Telembi River drainage, Southern Pacific slope of Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alzate, Carlos A; Román-Valencia, César; Taphorn, Donald C

    2013-03-01

    The genus Hyphessobrycon is included within the subfamily Tetragonopterinae. The species are generally small, do not exceed 70mm of standard length, are economically important as ornamental fish, with 128 valid species distributed from Southern Mexico to Rio La Plata in Argentina. The collections of fish were made with seines, in a single biotope, along shore in backwaters and working downstream. Measurements of the specimens were taken point to point with digital calipers. Observations of bone and cartilage structures were made on cleared and stained (C&S) specimens. The morphometric relationships between species were explored using a principal component analysis (PCA)using 21 variables. We described a new species, Hyphessobrycon chocoensis, from the Telembi River drainage of the Pacific versant of Colombia. The new species, Hyphessobrycon chocoensis, is distinguished from congeners not of the "flammeus" species group by: having a diffuse humeral spot, in lacking a dark spot on the dorsal fin and caudal peduncle. It is distinguished from members its species group by the number of rays in the dorsal fin (ii, 8, i), by the number of branched anal-fin rays (25-26) and by having a diffuse humeral spot. It differs from H. tortuguerae in the number of teeth on the maxilla (1-2), by the number of predorsal scales and the high number of scales between the lateral line and the anal fin (6-7). Hyphessobrycon chocoensis can be distinguished from the other known species of Hyphessobrycon from the Pacific Coast of Colombia in having: a high number of pored lateral-line scales, by the snout to dorsal-fin length, by caudal-peduncle depth and by eye diameter. In addition, it differs from H. columbianus by the distance from the dorsal fin to the anal fin, by the length of the upper jaw, and by snout length. It differs from H. condotensis in having a high number of scales between the lateral line and the dorsal fin, and by the number of simple rays in the anal fin. H. chocoensis is

  7. Suspended sediment export in five intensive agricultural river catchments with contrasting land use and soil drainage characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Melland, Alice; Jordan, Phil; Fenton, Owen; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion and sediment loss from land can have a negative impact on the chemical and ecological quality of freshwater resources. In catchments dominated by agriculture, prediction of soil erosion risk is complex due to the interaction of physical characteristics such as topography, soil erodibility, hydrological connectivity and climate. Robust measurement approaches facilitate the assessment of sediment loss magnitudes in relation to a range of agricultural settings. These approaches improve our understanding of critical sediment transfer periods and inform development of evidence-based and cost-effective management strategies. The aim of this study was to i) assess the efficacy of out-of-channel (ex-situ) suspended sediment measurement approaches, ii) to quantify the variability of sediment exported from five river catchments with varying hydrology and agricultural land uses over multiple years and iii) to investigate trends in relation to physical and land use characteristics when sediment data were compared between catchments. Sediment data were collected in five intensive agricultural river catchments in Ireland (3-11 km2) which featured contrasting land uses (predominantly intensive grassland or arable) and soil drainage classes (well, moderate and poor). High-resolution suspended sediment concentration data (SSC - using a calibrated turbidity proxy) were collected ex-situ and combined with in-stream discharge data measured at each catchment outlet to estimate suspended sediment yield (SSY - t km-2 yr-1). In two catchments additional in-stream turbidity monitoring equipment replicated ex-situ measurements including site specific calibration of individual in-stream and ex-situ turbidity probes. Depth-integrated samples were collected to assess the accuracy of both approaches. Method comparison results showed that true SSC values (from depth-integrated sampling) were predominantly within the 95% confidence interval of ex-situ predicted SSC consequently

  8. Ground-water-level contours for Carson Valley, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the ground-water-level contours derived from ground-water monitoring sites in Carson Valley, west-central Nevada. The data set is part of a...

  9. Runoff formation from plot, field, to small catchment with shallow groundwater table and dense drainage system in agricultural North Huaihe River Plain, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Han

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Runoff formation processes at the experimental plot (1600 m2, the field (0.06 km2, and the small catchment (1.36 km2 with shallow groundwater table and dense drainage system in North Huaihe River Plain (the northern part of the Huaihe River Basin, China were analyzed based on observed rainfall, runoff and groundwater table depth data of 30 storm events during the flood seasons from 1997 to 2008. At the outlet of the furrow of the experimental plot, only the surface runoff was collected and measured, whereas both the surface and subsurface runoffs were collected at the drainage ditches outlets of the field and the small catchment. The present study showed that the relatively narrow range of rainfall amounts resulted in significantly different runoff amounts at all the three scales. When the ground water is close to surface, the runoff amount is a great percentage of rainfall amount. Significant linear relationships between the difference of rainfall and runoff amounts and the changes in water table or the initial water table depth were found. When the 30 events were divided into three groups with initial water table (as a parameter indicating the antecedent moisture condition shallower than 0.5 m, deeper than 2.3 m or between 0.5 m and 2.3 m, significant rainfall-runoff relationships existed for each group. These imply that saturation-excess surface flow dominated the runoff response, especially when water table is shallow. For almost all the events, the water table rose above the bottom of drainage ditch during the event, and the total runoff amounts were larger at the field and the catchment than that at the plot with only surface flow measured, showing a great contribution of subsurface flow. Groundwater table depth, not only reflecting the antecedent moisture conditions, but also influencing the lateral sub-surface flow to the drainage ditches, would be an important parameter dominating runoff formation

  10. Organic matter iron and nutrient transport and nature of dissolved organic matter in the drainage basin of a boreal humic river in northern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic carbon and iron transport into the Gulf of Bothnia and the seasonal changes in the nature of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were studied in 1983 and 1984 at the mouth of the River Kiiminkijoki, which crosses an area of minerotrophic mires in northern Finland. Organic and inorganic transport within the drainage basin was studied in the summer and autumn of 1985 and 1986. The results indicate that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is mainly of terrestrial origin, leaching mostly from peatlands. The DOC concentrations decrease under low flow conditions. The proportion of drifting algae as a particulate organic carbon (POC) source seems to increase in summer. The changes in the ratio of Fe/DOC, the colour of the DOM and the ratio of Fe/DOC, the colour of the DOM and the ratio of fluorescence to DOC with discharge give indications of the origin, formation, nature and fate of the DOM in the river water. Temperature-dependent microbiological processes in the formation and sedimentation of Fe-organic colloids seem to be important. Estimates are given for the amounts and transport rates of organic carbon and Fe discharged into the Gulf of Bothnia by river. High apparent molecular weight (HAMW) organic colloids are important for the organic, Fe and P transport in the basin. The DOM in the water consists mainly of fulvic acids, although humic acids are also important. The results indicate an increase in the mobilization of HAMW Fe-organic colloids in the peatlands following drainage and peat mining. The transport of inorganic nitrogen from the peatlands in the area and in the river is increasing due to peat mining. The changes in the transport of organic matter, Fe and P are less marked

  11. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, Volume III, Fish and Habitat Inventory of Tributary Streams, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leathe, Stephen A.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of the fisheries of the Swan River drainage in relation to potential small hydro development. This information was collected in order to obtain a reliable basin-wide database which was used to evaluate the potential cumulative effects of a number of proposed small hydro developments on the fisheries of the drainage. For each named tributary stream there is a reach-by-reach narrative summary of general habitat characteristics, outstanding features of the stream, and fish populations and spawning use. An attempt was made to rank many of the measured parameters relative to other surveyed stream reaches in the drainage. 3 refs.

  12. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, Volume I, Summary, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leathe, Stephen A.; Enk, Michael D.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to develop and apply methods to evaluate the cumulative effects of 20 proposed small hydro projects on the fisheries resources of the Swan River drainage located in northwestern Montana. Fish population and reach classification information was used to estimate total populations of 107,000 brook trout, 65,000 cut-throat trout and 31,000 juvenile bull trout within the tributary system. Distribution, abundance, and life history of fish species in the drainage and their contribution to the sport fishery were considered in the cumulative impact analysis. Bull trout were chosen as the primary species of concern because of their extensive use of project areas, sensitivity to streambed sedimentation, and their importance to the lake and river sport fisheries. Dewatering of hydroelectric diversion zones and streambed sedimentation (resulting from forest and small hydro development) were the major impacts considered. The developer proposed to divert up to the entire streamflow during low flow months because maintenance of recommended minimum bypass flows would not allow profitable project operation. Dewatering was assumed to result in a total loss of fish production in these areas. 105 refs., 19 figs., 38 tabs.

  13. Review of habitat classification schemes appropriate to streams, rivers, and connecting channels in the Great Lakes drainage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Griffiths, R.W.; Wheaton, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Studies of lotic classification, zonation, and distribution carried out since the turn of the century were reviewed for their use in developing a habitat classification scheme for flowing water in the Great Lakes drainage basin. Seventy papers, dealing mainly with fish but including benthos, were organized into four somewhat distinct groups. A heirarchical scale of habitat measurements is suggested, and sources of data and inventory methods, including statistical treatment, are reviewed. An outline is also provided for developing a classification system for riverine habitat in the Great Lakes drainage basin.

  14. Contribution to the study of the weathering rate of minerals and rocks in the drainage basin of the Paraguacu river - Bahia - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of Na+, Mg++, Ca++, K+, SiO2, SO sup(=)4, alcalinity and pH have been determined for twenty-nine surface water samples of the Paraguacu river drainage basin, mainly in the Utinga River sub-basin. The stable isotope ratio of carbon 13C/12C as well as concentration of 14C was determined for some samples. The ion influence on local aerosol chemistry has also been subtracted from all samples. The analytical results were used to determine the current rate of weathering the rocks of this region and study the sources of dissolved carbon in this water. The analysis of the data shows that weathering processes are influenced by the local lithology. The data from them Utinga river suggests that dissolution of limestone contributes a large percentage of ions. The influence of groundwater in the river flow also brings high concentrations of Na+, Mg++ and Ca++ ions from aerosols, presumeably concentrated by evapo-transpiration. The presence of aerosols in the samples used is remarkable, the contribution of salts from silicate weathering is rather small. It is proposed that the dissolution of limestone and decomposition of organic matter might explain the origin of carbon in some of the samples but others appear to have suffered equilibration with atmospheric CO2. (Author)

  15. Preliminary natural resource survey : Carson River Mercury Site, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The survey in this report was conducted to determine if natural resources under the trusteeship of Interior have been affected by the release of hazardous...

  16. Spatial heterogeneity and transboundary pollution: a contingent valuation study on the Xijiang River drainage basin in south China

    OpenAIRE

    Jie He; Anping Huang; Luodan Xu

    2015-01-01

    This article examines whether and how transboundary river water pollution spillover may affect resident’s Willingness to Pay (WTP) for a river water quality improvement project. Based on a CVM survey conducted in 20 cities located in the Xijiang river basin located in south China, our study demonstrates that the downstream city respondents report lower WTP when the water quality in the immediate upstream city is more polluted. This negative externality decreases with distance and relative b...

  17. Hydrological and geochemical control of metals and arsenic in a Mediterranean river contaminated by acid mine drainage (the Amous River, France) ; preliminary assessment of impacts on fish (Leuciscus cephalus)

    OpenAIRE

    Casiot, C.; Egal, M; Elbaz-Poulichet, F.; Bruneel, Odile; Bancon-Montigny, C.; Cordier, M. A.; Gomez, E.; Aliaume, C.

    2009-01-01

    Dissolved and particulate concentrations of metals (Fe, Al, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Tl, Pb) and As were monitored over a 5 year period in the Amous River downstream of its confluence with a creek severely affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) originating from a former Pb-Zn mine. Water pH ranged from 6.5 to 8.8. Metals were predominantly in dissolved form, except Fe and Pb, which were in particulate form. In the particulate phase, metals were generally associated with Al oxides, whereas As was...

  18. Water Budgets and Potential Effects of Land- and Water-Use Changes for Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada, and Alpine County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Douglas K.; Berger, David L.

    2006-01-01

    To address concerns over continued growth in Carson Valley, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Douglas County, Nevada, began a study in February 2003 to update estimates of water-budget components in Carson Valley. Estimates of water-budget components were updated using annual evapotranspiration (ET) rates, rates of streamflow loss to infiltration and gain from ground-water seepage, and rates of recharge from precipitation determined from data collected in 2003 and 2004 for the study and reported in the literature. Overall water budgets were developed for the area of basin-fill deposits in Carson Valley for water years 1941-70 and 1990-2005. Water years 1941-70 represent conditions prior to increased population growth and ground-water pumping, and the importation of effluent. A ground-water budget was developed for the same area for water years 1990-2005. Estimates of total inflow in the overall water budget ranged from 432,000 to 450,000 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr) for water years 1941-70 and from 430,000 to 448,000 for water years 1990-2005. Estimates of total inflow for both periods were fairly similar because variations in streamflow and precipitation were offset by increases in imported effluent. Components of inflow included precipitation on basin-fill deposits of 38,000 acre-ft/yr for both periods, streamflow of the Carson River and tributaries to the valley floor of 372,000 acre-ft/yr for water years 1941-70 and 360,000 acre-ft/yr for water years 1990-2005, ground-water inflow ranging from 22,000 to 40,000 acre-ft/yr for both periods, and imported effluent of 9,800 acre-ft/yr for water years 1990-2005 with none imported for water years 1941-70. Estimates of ground-water inflow from the California portion of Carson Valley averaged about 6,000 acre-ft/yr and ranged from 4,000 to 8,000 acre-ft/yr. These estimates compared well with a previous estimate of ground-water inflow across the State line. Estimates of total outflow in the overall water

  19. Geochemistry of the Obey River Basin, north-central Tennessee: a case of acid mine water in the Karst drainage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The East Fork of the Obey River, a tributary of the Cumberland River, drains a 523 km2 basin along the western margin of the Cumberland Plateau. The upper basin lies on clastic rocks that include coals that were mined earlier in this century. The lower basin is drained through a deep gorge where the East Fork has cut downward into the Mississippian carbonate rocks. The lower basin is karstic, with a 9 km length of the river and most of its tributaries underdrained by conduit systems. Many of the upper basin tributaries of the East Fork are contaminated by acid mine drainage and have high levels of acidity, sulfate, iron and aluminium. As the acid mine waters sink in the limestone portions of the basin, they are buffered but acidity is not rapidly reduced and acid water appears at a large spring deep in the karst having survived 5 km of transport. Sulfate waters gradually convert to bicarbonate waters as more tributaries from carbonate rocks enter the system. Aluminium in solution decreases with increasing pH, and precipitates as colloidal sized particles. Although alkalinity increases in the lower reaches of the basin, most of the waters remain highly undersaturated with respect to calcite

  20. Preliminary Report on the Sny Drainage District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report deals with the Sny River drainage in the Mississippi River and its management. The Sny bottoms will remain a major wildlife area in this portion of...

  1. Study of the Optimization and Adjustment of the Industrial Structure Subjected to Water Resource in the Drainage Area of the Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haiying; Fan Zhenjun; Hou Xiaoli; Dong Suocheng

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the Yellow River stream has been temporarily interrupted for several years,which affects the development of society, the economy and human life, limits the economic potential of the drainage areas, and especially causes great harm to regions on the lower reaches. Based on the analysis of the relationship between the development of society and economy and water scarcity, the author thinks it is necessary to optimize and adjust the industrial structure that has extravagantly consumed enormous amounts of water, and to develop ecological agriculture, industry and tourism which are balanced with the ecological environment. Finally, the author puts forward several pieces of advice and countermeasures about how to build the economic systems by which water can be used economically.

  2. Drainage Areas of Selected Streams in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Donald C.; Wiegand, Ute

    2006-01-01

    Drainage areas were determined for more than 1,600 basins in the three major river basins of Virginia -- the North Atlantic Slope, South Atlantic Slope, and Ohio River Basins. Drainage areas range from 0.004 square mile to 7,866 square miles. A geographic information system was used to digitize and store data associated with the drainage basins. Drainage divides were digitized from digital U.S. Geological Survey 7.5-minute, 1:24,000-scale, topographic quadrangles using procedures recommended by the Subcommittee on Hydrology, Federal Interagency River Basin Committee. Digital drainage basins were quality assured, polygons of the closed drainage basins were generated, and drainage areas were computed.

  3. The Citizens and Remote Sensing Observational Network (CARSON) Guide: Merging NASA Remote Sensing Data with Local Environmental Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, James; Riebeek, Holli; Ledley, Tamara Shapiro; Herring, David; Lloyd, Steven

    2008-01-01

    "Citizen science" generally refers to observatoinal research and data collection conducted by non-professionals, commonly as volunteers. In the environmental science field, citizen scientists may be involved with local nad regional issues such as bird and wildlife populations, weather, urban sprawl, natural hazards, wetlands, lakes and rivers, estuaries, and a spectrum of public health concerns. Some citizen scientists may be primarily motivated by the intellectual challenge of scientific observations. Citizen scientists may now examine and utilize remote-sensing data related to their particular topics of interest with the easy-to-use NASA Web-based tools Giovanni and NEO, which allow exploration and investigation of a wide variety of Earth remote sensing data sets. The CARSON (Citizens and Remote Sensing Observational Network) Guide will be an online resource consisting of chapters each demonstrating how to utilize Giovanni and NEO to access and analyze specific remote-sensing data. Integrated in each chapter will be descriptions of methods that citizen scientists can employ to collect, monitor, analyze, and share data related to the chapter topic which pertain to environmental and ecological conditions in their local region. A workshop held in August 2008 initiated the development of prototype chapters on water quality, air quality, and precipitation. These will be the initial chapters in the first release of the CARSON Guide, which will be used in a pilot project at the Maryland Science Center in spring 2009. The goal of the CARSON Guide is to augment and enhance citizen scientist environmental research with NASA satellite data by creating a participatory network consisting of motivated individuals, environmental groups and organizations, and science-focused institutions such as museuma and nature centers. Members of the network could potentially interact with government programs, academic research projects, and not-for-profit organizations focused on

  4. The Citizens And Remote Sensing Observational Network (CARSON) Guide: Merging NASA Remote-Sensing Data with Local Environmental Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, J.; Riebeek, H.; Ledley, T. S.; Herring, D.; Lloyd, S.

    2008-12-01

    "Citizen science" generally refers to observational research and data collection conducted by non- professionals, commonly as volunteers. In the environmental science field, citizen scientists may be involved with local and regional issues such as bird and wildlife populations, weather, urban sprawl, natural hazards, wetlands, lakes and rivers, estuaries, and a spectrum of public health concerns. Some citizen scientists may be primarily motivated by the intellectual challenge of scientific observations. Citizen scientists may now examine and utilize remote-sensing data related to their particular topics of interest with the easy-to-use NASA Web-based tools Giovanni and NEO, which allow exploration and investigation of a wide variety of Earth remote-sensing data sets. The CARSON (Citizens And Remote Sensing Observational Network) Guide will be an online resource consisting of chapters each demonstrating how to utilize Giovanni and NEO to access and analyze specific remote-sensing data. Integrated in each chapter will be descriptions of methods that citizen scientists can employ to collect, monitor, analyze, and share data related to the chapter topic which pertain to environmental and ecological conditions in their local region. A workshop held in August 2008 initiated the development of prototype chapters on water quality, air quality, and precipitation. These will be the initial chapters in the first release of the CARSON Guide, which will be used in a pilot project at the Maryland Science Center in spring 2009. The goal of the CARSON Guide is to augment and enhance citizen scientist environmental research with NASA satellite data by creating a participatory network consisting of motivated individuals, environmental groups and organizations, and science-focused institutions such as museums and nature centers. Members of the network could potentially interact with government programs, academic research projects, and not-for-profit organizations focused on

  5. Fishes from the Corumbá Reservoir, Paranaíba River drainage, upper Paraná River basin, State of Goiás, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    C. S. Pavanelli; Graça, W. J.; C. H. Zawadzki; H. A. Britski; Vidotti, A. P.; Avelino, G. S.; Veríssimo, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Corumbá Reservoir is located in CorumbáRiver, a tributary to the right bank of ParanaíbaRiver, upper Paraná River basin. Fish werecollected monthly, from March 1996 to February2000, in 17 sampling stations along CorumbáReservoir and its influence area, using gill nets,casting nets, electrofishing and long lines.Considering the entire period, 119 fish specieswere colleted, which belong to seven Orders, 26Families, and 78 Genera. Among them, fivespecies are considered endemic to Corumbá Riv...

  6. Comparison of benthic macroinvertebrate indices for the assessment of the impact of acid mine drainage on an Irish river below an abandoned Cu-S mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A range of macroinvertebrate indices were compared to assess the most appropriate metric for the assessment of acid mine drainage (AMD) in a low alkalinity, highly erosional river in south-east Ireland. Differences were found in the ability of indices to discriminate AMD impact with the Brillouin, BMWP score, Margalef and Shannon Indices the most precise. Taxon richness was also strongly correlated with AMD indicator parameters (e.g. pH alkalinity, sulphate, Zn and Fe) at impacted sites being an equally reliable metric. The response of the community structure to AMD in this river does not fulfil the optimum criteria for either diversity or biological indices, which may explain the variation in the success of different indices seen in this and other studies. The development of indices that model the expected community response to AMD more accurately or are based on the response of indicator species to AMD pollutants are required. - Several indices were suitable for AMD impact assessment, although due to AMD and receiving water variability no single index may be universally reliable

  7. Evaluation of genetic toxicity caused by acid mine drainage of coal mines on fish fauna of Simsang River, Garohills, Meghalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, B; Kalita, H K; Baishya, R A; Basumatary, S; Sarma, D

    2016-09-01

    Fishery ecology of the Simsang River, Meghalaya is being threatened by large scale environmental degradation due to acid mine drainage (AMD) of coal mines. In the present paper, effort has been made to evaluate the genotoxicity caused due to AMD of coal mines on Channa punctata under laboratory condition through comet assay, micronucleus and chromosome aberration tests. Water samples were collected seasonally from affected and unaffected sites of the River and physico-chemical quality of water indicated low pH (4.6), high concentration of sulphates (270mgL(-1)) and iron (7.2mgL(-1)) beyond permissible limits. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) showed highest concentration of 4-ring PAH and Benzo[a]anthracene was the most important pollutant in the water collected from affected sites. The highest and the lowest mean concentrations of PAHs were estimated in monsoon and winter season, respectively. The index of DNA damage assessed by comet assay, micronucleus and chromosome aberration tests demonstrated significant differences season wise in different sampling sites. Frequency of DNA-damaged cells was found highest in the water samples collected from affected site in monsoon season. PMID:27213561

  8. Arsenic Scavenging by Al-Substituted Ferrihydrites in a Circumneutral pH River Impacted by the Acid Mine Drainage of Carnoulès, Gard, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    ADRA, A.; Morin, G.; ona-Nguema, G.; Maillot, F.; Casiot, C.; Bruneel, O.

    2013-12-01

    Ferrihydrite (Fh) is a nanocrystalline ferric oxyhydroxide involved in the retention of pollutants in natural systems and in water-treatment processes. The status and properties of major chemical impurities in natural Fh is however still scarcely documented. Here we investigated the structure and reactivity of aluminum-rich Fh from river-bed sediments collected in a circumneutral river (pH 6-7) impacted by an arsenic-rich acid mine drainage (AMD). Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy at the Fe K-edge shows that Fh is the predominant mineral phase forming after neutralization of the AMD, in association with minor amount of schwertmannite transported from the AMD. EXAFS analysis indicates that Al(III) substitutes for Fe(III) ions into the Fh structure in the natural sediment samples, with local aluminum concentration within the 20-37×7 mol%Al range, in agreement with bulk chemical compositions. Synthetic aluminous Fh analogues prepared in the present study are found to be less Al-substituted (14-18×4 mol%Al). Finally, EXAFS analysis at the arsenic K-edge indicates that As(V) form similar inner-sphere surface complexes on the natural and synthetic Al-substituted Fh studied. Our results provide direct evidences for the scavenging of arsenic by natural Al- Fh, with possible implications for other pollutants in natural or engineered systems.

  9. IMPACT OF ADDITIONALS CONTAMINANTS DUE TO ACID MINE DRAINAGE IN TRIBUTARIES OF THE PILCOMAYO RIVER FROM CERRO RICO, POTOSÍ, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H.J. Strosnider

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intensive mining and processing of the polymetallic sulfide ore body of Cerro Rico de Potosí (Bolivia has occurred since 1545. To further investigate acid mine drainage (AMD discharges and their link to downstream contamination, data were gathered during two sampling events during the most extreme periods of the dry and wet seasons of one year. Concentrations of Ag, B, Ba, Mo, Sb, Se, Sn and V in AMD and receiving streams were greater than Bolivian discharge limits and receiving water body guidelines as well as international agricultural use standards. High concentrations of rare earth metals have been documented in this area. Results indicate that contamination from mining has a larger scope than previously thought and underscore the importance of remediation.

  10. Fort Carson Building 1860 Biomass Heating Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, Randolph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tomberlin, Gregg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gaul, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As part of the Army Net-Zero Energy Installation program, the Fort Carson Army Base requested that NREL evaluate the feasibility of adding a biomass boiler to the district heating system served by Building 1860. We have also developed an Excel-spreadsheet-based decision support tool--specific to the historic loads served by Building 1860--with which users can perform what-if analysis on gas costs, biomass costs, and other parameters. For economic reasons, we do not recommend adding a biomass system at this time.

  11. Fractionation of Cu and Zn isotopes during adsorption onto amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide: Experimental mixing of acid rock drainage and ambient river water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Borrok, D.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Ridley, W.I.

    2008-01-01

    Fractionation of Cu and Zn isotopes during adsorption onto amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide is examined in experimental mixtures of metal-rich acid rock drainage and relatively pure river water and during batch adsorption experiments using synthetic ferrihydrite. A diverse set of Cu- and Zn-bearing solutions was examined, including natural waters, complex synthetic acid rock drainage, and simple NaNO3 electrolyte. Metal adsorption data are combined with isotopic measurements of dissolved Cu (65Cu/63Cu) and Zn (66Zn/64Zn) in each of the experiments. Fractionation of Cu and Zn isotopes occurs during adsorption of the metal onto amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide. The adsorption data are modeled successfully using the diffuse double layer model in PHREEQC. The isotopic data are best described by a closed system, equilibrium exchange model. The fractionation factors (??soln-solid) are 0.99927 ?? 0.00008 for Cu and 0.99948 ?? 0.00004 for Zn or, alternately, the separation factors (??soln-solid) are -0.73 ?? 0.08??? for Cu and -0.52 ?? 0.04??? for Zn. These factors indicate that the heavier isotope preferentially adsorbs onto the oxyhydroxide surface, which is consistent with shorter metal-oxygen bonds and lower coordination number for the metal at the surface relative to the aqueous ion. Fractionation of Cu isotopes also is greater than that for Zn isotopes. Limited isotopic data for adsorption of Cu, Fe(II), and Zn onto amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide suggest that isotopic fractionation is related to the intrinsic equilibrium constants that define aqueous metal interactions with oxyhydroxide surface sites. Greater isotopic fractionation occurs with stronger metal binding by the oxyhydroxide with Cu > Zn > Fe(II).

  12. The inflow of 234U and 238U from the River Odra drainage basin to the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Skwarzec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the activity of uranium isotopes 234U and 238U in Odra river water samples, collected from October 2003 to July2004, was measured using alpha spectrometry. The uranium concentrations were different in each of the seasons analysed; the lowest values were recorded in summer. In all seasons, uranium concentrations were the highest in Bystrzyca river waters (from 27.81 ± 0.29Bq m-3 of 234U and 17.82 ± 0.23 Bq m-3 of 238U in spring to 194.76 ± 3.43 Bq m-3 of 234U and 134.88 ± 2.85 Bq m-3 of 238U in summer. The lowest concentrations were noted in the Mała Panew (from 1.33 ± 0.02 Bq m-3 of 234U and 1.06 ± 0.02 Bq m-3 of 238U in spring to 3.52 ± 0.05 Bq m-3 of 234U and 2.59± 0.04 Bq m-3 of 238U in autumn. The uranium radionuclides 234U and 238U in the water samples were not in radioactive equilibrium. The 234U / 238U activity ratios were the highest in Odra water samples collected at Głogów (1.84 in autumn, and the lowest in water from the Noteć (1.03 in winter and spring. The 234U / 238U activity ratio decreases along the main stream of the Odra, owing to changes in the salinity of the river's waters. Annually, 8.19 tons of uranium (126.29 G Bq of 234U and 100.80 G Bq of 238U flow into the Szczecin Lagoon with Odra river waters.

  13. Stabilization of large drainage basins over geological time scales : Cenozoic West Africa, hot spot swell growth, and the Niger River

    OpenAIRE

    Chardon, Dominique; Grimaud, J. L.; Rouby, D.; BEAUVAIS, Anicet; Christophoul, F.

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing the evolving geometry of large river catchments over geological time scales is crucial to constraining yields to sedimentary basins. In the case of Africa, it should further help deciphering the response of large cratonic sediment routing systems to Cenozoic growth of the basin-and-swell topography of the continent. Mapping of dated and regionally correlated lateritic paleolandscape remnants complemented by onshore sedimentological archives allows the reconstruction...

  14. Assessing the concentration, speciation, and toxicity of dissolved metals during mixing of acid-mine drainage and ambient river water downstream of the Elizabeth Copper Mine, Vermont, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Seal, R.R., II; Piatak, N.M.; Paul, B.

    2007-01-01

    The authors determine the composition of a river that is impacted by acid-mine drainage, evaluate dominant physical and geochemical processes controlling the composition, and assess dissolved metal speciation and toxicity using a combination of laboratory, field and modeling studies. Values of pH increase from 3.3 to 7.6 and the sum of dissolved base metal (Cd + Co + Cu + Ni + Pb + Zn) concentrations decreases from 6270 to 100 ??g/L in the dynamic mixing and reaction zone that is downstream of the river's confluence with acid-mine drainage. Mixing diagrams and PHREEQC calculations indicate that mixing and dilution affect the concentrations of all dissolved elements in the reach, and are the dominant processes controlling dissolved Ca, K, Li, Mn and SO4 concentrations. Additionally, dissolved Al and Fe concentrations decrease due to mineral precipitation (gibbsite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite), whereas dissolved concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn decrease due to adsorption onto newly formed Fe precipitates. The uptake of dissolved metals by aquatic organisms is dependent on the aqueous speciation of the metals and kinetics of complexation reactions between metals, ligands and solid surfaces. Dissolved speciation of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in the mixing and reaction zone is assessed using the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique and results of speciation calculations using the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). Data from open and restricted pore DGT units indicate that almost all dissolved metal species are inorganic and that aqueous labile or DGT available metal concentrations are generally equal to total dissolved concentrations in the mixing zone. Exceptions occur when labile metal concentrations are underestimated due to competition between H+ and metal ions for Chelex-100 binding sites in the DGT units at low pH values. Calculations using the BLM indicate that dissolved Cd and Zn species in the mixing and reaction zone are predominantly inorganic

  15. Foam drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraynik, A.M.

    1983-11-01

    Transient drainage from a column of persistent foam has been analyzed theoretically. Gravity-driven flow was assumed to occur through an interconnected network of Plateau borders that define the edges of foam cells taken to be regular pentagonal dodecahedrons. A small liquid volume fraction and monodisperse cell size distribution were assumed. In the basic model, it is assumed that all liquid is contained in Plateau borders that are bounded by rigid gas-liquid interfaces. The predicted half life, the time required for one half of the liquid to drain from the foam, is inversely proportional to the square of the cell diameter, illustrating the importance of foam structure in drainage. Liquid hold up in the films separating adjacent cells, nonuniform initial liquid volume fraction distribution and interfacial mobility are explored. Border suction due to reduced pressure in the Plateau borders provides a mechanism for film drainage. Simultaneous film drainage and flow through the Plateau borders are analyzed. Sufficient conditions for neglecting film drainage kinetics are obtained. The results indicate that improved foam stability is related to small cells, liquid hold up in the films and slow film drainage kinetics.

  16. Impact of acid mine drainage from mining exploitations on the Margajita River basin and the Hatillo reservoir (Dominican Republic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining of the Pueblo Viejo high-sulphidation epithermal deposit (Dominican Republic) leads to environmental impact due to the formation of acid mine drainage associated with the oxidative dissolution of sulphides and sulpho salts. In addition to the very low pH, the acid waters are capable of transporting away from the mining areas high concentrations of metals and metalloids in solution. In the present work, a geochemical study of sediments deposited in the Hatillo reservoir is carried out. This reservoir is fed by the Margajita and Yuna streams which transport leachates from the Pueblo Viejo and Falcondo-Bonao (Cr-Ni) mining areas, respectively. The results show that these sediments have very high concentrations of Fe, Al and sulphate, along with significant amounts of As, Zn and Te, which are of especial environmental concern. The main contributor to this metal discharge into the reservoir is the Margajita stream, whereas the Yuna stream does not transport significant amounts of metals in solution due to its neutral pH, although it is likely that metals such as Mn, Cr, Ni and Co can be mobilised as a particulate. (Author) 5 refs.

  17. Testing models of drainage stability in East Asia: a source-to-sink study of the Neogene-recent Amur River and its delta in the North Sakhalin Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Uisdean; Poynter, Sarah; Clift, Peter; Macdonald, David

    2013-04-01

    Throughout the Neogene the North Sakhalin Basin in the Russian Far East was supplied with clastic sediment by the Amur River, one of the ten largest rivers on Earth, with a catchment area of more than 1.8M km2, and a trunk stream more than 4,500 km long. This river drains a complex collage of tectonic terranes which make up the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, as well as adjacent cratons. We use an extensive dataset from more than 200 sandstone samples, together with seismically-derived sediment budget calculations, to provide a comprehensive source-to-sink analysis for the Amur River and to test models of Neogene drainage capture. The majority of sand-sized sediment in the Amur River and its delta comes from upstream of the Lesser Khingan Ridge, shown by the composition of the deltaic sediments the lower 1700 km of the river. Stable mineral ratios, U-Pb age spectra and garnet geochemistry show little stratigraphic provenance-specific variation in the Neogene delta, and the grain assemblages indicate that much of the sediment was derived from the upper catchment of the Amur throughout the Neogene. This renders Miocene-Pliocene drainage capture models unlikely. Sediment budget calculations show significant temporal variations in Neogene sediment flux, which we attribute to climatic processes and uplift and recycling of deltaic sediment in the North Sakhalin Basin.

  18. Computationally efficient and flexible modular modelling approach for river and urban drainage systems based on surrogate conceptual models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfs, Vincent; Willems, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Water managers rely increasingly on mathematical simulation models that represent individual parts of the water system, such as the river, sewer system or waste water treatment plant. The current evolution towards integral water management requires the integration of these distinct components, leading to an increased model scale and scope. Besides this growing model complexity, certain applications gained interest and importance, such as uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, auto-calibration of models and real time control. All these applications share the need for models with a very limited calculation time, either for performing a large number of simulations, or a long term simulation followed by a statistical post-processing of the results. The use of the commonly applied detailed models that solve (part of) the de Saint-Venant equations is infeasible for these applications or such integrated modelling due to several reasons, of which a too long simulation time and the inability to couple submodels made in different software environments are the main ones. Instead, practitioners must use simplified models for these purposes. These models are characterized by empirical relationships and sacrifice model detail and accuracy for increased computational efficiency. The presented research discusses the development of a flexible integral modelling platform that complies with the following three key requirements: (1) Include a modelling approach for water quantity predictions for rivers, floodplains, sewer systems and rainfall runoff routing that require a minimal calculation time; (2) A fast and semi-automatic model configuration, thereby making maximum use of data of existing detailed models and measurements; (3) Have a calculation scheme based on open source code to allow for future extensions or the coupling with other models. First, a novel and flexible modular modelling approach based on the storage cell concept was developed. This approach divides each

  19. Prevalence of Anguillicoloides crassus and growth variation in migrant yellow-phase American eels of the upper Potomac River drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Jennifer L; Welsh, Stuart A

    2012-11-01

    Prevalence of the non-native swim bladder nematode Anguillicoloides crassus has recently increased in American eels from estuaries of the North American Atlantic coast, but little is known about parasite prevalence or conditions of previous infection in upstream migrant eels within upper watersheds. This study is the first to confirm presence of A. crassus in the upper Potomac River watershed. We estimated A. crassus prevalence during 3 time periods: September to October 2006 (5/143 eels, 3.5%), August to October 2007 (0/49 eels), and June 2008 (0/50 eels). All eels were sampled from the Millville Dam eel ladder on the lower Shenandoah River, a Potomac River tributary located approximately 285 km upstream of Chesapeake Bay, USA. Of the 5 infected eels, parasite intensity was 1 for each eel, and mean intensity was also 1.0. A swim bladder degenerative index (SDI) was calculated for the 50 eels from the final sampling period, and 38% of those eels (19 of 50) showed signs of previous infection by A. crassus. We also aged 42 of the 50 eels (mean ± SE = 6.7 ± 0.29 yr, range 4 to 11 yr) from the final sampling period. Based on the range of possible SDI scores (0 to 6), severity of previously infected swim bladders was moderate (SDI = 1 or 2). Previously infected eels, however, had a lower length-at-age than that of uninfected eels. Female yellow-phase eels in upper watersheds develop into large highly fecund silver-phase adults; hence, a parasite-induced effect on growth of yellow-phase eels could ultimately reduce reproductive potential. PMID:23135140

  20. Algal-mediated ecosystem exchanges in the Eel River drainage network: towards photogrammetric mapping of color to function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, M. E.; Welter, J.; Furey, P.; Lowe, R.; Finlay, J. C.; Hondzo, M.; Limm, M.; Bode, C.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2009-12-01

    Seasonal algal proliferations in river networks are typically short-lived (weeks-months) but spatially extensive. They mediate important ecological and biogeochemical exchanges within and between ecosystems. We are investigating correspondence of assemblage color with ecosystem function in the nitrogen-limited Eel River of northern California. During summer base flow following winter floods, Eel algal assemblages are dominated by the green macroalga Cladophora glomerata. New growths are green, but blooms turn yellow as Cladophora filaments are colonized by epiphytic diatoms (Cocconeis spp.). Later, proliferations turn rust colored as epiphytic assemblages became dominated by Epithemia spp., diatoms that contain nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterial endosymbionts. Epithemia-encrusted Cladophora occurs at and downstream of reaches draining > 100 km2 (where summer inundated average channel widths > 25 m), coinciding with a threshold increase in concentration of total dissolved nitrogen. Areal nitrogen fixation rates are 14x higher in rusty algal proliferations than in green, and 3-4x higher than in yellow Cladophora mats. Corresponding increases in insect emergence suggest that nitrogen fixed by cyanobacterial endosymbionts is highly edible. Rates of biomass emergence from rusty Cladophora mats are 12-17 times greater than from green mats, and 8-10 times greater from rusty than from yellow Cladophora mats, because larger taxa emerge from rusty mats (Chironominae versus Ceratopogonidae in yellow mats). Photogrammetric detection of spatial coverage and color changes in algal proliferations may help us track nitrogen fluxes they mediate (riverine loading from the atmosphere via fixation, river to the watershed return via insect emergence) that link riverine to aerial, watershed, and potentially nearshore marine ecosystems at reach to basin scales.

  1. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN GEOMORPHIC FACTS AND FOLDING GROUNDWORK THE EVOLUTION OF A DRAINAGE NETWORK ON THE ATLANTIC MARGIN OF THE BRAZILIAN PLATEAU: THE CASE OF THE WATERSHED OF THE RIVER BENEVENTE – ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto José Vervloet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues addressed in this article refer to the concluding part entitled research Morphologic and Structural Dynamics Constraints in the river basin of Rio hydroghaphy Benevente – Espirito Santo which aimed to investigate the lithostructural, tectonic, morphologic factors as constrain the in evolution of the drainage network of Benevente, river basin located in the south of Espírito Santo, state, Brazil. In this article it’s present the fold of background, studied by Ruellan (1952, set out the basic levels in local and regional erosion process, while also affects the evolution of the drainage network, as responsible for the dynamics of sub-compartments relief associated to lithostructural interface tectonic-relief-fluvial channels evolution. This article does homage to the pioneering work of Ruellan regarding the geomorphologic studies about Brazilian territory.

  2. Quantification of Tinto River sediment microbial communities: importance of sulfate-reducing bacteria and their role in attenuating acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Knittel, Katrin; Amann, Rudolf; Amils, Ricardo; Sanz, José Luis

    2012-07-01

    Tinto River (Huelva, Spain) is a natural acidic rock drainage (ARD) environment produced by the bio-oxidation of metallic sulfides from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. This study quantified the abundance of diverse microbial populations inhabiting ARD-related sediments from two physicochemically contrasting sampling sites (SN and JL dams). Depth profiles of total cell numbers differed greatly between the two sites yet were consistent in decreasing sharply at greater depths. Although catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization with domain-specific probes showed that Bacteria (>98%) dominated over Archaea (water column (pH 2.5 and +400 mV), the most abundant organisms were identified as iron-reducing bacteria: Acidithiobacillus spp. and Acidiphilium spp., probably related to the higher iron solubility at low pH. At the JL dam, characterized by a banded sediment with higher pH (4.2 to 6.2), more reducing redox potential (-210 mV to 50 mV), and a lower solubility of iron, members of sulfate-reducing genera Syntrophobacter, Desulfosporosinus, and Desulfurella were dominant. The latter was quantified with a newly designed CARD-FISH probe. In layers where sulfate-reducing bacteria were abundant, pH was higher and redox potential and levels of dissolved metals and iron were lower. These results suggest that the attenuation of ARD characteristics is biologically driven by sulfate reducers and the consequent precipitation of metals and iron as sulfides. PMID:22544246

  3. Diametric structure of the shrub and tree vegetation around the headwaters in the Piauitinga River drainage basin, Salgado – Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednei Santos de Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to analyze the diametric structure of the ciliary vegetation in headwaters in the Piauitinga River drainage basin, located at the town of Salgado, Sergipe, Brazil. One analyzed 14 headwaters, using a classification with regard to the conservation status and the type of reservoir, being divided into 4 categories: 1 punctual preserved (PPr, 1 punctual disturbed (PD, 6 punctual degraded (PD, and 6 diffuse degraded (DD. The survey was conducted through a population census of vegetation in a 50 m radius around the headwaters, equivalent to 0.79 ha, where one recorded all living shrub and tree individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH ≥ 5.0 cm. The individuals were distributed into diametric classes, at 2.5 cm intervals. The punctual preserved and the punctual disturbed headwaters showed a diametric structure characteristic of heterogeneous forests, with an “inverted J” shape. The diffuse and punctual degraded headwaters didn’t show the “inverted J” pattern, except for DD2, perhaps reflecting the higher numberof individuals in this headwater. The intense disturbance generated in the headwater areas, which are currently degraded, promoted the impoverishment of natural regeneration and, as a result, compromised the recruitment of individuals in the early diameter grades.

