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Sample records for carson river drainage

  1. Mercury in the Carson and Truckee River basins of Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Denburgh, A.S.

    1973-01-01

    Upstream from major pre-1900 ore milling in the Carson and Truckee River basins, "background" concentrations of total mercury in the upper 1 to 3 inches of sand- to clay-sized stream-bottom sediment are less than 0.1 ug/g (microgram per gram). Downstream, measured concentrations were as much as 200 times the background level. Greatest concentrations were encountered in the Carson River basin within and immediately upstream from Lahontan Reservoir. Data from for the Carson River near Fort Churchill suggest that most of the mercury in the sampled bottom sediment may be present as mercuric sulfide or as a component of one of more non-methyl organic compounds or complexes, rather than existing in the metallic state. Regardless of state, this reservoir of mercury is of concern because of its possible availability to the aquatic food chain and, ultimately, to man. Among 48 samples of surface water from 29 sites in the two basins, the maximum measured total-mercury concentration was 6.3 ug/1 (micrograms per liter), for a sample from the Carson River near Fort Churchill. Except downstream from Lahontan Reservoir, most other measured values were less than 1 ug/1. (The U.S> Environmental Protection Agency interim limit for drinking water is 5 ug/1.) The total-mercury content of stream water is related to the mercury content of bottom sediments and the rate of streamflow, because the latter affects the suspended-sediment transporting capability of the stream,. Near Fort Churchill, total-mercury concentrations that might be expected at streamflows greater than those of 1971-72 are: as much as 10-15 ug/1 or more at 2,000 cfs (cubic feet per second), and as much as 10-20 ug/1 or more at 3,000 cfs. Elsewhere, expectable concentrations are much less because the bottom sediment contains much less mercury. The mercury contents of water samples from 36 wells in the Carson and Truckee basins were all less than 1 ug/1, indicating that mercury is not a problem in ground water, even

  2. 1:250,000-scale geology of the Carson River Basin, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital continuous geologic data for the Carson River Basin, Nevada and California. It was compiled from individual county 1:250,000-scale...

  3. Study of effects of discharges of Carson River below Lahontan Reservoir on Stillwater Marsh

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains tables of recorded flows in the Carson River below Lahontan Reservoir for the water years 1956-57 to 1962-63. The report states that Stillwater...

  4. Radionuclides in ground water of the Carson River Basin, western Nevada and eastern California, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.M.; Welch, A.H.; Lico, M.S.; Hughes, J.L.; Whitney, R.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of domestic and public supply in the Carson River Basin. Ground water originates as precipitation primarily in the Sierra Nevada in the western part of Carson and Eagle Valleys, and flows down gradient in the direction of the Carson River through Dayton and Churchill Valleys to a terminal sink in the Carson Desert. Because radionuclides dissolved in ground water can pose a threat to human health, the distribution and sources of several naturally occurring radionuclides that contribute to gross-alpha and gross-beta activities in the study area were investigated. Generally, alpha and beta activities and U concentration increase from the up-gradient to down-gradient hydrographic areas of the Carson River Basin, whereas 222Rn concentration decreases. Both 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations are similar throughout the study area. Alpha and beta activities and U concentration commonly exceed 100 pCi/l in the Carson Desert at the distal end of the flow system. Radon-222 commonly exceeds 2,000 pCi/l in the western part of Carson and Eagle Valleys adjacent to the Sierra Nevada. Radium-226 and 228Ra concentrations are oxide coatings on fracture surfaces and fine-grained sediment, by adsorption on organic matter, and by coprecipitation with Fe and Mn oxides. These coated sediments are transported throughout the basin by fluvial processes. Thus, U is transported as dissolved and adsorbed species. A rise in the water table in the Carson Desert because of irrigation has resulted in the oxidation of U-rich organic matter and dissolution of U-bearing coatings on sediments, producing unusually high U concentration in the ground water. Alpha activity in the ground water is almost entirely from the decay of U dissolved in the water. Beta activity in ground water samples is primarily from the decay of 40K dissolved in the water and ingrowth of 238U progeny in the sample before analysis. Approximately one-half of the measured beta activity may not be present

  5. Areas permitted for irrigation, storage, evaporation, and disposal of treated sewage effluent in the upper Carson River Basin, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of areas permitted for irrigation, storage, evaporation, and disposal of treated sewage effluent in the Upper Carson River Basin, California...

  6. Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge (Little River Division) [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  7. Impact of Climate Change on Mercury Transport along the Carson River-Lahontan Reservoir System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flickinger, A.; Carroll, R. W. H.; Warwick, J. J.; Schumer, R.

    2014-12-01

    Historic mining practices have left the Carson River and Lahontan Reservoir (CRLR) system contaminated with high levels of mercury (Hg). Hg levels in Lahontan Reservoir planktivorous and predatory fish exceed federal consumption limits. Inputs of Hg to the system are mainly a result of erosion during high flow and diffusion from sediment during low flow, and the relationships between streamflow and both mercury transport and bioaccumulation are non-linear. The United States Bureau of Reclamation has produced future streamflow estimates for 2000-2099 using 112 CMIP3 climate projections and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. VIC results suggest that the hydrology of the system is likely to experience higher frequencies of both high and low extreme flows, and the monthly averages of future flows are expected to be higher in the winter and lower in the summer compared to observed flows. VIC daily streamflow estimates are biased-corrected using an empirical cumulative distribution function to match observed data over the historic period of 1950-1999. Future reservoir stage and outflows are modeled assuming reservoir operations are a function of river/canal inflows, previous reservoir stage and downstream agricultural demands. VIC and reservoir flows drive the CRLR Hg transport model (RIVMOD, WASP5, and MERC4). Daily output for both total and dissolved inorganic Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) are averaged at the decadal timescale to assess changes and uncertainty in predicted spatial and temporal Hg species water column concentrations as a function of altered hydrology with respect to changing climate. Future research will use CRLR output in a bioenergetics and Hg mass balance model for Sacramento blackfish (Orthodon microlepidotus), a filter feeding cyprinid found in Lahontan Reservoir. These future simulations will help to assess possible changes in ecosystem health with respect to hydrologic conditions and associated changes to Hg transport.

  8. Water-power resources in upper Carson River basin, California-Nevada, A discussion of potential development of power and reservoir sites on east and west forks, Carson River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumphrey, Harold L.

    1955-01-01

    West Fork Carson River offers the best opportunity for power development in the Carson River basin. The Hope Valley reservoir site could be developed to provide adequate storage regulation and concentration of fall would permit utilization of 1,400 feet of head in 51h miles below the clam site, or 1,900 feet of head in about 972 miles below the dam site; however, the average annual runoff susceptible of development is only about 70,000 acre-feet which limits the power that could be developed continuously in an average year with regulation to about 8,700 kilowatts utilizing 1,400 feet of head, or 12,000 kilowatts utilizing 1,900 feet of head. The method and degree of development will be determined to large extent by the method devised to supplement regulated flows from the Hope Valley reservoir to supply the water already appropriated for irrigation. If the Hope Valley site and the Watasheamu site on East Fork Carson River were developed coordinately water could be transferred to the West Fork for distribution through canals leading from that stream thus satisfying the deficiency due to regulation at Hope Valley and release of stored water on a power schedule. This would permit utilization of the entire 1,900 feet of fall. Independent development of the West Fork for optimum power production would require re-regulation of releases from Hope Valley reservoir and storage of a considerable part of the fall and winter flow for use during the irrigation season. Adequate storage capacity is apparently not available on the West Fork below Hope Valley; but offstream storage may be available in Diamond Valley which could be utilized by diversion from the West Fork near Woodfords. This would limit the utilization of the stream for power purposes to the development of the 1,400 feet of head between the Hope Valley dam site and Wood fords. In a year of average discharge East Fork Carson River and three of its principal tributaries could be developed to produce about 13

  9. Nineteenth century mercury hazard to wading birds and cormorants of the Carson River, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Hill, E.F.; Hoffman, D.J.; Spalding, M.G.; Grove, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Contemporary mercury interest relates to atmospheric deposition, contaminated fish stocks and exposed fish-eating wildlife. The focus is on methylmercury (MeHg) even though most contamination is of inorganic (IoHg) origin. However, IoHg is readily methylated in aquatic systems to become more hazardous to vertebrates. In response to a classic episode of historical (1859-1890) IoHg contamination, we studied fish-eating birds nesting along the lower Carson River, Nevada. Adult double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) contained very high concentrations of total mercury (THg) in their livers (geo. means 134.8 g/g wet weight [ww], 43.7, and 13.5, respectively) and kidneys (69.4, 11.1, and 6.1, respectively). Apparently tolerance of these concentrations was possible due to post-absorption demethylation and sequestration of resultant IoHg. Demethylation and sequestration processes also appeared to have reduced the amount of MeHg redistributed to eggs. However, the relatively short time spent by adults in the contaminated area before egg laying was also a factor in lower than expected concentrations of mercury in eggs. Most eggs (100% MeHg) had concentrations below 0.80 g/g ww, the putative threshold concentration where reproductive problems may be expected; there was no conclusive evidence of depressed hatchability. After hatching, the young birds were fed diets by their parents averaging 0.36 to 1.18 gMeHg/g ww through fledging. During this four to six week period, accumulated mercury concentrations in the organs of the fledglings were much lower than found in adults, but evidence was detected of toxicity to their immune (spleen, thymus, bursa), detoxicating (liver, kidneys) and nervous systems. Several indications of oxidative stress were also noted in the fledglings and were most apparent in young cormorants containing highest concentrations of mercury. This stress was

  10. Nineteenth century mercury: Hazard to wading birds and cormorants of the Carson River, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.; Hill, E.F.; Hoffman, D.J.; Spalding, Marilyn G.; Grove, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Contemporary mercury interest relates to atmospheric deposition, contaminated fish stocks and exposed fish-eating wildlife. The focus is on methylmercury (MeHg) even though most contamination is of inorganic (IoHg) origin. However, IoHg is readily methylated in aquatic systems to become more hazardous to vertebrates. In response to a classic episode of historical (1859a??1890) IoHg contamination, we studied fish-eating birds nesting along the lower Carson River, Nevada. Adult double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) contained very high concentrations of total mercury (THg) in their livers (geo. means 134.8g/g wet weight (ww), 43.7 and 13.5, respectively) and kidneys (69.4, 11.1 and 6.1, respectively). Apparently tolerance of these concentrations was possible due to a threshold-dependent demethylation coupled with sequestration of resultant IoHg. Demethylation and sequestration processes also appeared to have reduced the amount of MeHg redistributed to eggs. However, the relatively short time spent by adults in the contaminated area before egg laying was also a factor in lower than expected concentrations of mercury in eggs. Most eggs (100% MeHg) had concentrations below 0.80g/g ww, the putative threshold concentration where reproductive problems may be expected; there was no conclusive evidence of mercury-related depressed hatchability. After hatching, the young birds were fed diets by their parents averaging 0.36a??1.18gMeHg/g ww through fledging. During this four to six week period, accumulated mercury concentrations in the organs of the fledglings were much lower than found in adults, but evidence was detected of toxicity to their immune (spleen, thymus, bursa), detoxicating (liver, kidneys) and nervous systems. Several indications of oxidative stress were also noted in the fledglings and were most apparent in young cormorants containing highest concentrations of

  11. Etheostoma erythrozonum, a new species of darter (teleostei: Percidae) from the Meramec River drainage, missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, J.F.; Wood, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of darter, Etheostoma erythrozonum, is described from the Meramec River drainage of Missouri, USA. Etheostoma erythrozonum is the first known fish species endemic to the Meramec River drainage. It differs morphologically and genetically from populations of its sister species, Etheostoma tetrazonum, from the Gasconade River, Osage River, and Moreau River drainages. Copyright ?? 2009 ?? Magnolia Press.

  12. Precipitation and runoff simulations of select perennial and ephemeral watersheds in the middle Carson River basin, Eagle, Dayton, and Churchill Valleys, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect that land use may have on streamflow in the Carson River, and ultimately its impact on downstream users can be evaluated by simulating precipitation-runoff processes and estimating groundwater inflow in the middle Carson River in west-central Nevada. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, began a study in 2008 to evaluate groundwater flow in the Carson River basin extending from Eagle Valley to Churchill Valley, called the middle Carson River basin in this report. This report documents the development and calibration of 12 watershed models and presents model results and the estimated mean annual water budgets for the modeled watersheds. This part of the larger middle Carson River study will provide estimates of runoff tributary to the Carson River and the potential for groundwater inflow (defined here as that component of recharge derived from percolation of excess water from the soil zone to the groundwater reservoir). The model used for the study was the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Models were developed for 2 perennial watersheds in Eagle Valley having gaged daily mean runoff, Ash Canyon Creek and Clear Creek, and for 10 ephemeral watersheds in the Dayton Valley and Churchill Valley hydrologic areas. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for the 2 perennial watersheds and for the 10 ephemeral watersheds by limited indirect runoff estimates and by mean annual runoff estimates derived from empirical methods. The models were further constrained by limited climate data adjusted for altitude differences using annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study. The calibration periods were water years 1980-2007 for Ash Canyon Creek, and water years 1991-2007 for Clear Creek. To

  13. Nitrogen budget in the Changjiang River drainage area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Tao; YU Zhiming; SONG Xiuxian; CAO Xihua

    2012-01-01

    We established a budget model of nitrogen (N) inputs and outputs between watersheds and waterbodies to determine the sources of riverine N in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River drainage area.Nitrogen inputs in the budget included N from synthetic fertilizer,biological fixation by leguminous and other crops,wet/dry atmospheric deposition,excreta from humans and animals,and crop residues.The total N input was estimated to be 17.6 Tg,of which 20% or 3.5 Tg N was transported into waterbodies.Of the total N transported into waterbodies,the largest proportion was N from animal waste (26%),followed by N from atmospheric wet/dry deposition (25%),synthetic fertilizer N (17%),N in sewage wastes (17%),N in human waste from rural areas (6%) and industrial wastewater N (9%).We studied the spatial patterns of N inputs and outputs by dividing the Changjiang River drainage area into four sub-basins,from upstream to downstream:the Tongtian River drainage area (TTD,the headwater drainage area,138 000 km2,less disturbed by human activities); the Jinsha River drainage area (JSD,347 000 km2,less disturbed by human activities,approx.3 500 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary); the Pingshan-Yichang drainage area (PYD,520 500 km2,large-scale human disturbance,about 2 000 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary);and the Yichang-Datong drainage area (YDD,699 900 km2,large-scale human disturbance,approx.620 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary).The average N input into waterbodies was 2.3,7.3,24.1,and 28.2 kg N/ha in the TTD,JSD,PYD,and YDD sub-basins,respectively,suggesting an increase of N-components of more than 10 times from upstream to downstream areas.

  14. Organic Acid Concentrations in Rivers Within the Amazon River Drainage Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, A.

    2007-12-01

    The composition of the dissolved organic matter pool in both fresh and marine waters is largely unknown. Concentrations of low-molecular-weight organic acids (oxalate, citrate, glycolate, formate, acetate, succinate) have been determined in Brasilian (18 rivers sampled) and Peruvian (19 rivers sampled) rivers within the Amazon River drainage basin. Succinate concentrations were below the detection limit in all rivers. The dominant acid varied among the sampled rivers, indicating that organic acid concentrations depend on river basin characteristics. Organic-acid carbon comprised a highly significant, but variable, fraction of total dissolved carbon, with a range of 3-90%, indicating that organic-acid-derived carbon may be an important source of biologically labile carbon within the Amazon River drainage basin.

  15. Crystallaria cincotta, a new species of darter (Teleostei: Percidae) from the Elk River of the Ohio River drainage, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, S.A.; Wood, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    A new species of percid, Crystallaria cincotta, is described from the Cumberland, Elk, Green, and Muskingum river drainages of the Ohio River basin, USA. It differs from populations of Crystallaria asprella of the Gulf Coast, lower Mississippi River, middle Mississippi River, upper Mississippi River, and Wabash River drainages by having a reduced number of cheek scale rows restricted to the post-orbital region, a falcate margin on the pelvic fins, a preorbital blotch distinctly separate from the anterior orbital rim, and a wide mouth gape. The Elk River population is also divergent genetically from populations of the Gulf Coast, lower Mississippi River, and upper Mississippi River drainages. Crystallaria cincotta, discovered in the Elk River of the Ohio River drainage in 1980, is a rare species with the only extant population represented by 12 individuals collected from 1980-2005 from the lower 36 km section of the Elk River, West Virginia. Copyright ?? 2008 Magnolia Press.

  16. Mercury and drought along the lower Carson River, Nevada: II. Snowy egret and black-crowned night-heron reproduction on Lahontan Reservoir, 1997-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Henny, C.J.; Grove, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Mercury concentrations in the floodplain of the Carson River Basin in northwestern Nevada are some of the highest ever reported in a natural system. Thus, a portion of the basin including Lahontan Reservoir was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Natural Priorities List for research and cleanup. Preliminary studies indicated that reproduction in piscivorous birds may be at risk. Therefore, a 10-year study (1997-2006) was conducted to evaluate reproduction of snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) nesting on Gull Island in Lahontan Reservoir. Special attention was given to the annual flow of the Carson River, the resultant fluctuation of this irrigation reservoir, and the annual exposure of snowy egrets and night-herons to methylmercury (MeHg). The dynamic character of the river due to flooding and drought (drought effect) influenced snowy egret and night-heron reproduction more so than did MeHg contamination of eggs. During an extended drought (2000-2004) in the middle of the study, snowy egret nests containing eggs with concentrations of MeHg (measured as total mercury [THg] ??? 100% MeHg) ???0.80 ??g THg/g, ww, all failed, but in 1997 and 2006 (wet years with general flooding), substantial numbers of young were produced (but fewer than at nests where eggs contained putative biological effect threshold of 2.0 ??g THg/g in whole blood for young of both species was evaluated, which was frequently exceeded, but with no evidence, while still in the colony, of an association with direct mortality. An evaluation of physiological associations with blood residues and post-fledging survival will be presented in future reports in this series. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  17. Persistent organochlorine residues in sediments of Haihe River and Dagu Drainage River in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Hui; LI Xin-gang; LIU Hun; WANG Jun; SHEN Wei-ran; SUN Yi-chao; SHAO Xiao-long

    2005-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds were analyzed by means of GC-ECD in surface sediment samples from two selected rivers in Tianjin, Haihe River and Dagu Drainage River. A total of 16 surface sediment sites were selected along the both rivers. The frequency of detection of T-HCH and T-DDT in sediment samples both was up to 100%, which illustrated that the contamination of HCH and DDT was widespread in Haihe and Dagu Drainage Rivers. Results indicated that the concentrations of vadous pesticides in sediments from Haihe River were in the range of 3.30-75.96 ng/g dw for T-HCH and 1.57-211.57 ng/g dw for T-DDT. Compared with Haihe River,Dagu Drainage River was contaminated by HCHs and DDTs along the all locations and the values of T-HCH and T-DDT residues in sediments ranged from 2.30 to 124.61 ng/g dw and from 11.28 to 237.30 ng/g dw, respectively. The possible pollution sources were analyzed through monitoring results of organochlorine pesticides(OCPs) residues in sediments from the two rivers. The investigation also indicated that HCH was still used as pesticide in Tianjin partial area.

  18. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 9): Carson River Mercury Site, operable unit 1, Lyon, Storey and Churchill County, NV, March 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) of the Carson River Mercury Site (CRMS) which is located in Lyon, Storey and Churchill Counties, Nevada. The selected remedy for the five residential yards is to excavate contaminated surface soil (estimated to go to a depth of approximately 2 feet below ground surface), dispose of the soil at the RCRA municipal landfill if the soils do not exceed the TCLP standards, and restore the excavated areas. If it is determined that all or part of the excavated soil exceeds the TCLP standards, then the excavated soil will either be treated and disposed of at a RCRA municipal landfill or disposed of at the RCRA hazardous waste landfill.

  19. Pollen transport in the Shiyang River drainage, arid China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; XIE Yaowen; CHENG Bo; CHEN Fahu; ZHANG Jiawu

    2003-01-01

    In order to assess the contribution of the pollen transported by wind and fluvial flows to the pollen spectra in Shiyang River drainage, a typical small endorheic drainage in arid lands of northwest China, preliminary studies on modern pollen rain along two transects with 91 surface soil samples, 8 atmospheric samples, 30 modern fluvial flow samples and 50 riverbed mud samples, were carried out. Results show that dispersal agents (air, flowing water) have dissimilareffects on transport of pollen and the structure of pollen spectra. Fluvial flow has a stronger capacity than wind to transport large quantities of pollen overlong distances. Pollen transported by fluvial flow makes a large contribution to the pollen spectra of riverbed alluvial sediments. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions undertaken using pollen spectra from fluvial sediments in arid lands arestrongly influenced by pollen transport. Therefore, the sources, the transportation agents and the depositional condition of pollen should be systematically investigated before pollen assemblages are used to derive the environmental significance in such settings.

  20. Research on the conversion relationships between the river and groundwater in the Yellow River drainage area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Wenke; KONG; Jinling; DUAN; Lei; WANG; Yanlin; MA; Xi

    2004-01-01

    Conversion relationships between the river and groundwater in the Yellow River drainage area are studied in this paper based on the geologic and physiognomy conditions and the data of the groundwater regime, isotope, groundwater flow field and field survey. Then eight recharge and discharge modes on the relationships are put forward and the hydraulic characteristics of the modes are analysed, which provides a scientific basis for quantitatively simulating and assessing the conversion relationships,maintenance mechanism of the Yellow River and the regeneration ability of the groundwater in the area.

  1. A RIVER FLOW ROUTING MODEL BASED ON DIGITAL DRAINAGE NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Fei; REN Li-liang; YU Zhong-bo; XU Jing

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data, watershed delineation and spatial topological relationship were proposed by the Digital Elevation Drainage Network Model (DEDNM) for the area upstream of the Hanzhong Hydrological Station in the Hanjiang River in China. Then, the Muskingum-Cunge method considering lateral flow into the river was applied to flood routing on the platform of digital basin derived from DEDNM. Because of considering lateral flow into the river, the Muskingum-Cunge method performs better than the Muskingum method in terms of the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient and the relative error of flood discharge peak value. With a routing-after-superposition algorithm, the Muskingum-Cunge method performs better than the Muskingum method in terms of the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient and the relative error of flood discharge peak value. As a result, the digital basin coupled with the Muskingum-Cunge method provides a better platform for water resources management and flood control.

  2. Fire history of southeastern Glacier National Park: Missouri River Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Stephen W.

    1993-01-01

    In 1982, Glacier National Park (GNP) initiated long-term studies to document the fire history of all forested lands in the 410,000 ha. park. To date, studies have been conducted for GNP west of the Continental Divide (Barrett et al. 1991), roughly half of the total park area. These and other fire history studies in the Northern Rockies (Arno 1976, Sneck 1977, Arno 1980, Romme 1982, Romme and Despain 1989, Barrett and Arno 1991, Barrett 1993a, Barrett 1993b) have shown that fire history data can be an integral element of fire management planning, particularly wen natiral fire plans are being developed for parks and wilderness. The value of site specific fire history data is apparent when considering study results for lodgepole pin (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests. Lodgepole pine is a major subalpine type in the Northern Rockies and such stands experiences a wide range of presettlement fire patterns. On relatively warm-dry sites at lower elevations, such as in GNP's North Fork drainage (Barrett et al. 1991), short to moderately long interval (25-150 yr) fires occurred in a mixed severity pattern ranging from non-lethal underburns to total stand replacement (Arno 1976, Sneck 1977, Barrett and Arno 1991). Markedly different fire history occurred at high elevation lodgepole pine stands on highly unproductive sites, such as on Yellowstone National Park's (YNP) subalpine plateau. Romme (1982) found that, on some sites, stand replacing fires recurred after very long intervals (300-400 yr), and that non-lethal surface fires were rare. For somewhat more productive sites in the Absaroka Mountains in YNP, Barrett (1993a) estimated a 200 year mean replacement interval, in a pattern similar to that found in steep mountain terrain elsewhere, such as in the Middle Fork Flathead River drainage (Barrett et al. 1991, Sneck 1977). Aside from post-1900 written records (ayres 1900; fire atlas data on file, GNP Archives Div. and GNP Resources Mgt. Div.), little fire history

  3. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River and Salmon River Drainages, Idaho, 2009 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-05-07

    Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have received little attention in fishery science until recently, even though abundance has declined significantly along with other anadromous fish species in Idaho. Pacific lamprey in Idaho have to navigate over eight lower Snake River and Columbia River hydroelectric facilities for migration downstream as juveniles to the Pacific Ocean and again as adults migrating upstream to their freshwater spawning grounds in Idaho. The number of adult Pacific lamprey annually entering the Snake River basin at Ice Harbor Dam has declined from an average of over 18,000 during 1962-1969 to fewer than 600 during 1998-2006. Based on potential accessible streams and adult escapement over Lower Granite Dam on the lower Snake River, we estimate that no more than 200 Pacific lamprey adult spawners annually utilize the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho for spawning. We utilized electrofishing in 2000-2006 to capture, enumerate, and obtain biological information regarding rearing Pacific lamprey ammocoetes and macropthalmia to determine the distribution and status of the species in the Clearwater River drainage, Idaho. Present distribution in the Clearwater River drainage is limited to the lower sections of the Lochsa and Selway rivers, the Middle Fork Clearwater River, the mainstem Clearwater River, the South Fork Clearwater River, and the lower 7.5 km of the Red River. In 2006, younger age classes were absent from the Red River.

  4. Mercury and drought along the lower Carson River, Nevada: IV. Snowy egret post-fledging dispersal, timing of migration and survival, 2002–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.; Hill, Elwood F.; Grove, Robert A.; Chelgren, Nathan; Haggerty, Patricia K.