  4. Impact of AMD on water quality in critical watershed in the Hudson River drainage basin: Phillips Mine, Hudson Highlands, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, S.; Gates, A.; Szabo, Z.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    A sulfur and trace element enriched U-Th-laced tailings pile at the abandoned Phillips Mine in Garrison, New York, releases acid mine drainage (AMD, generally pH < 3, minimum pH 1.78) into the first-order Copper Mine Brook (CMB) that drains into the Hudson River. The pyrrhotite-rich Phillips Mine is located in the Highlands region, a critical water source for the New York metro area. A conceptual model for derivation/dissolution, sequestration, transport and dilution of contaminants is proposed. The acidic water interacts with the tailings, leaching and dissolving the trace metals. AMD evaporation during dry periods concentrates solid phase trace metals and sulfate, forming melanterite (FeSO4???7H2O) on sulfide-rich tailings surfaces. Wet periods dissolve these concentrates/precipitates, releasing stored acidity and trace metals into the CMB. Sediments along CMB are enriched in iron hydroxides which act as sinks for metals, indicating progressive sequestration that correlates with dilution and sharp rise in pH when mine water mixes with tributaries. Seasonal variations in metal concentrations were partly attributable to dissolution of the efflorescent salts with their sorbed metals and additional metals from surging acidic seepage induced by precipitation. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Computationally efficient and flexible modular modelling approach for river and urban drainage systems based on surrogate conceptual models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfs, Vincent; Willems, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Water managers rely increasingly on mathematical simulation models that represent individual parts of the water system, such as the river, sewer system or waste water treatment plant. The current evolution towards integral water management requires the integration of these distinct components, leading to an increased model scale and scope. Besides this growing model complexity, certain applications gained interest and importance, such as uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, auto-calibration of models and real time control. All these applications share the need for models with a very limited calculation time, either for performing a large number of simulations, or a long term simulation followed by a statistical post-processing of the results. The use of the commonly applied detailed models that solve (part of) the de Saint-Venant equations is infeasible for these applications or such integrated modelling due to several reasons, of which a too long simulation time and the inability to couple submodels made in different software environments are the main ones. Instead, practitioners must use simplified models for these purposes. These models are characterized by empirical relationships and sacrifice model detail and accuracy for increased computational efficiency. The presented research discusses the development of a flexible integral modelling platform that complies with the following three key requirements: (1) Include a modelling approach for water quantity predictions for rivers, floodplains, sewer systems and rainfall runoff routing that require a minimal calculation time; (2) A fast and semi-automatic model configuration, thereby making maximum use of data of existing detailed models and measurements; (3) Have a calculation scheme based on open source code to allow for future extensions or the coupling with other models. First, a novel and flexible modular modelling approach based on the storage cell concept was developed. This approach divides each

  6. Solid state partitioning of trace metals in suspended particulate matter from a river system affected by smelting-waste drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The partitioning of particulate trace metals was investigated during one year of monthly sampling of suspended particulate matter (SPM) at eight sites along the Lot-Garonne fluvial system, known for its polymetallic pollution. The chemical partitioning in five operationally defined fractions (exchangeable/carbonate, Fe/Mn oxides, organic matter/sulfides, acid soluble, residual) was determined using a multiple single extraction approach. This approach showed that Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu were mainly associated with acid soluble phases (84-95%, 65-88%, 61-82% and 55-80% of the respective total metal content), and therefore showed a high mean potential of mobilization and bioavailability. In the Riou-Mort River, draining the smelting-wastes, Zn, Cd and Mn showed high mobility as they were little associated with the residual fraction (1-2%) and mainly bound to the 'exchangeable' fraction of SPM (60-80%), probably weakly adsorbed on amorphous freshly-precipitated sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upstream and downstream of the anthropogenic source of metallic pollution, Mn and Cd, and Zn to a lesser extent, remained highly reactive. The other trace metals were mainly associated with the residual fraction and thus less mobile. However, the multiple single extraction scheme revealed that the most reactive transport phases were non-selectively extracted by the conventional extractants used here. These selectivity problems could not have been observed if sequential extraction was used

  7. From geodiversity and biodiversity through geoheritage to geoconservation; case study for the Dębnica River drainage basin (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Małgorzata; Najwer, Alicja; Borysiak, Janina; Gudowicz, Joanna; Zwoliński, Zbigniew

    2015-04-01

    The poster presents the geodiversity of morphogenetically youngest Polish areas, which are a part of the North European Plain. The representative study area was the Dębnica River catchment (200 square km), which includes postglacial landforms. The geodiversity is presented spatially, using the spatial units map, varied in terms of their geodiversity indicator. The indicator was determined by a geoinformation analysis, using the quality classification method, and it captures the landscape complexity. The factor maps relating to landform energy, selected geomorphometric parameters, landforms, lithology and hydrography were taken into consideration. The set of factor maps includes also the map of the syngenetic type of real vegetation, as well as land cover and land use maps. The data were extracted from the digital elevation model (DTED 2) and digital geomorphological, geological and hydrographic maps in a scale of 1:50,000. The data on land cover and land use were extracted from the CORINE Land Cover 2006 database. Details were added to the data using field mapping at a scale of 1:50,000, for the period 2012-2014. Spontaneous real vegetation was diagnosed using the phytosociological method, simultaneously with the field mapping procedure. Unified spatial units were assigned for each factor map. Relationships between the geodiversity and biodiversity were established, based on the calculated correlation coefficients. The spatial units which were varied in terms of geodiversity and biodiversity are presented on the final map. The map shows areas of very high geodiversity and biodiversity, which are the hotspots for the local natural and cultural geoheritage. Various geoconservation methods of such areas were also suggested in the study.

  8. Screening level contaminant survey of the Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge lies within the Portsmouth, NH - Portland, ME urban corridor, and is situated within watersheds that reflect the developed...

  9. 渭干河平原绿洲灌区合理灌排比探讨%Rational Ratio of Irrigation to Drainage in Weigan River Irrigat ion District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡顺军; 艾尼瓦尔·吾买尔; 田长彦; 周宏飞; 宋郁东; 王永平; 蒋庆华; 艾则孜; 黄文山; 吐尔逊

    2001-01-01

    根据灌区盐量平衡原理,采用实际监测资料,对渭干河及其所属的库车、沙雅、新和县平原绿洲灌区进行盐均衡分析,深入探讨了临界灌排比的影响因素及其确定方法。研究结果表明:(1)灌排比的概念简捷明了,体现了干旱区水利建设、灌溉农业的特点,可作为衡量干旱区绿洲灌区水盐运动状况的一个指标,同时亦是进行灌排管理、规划设计的科学依据。(2)临界灌排比与灌溉引水量、排水量、河水含盐浓度、排水含盐浓度等因素有关。渭干河、库车、沙雅、新和灌区临界灌排比分别为10.80,6.55,20.09,21.48。若没有特殊的地形地貌,干旱区绿洲灌区临界灌排比为21左右。(3)在干旱区进行水量平衡计算,制定灌溉制度以及进行灌溉排水管理时,应保证有一定量的深层渗漏,便于淋洗盐分,同时应完善排水系统,使灌区在小于临界灌排比下运行。%Based on the principle of salt equilibrium in irrigationdistricts, the salt e qu ilibrium of Weigan river irrigation district is analyzed by using measured data. The factors of affecting critical ratio of irrigation to drainage and the metho d of determining critical ratio of irrigation to drainage are also discussed pro foundly. The results show that: (1) The conception of the ratio of irrigation to drainage is brief, embodies the characteristics of water conservation construct ion and irrigation agriculture, which can be used as the criterion of estimating the dynamics of moisture-salt movement in plain oasis irrigation distract in arid area,and can also used as the scientific basis of management of irrigatio n and drainage ,planning and designing.(2)Critical ratio of irrigation to drainage is related to the irrigation water volume, drainage water volume ,salt content of irrigation water and drainage water and so on. The critical ratio of irrigati o n to drainage for Weigan

  10. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 24. Seismic Refraction Tomography for Volume Analysis of Saturated Alluvium in the Straight Creek Drainage and Its Confluence With Red River, Taos County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a research effort directed by the New Mexico Environment Department to determine pre-mining water quality of the Red River at a molybdenum mining site in northern New Mexico, we used seismic refraction tomography to create subsurface compressional-wave velocity images along six lines that crossed the Straight Creek drainage and three that crossed the valley of Red River. Field work was performed in June 2002 (lines 1-4) and September 2003 (lines 5-9). We interpreted the images to determine depths to the water table and to the top of bedrock. Depths to water and bedrock in boreholes near the lines correlate well with our interpretations based on seismic data. In general, the images suggest that the alluvium in this area has a trapezoidal cross section. Using a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation model grid of surface elevations of this region and the interpreted elevations to water table and bedrock obtained from the seismic data, we generated new models of the shape of the buried bedrock surface and the water table through surface interpolation and extrapolation. Then, using elevation differences between the two grids, we calculated volumes of dry and wet alluvium in the two drainages. The Red River alluvium is about 51 percent saturated, whereas the much smaller volume of alluvium in the tributary Straight Creek is only about 18 percent saturated. When combined with average ground-water velocity values, the information we present can be used to determine discharge of Straight Creek into Red River relative to the total discharge of Red River moving past Straight Creek. This information will contribute to more accurate models of ground-water flow, which are needed to determine the pre-mining water quality in the Red River.

  11. Streambed Infiltration and Ground-Water Flow from the Trout Creek Drainage, an Intermittent Tributary to the Humboldt River, North-Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, David E.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Harrill, James R.; Wood, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is abundant in many alluvial basins of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province of the western United States. Water enters these basins by infiltration along intermittent and ephemeral channels, which originate in the mountainous regions before crossing alluvial fans and piedmont alluvial plains. Water also enters the basins as subsurface ground-water flow directly from the mountains, where infiltrated precipitation recharges water-bearing rocks and sediments at these higher elevations. Trout Creek, a typical intermittent stream in the Middle Humboldt River Basin in north-central Nevada, was chosen to develop methods of estimating and characterizing streambed infiltration and ground-water recharge in mountainous terrains. Trout Creek has a drainage area of about 4.8 ? 107 square meters. Stream gradients range from more than 1 ? 10?1 meter per meter in the mountains to 5 ? 10?3 meter per meter at the foot of the piedmont alluvial plain. Trout Creek is perennial in short reaches upstream of a northeast-southwest trending normal fault, where perennial springs discharge to the channel. Downstream from the fault, the water table drops below the base of the channel and the stream becomes intermittent. Snowmelt generates streamflow during March and April, when streamflow extends onto the piedmont alluvial plain for several weeks in most years. Rates of streambed infiltration become highest in the lowest reaches, at the foot of the piedmont alluvial plain. The marked increases in infiltration are attributed to increases in streambed permeability together with decreases in channel-bed armoring, the latter which increases the effective area of the channel. Large quartzite cobbles cover the streambed in the upper reaches of the stream and are absent in the lowest reach. Such changes in channel deposits are common where alluvial fans join piedmont alluvial plains. Poorly sorted coarse and fine sediments are deposited near the head of the fan, while finer

  12. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 1. Depth to Bedrock Determinations Using Shallow Seismic Data Acquired in the Straight Creek Drainage Near Red River, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2004-01-01

    In late May and early June of 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired four P-wave seismic profiles across the Straight Creek drainage near Red River, New Mexico. The data were acquired to support a larger effort to investigate baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality in the Red River basin (Nordstrom and others, 2002). For ground-water flow modeling, knowledge of the thickness of the valley fill material above the bedrock is required. When curved-ray refraction tomography was used with the seismic first arrival times, the resulting images of interval velocity versus depth clearly show a sharp velocity contrast where the bedrock interface is expected. The images show that the interpreted buried bedrock surface is neither smooth nor sharp, but it is clearly defined across the valley along the seismic line profiles. The bedrock models defined by the seismic refraction images are consistent with the well data.

  13. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Artificial Drainage (1992) and Irrigation (1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the estimated area of artifical drainage for the year 1992 and irrigation types for the year 1997 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1...

  14. Geomorphic indices of the river and drainage in Helan Mountain and its indication to tectonics%贺兰山水系流域数值地貌特征及其构造指示意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗盟; 高红山; 潘保田; 张忱; 刘芬良; 管东升

    2012-01-01

    基于Argis9.3与ASTER GDEM数据,提取了贺兰山两侧主要水系及其流域边界,根据河流及流域指标提取河流纵剖面、流域的Strahler曲线,并计算其面积高度积分值(Hypsometric Intergral)、河流纵剖面的凹度值(Concavity).通过HI值、凹度值同河流落差、河流长度、流域面积之间相关性分析发现,后3种地貌参数与HI值、凹度值间的相关性较差.对比分析贺兰山两侧河流HI值及凹度值发现:贺兰山东侧北段活动性大于南段,西侧构造活动性分布规律不明显.结合9条河流所处流域的Strahler曲线、河流纵剖面形态和HI值、凹度值分析发现:汝箕沟及其以北贺兰山地区处于地形演化的老年期,汝箕沟以南贺兰山段处于均衡调整的壮年期.%Watershed terrain and the relationship between drainage tectonic and erosion are one of the core content of geomorphology. The Helan Mountains area locates in the west edge of the Ordos, and it is a hinge area which links the western and eastern different geoteetonie units of the north of China. Research on river system and watershed area in the Helan Mountains can help us to construct in-depth understandling of river and landscape evolution in tectnnic movement active regions. Many authors have studied the characteristics of the tectonic and climate of the Helan Mountains, But For rivers, the especially quantitative analysis of river morphology is relatively rare. Hypsometric integral is a relief variable that is widely used to measure the degree ufuvial landscape erosion and describes the distribution of elevations across the drainage basin area. It is a powerful tool to tell apart the technically active and inactive areas. We choose hypsometric integral and stream profile concavity to study the tectonic activity and e-volution of the landforms in the Helan Mountains. The drainage network and drainage basins in the Helan Mountains and the hypsometric integral and concavity of the river

  15. Utility Assessment Report for SPIDERS Phase 2: Ft. Carson (Rev 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Hadley, Mark D.; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    This document contains the Utility Assessment Report (UAR) for the Phase 2 operational Demonstration (OD) of the Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD). The UAR for Phase 2 shows that the SPIDERS system was able to meet the requirements of the Implementation Directive at Ft. Carson.

  16. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT HISTOLOGY LABORATORY XYLENE USE - FORT CARSON, COLORADO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the WREAFS program, RREL has performed a waste minimization opportunity assessment (WMOA) at the Evans Community Hospital Histopathology Laboratory on the Ft. Carson Army Base, Colorado, in the area of waste xylene and ethyl alcohol contaminated with human tissue. The waste...

  17. Qingjiang River Developer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    THE 400-kilometer Qingjiang River, second tributary of the Yangtze River in Hubei Province, has a drainage area of 17,000 square kilometers. Its advantageous natural conditions have made it a key water power development project.

  18. A geometria fractal da rede de drenagem da bacia hidrográfica do Caeté, Alfredo Wagner-SC Fractal geometry of the drainage network of the Caeté river watershed, Alfredo Wagner-SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Redin Vestena

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar e avaliar a dimensão fractal da rede de drenagem da bacia hidrográfica do Caeté, em Alfredo Wagner, SC, a partir de diferentes métodos, com o propósito de caracterizar as formas geomorfológicas irregulares. A rede de drenagem apresenta propriedades multifractais. As dimensões fractais para os segmentos individuais (df e para a rede de drenagem inteira (Df foram determinadas por métodos que se fundamentaram nas razões de Horton e pelo método da contagem de caixas (Box-Counting. A rede de drenagem tem característica de autoafinidade. A dimensão fractal proveniente da relação de parâmetros obtidos pelas Leis de Horton apresentou resultados dentro dos limiares da teoria da geometria fractal.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the fractal dimensions of the drainage network of the Caeté river watershed, Alfredo Wagner/SC, with different methods in order to characterize the irregular geomorphologic forms. The drainage network possesses multi-fractal properties. That is why the fractal dimensions for the individual segments (df and for the entire network (Df were evaluated with Horton's Laws and the Box-Counting method. The drainage network has self-affinity characteristics. The fractal dimension obtained through the parameters relationship of Horton's Laws showed the results within the thresholds of the fractal geometry theory.

  19. The persistence of lead from past gasoline emissions and mining drainage in a large riparian system: Evidence from lead isotopes in the Sacramento River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, C.E.; Alpers, C.N.; Bouse, R.; Taylor, H.E.; Unruh, D.M.; Flegal, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Lead concentrations and isotope ratios measured in river water colloids and streambed sediment samples along 426 km of the Sacramento River, California reveal that the influence of lead from the historical mining of massive sulfide deposits in the West Shasta Cu-mining district (at the headwaters of the Sacramento River) is confined to a 60 km stretch of river immediately downstream of that mining region, whereas inputs from past leaded gasoline emissions and historical hydraulic Au-mining in the Sierra Nevadan foothills are the dominant lead sources in the remaining 370 km of the river. Binary mixing calculations suggest that more than 50% of the lead in the Sacramento River outside of the region of influence of the West Shasta Cu-mining district is derived from past depositions of leaded gasoline emissions. This predominance is the first direct documentation of the geographic extent of gasoline lead persistence throughout a large riparian system (>160,000 km2) and corroborates previous observations based on samples taken at the mouth of the Sacramento River. In addition, new analyses of sediment samples from the hydraulic gold mines of the Sierra Nevada foothills confirm the present-day fluxes into the Sacramento River of contaminant metals derived from historical hydraulic Au-mining that occurred during the latter half of the 19th and early part of the 20th centuries. These fluxes occur predominantly during periods of elevated river discharge associated with heavy winter precipitation in northern California. In the broadest context, the study demonstrates the potential for altered precipitation patterns resulting from climate change to affect the mobility and transport of soil-bound contaminants in the surface environment. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Drainage-area boundaries for selected sampling stations, scale 1:100,000, Yellowstone River Basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, an investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin study unit is being conducted to...

  1. The effects of drainage basin geomorphometry on minimum low flow discharge: the study of small watershed in Kelang River Valley in Peninsular Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This study investigate the relationships between geomorphometric properties and the minimum low flow discharge of undisturbeddrainage basins in the Taman Bukit Cahaya Seri Alam Forest Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia.The drainage basins selected were third-orderbasins so as to facilitate a common base for sampling and performing an unbiased statistical analyses.Three levels of relationships were observedin the study.Significant relationships existed between the geomorphometric properties as shown by the correlation network analysis; secondly,individual geomorphometric properties were observed to influence minimum flow discharge; and finally, the multiple regression model set upshowed that minimum flow discharge( Q min) was dependent of basin area(AU), stream length( LS ), maximum relief( Hmax), average relief(HAV) and stream frequency (SF).These findings further enforced other studies of this nature that drainage basins were dynamic andfunctional entities whose operations were governed by complex interrelationships occurring within the basins.Changes to any of thegeomorphometric properties would influence their role as basin regulators thus influencing a change in basin response.In the case of the basin's minimum low flow, a change in any of the properties considered in the regression model influenced the "time to peak" of flow.A shorter timeperiod would mean higher discharge, which is generally considered the prerequisite to flooding.This research also conclude that the role ofgeomorphometric properties to control the water supply within the stream through out the year even though during the drought and lessprecipitations months.Drainage basins are sensitive entities and any deteriorations involve will generate reciprocals and response to the watersupply as well as the habitat within the areas.

  2. Environmental contaminants in piping plover eggs from Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge and Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the 2011 breeding season, 4‐egg clutches of piping plover (Charadrius melodus) eggs were collected from single nests located at Rachel Carson National...

  3. Environmental Assessment : Implementation of federal mitigation requirements for changes in sewage treatment discharges within the Truckee-Carson watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to implement mitigation plans for two sewage effluent disposal systems in the Truckee-Carson watersheds. Implementation...

  4. Detrital Geochemical Fingerprints Of Rivers Along The Yalu Suture Zone In Tibet: Implications For Drainage Evolution, Timing Of Arc Development And Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassim, M. B.; Carrapa, B.; Gehrels, G. E.; Cosca, M. A.; Kapp, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Yalu suture zone between India and Asia comprises today a central depression occupied by the Yulu River, flanked to the north and to the south by high-elevation ranges. Rivers along the suture zone are derived from such ranges and drain into the Yulu River, which in turns drains eastward. Modern sands from these rivers provide an opportunity to broadly sample rocks present within the suture zone and study their regional geochemical fingerprints and tectono-erosional implications. Seven sand samples from rivers along the suture zone in Tibet between Xigatze to the east and Mt. Kailas to the west were collected for detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological analyses, white mica 40Ar/39Ar and apatite fission track thermochronology. Zircon U-Pb ages for all rivers range between 15 and 3568 Ma. Rivers draining the northern side of the suture zone mainly yield ages between 40 and 60 Ma, similar to the age of the Gangdese arc. Samples draining the southern side of the suture zone record a Tethyan signal characterized by age clusters at 500 Ma and 1050 Ma. Samples collected from the western rivers yield zircon ages that are younger compared to those from the east; with ages predominantly <100 Ma. U-Pb zircon ages indicate that ~85% of the zircon are younger than 100 Ma in the farthest west side of the river samples (near Mt. Kailas) whereas only ~5% of zircons are younger than 100 Ma in the farthest east side of the river samples (near Xigatze). A more detailed analysis of the youngest zircon U-Pb age components reveal strong signals between 30 Ma and 100 Ma with significant peaks at 47 - 50 Ma and at 37 - 40 Ma, 57 - 63 Ma and 94 - 97 Ma, recording the activity of the magmatic arc along strike. Further analysis of the young age components (below 100 Ma) suggest a trend in age along the suture zone, with younging direction towards the west - and probably younging northward. However, the variation in ages is small. Our U-Pb detrital zircon ages are overall in agreement with

  5. [Little Dry Creek Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map of the drainage boundary, direction of flow, canals and ditches, and streets for the drainage study plan and profile for Little Dry Creek sub area in the North...

  6. Long term remediation of highly polluted acid mine drainage: A sustainable approach to restore the environmental quality of the Odiel river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 20 months of proper operation the full scale passive treatment in Mina Esperanza (SW Spain) produced around 100 mg/L of ferric iron in the aeration cascades, removing an average net acidity up to 1500 mg/L as CaCO3 and not having any significant clogging problem. Complete Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ti and V removal from the water was accomplished through almost the entire operation time while Fe removal ranged between 170 and 620 mg/L. The system operated at a mean inflow rate of 43 m3/day achieving an acid load reduction of 597 g.(m2 day)-1, more than 10 times higher than the generally accepted 40 g.(m2 day)-1 value commonly used as a passive treatment system designing criteria. The high performance achieved by the passive treatment system at Mina Esperanza demonstrates that this innovative treatment design is a simple, efficient and long lasting remediation option to treat highly polluted acid mine drainage. - Highlights: → Novel reactive mixture enable 20 month of high hydraulic conductivity. → Acid load reduction improved 10 times comparing to vertical flow wetland. → High biotic and abiotic iron oxidation and removal. → Complete Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ti and V water removal. - A high permeable alkaline reactive substrate offers a sustainable option to remediate severely polluted acid mine drainage in the Odiel basin

  7. MAINTENANCE OF BASIC DRAINAGE STRUCTURES IN THE STARGARD DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Kozaczyk; Daniel Liberacki; Piotr Stachowski; Paweł Piotrowski

    2016-01-01

    State of water-drainage infrastructure affects the conditions for sustainable development of rural areas. Irrigation-drainage systems for governing water relations in soils of the valley areas consist of a system of rivers, canals and ditches with impoundment structure. The considerable neglect in the maintenance of existing water-drainage infrastructure resulted in their recapitalization. The most important way to restore the efficiency of their proper functioning should be their correct and...

  8. Transient drainage summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage

  9. Mine drainage treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Water flowing from underground and surface mines and contains high concentrations of dissolved metals is called mine drainage. Mine drainage can be categorized into several basic types by their alkalinity or acidity. Sulfide rich and carbonate poor materials are expected to produce acidic drainage, and alkaline rich materials, even with significant sulfide concentrations, often produce net alkaline water. Mine drainages are dangerous because pollutants may decompose in the environment. In...

  10. Drainage of radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Code of Practice covers all the drainage systems which may occur in the radioactive classified area of an establishment, namely surface water, foul, process and radioactive drainage. It also deals with final discharge lines. The Code of Practice concentrates on those aspects of drainage which require particular attention because the systems are in or from radioactive areas and typical illustrations are given in appendices. The Code makes references to sources of information on conventional aspects of drainage design. (author)

  11. Historic and Current Distributions of River Otters (Lontra canadensis and (Lontra longicaudis in the Río Grande or Río Bravo del Norte Drainage of Colorado and New Mexico, USA and of Chihuahua, Mexico and Adjacent Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Polechla

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Río Grande drainage is an important and imperiled wetland of the US/Mexican border arid lands. There is a desire to restore otter populations in this river by interested parties. In order to follow IUCN guidelines for restoration, biologists need learn more fully the situation prior to implementation of restoration management. A prerequisite for proper restoration conservation is to know the organism’s taxonomy (i.e., what taxa or species and subspecies one is dealing with, distribution, and relative abundance. The historic and current distribution of the Nearctic otter (Lontra canadensis and Neotropical otter (L. longicaudis in the borderlands of US and Mexico are reviewed in this paper. The evidence indicates that otters were native to the Río Grande valley and has been recorded in the languages and customs of Native Americans such as the Pueblo people prior to European settlement of the area. The first Spanish documents we were able to find whereby otters were recorded, date to the middle 16th century. Otters during historical times were probably more numerous than previously thought and one of the first wildlife laws in the borderlands revolved around a moratorium on trapping the otter and beaver. Presently, populations of otters occur in 1 the Río San Pedro of Chihuahua, a tributary of the Río Conchos entering the Río Grande from the southeast, 2 the upper Río Grande near the Colorado/New Mexico border, and 3 the middle Pecos River in southeastern New Mexico entering the Río Grande from the west. These observations are corroborated by multiple observations by competent observers and in the case of the first population, otter photos and sign. These populations are centered on areas with macro-habitats characterized by a river flowing through 1 deep canyons, or 2 ancillary wetlands. Considerable more detailed survey work is needed to determine the full extent of the distribution of otters in the Río Grande drainage. A genetic

  12. Exchange Place by Ciaran Carson or a sense of déjà vu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Delattre

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In his novel Exchange Place published in 2012, Ciaran Carson draws upon the motif of the quest in order to weave an intricate web of threads that irresistibly attracts the reader into a world of make believe, which is perhaps the only one worth experiencing. This article will argue that in this work temporality is envisaged as composed of disjointed fragments that are so many anachronisms revealed through analogies, resemblances and correspondences.

  13. Community structure characteristics of phytoplankton in argun River Drainage Area in autumn%额尔古纳河流域秋季浮游植物群落结构特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞科; 姚锦仙; 王昊; 刘松涛; 李翀; 吕植

    2011-01-01

    Argun River drainage area locates on the northeast of Inner Mongolia, adjacent to Mongolia and Russia. It has very limited biodiversity information. In recent years, with the rapid regional economic development and climate change,its aquatic ecosystem faces many serious challenges, such as water quality degradation, eutrophication and decrease of wetland size. Phytoplankton is a major contributor to primary productivity in aquatic ecosystem. Species, density and biomass of phytoplankton have been widely used to evaluate and monitor ecosystem health. In August-September 2008, the phytoplankton samples were collected from 26 locations in Argun River drainage area , which includes Hulun Lake , Wulan Lake, Erka Wetland, Yimin River and Hawuer River. A total of 177 species belonging to 82 genera in 8 phyla were identified , Chlorophyta (77 species of 36 genera) , Bacillariophyta(54 species of 21 genera) , and Cyanophyta ( 26 species of 13 genera) dominated the phytoplankton communities, and 20 other species were also identified from Euglenophyta,Cryptophyta , Dinophyta , Chrysophyta and Xanthophyta. 121 species of 64 genera were found in Hulun Lake , 88 species of 47 genera in Wulan Lake ,116 species of 62 genera in Erka Wetland , 59 species of 41 genera in Yimin River and 54 species of 32 genera in Hawuer River. The dominant species in Hulun Lake and Wulan Lake belonged to Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta, while Bacillariophyta had an apparent dominance in Erka Wetland, Yimin River and Hawuer River.Cryptophyta also had an important role in Erka Wetland. It had high cyanobacterial density in Wulan Lake ( 5.17×106 ind. /L) and Hulun Lake (4. Ol×106 ind. /L) . while high density diatoms in Erka Wetland( 1. 40×106 ind. /L) , Yimin River (1.84 × 105 ind. /L) and Hawuer River ( 4. 89 x 105 ind./L). Result from hierarchical cluster analysis showed that community structures of phytoplankton in lakes and wetland , rivers were different. Moreover, compared to a former study in the

  14. ACID ROCK DRAINAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Ionce

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Acid rock drainage (ARD is an particularly important aspect for the evaluation of the decantation ponds’ safety, and which has been only once taken into consideration at the Tarnicioara decantation pond, year 2002, as a consequence of the apparition of a strong seepage on the deposit’s dump, that has chemically de-purified the water from the river Brateasa. We have observed ARD, which implies the release of acid solutions from the mining sterile deposits, from the underground mining works and from the quarries, in the following tailings dams: Tarnicioara, Valea Strajii, Poarta Veche- which served Tarniţa Preparation Enterprise and in the Dealu Negru and Paraul Cailor ponds- which, at their time served Fundu Moldovei Preparation Enterprise, both during the period of their functioning and the period after their closure. For the decantation pond Dumitrelu which served the Calimani preparation enterprise, acid seepages from the deposit were mentioned in a study made by SC ICPM SA Baia Mare in 1993. Subsequently to the closure of the objective such seepage did not take place anymore. Instead, by raining, there is a frequent plant sterile dragging from the contour retaining wall down to the trouble pond, situated upstream.

  15. Controls on the composition of fluvial sands from a tropical weathering environment: sands of the Orinoco River drainage basin, Venezuela and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, M.J.; Stallard, R.F.; Lundberg, N.

    1991-01-01

    On the alluvial plains of the western Llanos, storage of orogenically derived sediment allows time for substantial chemical weathering. Through reworking of the alluvial sequences, freshly eroded sediment is exchanged for older, compositionally more mature material. The chemically weathered component increases as rivers cross the Llanos, resulting in an increase in overall compositional maturity of bed-load sand away from the orogenic terranes. -from Authors

  16. MAINTENANCE OF BASIC DRAINAGE STRUCTURES IN THE STARGARD DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kozaczyk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available State of water-drainage infrastructure affects the conditions for sustainable development of rural areas. Irrigation-drainage systems for governing water relations in soils of the valley areas consist of a system of rivers, canals and ditches with impoundment structure. The considerable neglect in the maintenance of existing water-drainage infrastructure resulted in their recapitalization. The most important way to restore the efficiency of their proper functioning should be their correct and timely maintenance. The study evaluated the need for maintenance of basic drainage structures in the district of Stargard. The study covered the years 2010–2012.

  17. WATER DRAINAGE MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.B. Case

    2000-05-30

    The drainage of water from the emplacement drift is essential for the performance of the EBS. The unsaturated flow properties of the surrounding rock matrix and fractures determine how well the water will be naturally drained. To enhance natural drainage, it may be necessary to introduce engineered drainage features (e.g. drilled holes in the drifts), that will ensure communication of the flow into the fracture system. The purpose of the Water Drainage Model is to quantify and evaluate the capability of the drift to remove water naturally, using the selected conceptual repository design as a basis (CRWMS M&O, 1999d). The analysis will provide input to the Water Distribution and Removal Model of the EBS. The model is intended to be used to provide postclosure analysis of temperatures and drainage from the EBS. It has been determined that drainage from the EBS is a factor important to the postclosure safety case.

  18. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. J.; Kim, K. W.; Lee, J. T.; Lee, Y. H.; Park, C.Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) was performed 27 times in 24 patients with obstructive jaundice, from May, 1981 to October, 1982 at Department of Radiology Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine. Internal drainage was performed in 5 cases and external drainage in 19 cases. Daily drainage amount was corrected with the decline of serum bilirubin level. Six patients with sepsis were all improved after PTBD. This procedure effectively decompress the sevely obstructed biliary tree prior to surgery, palliates the clinical problems in patient with unresectable malignant obstruction and controls sepsis effectively.

  19. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) was performed 27 times in 24 patients with obstructive jaundice, from May, 1981 to October, 1982 at Department of Radiology Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine. Internal drainage was performed in 5 cases and external drainage in 19 cases. Daily drainage amount was corrected with the decline of serum bilirubin level. Six patients with sepsis were all improved after PTBD. This procedure effectively decompress the sevely obstructed biliary tree prior to surgery, palliates the clinical problems in patient with unresectable malignant obstruction and controls sepsis effectively

  20. Assessing the effect of natural controls and land use change on sediment yield in a major Andean River: the Magdalena drainage basin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan Darío; Syvitski, James P M

    2006-03-01

    The Magdalena River, a major fluvial system draining most of the Colombian Andes, is a world-class river, in the top 10 in terms of sediment load (approximately 150 MT/yr). In this study, we explore the major natural factors and anthropogenic influences behind the patterns in sediment yield on the Magdalena basin and reconstruct the spatial and temporal pattern of deforestation and agricultural intensification across the basin to test the relationships between land use change and trends in sediment yield. Our results show that sediment yield for the whole Magdalena catchment can be explained by natural variables, including runoff and maximum water discharge. These two estimators explain 58% of variance in sediment yield. Temporal analyses of sediment discharges and land use show that the extent of erosion within the catchment has increased over the last 10 to 20 years. Many anthropogenic influences, including a forest decrease by 40% in a 20-year period, an agriculture and pasture increase by 65%, poor soil conservation and mining practices, and increasing rates of urbanization, may have accounted for the overall increasing trends in sediment yield on a regional scale. PMID:16722251

  1. Topological Analysis of Urban Drainage Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock; McGrath, Gavan; Rao, Suresh

    2016-04-01

    Urban drainage networks are an essential component of infrastructure, and comprise the aggregation of underground pipe networks carrying storm water and domestic waste water for eventual discharge to natural stream networks. Growing urbanization has contributed to rapid expansion of sewer networks, vastly increasing their complexity and scale. Importance of sewer networks has been well studied from an engineering perspective, including resilient management, optimal design, and malfunctioning impact. Yet, analysis of the urban drainage networks using complex networks approach are lacking. Urban drainage networks consist of manholes and conduits, which correspond to nodes and edges, analogous to junctions and streams in river networks. Converging water flows in these two networks are driven by elevation gradient. In this sense, engineered urban drainage networks share several attributes of flows in river networks. These similarities between the two directed, converging flow networks serve the basis for us to hypothesize that the functional topology of sewer networks, like river networks, is scale-invariant. We analyzed the exceedance probability distribution of upstream area for practical sewer networks in South Korea. We found that the exceedance probability distributions of upstream area follow power-law, implying that the sewer networks exhibit topological self-similarity. The power-law exponents for the sewer networks were similar, and within the range reported from analysis of natural river networks. Thus, in line with our hypothesis, these results suggest that engineered urban drainage networks share functional topological attributes regardless of their structural dissimilarity or different underlying network evolution processes (natural vs. engineered). Implications of these findings for optimal design of sewer networks and for modeling sewer flows will be discussed.

  2. Biology of black bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède, 1802 fifty years after the introduction in a small drainage of the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO AZEVEDO ZOCCAL GARCIA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Garcia DAZ, Costa ADA, Leme GLA, Orsi ML. 2014. Biology of black bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède, 1802 fifty years after the introduction in a small drainage of the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Biodiversitas 15: 180-185. The dispersion of organisms by human actions has been the major source of changes in the natural distribution of species, making the introduction of non-native species a threat to biological diversity. Micropterus salmoides is a fish originating from North America, which was introduced in a lagoon in the Ecological Park of Fazenda Monte Alegre in southern Brazil over 50 years ago. The reproductive activity, weight-length relationship and relative condition factor were analyzed to evaluate the health parameters of the species. The result allows us to classify the reproductive activity of this population as moderate. It was found that the health condition patterns are identical to those theoretically expected. The occurrence of individuals downstream of the lagoon shows that the population has been presenting dispersion conditions to new environments, posing a threat to local biodiversity. Management measures, such as isolation or eradication of the population, are required to control the species within the studied site, and prevent its dispersion into natural watercourses.

  3. In situ measurements of microbially-catalyzed nitrification and nitrate reduction rates in an ephemeral drainage channel receiving water from coalbed natural gas discharge, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S.H.; Smith, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrification and nitrate reduction were examined in an ephemeral drainage channel receiving discharge from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. CBNG co-produced water typically contains dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), primarily as ammonium. In this study, a substantial portion of discharged ammonium was oxidized within 50??m of downstream transport, but speciation was markedly influenced by diel fluctuations in dissolved oxygen (> 300????M). After 300??m of transport, 60% of the initial DIN load had been removed. The effect of benthic nitrogen-cycling processes on stream water chemistry was assessed at 2 locations within the stream channel using acrylic chambers to conduct short-term (2-6??h), in-stream incubations. The highest ambient DIN removal rates (2103????mol N m- 2 h- 1) were found at a location where ammonium concentrations > 350????M. This occurred during light incubations when oxygen concentrations were highest. Nitrification was occurring at the site, however, net accumulation of nitrate and nitrite accounted for nitrification was not a factor and changes in DIN removal rates were controlled by nitrate reduction, diel fluctuations in oxygen concentration, and availability of electron donor. This study indicates that short-term adaptation of stream channel processes can be effective for removing CBNG DIN loads given sufficient travel distances, but the long-term potential for nitrogen remobilization and nitrogen saturation remain to be determined.

  4. The Role of Occupant Behavior in Achieving Net Zero Energy: A Demonstration Project at Fort Carson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Zalesny, Mary D.; Fernandez, Nicholas

    2013-09-30

    This study, sponsored by the U.S. General Services Administration’s Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings, aimed to understand the potential for institutional and behavioral change to enhance the performance of buildings, through a demonstration project with the Department of Defense in five green buildings on the Fort Carson, Colorado, Army base. To approach this study, the research team identified specific occupant behaviors that had the potential to save energy in each building, defined strategies that might effectively support behavior change, and implemented a coordinated set of actions during a three-month intervention.

  5. Mercury characterization in Lahontan Valley Wetlands : Carson River Mercury Site : Lyon and Churchill Counties, Nevada, 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the Nevada Fish and Wildlife Office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Superfund Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 9...

  6. The Breeding Ecology of White-faced Ibis in the Carson River Basin, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To ensure long-term breeding population viability of White-faced Ibis, it may be necessary to develop local water management strategies with consideration of...

  7. The Breeding Ecology of White-faced Ibis in the Lower Carson River Basin, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi) is a colonial waterbird that breeds in western North America and southern South America (Ryder 1967). Within North America,...

  8. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was successfully made 20 times on 17 patients of obstructive jaundice for recent 1 year since June 1981 at Department of Radiology in Seoul National University Hospital. The causes of obstructive jaundice was CBD Ca in 13 cases, metastasis in 2 cases, pancreatic cancer in 1 case and CBD stone in 1 case. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is a relatively ease, safe and effective method which can be done after PTC by radiologist. It is expected that percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage should be done as an essential procedure for transient permanent palliation of obstructive jaundice

  9. A 26,600 yr record of climate and vegetation from Rice Lake in the Eel River drainage of the northern California Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    from terrestrial and marine climate proxies from a core located 33 km off the mouth of the Eel River, (TN062 0550, 40.9°N, 124.6°W, 569 m water depth) suggest that ENSO-like conditions typified the Holocene.

  10. Preoperative biliary drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Payal; Kumbhari, Vivek; Zein, Mohamad E L; Khashab, Mouen A

    2015-01-01

    The role of preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with distal or proximal biliary obstruction secondary to resectable tumors has been a matter for debate. A review of the literature using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases was undertaken for studies evaluating routes of drainage (endoscopic or percutaneous) and stent types (plastic or metal) in patients with resectable disease. Preoperative biliary drainage is indicated for relief of symptomatic jaundice, cholangitis, patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy or those patients where surgery may be delayed. Endoscopic methods are preferred over percutaneous methods because of lower complication rates. In patients with proximal biliary obstruction, PBD should be guided by imaging studies to aid in selective biliary cannulation for unilateral drainage in order to reduce the risk of cholangitis in undrained liver segments. PMID:25293587

  11. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  12. Estimation of Total Dissolved Solids in Agricultural Drainwater of the Carson Division of the Newlands Project, Churchill County, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Section 206 of the Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act (P.L. 101-618, November, 1990) (Act) authorized the purchase of water rights to support a...

  13. Zeanah et al.: An Optimal Foraging Model of Hunter-Gatherer Land Use in the Carson Desert

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, George T

    1998-01-01

    An Optimal Foraging Model of Hunter-Gatherer Land Use in the Carson Desert . David W. Zeanah, James A. Carter, Daniel P. Dugas, Robert G. Elston, and Julia E. Hammett. Silver City, NV: U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. Department of the Navy, and Intermountain Research, 1995, xi + 357 pp., 134 fig., 72 tables, bibliography, 8 appendices, gratis (paper).

  14. RIVER FLOW CONDITIONS AND DYNAMIC STATE ANALYSIS OF PAHANG RIVER

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamad Barzani Gasim; M. E. Toriman; Mushrifah Idris; Pan Ian Lun; M. K.A. Kamarudin; A. A. Nor Azlina; Mazlin Mokhtar; S.A. Sharifah Mastura

    2013-01-01

    Pahang River (Sg. Pahang) is the longest river in Peninsular Malaysia. Flood is a common event in Pahang River Basin during wet season which triggered by monsoon season. The hydrodynamic study of Pahang River should be well understood especially when it is a target of northeast monsoon which influenced the Pahang River Basin every year (from November to March). 17 river cross section stations were selected and used to measure its drainage capacity, hydraulic parameters and estimation of flow ...

  15. An Optimal Balance between Efficiency and Safety of Urban Drainage Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Urban drainage networks have been developed to promote the efficiency of a system in terms of drainage time so far. Typically, a drainage system is designed to drain water from developed areas promptly as much as possible during floods. In this regard, an artificial drainage system have been considered to be more efficient compared to river networks in nature. This study examined artificial drainage networks and the results indicate they can be less efficient in terms of network configuration compared with river networks, which is counter-intuitive. The case study of 20 catchments in Seoul, South Korea shows that they have wide range of efficiency in terms of network configuration and consequently, drainage time. This study also demonstrates that efficient drainage networks are more sensitive to spatial and temporal rainfall variation such as rainstorm movement. Peak flows increase more than two times greater in effective drainage networks compared with inefficient and highly sinuous drainage networks. Combining these results, this study implies that the layout of a drainage network is an important factor in terms of efficient drainage and also safety in urban catchments. Design of an optimal layout of the drainage network can be an alternative non-structural measures that mitigate potential risks and it is crucial for the sustainability of urban environments.

  16. Application of digital elevation model in delineating drainage networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yan-ling; XIE De-ti; LIU Hong-bin; WEI Chao-fu

    2005-01-01

    A practical method to extract drainage network from DEM (digital elevation model) is introduced. DEM pretreatment includes depression and flat areas treatment. The flow direction of each grid cell in DEM is calculated according to the 8-direction pour point model, and then the flow accumulation grid from the flow direction grid. With the flow accumulation grid, streams are defined according to the given threshold value of flow accumulation. Taking Gufo River watershed as an example, the extraction of drainage network was done from DEM. The results are basically consistent with the digitized drainage network from the relief maps.

  17. Why does inverse modeling of drainage inventories work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicky; Roberts, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    We describe and apply a linear inverse model which calculates spatial and temporal patterns of uplift rate by minimizing the misfit between inventories of observed and predicted longitudinal river profiles. This approach builds upon a more general, non-linear, optimization model, which suggests that shapes of river profiles are dominantly controlled by upstream advection of kinematic waves of incision produced by spatial and temporal changes in regional uplift rate. We have tested both algorithms by inverting thousands of river profiles from Africa, Eurasia, the Americas, and Australia. For each continent, the drainage network was constructed from a digital elevation model and the fidelity of river profiles extracted from this network was carefully checked using satellite imagery. Spatial and temporal patterns of both uplift rate and cumulative uplift were calibrated using independent geologic and geophysical observations. Inverse modeling of these substantial inventories of river profiles suggests that drainage networks contain coherent signals that record the regional growth of elevation. In the second part of this presentation, we use spectral analysis of river profiles to suggest why drainage networks behave in a coherent, albeit non-linear, fashion. Our analysis implies that large-scale topographic signals injected into landscapes generate spectral slopes that are usually red (i.e. Brownian). At wavelengths shorter than tens of km, spectral slopes whiten which suggests that coherent topographic signals cease to exist at these shorter length scales. Our results suggest that inverse modeling of drainage networks can reveal useful information about landscape growth through space and time.