    2017-01-01

    This telemetry study is an extension of our 1997–2006 research on historical mercury contamination on snowy egrets (Egretta thula) up to ~ 20 days of age. Findings from initial studies at the mercury-contaminated Carson River colony at Lahontan Reservoir (LR) and a similar-sized reference (REF) colony on the Humboldt River included mercury-related physiological, biochemical, histopathological and reproductive effects up to ~20 days of age; with poor water years (2000–04), i.e., reduced prey availability, exacerbating effects. Herein, we compare timing of dispersal and migration at LR vs. REF, but the primary question now addressed is “whether survival of young mercury-exposed snowy egrets from LR would be further compromised beyond ~20 days of age? ” Based upon telemetry signals until 90–110 days of age (including dead bird counts and survival rate estimates), we conclude that mercury did not further compromise survival. Dead bird counts and survival rate estimates included time in the colony when fed by adults, plus the critical period when young dispersed from the colony to forage independently. The extended drought during this 3-year study was most critical in 2002 when production of ~20 d old egrets at LR was only 0.24 young/nest. In 2002, survival rates were low at both colonies and we documented the highest counts of dead egrets for both colonies. We suggest the losses in 2002 beyond 20 days of age were more a function of prey availability influenced by drought than exposure to mercury, especially at LR, because higher mercury concentrations, higher survival rates and fewer dead birds were documented at LR in 2003 when water conditions improved. Furthermore, total mercury (THg) in blood in 2003 was more than double 2002 (geometric mean, 3.39 vs 1.47 µg/g wet weight (ww). This higher THg exposure at LR in 2003 was associated with a redistribution of parent and post-dispersal feeding activities upstream (where there was higher mercury from historic

  5. Mercury and drought along the lower Carson River, Nevada: IV. Snowy egret post-fledging dispersal, timing of migration and survival, 2002-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J; Hill, Elwood F; Grove, Robert A; Chelgren, Nathan D; Haggerty, Patricia K

    2017-01-01

    This telemetry study is an extension of our 1997-2006 research on historical mercury contamination on snowy egrets (Egretta thula) up to ~ 20 days of age. Findings from initial studies at the mercury-contaminated Carson River colony at Lahontan Reservoir (LR) and a similar-sized reference (REF) colony on the Humboldt River included mercury-related physiological, biochemical, histopathological and reproductive effects up to ~20 days of age; with poor water years (2000-04), i.e., reduced prey availability, exacerbating effects. Herein, we compare timing of dispersal and migration at LR vs. REF, but the primary question now addressed is "whether survival of young mercury-exposed snowy egrets from LR would be further compromised beyond ~20 days of age? " Based upon telemetry signals until 90-110 days of age (including dead bird counts and survival rate estimates), we conclude that mercury did not further compromise survival. Dead bird counts and survival rate estimates included time in the colony when fed by adults, plus the critical period when young dispersed from the colony to forage independently. The extended drought during this 3-year study was most critical in 2002 when production of ~20d old egrets at LR was only 0.24 young/nest. In 2002, survival rates were low at both colonies and we documented the highest counts of dead egrets for both colonies. We suggest the losses in 2002 beyond 20 days of age were more a function of prey availability influenced by drought than exposure to mercury, especially at LR, because higher mercury concentrations, higher survival rates and fewer dead birds were documented at LR in 2003 when water conditions improved. Furthermore, total mercury (THg) in blood in 2003 was more than double 2002 (geometric mean, 3.39 vs 1.47µg/g wet weight (ww). This higher THg exposure at LR in 2003 was associated with a redistribution of parent and post-dispersal feeding activities upstream (where there was higher mercury from historic mining

  6. Reconstruction of North American drainage basins and river discharge since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickert, Andrew D.

    2016-11-01

    Over the last glacial cycle, ice sheets and the resultant glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) rearranged river systems. As these riverine threads that tied the ice sheets to the sea were stretched, severed, and restructured, they also shrank and swelled with the pulse of meltwater inputs and time-varying drainage basin areas, and sometimes delivered enough meltwater to the oceans in the right places to influence global climate. Here I present a general method to compute past river flow paths, drainage basin geometries, and river discharges, by combining models of past ice sheets, glacial isostatic adjustment, and climate. The result is a time series of synthetic paleohydrographs and drainage basin maps from the Last Glacial Maximum to present for nine major drainage basins - the Mississippi, Rio Grande, Colorado, Columbia, Mackenzie, Hudson Bay, Saint Lawrence, Hudson, and Susquehanna/Chesapeake Bay. These are based on five published reconstructions of the North American ice sheets. I compare these maps with drainage reconstructions and discharge histories based on a review of observational evidence, including river deposits and terraces, isotopic records, mineral provenance markers, glacial moraine histories, and evidence of ice stream and tunnel valley flow directions. The sharp boundaries of the reconstructed past drainage basins complement the flexurally smoothed GIA signal that is more often used to validate ice-sheet reconstructions, and provide a complementary framework to reduce nonuniqueness in model reconstructions of the North American ice-sheet complex.

  7. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2003-10-01

    In 2002 Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, and Middle Fork Clearwater River subbasins. Five-hundred forty-one ammocoetes were captured electroshocking 70 sites in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, Middle Fork Clearwater River, Clearwater River, and their tributaries in 2002. Habitat utilization surveys in Red River support previous work indicating Pacific lamprey ammocoete densities are greater in lateral scour pool habitats compared to riffles and rapids. Presence-absence survey findings in 2002 augmented 2000 and 2001 indicating Pacific lamprey macrothalmia and ammocoetes are not numerous or widely distributed. Pacific lamprey distribution was confined to the lower reaches of Red River below rkm 8.0, the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River (Ginger Creek to mouth), Selway River (Race Creek to mouth), Middle Fork Clearwater River, and the Clearwater River (downstream to Potlatch River).

  8. Drainage report for Delair Division of Great River NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Obstacles such as ground seepage, inefficient water control structures, and backwater in the Sny Ditch are all contributing to drainage problems at the Delair...

  9. 1986 moose census, lower Nowitna River drainage: Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A moose survey of the lower Nowitna drainage on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge was conducted from 17-21 November 1986. The 1986 population estimate for the...

  10. Necrology: Hugh Carson Cutler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Hugh Carson Cutler, forner curator of Economic Botany at the Missouri Botanical Gardens, was one of the first generation paleoethnobotanists in this country. A pioneer in the field, and instrumental in getting American archaeologists to begin to employ flotation techniques for recovery of botanical remains. Cutler, the son of Manuel and Mary Cutler. was born September 8. 1912 in Milwaukee. Wisconsin. and died September 22, 1998 in Topeka, Kansas.

  11. Summer habitat use by Columbia River redband trout in the Kootenai River drainage, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bennett, David H.

    2001-01-01

    The reported decline in the abundance, distribution, and genetic diversity of Columbia River redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri (a rainbow trout subspecies) has prompted fisheries managers to investigate their habitat requirements, identify critical habitat, and develop effective conservation and recovery programs. We analyzed the microhabitat, mesohabitat, and macrohabitat use and distribution of Columbia River redband trout by means of snorkel surveys in two watersheds in the Kootenai River drainage, Montana and Idaho, during the summers of 1997 and 1998. Juvenile (36–125 mm total length, TL) and adult (>=126 mm TL) fish preferred deep microhabitats (>=0.4 m) with low to moderate velocities (<=0.5 m/s) adjacent to the thalweg. Conversely, age-0 (<=35 mm) fish selected slow water (<=0.1 m/s) and shallow depths (<=0.2 m) located in lateral areas of the channel. Age-0, juvenile, and adult fish strongly selected pool mesohabitats and avoided riffles; juveniles and adults generally used runs in proportion to their availability. At the macrohabitat scale, density of Columbia River redband trout (35 mm) was positively related to the abundance of pools and negatively related to stream gradient. The pool: riffle ratio, gradient, and stream size combined accounted for 80% of the variation in density among 23 stream reaches in five streams. Our results demonstrate that low-gradient, medium-elevation reaches with an abundance of complex pools are critical areas for the production of Columbia River redband trout. These data will be useful in assessing the impacts of land-use practices on the remaining populations and may assist with habitat restoration or enhancement efforts.

  12. Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish

    2016-03-01

    Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

  13. Impact of subsurface drainage on streamflows in the Red River of the North basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammed M.; Lin, Zhulu; Jia, Xinhua; Steele, Dean D.; DeSutter, Thomas M.

    2014-04-01

    The debate about subsurface drainage effects on streamflows has been reignited in the Red River of the North basin in North America, after a decades-long abnormally wet weather pattern in the region. Our study evaluated the applicability of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in modeling subsurface drainage in a cold environment; we then employed streamflow response analyses to assess the potential impacts of the extensive subsurface drainage development in the Red River Valley (RRV) on streamflows in the Red River. The results showed that extensive subsurface drainage in the RRV would likely increase the magnitude of smaller peak flows while decreasing the magnitude of larger peak flows. Discharge reduction of large peak flows was mainly caused by reducing the flow volumes rather than increasing the time-to-peak of the hydrograph. Our analysis also suggested that extensive subsurface drainage could move more water from the watershed to the rivers in the fall season, creating more storage capacity in the soils. However, such increase in storage capacity in soils would have a negligible effect in reducing the monthly flow volumes in the following spring. The proposed method of coupling a watershed model with streamflow response analysis can be readily adopted by other researchers to evaluate the streamflow impact of land-use and climate changes around the world.

  14. Explanation of the values of Hack's drainage basin, river length scaling exponent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, A. G.

    2015-08-01

    Percolation theory can be used to find water flow paths of least resistance. The application of percolation theory to drainage networks allows identification of the range of exponent values that describe the tortuosity of rivers in real river networks, which is then used to generate the observed scaling between drainage basin area and channel length, a relationship known as Hack's law. Such a theoretical basis for Hack's law allows interpretation of the range of exponent values based on an assessment of the heterogeneity of the substrate.

  15. Brief communication: Possible explanation of the values of Hack's drainage basin, river length scaling exponent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Allen G.

    2016-04-01

    Percolation theory can be used to find water flow paths of least resistance. Application of percolation theory to drainage networks allows identification of the range of exponent values that describe the tortuosity of rivers in real river networks, which is then used to generate the observed scaling between drainage basin area and channel length, a relationship known as Hack's law. Such a theoretical basis for Hack's law may allow interpretation of the range of exponent values based on an assessment of the heterogeneity of the substrate.

  16. Geochemistry of dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Dan River Drainage (China): distribution, sources, and water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingpeng; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhaoyu; Wu, Tairan

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Dan River drainage basin, which is the drinking water source area of South-to-North Water Transfer Project (China), affect large numbers of people and should therefore be carefully monitored. To investigate the distribution, sources, and quality of river water, this study integrating catchment geology and multivariate statistical techniques was carried out in the Dan River drainage from 99 river water samples collected in 2013. The distribution of trace metal concentrations in the Dan River drainage was similar to that in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, indicating that the reservoir was significantly affected by the Dan River drainage. Moreover, our results suggested that As, Sb, Cd, Mn, and Ni were the major pollutants. We revealed extremely high concentrations of As and Sb in the Laoguan River, Cd in the Qingyou River, Mn, Ni, and Cd in the Yinhua River, As and Sb in the Laojun River, and Sb in the Dan River. According to the water quality index, water in the Dan River drainage was suitable for drinking; however, an exposure risk assessment model suggests that As and Sb in the Laojun and Laoguan rivers could pose a high risk to humans in terms of adverse health and potential non-carcinogenic effects.

  17. Fluvial responses to late Quaternary climate change in the Shiyang River drainage system, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongshan; Li, Zongmeng; Pan, Baotian; Liu, Fenliang; Liu, Xiaopeng

    2016-04-01

    As a drainage system located in arid western China, the Shiyang River, combined with considerable fluvial strata and landform information, provides an environmental context within which to investigate fluvial responses to late Quaternary climate change. Sedimentological analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating enabled us to reconstruct the processes and fluvial styles of three sedimentary sequences of the Shagou and Hongshui rivers in the Shiyang drainage system. Our results present a variety of river behaviors during the late Quaternary in these areas. In the upstream Shiyang River, Zhangjiadazhuang (ZJDZ) profile of the Shagou was dominated by aggradation and a meandering channel pattern at 10.6-4.2 ka, while a noticeable channel incision occurred at ~ 4.2 ka followed by lateral channel migration. In the downstream Shiyang River, Datugou (DTG) profile of the Hongshui was an aggrading meandering river from 39.7 to 7.2 ka while channel incision occurred at 7.2 ka. Another downstream profile, Wudunwan (WDW) of the Hongshui was also characterized by aggradation from 22.4 to 4.8 ka; however, its channel pattern shifted from braided to meandering at ~ 13 ka. A discernable downcutting event occurred at ~ 4.8 ka, followed by three channel aggradation and incision episodes prior to 1.8 ka. The last 1.8 ka has been characterized by modern channel and floodplain development. The fluvial processes and styles investigated have a close correlation with late Quaternary climate change in the Shiyang River drainage. During cold phases, the WDW reach was dominated by aggradation with a braided channel pattern. During warm phases, the rivers that we investigated were also characterized by aggradation but with meandering channel patterns. Channel incision events and changes of fluvial style occurred mainly during climate transitions.

  18. Fort Carson Wind Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2012-10-01

    This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and economic potential of a wind turbine project on a ridge in the southeastern portion of the Fort Carson Army base.

  19. River Mileages and Drainage Areas for Illinois Streams. Volume 2. Illinois River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    FOREST 50.2 MADISON STREET RIVER FOREST 50.5 IL PT 56 RIVER FOREST 51.0 C & NW RR RIVER FOREST 51.1 LAKE STREET RIVER FOREST 51.6 CHICAGO AVENUE RIVER ... FOREST 51.9 SILVER CREEK R RIVER FOREST 53.9 DAM S35v40NoRI2E RIVER FOREST 54.2 NORTH PUEBLO AVENUE RIVER FOREST 55.1 GRAND AVENUE RIVER FOREST 55.1...USGS GAGE 05530600 AT RIVER GROVE 451 415546 O75040 RIVER

  20. Study of environmental pollution and mineralogical characterization of sediment rivers from Brazilian coal mining acid drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luis F O; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Castro, Kepa; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Sampaio, Carlos H; de Brum, Irineu A S; de Leão, Felipe B; Taffarel, Silvio R; Madariaga, Juan M

    2013-03-01

    Acid drainage from coal mines and metal mining is a major source of underground and surface water contamination in the world. The coal mining acid drainage (CMAD) from mine contains large amount of solids in suspension and a high content of sulphate and dissolved metals (Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, etc.) that finally are deposited in the rivers. Since this problem can persist for centuries after mine abandonment, it is necessary to apply multidisciplinary methods to determine the potential risk in a determinate area. These multidisciplinary methods must include molecular and elemental analysis and finally all information must be studied statistically. This methodology was used in the case of coal mining acid drainage from the Tubarao River (Santa Catarina, Brazil). During molecular analysis, Raman Spectroscopy, electron bean, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been proven very useful for the study of minerals present in sediment rivers near this CMAD. The obtained spectra allow the precise identification of the minerals as jarosite, quartz, clays, etc. The elemental analysis (Al, As, Fe, K, Na, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ti, V, Zn, Ag, Co, Li, Mo, Ni, Se, Sn, W, B, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sr) was realised by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis) of these dates of concentration reveals the existence of different groups of samples with specific pollution profiles in different areas of the Tubarao River.

  1. Discovery of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae, Pterygoplichthys spp.) in the Santa Fe River drainage, Suwannee River basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Butt, Peter L.; Johnston, Gerald R.; Jelks, Howard L.; Kail, Matthew; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the occurrence of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) in the Suwannee River basin, southeastern USA. Over the past few years (2009-2012), loricariid catfishes have been observed at various sites in the Santa Fe River drainage, a major tributary of the Suwannee in the state of Florida. Similar to other introduced populations of Pterygoplichthys, there is high likelihood of hybridization. To date, we have captured nine specimens (270-585 mm, standard length) in the Santa Fe River drainage. One specimen taken from Poe Spring best agrees with Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps (Kner, 1854) or may be a hybrid with either P. pardalis or P. disjunctivus. The other specimens were taken from several sites in the drainage and include seven that best agree with Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991); and one a possible P. disjunctivus x P. pardalis hybrid. We observed additional individuals, either these or similar appearing loricariids, in Hornsby and Poe springs and at various sites upstream and downstream of the long (> 4 km) subterranean portion of the Santa Fe River. These specimens represent the first confirmed records of Pterygoplichthys in the Suwannee River basin. The P. gibbiceps specimen represents the first documented record of an adult or near adult of this species in open waters of North America. Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus or its hybrids (perhaps hybrid swarms) are already abundant and widespread in other parts of peninsular Florida, but the Santa Fe River represents a northern extension of the catfish in the state. Pterygoplichthys are still relatively uncommon in the Santa Fe drainage and successful reproduction not yet documented. However, in May 2012 we captured five adult catfish (two mature or maturing males and three gravid females) from a single riverine swallet pool. One male was stationed at a nest burrow (no eggs present). To survive the occasional harsh Florida winters, these South American catfish apparently use

  2. Eustatic and tectonic change effects in the reversion of the transcontinental Amazon River drainage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vicente Caputo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The development of the transcontinental Amazon River System involved geological events in the Andes Chain; Vaupés, Purus and Gurupá arches; sedimentary basins of the region and sea level changes. The origin and age of this river have been discussed for decades, and many ideas have been proposed, including those pertaining to it having originated in the Holocene, Pleistocene, Pliocene, Late Miocene, or even earlier times. Under this context, the geology of the sedimentary basins of northern Brazil has been analyzed from the Mesozoic time on, and some clarifications are placed on its stratigraphy. Vaupés Arch, in Colombia, was uplifted together with the Andean Mountains in the Middle Miocene time. In the Cenozoic Era, the Purus Arch has not blocked this drainage system westward to marine basins of Western South America or eastward to the Atlantic Ocean. Also the Gurupá Arch remained high up to the end of Middle Miocene, directing this drainage system westward. With the late subsidence and breaching of the Gurupá Arch and a major fall in sea level, at the beginning of the Late Miocene, the Amazon River quickly opened its pathway to the west, from the Marajó Basin, through deep headward erosion, capturing a vast drainage network from cratonic and Andean areas, which had previously been diverted towards the Caribbean Sea. During this time, the large siliciclastic influx to the Amazon Mouth (Foz do Amazonas Basin and its fan increased, due to erosion of large tracts of South America, linking the Amazon drainage network to that of the Marajó Basin. This extensive exposure originated the Late Miocene (Tortonian unconformity, which marks the onset of the transcontinental Amazon River flowing into the Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Study of environmental pollution and mineralogical characterization of sediment rivers from Brazilian coal mining acid drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: felipeqma@hotmail.com [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development – IPADH, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Fdez- Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Castro, Kepa [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV), P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development – IPADH, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Sampaio, Carlos H.; Brum, Irineu A.S. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Leão, Felipe B. de; Taffarel, Silvio R. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Madariaga, Juan M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV), P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)

    2013-03-01

    Acid drainage from coal mines and metal mining is a major source of underground and surface water contamination in the world. The coal mining acid drainage (CMAD) from mine contains large amount of solids in suspension and a high content of sulphate and dissolved metals (Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, etc.) that finally are deposited in the rivers. Since this problem can persist for centuries after mine abandonment, it is necessary to apply multidisciplinary methods to determine the potential risk in a determinate area. These multidisciplinary methods must include molecular and elemental analysis and finally all information must be studied statistically. This methodology was used in the case of coal mining acid drainage from the Tubarao River (Santa Catarina, Brazil). During molecular analysis, Raman Spectroscopy, electron bean, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been proven very useful for the study of minerals present in sediment rivers near this CMAD. The obtained spectra allow the precise identification of the minerals as jarosite, quartz, clays, etc. The elemental analysis (Al, As, Fe, K, Na, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ti, V, Zn, Ag, Co, Li, Mo, Ni, Se, Sn, W, B, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sr) was realised by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis) of these dates of concentration reveals the existence of different groups of samples with specific pollution profiles in different areas of the Tubarao River. Highlights: ► Increasing coal drainage sediments geochemical information will increase human health information in this area. ► Brazilian coal mining information will increase recuperation planning information. ► The nanominerals showed strong sorption ability to aqueous hazardous elements.

  4. Pesticides detected in surface waters and fish of the Red River of the North drainage basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    The Red River of the North drainage basin (herein referred to as Red River Basin) within the United States is a study unit under the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The overall goals of this program, initiated to better define the status and trends of the Nation’s water quality, are to address regional and national water-quality issues in a nationally consistent manner. Pesticide contamination of surface water and fish is one focus of this program.

  5. Nature of solute loads in the rivers of the Bengal drainage basin, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Dilip K.; Subramanian, V.

    1997-11-01

    The Bengal drainage basin is geologically one of the youngest and tectonically most active denudation regimes of the world, and encompasses the total lower reaches of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) drainage basin. The GBM river system contributes around 4.5% of the total annual global freshwater flux to the oceans. The solute load of the GBM river system is dominated by the carbonate weathering products of the transport-limited denudation regime. However, in the Meghna basin, which drains a mountainous region, silicate weathering is slightly more predominant, and the solute load tends to be more influenced by the atmospheric contribution. The river system represents about 5% (152×10 6 t yr -1) of the annual global chemical flux to the world's oceans. The chemical denudation rate of the GBM system in the Bengal basin, is one of the world's highest (79-114 t km -2 yr -1), suggesting intensive weathering and erosion in the drainage basin both in Bangladesh as well as in the hinterlands of India and China.

  6. Chemical weathering in Zhujiang River Drainage%珠江流域的化学侵蚀

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高全洲; 沈承德; 孙彦敏; 易熙; 邢长平; 陶贞

    2001-01-01

    he chemical weathering processes on the continental carbonate and silicate minerals consume a large amount of carbon dioxide both from atmosphere and soil air. This gaseous substance, which is the dominating greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, was transformed into fluid substance and transported into the ocean by rivers in the form of bicarbonate ion. In this aspect, the weathering and transportation of bicarbonate ion in river system stand for an important linkage in the global carbon cycle. The range of global climate change in the geological history was weakened through this kind of negative feedback mechanism, i.e., the higher the atmospheric temperature is, the intense the chemical weathering process will be. However, an intense chemical weathering process will consume much greater amount of carbon dioxide, which can drop down the atmospheric temperature.   The Xijiang and Beijiang river drainage areas, which buildup most of the area of the Zhujiang (Pearl) river drainage, located in the typical sub tropical region in South China, are about 353 120 and 46 710 km2 in area, respectively. The discharge is about 230× 109 m3/a for Xijiang River, and 51× 109 m3/a for Beijiang River. The two drainage areas, characterized by the superposition temporarily of the high atmospheric temperature and plenty of precipitation, are the only areas of highest yield of biomass in mid low latitude zone in Northern Hemisphere. The carbonate rocks distribute widely in the two drainage basins. Red regolith crust and limestone red earth are the main soil forming material in those areas. The surficial geochemistry process taken place in the two drainage areas is intense due to the high degree of plant coverage, and due to the plenty of precipitation and a high atmospheric temperature. On the other hand, the mechanical erosion is also intense due to the precipitous topography, and due to high population density, which lead to a high ratio of cultivated area.

  7. Hybridization of two megacephalic map turtles (testudines: emydidae: Graptemys) in the Choctawhatchee River drainage of Alabama and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, James; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Kreiser, Brian R.; Folt, Brian; Lechowicz, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Map turtles of the genus Graptemys are highly aquatic and rarely undergo terrestrial movements, and limited dispersal among drainages has been hypothesized to drive drainage-specific endemism and high species richness of this group in the southeastern United States. Until recently, two members of the megacephalic “pulchra clade,” Graptemys barbouri andGraptemys ernsti, were presumed to be allopatric with a gap in both species' ranges in the Choctawhatchee River drainage. In this paper, we analyzed variation in morphology (head and shell patterns) and genetics (mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite loci) from G. barbouri, G. ernsti, and Graptemys sp. collected from the Choctawhatchee River drainage, and we document the syntopic occurrence of those species and back-crossed individuals of mixed ancestry in the Choctawhatchee River drainage. Our results provide a first counter-example to the pattern of drainage-specific endemism in megacephalic Graptemys. Geologic events associated with Pliocene and Pleistocene sea level fluctuations and the existence of paleo-river systems appear to have allowed the invasion of the Choctawhatchee system by these species, and the subsequent introgression likely predates any potential human-mediated introduction.

  8. The role of river drainages in shaping the genetic structure of capybara populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, María Soledad; Quintana, Rubén Darío; Bolkovic, María Luisa; Cassini, Marcelo H; Túnez, Juan Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, is an herbivorous rodent widely distributed throughout most of South American wetlands that lives closely associated with aquatic environments. In this work, we studied the genetic structure of the capybara throughout part of its geographic range in Argentina using a DNA fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Haplotypes obtained were compared with those available for populations from Paraguay and Venezuela. We found 22 haplotypes in 303 individuals. Hierarchical AMOVAs were performed to evaluate the role of river drainages in shaping the genetic structure of capybara populations at the regional and basin scales. In addition, two landscape genetic models, isolation by distance and isolation by resistance, were used to test whether genetic distance was associated with Euclidean distance (i.e. isolation by distance) or river corridor distance (i.e. isolation by resistance) at the basin scale. At the regional scale, the results of the AMOVA grouping populations by mayor river basins showed significant differences between them. At the basin scale, we also found significant differences between sub-basins in Paraguay, together with a significant correlation between genetic and river corridor distance. For Argentina and Venezuela, results were not significant. These results suggest that in Paraguay, the current genetic structure of capybaras is associated with the lack of dispersion corridors through permanent rivers. In contrast, limited structuring in Argentina and Venezuela is likely the result of periodic flooding facilitating dispersion.

  9. Distribution characteristics and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Liao River drainage basin, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Liu, Congqiang; Zhang, Guoping; Zhang, Yanlin; Li, Siliang; Zhao, Zhiqi; Liu, Baojian; Guo, Qinjun

    2016-04-01

    The Liao River drainage basin, which is one of China's seven major rivers basins, is located in northeast China. This region is characterized by important industrial bases including steel factories and oil and chemical plants, all of which have the potential to contribute pollutants to the drainage basin. In this study, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the major rivers of the Liao River drainage basin were identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The total PAH concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 76.5 μg/g (dry weight) in SPM and 32.6 to 108 ng/L in surface water, respectively. Low-ring PAHs (including two- and three-ring PAHs) were dominant in all PAH samples, and the level of low-ring PAHs in surface water was higher than that in SPM. The proportion of two-ring PAHs was the highest, accounting for an average of 68.2 % of the total PAHs in surface water, while the level of three-ring PAHs was the highest in SPM, with an average of 66.3 %. When compared with other river systems, the concentrations of PAHs in the Liao River drainage basin were lower. Identification of the emission sources based on diagnostic ratios suggested petroleum and fossil fuel combustion were important contribution to PAHs in the study area.

  10. Modelling microbiological water quality in the Seine river drainage network: past, present and future situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Servais

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Seine river watershed is characterized by a high population density and intense agricultural activities. Data show low microbiological water quality in the main rivers (Seine, Marne, Oise of the watershed. Today, there is an increasing pressure from different social groups to restore microbiological water quality in order to both increase the safety of drinking water production and to restore the possible use of these rivers for bathing and rowing activities, as they were in the past. A model, appended to the hydro-ecological SENEQUE/Riverstrahler model describing the functioning of large river systems, was developed to describe the dynamics of faecal coliforms (FC, the most usual faecal contamination indicator. The model is able to calculate the distribution of FC abundance in the whole drainage network resulting from land use and wastewater management in the watershed. The model was validated by comparing calculated FC concentrations with available field data for some well-documented situations in different river stretches of the Seine drainage network. Once validated, the model was used to test various predictive scenarios, as, for example, the impact of the modifications in wastewater treatment planned at the 2012 horizon in the Seine watershed in the scope of the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive. The model was also used to investigate past situations. In particular, the variations of the microbiological water quality in the Parisian area due to population increase and modifications in wastewater management were estimated over the last century. It was shown that the present standards for bathing and other aquatic recreational activities are not met in the large tributaries upstream from Paris since the middle of the 1950's, and at least since the middle of the XIXth century in the main branch of the Seine river downstream from Paris. Efforts carried out for improving urban wastewater treatment in terms or

  11. Modelling microbiological water quality in the Seine river drainage network: past, present and future situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Servais

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The Seine river watershed is characterized by a high population density and intense agricultural activities. Data show low microbiological water quality in the main rivers (Seine, Marne, Oise of the watershed. Today, there is an increasing pressure from different social groups to restore microbiological water quality in order to both increase the safety of drinking water production and to restore the possible use of these rivers for bathing and rowing activities, as they were in the past. A model, appended to the hydro-ecological SENEQUE/Riverstrahler model describing the functioning of large river systems, was developed to describe the dynamics of faecal coliforms (FC, the most usual faecal contamination indicator. The model is able to calculate the distribution of FC concentrations in the whole drainage network resulting from land use and wastewater management in the watershed. The model was validated by comparing calculated FC concentrations with available field data for some well-documented situations in different river stretches of the Seine drainage network. Once validated, the model was used to test various predictive scenarios, as, for example, the impact of the modifications in wastewater treatment planned at the 2012 horizon in the Seine watershed in the scope of the implementation of the european water framework directive. The model was also used to investigate past situations. In particular, the variations of the microbiological water quality in the Parisian area due to population increase and modifications in wastewater management were estimated over the last century. It was shown that the present standards for bathing and other aquatic recreational activities are not met in the large tributaries upstream from Paris since the middle of the 1950's, and at least since the middle of the XIXth century in the main branch of the Seine river downstream from Paris. Efforts carried out for improving urban wastewater treatment in terms

  12. Modelling microbiological water quality in the Seine river drainage network: past, present and future situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servais, P.; Billen, G.; Goncalves, A.; Garcia-Armisen, T.