  18. Change of the Surface Soil in the Ohno River Drainage and its Impact on the Detrital Composition of the Sediments in the Beppu Bay, the Southwestern Japan, during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irino, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Ikehara, K.; Kuwae, M.; Takemura, K.

    2012-12-01

    Detrtal fraction contained in marine sediments can be generally used as climate proxies because variations in provenance and mineralogy could be affected by the precipitation distribution and weathering intensity. Change in the surface soil composition could be observed if a well-preserved depositional soil sequence was found. In order to detect the change in provenances and interpret the terrestrial environment using detrital proxies in the marine sediments, it is necessary to know the variability or range of the mineral composition of a particular provenance during the targeted time periods. The Ohno River is located in the northeast Kyushu Island, the southwestern Japan, which has the head water region at the Mt. Kuju and Mt. Aso, flows eastward combining some tributaries from the south, and then flows northward to the Beppu Bay. Surface geology of the drainage area is roughly divided into two as andosol in the northeast and brown forest soil in the south. Such contrasting detrital provenances could provide a variety of grain composition to the marine sediments deposited in the Beppu Bay. The No. 5 boring core was drilled at a landfill site on the mouth of the Ono River. The core continuously recovers 97 m length and consists of Holocene marine sediments which could be a good record of the terrestrial environment of hinterland (the Ohno River Basin). We also found a soil sequence on the foot of the Mt. Kuju at 850 m altitude, which covers the similar time interval as the No.5. The soil sequence consists of brown loam overlain by the alternation of tephra and andosol. We tried to compare the variations in mineral compositions both for this soil sequence and the No.5 core since about 8,000 yrs age. The No. 5 core mainly consists of smectite, illite, chlorite (or kaolinite), amphiboles, quartz, feldspars, and amorphous materials with minor calcite. Amorphous material is supposed to mainly consists biogenic opal. Amorphous material is higher during 7000 to 3500 yrs

  19. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have developed their own technique for percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTD) which they describe. Results of drainages performed since 1977 are presented. As a special application, the authors have also developed a radiation technique, according to the after-loading-method and using PTD. Similar to the intracavitary irradiation of gynecological tumors, a very high dose can be directly applied to the tumour with use of low volume dose and sparing of the neighbouring healthy tissue. The previously inserted drainage catheter is exchanged for a wide bore Teflon-tube and the radiation source Ir-192 is automatically advanced into the tumour stenosis. The isodose distribution is subsequently made under computer assisted guidance. (Auth.)

  20. Agricultural drainage water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' Agricultural drainage systems have been identified as potential contributors of non-point source pollution. Two of the major concerns have been with nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 - -N) concentrations and bacteria levels exceeding the Maximum Acceptable Concentration in drainage water. Heightened public awareness of environmental issues has led to greater pressure to maintain the environmental quality of water systems. In an ongoing field study, three experiment sites, each with own soil properties and characteristics, are divided into drainage plots and being monitored for NO3 - -N and fecal coliforms contamination. The first site is being used to determine the impact of the rate of manure application on subsurface drainage water quality. The second site is being used to determine the difference between hog manure and inorganic fertilizer in relation to fecal coliforms and NO3-N leaching losses under a carrot rotation system. The third site examines the effect of timing of manure application on water quality, and is the only site equipped with a surface drainage system, as well as a subsurface drainage system. Each of the drains from these fields lead to heated outflow buildings to allow for year-round measurements of flow rates and water samples. Tipping buckets wired to data-loggers record the outflow from each outlet pipe on an hourly basis. Water samples, collected from the flowing drains, are analyzed for NO3 - -N concentrations using the colorimetric method, and fecal coliforms using the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. Based on this information, we will be able better positioned to assess agricultural impacts on water resources which will help towards the development on industry accepted farming practices. (author)

  1. Nutrition Policy Decreases Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Municipal Parks: Lessons Learned From Carson, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Kimberly; Mata, Alfred; Flores, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    In light of the childhood obesity epidemic, many cities are adopting healthy park vending policies, but the evidence on the effectiveness of these policies is scant. This study examines how implementation of a healthy vending policy in Carson, California, changes the types of beverages that are available in park vending machines. The study design is a pre-posttest with post-only comparison group. The main outcome is proportion of beverages in vending machines that is consistent with caloric and sugar content guidelines for children as defined by the Nutrition Environment Measures-Vending (NEMS-V) tool. This study finds that prior to implementation of the vending policy, 70% of the beverages did not meet NEMS-V guidelines, on average. After implementation of the vending policy, this number declined to 7%. This study suggests that healthy vending policies can have an impact on the types of beverages that are available in city parks. PMID:26062095

  2. Integrated Assessment Plan Template and Operational Demonstration for SPIDERS Phase 2: Fort Carson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Hadley, Mark D.; Kreyling, Sean J.; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2013-09-01

    This document contains the Integrated Assessment Plan (IAP) for the Phase 2 Operational Demonstration (OD) of the Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability (SPIDERS) Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) project. SPIDERS will be conducted over a three year period with Phase 2 being conducted at Fort Carson, Colorado. This document includes the Operational Demonstration Execution Plan (ODEP) and the Operational Assessment Execution Plan (OAEP), as approved by the Operational Manager (OM) and the Integrated Management Team (IMT). The ODEP describes the process by which the OD is conducted and the OAEP describes the process by which the data collected from the OD is processed. The execution of the OD, in accordance with the ODEP and the subsequent execution of the OAEP, will generate the necessary data for the Quick Look Report (QLR) and the Utility Assessment Report (UAR). These reports will assess the ability of the SPIDERS JCTD to meet the four critical requirements listed in the Implementation Directive (ID).

  3. Lava and Life: New investigations into the Carson Volcanics, lower Kimberley Basin, north Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Karin; Phillips, Chris; Hollis, Julie

    2014-05-01

    The Carson Volcanics are the only volcanic unit in the Paleoproterozoic Kimberley Basin and are part of a poorly studied Large Igneous Province (LIP) that was active at 1790 Ma. New work focussing on this LIP in 2012 and 2013 involved helicopter-supported traverses and sampling of the Carson Volcanics in remote areas near Kalumburu in far north Western Australia's Kimberley region. The succession is widespread and flat lying to gently dipping. It consists of three to six basalt units with intercalated sandstone and siltstone. The basalts are 20-40 m thick, but can be traced up to 60 km along strike. The basalt can be massive or amygdaloidal and commonly display polygonal to subhorizontal and rare vertical columnar jointing. Features of the basalt include ropy lava tops and basal pipe vesicles consistent with pahoehoe lavas. The intercalated cross-bedded quartzofeldspathic sandstone and siltstone vary in thickness up to 40 m and can be traced up to 40 km along strike. Peperite is common and indicates interaction between wet, unconsolidated sediment and hot lava. Stromatolitic chert at the top of the formation represents the oldest life found within the Kimberley region. Mud cracks evident in the sedimentary rocks, and stromatolites suggest an emergent broad tidal flat environment. The volcanics were extruded onto a wide marginal margin setting subject to frequent flooding events. Thickening of the volcanic succession south and the palaeocurrents in the underlying King Leopold Sandstone and the overlying Warton Sandstone suggest that this shelf sloped to the south. The type of basalt and the basalt morphology indicate a low slope gradient of about 1°.

  4. 和田河流域社区水资源管理试验示范研究%Experiment and Demonstration Study on the Community- Based Water Resource Management in Hotan River Drainage Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁建国; 戴健; 岳丕昌; 陆朝晖; 木巴热克

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探索符合和田河流域实际,能够确保“公平用水、合理收费、提高水资源利用效率”的社区水资源管理模式,促进流域水资源的有效管理和合理利用.[方法]采用参与式评估与实地调研、系统分析相结合的方法,摸清社区水资源管理存在的问题及可行的解决途径,在此基础上应用参与式方法制定社区水管理试验方案.[结果]提出以“农民用水协会、村委会两会合一、村组两级管理”的社区水管组织形式和以“计量到组、按亩收费”为核心的社区水管理模式.[结论]运用参与式方法,增强村民主人翁意识,鼓励村民参与社区水资源管理,是提高社区水管理水平和效率的有效途径.%[ Objective ] To study and explore a new Community - Based Water Resources Management ( CBWRM) Model which would be well adjusted to the reality of Hotan River Drainage Basin and ensure to reach the object of "water is fairly used, and the fee is reasonably charged. [Method]Through employing the methods of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) combining field survey and systematic analyzing, this paper studied the main problems existing in CBWRM and found out the possible solutions. The experimental scheme was designed and implemented with employing participatory approach. Finally, the countermeasures of strengthening CBWRM were put forward based on the experimental results. [ Result ] According to the experimental results, the CBWRM Model was put forward with the core contents of; I) change the management pattern from running by villager committee and water user organization separately, to two organization - in -one'and establish a two - tier organization including village and villager group; ii) implement the accounting of water use volume and collection of water fee according to 'Measure on group, charge on land area' [ Conclusion ] Participatory approach is an efficient way to advance master consciousness of villagers and

  5. 河道沉积物中重金属的生态修复及根际细菌的原位检测%Phytoremediation of heavy metals and rhizosphere detection of bacteria in a drainage river sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕾; 祁佩时; 辛明

    2012-01-01

    调查分析了哈尔滨某排污河道化工区段表层沉积物中的重金属(Pb、Zn、Cr、As、Ni、Cu和Cd)含量,通过盆栽试验研究了4种当地具有金属耐性的植物(玉米、酸模叶蓼、龙葵和酸模)对受污染的河道沉积物中重金属的修复效果,进而调查了这4种植物对重金属赋值形态的影响、富集能力及重金属的转运能力.结果显示,排污河道沉积物受到多种重金属的复合污染.表层沉积物中重金属经过两季植物修复后,7种重金属的残渣态均有不同程度的减少,并且金属形态逐渐向铁锰氧化态及可交换态转化,结果说明供试植物能够调节沉积物中重金属的生物有效性.重金属在沉积物中与在植物体内具有相同的总含量趋势:Zn> Pb> Ni> Cr> Cu> As>Cd,该趋势也反映出4种供试植物的生物监测潜能.植物对重金属表现出不同的吸收特性,4种植物对Zn和Ni的富集量相对较大,而Cu在植物地上部分的含量普遍较低,Zn和Ni在植物组织中的含量范围分别为108.4~543.92 mg/kg和36.8~246.91 mg/kg.总体来说,这4种植物主要将金属元素积累在根部,而非地上部分,表现出对重金属的耐受性.酸模叶蓼、酸模和龙葵这3种植物的地上部分分别积累了高浓度的Pb、Zn和Cd,并且具有较高的转运系数(TF>1),反映出这3种植物对相应的重金属具有植物提取的潜力.采用荧光原位杂交(fluorescence in situ hybridization,FISH)技术,分析对照和经过栽培试验后根际沉积物中真细菌的数量和空间分布,结果表明植物对沉积物中的细菌有明显的活化作用.%Concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, As, Ni, Cu and Cd) in a drainage river sediment were determined from the industrial area of Harbin city in Heilongjiang Province. Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential of four spontaneous plants, Zea mays L. , Polygonum lapathifolium L. , Solarium nigrum L. And Rumex

  6. Solid Waste in Drainage Network of Rio do Meio Watershed, Florianópolis/SC

    OpenAIRE

    Taiana Gava; Alexandra Rodrigues Finotti

    2012-01-01

    The urban drainage network is among the main pollution transport load factors. Researches on the identification of solid waste transported in the drainage network have been considered the allow evaluation of its impact. In this paper we analyze the main characteristics that influences the presence of solid wastes in the drainage network of the Rio do Meio basin, Florianópolis/SC. A metal net was installed in selected river section and monitored after each rain event. The results showed about ...

  7. Wound Drainage Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Wound Drainage Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Wound Drainage Culture Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de heridas What It Is A wound drainage culture is a test to detect germs such as ...

  8. 75 FR 76453 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EG10-65-000; EG10-66-000; EG10-67-000; EG10-68-000; EG10- 69-000; EG10-70-000; EG10-71-000] Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC;...

  9. Mapping the water chemistry of the Clyde Basin drainage network

    OpenAIRE

    Bearcock, Jenny; Smedley, Pauline; Everett, Paul; Ander, Louise; Fordyce, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Mapping the chemistry of stream and river water across the Clyde Basin serves both to characterise the water quality and assess the dominant controls. Surveys of the Clyde drainage network, undertaken between 2003 and 2010, have generated data encompassing rural and urban streams, rivers, and estuarine water. Mapping displays the large spatial variability in chemical composition across the Basin and the varying influences of controls such as rainfall, land cover and geology. They also display...

  10. Nutrient export in tile drainage: Comparing manure injection to fertigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subsurface tile drainage of agricultural land is implicated as a major source of nutrients to the Mississippi River. To protect water quality, land application of manure should maximize crop nutrient use and minimize nutrient loss. Weather constraints and regulations restrict the period during which...

  11. Sustainable Drainage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Miklas Scholz

    2015-01-01

    Urban water management has somewhat changed since the publication of The Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS) Manual in 2007 [1], transforming from building traditional sewers to implementing SuDS, which are part of the best management practice techniques used in the USA and seen as contributing to water-sensitive urban design in Australia. Most SuDS, such as infiltration trenches, swales, green roofs, ponds, and wetlands, address water quality and quantity challenges, and enhance the local bio...

  12. GIS技术和水热平衡模型在古湖泊水文重建研究中的应用--以石羊河流域为例%The Application of GIS and Water and Energy Budget to the Study on the Water Rebuilding of Paleo-lake--A Case in Shiyang River Drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓寅; 陈发虎; 施祺

    2000-01-01

    首次利用GIS技术并结合沉积学研究结果,计算全新世两个时段石羊河流域终闾湖泊的面积,建立石羊河流域水热平衡模型,进而恢复全新世两个时期的降水量。%The study of lake evolution is one of the important aspects of study of global change. Inland lakes areinfluenced by climatic change more sensitively than lakes in humid area. It is significant to study the evolution ofinland lakes. Gansu Corridor is located in the regional edge of the Eastern Asia Monsoon. Because it is sensitiveto climatic change due to its fragile eco-environment, it is an ideal regied for studying global change. In the pre-historic period a large terminal lake Zhuyeze Lake once existed in the studied area Shiyang Riverdrainage that is located in the eastern Gansu Corridor. Since the historic period it has gradually shrunk into manysmall lakes, and these small lakes dried up and disappeared in succession. This article first tries to inquire intoterminal lake evolution in this studied area by combining techniques of GIS with the results of deposit study. Dig-ital Terrain Model(DTM) of lake area in the lower reaches of the Shiyang River is built. Space-time evolution ofterminal lakes was analyzed and the lake area of different periods in Holocene was calculated according DTM.The precipitation of two periods during Holocene was calculated by a mathematical model which applies to anideal situation of terminal lake in the Shiyang River drainage, following the water and energy budget principleunder the situation that no lake exists now. Preliminary results indicate that water levels reached 1320 m and1314 m in 5000 a B.P. and 3600 a B.P. during Holocene, and terminal lake areas are 2130 km2 and 870 km2.Landforms around the basin reflected in the DTM suggest that if the water level reaches 1320 - 1330m, theShiyang River drainage will become an outflow drainage. The lake of 2130 km2 maybe is the largest lake in thisdrainage. During late Holocene

  13. Babylonian confusion of gudgeons in the west Aegean drainages inferred by the mitochondrial DNA analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Radek Sanda; Jasna Vukic; Michal Nowak; Jan Mendel; Tihomir Stefanov; Stamatis Zogaris

    2015-01-01

    Gudgeons (Gobio and Romanogobio, Cypriniformes) are taxonomically very complicated group of primary freshwater fishes. The region of the west Aegean Sea rivers is inhabited by three species according to Kottelat and Freyhof (2007): Gobio feraensis endemic to the Pinios River basin; Gobio balcanicus inhabiting all remaining drainages, from the Aliakmon up to the Marica drainage; and Romanogobio elimeus occurring from the Pinios to the Vardar basin. Recent analysis of barcoding gene cytochrome ...

  14. Solar system for soil drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews solar system for drainage of the cultivable agricultural surfaces which can be situated near the rivers in plains. These are usually very fertile surfaces which cannot be cultivated die to constant presence of the water. Using such solar systems should increase the percentage of cultivable surfaces. These systems can also be installed on the cultivable agricultural surfaces, where the water surfaces or so called still waters appear, which make impossible the application of agritechnical measures on these surfaces, significantly decreasing crops and creating conditions for the growth of pond plants and animals. Increasing the percentage of cultivable agricultural surfaces would increase national agricultural income. At the same time, increasing the percentage of cultivable agricultural surfaces decreases the surfaces of unhealthy bog, swamp and marshland soils, where many insect breed. They are the cause for soil spraying from the air, which causes the pollution of environment. Solar systems do not pollute the environment because they use solar energy as the purest source of energy. Their usage has special significance in the places where there is no electricity distribution network

  15. New Mitochondrial DNA Haplotype of Brown Trout Salmo trutta l. from Crni Timok Drainage Area in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Toši63; Nikoli63; Simonovi63; Škraba, Dubravka; Mrdak, Danilo

    2014-01-01

    Brown trout Salmo trutta wild stocks sustain a remarkable angling and hatchery-reared fish stocking pressure in waters of Serbia, where four drainage-specific and indigenous mitochondrial DNA haplotypes were reported for the drainage area of the Danube River basin. One of these mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, Da23b, was exclusive for brown trout in headwaters of the Crni Timok River (Grand Timok River system, Eastern Serbia). After its discovery in 2003, brown trout stocking was completely ...

  16. The "we of me": Carson McCullers as lesbian novelist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitt, J

    1999-01-01

    Although Carson McCullers camouflaged her love for women in her fiction, gay and lesbian themes are inarguably present in her work. The loneliness that her characters face takes on allegorical intensity, and it is even more potent due to her own sexual confusion and alienation. Married twice to the same man and falling in love repeatedly with both women and men, McCullers wrestled with bisexuality throughout her personal and literary life. Her deepest attachments were to her husband Reeves McCullers; David Diamond, a musician-composer in love with both McCullers and her husband; and Anne-marie Clarac-Schwarzenbach, a Swiss writer. All three of these love interests required that McCullers deal with complicated and ultimately destructive triangles. Given that fact, it is no surprise that she created fictional worlds peopled with characters engaged in three-way relationships. In her novels, Mick (The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter), Frankie (The Member of the Wedding), Miss Amelia (The Ballad of the Sad Cafe) and Weldon Penderton (Reflections in a Golden Eye) also reflect the author's sexual ambivalence and inability to fit into the prescribed social structures of the South. PMID:10203074

  17. Drainage of curd.

    OpenAIRE

    Akkerman, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Cheese making starts with transformation of the liquid milk into a gel by proteolytic enzymes and/or acid producing bacteria. The gel is cut into pieces. The protein matrix contracts, by which whey is expelled from the pieces, this process is called syneresis. The process of whey expulsion is enhanced by stirring and usually heating. Finally fairly rigid curd grains and a large amount of whey are obtained. The subsequent separation of whey and curd grains is called drainage of curd. For most ...

  18. Discuss the Flood Drainage Standard in the Urban Agglomeration of Pearl River Delta%珠江三角洲城市群排涝标准的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪乃全

    2014-01-01

    The urban flood drainage standard relates to the safety and sustainable development of the city. This article put forward the countermeasures and suggestions in alusion to the problems of indistinct definition of present relevant specific-ation, no cohesion standard between departments, and low dr-ainage standard, etc, in order to provide reference for reader.%城市排涝标准关系到城市的安全和可持续发展。本文针对现行地有关规范存在界定不清、部门之间标准不衔接、排涝标准偏低等问题,提出了对策建议,以供读者参考。

  19. Thresholds of geographic environmental elements in sediment yield of drainage basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao; ZHOU Jinxing; CAI Qiangguo; LU Zhongchen; LI Zhongyan

    2005-01-01

    Threshold of environmental elements in drainage basin sediment yield refers to, under effect of climate, underlying surface and human activity, a turning point of abrupt changes in drainage sediment yield related to environmental element characteristics. Previous studies on threshold of sediment yield of relevant drainage basins were mainly concentrated on impact of natural zones with a few researches on impact of other environmental elements. Particularly studies on compound environmental element threshold in drainage basin sediment yield remain blank today. Studies indicate that sediment yield in drainage basins is affected by compound interactions and complex actions. Based on single element analysis, the present paper gives quantitatively compound threshold of environmental elements affecting sediment yield of the drainage basin between Hekouzhen and Tongguan in the middle Yellow River by the method of multi-variant, polynomial formula regression analysis.

  20. Wildland inventory and resource modeling for Douglas and Carson City Counties, Nevada, using LANDSAT and digital terrain data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, J. A.; Likens, W. C.; Thornhill, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    The potential of using LANDSAT satellite imagery to map and inventory pinyon-juniper desert forest types in Douglas and Carson City Counties, Nevada was demonstrated. Specific map and statistical products produced include land cover, mechanical operations capability, big game winter range habitat, fire hazard, and forest harvestability. The Nevada Division of Forestry determined that LANDSAT can produce a reliable and low-cost resource data. Added benefits become apparent when the data are linked to a geographical information system (GIS) containing existing ownership, planning, elevation, slope, and aspect information.

  1. Sustainable Drainage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban water management has somewhat changed since the publication of The Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS Manual in 2007 [1], transforming from building traditional sewers to implementing SuDS, which are part of the best management practice techniques used in the USA and seen as contributing to water-sensitive urban design in Australia. Most SuDS, such as infiltration trenches, swales, green roofs, ponds, and wetlands, address water quality and quantity challenges, and enhance the local biodiversity while also being acceptable aesthetically to the public. Barriers to the implementation of SuDS include adoption problems, flood and diffuse pollution control challenges, negative public perception, and a lack of decision support tools addressing, particularly, the retrofitting of these systems while enhancing ecosystem services. [...

  2. Technical note on drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    This technical note will present simple but widely used methods for the design of drainage systems. The note will primarily deal with surface water (rainwater) which on a satisfactorily way should be transport into the drainage system. Traditional two types of sewer systems exist: A combined syst...

  3. [Thoracic drainage technique for emergencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, B; Bonnet, P M; Avaro, J P

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a simple, reproducible technique for pleural drainage. This technique that requires scant resources should be used only in life-threatening situations calling for pleural drainage. It is not intended to replace conventional techniques. PMID:20337108

  4. Special report of Horsefeldt-White River patrol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers a patrol made by horseback and pack train from the headwaters of the copper River across the upper drainage to the Tanana River and terminating...

  5. Major and trace-element analyses of acid mine waters in the Leviathan Mine drainage basin, California/Nevada; October, 1981 to October, 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, J.W.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    Water issuing from the inactive Leviathan open-pit sulfur mine has caused serious degradation of the water quality in the Leviathan/Bryant Creek drainage basin which drains into the East Fork of the Carson River. As part of a pollution abatement project of the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, the U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic and water quality data for the basin during 1981-82. During this period a comprehensive sampling survey was completed to provide information on trace metal attenuation during downstream transport and to provide data for interpreting geochemical processes. This report presents the analytical results from this sampling survey. Sixty-seven water samples were filtered and preserved on-site at 45 locations and at 3 different times. Temperature, discharge, pH, and Eh and specific conductance were measured on-site. Concentrations of 37 major and trace constituents were determined later in the laboratory on preserved samples. The quality of the analyses was checked by using two or more techniques to determine the concentrations including d.c.-argon plasma emission spectrometry (DCP), flame and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry, hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography. Additional quality control was obtained by comparing measured to calculated conductance, comparing measured to calculated Eh (from Fe-2 +/Fe-3+ determinations), charge balance calculations and mass balance calculations for conservative constituents at confluence points. Leviathan acid mine waters contain mg/L concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, T1, V and Zn, and hundreds to thousands of mg/L concentrations of Al, Fe, and sulfate at pH values as low as 1.8. Other elements including Ba, B, Be, Bi, Cd , Mo, Sb, Se and Te are elevated above normal background concentrations and fall in the microgram/L range. The chemical and 34 S/32 S isotopic analyses demonstrate that these

  6. Distribution Characteristics and Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Liaohe River Drainage Basin,Northeast China.%辽河流域多环芳烃(PAHs)的分布特征及来源解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岩林; 胡健; 刘宝剑; 李思亮; 灌瑾

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) in surface water and suspended particulate matter(SPM) in the major rivers of the Liaohe River drainage basin were determined by GC/MS.The concentrations and distribution characteristics,pollution levels,and sources of PAHs were discussed.The total PAHs concentrations range from 0.41 to 76.45 μg·g-1(dry weight) in SPM,and 32.57 to 108.47 ng·L-1 in surface water,respectively.The PAHs concentrations in western Liaohe River are higher than those in eastern Liaohe River and its main streams.The compositions of PAHs are predominant by low-ring PAHs(including two-and three-ring PAHs),while the percentage of low-ring PAHs in dissolved form is higher than that in SPM.The two-ring PAHs percentage is highest with an average of 68.19 % in dissolved PAHs,while the three-ring PAHs percentage is highest with an average of 66.28% in SPM,respectively.Compared with other rivers both at home and abroad,the PAHs concentrations in the Liaohe River drainage basin are at a lower level,and some rivers have suffered PAHs contamination to a certain extent.The main sources of PAHs are petroleum and fossil fuel combustion-based mixture,which are related to the complex energy structure of Liaoning Province.%采用气相色谱-质谱(GC/MS)的分析方法,对辽河水系主要河流的表层水和悬浮物中的16种PAHs进行了定量分析,并对其分布特征、污染水平以及来源进行了探讨。结果显示:颗粒态PAHs的浓度范围为0.41~76.45μg.g-1,溶解态PAHs的浓度范围为32.57~108.47ng.L-1,西辽河PAHs的浓度比东辽河以及辽河干流中PAHs的浓度要高。在多环芳烃组成上,溶解态和颗粒态样品的PAHs均以低环数(二、三环)为主,且溶解态中低环数PAHs所占比例较颗粒态中所占的比例高。其中,溶解态中二环的PAHs比例最高(平均为68.19%),颗粒态中三环的PAHs比例最高(平均为66.28%)。相对于国内外

  7. Observing a catastrophic thermokarst lake drainage in northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    The formation and drainage of thermokarst lakes have reshaped ice-rich permafrost lowlands in the Arctic throughout the Holocene. North of Teshekpuk Lake, on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska, thermokarst lakes presently occupy 22.5% of the landscape, and drained thermokarst lake basins occupy 61.8%. Analysis of remotely sensed imagery indicates that nine lakes (>10 ha) have drained in the 1,750 km2 study area between 1955 and 2014. The most recent lake drainage was observed using in situ data loggers providing information on the duration and magnitude of the event, and a nearby weather station provided information on the environmental conditions preceding the lake drainage. Lake 195 (L195), an 80 ha thermokarst lake with an estimated water volume of ~872,000 m3, catastrophically drained on 05 July 2014. Abundant winter snowfall and heavy early summer precipitation resulted in elevated lake water levels that likely promoted bank overtopping, thermo-erosion along an ice-wedge network, and formation of a 9 m wide, 2 m deep, and 70 m long drainage gully. The lake emptied in 36 hours, with 75% of the water volume loss occurring in the first ten hours. The observed peak discharge of the resultant flood was 25 m3/s, which is similar to that in northern Alaska river basins whose areas are more than two orders of magnitude larger. Our findings support the catastrophic nature of sudden lake drainage events and the mechanistic hypotheses developed by J. Ross Mackay.

  8. Irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater, Humboldt, and Fernley Wildlife Management Areas and Carson Lake, West-Central Nevada, 1988-90 : Part II effects on wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the affects of irrigation induced contaminants on fish, wildlife, and human health near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area. In 1988, the U.S....

  9. Preliminary assessment of specific conductance and total dissolved solids loading rates in agricultural drainwater of the Carson Division of the Newlands Project, Churchill County, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Section 206 of the Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act (P.L. 101-618, November 1990) (Act) authorized the purchase of water rights to support a...

  10. The impact of 90 years of drainage works on some chemical properties of raised peat bog organic soils - case study from valley of the Upper San river in Polish Bieszczady Mts. (Eastern Carpathians).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarczyk, Mateusz

    2016-04-01

    Wetland ecosystems, including raised peat bogs are characterized by a specific water conditions and unique vegetation, which makes peatland highly important habitats due to protection of biodiversity. Transformation of peat bog areas is particularly related to changes in the environment e.g. according to reclamation works. Drainage of peatlands is directly associated to the decrease of groundwater levels and lead to a number of changes in the chemical and physical properties of peat material, included contents of exchangeable cations in the surface layers of peat soils in the decession phase of peat development and release above compounds from the soil to ground or surface waters. The aim of the research was to determine the impact of extended drainage works on chemical composition of sorption complex of raised peat bog organic soils and identification the potential environmental effects of alkaline cations leaching to the surface waters. Research was carried out on the peat bogs located in the Upper San valley in Polish Bieszczady Mts. (Eastern Carpathians). Soil samples used in this study were collected from 3 soil profiles in 10 or 20 cm intervals to the approximately 130 cm depth. Laboratory analyses included determination of basic properties of organic material such as the degree of peat decomposition, ash content, soil pH and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen concentrations. Additionally the amount of alkaline cations, exchangeable and extractable acidity was determined. Furthermore, the degree of saturation of the sorption complex with alkaline cations (V) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) are calculated. In order to evaluate the impact of the examined peat bog to the environment, also water samples were collected and ions composition was measured. The obtained results show that studied organic soils are oligotrophic and strongly acidic. In the case of organic material related to decession phase of peat development, as a result of the lengthy drainage works

  11. What have we learned from modelling of Carson Basin, Grand Banks, offshore Newfoundland?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielens, J.B.W.; Jauer, C.D.; Williams, G.L. [Natural Resources Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada

    2005-07-01

    The Carson Basin may be one of the many barely explored basins within the Grand Banks that may have hydrocarbon potential. The basin was formed by passive rifting and was filled with a sequence of Triassic to Tertiary/Quaternary strata that includes reservoirs, seals and a thick salt section. Although 4 exploratory wells have been drilled, no source rock was penetrated, nor were hydrocarbons found. However, salt tectonics from Jurassic through Paleogene times has formed many salt-related features while the early-late Cretaceous Avalon Uplift event caused deep erosional channel systems that cut into the section. A basin model was synthesized in this study in order to integrate this available knowledge. This involved a new level of detail in the geological data, including new biostratigraphy and paleo-reconstructions which indicated the presence of an Early Kimmeridgian source rock in the area east of the wells. Using conservative estimates, a Jeanne d'Arc basin Egret type of source rock was given values of 50 m thickness, 4 per cent total organic carbon (TOC) and 600 HI, a scenario that potentially generates 100 billion barrels of oil. A model simulated in 4-D with IES Petromod software was then built based on the revised biostratigraphic analyses, 4 interpreted seismic surfaces and other relevant geological data. A basin with a viable petroleum system and significant hydrocarbon potential was revealed. Billion-barrel fields are feasible in this basin, depending on the length of migration paths and size of reservoirs. In the model, petroleum generation was mainly driven by the increased rifting heatflow of about 100 mW/m{sup 2} during the rifting of Grand Banks and Iberia, between 125 and 68 Ma. Therefore, any of the younger structural traps will show a lower filling potential. This simulation study strongly suggests that stratigraphic traps were filled. Although heatflow is a main uncertainty, it has a major influence on the hydrocarbon generation. Therefore

  12. The treatment possibility of mining drainage from horizon 830 in the Sasa Mine, Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Stojanovska, Marija; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    The drainage system on mining area Sasa consists of surface water from the rivers Crvena, Svinja and Kozja which are flowing from field of ore deposit, and with other small mountain tributaries that flow into the River Kamenichka. The results of the measurements show that in all samples from surface waters are detected increased concentrations of heavy and toxic metals, except for the water of the River Crvena. These increased concentrations are a consequence of historical anthropoge...

  13. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Abdelkareem; Farouk El-Baz

    2014-01-01

    Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the anc...

  14. Influence of active fault on the evolution of landscape and drainage: Evidence from lateral propagation of a branching out fault along Himalayan front and deflection of Dabka River, Kumaun Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A.; Malik, J.; Lohani, B.

    2012-04-01

    Ongoing tectonic activity along the Central Kumaun Himalaya is well revealed by the occurrence of moderate to large magnitude earthquakes as well as by the existence of the prominent tectonically controlled geomorphic indicators. Shaded-relief images created from the digital elevation models (DEMs) are helpful in indentifying faults in mountains terrains. Coupled with the detailed and high resolution CORONA and Google images, a number of active faults were mapped. These faults branch out from the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) and the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) in the vicinity of Nainital foot hills. The compelling evidence of uplifted gravel deposits of recent alluvial fan surfaces together with the changing pattern of streams suggest that these faults are actively propagating and therefore, modifies drainage patterns. These faults are located close the major towns of Ramnagar and Kotabagh region of Nainital foothills, which are populated areas. Thus, the earthquake hazard in this region is to be reassessed.

  15. Upscaling nitrogen removal capacity from local hotspots to low stream orders’ drainage basins

    OpenAIRE

    Peiffer, Stefan; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Krause, Stefan; Hannah, David M; Fleckenstein, Jan H.; Sebilo, Mathieu; Bishop, Kevin; Hubert-Moy, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Denitrification is the main process removing nitrate in river drainage basins and buffer input from agricultural land and limits aquatic ecosystem pollution. However, the identification of denitrification hotspots (for example, riparian zones), their role in a landscape context and the evolution of their overall removal capacity at the drainage basin scale are still challenging. The main approaches used (that is, mass balance method, denitrification proxies, and potential wetted areas) suf...

  16. Acid mine drainage in the Iberian Pyrite Belt: 2. Lessons learned from recent passive remediation experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Ayora Ibáñez, Carlos; Caraballo, Manuel A.; Macías Suárez, Francisco; Roetting, Tobias Stefan; Carrera Ramírez, Jesús; Nieto Liñán, José Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), SW Spain and Portugal, contains about 100 abandoned mine wastes and galleries that release acid mine drainages (AMD) to the Tinto and Odiel rivers. In situ passive remediation technologies are especially suitable to remediate the drainages of these orphan sites. However, traditional remediation systems, designed for coal mines, have been demonstrated inefficient to treat the IPB mine waters. Due to their high acidity and metal loads, large amount of solids preci...

  17. Geochemical Processes Controlling the Generation and Environmental Impacts of Acid Mine Drainage in Semi Arid Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Magombedze, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the geochemical processes that control the geochemistry of acid mine drainage in semi arid conditions. The central objective is to characterise and understand the evolution of acid mine drainage and its potential environmental impacts on the Mazowe River sub-catchment, in north east Zimbabwe. The work is based on a case study at three neighbouring metal sulphide mines, namely Trojan Nickel Mine, Mazowe Gold Mine and Iron Duke Pyrites.The methodology used in this research ...

  18. A Comparison of Preoperative Biliary Drainage Methods for Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Endoscopic versus Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kwang Min; Park, Ji Won; Lee, Jong Kyun; Lee, Kwang Hyuck; Lee, Kyu Taek; Shim, Sang Goon

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Controversy remains over the optimal approach to preoperative biliary drainage in patients with resectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. We compared the clinical outcomes of endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) with those of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) in patients undergoing preoperative biliary drainage for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. Methods A total of 106 consecutive patients who underwent biliary drainage before surgical treatment were divided into two...

  19. Morphometry Governs the Dynamics of a Drainage Basin: Analysis and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atrayee Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountainous rivers are the most significant source of water supply in the Himalayan provinces of India. The drainage basin dynamics of these rivers are controlled by the tectonomorphic parameters, which include both surface and subsurface characteristics of a basin. To understand the drainage basin dynamics and their usefulness in watershed prioritisation and management in terms of soil erosion studies and groundwater potential assessment and flood hazard risk reduction in mountainous rivers, morphometric analysis of a Himalayan River (Supin River basin has been taken as a case study. The entire Supin River basin has been subdivided into 27 subwatersheds and 36 morphometric parameters have been calculated under four broad categories: drainage network, basin geometry, drainage texture, and relief characteristics, each of which is further grouped into five different clusters having similar morphometric properties. The various morphometric parameters have been correlated with each other to understand their underlying relationship and control over the basin hydrogeomorphology. The result thus generated provides adequate knowledge base required for decision making during strategic planning and delineation of prioritised hazard management zones in mountainous terrains.

  20. RIVER FLOW CONDITIONS AND DYNAMIC STATE ANALYSIS OF PAHANG RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Barzani Gasim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pahang River (Sg. Pahang is the longest river in Peninsular Malaysia. Flood is a common event in Pahang River Basin during wet season which triggered by monsoon season. The hydrodynamic study of Pahang River should be well understood especially when it is a target of northeast monsoon which influenced the Pahang River Basin every year (from November to March. 17 river cross section stations were selected and used to measure its drainage capacity, hydraulic parameters and estimation of flow discharge. Long term (1980 to 2009 variation of hydrologic data series comprised of river flow, river stage and rainfall data were analyzed based on the Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID Malaysia record. Monthly rainfall was recorded from Sg. Yap, Temerloh and Lubuk Paku Rainfall Stations. Two hydrologic sampling trips had been carried out; first sampling on January 2010 and second sampling on February 2010. The study indicates that velocity and river flow measurement during first sampling ranged from 0.308 to 0.582 m sec-1 and 153.282 to 439.684 m3 sec-1. Meanwhile, during second sampling, the velocity and river flow ranged from 0.217 to 0.484 and 52.071 to 304.485 m3 sec-1, respectively. Floods were occurred annually at Pahang River especially during northeast monsoon, these events are expected to be stimulated by the inconsistent condition of width and depth along Pahang River which finally create sedimentation and meandering characteristic.

  1. The Application of MIKE 11 Model to Drainage Calculation in West Bank Control Project of Wangyu River%MIKE 11模型在望虞河西控工程排涝计算中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宏; 刘俊; 刘鑫; 丁明梅; 李朋

    2016-01-01

    针对武澄锡虞区遭遇五年一遇暴雨情况 ,采用适合于平原河网及城市区域产汇流模拟的水文水力模型- -MIKE 11模型 ,将其中的NAM 模型和 HD模块进行耦合 ,根据望虞河西控工程调度方案 ,由设计暴雨推求评价区河道涝水特征值.通过排涝水文计算 ,模拟对比望虞河西岸封闭前后 ,评价区遭遇五年一遇暴雨时 ,河网节点的水位、流量过程,分析望虞河西岸封闭对评价区水系 、洪水位、高水位持续时间及半高地淹没状况的影响 .模型计算结果表明 ,望虞河西控工程实施后 ,望虞河西岸地区最高水位普遍抬升 ,受影响区域内高水位持续时间增长 ,对部分半高地存在潜在淹没影响 .%For the condition of facing the rainstorm that appears every five years in Wuchengxiyu region ,the hydrologic and hydraulic model suitable for plain river network areas and urban areas-MIKE 11 model are used as examples .According to the west bank con-trol project in Wangyu River ,coupling the NAM model and the HD model ,the river flooding water is calculated through design rain-storm .Through hydraulic calculation ,the flooding water of Wangyu River is contrasted before and after the west bank control pro-ject and the river system ,water level and duration of high water level are evaluated .Model calculation results show that ,after the west bank control project ,the highest water level of west bank is generally uplifted and the period of high water level in the affected areas lasts longer than before .

  2. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent areas of the Milk River Basin, northeastern Montana 1986-87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of trace elements, radiochemicals, and pesticides in the Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge lakes generally were not substantially larger than those in the water supplied from Dodson South Canal or in irrigation drainage. Concentrations of arsenic uranium and vanadium in Dry Lake Unit, and boron in Lake Bowdoin were notably larger than at other sites. Zinc concentrations in an irrigation drain and two shallow domestic wells were elevated relative to other sites. Concentrations of gross alpha radiation and gross beta radiation were elevated in Dry Lake Unit. Pesticides concentrations at all sites were 0.08 microg/L or less. Water use guidelines concentrations for boron, cadmium, uranium, zinc, and gross alpha radiation were slightly exceeded at several sites. In general, trace-constituent concentrations measured in the water do not indicate any potential toxicity problems in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge; however, highwater conditions in 1986 probably caused dilution of dissolved constituents compared to recent dry years. Trace element concentrations in bottom sediment of the refuge lakes were generally similar to background concentrations in the soils. The only exception was Dry Lake Unit, which had concentrations of chromium, copper, nickel, vanadium, and zinc that were about double the mean background concentrations. The maximum selenium concentration in bottom sediment was 0.6 microg/g. Pesticide concentrations in bottom sediments were less than analytical detection limits at all sites. 46 refs., 13 figs., 22 tabs

  3. High compressive resistance drainage geocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several typologies of drainage geocomposites available in the market which can be classified according to their structures as: cuspated, mono filaments, geonets and those products formed by the combination of a draining blanket with a series of mini-pipes. Each one of them has its own range of compressive resistances. There are applications, such as are the new cells of landfills or mines and roads or railways over large embankments, where the pressure exerted on the geocomposite exceeds the compressive resistance of the majority of these typologies. For all this applications, besides providing and adequate flow capacity, it must be ensured that the chosen typology is able to withstand the required loading without collapsing and guaranteeing an adequate factor of safety. This article will expose that, currently, the only typology of drainage geocomposites that can bear these loadings while maintaining its drainage properties is the tri-planar geonet. (Author)

  4. Carving and adaptive drainage enforcement of grid digital elevation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soille, Pierre; Vogt, Jürgen; Colombo, Roberto

    2003-12-01

    An effective and widely used method for removing spurious pits in digital elevation models consists of filling them until they overflow. However, this method sometimes creates large flat regions which in turn pose a problem for the determination of accurate flow directions. In this study, we propose to suppress each pit by creating a descending path from it to the nearest point having a lower elevation value. This is achieved by carving, i.e., lowering, the terrain elevations along the detected path. Carving paths are identified through a flooding simulation starting from the river outlets. The proposed approach allows for adaptive drainage enforcement whereby river networks coming from other data sources are imposed to the digital elevation model only in places where the automatic river network extraction deviates substantially from the known networks. An improvement to methods for routing flow over flat regions is also introduced. Detailed results are presented over test areas of the Danube basin.

  5. Babylonian confusion of gudgeons in the west Aegean drainages inferred by the mitochondrial DNA analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Sanda

    2015-11-01

    We have analysed control region (mitochondrial non coding DNA of gudgeon populations from all larger river drainages from the west Aegean region (Pinios to Marica basins. Included were also several populations from surrounding areas of the Danube River drainage and from the Black Sea rivers. The results are not at all congruent with the proposed taxonomy. MtDNA haplotypes of Romonagobio banarescui were found not only in the Vardar, but also in the lower Aliakmon River. Haplotypes of Romanogibo elimeus were found in the Pinios, upper Aliakmon and Loudias rivers. Situation of genus Gobio is completely confusing; there is no geographic structure in the distribution of haplotypes. Many different haplogroups are shared in some basins, especially in the drainages of the Struma, Mesta and Marica rivers. This indicates complicated evolutionary history of gudgeons in the region, probably having several historical refugia, and with multiple recent contacts of lineages. Our data indicate a contact between the Danubian, Black Sea and Aegean rivers. The taxonomic status of most of the populations of Gobio from the west Aegean area remains unclear.