    2007-09-01

    The Seine river watershed is characterized by a high population density and intense agricultural activities. Data show low microbiological water quality in the main rivers (Seine, Marne, Oise) of the watershed. Today, there is an increasing pressure from different social groups to restore microbiological water quality in order to both increase the safety of drinking water production and to restore the possible use of these rivers for bathing and rowing activities, as they were in the past. A model, appended to the hydro-ecological SENEQUE/Riverstrahler model describing the functioning of large river systems, was developed to describe the dynamics of faecal coliforms (FC), the most usual faecal contamination indicator. The model is able to calculate the distribution of FC concentrations in the whole drainage network resulting from land use and wastewater management in the watershed. The model was validated by comparing calculated FC concentrations with available field data for some well-documented situations in different river stretches of the Seine drainage network. Once validated, the model was used to test various predictive scenarios, as, for example, the impact of the modifications in wastewater treatment planned at the 2012 horizon in the Seine watershed in the scope of the implementation of the european water framework directive. The model was also used to investigate past situations. In particular, the variations of the microbiological water quality in the Parisian area due to population increase and modifications in wastewater management were estimated over the last century. It was shown that the present standards for bathing and other aquatic recreational activities are not met in the large tributaries upstream from Paris since the middle of the 1950's, and at least since the middle of the XIXth century in the main branch of the Seine river downstream from Paris. Efforts carried out for improving urban wastewater treatment in terms or organic matter and

  13. Discharge and sediment loads in the Boise River drainage basin, Idaho 1939-40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, S.K.; Benedict, Paul Charles

    1948-01-01

    The Boise River project is a highly developed agricultural area comprising some 520 square miles of valley and bench lands in southwestern Idaho. Water for irrigation is obtained from the Boise River and its tributaries which are regulated by storage in Arrow Rock and Deer Flat reservoirs. Distribution of water to the farms is effected by 27 principal canals and several small farm laterals which divert directly from the river. The- New York Canal, which is the largest, not only supplies water to smaller canals and farm laterals, but also is used to fill Deer Flat Reservoir near Nampa from which water is furnished to farms in the lower valley. During the past 15 years maintenance costs in a number of those canals have increased due to deposition of sediment in them and in the river channel itself below the mouth of Moore Creek. Interest in determining the runoff and sediment loads from certain areas in the Boise River drainage basin led to an investigation by the Flood Control Coordinating Committee of the Department of Agriculture. Measurements of daily discharge and sediments loads were made by the Geological Survey at 13 stations in the drainage basin during the 18-month period ended June 30, 1940. The stations were on streams in areas having different kinds of vegetative cover and subjected to different kinds of land-use practice. Data obtained during the investigation furnish a basis for certain comparisons of runoff and sediment loads from several areas arid for several periods of time. Runoff measured at stations on the. Boise River near Twin Springs and on Moore Creek near Arrow Rock was smaller during 1939 than during 1940 and was below the average annual runoff for the period of available record. Runoff measured at the other stations on the project also was smaller during 1939 than during 1940 and probably did not exceed the average for the previous 25 years. The sediment loads measured during the spring runoff in 1939 were smaller at most stations than

  14. River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and

  15. Natural hybrids of the madtoms, Noturus flavus and Noturus insignis, from the Monongahela River drainage, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, S.A.; Cincotta, Dan A.

    2004-01-01

    Natural hybridization is rare in the family Ictaluridae. Putative hybrids of the madtoms Noturus flavus and N. insignis were collected from Blackwater River, Monongahela River drainage, WV. Noturus flavus is native to the Monongahela River drainage, whereas N. insignis is nonnative. We quantified morphological differences among N. flavus, N. insignis, and putative hybrids by sheared principal components analysis of morphometric characters. Putative hybrids were intermediate in tooth patch dimensions, caudal fin pigmentation, length of the dorsal fin base, distance between the adipose/caudal notch and base of caudal fin, and position of anal fin. Hybridization between N. flavus and N. insignis is supported by morphological intermediacy, and may be linked to higher abundances of N. insignis or degraded habitat in the Blackwater River.

  16. Clay minerals in surface sediments of the Pearl River drainage basin and their contribution to the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ZhiFei; Christophe COLIN; HUANG Wei; CHEN Zhong; Alain TRENTESAUX; CHEN JianFang

    2007-01-01

    Clay minerals have played a significant role in the study of the East Asian monsoon evolution in the South China Sea by being able to track oceanic current variations and to reveal contemporaneous paleoclimatic changes prevailing in continental source areas. As one of the most important rivers inputting terrigenous matters to the northern South China Sea, the Pearl River was not previously paid attention to from the viewpoint of clay mineralogy. This paper presents a detailed study on clay minerals in surface sediments collected from the Pearl River drainage basin (including all three main channels,various branches, and the Lingdingyang in the estuary) by using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method.The results indicate that the clay mineral assemblage consists dominantly of kaolinite (35%-65%),lesser abundance of chlorite (20%-35%) and illite (12%-42%), and very scare smectite occurrences (generally <5%). Their respective distribution does not present any obvious difference throughout the Pearl River drainage basin. However, downstream the Pearl River to the northern South China Sea, the clay mineral assemblage varies significantly: kaolinite decreases gradually, smectite and illite increase gradually. Additionally, illite chemistry index steps down and illite crystallinity steps up. These variations indicate the contribution of major kaolinite, lesser illite and chlorite, and very scarce smectite to the northern South China Sea from the Pearl River drainage basin. The maximum contribution of clay minerals from the Pearl River is 72% to the northern margin and only 15% to the northern slope of the South China Sea. In both glacials and interglacials, kaolinite indicates that the ability of mechanical erosion occurred in the Pearl River drainage basin.

  17. Concentration changeability of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in selected partial drainage basins of the River Drwęca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pius Bożena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research conducted between November 2008 and October 2009. The research included seasonal dynamics of the flow and runoff of phosphorus compounds (TP and P-PO43-, as well as Ca2+ and Mg2+ from 13 partial drainage basins of the River Drwęca. Water levels were registered automatically every day by recorders, and measurements of the flow were conducted once a month. Major differences were found in the water abundance as indicated by specific discharges in individual, partial drainage basins: from 1.87 dm3 s-1 km-2 (Lubianka - a lower part of the River Drwęca drainage basin to 8.22 dm3 s-1 km-2 (Gizela - an upper part of the River Drwęca drainage basin. The studied rivers were characterised by very diverse average content of total phosphorus compounds: from 0.047 mg dm-3 (Iłga to 0.816 mg dm-3 (Sandela; calcium: from 47.18 mg dm-3 (Iłga to 131.65 mg dm-3 (Trynka; and magnesium: from 9.71 mg dm-3 (Wel to 36.76 mg dm-3 (Struga Rychnowska. Analysis of variance carried out on hydrochemical properties of the studied rivers divides the rivers into two separate groups: rivers with much higher content of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium compounds (Struga Rychnowska, Trynka, Ruziec, Lubianka, Kujawka, Sandela and Gizela, and a group of rivers with low content of these compounds (Brynica, Brodniczanka, Skarlanka, Wel, Iłga.

  18. Morphometric properties of the trans-Himalayan river catchments: Clues towards a relative chronology of orogen-wide drainage integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Sinha, Sayan; Misra, Arindam

    2015-03-01

    The geomorphological evolution of the Himalayan mountain belt both in terms of crustal deformation and concomitant erosion by surface processes has been suggested to have a profound influence on a number of earth system processes and has been extensively researched through a number of different techniques. The huge catchments of the trans-Himalayan rivers are the product of long-term fluvial erosion of the landscape. This work attempts to understand their evolution through a study of drainage network, morphology, and internal organization of the smaller watersheds nested within each catchment. Using morphometric techniques applied to an orogen-wide digital elevation data grid, we characterized the drainage network structure and catchment of all the 18 trans-Himalayan rivers situated between the exits of the Indus and Brahmaputra rivers and constructed rectangular approximations of the catchment geometries. With the help of catchment dimensions measured transverse and parallel to the strike of the orogen, and by analyzing the dimension and spatial dispositions of the rectangular approximations, we demonstrate that the trans-Himalayan catchment shapes cannot be explained only as a product of the headward enlargement of drainage networks on a topographic slope, or orogenic taper. Within individual catchments we identified the existence of drainage components (watersheds) that are organized in a systematic manner with respect to the first-order physiographic features of the Himalayas, formed at different periods of geological time. Each of them shows distinct morphometric characteristics that are indicative of differences in processes and / or time scale involved in their formation. The hypsometric properties of the watersheds occupying the upper part of the catchments suggest that they are the remnants of pre-orogenic drainage that became confined to the leeward side of the Himalayas before the advent of monsoon circulation. The shape and organization of the

  19. The Palaeolithic occupation of southern Alentejo: the Sado River Drainage Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke, Ariane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sado River Drainage Survey project (2004-2008 was designed to fill a significant gap in our knowledge of the prehistory of Portugal. Southern Alentejo constitutes nearly one third of the total land mass of continental Portugal, but has received comparatively little attention from Palaeolithic archaeologists. Practically nothing was known about the prehistory of the Sado River basin, which includes the southern Alentejo plain, before now. The results of the Sado River Drainage Survey (SRDS indicate that the Sado River basin was likely occupied at low population densities during the Middle Palaeolithic. There is some evidence for a Lower Palaeolithic presence but little or no evidence of an Upper Palaeolithic occupation. The emerging pattern suggests either an occupational hiatus or a major shift in settlement pattern towards the end of the Middle Palaeolithic. Possible explanations for this pattern, including aridification driven by climate change, are explored here.

    El proyecto de prospección de la cuenca del río Sado (SRDS, llevado a cabo entre el 2004 y el 2008, se diseñó para suplir la carencia de información concerniente al conocimiento actual de la Prehistoria de Portugal. Aunque la cuenca del río Sado conforma casi un tercio de la superficie continental de Portugal, aún no había recibido la debida atención para el Paleolítico. Antes de este proyecto, prácticamente nada se conocía acerca de la Prehistoria de dicha cuenca, incluyendo la llanura de Alentejo. Nuestros resultados indican una baja densidad de población durante el Paleolítico Medio, rastro de ocupaciones del Paleolítico Inferior y casi ninguna evidencia de ocupaciones asociadas al Paleolítico Reciente. A partir de los datos obtenidos, se desprende un modelo en el que se evidencia que, hacia finales del Paleolítico Medio, hubo una discontinuidad en la ocupación, probablemente asociada a cambios climáticos o del uso del territorio.

  20. Neotectonic formation of drainage patterns and their palaeohydrological implications for the Okwa River catchment, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Kai; Schmidt, Mareike; Shemang, Elisha; Zhang, Shuping; Frank, Riedel

    2014-05-01

    Large inter- and intramontane endorheic basins provide long term archives of environmental change, often integrating regional to continental climate driven process dynamics of huge drainage systems. On one hand the large-scale integration can be regarded as an advantage by averaging small-scale variations of either local hydrological peculiarities or random triggered drainage behaviour (e.g. internal thresholds, tectonics, etc.) and thus just recording atmospheric circulation pattern up to hemispherical scales with millennial resolution. Otherwise, with increasing basin size the process dynamic and their response system along one or more sediment cascades often become a complexity resulting in crucial problems of sedimentological archive interpretations by e.g. signal interference, equifinality or even multiple reworking. Therefore, studies of geomorphological or hydrological response processes and ecological adaption can only be undertaken on sub-catchment scale considering process dynamics along pathways. For southern-hemispheric palaeoclimate reconstruction of land-ocean linkages, Makgadikgadi Basin - as the largest (c. 37,000 km2) and deepest depression in the middle Kalahari - provides a fluvio-lacustrine archive in high-continental position since at least 300 kyr BP. Recent studies suggest a mega-lake high-stand within the basin for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) For the hydrological persistence of the lake for about 6 kyrs, the since Heinrich Event 1 (17-16 ka) inactive Okwa River seems to play a key role indicating a northward-shift of the winter rainfall zone. However, beside some dating of exposed shell bearing sediments at the river mouth, a thorough investigation of the c. 129,000 km2 drainage system is missing. Our presentation aims to point out the linkages between neotectonic activity and sediment transport. The combination of adaptive DEM-filter and multispectral remote sensing data reveals obvious traps (of neotectonic origin) of small temporary

  1. Sediment transferring function of the lower reaches of the Yellow River influenced by drainage basin factors and human activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Jiongxin

    2005-01-01

    Sediment transferring function (Fs) of rivers is defined and indexed in this study, based on the concept of sediment budget at river reach scales. Then, study is made on the Fs of the lower reaches of the Yellow River in relation to natural and human factors in the drainage basin, such as the annual precipitation in different water and sediment source areas, proportion of >0.05 mm sediment of the total sediment load to the lower reaches of Yellow River, the regulated degree of the "clear" baseflow from the drainage area above Lanzhou, frequency of hyperconcentrated flows, area of soil and water conservation measures in the drainage basin. As a result, a multiple regression equation has been established between Fs and 7 influencing factors, with multiple correlation coefficient r = 0.90.The reduction in annual precipitation in different water and sediment source areas has different effects on Fs. The reduction in annual precipitation in the area above Hekou Town and the area between Longmen and Sanmenxia results in a reduction in Fs, but the reduction in annual precipitation in the area between Hekou Town and Longmen results in an increase in Fs. The grain size composition of sediment load strongly affects the Fs; the larger the proportion of >0.05 mm sediment in the suspended sediment load entering the lower reaches of the Yellow River is, the lower the Fs will be. Thus, if the Xiaolangdi Reservoir traps coarse sediment and releases fine sediment, Fs will be enhanced. This study also shows that the lower the proportion of high-flow season river flow to the annual total river flow at Lanzhou Station is, the lower the Fs will be. Therefore, the interception of large quantities of clear water by the reservoirs on the upper reaches of Yellow River is one of the major causes for the decrease in Fs in the lower reaches of the Yellow River.