  6. Laparoscopic Drainage of Pancreatic Pseudocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Eugen Târcoveanu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic pseudocyst is a complication of acute or chronic pancreatitis. The invasive treatment (surgical or endoscopic is recommended if the pseudocyst persisted for more than 6 weeks after the diagnosis and if the size is larger than 6 cm and is symptomatic. The laparoscopic techniques have been developed to provide the patient with the benefits of a minimal access alternative. The aim of this article is to analyze the postoperative results of the pancreatic pseudocyst laparoscopic surgery. We have accomplished a restrospective study using clinical and para-clinical test results and postoperative results from the patients who have been treated with laparoscopic drainage. We reported a case of a large symptomatic pseudocyst after an attack of gallstone pancreatitis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and extern drainage have been performed at the same time with good postoperative results. Starting with year 2000 until year 2015, 85 patients, diagnosed with pancreatic pseudocyst, have been treated in the First Surgical Clinic, University Hospital Saint Spiridon Iasi. From which only 8 have been treated with laparoscopic drainage, encountering no mortality and morbidity. Postoperative hospital stay was 9,41 days. The postoperative drainage duration was between 5 and 21 days with a mean of 7 days. Late postoperative results were good in 6 patients and mediocre in the 2 patients. Conclusion: The laparoscopic technique has all the benefits of the minimal invasive approach. Better postoperative results were seen in cysto-digestive anastomosis using a Endo GIA stapler.

  7. Percutaneous drainage of abdominal abcess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Sueleyman E-mail: suleyman.men@deu.edu.tr; Akhan, Okan; Koeroglu, Mert

    2002-09-01

    The mortality in undrained abdominal abscesses is high with a mortality rate ranging between 45 and 100%. The outcome in abdominal abscesses, however, has improved due to advances in image guided percutaneous interventional techniques. The main indications for the catheter drainage include treatment or palliation of sepsis associated with an infected fluid collection, and alleviation of the symptoms that may be caused by fluid collections by virtue of their size, like pancreatic pseudocele or lymphocele. The single liver abscesses may be drained with ultrasound guidance only, whereas the multiple abscesses usually require computed tomography (CT) guidance and placement of multiple catheters. The pancreatic abscesses are generally drained routinely and urgently. Non-infected pancreatic pseudocysts may be simply observed unless they are symptomatic or cause problems such as pain or obstruction of the biliary or the gastrointestinal tract. Percutaneous routes that have been described to drain pelvic abscesses include transrectal or transvaginal approach with sonographic guidance, a transgluteal, paracoccygeal-infragluteal, or perineal approach through the greater sciatic foramen with CT guidance. Both the renal and the perirenal abscesses are amenable to percutaneous drainage. Percutaneous drainage provides an effective and safe alternative to more invasive surgical drainage in most patients with psoas abscesses as well.

  8. Assessment of the geothermal resources of Carson-Eagle valleys and Big Smoky Valley, Nevada. First annual report, May 1, 1979-May 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, D.T.; Koenig, B.A.; Flynn, T.; Bruce, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Two geothermal investigations were completed in three Nevada locations. The regions studied were selected from areas outlined as having direct utilization potential (Trexler and others, 1979) and included the Carson-Eagle Valley, Bis Smoky Valley and Caliente. Studies were organized around the completion of a group of tasks in each area. These tasks included: geologic reconnaissance, gravity surveys, aerial photography, fluid sampling and analysis, shallow depth temperature probe surveys, soil mercury surveys, shallow electrical resistivity measurements, and temperature gradient hole drilling. Goals of the project were to provide regional information about the nature and extent of the resources and to offer a critical evaluation of the techniques employed. Results from the work in the Carson-Eagle Valley and Big Smoky Valley are presented. (MHR)

  9. Definition of the drainage filter problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaslavsky, D.

    1977-01-01

    It is common to consider the following: I. Retention of soil particles that may enter the drainage pipe and cause its clogging. For some sensitive structures it is important to prevent settlements due to soil transportation by drainage water.

  10. Number and Distrib ution of Wintering Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) in Drainage Area of Yarlu ng Zang-bo River and Its Two Branches from Tibet, China%西藏“一江两河”流域越冬黑颈鹤种群数量及分布1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨乐; 李继荣; 仓决卓玛

    2016-01-01

    对西藏“一江两河”流域越冬黑颈鹤( Grus nigricollis)种群数量及分布情况进行了调查,并分析了黑颈鹤昼间活动生境和人为干扰情况。结果表明:2010年12月—2011年1月、2012年12月—2013年1月、2015年1月在“一江两河”流域越冬的黑颈鹤数量分别为6041、59496、496只。拉孜到南木林之间雅鲁藏布江中上游河谷和墨竹工卡到林周之间的拉萨河-澎波河谷一区是越冬黑颈鹤最为集中的2个区域;黑颈鹤昼间活动的主要生境是农田和水体,在这2种生境活动的黑颈鹤集群分别占集群总数( n=125)的80.8%和17.6%;12.0%的越冬黑颈鹤集群受到人为干扰的影响,其中69.2%的干扰来自开发建设。%We surveyed the number and distribution of wintering black-necked crane (Grusnig ricollis) in the drainage area of Yarlung Zangbo River and its two branches , and analyzed the diurnal activities habitat of wintering black-necked crane and human disturbance situation .The number of wintering black-necked crane ( G.nigricollis) in drainage area of Yarlung Zangbo river and its two branches were 6 041, 5 949 and 6 496 in December 2010 to January 2011, December 2012 to Jan-uary 2013, and January 2015, respectively, and the most concentrated area of wintering black-necked cranes was located in the upper-middle valley of Yalung Zangbo from Lazi to Nanmulin , and Lhasa river-Peng wave valley area from Maizhokunggar to Linzhou .The day activity habitat of wintering black-necked crane were farmland and ford , and the pro-portion of black-necked crane flocks (n=125) in the two kind of habitat were 80.8%and 17.6%, respectively.There were 12%of black-necked crane flocks affected by human disturbance , of which 69.2%was mainly from human development and construction .

  11. 24 CFR 3280.610 - Drainage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drainage systems. 3280.610 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Plumbing Systems § 3280.610 Drainage systems. (a) General. (1) Each fixture directly connected to the drainage system shall be installed with...

  12. Drainage water management for water quality protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land drainage has been central to the development of North America since colonial times. Increasingly, agricultural drainage is being targeted as a conduit for pollution, particularly nutrient pollution. The export of agricultural drainage water and associated pollutants to surface water can be mana...

  13. Outcome of patients with acute, necrotizing pancreatitis requiring drainage-does drainage size matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Bruennler, J Langgartner, S Lang, CE Wrede, F Klebl, S Zierhut, S Siebig, F Mandraka, F Rockmann, B Salzberger, S Feuerbach, J Schoelmerich, OW Hamer

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the outcome of patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis treated by percutaneous drainage with special focus on the influence of drainage size and number.METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 80 patients with acute pancreatitis requiring percutaneous drainage therapy for infected necroses. Endpoints were mortality and length of hospital stay. The influence of drainage characteristics such as the median drainage size, the largest drainage size per patient and the total drainage plane per patient on patient outcome was evaluated.RESULTS: Total hospital survival was 66%. Thirty-four patients out of all 80 patients (43% survived acute necrotizing pancreatitis with percutaneous drainage therapy only. Eighteen patients out of all 80 patients needed additional percutaneous necrosectomy (23%. Ten out of these patients required surgical necrosectomy in addition, 6 patients received open necrosectomy without prior percutaneous necrosectomy. Elective surgery was performed in 3 patients receiving cholecystectomy and one patient receiving resection of the parathyroid gland. The number of drainages ranged from one to fourteen per patient. The drainage diameter ranged from 8 French catheters to 24 French catheters. The median drainage size as well as the largest drainage size used per patient and the total drainage area used per patient did not show statistically significant influence on mortality.CONCLUSION: Percutaneous drainage therapy is an effective tool for treatment of necrotizing pancreatitis. Large bore drainages did not prove to be more effective in controlling the septic focus.

  14. Outcome of patients with acute, necrotizing pancreatitis requiring drainage-does drainage size matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruennler, T; Langgartner, J; Lang, S; Wrede, CE; Klebl, F; Zierhut, S; Siebig, S; Mandraka, F; Rockmann, F; Salzberger, B; Feuerbach, S; Schoelmerich, J; Hamer, OW

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To assess the outcome of patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis treated by percutaneous drainage with special focus on the influence of drainage size and number. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 80 patients with acute pancreatitis requiring percutaneous drainage therapy for infected necroses. Endpoints were mortality and length of hospital stay. The influence of drainage characteristics such as the median drainage size, the largest drainage size per patient and the total drainage plane per patient on patient outcome was evaluated. RESULTS: Total hospital survival was 66%. Thirty-four patients out of all 80 patients (43%) survived acute necrotizing pancreatitis with percutaneous drainage therapy only. Eighteen patients out of all 80 patients needed additional percutaneous necrosectomy (23%). Ten out of these patients required surgical necrosectomy in addition, 6 patients received open necrosectomy without prior percutaneous necrosectomy. Elective surgery was performed in 3 patients receiving cholecystectomy and one patient receiving resection of the parathyroid gland. The number of drainages ranged from one to fourteen per patient. The drainage diameter ranged from 8 French catheters to 24 French catheters. The median drainage size as well as the largest drainage size used per patient and the total drainage area used per patient did not show statistically significant influence on mortality. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous drainage therapy is an effective tool for treatment of necrotizing pancreatitis. Large bore drainages did not prove to be more effective in controlling the septic focus. PMID:18205262

  15. Historical overview and future directions of the microbial role in the acidic coal mine drainage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacteria have been implicated and analyzed at every step in the production of acidic coal mine drainage (AMD). This review paper provides detailed information about microbial studies in mines, laboratory settings, waste piles, ground water, receiving streams, and downstream rivers and lakes. Research on AMD treatment, beneficial uses, and seasonal variability is also reviewed. 102 refs

  16. Water monitoring around the Buchim copper mine drainage system

    OpenAIRE

    Serafimovski, Todor; Nikolov, Nikolajco; Konzulov, Gerasim; Tasev, Goran; Sarafiloski, Sare

    2013-01-01

    Two hot-spot sources are representative for the Buchim mine drainage system. The first one is the waste dump, which produces an average flow of 15-20 l/s with low pH value (3,6-5,5) and 450-850 mg/l Cu. The second source one is the hydrotailing dam near the Topolnica River where monitored parameters of waters distinguish themselves by incre-ased pH values from 6.2 up to 7.6 and increased concentrations of suspended ma¬t¬ters (7-466 mg/l) while the copper concentration remained below the MDK l...

  17. 云南李仙江流域水电开发中的鱼类资源保护%Fishery resource protection by artificial propagation in hydroelectric development: Lixianjiang River drainage in Yunnan as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永宏; 杨君兴; 潘晓赋; 周伟; 杨美临

    2011-01-01

    Hydroelectric developments can result in a number of negative environmental consequences.Conservation aquaculture is a branch of science derived from conservation and population recovery studies on endangered fishes. Here we discuss the impacts on fishes caused by hydropower projects in Lixianjiang, and evaluate effects and problems on the propagation of Parazacco spilurus. Hemibagrus pluriradiatus. Neolissochilus benasi and Semilabeo obscurus. A successful propagation project includes foraging ecology in fields, pond cultivation, juvenile fish raising, prevention and curing on fish disease, genetic management, artificial releasing and population monitoring.Artificial propagation is the practicable act on genetic intercommunication, preventing population deterioration for fishes in upper and lower reaches of the dam. For long-term planning, fish stocks are not suitable for many kind of fishes, but can prevent fishes from going extinct in the wild. Basic data collection on fish ecology, parent fish hunting, prevention on fish disease are the most important factors on artificial propagation. Strengthening the genetic management of stock population for keeping a higher genetic diversity can increase the success of stock enhancement. The works on Lixianjiang provide a new model for river fish protection. To make sure the complicated proj ect works well, proj ect plans,comnussion contracts, base line monitoring and techniques on artificial reproduction must be considered early. Last,fishery conservation should be considered alongside location development.%水电工程的开发对江河道鱼类资源产生了诸多不利影响,在保护和恢复日益增多的濒危鱼类种群的实践中,孕育和逐渐形成了保护水产学.该文对李仙江流域水电开发与流域内珍稀鱼类异鱲、越鳠、软鳍新光唇鱼和暗色唇鱼人工增殖保护实践中的实施效果和存在问题进行了分析.李仙江水电开发与鱼类增殖保护为河流鱼类的

  18. Vertical drainage capacity of new electrical drainage board on improvement of super soft clayey ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈扬; 励彦德; 黄文君; 徐海东; 胡品飞

    2015-01-01

    As an advanced polymer composites electro-kinetic geosynthetics, the electro-osmotic vertical drainage (EVD) board could drain water quickly and accelerate consolidation process. However, the drainage rate was mainly impacted by the vertical drainage capability. Therefore, vertical drainage capability at the top of EVD board was theoretically analyzed. Basic requirements for drainage at the top of the board were summed up, as well as the formula of anode pore pressure when losing the vertical drainage capability. Meanwhile, a contrast test on the top and bottom drainage capacities was conducted. In use of the advanced EVD board, the voltage potential and pore pressure of anode were measured. Moreover, the derived formulas were verified. The result shows that the decrease of electric force gradient had an observable impact on the drainage capability. There was nearly no difference between the energy consumption for the two drainage methods. Although a little less water was discharged, the top drainage method had more advantages, such as high initial drainage velocity, few soil cracks, low anode water content and high soil strength. All of these show that the super soft soil ground could be consolidated quickly in use of the advanced EVD board through the top drainage. The top drainage method could efficiently improve the drainage effect, decrease the energy consumption and speed up the project proceeding.

  19. Use of Natural and Applied Tracers to Guide Targeted Remediation Efforts in an Acid Mine Drainage System, Colorado Rockies, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Rory Cowie; Williams, Mark W.; Mike Wireman; Robert L. Runkel

    2014-01-01

    Stream water quality in areas of the western United States continues to be degraded by acid mine drainage (AMD), a legacy of hard-rock mining. The Rico-Argentine Mine in southwestern Colorado consists of complex multiple-level mine workings connected to a drainage tunnel discharging AMD to passive treatment ponds that discharge to the Dolores River. The mine workings are excavated into the hillslope on either side of a tributary stream with workings passing directly under the stream channel. ...

  20. Ammonia-nitrogen removal from urban drainage using modified fresh empty fruit bunches: A case study in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricky, L. N. S.; Shahril, Y.; Nurmin, B.; Zahrim, AY

    2016-06-01

    Highly concentration of ammonia nitrogen in urban drainage could pollute the river and give pungent smell. The strong pungent odours that coming out from the urban drainage may degrade the image a city and could possibly reduce the present of tourist. To minimize the presence of pungent odours, the ammonia nitrogen can be removed from the urban drainage by applying proper adsorbent. In this study, an adsorbent produced through chemical modification of fresh empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers has been carried out. The maximum adsorption capacity is between 0.01-0.60 mg/g. The finding also shows that the retention time is vital when designing ammonia nitrogen filter.

  1. Urban drainage in Ireland - embracing sustainable systems

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, J J; Bruen, Michael; Purcell, Patrick J.; Gebre, F.

    2012-01-01

    The current approach to stormwater management in Ireland requires that outflows from new developments are restricted to greenfield values that would have occurred prior to development. This typically involved the use of holding tanks constructed within developments to attenuate stormwater from where it was released at a reduced rate via a control structure to a nearby drainage network or watercourse. Improved drainage policies now require that sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) a...

  2. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelkareem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the ancestral Nile Delta. Elements of topography and climate were considered. They show that the former segments of the Nile closely mirror present-day tributaries of the Nile basin in drainage geometry, landscape, and climate. A rainfall data interpolation scenario revealed that this basin received concurrent runoff from both flanks such as Gabgaba-Allaqi to the east and Tushka basin to the west, similar to present-day Sobat and White Nile tributaries, respectively. Overall the western tributaries such as those of Tushka basin and Howar lead to the Nile, which was (and still is the biggest river system in Africa.

  3. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkareem, Mohamed; El-Baz, Farouk

    2015-05-01

    Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the ancestral Nile Delta. Elements of topography and climate were considered. They show that the former segments of the Nile closely mirror present-day tributaries of the Nile basin in drainage geometry, landscape, and climate. A rainfall data interpolation scenario revealed that this basin received concurrent runoff from both flanks such as Gabgaba-Allaqi to the east and Tushka basin to the west, similar to present-day Sobat and White Nile tributaries, respectively. Overall the western tributaries such as those of Tushka basin and Howar lead to the Nile, which was (and still is) the biggest river system in Africa. PMID:26257941

  4. Mineralogical correlation of surficial sediment from area drainages with selected sedimentary interbeds at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    Ongoing research by the US Geological Survey at the INEL involves investigation of the migration of radioactive elements contained in low-level radioactive waste, hydrologic and geologic factors affecting waste movement, and geochemical factors that influence the chemical composition of the waste. Identification of the mineralogy of the Snake River Plain is needed to aid in the study of the hydrology and geochemistry of subsurface waste disposal. The US Geological Surveys project office at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, used mineralogical data to correlate surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Greek drainages with selected sedimentary interbed core samples taken from test holes at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex), TRA (Test Reactors Area), ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant), and TAN (Test Area North). Correlating the mineralogy of a particular present-day drainage area with a particular sedimentary interbed provides information on historical source of sediment for interbeds in and near the INEL. Mineralogical data indicate that surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River drainage contained a larger amount of feldspar and pyroxene and a smaller amount of calcite and dolomite than samples from the Little Lost River and Birch Creek drainages. Mineralogical data from sedimentary interbeds at the RWMC, TRA, and ICPP correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day big Lost River drainage. Mineralogical data from a sedimentary interbed at TAN correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day Birch Creek drainage. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Mineralogical correlation of surficial sediment from area drainages with selected sedimentary interbeds at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongoing research by the US Geological Survey at the INEL involves investigation of the migration of radioactive elements contained in low-level radioactive waste, hydrologic and geologic factors affecting waste movement, and geochemical factors that influence the chemical composition of the waste. Identification of the mineralogy of the Snake River Plain is needed to aid in the study of the hydrology and geochemistry of subsurface waste disposal. The US Geological Surveys project office at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, used mineralogical data to correlate surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Greek drainages with selected sedimentary interbed core samples taken from test holes at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex), TRA (Test Reactors Area), ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant), and TAN (Test Area North). Correlating the mineralogy of a particular present-day drainage area with a particular sedimentary interbed provides information on historical source of sediment for interbeds in and near the INEL. Mineralogical data indicate that surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River drainage contained a larger amount of feldspar and pyroxene and a smaller amount of calcite and dolomite than samples from the Little Lost River and Birch Creek drainages. Mineralogical data from sedimentary interbeds at the RWMC, TRA, and ICPP correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day big Lost River drainage. Mineralogical data from a sedimentary interbed at TAN correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day Birch Creek drainage. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Acid mine drainage research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acidic drainage resulting from base metal, precious metal, and uranium mining is the largest single environmental problems facing the Canadian mining industry today. Technologies to prevent acidic drainage from occurring in waste rock piles and tailings sites, and on the walls of open pits and underground mines, need to be developed and demonstrated. There are two grounds in Canada which have accepted this challenge: the national Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) program and the British Columbia Acid Mine Drainage (BC AMD) Task Force. This paper summarizes the activities of these two organizations

  7. PERCUTAENOUS BILIARY DRAINAGE IN MALIGNANT OBSTRUCTIVE JAUNDICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fotea

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In patients with malignant obstructive jaundice for whom surgery is not indicated the treatment of choice is palliative biliary drainage either endoscopic or percutaneous. We present our experience with percutaneous drainage. Although percutaneous placement of an endoprosthesis is preferred, the patients are seldom candidates for such a procedure because of locally advanced disease, and even when successful survival is not significantly affected but merely the patients’ quality of life. For this patients internal-external catheter drainage or external biliary drainage might still be of help provided that a proper care and periodical catheter change is ensured.

  8. Drainage basin delineations for selected USGS streamflow-gaging stations in Virginia (Drainage_Basin)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Drainage_Basin polygon feature class was created as a digital representation of drainage basins for more than 1,650 continuous-record streamflow-gaging...

  9. Drainage in a rising foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazhgur, Pavel; Rio, Emmanuelle; Rouyer, Florence; Pigeonneau, Franck; Salonen, Anniina

    2016-01-21

    Rising foams created by continuously blowing gas into a surfactant solution are widely used in many technical processes, such as flotation. The prediction of the liquid fraction profile in such flowing foams is of particular importance since this parameter controls the stability and the rheology of the final product. Using drift flux analysis and recently developed semi-empirical expressions for foam permeability and osmotic pressure, we build a model predicting the liquid fraction profile as a function of height. The theoretical profiles are very different if the interfaces are considered as mobile or rigid, but all of our experimental profiles are described by the model with mobile interfaces. Even the systems with dodecanol are well known to behave as rigid in forced drainage experiments. This is because in rising foams the liquid fraction profile is fixed by the flux at the bottom of the foam. Here the foam is wet with higher permeability and the interfaces are not in equilibrium. These results demonstrate once again that it is not only the surfactant system that controls the mobility of the interface, but also the hydrodynamic problem under consideration. For example liquid flow through the foam during generation or in forced drainage is intrinsically different. PMID:26554500

  10. Solid Waste in Drainage Network of Rio do Meio Watershed, Florianópolis/SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiana Gava

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The urban drainage network is among the main pollution transport load factors. Researches on the identification of solid waste transported in the drainage network have been considered the allow evaluation of its impact. In this paper we analyze the main characteristics that influences the presence of solid wastes in the drainage network of the Rio do Meio basin, Florianópolis/SC. A metal net was installed in selected river section and monitored after each rain event. The results showed about 0.27 kg/ha.year of waste are carried in the drainage network. The majority being composed of plastics and building materials. Through the analysis of the data, it was possible to verify the presence of waste in the drainage network is due to poor packaging and to the lack of sweeping in some parts of the basin. It was also found that the total precipitation is directly proportional to the appearance of solid waste. It was concluded that the lack of an integrated management between the components of sanitary system leave unnoticed simple structural measures that ultimately decrease the amount of solid waste in the drainage basin, and that could eliminate this source of pollution.

  11. Flow and geochemical modeling of drainage from Tomitaka mine, Miyazaki, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kohei; Tomiyama, Shingo; Metugi, Hideya; Ii, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Akira

    2015-10-01

    The chemistry and flow of water in the abandoned Tomitaka mine of Miyazaki, western Japan were investigated. This mine is located in a non-ferrous metal deposit and acid mine drainage issues from it. The study was undertaken to estimate the quantities of mine drainage that needs to be treated in order to avoid acidification of local rivers, taking into account seasonal variations in rainfall. Numerical models aimed to reproduce observed water levels and fluxes and chemical variations of groundwater and mine drainage. Rock-water interactions that may explain the observed variations in water chemistry are proposed. The results show that: (1) rain water infiltrates into the deeper bedrock through a highly permeable zone formed largely by stopes that are partially filled with spoil from excavations (ore minerals and host rocks); (2) the water becomes acidic (pH from 3 to 4) as dissolved oxygen oxidizes pyrite; (3) along the flow path through the rocks, the redox potential of the water becomes reducing, such that pyrite becomes stable and pH of the mine drainage becomes neutral; and (4) upon leaving the mine, the drainage becomes acidic again due to oxidation of pyrite in the rocks. The present numerical model with considering of the geochemical characteristics can simulate the main variations in groundwater flow and water levels in and around the Tomitaka mine, and apply to the future treatment of the mine drainage. PMID:26456615

  12. Strike slip faulting inferred from offsetting of drainages: Lower Narmada basin, western India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rachna Raj

    2007-10-01

    The detailed analysis of landforms,drainages and geology of the area between the rivers Amaravati and Karjan was carried out in order to understand the tectonic history of the lower Narmada basin. Movement along the various faults in the area was studied on the basis of the drainage offsetting. Horizontal offsetting of stream channels was found quite demonstrable along NNW –SSE trending transverse faults.Tectonic landforms including systematic de flection of stream channels and ridges, alignment of fault scarp and saddles and displacement in the basement rocks and alluvial deposits show that the area is undergoing active deformation driven by the NSF system.

  13. Quality of shallow groundwater and drainage water in irrigated agricultural lands in a Mediterranean coastal region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odemiş, Berkant; Bozkurt, Sefer; Ağca, Necat; Yalçin, Mehmet

    2006-04-01

    Spatial and seasonal differences in water quality of drainage water and unconfined shallow groundwater were related to irrigation in Samandağ, a Mediterranean coastal region. Eighteen wells, seven drainage points and Orontes River were monitored bimonthly for one year for analyses of electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), cations (Na, K, Ca + Mg) and anions (CO(3), HCO(3), Cl and SO(4)). Agricultural irrigation using saline groundwater decreased water quality of Orontes River during the irrigation season (May to September) more than during the non-irrigation season (October to April). Seasonal fluctuations in water quality of shallow groundwater were greater during the irrigation season than the non-irrigation season in the study area. Excessive use of groundwater resulted in a decline in the water table levels in the irrigation season. Water table level rose up to the soil surface in areas where there was a lack of drainage or poor drainage, due to the impact of precipitation in the winter. SAR and pH values of drainage water increased in the irrigation season, while the other properties of drainage water decreased. Irrigation water quality of Orontes River was classified as C(3)S(1) in both seasons. Irrigation water quality of shallow groundwater and drainage water varied from C(2)S(1) to C(4)S(2) in one year. Drainage and well waters were found to be different on yearly basis in terms of Na, SAR (p<0.01) and Ca + Mg concentrations (p<0.001). Ca + Mg concentrations for both sources were different for all sampling dates (p<0.001). PMID:16614781

  14. 24 CFR 3285.604 - Drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drainage system. 3285.604 Section... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Ductwork and Plumbing and Fuel Supply Systems § 3285.604 Drainage system. (a) Crossovers. Multi-section homes with plumbing in more than one...

  15. Drainage Water Management for the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subsurface tile drainage is an essential water management practice on many highly productive fields in the Midwest. However, nitrate carried in drainage water can lead to local water quality problems and contribute to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico, so strategies are needed to reduce the nitrate load...

  16. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was initiated to determine whether irrigation drainage in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health or fish and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of water for beneficial uses. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert and were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements, including selenium. Other analyses included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediments and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, concentrations of the following constituents commonly were found to exceed baseline concentrations or federal and state criteria for the protection of aquatic life or the propagation of wildlife: in water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appear to be biomagnified whereas arsenic is bioaccumulated. Some radioactive substances were substantially higher at the downstream sites compared with upstream background sites, but the significance of this to wildlife is unknown at present. 88 refs., 32 figs., 19 tabs

  17. Contaminants evaluation of the Solomon River drainage in Kansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We detected low concentrations of the groups of agricultural chemicals and petroleum compounds in surface water analyzed with the kits. None of the groups of...

  18. Analysis on River Sediment Changes of the Upper Reaches of Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Xiang-hao; SHI Guo-yu; XU Quan-xi; CHEN Ze-fang; LIU Shu-zhen

    2005-01-01

    The sediment load and river sedimentation of the upper reaches of Yangtze River has been undergoing constant changes as complex landform, large mountain area and plentiful precipitation make the drainage area of Yangtze River very vulnerable to water erosion and gravity erosion. Through analyzing the hydrological and sediment load statistics recorded by major hydrological stations along Yangtze River since 1950s, and editing the accumulation graph of annual runoff volume and annual sediment load, we find out that the suspended-sediment of Yangtze river has been decreasing year by year in Wulong Hydrological Station on Wujiang River, Beibei Hydrological Station on Jialingjiang River, Lijiawan Hydrological Station on Tuojiang River and Gaochang Hydrological Station on Minjiang River, Yichang Hydrological Station, Cuntan Hydrological Station along Yangtze River mainstream share the same experience too. But the statistics obtained at Pingshan Hydrological Station on Jinshajiang River shows the sediment load there has increased. Taking ecological construction, hydraulic engineering construction and precipitation changes into consideration, the thesis analyses the causes for the sediment load decrease of Jialingjiang River, Tuojiang River, Minjiang River and Wujiang River and provides us both scientific foundation for further study of river sediment changes of the upper reaches of Yangtze River, and measures to control river sedimentation.

  19. Fluvial system restoration – case study: river Tua

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Gina-Lee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide river basin managers with a framework for river restoration. To that end, it presents and discusses the relevant information on the current condition of the river Tua, in northern Portugal, and establishes what can be done to restore the river basin in order to protect the most important drainage basin's functions and ecosystems. It is intended that this thesis will serve as an example of the application of current knowledge on freshwater restoration w...

  20. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Andreas; Vilmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic pseudocysts are fluid collections in the peripancreatic tissues associated with acute or chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage has become an established indication, having better results as compared to percutaneous drainage, nonguided endoscopic drainage, or...

  1. Drainage Evolution during the Uplift of the Central Anatolia Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocard, G. Y.; Meijers, M. J.; Willenbring, J. K.; Kaymakci, N.; Whitney, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Central Anatolian plateau formed in the past 8-6 Myrs, associated to a change in tectonic regime, from contraction to extensional escape tectonics. We have examined the response of the river drainage of Central Anatolia to the rise of the plateau uplift and to the formation of the Anatolian microplate, tracking changes in drainage organization. Anatolia experienced widespread rock uplift and erosion in the Late Oligocene, generating a narrow, steep, and quickly eroding mountain range above the future southern plateau margin. A regionally widespread marine transgression resulted from wholesale foundering of this orogen in Early Miocene time. Widespread planation surfaces overlapped by Miocene marine carbonates bevel this topography, indicating that relief had been reduced to a low elevation pedimented landscape by the end of the Middle Miocene. Plateau uplift initiated around 11 My ago in Eastern Anatolia; it was echoed in Central Anatolia by a short-lived phase of contraction and localized uplifts that predate escape tectonics and mark the beginning of the current topographic differentiation of the southern plateau margin. The through-going drainage network inherited disintegrated, and a vast zone of inward drainage formed at the location of the future plateau interior. Between 8 and 6 My, the southern plateau margin (i.e. the Tauride Mountains) emerged. δ18O analyses on lacustrine and pedogenic carbonates show that the southern plateau margin, if not the plateau interior, had experienced enough uplift by 5 My to generate a substantial rain shadow over the plateau interior. Being disconnected from the regional base level from the start, the plateau interior was able to rise without experiencing substantial dissection. It reconnected to all surrounding sediment sinks (Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Persian Gulf) over the past 5 My. We discuss the mechanisms that have driven this reconnection. Bottom-up processes of integration such as drainage divide retreat

  2. Global 30m Height Above the Nearest Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchyts, Gennadii; Winsemius, Hessel; Schellekens, Jaap; Erickson, Tyler; Gao, Hongkai; Savenije, Hubert; van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Variability of the Earth surface is the primary characteristics affecting the flow of surface and subsurface water. Digital elevation models, usually represented as height maps above some well-defined vertical datum, are used a lot to compute hydrologic parameters such as local flow directions, drainage area, drainage network pattern, and many others. Usually, it requires a significant effort to derive these parameters at a global scale. One hydrological characteristic introduced in the last decade is Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND): a digital elevation model normalized using nearest drainage. This parameter has been shown to be useful for many hydrological and more general purpose applications, such as landscape hazard mapping, landform classification, remote sensing and rainfall-runoff modeling. One of the essential characteristics of HAND is its ability to capture heterogeneities in local environments, difficult to measure or model otherwise. While many applications of HAND were published in the academic literature, no studies analyze its variability on a global scale, especially, using higher resolution DEMs, such as the new, one arc-second (approximately 30m) resolution version of SRTM. In this work, we will present the first global version of HAND computed using a mosaic of two DEMS: 30m SRTM and Viewfinderpanorama DEM (90m). The lower resolution DEM was used to cover latitudes above 60 degrees north and below 56 degrees south where SRTM is not available. We compute HAND using the unmodified version of the input DEMs to ensure consistency with the original elevation model. We have parallelized processing by generating a homogenized, equal-area version of HydroBASINS catchments. The resulting catchment boundaries were used to perform processing using 30m resolution DEM. To compute HAND, a new version of D8 local drainage directions as well as flow accumulation were calculated. The latter was used to estimate river head by incorporating fixed and

  3. Percutaneous biliary drainage and stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) is an X-ray or US guided procedure that involves the injection of a contrast material directly into the bile ducts inside the liver to produce pictures of them. If a blockage or narrowing is found, additional procedures may be performed: 1. insertion of a catheter to drain excess bile out of the body or both - internal and external; 2. plastic endoprothesis placement; 3. self-expandable metal stents placement to help open bile ducts or to bypass an obstruction and allow fluids to drain. Current percutaneous biliary interventions include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and biliary drainage to manage benign and malignant obstructions. Internal biliary stents are either plastic or metallic, and various types of each kind are available. Internal biliary stents have several advantages. An external tube can be uncomfortable and have a psychological disadvantage. An internal stent prevents the problems related to external catheters, for example, pericatheter leakage of bile and the need for daily flushing. The disadvantages include having to perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or new PTC procedures to obtain access in case of stent obstruction. Better patency rates are reported with metallic than with plastic stents in cases of malignant obstruction, though no effect on survival is noted. Plastic internal stents are the cheapest but reportedly prone to migration. Metallic stents are generally not used in the treatment of benign disease because studies have shown poor long-term patency rates. Limited applications may include the treatment of patients who are poor surgical candidates or of those in whom surgical treatment fails. Most postoperative strictures are treated surgically, though endoscopic and (less commonly) percutaneous placement of nonmetallic stents has increasingly been used in the past few years. Now there are some reports about use of biodegradable biliary

  4. Experimental Drainage Basins in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laronne, J. B.; Lekach, J.; Cohen, H.; Gray, J.

    2002-12-01

    Within the hyper-arid to semiarid areas of Israel are three experimental drainage basins. They are the Nahal (stream in Hebrew) Yael, subdivided into five sub-basins, Rahaf-Qanna'im (main and tributary, respectively) and Eshtemoa. These basins vary in drainage area and climate, and in monitoring duration and type. All are drained by gravel-bed channels. As the size of monitored drainage area is limited, 3-4 additional representative basins covering areas of 300, 1000, 2000 and 8000 square kilometers will likely be implemented in the next decade. The basins have precipitation, runoff, sediment and fluviomorphological records. Each was conceived for differing purposes, but all share the common two objectives for the continuous monitoring: 1. Many hydrological issues may be approached if, and only if, there are prototype databases on a wide spectrum of hydrological processes; and 2. There is a need for long-term records to assess large floods and subsequent hydrologic and geomorphic recovery. Lessons derived from a large number of research projects on these experimental basins focus on characteristics of runoff in arid climates. For example, the effect of the spatial distribution of rainfall on runoff generation becomes increasingly important with aridity. Rainfall angle on hillslopes and storm intensity and direction derived from rainfall recorders and radar backscatter are crucial for explanation of runoff response. Runoff hydrographs tend to have more bores, shorter-duration peaks, briefer recessions, longer dry periods, and are more variable in terms of flood volume and peaks with increased aridity. Suspended-sediment fluxes, yields and concentrations are relatively large in the semiarid realm, reaching maxima at the beginning of a flood season and after long dry spells. Bedload fluxes are exceptionally high from dryland basins in which hillslopes are minimally vegetated and where bedload transport takes place in channels lacking an armor layer. Bedload

  5. Gravity Drainage Kinetics of Papermaking Fibrous Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybysz Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses application possibilities of filtration and thickening models in evaluation of papermaking suspension drainage rate. The authors proposed their own method to estimate the drainage rate on the basis of an existing Ergun capillary model of liquid flow through a granular material. The proposed model was less sensitive to porosity changes than the Ergun model. An empirical verification proved robustness of the proposed approach. Taking into account discrepancies in the published data concerning how the drainage velocity of papermaking suspension is defined, this study examines which of the commonly applied models matches experimental results the best.

  6. US and RTG guided percutaneous biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under combined US and fluoroscopic guidance from anterior approach through left liver lobe a Seldinger technique was used for biliary drainage in 46 patients with nonresectable malignant biliary obstruction. In 9 cases of hilar tumor separating both hepatic ducts a second catheter was inserted through right liver lobe. In 11 cases an internal-external drainage was established. In 3 cases the externally drained bile was recycled by connecting the transhepatic catheter to a percutaneous gastrostomy also performed under US guidance. No severe complications were observed. A described drainage technique provides an effective palliative intervention for advanced biliary malignancies. (author)

  7. Influence of forest drainage on runoff: Main concepts and examples from central part of the USSR European territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to determine the impact of forest drainage on river runoff regime on the basis of experimental studies carried out in the central part of European USSR, on the results of hydrological modelling, and on other available data. It is shown that forest drainage can cause the increase in summer and winter low-flow values, except in extremely dry periods. The impact of forest drainage on snowmelt and rainfall flood peaks is ambiguous, and only hydrological modelling can ensure substantiated estimates for concrete river basins. Examples of numerical experiments for a catchment area of 870 km2 are given. The possible hydrological impact of post-reclamation changes that occur in drained areas is considered. 31 refs., 7 figs

  8. Plio-Pleistocene evolution of the north Alpine drainage system: new constraints from detrital thermochronology of foreland deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Wolfgang; Elfert, Simon; Glotzbach, Christoph; Spiegel, Cornelia

    2015-04-01

    The evolution of drainage systems in and around active orogens may be strongly affected by climatic or tectonic processes. Information on the drainage evolution is stored in the sediments of the foreland depocentres. We investigated the provenance of two key deposits adjacent to the Central Alps, the Pliocene Sundgau gravels and the Pleistocene Höhere Deckenschotter by applying detrital thermochronology. Combined with provenance information from Rhine Graben deposits, we propose a reconstruction of the north Alpine drainage system since the middle Pliocene and discuss potential controlling mechanisms. Our data show that the Rhine Graben received detritus from the Alpine realm already during the Pliocene, indicating two different river systems—the proto-Rhine and the Aare-Doubs—draining the Alpine realm toward the North Sea and Mediterranean Sea. The investigated sediments contain detritus from two central Alpine sources, one showing a regional exhumational equilibrium and the other characterized by increasing exhumation rates. Discharge of the latter source ceased after ~2 Ma, reflecting a northward shift of the main Alpine drainage divide. Between ~2.0 and 1.2 Ma, the drainage system was affected by a major change, which we explain as resulting from a change in the Alpine stress field leading to tectonic exhumation and topography reduction in the area of the southern Aar massif. Generally, it seems that between ~4 and 1.2 Ma, the drainage system was mainly controlled by tectonic processes, despite first glaciations that already affected the north-Alpine foreland by ~2 Ma. The drainage system only seems to have reacted to the late Cenozoic climate changes after ~1.2 Ma, i.e., at the time of the most intense Alpine glaciation. At that time, the course of the Rhine River shifted toward the area of the Hegau volcanics, and the size of the Rhine River catchment became strongly reduced.

  9. Prairie stream water quality in sub-basins characterized by differing degrees of wetland drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, N. N.; Westbrook, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    The prairie pothole region is dotted with millions of pothole wetlands. These wetlands provide important habitat for numerous wildlife species. Potholes are small, shallow marshes that typically lack surface water connections and have been shown to trap nutrients, ions, and bacteria from catchment runoff. Approximately 70% of the potholes located in the Canadian prairies have been drained since 1900 to increase agricultural production; recently there have been renewed efforts to drain potholes. Wetland drainage has been shown to increase stream discharge and is perceived to impact downstream water quality as previously isolated wetlands become connected to streams via drainage ditches. Our objective was to determine the extent to which stream water quality was influenced by wetland drainage. We compared time series of water quality for four sub-basins of Smith Creek watershed, southeastern Saskatchewan. The stream drains into the Assiniboine River and then Lake Winnipeg where excessive N and P loadings are causing eutrophication. Wetland distribution in the sub-basins was historically similar, but recently the sub-basins have been subject to differing degrees of drainage (extreme, high, moderately-high, and low). Stream water sampling and discharge measurement occurred daily during peak flow (spring runoff) and weekly during low flows in 2009 at the outlet of each sub-basin. Export coefficients for nutrients, DOC, salts and bacteria were compared among sub-basins. The sub-basin characterized by extreme drainage (81% wetland reduction) had the largest nutrient and DOC export coefficients while the low drainage sub-basin (23% wetland reduction) had the lowest. Concentrations of TP and ortho-P were greater in the moderately-high and high drainage sub-basins than in the low drainage sub-basin during the snowmelt period. TP concentrations exceeded the Saskatchewan Watershed Authority Lake Stewardship Program objective of 0.1 mg/L. N concentrations were greatest in the

  10. Results of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography drainages (PTCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenemann, J.; Willems, M.; Wolf, G.; Fromme, M.

    1987-12-01

    From September 1980 to December 1986, 72 percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography drainages (PTCD) were performed in 64 patients (58 palliative in malignant obstructions, 14 temporary). The median duration of drainage was 26.8 days (2-183 days). The median survival time in 37 patients with palliative tumour drainage was 55.3 days (7-473 days). 9/37 patients survived longer than 3 months (max. 15.5 months). Complications occurred in 29.5% (10.3% severe). 3/64 patients (4.7%) died. Patients with palliative transpapillary drainages (23), especially with endoprostheses (14), survived longer, and the complication rate was lower. Therefore, we prefer the endoscopic transpapillary approach. PTCD patients must be selected carefully.

  11. Technical problems during percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical problems are repeatedly encountered during percutaneous transhepatic drainage by catheter or endo-prosthesis which are caused by the position, extent and tightness of the stenosis in the biliary ducts. All means of overcoming these problems must be used, otherwise technical failure or complications become inevitable. The methods to be adopted if catheters break and endo-prostheses become displaced or occluded, and for haemorrhage, are described, as well as methods for draining multiple, proximal or intrahepatic stenoses. This is based on an experience with 74 patients on whom 130 drainage procedures have been perforemd (80 catheters, 50 endo-prostheses. All complications and mortality (five patients, 3.8%) were due to problems which could not be solved. Internal biliary drainage by means of an endoprosthesis is markedly superior to catheter drainage. (orig.)

  12. Results of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography drainages (PTCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From September 1980 to December 1986, 72 percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography drainages (PTCD) were performed in 64 patients (58 palliative in malignant obstructions, 14 temporary). The median duration of drainage was 26.8 days (2-183 days). The median survival time in 37 patients with palliative tumour drainage was 55.3 days (7-473 days). 9/37 patients survived longer than 3 months (max. 15.5 months). Complications occurred in 29.5% (10.3% severe). 3/64 patients (4.7%) died. Patients with palliative transpapillary drainages (23), especially with endoprostheses (14), survived longer, and the complication rate was lower. Therefore, we prefer the endoscopic transpapillary approach. PTCD patients must be selected carefully. (orig.)

  13. Technical problems during percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.; Hoever, S.

    1985-11-01

    Technical problems are repeatedly encountered during percutaneous transhepatic drainage by catheter or endo-prosthesis which are caused by the position, extent and tightness of the stenosis in the biliary ducts. All means of overcoming these problems must be used, otherwise technical failure or complications become inevitable. The methods to be adopted if catheters break and endo-prostheses become displaced or occluded, and for haemorrhage, are described, as well as methods for draining multiple, proximal or intrahepatic stenoses. This is based on an experience with 74 patients on whom 130 drainage procedures have been perforemd (80 catheters, 50 endo-prostheses). All complications and mortality (five patients, 3.8%) were due to problems which could not be solved. Internal biliary drainage by means of an endoprosthesis is markedly superior to catheter drainage. (orig.).

  14. Hydrogeomorphic effects of explosive volcanic eruptions on drainage basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Major, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    Explosive eruptions can severely disturb landscapes downwind or downstream of volcanoes by damaging vegetation and depositing large volumes of erodible fragmental material. As a result, fluxes of water and sediment in affected drainage basins can increase dramatically. System-disturbing processes associated with explosive eruptions include tephra fall, pyroclastic density currents, debris avalanches, and lahars—processes that have greater impacts on water and sediment discharges than lava-flow emplacement. Geo-morphic responses to such disturbances can extend far downstream, persist for decades, and be hazardous. The severity of disturbances to a drainage basin is a function of the specific volcanic process acting, as well as distance from the volcano and magnitude of the eruption. Postdisturbance unit-area sediment yields are among the world's highest; such yields commonly result in abundant redeposition of sand and gravel in distal river reaches, which causes severe channel aggradation and instability. Response to volcanic disturbance can result in socioeconomic consequences more damaging than the direct impacts of the eruption itself.

  15. Impairment of lacrimal drainage after cataract surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Fesharaki; Hasan Razmjoo; Masoud Aghajani

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complaining of tearing was found in some of our patients after phacoemulsification surgery for senile cataract. Secondary acquired lacrimal drainage obstruction has been proposed to happen due to different causes. This study was performed at Feiz hospital in Isfahan, Iran from September to December of 2004 to evaluate the effects of phacoemulsification surgery on tear drainage in eyes with senile cataract. METHODS: This cohort study was performed on 110 patients with senile catara...

  16. Reality named endoscopic ultrasound biliary drainage

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes, Hugo Gonçalo; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; de Oliveira, Joel Fernandez; Artifon, Everson Luiz de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is used for diagnosis and evaluation of many diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the past, it was used to guide a cholangiography, but nowadays it emerges as a powerful therapeutic tool in biliary drainage. The aims of this review are: outline the rationale for endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EGBD); detail the procedural technique; evaluate the clinical outcomes and limitations of the method; and provide recommendations for the practicing...

  17. The River Seine's sedimentary memory: a 50 years pollution record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective management of industrial pollution is largely reliant on models that can be used for describing and modeling pollutant transfer pathways to the environment, including rivers. IRSN has succeeded for the first time in producing an accurate reconstruction of pollutant flows in a drainage basin, namely that of the River Seine. (author)

  18. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in malignant extrahepatic cholestasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoevels, J.

    1985-03-01

    The technique of non-surgical percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage has been improved recently. Combined internal and external drainage of bile was enabled by manipulation of a guide wire and a drainage catheter through the stenosed or obstructed section of the extrahepatic biliary ducts. Experience have been gained concerning internal drainage of bile by percutaneous transhepatic insertion of an endoprosthesis for some years now.

  19. Tectonic control on the drainage system in a piedmont region in tectonically active eastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Chandreyee; Mukhopadhyay, Dhruba; Poddar, Bikash Chandra

    2012-03-01

    The impact of neotectonic activity on drainage system has been studied in a large alluvial fan in the eastern Himalayan piedmont area between the Mal River and the Murti River. Two distinct E-Wlineaments passing through this area had been identified by Nakata (1972, 1989) as active faults. The northern lineament manifested as Matiali scarp and the southern one manifested as Chalsa scarp represent the ramp anticlines over two blind faults, probably the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT), respectively. The fan surface is folded into two antiforms with a synform in between. These folds are interpreted as fault propagation folds over the two north dipping blind thrusts. Two lineaments trending NNE-SSW and nearly N-S, respectively, are identified, and parts of present day courses of the Murti and Neora Rivers follow them. These lineaments are named as Murti and Neora lineaments and are interpreted to represent a conjugate set of normal faults. The rivers have changed their courses by the influence of these normal faults along the Murti and Neora lineaments and their profiles show knick points where they cross E-W thrusts. The overall drainage pattern is changed from radial pattern in north of the Matiali scarp to a subparallel one in south due to these conjugate normal faults. The interfluve area between these two rivers is uplifted as a result of vertical movements on the above mentioned faults. Four major terraces and some minor terraces are present along the major river valleys and these are formed due to episodic upliftment of the ground and subsequent down-cutting of the rivers. The uppermost terrace shows a northerly slope north of the Chalsa scarp as a result of folding mentioned above. But rivers on this terrace form incised channels keeping their flow southerly suggesting that they are antecedent to the folding and their downcutting kept pace with the tectonism.

  20. Failures and complications of thoracic drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Thoracic drainage is a surgical procedure for introducing a drain into the pleural space to drain its contents. Using this method, the pleura is discharged and set to the physiological state which enables the reexpansion of the lungs. The aim of the study was to prove that the use of modern principles and protocols of thoracic drainage significantly reduces the occurrence of failures and complications, rendering the treatment more efficient. Methods. The study included 967 patients treated by thoracic drainage within the period from January 1, 1989 to June 1, 2000. The studied patients were divided into 2 groups: group A of 463 patients treated in the period from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 1994 in whom 386 pleural drainage (83.36% were performed, and group B of 602 patients treated form January 1, 1995 to June 1, 2000 in whom 581 pleural drainage (96.51% were performed. The patients of the group A were drained using the classical standards of thoracic drainage by the general surgeons. The patients of the group B, however, were drained using the modern standards of thoracic drainage by the thoracic surgeons, and the general surgeons trained for this kind of the surgery. Results. The study showed that better results were achieved in the treatment of the patients from the group B. The total incidence of the failures and complications of thoracic drainage decreased from 36.52% (group A to 12.73% (group B. The mean length of hospitalization of the patients without complications in the group A was 19.5 days versus 10 days in the group B. The mean length of the treatment of the patients with failures and complications of the drainage in the group A was 33.5 days versus 17.5 days in the group B. Conclusion. The shorter length of hospitalization and the lower morbidity of the studied patients were considered to be the result of the correct treatment using modern principles of thoracic drainage, a suitable surgical technique, and a

  1. An external focus of attention is a conditio sine qua non for athletes: a response to Carson, Collins, and Toner (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Gabriele

    2016-07-01

    In this invited response to a Letter to the Editor by Carson, Collins, and Toner (2015), I comment on various issues raised by the authors. I highlight the broad range of tasks and dependent measures used in studies comparing the effectiveness of external versus internal foci of attention. These studies - many of which involved sport skills - have consistently found performance or learning benefits when an external focus was adopted. There is no convincing evidence that performers' preferences, or their familiarity with a certain focus, have a moderating effect. Anecdotal evidence reported by coaches who have compared the two types of foci is consistent with research findings. An external focus presumably promotes functional connectivity and contributes to goal-action coupling. PMID:26824886

  2. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Andreas; Vilmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic pseudocysts are fluid collections in the peripancreatic tissues associated with acute or chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage has become an established indication, having better results as compared to percutaneous drainage, nonguided endoscopic drainage, or surgical drainage. The aim of this review is to assess critically the current literature concerning EUS-guided pseudocyst drainage and to review the place of the procedure in the clinical decision management algorithms of these patients. PMID:26643700

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts

    OpenAIRE

    Săftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Andreas; Vilmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic pseudocysts are fluid collections in the peripancreatic tissues associated with acute or chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage has become an established indication, having better results as compared to percutaneous drainage, nonguided endoscopic drainage, or surgical drainage. The aim of this review is to assess critically the current literature concerning EUS-guided pseudocyst drainage and to review the place of the procedure in the clinical decision ma...

  4. Automated reconstruction of drainage basins and water discharge to the sea through glacial cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickert, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Over glacial cycles, ice masses and their geophysical impacts on surface topography dramatically changed drainage patterns and river discharges. These changes impacted meltwater discharge to the ocean, geomorphology, and climate. As the river systems'the threads that tied the ice sheets to the sea'were stretched, severed, and rearranged during deglaciation, they also shrank and swelled with the pulse of meltwater inputs and proglacial lake dynamics. Here I present a general method to compute past river flow paths, drainage basin geometries, and river discharges. I automate these calculations within GRASS GIS to take advantage of rapid solution techniques for drainage networks in an open-source and compute-cluster-ready environment. I combine modern topography and bathymetry with ice sheet reconstructions from the last glacial cycle and a global glacial isostatic adjustment model to build digital elevation models of the past Earth surface. I then sum ice sheet mass balance with computed precipitation and evapotranspiration from a paleoclimate general circulation model to produce grids of water input. I combine these topographic and hydrologic inputs to compute past river networks and discharges through time. These paleodrainage reconstructions connect ice sheets, sea level, and climate models to fluvial systems, which in turn generate measurable terrace and sedimentary records as they carry physical, compositional, and isotopic signatures of ice sheet melt and landscape change through their channels and to the sea. Therefore, this work provides a self-consistent paleogeographic framework within which models and geologic records may be quantitatively compared to build new insights into past glacial systems.

  5. Nonlinear analysis of drainage systems to examine surface deformation: an example from Potwar Plateau (Northern Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shahzad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We devise a procedure in order to characterize the relative vulnerability of the Earth's surface to tectonic deformation using the geometrical characteristics of drainage systems. The present study focuses on the nonlinear analysis of drainage networks extracted from Digital Elevation Models in order to localize areas strongly influenced by tectonics. We test this approach on the Potwar Plateau in northern Pakistan. This area is regularly affected by damaging earthquakes. Conventional studies cannot pinpoint the zones at risk, as the whole region is characterized by a sparse and diffuse seismicity. Our approach is based on the fact that rivers tend to linearize under tectonic forcing. Thus, the low fractal dimensions of the Swan, Indus and Jehlum Rivers are attributed to neotectonic activity. A detailed textural analysis is carried out to investigate the linearization, heterogeneity and connectivity of the drainage patterns. These textural aspects are quantified using the fractal dimension, as well as lacunarity and succolarity analysis. These three methods are complimentary in nature, i.e. objects with similar fractal dimensions can be distinguished further with lacunarity and/or succolarity analysis. We generate maps of fractal dimensions, lacunarity and succolarity values using a sliding window of 2.5 arc minutes by 2.5 arc minutes (2.5'×2.5'. These maps are then interpreted in terms of land surface vulnerability to tectonics. This approach allowed us to localize several zones where the drainage system is highly structurally controlled on the Potwar Plateau. The region located between Muree and Muzaffarabad is found to be prone to destructive events whereas the area westward from the Indus seems relatively unaffected. We conclude that a nonlinear analysis of the drainage system is an efficient additional tool to locate areas likely to be affected by massive destructing events affecting the Earth's surface and therefore threaten human

  6. Location of Agricultural Drainage Pipes and Assessment of Agricultural Drainage Pipe Conditions Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods are needed to not only locate buried agricultural drainage pipe, but to also determine if the pipes are functioning properly with respect to water delivery. The primary focus of this research project was to confirm the ability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) to locate buried drainage pipe ...

  7. [Appropriate Biliary Drainage Methods for Unresectable Cholangiocarcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Tatsurou; Kanemoto, Yoshiaki; Yoshioka, Yuuta; Sawada, Ryuuichirou; Sekine, Sachi; Miyanaga, Hiroto; Sakahira, Hideki; Takahashi, Hironori; Miyamoto, Katsufumi; Koyama, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the efficacy of different biliary drainage methods for the treatment of unresectable cholangiocarcinomas. We performed a retrospective study of 28 patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinomas who underwent biliary drainage at our hospital between January 2008 and June 2014 to compare the incidence of post-drainage stent dysfunction (SD) and reintervention (RI) for SD according to primary drainage method, lesion site, and complication status (the presence or absence of cholangitis). The duration of stent patency was compared between the different stent types. No significant differences in the incidence of SD and RI were found according to primary drainage methods, lesion site, or the presence or absence of cholangitis. The mean durations of stent patency for plastic and metal stents were 2.7 months and 7.4 months, respectively, suggesting that metal stents should be selected when the estimated prognosis is ≥2 months. Furthermore, metal stent placement, rather than the additional placement of plastic stents, should be considered a feasible option in cases of SD. PMID:26805093

  8. Phylogeographic Analysis of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii Reveals an Association with North American Freshwater Drainage Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart, Lisa R; Brown, Elizabeth M; Richardson, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii are dimorphic fungal pathogens that cause serious pulmonary and systemic infections in humans. Although their natural habitat is in the environment, little is known about their specific ecologic niche(s). Here, we analyzed 25 microsatellite loci from 169 strains collected from various regions throughout their known endemic range in North America, representing the largest and most geographically diverse collection of isolates studied to date. Genetic analysis of multilocus microsatellite data divided the strains into four populations of B. dermatitidis and four populations of B. gilchristii. B. dermatitidis isolates were recovered from areas throughout North America, while the B. gilchristii strains were restricted to Canada and some northern US states. Furthermore, the populations of both species were associated with major freshwater drainage basins. The four B. dermatitidis populations were partitioned among (1) the Nelson River drainage basin, (2) the St. Lawrence River and northeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins, (3) the Mississippi River System drainage basin, and (4) the Gulf of Mexico Seaboard and southeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins. A similar partitioning of the B. gilchristii populations was observed among the more northerly drainage basins only. These associations suggest that the ecologic niche where the sexual reproduction, growth, and dispersal of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii occur is intimately linked to freshwater systems. For most populations, sexual reproduction was rare enough to produce significant linkage disequilibrium among loci but frequent enough that mating-type idiomorphic ratios were not skewed from 1:1. Furthermore, the evolutionary divergence of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii was estimated at 1.9 MYA during the Pleistocene epoch. We suggest that repeated glaciations during the Pleistocene period and resulting biotic refugia may have provided the

  9. Phylogeographic Analysis of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii Reveals an Association with North American Freshwater Drainage Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart, Lisa R.; Brown, Elizabeth M.; Richardson, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii are dimorphic fungal pathogens that cause serious pulmonary and systemic infections in humans. Although their natural habitat is in the environment, little is known about their specific ecologic niche(s). Here, we analyzed 25 microsatellite loci from 169 strains collected from various regions throughout their known endemic range in North America, representing the largest and most geographically diverse collection of isolates studied to date. Genetic analysis of multilocus microsatellite data divided the strains into four populations of B. dermatitidis and four populations of B. gilchristii. B. dermatitidis isolates were recovered from areas throughout North America, while the B. gilchristii strains were restricted to Canada and some northern US states. Furthermore, the populations of both species were associated with major freshwater drainage basins. The four B. dermatitidis populations were partitioned among (1) the Nelson River drainage basin, (2) the St. Lawrence River and northeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins, (3) the Mississippi River System drainage basin, and (4) the Gulf of Mexico Seaboard and southeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins. A similar partitioning of the B. gilchristii populations was observed among the more northerly drainage basins only. These associations suggest that the ecologic niche where the sexual reproduction, growth, and dispersal of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii occur is intimately linked to freshwater systems. For most populations, sexual reproduction was rare enough to produce significant linkage disequilibrium among loci but frequent enough that mating-type idiomorphic ratios were not skewed from 1:1. Furthermore, the evolutionary divergence of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii was estimated at 1.9 MYA during the Pleistocene epoch. We suggest that repeated glaciations during the Pleistocene period and resulting biotic refugia may have provided the

  10. Groundwater Resources of the Virgin River Basin in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Clyde, Calvin G.

    1987-01-01

    The Division of Water Resources is conducting a study of further water development in the Virgin River Basin. This report examines the effects of groundwater development as a part of the overall study. The study area includes about 1000 square miles in the Central Virgin River Basin east of the Hurricane Fault. The deeply incised Virgin River has cut a youthful drainage network with deep canyons and steep escarpm...

  11. Mine Drainage and Oil Sand Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xinchao; Wolfe, F Andrew; Li, Yanjun

    2015-10-01

    Mine drainage from the mining of mineral resources (coal, metals, oil sand, or industrial minerals) remains as a persistent environmental problem. This review summarizes the scientific literature published in 2014 on the technical issues related to mine drainage or mine water in active and abandoned coal/hard rock mining sites or waste spoil piles. Also included in this review is the water from oil sand operations. This review is divided into the four sections: 1) mine drainage characterization, 2) prediction and environmental impact, 3) treatment technologies, 4) oil sand water. Many papers presented in this review address more than one aspect and different sections should not be regarded as being mutuallyexclusive or all-inclusive. PMID:26420092

  12. Organochlorine pesticides in fishes and sediments from the Tensas River Basin, Lousiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aquatic habitats of the Tensas River Basin in northeastern Louisiana have been heavily impacted by sediment and agrichemical runoff due to intensive drainage,...

  13. Environmental contaminants in fish and wildlife of the Lower Gila River, Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Levels and potential effects of pesticides and metals on fish and wildlife of the lower Gila River and associated agricultural drainage canals in Maricopa County,...

  14. Trace elements and organic compounds in the Spring River Basin of southeastern Kansas in 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We sampled sediments and aquatic biota at five locations in the Spring River drainage in southeastern Kansas. The samples were analyzed for metals, organochlorine...

  15. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in 107 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage has played a major role in treatment of patients of patients with biliary tract disease, especially obstruction by malignant disease. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was performed 128 times in 107 patients of obstructive jaundice for recent 2 years and 8 months from July, 1981 to March, 1984 at department of radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1) The male to female ratio was 2:1 and the age ranged from 19 to 88 with average of 54/ 2) The causes of obstructive jaundice included 94 malignant diseases and 13 benign diseases. Malignant diseases were 48 cases of bile duct cancer, 20 cases of metastasis, 20 cases of pancreatic cancer, 4 cases of gallbladder cancer, 1 case of ampulla Vater cancer, and 1 case of duodenal cancer. Benign diseases were 8 cases of common bile duct stone and 3 cases of benign stricture and 2 cases of cholangitis. 3) The most common indication was palliative drainage of obstruction secondary to malignant tumor in 78 cases. 4) The overall success rate was 93.7%. Internal drainage was achieved in 34 (26.5%) and external drainage was accomplished in 86 (67.2%). 5) Decline in serum bilirubin level was found in 100 cases (93.3%) with the most rapid decline within 1 week after the procedure. 6) Acute major complication occurred in 6 of 107 cases (5.6%). Percutaneous transheaptic biliary drainage is a proven technique for non-operative biliary decompression and established alternative to surgery

  16. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in 107 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn; Lim, Duk; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-06-15

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage has played a major role in treatment of patients of patients with biliary tract disease, especially obstruction by malignant disease. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was performed 128 times in 107 patients of obstructive jaundice for recent 2 years and 8 months from July, 1981 to March, 1984 at department of radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1) The male to female ratio was 2:1 and the age ranged from 19 to 88 with average of 54/ 2) The causes of obstructive jaundice included 94 malignant diseases and 13 benign diseases. Malignant diseases were 48 cases of bile duct cancer, 20 cases of metastasis, 20 cases of pancreatic cancer, 4 cases of gallbladder cancer, 1 case of ampulla Vater cancer, and 1 case of duodenal cancer. Benign diseases were 8 cases of common bile duct stone and 3 cases of benign stricture and 2 cases of cholangitis. 3) The most common indication was palliative drainage of obstruction secondary to malignant tumor in 78 cases. 4) The overall success rate was 93.7%. Internal drainage was achieved in 34 (26.5%) and external drainage was accomplished in 86 (67.2%). 5) Decline in serum bilirubin level was found in 100 cases (93.3%) with the most rapid decline within 1 week after the procedure. 6) Acute major complication occurred in 6 of 107 cases (5.6%). Percutaneous transheaptic biliary drainage is a proven technique for non-operative biliary decompression and established alternative to surgery.

  17. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage for hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of PTBD in treating malignant biliary obstruction caused by hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 103 patients(M:62,F:41)with malignant obstructive jaundice caused by hilar cholangiocarcinoma. After taking percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, metallic stent or plastic external catheter or external-internal catheter for drainage was deployed and then followed up was undertaken with clinical and radiographic evaluation and laboratory. examination. Results: All patients went though PTBD successfully (100%). According to Bismuth classification, all 103 cases consisted of I type(N=30), II type (N=30), III type (N=26) and IV type (N=17). Thirty-nine cases were placed with 47 stents and 64 eases with drainage tubes. 4 cases installed two stems for bilateral drainage, 2 cases installed two stents because of long segmental strictures with stent in stent, 1 case was placed with three stents, and 3 cases installed stent and plastic catheter together. Sixty-four cases received plastic catheters in this series, 35 cases installed two or more catheters for bilateral drainage, 28 cases installed external and internal drainage catheters, 12 eases installed external drainage catheters, and 24 eases installed both of them. There were 17 patients involving incorporative infection before procedure, 13 cases cured after procedure, and 15 new patients got inflammation after procedure. 13 cases showed increase of amylase (from May, 2004), 8 eases had bloody bile drainage and 1 case with pyloric obstruction. Total serum bilirubin reduced from (386 ± 162) μmol/L to (161 ± 117) μmol/L, (P<0.01) short term curative effect was related with the type of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The survival time was 186 days(median), and 1, 3, 6, 12 month survival rate were 89.9%, 75.3%, 59.6%, 16.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Percutaneous transhepatic bile drainage is a safe and effective palliative therapy of malignant

  18. Percutaneous catheter drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of CT/US-guided percutaneous drainage in 35 patients with pancreatic pseudocysts are reported. 27 patients recovered without surgery and no further treatment was required. 8 patients required a subsequent surgery due to recurrence. The role of CT/US-guided percutaneous drainage in pancreatic pseudocysts as well as an analysis of the technical aspects associated with a successful procedure are discussed. Although US may be used, we believe CT is safer and allows more precise localisation and guidance in the treatment of pseudocysts. (orig.)

  19. A test for the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two different hatcheries (Study site: Warm Springs Hatchery; Stocks: Warm Springs Hatchery and Carson Hatchery; Year class: 1993): Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Stenberg, Karl D.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was undertaken to determine the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared in a common environment, as a companion study to our investigation of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon. Pure-strain and reciprocal crosses were made between two hatchery stocks (Carson and Warm Springs National Fish Hatcheries). The offspring were reared together in one of the hatcheries to the smolt stage, and then were transferred to a seawater rearing facility (USGS-Marrowstone Field Station). Differences in survival, growth and disease prevalence were assessed. Fish with Carson parentage grew to greater size at the hatchery and in seawater than the pure-strain Warm Springs fish, but showed higher mortality at introduction to seawater. The analyses of maternal and stock effects were inconclusive, but the theoretical responses to different combinations of maternal and stock effects may be useful in interpreting stock comparison studies.

  20. Re-engineering the urban drainage system for resource recovery and protection of drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, B

    2000-01-01

    The Harare metropolis in Zimbabwe, extending upstream from Manyame Dam in the Upper Manyame River Basin, consists of the City of Harare and its satellite towns: Chitungwiza, Norton, Epworth and Ruwa. The existing urban drainage system is typically a single-use-mixing system: water is used and discharged to "waste", excreta are flushed to sewers and eventually, after "treatment", the effluent is discharged to a drinking water supply source. Polluted urban storm water is evacuated as fast as possible. This system not only ignores the substantial value in "waste" materials, but it also exports problems to downstream communities and to vulnerable fresh-water sources. The question is how can the harare metropolis urban drainage system, which is complex and has evolved over time, be rearranged to achieve sustainability (i.e. water conservation, pollution prevention at source, protection of the vulnerable drinking water sources and recovery of valuable materials)? This paper reviews current concepts regarding the future development of the urban drainage system in line with the new vision of "Sustainable Cities of the Future". The Harare Metropolis in Zimbabwe is taken as a case, and philosophical options for re-engineering the drainage system are discussed. PMID:10842788

  1. Uranium in acidic mine drainage at the former Ogoya Mine in Ishikawa Prefecture of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium in acidic mine drainage from the former Ogoya Mine in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, and in neutral surface waters from its surrounding rivers was investigated from the viewpoint of radioactive disequilibrium in the uranium decay series. Water samples were periodically collected from the mine pithead and its surrounding rivers and their U isotopes (238U and 234U) were measured together with chemical components. The 238U concentrations in the water samples varied widely from 0.0036 to 0.78 mBq/L with a factor of about 200. High 238U concentrations were observed in the strongly acidic drainage (pH: around 3.5) from the pithead and the 234U/238U activity ratios showed significant values of as high as 10-15. By taking into account of the measurement of Th isotopes, it appeared that probable processes controlling the high 234U/238U activity ratios in acidic mine drainage were due to that the acidic water flowing from the mine pithead was formed only in the upper water layer of the pits and 234U was preferentially leached in the deeper underground water under the neutral and reducing conditions. (author)

  2. Curonian Lagoon drainage basin modelling and assessment of climate change impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja Čerkasova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Curonian Lagoon, which is the largest European coastal lagoon with a surface area of 1578 km2 and a drainage area of 100,458 km2, is facing a severe eutrophication problem. With its increasing water management difficulties, the need for a sophisticated hydrological model of the Curonian Lagoon's drainage area arose, in order to assess possible changes resulting from local and global processes. In this study, we developed and calibrated a sophisticated hydrological model with the required accuracy, as an initial step for the future development of a modelling framework that aims to correctly predict the movement of pesticides, sediments or nutrients, and to evaluate water-management practices. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to implement a model of the study area and to assess the impact of climate-change scenarios on the run-off of the Nemunas River and the Minija River, which are located in the Curonian Lagoons drainage basin. The models calibration and validation were performed using monthly streamflow data, and evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2 and the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE. The calculated values of the R2 and NSE for the Nemunas and Minija Rivers stations were 0.81 and 0.79 for the calibration, and 0.679 and 0.602 for the validation period. Two potential climate-change scenarios were developed within the general patterns of near-term climate projections, as defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report: both pessimistic (substantial changes in precipitation and temperature and optimistic (insubstantial changes in precipitation and temperature. Both simulations produce similar general patterns in river-discharge change: a strong increase (up to 22% in the winter months, especially in February, a decrease during the spring (up to 10% and summer (up to 18%, and a slight increase during the autumn (up to 10%.

  3. Agricultural pesticides in six drainage basins used for public water supply in New Jersey, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivahnenko, Tamara; Buxton, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    A reconnaissance study of six drainage basins in New Jersey was conducted to evaluate the presence of pesticides from agricultural runoff in surface water. In the first phase of the study, surface-water public-supply drainage basins throughout New Jersey that could be affected by pesticide applications were identified by use of a Geographic Information System. Six basins--Lower Mine Hill Reservoir, South Branch of the Raritan River, Main Branch of the Raritan River, Millstone River, Manasquan River, and Matchaponix Brook--were selected as those most likely to be affected by pesticides on the basis of calculated pesticide-application rates and percentage of agricultural land. The second phase of the project was a short-term water-quality reconnaissance of the six drainage basins to determine whether pesticides were present in the surface waters. Twenty-eight surface-water samples (22 water-quality samples, 3 sequentially collected samples, and 3 trip blanks), and 6 samples from water-treatment facilities were collected. Excluding trip blanks, samples from water-treatment facilities, and sequentially collected samples, the pesticides detected in the samples and the percentage of samples in which they were detected, were as follows: atrazine and metolachlor, 86 percent; alachlor, 55 percent; simazine, 45 percent; diazinon, 27 percent; cyanazine and carbaryl, 23 percent; linuron and isophenfos, 9 percent; and chlorpyrifos, 5 percent.Diazinon, detected in one stormflow sample collected from Matchaponix Brook on August 6, 1990, was the only compound to exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended Lifetime Health Advisory Limit. Correlation between ranked metolachlor concentrations and ranked flow rates was high, and 25 percent of the variance in metolachlor concentrations can be attributed to variations in flow rate. Pesticide residues were detected in samples of pretreated and treated water from water-treatment facilities. Concentrations of all

  4. Geomorphological analysis of the drainage system on the active convergent system in Azerbaijan, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh Firouz, Amaneh; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Giachetta, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    Rivers are important landforms to reconstruct recent tectonic history because they are sensitive to surface movements, especially uplift and tilting. The most important drainage basins of NW Iran are, from north to south, the Arax River, the Urmia Lake and the Ghezel Ozan River catchment. The morphology of the two adjacent catchments draining into the Caspian Sea, the Arax and Ghezel Ozan were studied to better understand the active tectonics and the effect of fault activity on morphology and erosion rate of NW Iran. We performed a quantitative analysis of channel steepness and concavity, from slope-area plots calculated from digital elevation model. This information has been combined with GPS velocity vectors and seismicity. Both catchments developed under uniform climate conditions. Results show that the two rivers are in morphological disequilibrium; they exhibit profiles with prominent convexities and knickpoints. The Arax River shows higher channel steepness and concavity index in downstream part of the profile. Distribution of knickpoints show scattered elevation between 700m and 3000m. GPS rates display shortening 10 ± 2 mma‑1 and 14 ± 2 mma‑1 in upstream and downstream, respectively. The river profiles of Ghezel Ozan River and its tributaries reveal more disequilibrium downstream where channel steepness and concavity index are higher than upstream. Most knickpoints occur between 1000m and 2000m. The amount of shortening by GPS measurement changes from upstream 13 ± 2 mma‑1to downstream 14 ± 2 mma‑1. Recorded earthquakes, such as Rudbar earthquake (Mw=7.3, 1990), are more frequent downstream. The Urmia Lake is surrounded by many small and large catchments. Only major catchments were considered for the analysis. One of the most active faults, the north Tabriz fault, corresponds to a major knickpoints on the Talkhe rud River. Concordance between river profile analysis, GPS and seismotectonic records suggests that the characteristics of the river

  5. An empirical test of freshwater vicariance via river capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Christopher P; Craw, Dave; Waters, Jonathan M

    2007-05-01

    River capture is a geomorphological process through which stream sections are displaced from one catchment to another, and it may represent a dominant facilitator of interdrainage transfer and cladogenesis in freshwater-limited taxa. However, few studies have been conducted in a manner to explicitly test the biological significance of river capture. Here we present a multispecies phylogeographical analysis to test whether the nonmigratory fish fauna of the Von River (South Island, New Zealand) is the product of a well-documented, Late Quaternary capture of a section of the Oreti River (Southland drainage). Specifically, we predict that nonmigratory fishes of the Von River will exhibit closer genetic affinities with those of Southland, rather than those of the Clutha system, into which the Von River presently drains. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography (control region and cytochrome b sequence data) and analysis of nuclear orthologues of mtDNA sequences indicate that 'flathead'Galaxias of the Von River (n = 31, three sites) have greatest genetic affinities with those of Southland (Galaxias 'southern', n = 216, 38 sites), rather than with those of the Clutha River (Galaxias sp. 'D', n = 73, 32 sites). Likewise, Von River 'roundhead'Galaxias (n = 52, four sites) have greatest genetic affinities with those of Southland drainages (Galaxias gollumoides, n = 223, 58 sites), rather than with those of the Clutha River (Galaxias pullus, Galaxias anomalus, Galaxias gollumoides of the Nevis tributary; n = 68, 32 sites). These findings are consistent with our predictions that genetic affinities of the nonmigratory fish fauna in the Von River would reflect past, rather than present, drainage connections. Consequently, river capture is responsible for the nonmigratory fish fauna of the Von River. In a broader context, river capture has frequently influenced the distribution of genetic lineages among catchments in New Zealand freshwater-limited fish, and its biogeographical

  6. Habitat Selection and Reproductive Success of White-faced Ibis in the Carson River Basin, Nevada: Final Progress Report for the 1996 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Great Basin White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi) population is listed under category 2 of the Endangered Species Act because of its dependence on closed, isolated,...

  7. Transanal Endoscopic Drainage of Abdominopelvic Sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Maher A; Falls, Garietta

    2008-01-01

    Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) is an evolving experimental field exploring the technical feasibility and outcome of therapeutic interventions performed through the natural orifices of the body. The knowledge accumulating in NOTES is the result of animal experimentation and ongoing early clinical experience in humans. In this report we describe a patient treated with transanal endoscopic drainage of postoperative abdominopelvic sepsis.

  8. Drainage hydraulics of permeable friction courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbeneau, Randall J.; Barrett, Michael E.

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes solutions to the hydraulic equations that govern flow in permeable friction courses (PFC). PFC is a layer of porous asphalt approximately 50 mm thick that is placed as an overlay on top of an existing conventional concrete or asphalt road surface to help control splash and hydroplaning, reduce noise, and enhance quality of storm water runoff. The primary objective of this manuscript is to present an analytical system of equations that can be used in design and analysis of PFC systems. The primary assumptions used in this analysis are that the flow can be modeled as one-dimensional, steady state Darcy-type flow and that slopes are sufficiently small so that the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumptions apply. Solutions are derived for cases where storm water drainage is confined to the PFC bed and for conditions where the PFC drainage capacity is exceeded and ponded sheet flow occurs across the pavement surface. The mathematical solutions provide the drainage characteristics (depth and residence time) as a function of rainfall intensity, PFC hydraulic conductivity, pavement slope, and maximum drainage path length.

  9. FISH HABITATS IMPACTED BY ACIDIC MINE DRAINAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data set represents in-stream fish spawning and hatching areas that have been impacted by elevated acid content waters discharging from areas near mining activities. It is based on an EPA fisheries survey completed in 1995. Acid Mine Drainage, or AMD, occurs when water co...

  10. GROUNDWATER IMPACTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The generation and release of acidic, metal-rich water from mine wastes continues to be an intractable environmental problem. Although the effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) are most evident in surface waters, there is an obvious need for developing cost-effective approaches fo...

  11. SODA ASH TREATMENT OF NEUTRALIZED MINE DRAINAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilization of acid mine drainage (AMD) streams as a source of potable and industrial water has become a major goal of several proposed AMD treatment schemes. From among the various schemes available, the lime neutralization/soda ash softening process was selected for use at Alto...

  12. The results of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant reduction in serum bilirubin levels was obtained in 90.7% of 75 patients on whom percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage had been carried out, either immediately before operation or as a prolonged palliative procedure. The technical requirements, complications, mortality rate and length of stay in hospital are less than following palliative surgery. (orig.)

  13. Reality named endoscopic ultrasound biliary drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Hugo Gonçalo; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; de Oliveira, Joel Fernandez; Artifon, Everson Luiz de Almeida

    2015-10-25

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is used for diagnosis and evaluation of many diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the past, it was used to guide a cholangiography, but nowadays it emerges as a powerful therapeutic tool in biliary drainage. The aims of this review are: outline the rationale for endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EGBD); detail the procedural technique; evaluate the clinical outcomes and limitations of the method; and provide recommendations for the practicing clinician. In cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), patients are usually referred for either percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) or surgical bypass. Both these procedures have high rates of undesirable complications. EGBD is an attractive alternative to PTBD or surgery when ERCP fails. EGBD can be performed at two locations: transhepatic or extrahepatic, and the stent can be inserted in an antegrade or retrograde fashion. The drainage route can be transluminal, duodenal or transpapillary, which, again, can be antegrade or retrograde [rendezvous (EUS-RV)]. Complications of all techniques combined include pneumoperitoneum, bleeding, bile leak/peritonitis and cholangitis. We recommend EGBD when bile duct access is not possible because of failed cannulation, altered upper GI tract anatomy, gastric outlet obstruction, a distorted ampulla or a periampullary diverticulum, as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery or radiology. PMID:26504507

  14. Results of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, K.; Steudel, A.; Baeuerle, R.; Engel, C.; Schneider, B.

    1985-06-01

    Significant reduction in serum bilirubin levels was obtained in 90.7% of 75 patients on whom percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage had been carried out, either immediately before operation or as a prolonged palliative procedure. The technical requirements, complications, mortality rate and length of stay in hospital are less than following palliative surgery.

  15. Physical modeling of transverse drainage mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, J. C.; Schmeeckle, M. W.

    2005-12-01

    Streams that incise across bedrock highlands such as anticlines, upwarps, cuestas, or horsts are termed transverse drainages. Their relevance today involves such diverse matters as highway and dam construction decisions, location of wildlife corridors, better-informed sediment budgets, and detailed studies into developmental histories of late Cenozoic landscapes. The transient conditions responsible for transverse drainage incision have been extensively studied on a case-by-case basis, and the dominate mechanisms proposed include: antecedence, superimposition, overflow, and piracy. Modeling efforts have been limited to antecedence, and such the specific erosional conditions required for transverse drainage incision, with respect to the individual mechanisms, remains poorly understood. In this study, fifteen experiments attempted to simulate the four mechanisms and constructed on a 9.15 m long, 2.1 m wide, and 0.45 m deep stream table. Experiments lasted between 50 and 220 minutes. The stream table was filled with seven tons of sediment consisting of a silt and clay (30%) and a fine to coarse sand (70%) mixture. The physical models highlighted the importance of downstream aggradation with regard to antecedent incision versus possible defeat and diversion. The overflow experiments indicate that retreating knickpoints across a basin outlet produce a high probability of downstream flooding when associated with a deep lake. Misters used in a couple of experiments illustrate a potential complication with regard to headward erosion driven piracy. Relatively level asymmetrically sloped ridges allow for the drainage divide across the ridge to retreat from headward erosion, but hindered when the ridge's apex undulates or when symmetrically sloped. Although these physical models cannot strictly simulate natural transverse drainages, the observed processes, their development over time, and resultant landforms roughly emulate their natural counterparts. Proposed originally from

  16. Effect of Cascade Reservoirs on Flood Routing in the Hongshui River, Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Kang; Fang Shenguang; Wang Shaobo; Zhang Yanyan; Zhang Wenming

    2015-01-01

    Hongshui River, with a length of 659 km and drainage area of 130,870 km2, is the upstream reach of Xijiang River, which is the dominant branch river of the Pearl River system in Southern China. There are 9 dams with a total storage capacity of 384.9×108 m3 constructed on the Hongshui River and its upstream reach Nanpan River since 1980s (the annual water discharge of Hongshui River is 696×108 m3). The water level of the 9 reservoirs is connected together, which causes the riverbed channelizin...

  17. Uplift histories from river profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, D.; Roberts, G. G.; White, N. J.; Richardson, C. N.

    2009-12-01

    Longitudinal river profiles, where elevation of a river bed is plotted as a function of distance along the river bed, contain information about uplift rate. When a region adjacent to a reference level (e.g., sea level) is uplifted, a rapid change in gradient occurs near the river mouth. The erosional process causes this change in gradient to migrate upstream. Thus a river profile is effectively a ‘tape recording’ of the uplift rate history, provided that the erosional process can be adequately parameterized. Here, we use a non-linear equation to relate the shape of a river profile, z(x), to uplift rate history, U(t). If erosion is assumed to be dominated by knickpoint retreat, an inverse model can be formulated and used to calculate uplift rate histories. Our model builds upon standard stream profile analysis, which focuses on the relationship between profile slope and drainage area. We have applied this analytical approach to river profiles from the Bié Dome, Angola. Calculated uplift rate histories agree with independent geologic estimates.

  18. The Patoka River, Indiana: An ecosystem at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ecological assessment of the Patoka River was conducted during the summer of 1992. The purpose of the study was to determine the status of the fish population along 68 sampling stations in the mainstream of the river and the watershed. The river system was subjected to various forms of man-made alterations including acid mine drainage, agricultural runoff, oil film drainage from oil drilling operations, feed lot runoff, domestic sewage disposal, illegal solid waste dumping, and partial channelization. The observed effects of these alterations to the fish community depended on the dominant environmental alterations to the studied sites. In sites impacted by heavy mine drainage, the fish were absent, probably due to the high toxicity observed at the sites. Oil film drainage effects were overshadowed by the effects of the nutrient enrichment from farm and feed lot runoff. Water eutrophication effects caused higher abundance of juvenile fish at selected sites. Within the channelized portion of the river, larger individuals were collected. This was probably due to the loss of habitat for young and for small individuals along the banks of the river. The extreme effects of these environmental alterations could be decreased by initiating a series of restoration efforts in the river and the watershed

  19. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  20. Constraints on the events surrounding the drainage of glacial Lake Ojibway based on James Bay Lowlands sedimentary sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, M.; Dell'Oste, F.; Parent, M.; Veillette, J.

    2009-12-01

    Deglaciation of the James Bay region was closely related to the development of glacial Lake Ojibway. The northward retreat of the margin of the Laurentide sheet in this region was punctuated by at least three late-glacial (Cochrane) readvances into the Lake Ojibway basin, which occurred around late deglaciation time, shortly before the abrupt and final drainage of Lake Ojibway and concomitant incursion of the post-glacial Tyrrell Sea ~8 ka. Although paleogeographic reconstructions have traditionally portrayed the drainage of the lake occurring through the collapse of the residual ice mass, recent glaciological modeling suggests an alternative mechanism centered on subglacial flood(s). These glaciological considerations suggest that more than one drainage event may have occurred, possibly through different drainage pathways. Here we focus on the events that surround the drainage of Lake Ojibway by documenting late-glacial and Holocene stratigraphic sequences exposed along the Harricana, Nottaway, Broadback, and Rupert rivers in the James Bay lowlands, a region that lies near the final resting position of the ice margin during deglaciation. Our investigations indicate that the deglacial sequence consists of a carbonate-bearing readvance till, extensive Ojibway varves, and thick marine sediments. The contact between the glaciolacustrine and glaciomarine sediments is marked by a 50 cm-thick horizon composed of thinly laminated reddish and grey silt beds containing abundant rounded clay balls and disseminated clasts. This horizon is interpreted to reflect the abrupt drainage of Lake Ojibway. Radiocarbon dating of mollusks and foraminifers extracted from the uppermost part of the drainage horizon yielded ages of 7.64 and 8.02 14C ka BP. Micropaleontological examinations of the upper varve sequence revealed the presence of freshwater ostracods (Candona sp.), along with foraminifers. Stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) analyses on ostracods and foraminifers originating from

  1. Chemical evolution of coal mine drainage in a non-acid producing environment, Wasatch Plateau, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, A. L.; Petersen, E. C.; Kravits, C.

    2000-09-01

    The causes and problems of coal mine drainage, particularly acid mine drainage, in the Eastern and Interior Coal Provinces of the United States are well documented. West of the Mississippi River, where coal mines account for about 45% of total US coal production and where acid mine drainage is rare, the chemical evolution of coal mine drainage is less well documented and understood. In this investigation, we have used solute and isotopic compositions of non-evolved inflow groundwater and evolved mine discharge water to quantify the chemical evolution of mine discharge water in a western underground coal mine. Water enters the mine from fractures and roof bolt holes, which intercept groundwater in the overlying rock. Carbon-14, and 3H data indicate that these waters recharged between 12,000 and 19,500 years ago. The TDS and solute compositions of roof drip waters are spatially zoned and TDS concentrations range from about 300 to 550 mg l -1. After the water encounters minerals and other substances in the mine, the chemical differences between various mine regions become more pronounced and the TDS of mine drainage water increases to about 850 mg l -1. The TDS of mine drainage is related to water-rock ratios. Mine drainage issuing from the older mined areas, where water-rock ratios are low, has the greatest TDS. Geochemical and isotopic mass balance calculations were performed to quantify chemical reactions in the mine, and to identify sources contributing to the TDS of mine drainage. Chemical reaction pathways evaluated include pyrite oxidation, dissolution of native and rock dust gypsum, dissolution of calcite and dolomite, precipitation of calcite, ion exchange, precipitation of iron hydroxide, and organic decomposition of mining machine emulsion fluid. Solute and isotopic mass transfer reaction calculations demonstrate that the oxidation of pyrite triggers a series of cascading in-mine chemical reactions that are the primary cause of the elevated TDS of mine

  2. Drainage filter technologies to mitigate site-specific phosphorus losses in agricultural drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Canga, Eriona;

    drainage. The Danish “SUPREME-TECH” project (2010-2016) (www.supreme-tech.dk) aims at providing the scientific basis for developing cost-effective filter technologies for P in agricultural drainage waters. The project studies different approaches of implementing filter technologies including drainage well......Losses of phosphorus (P) in drainage waters contribute an estimated 33% to the total agricultural P load in Denmark. Mitigating agricultural P losses is challenging, as critical P losses comprise only a very small fraction of actual soil P contents and are not directly related to fertilizer P input...... environmental threshold values (<0.05 mg P L-1) at variable P loads and flow regimes. Intragranular diffusion made a substantial contribution to P retention and was an important filter material property. During long-term P-loading the sensitivity of flow-rate on P retention increased and further indicated the...