  2. Changes in water quality of a small urban river triggered by deep drainage of a construction site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartnik Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the monitoring of the selected physicochemical properties of the Jasień River waters (in Łódź, the third biggest city of Poland and their changes under the influence of drainage of a railway station Łódź Fabryczna construction site. Even 25 years ago the Jasień River was a receiver for the sewage from the Łódź textile factories. The drainage of the excavations and disposal of the water into the Jasień River was started on January 2014 and changed stable hydrological, physical and chemical regime of the river once again. In a consequence, average monthly flows exceeded the Jasień River flow in its upper section by six times, and at the beginning by even ten times. Chloride concentration was systematically growing over the study period. This growth and higher water pH were probably associated with increasing level of contaminants in the discharged water and its gradually decreasing uptake. Average annual water temperature increased and a decrease in its amplitude was observed. The annual conductivity and pH patterns became more uniform and the changes in pH followed a clear trend of monthly changes. Water turbidity increased by two times and during summer floods this parameter was often even a few times higher than before the drainage commenced. Chlorides improved water conductance and sodium and potassium increased basicity.

  3. Water-quality assessment of the Smith River drainage basin, California and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsubo, Rick T.; Washabaugh, Donna S.

    1982-01-01

    A water-quality assessment of the Smith River drainage basin was made to provide a summary of the water-quality conditions including known or potential water-quality problems. Results of the study showed that the water quality of the Smith River is excellent and generally meets the water-quality objectives for the beneficial uses identified by the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, North Coast Region. Known and potential problems related to water quality include: Sedimentation resulting from both natural erosional processes and land-use activities such as timber harvest, road construction, and mining that accelerate the erosional processes; bacterial contamination of surface and ground waters from inundated septic tanks and drainfields, and grazing activities; industrial spills which have resulted in fish kills and oil residues; high concetrations of iron in ground water; log and debris jams creating fish migration barriers; and pesticide and trace-element contamination from timber-harvest and mining activities, respectively. Future studies are needed to establish: (1) a sustained long-term monitoring program to provide a broad coverage of water-quality conditions in order to define long-term water-quality trends; and (2) interpretive studies to determine the source of known and potential water-quality problems. (USGS)

  4. Report on Carson Sink (Churchill Co.) Nevada : Its duck food resources and value as a Federal Migratory Bird Refuge Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Carson Sink is a low basin and drainage sump in a desert valley of west-central Nevada. It embraces parts of 14 townships but the unit here considered falls within a...

  5. Cytogenetic analysis of two locariid species (Teleostei, Siluriformes from Iguatemi River (Parana River drainage in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Fernandes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fishes of the Loricariidae family, known as “cascudos”, constitute an endemic group in Neotropical freshwaters. In this study, were cytogenetically examined two species of Loricariidae (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 and Farlowella amazonum (Günther, 1864 belonging to Hypostominae and Loricariinae subfamilies respectively from Iguatemi River. Our study provide the first description regarding C-band and fluorochromic analysis in F. amazonum. In Farlowella amazonum, diploid number was 58 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric regions of some chromosomes and large subtelomeric blocks were evidenced on the long arm of the pair 27, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The Pterygoplichthys anisitsi showed diploid number equal 52 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric and telomeric regions of some chromosomes and conspicuous large telomeric blocks on the long arm of the pair 10, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The results show that karyotype formula is nonconservative in P. anisitsi and F. amazonum.

  6. Intersex (Testicular Oocytes) in smallmouth bass from the Potomac River and selected nearby drainages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, V.S.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Iwanowicz, D.D.; Smith, D.R.; Young, J.A.; Hedrick, J.D.; Foster, S.W.; Reeser, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Intersex, or the presence of characteristics of both sexes, in fishes that are normally gonochoristic has been used as an indicator of exposure to estrogenic compounds. In 2003, during health assessments conducted in response to kills and a high prevalence of skin lesions observed in smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in the South Branch of the Potomac River, the presence of immature oocytes within testes was noted. To evaluate this condition, a severity index (0-4) was developed based on the distribution of oocytes within the testes. Using gonad samples collected from 2003 to 2005, the number of histologic sections needed to accurately detect the condition in mature smallmouth bass was statistically evaluated. The reliability of detection depended on the severity index and the number of sections examined. Examining five transverse sections taken along the length of the gonad resulted in a greater than 90% probability of detecting testicular oocytes when the severity index exceeded 0.5. Using the severity index we compared smallmouth bass collected at selected sites within the South Branch during three seasons in 2004. Seasonal differences in severity and prevalence were observed. The highest prevalence and severity were consistently noted during the prespawn-spawning season, when compared with the postspawn season. In 2005, smallmouth bass were collected at selected out-of-basin sites in West Virginia where fish kills and external skin lesions have not been reported, as well as at sites in the Shenandoah River, Virginia (part of the Potomac drainage), where kills and lesions occurred in 2004-2005. The prevalence of testicular oocytes is discussed in terms of human population and agricultural intensity. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  7. Temporal and spatial variations in magnetic properties of suspended particular matter in the Yangtze River drainage and their implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chao; Zheng, Yan; Zheng, Hongbo; Tada, Ryuji; Rits, Daniël S.

    2016-07-01

    As the largest river of China, the Yangtze River transports large amounts of sediments to the adjacent oceans. Provenance of these ancient marine sediments can only be deciphered when the source-to-sink process of modern sediments in the Yangtze River is fully understood. Many methods have been used to study the provenance of river sediment and an environmental magnetic method is applied in this study because of its fast, nondestructive advantages. Magnetic properties of suspended particulate matter (SPM) along the Yangtze River were measured to provide a holistic understanding about magnetic properties of sediments in this river and its controlling factors. The results indicate that the dominant magnetic mineral in SPM is magnetite, with a small contribution of hematite and goethite. Significant spatial variation was observed in most of the magnetic parameters, which primarily reflects the distribution of major geologic units along the drainage area of the river. Anthropogenic influences are also recorded in the magnetic parameters. The Three Gorges Dam results in a dramatic decrease of magnetic minerals in the downstream reaches, since its construction in 2003. In addition, small variations in magnetic properties of SPM are found along water depth, together with a clear seasonal shift at Datong station. This seasonal variation of magnetic properties of SPM is driven by variability in both hydrology and source contributions. This complicates the use of magnetic parameters for provenance studies. Magnetic properties of sediments in rivers are capable of tracing provenance areas, but caution must be taken into account.

  8. Genetic integrity of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus L. 1758 within the Vienne River drainage basin after five decades of stockings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Persat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available European grayling of the upper Vienne River drainage basin represent the westernmost populations inside the natural distribution of the species. Since the 19th century, their extension across this sub-basin has been dramatically reduced by the harnessing of the river network for dams, initially serving mills but then hydroelectric power generation. Since the 1960s, local fishing authorities have attempted to compensate for these declines with stocking programs, but the efficiency of these efforts have never been accurately monitored. We aim to evaluate the genetic imprints of these stocking programs and thus provide an indirect measure of the long-term survival of stocked fish. Three target populations were analyzed at both mtDNA (Control Region and nDNA levels (12 µSats, and compared to populations representative of surrounding drainage basins or fish farm facilities. Among 37 "wild" fish sequenced, only three control region haplotypes were identified, all belonging to the highly divergent Loire basin lineage. Two were specific to the Upper Vienne area, and one was observed in some individuals of the most downstream location, but previously described from the upper Allier sub-drainage. Microsatellite analysis of 87 "wild" fish also demonstrated a rather low diversity within each population (but typical for the Loire drainage with all Upper Vienne individuals belonging to a single diagnosable unit. This genetic cluster was clearly distinct from all other samples including hatchery strains, which strongly supports its native origin. The only piece of evidence of a possible stocking contribution was the occurrence of the Allier haplotype, but it cannot be excluded that this haplotype was also native to this reach of river. The total lack of genetic impact of five decades of stocking deeply questions the efficacy of this management approach, at least in a regional context.

  9. Migration of global radioactive fallout to the Arctic Ocean (on the example of the Ob's river drainage basin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnikov, A; Semenkov, I

    2012-11-01

    This article provides an assessment of the impact of global fallout on (137)Cs contamination in the bottom sediments of Kara Sea. The erosiveness of 10th-level river basins was estimated by landscape-geochemical and geomorphological characteristics. All 10th-level basins (n=154) were separated into three groups: mountain, mountain-lowland and plain. Four different types of basins were identified depending on the geochemical conditions of the migration of radiocaesium in the plain and mountain-lowland. Classifications of types were carried out using the geographic information systems-based approach. The Ob River's macroarena covers 3.5 million km(2). Internal drainage basins cover 23 % of the macroarena and accumulate whole radiocaesium from the global fallout. The remaining territory is transitional for the (137)Cs. The field research works performed in the three plain first-level basins allow one to estimate the radiocaesium run-off. The calculations show that 7 % of (137)Cs was removed from the first-level basin in arable land. Accumulation of radiocaesium in the first-level basin under undisturbed forest is 99.8 %. The research shows that (137)Cs transfer from the humid basins is in the range of 6.9-25.5 TBq and for semi-humid basins 5.6-285.5 TBq. The areas of these basins cover 40 and 8 % of the Ob River's macroarena, respectively. Drainage lakes and reservoir drainage basins make up 22 % of the macroarena. Mountainous and semi-arid drainage basins cover 7 % of the macroarena.

  10. Drainage evolution of the Heihe River in western Hexi Corridor, China, derived from sedimentary and magnetostratigraphic results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Baotian; Chen, Dianbao; Hu, Xiaofei; Cao, Xilin; Chen, Jinjun; Mao, Junwei

    2016-10-01

    The uplifting of the Tibetan Plateau has significantly changed the environment in surrounding areas by delivering abundant water and sediment. The Heihe River draining the Qilian Shan in the NE Tibetan Plateau acts as a dominant sediment routing system from the uplifted NE Tibetan Plateau to the Hexi Corridor as well as the Badain Jaran Desert. Reconstructing the evolution of the Heihe River could provide evidence for the birth of the Badain Jaran Desert and enhance the understanding of sedimentary basin fill and the relationship between tectonism, drainage evolution and environmental changes. With this aim, two parallel cores (DWJ and XKJD with depths of 140 and 68.2 m, respectively) were drilled in the floodplain of the Heihe River. The facies analysis of the sedimentary sequences from the drilling cores showed that the sedimentary environment changed from the lake system to a delta system and finally to a fluvial system at the depths of ∼133.3 and ∼68 m, respectively. The magnetostratigraphic results revealed ages of approximately 1.75 and 1.12 Ma for the DWJ and XKJD cores, respectively, and an age of approximately 1.1 Ma for the transition from delta to fluvial environment in both the cores. The change of the sedimentary environment at approximately 1.1 Ma was caused by the formation of the integrated Heihe River. The integrated Heihe River may have developed via mechanisms such as river capture and river diversion due to the uplifting of the North Qilian Shan and the Longshou Shan. The present study suggested that the formation of large inland rivers, such as the Heihe River and the Shiyang River in NW China, played an important role in the evolution of the deserts and the Loess Plateau.

  11. Record of Meltwater Discharge in the Lower Mississippi River: Insight into the Timing of Meltwater Diversion between the Mississippi River and Eastern Drainage Routes to the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenour, T. M.; Blum, M. D.; Goble, R.

    2002-12-01

    During the last glacial maximum the Mississippi River served as the primary conduit for meltwater discharged from the southern margin of the Laurentide ice sheet. As ice retreated, lower drainage routes were opened to the east causing rapid drainage of glacial lakes, such as Lake Agassiz, and diversion of meltwater into the North Atlantic. Ice margin fluctuations during deglaciation repeatedly opened and closed these drainage routes and forced diversion of meltwater between the Mississippi River and the North Atlantic. Injection of freshwater into the North Atlantic has been modeled to reduce North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) production (Rahmstorf, 1995, Nature v. 378, p. 145-149) and is proposed to have caused many rapid cooling events during deglaciation, including the Younger Dryas (Clark et al., 2001, Science v. 293, p. 283-287). Dating control for the timing of meltwater routing is based on bracketed radiocarbon age estimates on ice margin positions and glacial lake outlet occupation. No evidence from the Mississippi River has been used to constrain this chronology, primarily due to the lack of datable organic material in the channel belt sediments. Optical luminescence samples were collected from three large braided channel belts in the lower Mississippi valley to develop a detailed chronology of river response to discharge variations. Ages of these channel belts are 19.7-17.8, 16.5-15.0 and 12.1-12.5 cal. kyr. These ages correlate with times of meltwater routing to the North Atlantic (Clark et al., 2001). At times of high discharge, when meltwater was routed to the Mississippi, the channel belts were abandoned as the river incised to the level of the next lower surface. The age of these channel belts and the time of channel belt abandonment provide greater detail in the timing of freshwater forcing events in the North Atlantic during deglaciation.