  3. River flooding due to intense precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    River stage can rise and cause site flooding due to local intense precipitation (LIP), dam failures, snow melt in conjunction with precipitation or dam failures, etc. As part of the re-evaluation of the design basis as well as the PRA analysis of other external events, the likelihood and consequence of river flooding leading to the site flooding need to be examined more rigorously. To evaluate the effects of intense precipitation on site structures, the site watershed hydrology and pond storage are calculated. To determine if river flooding can cause damage to risk-significant systems, structures, and components (SSC), water surface elevations are analyzed. Typically, the amount and rate of the input water is determined first. For intense precipitation, the fraction of the rainfall in the watershed drainage area not infiltrated into the ground is collected in the river and contributes to the rise of river water elevation. For design basis analysis, the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) is evaluated using the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) based on the site topography/configuration. The peak runoff flow rate and water surface elevations resulting from the precipitation induced flooding can then be estimated. The runoff flow hydrograph and peak discharge flows can be developed using the synthetic hydrograph method. The standard step method can then be used to determine the water surface elevations along the river channel. Thus, the flood water from the local intense precipitation storm and excess runoff from the nearby river can be evaluated to calculate the water surface elevations, which can be compared with the station grade floor elevation to determine the effects of site flooding on risk-significant SSCs. The analysis needs to consider any possible diversion flow and the effects of changes to the site configurations. Typically, the analysis is performed based on conservative peak rainfall intensity and the assumptions of failure of the site drainage facilities

  4. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in malignant extrahepatic cholestasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of non-surgical percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage has been improved recently. Combined internal and external drainage of bile was enabled by manipulation of a guide wire and a drainage catheter through the stenosed or obstructed section of the extrahepatic biliary ducts. Experience have been gained concerning internal drainage of bile by percutaneous transhepatic insertion of an endoprosthesis for some years now. (orig./WU)

  5. Preoperative biliary drainage for biliary tract and ampullary carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Nagino, Masato; Takada, Tadahiro; Miyazaki, Masaru; Miyakawa, Shuichi; TSUKADA, KAZUHIRO; Kondo, Satoshi; Furuse, Junji; Saito, Hiroya; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Yoshikawa, Tatsuya; Ohta, Tetsuo; Kimura, Fumio; Ohta, Takehiro; Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Nozawa, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    We posed six clinical questions (CQ) on preoperative biliary drainage and organized all pertinent evidence regarding these questions. CQ 1. Is preoperative biliary drainage necessary for patients with jaundice? The indications for preoperative drainage for jaundiced patients are changing greatly. Many reports state that, excluding conditions such as cholangitis and liver dysfunction, biliary drainage is not necessary before pancreatoduodenectomy or less invasive surgery. However, the morbidit...

  6. Techniques of biliary drainage for acute cholangitis: Tokyo Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Takada, Tadahiro; Kawarada, Yoshifumi; Nimura, Yuji; Wada, Keita; Nagino, Masato; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Miura, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Atsushi; Yamashita, Yuichi; Hirota, Masahiko; Hirata, Koichi; Yasuda, Hideki; Kimura, Yasutoshi

    2007-01-01

    Biliary decompression and drainage done in a timely manner is the cornerstone of acute cholangitis treatment. The mortality rate of acute cholangitis was extremely high when no interventional procedures, other than open drainage, were available. At present, endoscopic drainage is the procedure of first choice, in view of its safety and effectiveness. In patients with severe (grade III) disease, defined according to the severity assessment criteria in the Guidelines, biliary drainage should be...

  7. Tropical blackwater biogeochemistry:The Siak River in Central Sumatra, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Antje

    2008-01-01

    The most studied tropical blackwater rivers are tributaries of the Orinoco and Amazon such as the Rio Negro in South America. The dark-brown colour of blackwater rivers results from high concentrations of dissolved organic matter that is leached from organic-rich soils within the river drainage basins. The catchment areas of the blackwater rivers in South America are mainly covered by mineral soils (ferralsols), which feature high contents of organic matter in the upper soil horizons. Blackwa...

  8. The macroinvertebrate fauna of pools in the floodplain (fadama) of the Anambra River, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Eyo, Joseph; Ekwonye, Uchenna

    1995-01-01

    The Anambra River is the largest tributary of the lower Niger River below Lukoja. Between the months of May and November the river is subject to seasonal flooding from heavy precipitation and land runoff into the drainage system. During the flood phase, pools form on the floodplains (known as the fadama) and these pools receive materials and biota from the main river channel. The biota often includes representatives of freshwater vertebrates (including fishes) and invertebrates. On this brief...

  9. Temporal and spatial variation in the status of acid rivers and potential prevention methods of AS soil-related leaching in peatland forestry

    OpenAIRE

    Saarinen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This thesis examines temporal and spatial variations in the status of different rivers and streams of western Finland in terms of acidity and sources of acid load derived from the catchment area. It also examines the monitoring of acid runoff water derived from maintenance drainage in peatland forestry and suggests potential mitigation methods. A total of 17 river basins of different sizes in western Finland were selected for study, including rivers affected by both drainage of...

  10. Equations for drainage component of the field water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate estimates of the drainage component of the field water balance are needed to achieve improved management of drainage in irrigated crop production systems and obtain improved estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) from soil water measurements. Estimating drainage for numerous soil and field co...

  11. Processing method for drainage-containing ethanol amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol amine is decomposed by aerobically acting Pseudomonas sp. When drainage contains hydrazine, copper sulfate and hydrogen peroxide are added to the drainage under exposed condition to remove hydrazine as a pretreatment of the decomposing step. With such procedures, ethanol amine in the drainage can be processed efficiently. (T.M.)

  12. Insights into the ancient Mississippi drainage system from detrital zircons analyses of the modern Mississippi deep-sea fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fildani, A.; McKay, M. P.; Stockli, D. F.; Clark, J. D.; Weislogel, A. L.; Dykstra, M.; Hessler, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The modern Mississippi deep-sea fan is a large-scale accumulation of Quaternary sediment deposited in the Gulf of Mexico by the modern Mississippi River via the Mississippi delta. The Mississippi River has a well-characterized drainage system extending across North America from the western Rocky Mountains to the Appalachians in the east. Deep-water sand samples of buried channel-fill and lobe deposits of the Mississippi fan from selected Sites of Leg 96 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and were integrated with USGS piston core samples from the most recent lobe for detrital zircon U-Pb isotopic analysis. Since the modern Mississippi River has a well-known catchment, the detrital zircon age 'signal' observed in the deep-water sediments can therefore be used as an actualistic study of the detrital zircon provenance signatures resulting from modern drainage patterns. Based on this approach, we compare this dataset with published data and observe minor variability in the detrital zircon signature through time. Populations sourced from the Western North American Cordillera are consistent through time in terms of ages, however Paleocene sediments are slightly enriched in Yavapai-Mazatzal zircons sourced from southwestern continental U.S.. Grenville- and Appalachian-derived zircons reflect minor variation in sediment input from the Appalachian Mountains and related deposits in the eastern Mississippi River catchment. When compared to published Upper Jurassic Norphlet formation detrital zircon data, the Paleocene published dataset and the newly acquired modern sands are partly depleted of Appalachian-derived zircons. This paucity in Appalachian age zircon in Paleocene-to-modern sediments suggests a reconfiguration of the Mississippi River drainage prior to Tertiary time. Since this realignment, the Mississippi River drainage has remained relatively unchanged. Piston core samples from the most recent lobe yielded zircons indicating a recent influx of Appalachian

  13. Drainage filter technologies to mitigate site-specific phosphorus losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Canga, Eriona; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Hansen, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    -specific nutrient losses in drainage. The “SUPREME-TECH” project (2010-2015), funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council, aims at providing the scientific basis for developing cost-effective drainage filter technologies to retain P in agricultural drainage waters. The project studies different approaches of...... implementing the drainage filter technologies including surface-flow constructed wetlands, subsurface flow constructed wetlands, and drainage well filters (www.supremetech.dk). We will present results on P retention from (i) controlled column experiments with permeable filter substrates, and (ii) a full...... on laboratory experiments and field scale monitoring, the different filter technology approaches will be compared and evaluated from a case study perspective....

  14. Bilothorax as a complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Atsushi; Yotsumoto, Takuma

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of bilothorax that occurred as a complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. In an 86-year-old woman who had undergone percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice, bilothorax occurred after accidental removal of the tube. She recovered with chest drainage only. An 83-year-old man who had undergone percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage for cholecystitis developed bilothorax with infection. He recovered with thoracoscopic curettage. Although bilothorax is a rare complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, appropriate diagnosis and prompt treatment is important, especially when bilothorax is accompanied by infection. PMID:26294694

  15. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage - an analysis on 72 cases of internal drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 72 cases of internal biliary drainage procedure has been done percutaneously at Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital for recent 4 and half years since August 1981. Five different types of internal drainage including endoprosthesis were applied to various conditions with different obstruction levels. The different method of procedure in each type of internal drainage was described and the results were analysed. 1. Among the clinical diagnosis in 72 cases, carcinoma of bile duct was in 37 cases as the most frequent one. The next was pancreas head carcinoma in 16 cases, followed by metastatic carcinoma and other diseases. 2. Type I internal drainage, classical internal and external type with distal end in duodenum, was applied in 43 cases as the most common one. Type II, modification of type I with distal end in CBD, was applied in 17 cases. Tyep III, endoprosthesis distal end into duodenum, was applied in 7 cases. Type IV, endoprosthesis just across the obstruction on bile duct, was applied in 2 cases, Type V, combined type of any internal drainage with external drainage, was applied in 3 cases. 3. According to various obstruction level, preferred type could be selected. For proximal obstruction type II and IV were preferred and for distal obstruction type III was chosen. However, type I could be applied in any situation. 4. Early complication occurred in 9 cases (12.5%). Clinical improvement with decrease in bilirubin level was observed in 17 of 21 cases in which follow-up data was available over 2 months. 5. Through the experience with those 72 cases it is recommended that appropriate type of internal biliary drainage should be selected according to prognosis, obstruction level and clinical findings of each patient.

  16. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage - an analysis on 72 cases of internal drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Chan Sup; Sung, Kyu Bo; Lee, Byung Hee; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-06-15

    A total of 72 cases of internal biliary drainage procedure has been done percutaneously at Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital for recent 4 and half years since August 1981. Five different types of internal drainage including endoprosthesis were applied to various conditions with different obstruction levels. The different method of procedure in each type of internal drainage was described and the results were analysed. 1. Among the clinical diagnosis in 72 cases, carcinoma of bile duct was in 37 cases as the most frequent one. The next was pancreas head carcinoma in 16 cases, followed by metastatic carcinoma and other diseases. 2. Type I internal drainage, classical internal and external type with distal end in duodenum, was applied in 43 cases as the most common one. Type II, modification of type I with distal end in CBD, was applied in 17 cases. Tyep III, endoprosthesis distal end into duodenum, was applied in 7 cases. Type IV, endoprosthesis just across the obstruction on bile duct, was applied in 2 cases, Type V, combined type of any internal drainage with external drainage, was applied in 3 cases. 3. According to various obstruction level, preferred type could be selected. For proximal obstruction type II and IV were preferred and for distal obstruction type III was chosen. However, type I could be applied in any situation. 4. Early complication occurred in 9 cases (12.5%). Clinical improvement with decrease in bilirubin level was observed in 17 of 21 cases in which follow-up data was available over 2 months. 5. Through the experience with those 72 cases it is recommended that appropriate type of internal biliary drainage should be selected according to prognosis, obstruction level and clinical findings of each patient.

  17. Evaluation of morphometric parameters of drainage networks derived from topographic maps and DEM in point of floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Hasan; Bird, Deanne

    2009-02-01

    An evaluation of morphometric parameters of two drainage networks derived from different sources was done to determine the influence of sub-basins to flooding on the main channel in the Havran River basin (Balıkesir-Turkey). Drainage networks for the sub-basins were derived from both topographic maps scaled 1:25.000 and a 10-m resolution digital elevation model (DEM) using geographic information systems (GIS). Blue lines, representing fluvial channels on the topographic maps were accepted as a drainage network, which does not depict all exterior links in the basin. The second drainage network was extracted from the DEM using minimum accumulation area threshold to include all exterior links. Morphometric parameters were applied to the two types of drainage networks at sub-basin levels. These parameters were used to assess the influence of the sub-basins on the main channel with respect to flooding. The results show that the drainage network of sub-basin 4—where a dam was constructed on its outlet to mitigate potential floods—has a lower influence morphometrically to produce probable floods on the main channel than that of sub-basins 1, 3, and 5. The construction of the dam will help reduce flooding on the main channel from sub-basin 4 but it will not prevent potential flooding from sub-basin 1, 3 and 5, which join the main channel downstream of sub-basin 4. Therefore, flood mitigation efforts should be considered in order to protect the settlement and agricultural lands on the floodplain downstream of the dam. In order to increase our understanding of flood hazards, and to determine appropriate mitigation solutions, drainage morphometry research should be included as an essential component to hydrologic studies.

  18. Range of drainage effect of surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozanski, J.

    1978-03-01

    This paper discusses methods of calculating the range of effects of water drainage from surface coal mines and other surface mines. It is suggested that methods based on test pumping (water drainage) are time consuming, and the results can be distorted by atmospheric factors such as rain fall or dry period. So-called empirical formulae produce results which are often incorrect. The size of a cone shaped depression calculated on the basis of empirical formulae can be ten times smaller than the size of the real depression. It is suggested that using a formula based on the Dupuit formula is superior to other methods of depression calculation. According to the derived formulae the radius of the depresion cone is a function of parameters of the water bearing horizons, size of surface mine working and of water depression. The proposed formula also takes into account the influence of atmospheric factors (water influx caused by precipitation, etc.). (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  19. Proceedings of the international land reclamation and mine drainage conference and third international conference on the abatement of acidic drainage. Volume 2: Mine drainage -- SP 06B-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 of these proceedings is divided into six sessions: Mine drainage--Case studies (5 papers); Control of mine drainage--General (6); Control of mine drainage--Dry covers (6); Mine hydrology (6); a Poster session of miscellaneous papers (24); and a section of 59 abstracts. 78 papers dealing with or applicable to coal or uranium mining have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  20. Drainage basins and channel incision on Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Aharonson, Oded; Zuber, Maria T.; Rothman, Daniel H.; Schorghofer, Norbert; Whipple, Kelin X.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements acquired by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on board the Mars Global Surveyor indicate that large drainage systems on Mars have geomorphic characteristics inconsistent with prolonged erosion by surface runoff. We find the topography has not evolved to an expected equilibrium terrain form, even in areas where runoff incision has been previously interpreted. By analogy with terrestrial examples, groundwater sapping may have played an important role in the incision. Longitudinally ...

  1. Congresverslag Urban Drainage Modelling 9 te Belgrado

    OpenAIRE

    Rombouts, P.M.M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.; Ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Pothof, I.W.M.; Langeveld, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Van 3 tot en met 7 september 2012 is de negende Urban Drainage Modelling conferentie gehouden in Belgrado, de hoofdstad van Seme. Hieronder volgt een verslag van de indrukken die zijn opgedaan in Servië en de belangrijkste, wetenschappelijke ontwikkelingen die aan de orde zijn gekomen. Het congres had een vol wetenschappelijk programma, mede doordat de organisatie ook graag de stad en het land wilde promoten.

  2. Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage Complicated by Bilothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Stephanie H.; Zangan, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is a well-established and safe technique for the management of biliary obstructions and leaks. While approach is variable based on operator preference, patient anatomy, and indications; PTBD is commonly performed via a right-sided intercostal route. With a right-sided approach, pleural complications may be encountered. The authors describe a case of a right PTBD complicated by a leak into the pleural space, with the subsequent development of b...

  3. Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage Complicated by Bilothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stephanie H; Zangan, Steven M

    2015-03-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is a well-established and safe technique for the management of biliary obstructions and leaks. While approach is variable based on operator preference, patient anatomy, and indications; PTBD is commonly performed via a right-sided intercostal route. With a right-sided approach, pleural complications may be encountered. The authors describe a case of a right PTBD complicated by a leak into the pleural space, with the subsequent development of bilothorax. PMID:27053829

  4. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage using endoprosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even in the presence of intrahepatic metastases or previous failure of biliary enteric anastomosis, patients suffering from malignant obstructive jaundice can bve given relief by biliary endoprosthesis. Mean survival time is four months. Other than with a catheter drain, spetic cholangitis is rarely observed after the insertion of an endoprosthesis. The intervention's risk will hardly be augmented by drainage of both lobes as often necessary. (orig.)

  5. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage using endoprosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golder, W.; Rupp, N.

    1986-06-01

    Even in the presence of intrahepatic metastases or previous failure of biliary enteric anastomosis, patients suffering from malignant obstructive jaundice can bve given relief by biliary endoprosthesis. Mean survival time is four months. Other than with a catheter drain, spetic cholangitis is rarely observed after the insertion of an endoprosthesis. The intervention's risk will hardly be augmented by drainage of both lobes as often necessary.

  6. Geochemical drainage survey of central Argyll, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Coats, J.S.; Tandy, B.C.; Michie, U.McL

    1982-01-01

    A reconnaissance geochemical drainage survey of 720 km2 of Dalradian outcrop in central Argyll identified base-metal anomalies in the Pyrite Zone, Ardrishaig Phyllites, Loch Tay Limestone and the Green Beds. Faulting and igneous intrusion modified the distribution of metal content within these formations. In the results of the reconnaissance survey, copper reached maxima of 170 ppm and 1454 ppm in stream sediments and panned concentrates respectively; lead 1050 ppm ...

  7. Percutaneous abscess drainage in Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the success of percutaneous, CT-guided abscess drainage (PAD) in patients with Crohn's disease. Methods: Within the last 5 years 8 patients with Crohn's disease were treated by PAD for intra-abdominal abscesses. A fistula was determined to be the cause in 4 patients. The abscesses arose spontaneously in 7 patients while one patient had a postperative abscess. We used single lumen 10F- and double lumen 12F- and 14F-catheters for drainage (duration of drainage 8-20 days). Results: In all cases the abscess was successfully drained by PAD. However, an operation-free interval of at least three months was achieved in only two patients. A healing of the fistula was not attained in any of the 4 patients with a proven fistula. No enterocutaneous fistulas arose within the course of PAD. Conclusions: PAD is also useful for patients with Crohn's disease since it improves the starting situation for the necessary operative interventions. In most cases (especially with enterogenic fistulas), however, a long-lasting therapeutic result cannot be expected. (orig.)

  8. River patterns and their meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twidale, C. R.

    2004-10-01

    Rivers are largely responsible for shaping the Earth's continental landscapes. River patterns, the spatial arrangements of channels in the landscape, are determined by slope and structure. At site and sector scale, channel morphology varies spatially and in time, but river patterns and drainage texture, or the frequency of stream lines per unit area, together determine the intricacy, or otherwise, of topography. Most river patterns evolve through natural selection. Slope induces the formation of such patterns as parallel, radial and distributary, while structure produces straight, angular, trellis and annular arrangements. Once established, patterns tend to persist. Nevertheless, at many sites the usual patterns have been disturbed and patterns that are anomalous in terms of slope and structure have been produced by diversion, tectonism, volcanism, glaciation, mass movements, and human activities; by antecedence, superimposition, inheritance or underprinting; by the persistence of deeply eroding rivers which encounter alien structures; and by climatic change. River patterns provide clues to underlying structure and to the chronology of events. They have also proved significant in the search for minerals.

  9. Treatment of severe acute pancreatitis through retroperitoneal laparoscopic drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Tang; Baolin Wang; Bing Xie; Hongming Liu; Ping Chen

    2011-01-01

    A treatment method based on drainage via retroperitoneal laparoscopy was adopted for 15 severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients to investigate the feasibility of the method.Ten patients received only drainage via retroperitoneai laparoscopy,four patients received drainage via both retroperitoneal and preperitoneal laparoscopy,and one patient received drainage via conversion to laparotomy.Thirteen patients exhibited a good drainage effect and were successfully cured without any other surgical treatment.Two patients had encapsulated effusions or pancreatic pseudocysts after surgery,but were successfully cured after lavage and B ultrasound-guided percutaneous catheter drainage.SAP treatment via retroperitoneal laparoscopic drainage is an effective surgical method,resulting in minor injury.

  10. Digital Hydrologic Cataloging-Unit Boundaries for the Powder River, Wyoming, at 1:24,000 Scale

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains hydrologic cataloging-unit boundaries for selected units within the Powder River drainage basin of Wyoming. The hydrologic unit boundaries...

  11. Drainage Analysis of the South American Landscape and its Tectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Tribaldos, Verónica; White, Nicholas J.; Roberts, Gareth G.

    2016-04-01

    The majority of studies aimed at investigating topographic growth and landscape evolution have limited spatial coverage. Frequently, spot measurements of uplift and denudation are only available, which hampers spatial resolution of the growth of regional topographic features. This limitation can be overcome by quantitatively analysing substantial, continent-wide, drainage networks. The shapes of long wavelength longitudinal river profiles appear to be mainly controlled by regional uplift and moderated by erosional processes, both of which can vary as a function of space and time. By parametrizing erosional histories, it is feasible to develop inverse models that permit spatial and temporal patterns of regional uplift to be reliably retrieved. Here, a drainage inventory for South America consisting of 1827 rivers has been inverted. River profiles were extracted from the SRTM topographic dataset and modelled using a simplified version of the stream-power law, in which erosional processes are described using a linear advective formulation. The inverse problem is then solved by seeking smooth uplift rate histories that minimize the misfit between observed and calculated river profiles using a linearized, damped, non-negative, least squares algorithm. Calibration of erosional processes is achieved by inverting the complete drainage inventory and seeking a calculated uplift history that best honours independent geological observations from the Borborema Province of northeast Brazil. This province experienced regional Cenozoic uplift. Calculated uplift rate histories for South America suggest that the bulk of its topography developed during Cenozoic times. The model suggests, for instance, that the Andean mountain chain mostly arose in late Eocene-Oligocene (i.e. 40-28 Ma) times with an increase in elevation during Miocene times (i.e. the last 20 Ma). Uplift of the Central Andean Altiplano from an elevation of ~ 1 km to its present-day height of ~ 4 km occurred within the

  12. Behaviour of U-Isotopes in an Estuary Affected by Acid Mine Drainage and Industrial Releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinto and Odiel rivers (SW of Spain) is an ecosystem of great interest that is seriously affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) from long-term mining activities (pH < 3). Additionally, a large industrial complex is located in the surroundings of this estuary and Huelva town, which includes two phosphate rock processing plants that produce about 3 millions of tons per year of a byproduct called phosphogypsum (PG) containing high U-series radionuclides concentrations. For these reasons, the estuary of Huelva is one of the most heavy metals and radionuclides polluted estuarine systems in Europe with extremely low pH.

  13. Acid drainage (AD) in nature and environmental impact of acid mine drainage (AMD) in Southern Tuscany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid drainage (AD) is a natural process occurring locally at the Earth's surface. It consists in a substantial increase of acidity of surface waters as a result of chemical reactions occurring in the atmosphere (i.e. acid rain) or involving reactive phases (i.e. pyrite) present in the percolated medium. Acidic surface waters (usually pH < 4) can be produced by oxidation of sulphides (mainly pyrite and other iron sulphides) exposed to atmospheric oxygen, while human activities, such as mining, can greatly enhance this process. Acid drainage promoted by mining activities is called acid mine drainage (AMD) and is a primary source of environmental pollution and a world-wide problem in both active and abandoned mining areas. In fact, exposure of iron sulphides to oxidising conditions produces strongly acidic drainage waters rich in sulphate and a variety of heavy elements (i.e. As, Cd, Pb, Sb). Several occurrences of active acid mine drainage have been found in the Metalliferous Hills (southern Tuscany). The most important AMD phenomena were observed in the Fenice Capanne and Niccioleta mining areas

  14. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage as an alternative to percutaneous drainage and surgical bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachayakul, Varayu; Aswakul, Pitulak

    2015-01-16

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography had been a treatment modality of choice for both benign and malignant biliary tract obstruction for more than half century, with a very high clinical success rate and low complications. But in certain circumstances, such as advanced and locally advanced pancreatobiliary malignancies (pancreatic cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, ampullary tumor) and tight benign strictures, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) fails. Up to this point, the only alternative interventions for these conditions were percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage or surgery. Endoscopic ultrasound guided interventions was introduced for a couple decades with the better visualization and achievement of the pancreatobiliary tract. And it's still in the process of ongoing development. The inventions of new techniques and accessories lead to more feasibility of high-ended procedures. Endoscopic ultrasound guided biliary drainage was a novel treatment modality for the patient who failed ERCP with the less invasive technique comparing to surgical bypass. The technical and clinical success was high with acceptable complications. Regarded the ability to drain the biliary tract internally without an exploratory laparotomy, this treatment modality became a very interesting procedures for many endosonographers, worldwide, in a short period. We have reviewed the literature and suggest that endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage is also an option, and one with a high probability of success, for biliary drainage in the patients who failed conventional endoscopic drainage. PMID:25610532

  15. Update of the Accounting Surface Along the Lower Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiele, Stephen M.; Leake, Stanley A.; Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; McGuire, Emmet H.

    2008-01-01

    The accounting-surface method was developed in the 1990s by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, to identify wells outside the flood plain of the lower Colorado River that yield water that will be replaced by water from the river. This method was needed to identify which wells require an entitlement for diversion of water from the Colorado River and need to be included in accounting for consumptive use of Colorado River water as outlined in the Consolidated Decree of the United States Supreme Court in Arizona v. California. The method is based on the concept of a river aquifer and an accounting surface within the river aquifer. The study area includes the valley adjacent to the lower Colorado River and parts of some adjacent valleys in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah and extends from the east end of Lake Mead south to the southerly international boundary with Mexico. Contours for the original accounting surface were hand drawn based on the shape of the aquifer, water-surface elevations in the Colorado River and drainage ditches, and hydrologic judgment. This report documents an update of the original accounting surface based on updated water-surface elevations in the Colorado River and drainage ditches and the use of simple, physically based ground-water flow models to calculate the accounting surface in four areas adjacent to the free-flowing river.

  16. Pollution of Indus water and the drainage system of Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adequate supply of fresh and clean drinking water is basic need for all human beings on the earth yet it has been observed that millions of people worldwide are deprived of this essential facility. Freshwater resources all over the world are being threatened not only by over-exploitation and poor management but also by ecological degradation. The main sources of freshwater pollution can be attributed to discharge of untreated waste, dumping of industrial effluent, and run-off from agricultural fields. Industrial growth, urbanization and the increasing use of synthetic organic substances have serious and adverse impacts on fresh water bodies. Piles of garbage and fouling of air and water resources are one of the most common sights in Pakistan. These are, in fact, one of the consequences of the process of rapid urbanization, coupled with increased industrialization that country is witness. It goes doubt that environmental deterioration is a natural outcome of rapid population growth, increase in agricultural practices, industrialization, mechanization and mobilization of society. River Indus and drainage system of the Sindh province nowadays are facing severe problem of industrial pollution by the discharge of untreated effluent of different industries. In that context, several field surveys of sugar industries located in interior Sindh and pharmaceutical Company, Jamshoro, were carried out to asses the quality and quantity of pollution. (author)

  17. Climate and human forcing of Alpine river flow

    OpenAIRE

    Lane S.N.; Bakker M; Balin D.; Lovis B.; Regamey B.; Schleiss A.J. (ed.); DeCesare G. (ed.); Franca M.J. (ed.); Pfister M

    2014-01-01

    River flow in Alpine environments is likely to be highly sensitive to climate change because of the effects of warming upon snow and ice, and hence the intra-annual distribution of river runoff. It is also likely to be influenced strongly by human impacts both upon hydrology (e.g. flow abstraction) and river regulation. This paper compares the river flow and sediment flux of two Alpine drainage basins over the last 5 to 7 decades, one that is largely unimpacted by human activities, one strong...

  18. In-stream chemical neutralization: A whole watershed approach to mitigating acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North Branch of the Potomac River is adversely affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) throughout its entire length. As an alternative to mine-mouth treatment methods an in-stream AMD-neutralization demonstration program for an approximately 25-mile segment of the North Branch of the Potomac River was designed and implemented. This river segment was ranked as the highest priority site in Maryland for a demonstration project owing to its combination of very poor water quality and excellent potential for supporting a recreational sport fishery in the absence of toxic metal and acid loadings. A whole-watershed approach employing Scandinavian doser technologies and calcium carbonate neutralizing agents is the basis for the North Branch Potomac River demonstration project. The project involves four phases: feasibility (1), design (2), implementation (3), and monitoring (4). This watershed approach to mitigating AMD is expected to restore circumneutrial water quality and to promote desirable fishery resources throughout the mainstem and selected tributaries of the North Branch of the Potomac River Upstream of Jennings Randolph Dam. This paper summarizes Phases 1--3 of the demonstration project

  19. Pleistocene-Recent Drainage Evolution in the Western Himalayan Foreland Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clift, P. D.; Giosan, L.; Macklin, M.; Carter, A.; Tabrez, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    The rivers of the upper Indus flood plains support large populations in an area where rainfall is relatively weak. Nonetheless, the region has been one in which early civilizations flourished and then dispersed, most notably the Indus Valley or Harappan Culture. We investigated potential links between human settlement and drainage evolution by drilling abandoned and filled river channels on the northern edge of the Thar Desert to see how they have evolved. Pb isotope data from single K-feldspar grains from Holocene and Pleistocene sands showed that the channels were sourced from Himalayan rivers before and at 6-8 ka, but that after that time the proportion of high isotopic ratio grains rose, indicating increased contribution from the Thar Desert dunes prior to ~4.5 ka when flow in the Ghaggar-Hakra ceased entirely. U-Pb dating of single zircon sand grains confirms this general pattern. Grain ages Indus but this flow may have finished as early as 49 ka, so that this capture does not affect the Harappan Culture. After this time the Sutlej and Beas River flowed through the region until they were both captured away to the north prior to 6-8 ka. The Harappan centers on the north of the Thar Desert likely dispersed because of unpredictable water supply as the monsoon weakened and because the flow of major rivers had ceased well before 4 ka.

  20. Fluoroscopy guided percutaneous catheter drainage of pneumothorax in good mid-term patency with tube drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ga Young; Oh, Joo Hyung; Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Wook [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    To evaluate efficacy and the safety of percutaneous catheter drainage in patients with pneumothorax that is difficult to treat with closed thoracotomy. We retrospectively reviewed effectiveness of percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) in 10 patients with pneumothorax. The catheter was inserted under fluoroscopic guidance. Seven patients had spontaneous pneumothorax caused by tuberculosis (n =4), reptured bullae (n = 2), and histiocytosis-X (n = 1). Three patients had iatrogenic pneumothorax caused by trauma (n = 1) and surgery (n = 2). All procedures were performed by modified Seldinger's method by using 8F-20F catheter. All catheter were inserted successfully. In 9 of 10 patients, the procedure was curative without further therapy. Duration of catheter insertion ranged from 1 day to 26 days. In the remaining 1 patient in whom multiple pneumothorax occurred after operation, catheter insertion was performed twice. Percutaneous catheter drainage under fluoroscopic guidance is effective and safe procedure for treatment of pneumothorax in patients with failed closed thoracotomy.

  1. Fluoroscopy guided percutaneous catheter drainage of pneumothorax in good mid-term patency with tube drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate efficacy and the safety of percutaneous catheter drainage in patients with pneumothorax that is difficult to treat with closed thoracotomy. We retrospectively reviewed effectiveness of percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) in 10 patients with pneumothorax. The catheter was inserted under fluoroscopic guidance. Seven patients had spontaneous pneumothorax caused by tuberculosis (n =4), reptured bullae (n = 2), and histiocytosis-X (n = 1). Three patients had iatrogenic pneumothorax caused by trauma (n = 1) and surgery (n = 2). All procedures were performed by modified Seldinger's method by using 8F-20F catheter. All catheter were inserted successfully. In 9 of 10 patients, the procedure was curative without further therapy. Duration of catheter insertion ranged from 1 day to 26 days. In the remaining 1 patient in whom multiple pneumothorax occurred after operation, catheter insertion was performed twice. Percutaneous catheter drainage under fluoroscopic guidance is effective and safe procedure for treatment of pneumothorax in patients with failed closed thoracotomy

  2. Tectonic control on the drainage system in a piedmont region in tectonically active eastern Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chandreyee GOSWAMI; Dhruba MUKHOPADHYAY; Bikash Chandra PODDAR

    2012-01-01

    The impact of neotectonic activity on drainage system has been studied in a large alluvial fan in the eastern Himalayan piedmont area between the Mal River and the Murti River.Two distinct E-W lineaments passing through this area had been identified by Nakata (1972,1989) as active faults.The northern lineament manifested as Matiali scarp and the southem one manifested as Chalsa scarp represent the ramp anticlines over two blind faults,probably the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT),respectively.The fan surface is folded into two antiforms with a synform in between.These folds are interpreted as fault propagation folds over the two north dipping blind thrusts.Two lineaments trending NNE-SSW and nearly N-S,respectively,are identified,and parts of present day courses of the Mufti and Neora Rivers follow them.These lineaments are named as Mufti and Neora lineaments and are interpreted to represent a conjugate set of normal faults.The rivers have changed their courses by the influence of these normal faults along the Mufti and Neora lineaments and their profiles show knick points where they cross E-W thrusts.The overall drainage pattern is changed from radial pattern in north of the Matiali scarp to a subparallel one in south due to these conjugate normal faults.The interfluve area between these two rivers is uplifted as a result of vertical movements on the above mentioned faults.Four major terraccs and some minor terraces are present along the major river valleys and these are formed due to episodic upliftment of the ground and subsequent down-cutting of the rivers.The uppermost terrace shows a northerly slope north of the Chalsa scarp as a result of folding mentioned above.But rivers on this terrace form incised channels keeping their flow southerly suggesting that they are antecedent to the folding and their downcutting kept pace with the tectonism.

  3. Institutional Arrangements for River Basin Management: A Case Study of Comparison between the United States and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Gang-yan

    2007-01-01

    This note compares institutional arrangements for water resources management in two river basins, namely, those of the Susquehanna River in the United States and the Yangtze River in China. The Susquehanna River Basin Commission is composed of the US federal government and the three states of New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland through which the Susquehanna River passes. Under the authority of the Susquehanna River Basin Compact, the Commission deals with water resources problems throughout its vast drainage area. In contrast, the Changjiang(Yangtze River) Water Resources Commission (CWRC) lacks relative effectiveness in mobilizing provincial governments in transboundary water resources management.

  4. A simple model analysis of terrestrial radioactivity balance in a drainage basin in Central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ measurements of terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates were carried out at 252 locations for soil samples and 47 locations for rock outcrops in the Shonai River drainage region to understand the transport of soil mass and terrestrial radioactivity. The basin was divided into two parts, a bedrock and a sediment (diluvium and alluvium) for compartment analysis. A set of balance equations for soil mass and radioactivity was derived for each region to obtain the transport rate of soils from bedrock to sediment region, the removal rates from land to ocean through rivers and the leaching rates of radioactivity. The relative values of the above parameters to the production rate of soil from bedrock could be estimated from the observed gamma-ray dose rates. (author). 7 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  5. A simple model analysis of terrestrial radioactivity balance in a drainage basin in Central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ measurements of terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates were carried out at 252 locations for soil samples and 47 locations for rock outcrops in the Shonai River drainage region to understand the transport of soil mass and terrestrial radioactivity. The basin was divided into two parts, a bedrock and a sediment (diluvium and alluvium), for compartment analysis. A set of balance equations for soil mass and radioactivity was derived for each region to obtain the transport rate of soils from bedrock to sediment region, the removal rates from land to ocean through rivers and the leaching rates of radioactivity. The relative values of the above parameters to the production rate of soil from bedrock could be estimated from the observed gamma-ray dose rates

  6. River Styles, a Geomorphic Approach to Catchment Characterization: Implications for River Rehabilitation in Bega Catchment, New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley; Fryirs

    2000-06-01

    / Geomorphologically derived river styles provide an integrative framework for examining the interactions of biophysical processes in rivers throughout a drainage basin. Nine styles of river character and behavior are identified in Bega catchment, on the south coast of New South Wales, Australia. Headwater streams above the escarpment drain into gorges in the escarpment zone. In different subcatchments at the base of the escarpment, there are three different river styles, namely cut-and-fill, vertically accreted floodplains, and fans. Downstream of these river styles, in the rounded foothills of the catchment, throughput and transfer river styles convey sediments to the lowland plain. In one mid-catchment setting, a floodout traps sediment. Finally, along the lowland plain of Bega River, there is a floodplain accumulation river style. Downstream patterns of river styles in differing subcatchments of the Bega River basin are differentiated into three types, reflecting river adjustments to valley width, slope, and responses to human disturbance. Analysis of the character and condition of each river style in Bega catchment, and their downstream patterns, are used to provide a biophysical basis to prioritorize river management strategies. These reach-scale strategies are prioritorized within an integrative catchment framework. Conserving near-intact sections of the catchment is the first priority. Second, those parts of the catchment that have natural recovery potential are targeted. Finally, rehabilitation priorities are considered for highly degraded reaches. At these sites, erosion and sedimentation problems may reflect irreversible changes to river structure. PMID:10790530

  7. River Rehabilitation for Conservation of Fish Biodiversity in Monsoonal Asia

    OpenAIRE

    David Dudgeon

    2005-01-01

    Freshwater biodiversity is under threat worldwide, but the intensity of threat in the Oriental biogeographic region of tropical Asia is exceptional. Asia is the most densely populated region on Earth. Many rivers in that region are grossly polluted, and significant portions of their drainage basins and floodplains have been deforested or otherwise degraded. Flow regulation has been practiced for centuries, and thousands of dams have been constructed, with the result that most of the rivers ar...

  8. Button self-retaining drainage catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To help improve patient acceptance of long-term internal/external catheter access to the biliary tract in those with benign biliary obstruction, a simple design allows the catheter end to remain flush with the skin. It consists of a clothes button affixed to the drainage catheter with a wood screw after the catheter has been cut off at the skin exit. This button/screw device has been used successfully in 22 patients over the last 10 years; catheter exchanges were easily accomplished

  9. ADAPT-A Drainage Analysis Planning Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Boelee, Leonore; Kellagher, Richard

    2015-01-01

    HR Wallingford are a partner in the EU funded TRUST project. They are involved in Work package 4.3 Wastewater and stormwater systems, to produce a model and report on a system sustainability analysis and potential for improvements for stormwater systems as Deliverable 4.3.2. This report is deliverable 4.3.2. It details the development of the tool ADAPT (A Drainage Analysis and Planning Tool). The objective of the tool is to evaluate the improvement requirements to a stormwat...

  10. Ecologically acceptable flows in Chalk rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Acreman, Mike; Dunbar, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The term ‘Chalk rivers’ is used to describe all those water courses dominated by groundwater discharge from Chalk geology. Natural conditions and historical modification have generated an ecosystem, with rich and unique assemblages and with high value to society (e.g. SACs, SSSIs, visual amenity and fisheries. Chalk rivers are considered to be sensitive to hydrological and morphological change and there is concern that flood defence and land drainage schemes, catchment agriculture, urbanisati...

  11. Morphometric analysis of the Koros drainage basin (Hungary/Romania) using historical topographic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovszki, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Körös River drainage basin is located in the eastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain, west of the Apuseni Mts., in the middle of the Pannonian Basin. The channels of the river and its tributaries are mostly meandering. The channel sinuosity of this river system is analyzed in order to draw conclusions on the neotectonic activity of this area. The meandering rivers can demonstrate changes, which occurred recently, and cannot be seen with other methods. The changing sinuosity indicates the location of the vertical movements of the surface. The sinuosity calculations were made on the natural, uncontrolled riverbeds. These beds were digitized from the maps of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire, which were measured before or during river control implementation. Digitized features were made on the geo-referred maps, which are in the Hungarian National Grid (EOV) coordinate system. The estimated accuracy of the map sheets to the modern system is 50-100 m, but the accuracy in Hungary remains under 30 m. In the study area, we identified several points of sinuosity change. To prove, that these are of neotectonic origin, seismic sections crossing the study area, were also analyzed. Five fault lines are indicated to be neotectonically active according to the river planform changes. Activity of two of these five faults, and the subsidence in-between them caused the formation of the Nagy-Sárrét marshland. A Romanian river section, characterized by anastomosed planform, instead of meandering, indicates recent activity of another fault.

  12. mizuRoute version 1: a river network routing tool for a continental domain water resources applications

    OpenAIRE

    N. Mizukami; M. P. Clark; Sampson, K; B. Nijssen; Mao, Y; McMillan, H; R. J. Viger; S. L. Markstrom; L. E. Hay; Woods, R; J. R. Arnold; L. D. Brekke

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the first version of a stand-alone runoff routing tool, mizuRoute, which post-processes runoff outputs from any distributed hydrologic model or land surface model to produce spatially distributed streamflow at various spatial scales from headwater basins to continental-wide river systems. The tool can utilize both traditional grid-based river network and vector-based river network data, which includes river segment lines and the associated drainage basin...

  13. Comparative Investigation of River Water Quality by OWQI, NSFWQI and Wilcox Indexes (Case study: the Talar River – IRAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Darvishi Gholamreza; Kootenaei Farshad Golbabaei; Ramezani Maedeh; Lotfi Eissa; Asgharnia Hosseinali

    2016-01-01

    Rivers are considered as one of the main resources of water supply for various applications such as agricultural, drinking and industrial purposes. Also, these resources are used as a place for discharge of sewages, industrial wastewater and agricultural drainage. Regarding the fact that each river has a certain capacity for acceptance of pollutants, nowadays qualitative and environmental investigations of these resources are proposed. In this study, qualitative investigation of the Talar riv...

  14. Drainage for Gain : Integrated Solutions to Drainage in Land and Water Management

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    In its drive to meet the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, the World Bank issued, in October 2002, new strategies for agricultural and rural development, and water resources management. These strategies both identified more and better drainage investments as important to achieving some of the Millennium Development Goals, notably poverty reduction and environmental sustainabilit...

  15. Comparing twist-drill drainage with burr hole drainage for chronic subdural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Xin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: The surgical management of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH is still a controver- sial issue, and a standard therapy has not been established because of the unclear pathogenic mechanisms in CSDH. The intention of this paper is to find a simple and efficient surgical procedure for CSDH. Methods: A retrospective study of 448 patients with CSDH by surgical treatment during 2005 to 2009 was con- ducted in order to compare the efficiency between two dif- ferent primary surgical methods, i.e. twist-drill drainage with- out irrigation in Group A (n=178 and one burr-hole with irrigation in Group B (n=270. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: The reoperation rates in Group A and Group B were 7.9% and 11.9% respectively. The good outcome rate was 88.8% and 75.5%, the complication was 7.9% and 20.7% in Group A and Group B, respectively. Conclusions: The burr-hole drainage with irrigation of the hematoma cavity is not beneficial to the outcome and prognosis. Irrigation is not important in the surgical treat- ment for CSDH. Thus in initial treatment, twist-drill drainage without irrigation of the hematoma cavity is recommended because it is relatively safe, time-saving and cost-effective. Key words: Hematoma, subdural; Brain injury, chronic; Drainage

  16. Preoperative biliary drainage for periampullary tumors causing obstructive jaundice; DRainage vs. (direct) OPeration (DROP-trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. van der Gaag; S.M.M. de Castro; E.A.J. Rauws; M.J. Bruno; C.H.J. van Eijck; E.J. Kuipers; J.J.G.M. Gerritsen; J.P. Rutten; J.W. Greve; E.J. Hesselink; J.H.G. Klinkenbijl; I.H.M. Borel Rinkes; D. Boerma; B.A. Bonsing; C.J. van Laarhoven; F.J.G.M. Kubben; E. van der Harst; M.N. Sosef; K. Bosscha; I.H.J.T. de Hingh; L.T. de Wit; O.M. van Delden; O.R.C. Busch; T.M. van Gulik; P.M.M. Bossuyt; D.J. Gouma

    2007-01-01

    Background Surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice caused by a periampullary (pancreas, papilla, distal bile duct) tumor is associated with a higher risk of postoperative complications than in non-jaundiced patients. Preoperative biliary drainage was introduced in an attempt to improve the gen

  17. Preoperative biliary drainage for periampullary tumors causing obstructive jaundice; DRainage vs. (direct) OPeration (DROP-trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. van der Gaag (Niels); S.M.M. de Castro (Steve); E.A.J. Rauws; M.J. Bruno (Marco); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); J.J.G.M. Gerritsen (Josephus); J.P. Rutten (Joost Paul); J.W. Greve; E.J. Hesselink (Eric); J.H. Klinkenbijl (Jean); I.H.M.B. Rinkes; D. Boerma (Djamila); B.A. Bonsing (Bert); C.J. van Laarhoven (Cees); F.J. Kubben; E. van der Harst (Erwin); M.N. Sosef (Meindert); K. Bosscha (Koop); I.H.J.T. de Hingh (Ignace); L. Th de Wit (Laurens); O.M. van Delden (Otto); O.R.C. Busch (Olivier); T.M. van Gulik (Thomas); P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); D.J. Gouma (Dirk)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice caused by a periampullary (pancreas, papilla, distal bile duct) tumor is associated with a higher risk of postoperative complications than in non-jaundiced patients. Preoperative biliary drainage was introduced in an attempt to im

  18. Endoscopic Ultrasound-guided Bilio-pancreatic Drainage

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannini, Marc; Bories, Erwan; Téllez-Ávila, Félix I.

    2012-01-01

    The echoendoscopic biliary drainage is an option to treat obstructive jaundices when endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) drainage fails. These procedures compose alternative methods to the side of surgery and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, and it was only possible by the continuous development and improvement of echoendoscopes and accessories. The development of linear sectorial array echoendoscopes in early 1990 brought a new approach to diagnostic and therapeu...

  19. Correlation of laboratory and installed drainage system solid transport measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Bokor, Shaun

    1982-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The transport of solids in 'horizontal' above ground drainage pipes was the subject of an investigation, based upon the measurement of both sterile 'model' solid velocity and 'live' waste load velocity, aimed at the establishment of a sound basis for the development of a comprehensive empirical drainage design method linked directly to installed drainage system solid transport measurements...

  20. Obstruction of Venous Drainage Linked to Transient Global Amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Ke; Chao, A-Ching; Chang, Feng-Chi; Chung, Chih-Ping; Hsu, Hung-Yi; Sheng, Wen-Yung; Wu, Jiang; Hu, Han-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal extracranial venous drainage modality has been considered an etiology of transient global amnesia (TGA). Evidence suggests that the transmission of the intrathoracic/intraabdominal pressure during a Valsalva maneuver (VM) is mainly through the vertebral venous system, and patency of internal jugular vein (IJV) is essential for venous drainage and pressure releasing. We hypothesize that obstruction of IJV venous drainage is a contributing factor in TGA pathogenesis. A magnetic resonan...

  1. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Madsen, P; Matzen, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure was measured in 10 patients undergoing drainage operations for painful chronic pancreatitis. The pressure was measured by the needle technique in the three anatomic regions of the pancreas before and at different stages of the drainage procedure, and the results...... a decrease in pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for pain in chronic pancreatitis. Regional pressure decrease were apparently unrelated to ERCP findings....

  2. Percutaneous Biliary Drainage with Emphasis on Hilar Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The mortality rates of surgery and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTHBD) are comparable. Long tenn studies show that delayed complications occur in the majority of cases of PTHBD and survival is not improved compared to surgery. The many recent advances in endoscopic and percutaneous drainage techniques and the recognition that the patient is best served by a noncompetitive multidisciplinary approach will ensure that virtually every patient obtains the most satisfactory drainage ...

  3. Urban drainage design and climate change adaptation decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qianqian; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Halsnæs, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Since the middle of the 19th century urban drainage has been a vital infrastructure in cities. Traditionally, urban drainage has been used as a convenient cleaning mechanism for public hygiene and an efficient conveyance facility to tackle floods for life and assets protection. From the early 20th century, the design objectives of urban drainage systems also include elements such as environmental protection and amenity values. Among the objectives, flood protection has received much attention...

  4. Coupling between drainage and coarsening in wet foam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Saha; S Bhaumik; A Roy

    2009-06-01

    Drainage and coarsening are two coupled phenomena during the evolution of wet foam. We show the variation in the growth rate of bubble size, along the height in a column of Gillette shaving foam, by microscope imaging. Simultaneously, the drainage of liquid at the same heights has been investigated by Raman spectroscopic measurements. The observations made in these two sets of experiments indicate the coupling between drainage and coarsening in wet foam. We could explain the correlation between our observed data on drainage and coarsening by the empirical relation, proposed by others, in the literature.

  5. Percutaneous drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts : Analysis of 16 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryeom, Hun Kyu; Kim, Yong Joo [Kyungpook Natioanl University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    We reviewed 13 cases of pancreatic pseudocysts treated by percutaneous catheter drainage to determine the value and effectiveness of the procedure. Sixteen pancreatic pseudocysts(nine infected, seven noninfected) were drained 13 patients. Access routes were determined by images on CT scan and procedures were performed under fluoroscopic guidance. Ultrasonogram was used as a guide for drainage when there were bowel loops near the access routes. Various access routes were used for catheter drainage : transperitoneal (10), retroperitoneal (3), transsplenic (2), transhepatic (1). Percutaneous catheter drainage cured 15 of 16 pancreatic pseudocysts (93.8%). No recurrence was encountered in the clinical follow-up 7 to 69 months (mean 35 months). The mean duration of drainage was 29 days (infected, 24 days ; noninfected, 39 days). Five pseudocysts (31%) were communicated with pancreatic duct. The mean duration of drainage in these cases was 38 days. Spontaneous of the pancreatic pseudocysts to the gasintestinal tract was occurred in 3 pseudocysts. Mean duration of drainage in pseudocysts with fistulas was 19 days. Percutaneous catheter drainage is a safe and effective front-line treatment method in most pancreatic pseudocysts if drainage is done with a adequate follow-up and catheter care.

  6. Percutaneous drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts : Analysis of 16 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed 13 cases of pancreatic pseudocysts treated by percutaneous catheter drainage to determine the value and effectiveness of the procedure. Sixteen pancreatic pseudocysts(nine infected, seven noninfected) were drained 13 patients. Access routes were determined by images on CT scan and procedures were performed under fluoroscopic guidance. Ultrasonogram was used as a guide for drainage when there were bowel loops near the access routes. Various access routes were used for catheter drainage : transperitoneal (10), retroperitoneal (3), transsplenic (2), transhepatic (1). Percutaneous catheter drainage cured 15 of 16 pancreatic pseudocysts (93.8%). No recurrence was encountered in the clinical follow-up 7 to 69 months (mean 35 months). The mean duration of drainage was 29 days (infected, 24 days ; noninfected, 39 days). Five pseudocysts (31%) were communicated with pancreatic duct. The mean duration of drainage in these cases was 38 days. Spontaneous of the pancreatic pseudocysts to the gasintestinal tract was occurred in 3 pseudocysts. Mean duration of drainage in pseudocysts with fistulas was 19 days. Percutaneous catheter drainage is a safe and effective front-line treatment method in most pancreatic pseudocysts if drainage is done with a adequate follow-up and catheter care

  7. Uncertainty Assessment in Long Term Urban Drainage Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren

    The thesis covers a general introduction and a combilation of seven papers on the subject of uncertainty assessment in urban drainage modelling. Urban drainage models applied for design and analysis of urban drainage systems are uncertain due to uncertainty in parameter assessment and especially on...... simulations with the purpose of estimating the uncertainties on the extreme event statistics of maximum water levels and combined sewer overflow volumes in drainage systems. The thesis concludes that the uncertainties on both maximum water levels and combined sewer overflow volumes are considerable...

  8. Effect of drainage on postoperative pain after laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimoglu, O S; Yilmaz, S A; Pekin, A; İncesu, F; Dogan, N U; İlhan, T T; Celik, C

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the effect of drainage on postoperative shoulder and abdominal pain after uncomplicated laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy (LOC). Allocation to drain or not to drain was non-randomised. There were 55 patients with drainage and 56 patients without drainage. Postoperative shoulder and abdominal pain was assessed using a 10-point visual analogue scale. Postoperative hospital stay in the drainage group was longer than the non-drainage group (p = 0.040). Postoperative shoulder pain scores at 6 h and 24 h were similar between the drainage and non-drainage groups (p = 0.376 and p = 0.847, respectively). Postoperative abdominal pain was higher in the drainage group at 6 h (p = 0.009), but was similar at 24 h (p = 0.097) between the groups. These data suggest that for LOC, drainage may not be useful to prevent postoperative shoulder pain and also increases postoperative abdominal pain and length of hospital stay. PMID:25140836

  9. Transport of plutonium by the Mississippi River system and other rivers in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of fallout Pu has been studied in the sediments and water of the Mississippi River and eight other rivers. Plutonium content of the sediments is related to grain size and Fe and Mn content. Rivers in human climates show relatively high organic carbon (3 to 4%) and high /sup 239,240)Pu content (36 to 131 dpm/kg) in their suspended sediments. Dissolved Pu is very low in all the rivers; distribution coefficients vary from 104 to 105. The 238Pu//sup 239,240/Pu ratios are low in all the river sediments (∼.06) except the Miami River in Ohio, where ratios as high as 99 were measured. The high ratios originate from the Mound Laboratory Pu processing plant at Miamisburg, Ohio, and can be traced downstream to the junction with the Ohio River. Mississippi River suspended sediment shows a continual decrease of /sup 239,240/Pu content over a 7 year time period. An exponential curve best-fit through the data predicts a half time of decrease equal to 4.3 years. The decrease in Pu content of river sediment results from several factors: cessation of atmospheric weapons testing; transport of Pu to deeper levels of soil profiles; storage of sediment in flood plains and behind dams; and dilution by erosion by older, prebomb soil material. The amount of fallout Pu now removed from the Mississippi River drainage basin to the ocean is 11% as a maximum estimate. Most the fallout Pu in the Mississippi drainage basin will remain on the continent unless there are major changes in erosion and sediment transport patterns in the basin itself. 56 references, 7 figures, 2 tables

  10. Bioreactor for acid mine drainage control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaluski, Marek H.; Manchester, Kenneth R.

    2001-01-01

    A bioreactor for reacting an aqueous heavy metal and sulfate containing mine drainage solution with sulfate reducing bacteria to produce heavy metal sulfides and reduce the sulfuric acid content of the solution. The reactor is an elongated, horizontal trough defining an inlet section and a reaction section. An inlet manifold adjacent the inlet section distributes aqueous mine drainage solution into the inlet section for flow through the inlet section and reaction section. A sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition in the inlet section provides sulfate reducing bacteria that with the sulfuric acid and heavy metals in the solution to form solid metal sulfides. The sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition is retained in the cells of a honeycomb structure formed of cellular honeycomb panels mounted in the reactor inlet section. The honeycomb panels extend upwardly in the inlet section at an acute angle with respect to the horizontal. The cells defined in each panel are thereby offset with respect to the honeycomb cells in each adjacent panel in order to define a tortuous path for the flow of the aqueous solution.

  11. Foam drainage on a sloping weir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassia, P; Neethling, S J; Cilliers, J J

    2002-08-01

    Foam drainage is considered in a froth flotation tank with a sloping weir. The drainage is shown to be gravity dominated in most of the foam, except for thin boundary layers at the base of the froth, and along the sloping weir. The mathematical reason for the boundary layers is that capillary suction is a much weaker effect than gravity, but cannot be ignored altogether, because it represents a singular perturbation. The relative weakness of capillary suction with respect to gravity is represented by a key dimensionless parameter, denoted K, which satisfies Kbulk of the flotation tank. The liquid volume fraction in the jet is likewise O(K(-2/3)) larger than that in the bulk. Across the jet, the foam exhibits a known profile of liquid fraction vs. distance from the weir: this is known as the equilibrium profile. The foam requires a distance equivalent to O(K(4/3)) weir lengths to dry out significantly from the wetness value on the weir, but a larger O(K) distance to fall back to a wetness comparable with that in the bulk of the froth. PMID:15015124

  12. Biological alkalinity generation in acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological Engineering and Biological Polishing technologies are a decommissioning approach to inactive coal, uranium and base metal mining operations. To improve acid mine drainage water, some fundamental aspects of wetland ecology and sediment microbiology are combined. The combination provides conditions which allow biomineralization of the contaminants. The authors report here the first records of microbial alkalinity generation in acid mine drainage, through the utilization of the ARUM (Acid Reduction Using Microbiology) process. Increases in pH are brought about by alkalinity-generating microbes such as sulfate reducers, iron reducers, methanogens, or denitrifiers. The ARUM process has been successful in increasing pH from 2.5 to 7.0 in laboratory-scale flow-through reactors operated continuously for more than 120 days. Ni was also reduced from 13 mg/l to < 0.01 mg/l. Batch ARUMators in the field have also performed well. Design parameters are being developed for low flow rates of 5 l/min in a pilot-scale system receiving seepage from mine tailings

  13. Flood peaks and discharge summaries in the Delaware River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, A.A.; Farsett, Harry A.; Green, J. Wayne

    1981-01-01

    This report contains streamflow data from 299 continuous and partial-record gaging stations in the Delaware River basin. The location, drainage area, period of record, type of gage, and average flow (discharge) is given for each continuous station. Also included, are annual flood peak discharges and discharges above a selected base, annual and monthly mean discharges, and annual and monthly runoff. (USGS)

  14. Assessment of agricultural drainage water quality for safe reuse in irrigation applications-a case study in Borg El-Arab, Alexandria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmoud Nasr; Hoda Farouk Zahran

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To demonstrate the technical feasibility of the reuse of agricultural drainage water for irrigation. Methods: The agricultural drainage water near Banjar El-Sokar, Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria, Egypt was collected. The measured heavy metals in the drainage water were compared with the permissible levels stated in environmental regulations, Law No. 48 of 1982 concerning the protection of the Nile River and waterways from pollution. Results: Heavy metals and trace elements were detected in this agricultural drainage water as following: Al (1.64 mg/L), Ca (175.00 mg/L), Cd (1.87 mg/L), Co (2.23 mg/L), Cu (1.71 mg/L), Fe (1.64 mg/L), K (20.50 mg/L), and Pb (2.81 mg/L). According to allowable limits, item such as Fe is lower than permissible level of 3.00 mg/L, while Pb and Cu are higher than 0.10 mg/L and 1.00 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: Vegetables irrigated with such drainage water are not safe for human and animal consumption. Accordingly, the study suggests and recommeds remediation of drainage water using physical, chemical and/or biological methods.

  15. Using GIS and logistic regression to estimate agricultural chemical concentrations in rivers of the midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    Agricultural chemicals (herbicides, insecticides, other pesticides and fertilizers) in surface water may constitute a human health risk. Recent research on unregulated rivers in the midwestern USA documents that elevated concentrations of herbicides occur for 1-4 months following application in spring and early summer. In contrast, nitrate concentrations in unregulated rivers are elevated during the fall, winter and spring. Natural and anthropogenic variables of river drainage basins, such as soil permeability, the amount of agricultural chemicals applied or percentage of land planted in corn, affect agricultural chemical concentrations in rivers. Logistic regression (LGR) models are used to investigate relations between various drainage basin variables and the concentration of selected agricultural chemicals in rivers. The method is successful in contributing to the understanding of agricultural chemical concentration in rivers. Overall accuracies of the best LGR models, defined as the number of correct classifications divided by the number of attempted classifications, averaged about 66%.

  16. Ecological risk assessment of irrigation drainage selenium to the endangered razorback sucker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.B. [Bureau of Reclamation, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The razorback sucker is an endangered species in the Colorado River Basin that is nearing extinction. A remnant population is threatened by contamination from irrigation drainage and other sources. Biomarkers and toxicity tests indicate reproductive impairment to adults and acute and chronic toxicity to larval fish. Adult fish are generally more than 20 years old, and no recruitment is occurring. The assessment evaluates all selenium sources, natural and man induced, to the Green River. Selenium discharged directly to the river as inorganic selenate represents a decrease in exposure compared to organic dietary sources introduced to a critical habitat. Fate and transport modeling, biotransformation, and profiling exposure at critical life history ecological boundaries are all important considerations in the risk analysis. Determining realistic safety factors for naturally occurring and essential but potentially toxic trace elements is also essential to formulate alternatives that make common sense. Establishing an obtainable cleanup criteria must consider natural background concentrations, cost effectiveness, and public acceptability. In this case it is more cost effective and provides a greater overall benefit to the river basin to remediate a non-irrigation selenium source. A multi-agency task force has been formed to select and implement remediation that is economically feasible, scientifically sound, politically acceptable, makes common sense, and that protects the razorback sucker.

  17. Extension of geographic distribution of Chrysobrycon hesperus and C. myersi (Characiformes, Characidae, Stevardiinae for several drainages flowing into the Amazon River Basin in Peru and Colombia Extensión de la distribución geográfica de Chrysobrycon hesperus y C. myersi (Characiformes, Characidae, Stevardiinae para varios drenajes fluyendo hacia la cuenca del Amazonas en Perú y Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Anyelo Vanegas-Ríos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of Chrysobrycon hesperus (Böhlke and C. myersi Weitzman and Menezes is extended to new localities from the upper Amazon Basin in Peru and Colombia. Chrysobrycon hesperus is recorded for the first time for the Putumayo River Basin in Colombia.Se amplía la distribución geográfica de Chrysobrycon hesperus (Böhlke y C. myersi Weitzman y Menezes para nuevas localidades de la cuenca alta del Amazonas en Perú y Colombia. Chrysobrycon hesperus se registra por primera vez para la cuenca del río Putumayo en Colombia.

  18. A chemical survey of remote lakes of the Alagnak and Naknek river systems, southwest Alaska, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the chemistry of 12 remote lakes of the Naknek and Alagnak drainages demonstrated significant differences in surface water alkalinity, due in part to high concentrations of naturally-occurring sulfate in the Alagnak drainage. The average surface water alkalinity for lakes in the Alagnak drainage is much less than that for the Naknek drainage, and below that for lakes from South Central Alaska, indicating a potential sensitivity of the lakes in the Alagnak river system to acid deposition. The upper Alagnak drainage contains Iron Springs Lake, a naturally acidic lake with a surface area of 70 ha. The acidity of this lake may be due to oxidation of surficial iron sulfide deposits, which would also explain the relatively high sulfate concentrations in the Alagnak drainage

  19. Hemobilia after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To retrospectively analyze the occurance and management for patients with hemobilia after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Methods: Consecutive 139 patients with inoperable obstructive jaundice were treated by PTBD. After taking percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, procedure of puncturing the dilated biliary duct with metallic stent or plastic catheter placement was undertaken. Follow up was carded out with clinical, radiographic and laboratory evaluation. Procedure-and device-related complications were also recorded. Results: All patients went though PTBD successfully with total serum bilirnbin reducing from 360 μmol/l to 158.2 μmol/l, postoperatively. 43 cases received hemostatic. Transient hemobilia occurred in 11 cases, and severe hemobilia in other 5 cases requiring further management. Other 4 cases needed arterial embolization with another one failure. Conclusion: Hemobilia is a complication after PTBD, which can be promptly controlled with improving skillful maneuver. (authors)

  20. CANDU energy for steam assisted gravity drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional open-pit mining has been used by industry for many years to remove oil sands from shallow deposits. To increase production capacity, the industry is looking for new technology to exploit bitumen from deep deposits. Among them, SAGD (Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage) appears to be the most promising approach. It uses steam to remove bitumen from underground reservoirs. Recently, the SAGD recovery process has been put into commercial operation by major oil companies.Atomic Energy Canada Limited has assessed the use of the ACR-1000 as a source of heat and electricity for oil sand extraction and processing. The ACR-1000 design is an evolutionary development of the familiar CANDU technology, adding innovations to enhance economics, operations, and safety margins. The net electrical output from a standard ACR-1000 will be close to 1100 MWe, depending on local cooling water temperature

  1. Protein separation by differential drainage from foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S B; Lyddiatt, A

    1994-11-20

    Commercially available beer, which is a dilute solution containing components of yeast, malt, and hop used in the manufacture of the beer, was used as a model system to demonstrate the potential of foam fractionation beyond the primary foaming stage. Most of the components present in the beer concentrated in the initial foam, but they drained differentially in the subsequent collapsed foam collected over a period of 30 min. This resulted in further enrichment, in particular, of components which were present in low concentration in the original beer, Preferential drainage from foam, hence, might provide a novel way of fractionating further the proteins concentrated initially in the liquid films of foam. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18618553

  2. Integrated urban drainage, status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul

    2002-01-01

    measures are local infiltration, source control, storage basins, local treatment and real time control. New paradigms have been introduced: risk of pollution due to system failure, technology for water reuse, sustainability, new architecture and greener up-stream solutions as opposed to down......This paper summarises the status of urban storm drainage as an integrated professional discipline, including the management-policy interface, by which the goals of society are implemented. The paper assesses the development of the discipline since the INTERURBA conference in 1992 and includes...... significant conservatism in the business. However, significant integrated analyses have been reported. Most of them deal with the sewer system and the treatment plant, while few incorporate the receiving water as anything but the object of the loads to be minimised by engineering measures up-stream. Important...

  3. Arterial Complications of Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report on the frequency and treatment of arterial complications due to percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD).Materials: Lesions of the intrahepatic artery were encountered in 10 of 525 patients treated by PTBD (2%). Hemobilia followed in 9 patients and subcapsular hematoma in 1. Seven patients had a benign biliary stenosis and 3 had a malignant stenosis.Results: The bleeding resolved spontaneously in 3 patients. In 7 it required arterial embolization, which was successfully achieved either through the percutaneous catheter (n= 3) or by arteriography (n= 4).Conclusion: Arterial bleeding is a relatively rare complication of PTBD that can easily be treated by selective arterial embolization when it does not resolve spontaneously. In this series its frequency was much higher (16%) when the stenosis was benign than when it was malignant (0.6%)

  4. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  5. Drainage Pipe Detection and Assessment Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research conducted to date clearly shows that ground penetrating radar (GPR) is feasible for use locating buried drainage pipes in both farm and golf course settings. Within farm settings, GPR seems to work quite well locating drainage pipes buried within one meter of the surface, and the succes...

  6. 46 CFR 178.420 - Drainage of cockpit vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage of cockpit vessels. 178.420 Section 178.420 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS... clearing of water in all probable conditions of list and trim; (2) Have a combined drainage area of...

  7. The Extent of Cropland Drainage in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial drainage, whether surface or subsurface, profoundly affects the productivity of soils and the hydrology of watersheds. Modern production agriculture would not be possible without the extensive drainage network that has been built up starting in about the 1850's. While an unqualified succe...

  8. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil M Pophare; Umesh S Balpande

    2014-10-01

    Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order subbasins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the subsurface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the

  9. Chemical abatement of acid mine drainage formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven, J.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical and thermodynamic data were used to develop a unified model of hydroxo-, sulfato-, and bisulfato-iron complexes and their stability constants in iron-sulfate solutions. Free energy of formation for each ligand series species was hypothesized to be linear in ligand number because of supporting evidence from the literature. Laboratory tests on the inhibition of acid mine drainage bacteria were conducted. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds. Low-pH cultures of Thiobacillus thioxidans significantly increased zinc sulfide dissolution rates relative to sterile controls. Sodium lauryl sulfate, benzoic acid, and sorbic acid at concentrations of 10, 25, and 50 mg/liter, respectively, in identical low-pH, batch cultures of Thiobacillus thiooxidans, were sufficient for complete inhibition of bacterial zinc sulfide dissolution. Pilot-scale experiments on the abatement of acid mine drainage formation in both fresh and weathered pyritic coal refuse were also conducted. At doses of 0.5 g/kg and 5.0 g/kg in fresh and weathered refuse, respectively, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and most significantly, sodium lauryl surface, reduced the rate of iron, sulfate, and acidity production in water-leached barrels of coal refuse material.

  10. Foam drainage on a sloping weir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassia, P.; Neethling, S. J.; Cilliers, J. J.

    2002-08-01

    Foam drainage is considered in a froth flotation tank with a sloping weir. The drainage is shown to be gravity dominated in most of the foam, except for thin boundary layers at the base of the froth, and along the sloping weir. The mathematical reason for the boundary layers is that capillary suction is a much weaker effect than gravity, but cannot be ignored altogether, because it represents a singular perturbation. The relative weakness of capillary suction with respect to gravity is represented by a key dimensionless parameter, denoted K, which satisfies Kll 1. The volumetric flow at any point along the weir boundary layer is the accumulation of all liquid that has rained onto the weir above the point in question: typically, this flow is linear in distance measured downward from the weir lip. All liquid raining onto the weir is ultimately returned to the pulp phase as a high-speed jet. The jet velocity scales with the frac{2}{3} power of distance from the weir lip, and is O(K^{-2/3}) times larger than the typical velocity in the gravity-dominated flow in the bulk of the flotation tank. The liquid volume fraction in the jet is likewise O(K^{-2/3}) larger than that in the bulk. Across the jet, the foam exhibits a known profile of liquid fraction vs. distance from the weir: this is known as the equilibrium profile. The foam requires a distance equivalent to O(K^{4/3}) weir lengths to dry out significantly from the wetness value on the weir, but a larger O(K) distance to fall back to a wetness comparable with that in the bulk of the froth.

  11. Copper isotope fractionation in acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, B.E.; Mathur, R.; Dohnalkova, A.C.; Wall, A.J.; Runkel, R.L.; Brantley, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    We measured the Cu isotopic composition of primary minerals and stream water affected by acid mine drainage in a mineralized watershed (Colorado, USA). The ??65Cu values (based on 65Cu/63Cu) of enargite (??65Cu = -0.01 ?? 0.10???; 2??) and chalcopyrite (??65Cu = 0.16 ?? 0.10???) are within the range of reported values for terrestrial primary Cu sulfides (-1??? fractionation (??aq-min = ??65Cuaq - ??65Cumin, where the latter is measured on mineral samples from the field system), equals 1.43 ?? 0.14??? and 1.60 ?? 0.14??? for chalcopyrite and enargite, respectively. To interpret this field survey, we leached chalcopyrite and enargite in batch experiments and found that, as in the field, the leachate is enriched in 65Cu relative to chalcopyrite (1.37 ?? 0.14???) and enargite (0.98 ?? 0.14???) when microorganisms are absent. Leaching of minerals in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans results in smaller average fractionation in the opposite direction for chalcopyrite (??aq-mino = - 0.57 ?? 0.14 ???, where mino refers to the starting mineral) and no apparent fractionation for enargite (??aq-mino = 0.14 ?? 0.14 ???). Abiotic fractionation is attributed to preferential oxidation of 65Cu+ at the interface of the isotopically homogeneous mineral and the surface oxidized layer, followed by solubilization. When microorganisms are present, the abiotic fractionation is most likely not seen due to preferential association of 65Cuaq with A. ferrooxidans cells and related precipitates. In the biotic experiments, Cu was observed under TEM to occur in precipitates around bacteria and in intracellular polyphosphate granules. Thus, the values of ??65Cu in the field and laboratory systems are presumably determined by the balance of Cu released abiotically and Cu that interacts with cells and related precipitates. Such isotopic signatures resulting from Cu sulfide dissolution should be useful for acid mine drainage remediation and ore prospecting purposes. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Proceedings of the international land reclamation and mine drainage conference and third international conference on the abatement of acidic drainage. Volume 1: Mine drainage -- SP 06A-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 1 of these proceedings is divided into the following sections: Modeling mine water quality; Water treatment with wetlands; Predicting mine water quality; Water treatment--Chemical; Control of acid mine drainage--Wet covers; Site characterization monitoring; Control of acid mine drainage--Alkaline addition; and Mine water geochemistry. Papers dealing with or applicable to coal or uranium mining have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  13. Seepage flow-stability analysis of the riverbank of Saigon river due to river water level fluctuation

    CERN Document Server

    Oya, A; Hiraoka, N; Fujimoto, M; Fukagawa, R

    2015-01-01

    The Saigon River, which flows through the center of Ho Chi Minh City, is of critical importance for the development of the city as forms as the main water supply and drainage channel for the city. In recent years, riverbank erosion and failures have become more frequent along the Saigon River, causing flooding and damage to infrastructures near the river. A field investigation and numerical study has been undertaken by our research group to identify factors affecting the riverbank failure. In this paper, field investigation results obtained from multiple investigation points on the Saigon River are presented, followed by a comprehensive coupled finite element analysis of riverbank stability when subjected to river water level fluctuations. The river water level fluctuation has been identified as one of the main factors affecting the riverbank failure, i.e. removal of the balancing hydraulic forces acting on the riverbank during water drawdown.

  14. Unilobar versus bilobar biliary drainage: effect on quality of life and bilirubin level reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Gamanagatti

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Percutaneous biliary drainage provides good palliation of malignant obstructive jaundice. Partial-liver drainage achieved results as good as those after complete liver drainage with significant improvements in QOL and reduction of the bilirubin level.

  15. Heavy metals from the Nikel area Investigation in Kolosjoki river 1995, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Traaen, T.; Arnesen, R.T.; Moiseenko, Tatjana; Mokrotovarova, Olga; Kudryavtseva, Ljuba

    1996-01-01

    A cooperative project between INEP, MUGMS and NIVA to identify the main sources of heavy metals pollution in the Nikel area has been performed. The assessment of pollution load on the river system from mine drainage and from industrial discharges was also an objective. Data from field work in 1995 combined with data from MUGMS have shown that the main pollution comes from industrial sites within Nikel. The significance of drainage from mines has been documented, and it is also shown that airb...

  16. Environmental Ethics in River Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran Moorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Environmental ethics concerns human beings’ ethical relationship with the natural environment. The fundamental question regarding environmental ethics is basically-what moral obligations do we have concerning the natural environment? The main objective of this study is to examine the extent environmental ethics manifest in river management. The study employs the case study of Malaysia's Gombak River-one of the most polluted urban rivers that run through some heavily inhabited urban areas. The study examines how the Department of Environment (DOE, Drainage and Irrigation Department (DID and Selayang Municipal Council (MPS manage the problem of pollution in the Gombak River. Approach: This study uses both quantitative and qualitative analysis. A quantitative approach is employed to assess the water quality in several points along Gombak River. This is done by way of series of scientific testing to determine the level of pollution in the river. Secondly, a qualitative approach is applied on the data gathered through expert interviews on inter-agency coordination efforts to manage pollution problems. Results: The study firstly shows that the Gombak River is considerably polluted, with higher levels of pollution in upstream as compared to the downstream. The second finding suggests that notwithstanding several legislations that are already in place, there is sluggishness in the enforcement of pollution mitigation efforts as a result of ineffective inter-agency communication and coordination. Conclusion: The lack of concerted and coordinated efforts between river management agencies have been cited as one of the main factors contributing to river pollution. Therefore, the agencies concerned should embark on cohesive measures to ensure the rivers are managed well and its water quality controlled. This requires for a structured coordination mechanism between agencies to be put in place and such mechanism can be emulated in the

  17. River diversions, avulsions and captures in the Tortuguero coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galve, Jorge Pedro; Alvarado, Guillermo; Pérez Peña, José Vicente; Azañón, José Miguel; Mora, Mauricio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The Tortuguero area is a coastal plain that forms part of the North Limón sedimentary basin, the back-arc region of the Caribbean side of Costa Rica. This coastal plain is characterised by an abnormal drainage pattern with river captures, diversions and shifts in channel directions. We are analyzing this anomalous drainage network adopting a classical geomorphological approach combined with geomorphometric techniques. The SRTM DEM at 1 arc-second of resolution (~30 m) from NASA, topographic maps 1:50,000, satellital images and the digital cartography of the drainage network have been used for inventorying the channel pattern anomalies. River segments were categorized according to sinuosity, orientation, slope changes and incision using GIS tools. Initially, anomalies in the analyzed river courses suggested that buried thrust fronts could disrupt their natural pattern. However, we have not identified any evidence to link the activity of buried structures with the disruption of natural drainage. Blind thrusts detected through seismic subsurface exploration in the SE sector of the Tortuguero plain do not seem to produce changes in the sinuosity, orientation, slope and incision of rivers as those observed in the deeply studied tectonically active area of the Po Plain (Italy). The identified river pattern anomalies have been explained due to other alternative causes: (1) the migration of the mouths of Reventazón, Pacuare and Matina rivers is produced by sand sedimentation in the coast because of a successive ridge beach formation. This migration to the SE has the same direction than the main ocean currents those deposited the sand. (2) The anomalous course of Parismina river is most probably conditioned by the fracturation of the dissected volcanic apron of Turrialba volcano. (3) Channel migration and capture of Barbilla river by Matina river can be triggered by the tectonic tilting of the coastal plain towards the SE. The subsidence of the SE sector of the plain was

  18. Characterize the hydraulic behaviour of grate inlet in urban drainage to prevent the urban's flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez Alvarez, Jackson David; Gomez, Manuel; Russo, Beniamino; Redondo, Jose M.

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important problems that have some cities is the urban floods because of poor drainage design. Therefore the systems the drainage do not have the capacity of capture the flow of discharge generated in a rain event and insert it into the drainage network. Even though the two problems that have caught the main attention are the evaluation of the volumes falling in the river basin because extreme rainfall events often lead to urban pluvial flooding being a hydrologic problem and the hydraulic design of the sewer network being a hydraulic problem to limiting capacity of the drainage system, there is an intermediate step between these two processes that is necessary to solve that is the hydraulic behavior of the grate inlet. We need to collect the runoff produced on the city surface and to introduce it in the sewer network. Normally foundry companies provide complete information about drainage grate structural capacity but provide nothing about their hydraulic capacity. This fact can be seen because at the moment does not exist any official regulation at national or international level in this field. It's obvious that, nowadays, there is a great gap in this field at the legislative level owing to the complexity of this field and the modernity of the urban hydrology as science [1]. In essence, we shows the relevance to know the inlet hydraulic interception capacity because surface drainage requires a satisfactory knowledge on storm frequency, gutter flow and above all inlet capacity. In addition, we development an important achievement is the invention and development of techniques for measurement of field velocities in hydraulics engineering applications. Hence knowledge the technological advances in digital cameras with high resolution and high speed found in the environmental, and the advances in image processing techniques, therefore now is a tremendous potential to obtain of behavior of the water surface flow [2]. A novel technique using particle

  19. Kinbasket Reservoir and Upper Columbia River Kokanee spawner index 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an escapement survey for tributaries to the Kinbasket Reservoir and the Upper Columbia River were provided. Two aerial surveys were conducted during October, 2005. The Kokanee were grouped in schools and summed in order to provide independent estimates. Otoliths of the fish were also extracted in order to determine their age. Results of the survey showed that an estimated 236,760 Kokanee fish were spawning within 11 index streams and rivers within the Kinbasket Reservoir drainage area. Mean fork length was estimated at 24.7 cm. While the Columbia River continues to be the most important Kokanee spawning location in the Kinbasket Reservoir drainage area, the 2005 Kokanee escapement index was the third lowest recorded since 1996. It was concluded that declining fish size and declining abundance may indicate reduced reservoir productivity. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  20. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. Quasi-one-dimensional foam drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassia, P.; Cilliers, J. J.; Neethling, S. J.; Ventura-Medina, E.

    Foam drainage is considered in a froth flotation cell. Air flow through the foam is described by a simple two-dimensional deceleration flow, modelling the foam spilling over a weir. Foam microstructure is given in terms of the number of channels (Plateau borders) per unit area, which scales as the inverse square of bubble size. The Plateau border number density decreases with height in the foam, and also decreases horizontally as the weir is approached. Foam drainage equations, applicable in the dry foam limit, are described. These can be used to determine the average cross-sectional area of a Plateau border, denoted A, as a function of position in the foam. Quasi-one-dimensional solutions are available in which A only varies vertically, in spite of the two-dimensional nature of the air flow and Plateau border number density fields. For such situations the liquid drainage relative to the air flow is purely vertical. The parametric behaviour of the system is investigated with respect to a number of dimensionless parameters: K (the strength of capillary suction relative to gravity), α (the deceleration of the air flow), and n and h (respectively, the horizontal and vertical variations of the Plateau border number density). The parameter K is small, implying the existence of boundary layer solutions: capillary suction is negligible except in thin layers near the bottom boundary. The boundary layer thickness (when converted back to dimensional variables) is independent of the height of the foam. The deceleration parameter α affects the Plateau border area on the top boundary: weaker decelerations give larger Plateau border areas at the surface. For weak decelerations, there is rapid convergence of the boundary layer solutions at the bottom onto ones with negligible capillary suction higher up. For strong decelerations, two branches of solutions for A are possible in the K=0 limit: one is smooth, and the other has a distinct kink. The full system, with small but non

  2. Technology of gas drainage and utilization in Huaibei mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; XU Rui

    2009-01-01

    With the characteristics of coal seam geology and gas occurrence, a "ground-underground" integrated gas drainage method was formed, which can relieve gas pressure and increase permeability by mining the protection seams in conditional regions. After coal seam gas drainage, high gas outburst seam was converted to low gas safety seam. In the coal face mining process, safety and high efficient coal mining were realized by the measure of gas-suction over mining. In addition to the drainage gas for civil gas and gas power generation, the Huaibei Mining Group has actively carried out research on the utilization technology of methane drainage by ventilation. On the one hand, it can save precious energy; on the other hand, it can protect the environment for people's survival. In 2007, the amount of coal mine gas drainage was 120 hm3; the rate of coal mine gas drainage was 44%. Compared with the year 2002, the amount of coal mine gas drainage increased by two times. Meanwhile, the utilization rate of gas increased rapidly.

  3. Fold growth and drainage evolution of the Perman - Bana Bawi Anticline (Northern Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretis, B.; Grasemann, B.; Faber, R.; Lockhart, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Zagros fold- and thrust belt is a seismically active orogen, which is the result of the Cenozoic collision between the Eurasian and the Arabian plates. Kinematic models based on GPS networks suggest a north-south shortening between Arabia and Eurasia in the order of 2-2.5 cm/a. Most of this deformation is partitioned within the Zagros mountains in S-SW directed folding and thrusting as well as in NW-SE to N-S trending dextral strike slip faults. We investigate in this work the growth of the Perman - Bana Bawi anticlines (northeast of Erbil in Kurdistan region) by means of structural field work and tectonic geomorphology based on a geological map and ASTER remote sensing data (digital elevation model and satellite images). The Perman - Bana Bawi anticline forms a slightly S-shaped NW-SE striking fold chain over an exposed distance of more than 80 km. The dominant wavelength of the fold train is about 8 km. The backlimb dips with about 35° to the NE and the forelimb has a mean dip of about 45° towards SW. Hydrologically, there are few rivers with all-year flow conditions and therefore the dominant fluviatile erosion mainly takes place in the months with periodical precipitation, which varies between 700 and 3,000 mm/a (i.e. during the winter months). The presence of wind gaps and the pattern of deflected rivers suggest that the Perman and the Bana Bawi anticline initially developed as individual structures. The lateral growth directions are constrained by fanned drainage, which are especially in the cylindrical parts of the fold strongly overprinted by transverse rivers perpendicular to the fold axis. Although incising the same stratigraphic strata, the erosion pattern on backlimbs clearly differs from the tributary pattern on the forelimbs. The backlimbs are characterized by drainage parallel to the fold crest and asymmetric forked networks. Forelimbs are more strongly dissected by rivers with higher sinuosities with an older generation partly oblique to the

  4. Distinguishing the Transition Reach between Torrent and River Using Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Morphology in River Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, F. Y.; Chen, S. C.; An, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    To distinguish a transition reach between river and torrent, this study designed a method to quantify the morphology of channel cross-section. The 5m DEM, which administered by central government, was used to obtain cross-sections from third and fourth order river of 10 main drainages in Taiwan with an interval of 140 to 150 m. We designed a Cross-Sectional Complex-Index (Ics) to determine the morphological complexity and quantify the degrees of wide-shallow for each sections. This index can be applied to define the location of notch, because it can be knew form river regime that a notch is defined as a narrow-deep cross-section and narrow-deep and relatively large slope to adjacent reach. Therefore, this study defined notch index (Inotch) as the gradient divided by cross-sectional complex-index, and applied it to present the distribution of notch-type sections in study drainages, and the results of field investigation in 22 site showed that a section can be defined as notch while Inotch is lager then 60. The distribution of notch in a drainage shown that the notch which conform our quantitative definitions almost concentrated into several reaches intersecting with some broad-shallow section, and the gradient of these reaches are between 2% to 3%. Therefore, we can define that these reaches are the transition reaches between river and torrent. There are 54 sites of transition reach in our study drainages, 80% of the sites had a watershed area within a range of 2000 to 6000 ha. It proof that our method can define transition reach effectively and consistently. In addition, because of the type of disaster is collapse and debris flow in torrent and flood damages in river. It can be found that type of disaster are derived from the river morphology. Therefore, our method and result can be applied to determine the disaster type and strategic planning of disaster prevention as a reference.

  5. River Water Quality Zoning: A Case Study of Karoon and Dez River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karamouz, N Mahjouri, R Kerachian

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Karoon-Dez River basin, with an area of 67000 square kilometers, is located in southern part of Iran. This river system supplies the water demands of 16 cities, several villages, thousands hectares of agricultural lands, and several hydropower plants. The increasing water demands at the project development stage including agricultural networks, fish hatchery projects, and inter-basin water transfers, have caused a gloomy future for water quality of the Karoon and Dez Rivers. A good part of used agricultural water, which is about 8040 million cubic meters, is returned to the rivers through agricultural drainage systems or as non-point, return flows. River water quality zoning could provide essential information for developing river water quality management policies. In this paper, a methodology is presented for this purpose using methods of -mean crisp classification and a fuzzy clustering scheme. The efficiency of these clustering methods was evaluated using water quality data gathered from the monitoring sampling points along Karoon and Dez Rivers. The results show that the proposed methodology can provide valuable information to support decision-making and to help river water quality management in the region.

  6. Morphometric characterisation and classification of the Bobo river watershed in the Nariño department, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Benavides Mora

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The object of this work was to make a morphometric characterization of the Bobo river watershed in the Nariño department in Colombia. A map was created from topographical maps (1:25.000 scale using the drainage network and the limit of each 2nd order microbasin as database. Dimensional, drainage network and relief morphometric parameters were evaluated for a later hy- drological study. The drainage area was 224.97 km2, having a 71.31 km perimeter. The Bobo river watershed is considered to be 6th order and has 176 2nd order drainage channels, 34 3rd order drainage channels, 9 4th order drainage channels and 3 5th order drainage channels. Average drainage density is 3.71km/km², reflecting its high density, having strong, dissected geological formation. The area has a typical Andean land-use pattern, having native wooded vegetation, traditional transitory potato and vegetable growing predominating.

  7. Superficial drainage studies in open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drainage studies concerning large open-pit mining projects can be of vital importance throughout the mining activity itself as they may assist in avoiding activity interruptions due to drainage problems, therefore representing substantial savings. These studies should, in fact, be carried out from the initial activity stages and shall be considered in operational, project and planning decisions in order to optimize results and reduce costs. This specific study presents a drainage study systematization proposal, enphasazing economic decision criteria. The authors comment on studies of this nature developed at the Caldas uranium mine - NUCLEBRAS. (D.J.M.)