  12. The influence of environmental factors and dredging on chironomid larval diversity in urban drainage systems in polders strongly influenced by seepage from large rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermonden, K.; Brodersen, Klaus Peter; Jacobsen, Dean

    2011-01-01

    , in urban waters strongly influenced by seepage of large rivers. Chironomid assemblages were studied in urban surface-water systems (man-made drainage ditches) in polder areas along lowland reaches of the rivers Rhine-Meuse in The Netherlands. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the key environmental...

  13. 基于风险分析法的排水排涝暴雨重现期转换关系%Risk probability analysis of design storm combination of urban pipe drainage and river drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨星; 李朝方; 刘志龙

    2012-01-01

    According to the urban planning plan of China, municipal department takes charge of pipe drainage planning and water resources department takes charge of river drainage planning. Because there is a difference of sampling methods of storm data and different regulation , the design standard of urban pipe drainage is usually not in accord with that of river drainage, which produce the problem about the combination design of pipe drainage and river drainage. There is a different safety because of different combination values of pipe drainage and river drainage; and this safety can be indicated by risk probability. Based on these descriptions, the calculation model was built to analyse risk probability on design storm combination of urban pipe drainage and river drainage and to guide the combination design of urban pipe drainage and river drainage. Finally, taking the rainfall data in Shenzhen City as one research object, the ease study of risk probability of the combination design was conducted, which could provide evidence on the rational selection for the design storm combination of urban pipe drainage and river drainage.%按目前国内的城市规划体制,市政部门负责管道排水规划,水利部门负责河道排涝规划,两者采用的暴雨资料统计方法不同导致了设计标准的差异,所以城市管道排水和河道排涝存在组合设计的问题.组合值不同,安全度也不一样,当设计暴雨取值满足河道排涝设计安全条件时,组合的排水设计标准越高,相应的组合安全性越大,组合的排水设计标准越低,则相应的组合安全性越小,这种组合设计的安全性可以用风险率表示.为此,构建了管道排水和河道排涝组合风险计算模型,并依据其组合风险率提出管道排水和河道排涝组合设计方法.考虑到各地水文特征的差异性,以深圳市为特例对这种方法进行了分析,为城市管道排水和河道排涝的组合设计提供科学依据.

  14. Mercury and drought along the Lower Carson River, Nevada: III. effects on blood and organ biochemistry and histopathology of snowy egrets and black-crowned night-herons on Lahontan Reservoir, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Henny, Charles J.; Hill, Elwood F.; Grove, Robert A.; Kaiser, James L.; Stebbins, Katherine R.

    2009-01-01

    A 10-year study (1997-2006) was conducted to evaluate reproduction and health of aquatic birds in the Carson River Basin of northwestern Nevada (on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Natural Priorities List) due to high mercury (Hg) concentrations from past mining activities. This part of the study evaluated physiological associations with blood Hg in young snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and organ biochemistry and histopathological effects in snowy egrets on Lahontan Reservoir (LR) from the period 2002-2006. LR snowy egret geometric mean total Hg concentrations (μg/g ww) ranged from 1.5 to 4.8 for blood, 2.4 to 3.1 liver, 1.8 to 2.5 kidneys, 1.7 to 2.4 brain, and 20.5 to 36.4 feathers over these years. For night-herons, mean Hg for blood ranged from 1.6 to 7.4. Significant positive correlations were found between total Hg in blood and five plasma enzyme activities of snowy egrets suggesting hepatic stress. Histopathological findings revealed vacuolar changes in hepatocytes in LR snowy egrets as well as correlation of increased liver inflammation with increasing blood and tissue Hg. Hepatic oxidative effects were manifested by decreased hepatic total thiol concentration and glutathione reductase activity and elevated hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation. However, other hepatic changes indicated compensatory mechanisms in response to oxidative stress, including decreased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration and decreased ratio of GSSG to reduced glutathione. In young black-crowned night-herons, fewer correlations were apparent. In both species, positive correlations between blood total Hg and plasma uric acid and inorganic phosphorus were suggestive of renal stress, which was supported by histopathological findings. Both oxidative effects and adaptive responses to oxidative stress were apparent in kidneys and brain. Vacuolar change and inflammation in

  15. The fate of arsenic in sediments formed at a river confluence affected by acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, P. A.; Pasten, P. A.; Pizarro, G.; Simonson, K.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Gonzalez, C.; Bonilla, C.

    2012-12-01

    Fluvial confluences receiving acid mine drainage may play a critical role in a watershed as a suite of interactions between chemistry and hydrodynamics occur, determining the fate of toxic contaminants like arsenic. Solid reactive phases of iron and/or aluminum oxi-hydroxides may form or transform, ranging from iron oxide nanoparticles that aggregate and form floccules that are transported in the suspended load up to gravel and arsenic-rich rock coatings. In order to further understand the role of reactive fluvial confluences, we have studied the mixing between the Caracarani River (flow=170-640 L/s, pH 8, conductivity 1.5 mS/cm, total As 10 mS/cm, total As>2 mg/L, total Fe=35-125 mg/L), located in the Lluta watershed in northern Chile. This site is an excellent natural laboratory located in a water-scarce area, where the future construction of a dam has prompted the attention of decision makers and scientists interested in weighing the risks derived by the accumulation of arsenic-rich sediments. Suspended sediments (> 0.45 μm), riverbed sediments, and coated rocks were collected upstream and downstream from the confluence. Suspended sediments >0.45 μm and riverbed sediments were analyzed by total reflection x-ray fluorescence for metals, while coated river bed rocks were analyzed by chemical extractions and a semi-quantitative approach through portable x-ray fluorescence. Water from the Caracarani and Azufre rivers were mixed in the laboratory at different ratios and mixing velocities aiming to characterize the effect of the chemical-hydrodynamic environment where arsenic solids were formed at different locations in the confluence. Despite a wide range of iron and arsenic concentrations in the suspended sediments from the field (As=1037 ± 1372 mg/kg, Fe=21.0 ± 24.5 g/kg), we found a rather narrow As/Fe ratio, increasing from 36.5 to 55.2 mgAs/kgFe when the bulk water pH increased from 3 to 6. Sequential extraction analyses suggest that ~80% of As in the solid

  16. Chemical quality of surface waters, and sedimentation in the Grand River drainage basin, North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembree, Charles Herbert; Krieger, Robert A.; Jordan, Paul Robert

    1964-01-01

    An investigation of the chemical quality of surface waters and of the sedimentation in the Grand River drainage basin by the U.S. Geological Survey began in 1946. The chemical quality of the water was studied to obtain information on the nature and amounts of dissolved solids in the streams and on the suitability of the water for domestic, industrial, and irrigation uses. Sedimentation was studied to determine the quantity of sediment that is transported by the streams, the particle sizes of the sediment, and the probable specific weight of the sediment when deposited in a reservoir.

  17. Bedrock geologic map of the Spring Valley, West Plains, and parts of the Piedmont and Poplar Bluff 30'x60' quadrangles, Missouri, including the upper Current River and Eleven Point River drainage basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Harrison, Richard W.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Weems, Robert E.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Repetski, John E.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2015-01-01

    This map covers the drainage basins of the upper Current River and the Eleven Point River in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province of southeastern Missouri. The two surface drainage basins are contiguous in their headwaters regions, but are separated in their lower reaches by the lower Black River basin in the southeast corner of the map area. Numerous dye-trace studies demonstrate that in the contiguous headwaters areas, groundwater flows from the Eleven Point River basin into the Current River basin. Much of the groundwater discharge of the Eleven Point River basin emanates from Big Spring, located on the Current River. This geologic map and cross sections were produced to help fulfill a need to understand the geologic framework of the region in which this subsurface flow occurs.

  18. Diversity and Distribution of Arsenic-Related Genes Along a Pollution Gradient in a River Affected by Acid Mine Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoeuvre, Angélique; Casiot, Corinne; Héry, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Some microorganisms have the capacity to interact with arsenic through resistance or metabolic processes. Their activities contribute to the fate of arsenic in contaminated ecosystems. To investigate the genetic potential involved in these interactions in a zone of confluence between a pristine river and an arsenic-rich acid mine drainage, we explored the diversity of marker genes for arsenic resistance (arsB, acr3.1, acr3.2), methylation (arsM), and respiration (arrA) in waters characterized by contrasted concentrations of metallic elements (including arsenic) and pH. While arsB-carrying bacteria were representative of pristine waters, Acr3 proteins may confer to generalist bacteria the capacity to cope with an increase of contamination. arsM showed an unexpected wide distribution, suggesting biomethylation may impact arsenic fate in contaminated aquatic ecosystems. arrA gene survey suggested that only specialist microorganisms (adapted to moderately or extremely contaminated environments) have the capacity to respire arsenate. Their distribution, modulated by water chemistry, attested the specialist nature of the arsenate respirers. This is the first report of the impact of an acid mine drainage on the diversity and distribution of arsenic (As)-related genes in river waters. The fate of arsenic in this ecosystem is probably under the influence of the abundance and activity of specific microbial populations involved in different As biotransformations.

  19. Scale effects on the hydrological impact of upland afforestation and drainage using indices of flow variability: the River Irthing, England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Archer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequent assertions by river users that rivers in northern England now rise and fall more quickly than in the past, have never been validated by analysis on catchments of more than 10 km2. The method using indices of flow variability provides a basis for making direct measurements of the annual number and duration of pulses, i.e. rises above a given flow, and for comparing catchments of different sizes. A comparison is made between the small afforested headwater Coalburn catchment (1.5 km2 and the larger River Irthing catchment (335 km2 on which the afforested area comprises 19%. A simple but effective means is provided for decoupling the effect of climatic variability from the effects of land use. The analysis shows that major changes have occurred on the small catchment, first with rising pulse numbers after pre-afforestation drainage, then with a much greater progressive decrease in pulse number accompanied with increasing pulse duration. In contrast, the larger catchment shows little change in variability indices from the beginning of its record in 1968 until the late 1980s after which the pattern of change mirrors that at Coalburn but the proportional change is much smaller. The direction of change is the opposite of that asserted by river users. Keywords: hydrology, flow variability, land-use impacts, forests, scale effects

  20. Genetic and Phenotypic Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the interior Columbia River Basin : FY-2001 Report : Populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan and Methow River Drainages.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-10-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project was to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-2001 was year three (and final year) of a project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-2001 we worked in collaboration with the Wenatchee National Forest to catalog populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan, and Methow River drainages of Washington State.

  1. A new species of Cottus from the Onega River drainage, White Sea basin (Actinopterygii: Scorpaeniformes: Cottidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideleva, Valentina G; Naseka, Alexander M; Zhidkov, Zakhar V

    2015-04-29

    Cottus gratzianowi, a new cottid species, is described from material collected in the Ukhtomitsa River in the Onega River drainage, White Sea basin. It differs from its congeners in Europe east of the Meuse except C. koshewnikowi by having no transverse dark bands on the pelvic fin, a single chin canal pore, an incomplete lateral line not reaching behind the anal-fin insertion, and the position of the lateral line which is located considerably above the mid-line of the flank. From C. koshewnikowi distributed in the Volga (Caspian basin), Pechora, and Northern Dvina rivers (Arctic basin), C. gratzianowi sp. nov. can be distinguished by a combination of character states, the most differentiating are as follows: a larger eye (horizontal diameter 23-28% HL, equal to or exceeding snout length vs. 16-25% HL, less than snout length), a rounded caudal fin (vs. commonly truncated), frequent presence of one to three branched rays in median part of the pectoral fin (vs. usual absence), an interrupted supratemporal canal commissure with 4 pores (vs. non-interrupted, with 3 pores), abdominal vertebrae commonly 10 (vs. 11), and contrasting black blotches on all fins including pelvic and anal fins (vs. no blotches on pelvic and anal fins).

  2. Pawcatuck River and Narragansett Bay Drainage Basins. Water and Related Land Resources Study. Blackstone River Watershed. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    weee ir noww md Id I b Wock number) --The eight appendices to the main report provides descriptive material abbut the Blackstone River Basin. Appendices...PNB area). The team concentrated on water supply, water quality, recreation, marine management, flooding and erosion, minerals extraction and the...basin consists of gently rolling wooded hills. Peters River originates in Bellingham, Massachusetts, just north of Silver Lake. It flows southwesterly

  3. The dissipation of carbofuran in two soils with different pesticide application histories within Nzoia River Drainage Basin, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemutai-Kimosop, Selly; Orata, Francis O; K'Owino, Isaac O; Getenga, Zachary M

    2014-05-01

    The dissipation of carbofuran from soils within the Nzoia River Drainage Basin in Kenya was studied under real field conditions for 112 days. Results showed significantly enhanced dissipation of carbofuran with half life (DT50) values of 8 days (p = 0.038) in soils with prior exposure to carbofuran compared to 19 days in soils with no application history. At the end of the experiment, residues of 2.57% and 9.36% of the initial carbofuran applied were recorded in the two types of soil, respectively. Carbofuran metabolites identified in the study were 3-keto carbofuran and carbofuran phenol with 5.84% and 15.0% remaining in soils with prior exposure, respectively. Soils with no application history recorded 16.05% and 12.82% of 3-keto carbofuran and carbofuran phenol metabolites, respectively.