  8. Peritoneal seeding of cholangiocarcinoma in patients with percutaneous biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous transhepatic catheter decompression is performed increasingly as an adjunct or alternative to surgery in patients with benign or malignant biliary obstruction. The authors recently saw three patients with cholangiocarcinoma in whom metastatic seeding of the peritoneal serosa was identified some months after initial percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. Although no tumor was found along the hepatic tract of the biliary drainage catheters to implicate the drainage tubes as the direct source of peritoneal spread, the occurrence of this rare type of metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma in patients with potential access of tumor cells to the peritoneal cavity via the catheter tracts does suggest such a relation. The clinical history of one patient is presented

  9. Peritoneal seeding of cholangiocarcinoma in patients with percutaneous biliary drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.A. Jr.; Heaston, D.K.; Moore, A.V. Jr.; Mills, S.R.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1983-09-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic catheter decompression is performed increasingly as an adjunct or alternative to surgery in patients with benign or malignant biliary obstruction. The authors recently saw three patients with cholangiocarcinoma in whom metastatic seeding of the peritoneal serosa was identified some months after initial percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. Although no tumor was found along the hepatic tract of the biliary drainage catheters to implicate the drainage tubes as the direct source of peritoneal spread, the occurrence of this rare type of metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma in patients with potential access of tumor cells to the peritoneal cavity via the catheter tracts does suggest such a relation. The clinical history of one patient is presented.

  10. Topographically mediated ice stream subglacial drainage networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiester, J.; Sergienko, O. V.; Hulbe, C. L.

    2016-02-01

    Satellite laser altimetry reveals short timescale changes in Antarctic ice sheet surface elevation that are suggested to be driven by subglacial water transport and storage. Here details of the interaction between the dynamics of ice stream flow, subglacial water system, and bed elevation relief are examined in the context of idealized, heterogeneous bed geometries. Using a two-way coupled model of ice and subglacial water flow, we show that basal topography controls the temporal and spatial variability of the sub-ice stream hydraulic system. The orientation and characteristic dimensions of the topographic undulations determine the morphology (connected subglacial ponds or channel-like subglacial water features) and timescales of the sub-ice stream drainage system. The short-term (several years to decades) variability of the simulated coupled ice stream/subglacial water system suggests that the short-term surface variations detected in remote sensing observations may be indicative of a rapidly evolving subglacial water system. Our simulations also show that interaction between ice flow and the highly dynamic subglacial water system has a strong effect on effective stress in the ice. Large effective stress magnitudes arise over areas where the basal traction is characterized by strong spatial gradients, that is, transitions from high to low basal traction or vise versa. These transitions migrate on multiyear timescales and thus cause large effective stress variability on the same temporal scales.

  11. Prognostic factors after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reviewed the clinical charts and the radiographic files of 93 patients with obsructive jaundice -in 86 cases due to neoplasms -treated with PTBD. The test of differences from survival curves was used to identify the clinical parameters predictive of short survival after PTBD. The difference in survival curves was significant relative to serum indirect bilirubin (cut point: 7.6 mg%), to serum cholinesterase (cut point: 1290 mU/ml), to white blood cells counts (cut point: 8600/mm3), to blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels (cut point: 60 mg%). Because of the market negative prognostic value of high BUN levels, our data seemto indicate that PTBD should not be performed when severe renal insufficiency is present. Other parameters correlated with a short survival after PTBD were the histotype of metastasis (in comparison with the other ones) and in large neoplastic volume (in comparison with a small and medium ones). Through pre-PTBD radiological and laboratory data analysis, a group of patients can be selected in whom the procedure will increase neither well-being nor survival, as plotted against those patients who are likely to benefit from biliary drainage

  12. Origin of acid mine drainage in Enugu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine flooding is a serious problem in the Enugu Coal Mines and has led to the abandonment of two of the four mines. About 1800 m3 of water is pumped out daily from the mines into the nearby streams. The source of this enormous volume of water has been established based on the hydrodynamics and hydrology of the area. Two prolific aquifers - an unconfined and a confined system - overlie the mines, but the mine water is derived principally from the unconfined aquifer. The pathway of flow is, provided by the numerous fractures connecting the two aquifers and the mine tunnel. The major hydrochemical activity resulting in pollution of the mine water occurs within the sumps in the floor of the longwalls. These sumps act as oxidation chambers where groundwater from the fractures mixes and subsequently reacts with sulfur-rich solutes released by coal mining. Contrary to general belief, the mine drainage has not seriously degraded the chemistry of receiving streams. The pH and electric conductivity, representing, the dissolved ions, were increased less than 10% of the values in the unaffected region

  13. Copper isotope fractionation in acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, Bryn E; Mathur, Ryan; Dohnalkova, Alice; Wall, A J; Runkel, R L; Brantley, Susan L

    2009-03-01

    We surveyed the Cu isotopic composition of primary minerals and stream water affected by acid mine drainage in a mineralized watershed located in southwestern Colorado, USA. The δ65Cu values (based on 65Cu/63Cu) of local enargite (δ65Cu = -0.01 ± 0.10‰; 2σ) and chalcopyrite (δ65Cu = 0.16 ± 0.10‰) are within the general range of previously reported values for terrestrial primary Cu sulfides (-1‰ < δ65Cu < 1). These mineral samples show lower δ65Cu values than stream waters (δ65Cu = 1.36 - 1.74 ± 0.10‰), with an average isotopic fractionation (quantified as Δaq-mino = δ65Cuaq – δ65Cu min, where Cuaq is leached Cu and Cu mino is the original mineral) of 1.60 ± 0.14‰ and 1.43 ± 0.14‰ for enargite and chalcopyrite, respectively.

  14. Information technology and decision support tools for stakeholder-driven river basin salinity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T; Cozad, D.B.; Lee, G.

    2010-01-01

    Innovative strategies for effective basin-scale salinity management have been developed in the Hunter River Basin of Australia and more recently in the San Joaquin River Basin of California. In both instances web-based stakeholder information dissemination has been a key to achieving a high level of stakeholder involvement and the formulation of effective decision support salinity management tools. A common element to implementation of salinity management strategies in both river basins has been the concept of river assimilative capacity for controlling export salt loading and the potential for trading of the right to discharge salt load to the river - the Hunter River in Australia and the San Joaquin River in California. Both rivers provide basin drainage and the means of exporting salt to the ocean. The paper compares and contrasts the use of monitoring, modeling and information dissemination in the two basins to achieve environmental compliance and sustain irrigated agriculture in an equitable and socially and politically acceptable manner.

  15. PIT-Tag effects on hatchery salmonids: Carson National Fish Hatchery spring Chinook Salmon: Annual report 2011 and work plan 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Codedwiretags CWT and passive integrated transponder PIT tags are usedextensively throughout the Columbia River Basin to address a wide variety of management...

  16. Percutaneous Transhepatic Endobiliary Drainage of Hepatic Hydatid Cyst with Rupture into the Biliary System: An Unusual Route for Drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common and serious complication of hydatid cyst of the liver is rupture into the biliary tract causing obstructive jaundice, cholangitis and abscess. The traditional treatment of biliary-cystic fistula is surgery and recently endoscopic sphincterotomy. We report a case of complex heterogeneous cyst rupture into the biliary tract causing biliary obstruction in which the obstruction and cyst were treated successfully by percutaneous transhepatic endobiliary drainage. Our case is the second report of percutaneous transbiliary internal drainage of hydatid cyst with rupture into the biliary duct in which the puncture and drainage were not performed through the cyst cavity

  17. Hydrochemistry, mineralogy and sulfur isotope geochemistry of acid mine drainage at the Mt. Morgan mine environment, Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineralogical, hydrochemical and S isotope data were used to constrain hydrogeochemical processes that produce acid mine drainage from sulfidic waste at the historic Mount Morgan Au-Cu mine, and the factors controlling the concentration of SO4 and environmentally hazardous metals in the nearby Dee River in Queensland, Australia. Some highly contaminated acid waters, with metal contents up to hundreds of orders of magnitude greater than the Australia-New Zealand environmental standards, by-pass the water management system at the site and drain into the adjacent Dee River. Mine drainage precipitates at Mt. Morgan were classified into 4 major groups and were identified as hydrous sulfates and hydroxides of Fe and Al with various contents of other metals. These minerals contain adsorbed or mineralogically bound metals that are released into the water system after rainfall events. Sulfate in open pit water and collection sumps generally has a narrow range of S isotope compositions (δ 34S = 1.8-3.7%o) that is comparable to the orebody sulfides and makes S isotopes useful for tracing SO4 back to its source. The higher δ 34S values for No. 2 Mill Diesel sump may be attributed to a difference in the source. Dissolved SO4 in the river above the mine influence and 20 km downstream show distinctive heavier isotope compositions (δ 34S = 5.4-6.8%o). The Dee River downstream of the mine is enriched in 34S (δ 34S = 2.8-5.4%o) compared with mine drainage possibly as a result of bacterial SO4 reduction in the weir pools, and in the water bodies within the river channel. The SO4 and metals attenuate downstream by a combination of dilution with the receiving waters, SO4 reduction, and the precipitation of Fe and Al sulfates and hydroxides. It is suggested here that in subtropical Queensland, with distinct wet and dry seasons, temporary reducing environments in the river play an important role in S isotope systematics

  18. Shallow Melting and Underground Drainage in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costard, F.; Sejourne, A.; Kargel, J.; Soare, R.

    2012-03-01

    Based on the identification of sinuous and elongated pits in Utopia Planitia, we suggest that shallow melting and underground drainage are possible. We test that hypothesis using a thermal model that comprises a thick insulating dusty layer.

  19. Recycling Facilities - Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Recycling Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Reclamation Locations are clean-up projects that are working to eliminate some form of abandoned mine. The following sub-facility types...

  20. Educational Software for Illustration of Drainage, Evapotranspiration, and Crop Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A. H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that developed a software package for illustrating drainage, evapotranspiration, and crop yield as influenced by water conditions. The software is a tool for depicting water's influence on crop production in western Kansas. (DDR)

  1. Adaptive Drainage Slots for Acoustic Noise Attenuation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to demonstrate feasibility in the reduction of noise attributed to drainage slots in jet engine acoustic liners....

  2. Dural arteriovenous fistula with spinal perimedullary venous drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianli Lv

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of six patients with dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF with drainage directly into the perimedullary venous system. In five patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, cerebral angiography revealed a DAVF with spinal venous drainage located at the petrosal sinus in one, at the tentorium in one, and at the craniocervical junction in four. In the patient with myelopathy, angiographic exploration began with a spinal angiogram. Bilateral vertebral angiography initially failed to demonstrate the fistula, and a tentorial DAVF was established with carotid artery angiography. Patients had no myelopathy when the venous drainage was limited to the cervical cord; myelopathy was present when the venous drainage descended toward the conus medullaris. Diagnosis of a DAVF presenting with myelopathy is more challenging than of those presenting with SAH.

  3. Hearing Outcomes after Surgical Drainage of Petrous Apex Cholesterol Granuloma

    OpenAIRE

    Rihani, Jordan; Kutz, J. Walter; Isaacson, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aims to assess the hearing outcomes of patients undergoing surgical management of petrous apex cholesterol granuloma and to discuss the role of otic capsule–sparing approaches in drainage of petrous apex cholesterol granulomas.

  4. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorine in drainage water. Nano photo-Fenton like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drainage water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms (EMs removed 100% of the lindane initial concentration. There is no remaining toxicity in lindane contaminated-water after remediation on treated rats relative to control with respect to histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Advanced oxidation processes especially with nanomaterials and bioremediation using effective microorganisms can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies of lindane in water.

  5. Adaptive Drainage Slots for Acoustic Noise Attenuation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG) demonstrated feasibility in the reduction of noise attributed to drainage slots in jet engine acoustic liners. This was...

  6. Hydrological and Biogeochemical Controls on the Fate of Dissolved Organic Matter in Large Drainage Networks: The Pulse-Shunt Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiers, J. E.; Raymond, P. A.; Sobczak, W. V.; Hoyle, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is central to the ecology and chemistry of inland waters as an energy and nutrient source, transporter of heavy metals and other pollutants, and a control on light attenuation. In this research, we examine the manner in which hydrologic variation interacts with biogeochemical processes to affect the utilization and concentrations of DOM throughout streams and rivers of a large drainage basin. The Pulse-Shunt Concept (PSC) forms the framework for our analysis. The PSC is based, in part, on field observations of pulsed inputs of terrestrial DOM to streams of headwater catchments during high-discharge events that are associated with rainfall and snowmelt. The pulse is followed by the shunt, which occurs as rising flows rapidly transmit terrestrially derived DOM from headwater streams to larger streams and rivers of the drainage network. Owing to the reduction in channel residence times, the shunt perturbs the downstream gradient in DOM lability and compositional diversity established under base-flow conditions, leading to the riverine export of biochemically reactive DOM that has retained its terrestrial signature. We explore the fate of terrestrial DOM subsidies in context of the PSC by developing a simple model that routes water and DOM through an idealized 200,000 km2 basin. This basin is drained by a dendritic channel network comprised of 30,000 first- through seventh-order streams that ultimately feed a 500-km long, eighth-order river. Published scaling laws are used to specify the numbers, lengths, and connectivities of the stream segments, while the routing algorithm describes the precipitation-induced delivery of terrestrial DOM to headwater reaches and the down-network changes in DOM concentrations resulting from rate-limited decomposition and mixing of waters from different reaches. Results of model simulations conducted to date underscore the dominant contribution of low-frequency precipitation events to the annual subsidy of

  7. 21Pb dating of sediments in a heavily contaminated drainage channel to the La Plata estuary in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 21Pb and 137Cs in sediment samples collected from two cores at a drainage channel to the La Plata river estuary in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were measured using ultralow-background detection systems. The 21Pb data were used to determine the rate of sediment accumulation of the sites. These results were correlated with some heavy metal (chromium and lead) concentrations of the samples in an attempt to characterize the historical input of contaminants due to the industrial development, which has taken place in this area over the last century. The 137Cs measurements demonstrate that cesium dating is not adequate in regions of the southern hemisphere

  8. The Role of County Surveyors and County Drainage Boards in Addressing Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Mike; Mullendore, Nathan; de Jalon, Silvestre Garcia; Prokopy, Linda Stalker

    2016-06-01

    Water quality problems stemming from the Midwestern U.S. agricultural landscape have been widely recognized and documented. The Midwestern state of Indiana contains tens of thousands of miles of regulated drains that represent biotic communities that comprise the headwaters of the state's many rivers and creeks. Traditional management, however, reduces these waterways to their most basic function as conveyances, ignoring their role in the ecosystem as hosts for biotic and abiotic processes that actively regulate the fate and transport of nutrients and farm chemicals. Novel techniques and practices such as the two-stage ditch, denitrifying bioreactor, and constructed wetlands represent promising alternatives to traditional management approaches, yet many of these tools remain underutilized. To date, conservation efforts and research have focused on increasing the voluntary adoption of practices among agricultural producers. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the roles of the drainage professionals responsible for the management of waterways and regulated drains. To address this gap, we draw on survey responses from 39 county surveyors and 85 drainage board members operating in Indiana. By examining the backgrounds, attitudes, and actions of these individuals, we consider their role in advocating and implementing novel conservation practices.

  9. The use of constructed wetlands in the treatment of acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US government regulations require that all effluents from industrial operations, including mining, meet certain water quality standards. Constructed wetlands have proven to be useful in helping to attain those standards. Application of this biotechnology to mine water drainage can reduce water treatment costs and improve water quality in streams and rivers adversely affected by acidic mine water drainage from abandoned mines. Over 400 constructed wetland water treatment systems have been built on mined lands largely as a result of research by the US Bureau of Mines. Wetlands are passive biological treatment systems that are relatively inexpensive to construct and require minimal maintenance. Chemical treatment costs are reduced sufficiently to repay the cost of construction in less than a year. The mine waste water is typically treated in a series of excavated ponds that resemble small marsh areas. The ponds are engineered to facilitate bacterial oxidation of iron. Ideally, the water then flows through a composted organic substrate supporting a population of sulphate-reducing bacteria which raises the pH. Constructed wetlands in the USA are described - their history, functions, construction methodologies, applicabilities, limitations and costs. (author). 26 refs, 2 figs

  10. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Ahmed; Derbalah Aly; Shaheen Sabry

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation) for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane) in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detect...

  11. Abdominal drainage following cholecystectomy: high, low, or no suction?

    OpenAIRE

    McCormack, T. T.; Abel, P. D.; Collins, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    A prospective trial to assess the effect of suction in an abdominal drain following cholecystectomy was carried out. Three types of closed drainage system were compared: a simple tube drain, a low negative pressure drain, and a high negative pressure drain: 120 consecutive patients undergoing cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to one of the three drainage groups. There was no significant difference in postoperative pyrexia, wound infection, chest infection, or hospital stay. This study f...

  12. Drainage systems, an occluded source of sanitation related outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Background Drainage systems and its role in sanitation related outbreaks are evident but still occluded once it has been installed. This current review evaluates if drainage systems can cause infections and thus be of clinical concern. Method A review of the literature was analyzed. Papers, guidelines, and quality management systems have been considered. Results Adequate sanitation is fundamental and a prerequisite for safe life and productivity. In contrast, malfunctioning sanitation has bee...

  13. Modelling the fluid drainage through primary lymphatic valves

    OpenAIRE

    Heppell, Charles

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the fluid flow through tissues where lymphatic drainage occurs. Lymphatic drainage relies on two unidirectional valve systems, primary and secondary. The primary system is located in the initial lymphatics with, it is presumed, overlapping endothelial cells around the circumferential lining of lymphatic capillaries which act as unidirectional valves. The secondary lymphatic system is located in the lumen of the collecting lymphatics and is well studied in contrast to t...

  14. Tumor extension along percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Catheterization is commonly employed in the diagnosis and management of obstructive jaundice associated with malignant lesions. Tumor manipulation as an effort to obtain a histological diagnosis or to establish short or long-term internal-external biliary drainage is liable to disseminate the malignancy along the catheter tract. Two cases of malignant seeding of the catheter tract after biliary drainage have been observed. (orig.)

  15. Biliopleural fistula: A rare complication of percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ming-Tsung; Hsi, Sheng-Chuan; Hu, Philip; Liu, Kuang-Yi

    2007-01-01

    A 79-year-old previously healthy man presented with acute acalculous cholecystitis with obstruction of the biliary tract. He was successfully treated with antibiotics and percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage, but returned to the hospital two days after discharge with a rare complication of this technique, biliopleural fistula. A thoracostomy tube was inserted to drain the pleural effusion, and the patient’s previous antibiotics reinstated. After two weeks of drainage and antibiotics...

  16. Transhepatic cholangiography in the jaundiced patient. Extracorporeal drainage and endoprosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbert, F.; Schlegl, A.; Muzika, N. (Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien-Lainz (Austria). 1. Chirurgische Abt.)

    1984-01-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiographpy, as well as the therapeutic possibility of extracorporeal biliary tract drainage and insertion of an endoprosthesis are discussed in this paper. The results are presented of 19 patients treated by extracorporeal drainage and of 12 patients treated by insertion of an endoprosthesis, with a successful outcome in each group. The clinical parameters, the reduction in bilirubin values after treatment and improvement in the patient's condition and general well-being are discussed.

  17. Palliative percutaneous transhepatic drainage for inoperable obstructive jaundice.

    OpenAIRE

    Baxter-Smith, D. C.; Temple, J G; Howarth, F.

    1982-01-01

    A technique of percutaneous transhepatic drainage under local anaesthesia is described for the relief of intractable pruritus in patients with obstructive jaundice due to inoperable carcinoma. After standard percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography a polyethylene catheter is introduced into one of the large dilated bile ducts and left in situ, thereby establishing external retrograde biliary drainage. The technique has been used successfully in 6 cases with reduction in serum bilirubin level...

  18. Tumor extension along percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage tracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tersigni, R.; Bochicchio, O.; Cavallini, M.; Bufalini, G.; Alessandroni, L.; Arena, L.; Armeni, O.; Miraglia, F.; Stipa, S.; Rossi, P.

    1986-11-01

    Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Catheterization is commonly employed in the diagnosis and management of obstructive jaundice associated with malignant lesions. Tumor manipulation as an effort to obtain a histological diagnosis or to establish short or long-term internal-external biliary drainage is liable to disseminate the malignancy along the catheter tract. Two cases of malignant seeding of the catheter tract after biliary drainage have been observed.

  19. Lymphatic drainage and CTV in pancreatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, Alessio G; Cellini, Numa; Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Macchia, Gabriella; Smaniotto, Daniela; Luzi, Stefano; Balducci, Mario; Deodato, Francesco; Valentini, Vincenzo; Trodella, Lucio

    2003-01-01

    CTV definition in exclusive or adjuvant radiation therapy of pancreatic carcinoma is essentially based on the opinion of "expert" authors and on the knowledge of lymphatic pathways. The subject has been widely debated. Radiotherapy treatments of the entire upper abdomen (liver and pancreatic region), pancreas and lymph node stations, to volumes focused on macroscopic tumor only, have been proposed. Carcinoma of exocrine pancreas is characterized by the frequent, early appearance of metastasis via the lymphatic route. Most commonly involved lymph node stations include those of the celiac trunk, superior mesenteric, peripancreatic, lumboaortic lymph nodes, those of the hepatic portal (the latter in particular for pancreatic head tumors) and of the hilum of spleen (the latter in particular for pancreatic tail tumors). The possible multicentricity of pancreatic carcinoma, most likely due to intraductal spread, should lead to the inclusion in the CTV of the entire pancreatic parenchyma. This should be considered also for the frequent perineural intra- or extrapancreatic spread of pancreatic carcinoma present also in small tumors (T1). In extrapancreatic spread the retropancreatic adipose tissue should be included in the CTV at least at the GTV level. At the present state of knowledge, in the absence of pattern of failure analysis and of comparison of different treatment approaches, in terms of the definition of volumes of interest, CTV definitions which include lymphatic drainage stations, most part of pancreatic parenchyma and retropancreatic adipose tissue seem justified especially in treatments for cure. In palliation, the CTV may be limited to the GTV and the adipose tissue behind it. PMID:15018319

  20. Magnetites in acid mine drainage remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently we have discovered a catalytic method of production of magnetites at low temperatures using stoichiometric quantities of iron salts. In addition, we have found that the presence of organic chelators can dramatically enhance or inhibit the removal of heavy metals using this technique. Our work with magnetite synthesis at below room temperature was initiated to meet the demand from the US Bureau of Reclamation for the remediation of heavy metals from the Leadville Mine Drainage Tunnel effluent. They presently use a typical high pH treatment process and generate large quantities of sludge that requires extensive dewatering. The Bureau is interested in new cost effective technologies that meet their discharge levels and reduce sludge and the plant footprint. In a combined effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory and New Mexico State University, we are attempting to meet this challenge. Another aspect of our work is the examination of the effect of chelators on the removal of heavy metals from waters using an in-situ method of magnetite formation. Other researchers have used strong oxidants, such as permanganate, to chew up organics before forming magnetites. This was done in the belief that these chelators would inhibit the removal of heavy metals by tying them up and preventing their incorporation into the magnetite matrix. Although perfectly reasonable, in our attempts to quantify the extent of inhibition, we have found this premise to be somewhat simplistic. For example, with Pb2+, Cd2+ and Hg2+, we have found that the presence of chelators, such as EDTA, can either inhibit or enhance the removal efficiencies. In fact, with the appropriate selection of chelators we can chemically separate these three ions using magnetites. We have investigated this effect on several transition metal ions with a variety of chelators. The precise nature of this selectivity is under investigation in our laboratory. (authors)

  1. Determinants of Nitrous Oxide Emission from Agricultural Drainage Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) from agricultural drainage waters are poorly quantified and its determinants are not fully understood. Nitrous oxide formation in agricultural soils is known to increase in response to N fertiliser application, but the response of N2O in field drainage waters is unknown. This investigation combined an intensive study of the direct flux of N2O from the surface of a fertilised barley field with measurement of dissolved N2O and nitrate (NO3) concentrations in the same field's drainage waters. Dissolved N2O in drainage waters showed a clear response to field N fertilisation, following an identical pattern to direct N2O flux from the field surface. The range in N2O concentrations between individual field drains sampled on the same day was large, indicating considerable spatial variability exists at the farm scale. A consistent pattern of very rapid outgassing of the dissolved N2O in open drainage ditches was accentuated at a weir, where increased turbulence led to a clear drop in dissolved N2O concentration. This study underlines the need for carefully planned sampling campaigns wherever whole farm or catchment N2O emission budgets are attempted. It adds weight to the argument for the downward revision of the IPCC emission factor (EF5-g) for NO3 in drainage waters

  2. Determinants of nitrous oxide emission from agricultural drainage waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) from agricultural drainage waters are poorly quantified and its determinants are not fully understood. Nitrous oxide formation in agricultural soils is known to increase in response to N fertiliser application, but the response of N2O in field drainage waters is unknown. This investigation combined an intensive study of the direct flux of N2O from the surface of a fertilised barley field with measurement of dissolved N2O and nitrate (NO3) concentrations in the same field's drainage waters. Dissolved N2O in drainage waters showed a clear response to field N fertilisation, following an identical pattern to direct N2O flux from the field surface. The range in N2O concentrations between individual field drains sampled on the same day was large, indicating considerable spatial variability exists at the farm scale. A consistent pattern of very rapid outgassing of the dissolved N2O in open drainage ditches was accentuated at a weir, where increased turbulence led to a clear drop in dissolved N2O concentration. This study underlines the need for carefully planned sampling campaigns wherever whole farm or catchment N2O emission budgets are attempted. It adds weight to the argument for the downward revision of the IPCC emission factor (EF5-g) for NO3 in drainage waters

  3. Foam drainage in the presence of solid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Nguyen, A V

    2016-03-28

    We conducted forced drainage experiments to study the liquid flow within the foams stabilized by a cationic surfactant (CTAB) in the presence of partially hydrophobic silica particles. The results show that the presence of solid particles, even when present in small amounts (0.0932 g L(-1) foam), can significantly decrease the foam permeability. The scaling behaviour (power law) between the drainage velocity and the imposed flow rate indicates that the presence of solid particles in the foams triggers a transition of the foam drainage regime from a node-dominated regime to a Plateau border-dominated regime. We applied two foam drainage equations for aqueous foams to simulate the experimental data and interpret the transition. The simulation results show that the presence of solid particles in the foams increases the rigidity of the interfaces and the viscous losses in the channels (the Plateau borders) of the foams, and decreases the foam permeability. We also generalize the theory for the effects of unattached hydrophilic particles on foam drainage by considering the effects of hydrophobicity and concentration of solid particles on the confinement of foam networks. This study explores liquid drainage in three-phase foams and is relevant to the field of hydrophobic particle separation by froth flotation, in which the wash water is commonly applied to the froth layer to improve the product grade. PMID:26877265

  4. A cost comparison of traditional drainage and SUDS in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, A; Jefferies, C; Waddell, G; Shanks, G; Blackwood, D; Watkins, A

    2008-01-01

    The Dunfermline Eastern Expansion (DEX) is a 350 ha mixed development which commenced in 1996. Downstream water quality and flooding issues necessitated a holistic approach to drainage planning and the site has become a European showcase for the application of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). However, there is minimal data available regarding the real costs of operating and maintaining SUDS to ensure they continue to perform as per their design function. This remains one of the primary barriers to the uptake and adoption of SUDS. This paper reports on what is understood to be the only study in the UK where actual costs of constructing and maintaining SUDS have been compared to an equivalent traditional drainage solution. To compare SUDS costs with traditional drainage, capital and maintenance costs of underground storage chambers of analogous storage volumes were estimated. A whole life costing methodology was then applied to data gathered. The main objective was to produce a reliable and robust cost comparison between SUDS and traditional drainage. The cost analysis is supportive of SUDS and indicates that well designed and maintained SUDS are more cost effective to construct, and cost less to maintain than traditional drainage solutions which are unable to meet the environmental requirements of current legislation. PMID:18496012

  5. Percutaneous catheter drainage of intraabdominal abscesses and fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Tae; Kwon, Tae Hee; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Suh, Jung Ho [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ho [Cheil General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    Percutaneous catheter drainage has been reported to be an effective method in the management of selected patients with abscess and fluid collection. Its high success rate and relatively low complications make the procedure an alternative to surgery in the individual cases. During past two years percutaneous catheter drainage in 25 patients with intraabdominal abscesses and fluid collection was performed at the Department of Radiology, Yonsei University College of medicine. Here the technique and author's results were summarized. 1. The total 25 patients who had percutaneous catheter drainage are 10 liver abscesses, 3 subphrenic, one subhepatic, 4 renal and perirenal, 2 pelvic, one psoas, one anterior pararenal fluid from acute pancreatitis, one pancreas pseudocyst and 2 malignant tumor necrosis. 2. The modified Seldinger technique used for all cases of abscess and fluid drainage under guidance of ultrasound scan. The used catheters were 10F. Pigtail and 14F. Malecot (Cook c/o) catheters. 3. The abscesses and fluid of 17 patients among 25 were cured by the percutaneous catheter drainage and 4 patients were clinically improved. The catheter drainage was failed in 2 patients and 3 complication were developed. 4. The success rate of this procedure was 91.3%, failure rate was 8.7% and complication rate was 12%.

  6. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: analysis of 175 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is a safe, effective and palliative means of treatment in biliary obstruction, especially in cases with malignant obstruction which are inoperable. 175 cases of transhepatic biliary drainage were performed on 119 patients with biliary obstruction from January 1985 to June 1989 at Kyung-pook National University Hospital. The causes of obstructive jaundice were 110 malignant diseases and 9 benign diseases. The most common indication for drainage was palliative intervention of obstruction secondary to malignant tumor in 89 cases. 86 cases of external drainage were performed including 3 cases of left duct approach, 29 cases of external-internal drainage and 60 cases of endoprosthesis. In external and external-internal drainages, immediate major complications (11.9%) occurred, including not restricted to, but sepsis, bile peritonitis and hemobilia. Delayed major complications (42.9%) were mainly catheter related. The delayed major complication of endoprosthesis resulted from obstruction of the internal stent. The mean time period to reobstruction of the internal stent was about 12 weeks. To improve management status, regular follow-up is required, as is education of both patients and their families as to when immediate clinical attention is mandated. Close communication amongst the varying medical specialities involved will be necessary to provide optional treatment for each patient

  7. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: analysis of 175 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kyung Jin; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kim, Tae Hun; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duk Sik [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-10-15

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is a safe, effective and palliative means of treatment in biliary obstruction, especially in cases with malignant obstruction which are inoperable. 175 cases of transhepatic biliary drainage were performed on 119 patients with biliary obstruction from January 1985 to June 1989 at Kyung-pook National University Hospital. The causes of obstructive jaundice were 110 malignant diseases and 9 benign diseases. The most common indication for drainage was palliative intervention of obstruction secondary to malignant tumor in 89 cases. 86 cases of external drainage were performed including 3 cases of left duct approach, 29 cases of external-internal drainage and 60 cases of endoprosthesis. In external and external-internal drainages, immediate major complications (11.9%) occurred, including not restricted to, but sepsis, bile peritonitis and hemobilia. Delayed major complications (42.9%) were mainly catheter related. The delayed major complication of endoprosthesis resulted from obstruction of the internal stent. The mean time period to reobstruction of the internal stent was about 12 weeks. To improve management status, regular follow-up is required, as is education of both patients and their families as to when immediate clinical attention is mandated. Close communication amongst the varying medical specialities involved will be necessary to provide optional treatment for each patient.

  8. Lymphatic drainage and sentinel node location in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Mammary lymphoscintigraphy using small volume (0.1-0.2 ml) peritumoral injections of 99Tcm-antimony sulphide colloid provided a map of the lymph drainage of a breast cancer to its draining sentinel lymph nodes in 92 of 102 patients (over 90%). Non-migration of tracer is reduced by post-injection massage for 5 min but may occur especially if the lymphatics are blocked by metastases. Drainage included the axilla in 92%, internal mammary nodes in 43%, supraclavicular nodes in 12% and intramammary interval nodes in 10% of patients. One patient drained to an interpectoral node. Drainage across the centre-line of the breast occurred in 46% of patients but direct drainage to the contralateral side of the patient was not seen. Lymphatic drainage occurred to 1 node field in 52 patients, 2 node fields in 34 patients and 3 node fields in 6 patients, so that 43% of patients had multiple draining node fields. Drainage to non-axillary sites occurred in 51% of patients. In conclusion, mammary lymphoscintigraphy accurately maps sentinel node location in breast cancer. Approximately half of the patients will have sentinel nodes outside the axilla. To achieve complete lymph node staging in patients with breast cancer, it is logical to biopsy these non-axillary sentinel nodes as well as the sentinel nodes in the axilla. Failure to do so will potentially understage the node status in 50% of patients

  9. On Rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Gleason, Colin Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of rivers to industry, agriculture, the climate system, and global ecosystems, our current knowledge of river discharge (volume of available water per unit time) is surprisingly poor for many regions of the world as political cloistering, aging infrastructure, and rapid human changes limit our ability to understand global surface waters holistically. Closing this knowledge gap is critical for better management of surface water in light of drought and increasing human de...

  10. Kissimmee River restoration: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, P J; Toth, L A; Koebel, J W; Strayer, P K

    2002-01-01

    Channelization of the Kissimmee River transformed a 167 km meandering river into a 9 metre deep, 75 metre wide, 90 km drainage canal (C-38) that is compartmentalized with levees and water control structures into a series of five stagnant pools. Channelization dramatically changed water level and flow characteristics, drained 21,000 hectares of floodplain wetlands and severely impacted fish and wildlife populations. A $500 million dollar restoration project will restore the ecological integrity of the river-floodplain system by reconstructing the natural river channel and reestablishing hydrologic processes. Sixty expectations have been established to quantify the ecosystem's recovery. The first phase of reconstruction was completed in February 2001 and included movement of 9.2 million cubic metres of earth to backfill 12 km of C-38, the explosive demolition of one water control structure, construction of two sections (2.4 km) of new river channel, and reestablishment of 24 contiguous km of river. Numerous social, political, and technical challenges have been encountered during the project's evolution. Recommendations are provided for future restoration projects. PMID:12171366

  11. ANWR progress report number FY84-4: Population size, composition, and distribution of moose along the Canning and Kongakut Rivers within the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, fall 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys to determine the population size, composition, and distribution of moose (Alces alces) along the Canning and Kongakut River drainages were conducted...

  12. Effects of reservoirs on flood discharges in the Kansas and the Missouri River basins, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Charles A.

    1994-01-01

    The floods of 1993 were of historic magnitude as water in the Missouri and the Mississippi Rivers reached levels that exceeded many of the previous observed maximums. Although large parts of the flood plains of both rivers upstream from St. Louis, Missouri, were inundated, water levels would have been even higher had it not been for the large volume of runoff retained in flood-control reservoirs. Most of the total flood-control storage available upstream from St. Louis is located along the main stem and tributaries of the Missouri River; the largest concentration of reservoirs is located within the Kansas River Basin. The Kansas River Basin accounts for about l0 percent (60,000 square miles) of the drainage area of the Missouri River Basin, and reservoirs control streamflow from 85 percent (50,840 square miles) of the drainage area of the Kansas River Basin. Analyses of flood discharges in the Kansas River indicate that reservoirs reduced flooding along the Kansas and the lower Missouri Rivers. Results of analyses of the 1993 flooding, which include total basin rainfall, peak discharge, and total flood volume on the Kansas River, are compared with analyses of the 1951 flood, which had a similar total volume but a substantially larger peak discharge.

  13. Sensitivity of drainage efficiency of cranberry fields to edaphic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periard, Yann; José Gumiere, Silvio; Rousseau, Alain N.; Caron, Jean; Hallema, Dennis W.

    2014-05-01

    Water management on a cranberry farm requires intelligent irrigation and drainage strategies to sustain strong productivity and minimize environmental impact. For example, to avoid propagation of disease and meet evapotranspiration demand, it is imperative to maintain optimal moisture conditions in the root zone, which depends on an efficient drainage system. However, several drainage problems have been identified in cranberry fields. Most of these drainage problems are due to the presence of a restrictive layer in the soil profile (Gumiere et al., 2014). The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of a restrictive layer on the drainage efficiency by the bias of a multi-local sensitivity analysis. We have tested the sensitivity of the drainage efficiency to different input parameters set of soil hydraulic properties, geometrical parameters and climatic conditions. Soil water flux dynamic for every input parameters set was simulated with finite element model Hydrus 1D (Simanek et al., 2008). Multi-local sensitivity was calculated with the Gâteaux directional derivatives with the procedure described by Cheviron et al. (2010). Results indicate that drainage efficiency is more sensitive to soil hydraulic properties than geometrical parameters and climatic conditions. Then, the geometrical parameters of the depth are more sensitive than the thickness. The drainage efficiency was very insensitive to the climatic conditions. Understanding the sensitivity of drainage efficiency according to soil hydraulic properties, geometrical and climatic conditions are essential for diagnosis drainage problems. However, it becomes important to identify the mechanisms involved in the genesis of anthropogenic soils cranberry to identify conditions that may lead to the formation of a restrictive layer. References: Cheviron, B., S.J. Gumiere, Y. Le Bissonnais, R. Moussa and D. Raclot. 2010. Sensitivity analysis of distributed erosion models: Framework. Water Resources Research

  14. Aquatic invertebrates of the Ribnica and Lepenica Rivers: Composition of the community and water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigating the community of aquatic invertebrates in the Ribnica and Lepenica Rivers (Kolubara River drainage area are given in the present work. Forty-three taxa are recorded. In relation to other studied streams in Serbia, the investigated rivers are characterized by high diversity of macroinvertebrates. Cluster analysis indicates that the locality on the Lepenica stands apart from those on the Ribnica, which is a consequence of the difference of habitats found at them. Results of saprobiological analysis of the macrozoobenthos in the given rivers indicate that their waters belong to quality classes I and II.

  15. Heavy metal pollution in the Guadiamar river and the Guadalquivir estuary (South West Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Francisco, (S.I.) (1724-1799); Soldevilla, Marina; Cordón, Rosario; Arambarri, Pablo

    1987-01-01

    The Guadalquivir river is the most important course of water of South West Spain. Its tributary, the Guadiamar river, joins the Guadalquivir near its mouth at C~diz Gulf in the Spanish South Atlantic coast, just after skirting the marshy part of the Do~ana National Park. The upper Guadiamar river receives through its tributary the Agrio river the drainage water from an opencast-worked polymetallic sulphide deposit and the effluents from a plant for the treatment and concentration of mineral. ...

  16. The Pollution of River IBËR with Heavy Metals from Landfill of Kelmend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafet Zeqiri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper treated the degree of water pollution that emerges from mining and mixed with industrial wastes and as such in the form of pulp thrown in landfills. From the landfill through drainage and water flows in the river Ibër, penetrate the different pollutants that affect in water quality of this river. The degree of contamination of the river Ibër is monitored at several points, on which it is made water sampling of landfill and where we have reached the conclusion on the possibilities of prevention of water pollution of the river Ibër.

  17. Genes meet geology: fish phylogeographic pattern reflects ancient, rather than modern, drainage connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, J M; Craw, D; Youngson, J H; Wallis, G P

    2001-09-01

    We used DNA analysis of the freshwater Galaxias vulgaris complex (Pisces: Galaxiidae) to test a geological hypothesis of drainage evolution in South Island, New Zealand. Geological evidence suggests that the presently north-flowing Nevis River branch of the Clutha/Kawarau River system (Otago) once flowed south into the Nokomai branch of the Mataura system (Southland). The flow reversal is thought to have resulted from fault and fold activity associated with post-Miocene uplift. Mitochondrial DNA sequence data (control region and cytochrome b genes; 76 individuals; maximum divergence 7.1%) corroborate this geomorphological hypothesis: The Nevis River retains a freshwater fish species (Galaxias gollumoides; five sites; 10 haplotypes) that is otherwise restricted to Southland (nine sites; 15 haplotypes). There is no indication that the Nevis River lineage of G. gollumoides lives elsewhere in the Clutha/ Kawarau system (> 30 sites). Likewise, two widespread Clutha lineages (G. 'sp D'; G. anomalus-G. pullus) are apparently absent from the Nevis (> 30 sites). In particular, G. 'sp D' lives throughout much of the Clutha (12 sites, 23 haplotypes), including a tributary of the Kawarau, but is absent from the Nevis itself. Conventional molecular clock calibrations (based on a minimum Nevis-Mataura haplotype divergence of 3.0%) indicate that the Nevis flow reversal may have occurred in the early-mid Pleistocene, which is roughly consistent with geological data. The broad phylogeographic structure evident in the Clutha system is consistent with the sedentary nature of nonmigratory galaxiids. Our study reinforces the value of combining biological and geological data for the formulation and testing of historical hypotheses. PMID:11681739

  18. Morphometric analysis of the drainage system and its hydrological implications in the rain shadow regions, Kerala, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jobin THOMAS; Sabu JOSEPH; K.P. THRIVIKRAMJI; George ABE

    2011-01-01

    The rain shadow regions requisite a comprehensive watershed development and management plan for sustainable water resources management.The Pambar River Basin (PRB) lies on the rain shadow region of the southern Western Ghats,India,where climate showed marked intra-basin variation.A morphometric analysis was done to evaluate the drainage characteristics of PRB using topographical maps and digital elevation data.PRB was divided into eighteen 4th order basins (SB1-SB18),distributed along various climatic gradients.Lower order streams mostly dominate PRB and drainage pattern is a function of relief and structure.The terrain is highly dissected and prone to soil erosion during heavy storms and the elongated shape of PRB enables easier flood management.The influence of climate on drainage characteristics was evidently emphasized in basin morphometry.Four distinctively different classes were identified based on the morphometric similarities.The significance of morphometric analysis on the hydrological characterization is discussed and the relevance of the present study in water harvesting has been explicated.

  19. Uranium pollution in an estuary affected by pyrite acid mine drainage and releases of naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Huelva estuary is affected by former phosphogypsum releases and pyrite acid mine drainage. → Time evolution of uranium concentration is analyzed after halting of NORM releases. → Two new contamination sources are preventing the complete uranium cleaning: (1) The leaching of phosphogypsum stacks located close to Tinto River. (2) Pyrite acid mine drainage. → High uranium concentrations are dissolved in water and precipitate subsequently. - Abstract: After the termination of phosphogypsum discharges to the Huelva estuary (SW Spain), a unique opportunity was presented to study the response of a contaminated environmental compartment after the cessation of its main source of pollution. The evolution over time of uranium concentrations in the estuary is presented to supply new insights into the decontamination of a scenario affected by Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) discharges. The cleaning of uranium isotopes from the area has not taken place as rapidly as expected due to leaching from phosphogypsum stacks. An in-depth study using various techniques of analysis, including 234U/238U and 230Th/232Th ratios and the decreasing rates of the uranium concentration, enabled a second source of uranium contamination to be discovered. Increased uranium levels due to acid mine drainage from pyrite mines located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain) prevent complete uranium decontamination and, therefore, result in levels nearly twice those of natural background levels.

  20. Use of natural and applied tracers to guide targeted remediation efforts in an acid mine drainage system, Colorado Rockies, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Rory; Williams, Mark W.; Wireman, Mike; Runkel, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Stream water quality in areas of the western United States continues to be degraded by acid mine drainage (AMD), a legacy of hard-rock mining. The Rico-Argentine Mine in southwestern Colorado consists of complex multiple-level mine workings connected to a drainage tunnel discharging AMD to passive treatment ponds that discharge to the Dolores River. The mine workings are excavated into the hillslope on either side of a tributary stream with workings passing directly under the stream channel. There is a need to define hydrologic connections between surface water, groundwater, and mine workings to understand the source of both water and contaminants in the drainage tunnel discharge. Source identification will allow targeted remediation strategies to be developed. To identify hydrologic connections we employed a combination of natural and applied tracers including isotopes, ionic tracers, and fluorescent dyes. Stable water isotopes (δ18O/δD) show a well-mixed hydrological system, while tritium levels in mine waters indicate a fast flow-through system with mean residence times of years not decades or longer. Addition of multiple independent tracers indicated that water is traveling through mine workings with minimal obstructions. The results from a simultaneous salt and dye tracer application demonstrated that both tracer types can be successfully used in acidic mine water conditions.