  4. Drainage areas for selected stream-sampling stations, Missouri River Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA), an investigation of the Missouri River Basin is being conducted to...

  5. Background Contaminants Evaluation of the Republican River Drainage- Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Republican River Basin is a very large watershed in west-central Kansas, eastern Colorado, Wyoming and southern Nebraska. This study was conducted to determine...

  6. Metacercarial distribution of Centrocestus formosanus among fish hosts in the Guadalupe River drainage of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, B Paul; Huffman, David G; Bonner, Timothy H; Brandt, Thomas M

    2011-09-01

    We examined the gills of wild fish collected from central Texas for Centrocestus formosanus metacercariae to determine whether this temperature-restricted parasite had invaded the thermally dynamic Guadalupe River via an introduced population in its thermally stable tributary, the Comal River. We collected fish from three sites in the Guadalupe River near its confluence with the Comal River (upstream, at, and downstream) and one site in the Comal River. Centrocestus formosanus infected 14 of the 25 species examined (56.0%) and 171 of the individual fish (27.1%). Several of the infected fish represent new host records for the parasite, and two are listed as species of special concern by the state of Texas. Mean metacercarial intensities varied from 8 to 616 among species, and the highest recorded intensity was greater than 800 in two Guadalupe roundnose minnow Dionda nigrotaeniata. Among the 24 species examined from the Guadalupe River, 11 (45.8%) were infected with C. formosanus. Thorough surveys at the study sites yielded no living specimens of the first obligate intermediate snail host (red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus), which must be present to perpetuate the parasite. Thus, the infections were probably due to drifting cercariae that had been shed into the water column upstream of the study area in the Comal River. We therefore investigated spatial patterns in cercarial acquisition using caged fish to determine whether drifting cercariae were present in the water column at the study sites. Of 57 uninfected blacktail shiners Cyprinella venusta exposed to Guadalupe River water downstream from and at the confluence, 52 (91.2%) became infected with C. Formosanus metacercariae at a mean rate of 4 metacercariae/d. This finding extends the known geographic range of this invasive exotic parasite and is the first report of the life cycle being advanced in the fish assemblage of a thermally variable temperate stream in the USA.

  7. Use of man-made impoundment in mitigating acid mine drainage in the North Branch Potomac River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Jerome M.; Bower, William; Gruber, David

    1993-03-01

    The US Department of the Army, Baltimore District Corps of Engineers, oversees a long-term monitoring study to assess and evaluate effects of the Jennings-Randolph reservoir on biota in the North Branch Potomac River. The reservoir was intended, in part, to mitigate effects of acid mine drainage originating in upstream and headwater areas. The present study assessed recovery of benthos and fish in this system, six years after completion of the reservoir. Higher pH and lower iron and sulfate concentrations were observed upstream of the reservoir compared to preimpoundment conditions, suggesting better overall water quality in the upper North Branch. Water quality improved slightly directly downstream of the reservoir. However, the reservoir itself was poorly colonized by macrophytes and benthic organisms, and plankton composition suggested either metal toxicity and/or nutrient limitation. One large tributary to the North Branch and the reservoir (Stony River) was shown to have high (and possibly toxic) levels of manganese, iron, zinc, and aluminum due to subsurface coal mine drainage. Macroinvertebrate diversity and number of taxa were higher in sites downstream of the reservoir in the present study. Compared with previous years, the present study suggested relatively rapid recovery in the lower North Branch due to colonization from two major unimpacted tributaries in this system: Savage River and South Branch Potomac. Abundance of certain mayfly species across sites provided the most clear evidence of longitudinal gradients in water quality parameters and geomorphology. Fish data were consistent with macroinvertebrate results, but site-to-site variation in species composition was greater. Data collected between 1982 and 1987 suggested that certain fish species have unsuccessfully attempted to colonize sites directly downstream of the reservoir despite the more neutral pH water there. Our results show that recovery of biota in the North Branch Potomac was attributed

  8. Rachel Carson:Pioneer of Environmentalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鸿利

    2014-01-01

    Rachel Carson is the most influential female writer in the 20th century on the movement of environmental protection, and her book Silent Spring has aroused the consciousness of environmental protection of the people al over the world. This paper has stressed the great importance of this great woman on environmental protection through literature consulting and comparison with our Chinese environmental movement, with the aim to change the wrong concept of the Chinese and improve the poor situation in China.

  9. Geological and Geothermal Investigation of the Lower Wind River Valley, Southwestern Washington Cascade Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berri, Dulcy A.; Korosec, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    The Wind River Valley, on the west slope of the Cascade Range, is a northwest-trending drainage that joins the Columbia River near Carson, Washington. The region has been heavily dissected by fluvial and glacial erosion. Ridges have sharp crests and deep subsidiary valleys typical of a mature topography, with a total relief of as much as 900 m. The region is vegetated by fir and hemlock, as well as dense, brushy ground-cover and undergrowth. The lower 8 km of the valley is privately owned and moderately populated. The upper reaches lies within the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, and include several campgrounds and day parks, the Carson National Fish Hatchery, and the Wind River Ranger Station and Wind River Nursery of the US Forest Service. Logging activity is light due to the rugged terrain, and consequently, most valley slopes are not accessible by vehicle. The realization that a potential for significant geothermal resources exists in the Wind River area was brought about by earlier exploration activities. Geologic mapping and interpretation was needed to facilitate further exploration of the resource by providing a knowledge of possible geologic controls on the geothermal system. This report presents the detailed geology of the lower Wind River valley with emphasis on those factors that bear significantly on development of a geothermal resource.

  10. A new species of Percina (Perciformes: Percidae) from the Apalachicola River drainage, southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, B.J.; Burkhead, N.M.; Straight, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Percina crypta, the Halloween Darter, is described as a new species endemic to the Chattahoochee and Flint River systems in Georgia and Alabama. Percina crypta differs from sympatric Percina nigrofasciata in having narrowly separated dorsal saddles (inter-saddle spaces typically less than or equal to saddle width, compared to frequently wider than saddle width in P. nigrofasciata), in usually possessing a single modified scale between the pelvic bases (compared to two or more in P. nigrofasciata), and in having dark wide bands on pectoral-fin rays (versus pectoral fin clear, or with irregular dark marks or weak tessellations on fin rays in P. nigrofasciata). Phylogenetic relationships of P. crypta to other species of Percina are obscure. Percina crypta occurs in shoal and riffle habitats in the Chattahoochee and Flint River mainstems and in a few tributary systems, with the known extant range comprising four disjunct areas separated by mainstem impoundments and altered river reaches.

  11. Hydrological modeling of a watershed affected by acid mine drainage (Odiel River, SW Spain). Assessment of the pollutant contributing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, L.; Olías, M.; Cánovas, C. R.; Sarmiento, A. M.; Nieto, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Odiel watershed drains materials belonging to the Iberian Pyrite Belt, where significant massive sulfide deposits have been mined historically. As a result, a huge amount of sulfide-rich wastes are deposited in the watershed, which suffer from oxidation, releasing acidic lixiviates with high sulfate and metal concentrations. In order to reliably estimate the metal loadings along the watershed a complete series of discharge and hydrochemical data are essential. A hydrological model was performed with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to solve the scarcity of gauge stations along the watershed. The model was calibrated and validated from daily discharge data (from 1980 to 2010) at the outlet of the watershed, river inputs into an existent reservoir, and a flow gauge station close to the northern area of the watershed. Discharge data obtained from the hydrological model, together with analytical data, allowed the estimation of the dissolved pollutant load delivered annually by the Odiel River (e.g. 9140 t of Al, 2760 t of Zn). The pollutant load is influenced strongly by the rainfall regime, and can even double during extremely rainy years. Around 50% of total pollution comes from the Riotinto Mining District, so the treatment of Riotinto lixiviates reaching the Odiel watershed would reduce the AMD (Acid Mine Drainages) in a remarkable way, improving the water quality downstream, especially in the reservoir of Alcolea, currently under construction. The information obtained in this study will allow the optimization of remediation efforts in the watershed, in order to improve its water quality.

  12. Additional record of Batasio merianiensis (Chaudhuri 1913, a catfish (Teleostei: Bagridae in upper Brahmaputra River drainage in Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tamang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper communicates the extension of the distribution range of Batasio merianiensis in Sille River in the upper Brahmaputra drainage, East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh. Detailed examinations of the specimens revealed existence of few morphological variations against those reported by Heok Hee Ng in 2009 on the following characteristics: by having a longer preanal (70.4-73.4 vs. 66.3-68.2% SL; a longer prepectoral (25.1-29.3 vs. 21.4-25.7% SL; a longer adipose-fin base (22.0-27.6 vs. 16.9-22.2% SL; a shorter post-adipose distance (11.6-13.4 vs.13.4-15.5% SL; a deeper body at anus (depth 18.3-20.8 vs.15.2-18.4% SL and broader head (width 17.6-20.0 vs.13.5-16.2 % HL. Few additional characters of the fish are included along with brief information on its habitat. The LIPUM, the semi-traditional method of fishing in the river is identified as a major threat to this species.

  13. Collaborative Modeling to Assess Drought   Resiliency of Snow‐Fed River Dependent  Communities in the Western United States:   A Case Study in the Truckee‐Carson River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Singletary

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the drought resilience of snow‐fed river dependent communities in the arid  Western United States has taken on critical importance in response to changing climatic conditions.  The process of assessing drought resiliency involves understanding the extent to which snow‐fed  dependent communities can absorb the effects of uncertain and variable water supplies while  acknowledging and encouraging their capacity for adaptation. Participatory research approaches  are particularly well suited to assess resiliency in this context because they rely upon local water  managers’ knowledge and perspectives. The research presented here provides measured insight  into local water managers’ perceptions of drought resiliency in the Truckee‐Carson River System in  northwestern Nevada. These findings are reported in the context of the collaborative modeling  research design developed for this case study. The objectives of this study are: (1 to define  resiliency and present a rationale for a participatory approach to assess drought resiliency in  snow‐fed arid river basins in the Western United States; (2 to outline collaborative modeling as a  participatory research design developed for the Truckee‐Carson River System case study area; (3  to  describe  the  development and implementation of a resiliency  assessment  undertaken  to  implement this research design; (4 to highlight selected results of the assessment, summarizing  interviews with 66 water managers in the case study area; (5 to discuss the use of assessment  findings to inform collaborative modeling toward adaptation strategies; and (6 to review lessons  learned  to  date  from  the  collaborative  modeling  case  study  and  note

  14. Geochemical Evolution of Groundwater in the Medicine Lodge Creek Drainage Basin with Implications for the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Eastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsbach, M. L.; Rattray, G. W.; McCurry, M. O.; Welhan, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The eastern Snake River Plain aquifer (ESRPA) is an unconfined, continuous aquifer located in a northeast-trending structural basin filled with basaltic lava flows and sedimentary interbeds in eastern Idaho. The ESPRA is not an inert transport system, as it acts as both a sink and source for solutes found in the water. More than 90% of the water recharged naturally to the ESRPA is from the surrounding mountain drainage basins. Consequently, in order to understand the natural geochemistry of water within the ESRPA, the chemistry of the groundwater from the mountain drainage basins must be characterized and the processes that control the chemistry need to be understood. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy and Idaho State University, has been studying these mountain drainage basins to help understand the movement of waste solutes in the ESRPA at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in eastern Idaho. This study focuses on the Medicine Lodge Creek drainage basin, which originates in the Beaverhead Mountains, extends onto the eastern Snake River Plain, and contributes recharge to the ESRPA beneath the INL as underflow along the northeastern INL boundary. Water and rock samples taken from the Medicine Lodge Creek drainage basin were analyzed to better understand water/rock interactions occurring in this system and to define the groundwater geochemistry of this drainage basin. Water samples were collected at 10 locations in the drainage basin during June 2012: 6 groundwater wells used for agricultural irrigation or domestic use and 4 springs. These water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace metals, isotopes, and dissolved gasses. Samples of rock representative of the basalt, rhyolite, and sediments that occur within the drainage basin also were collected. These samples were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and petrographic study to determine the mineralogical constituents of the rock and the presence and

  15. Primavera Silenciosa de Rachel Carson,1962

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Esta comunicação, inserida no ciclo de conferências “Ambiente. Porquê ler os clássicos?” organizado pela Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, apresenta uma reflexão sobre o livro “Primavera Silenciosa” (Silent Spring) de Rachel Carson, de 1962. Considerado como uma referência no imaginário ambiental da cultura contemporânea, este livro influenciou o pensamento social e político, pelo seu tema controverso e pela sua abordagem revolucionária, ao expor os efeitos dos pesticidas nos ecossistemas naturai...

  16. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the San Juan River area, New Mexico, 1993-94, with supplemental data, 1991-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C.L.; Lusk, J.D.; Bristol, R.S.; Wilson, R.M.; Shineman, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    In response to increasing concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on fish, wildlife, and human health, the U.S. Department of the Interior formed an interbureau task group to prepare a plan for investigating water- quality problems on irrigation projects sponsored by the Department of the Interior. The San Juan River area in northwestern New Mexico was one of the areas designated for study. Investigators collected water, bottom-sediment, soil, and biological samples at more than 50 sites in the San Juan River area during 1993-94. Sample sites included (1) sites located within Department of the Interior irrigation project service areas, or areas that receive drainage from irrigation projects; (2) reference sites for comparison with irrigation project sites; and (3) sites located within the reach of the San Juan River from Navajo Dam to 10 miles downstream from the dam. The types of habitat sampled included the main stem of the San Juan River, backwater areas adjacent to the San Juan River, tributaries to the San Juan River, ponds, seeps, irrigation-delivery canals, irrigation-drainage canals, a stock tank, and shallow ground water. The types of media sampled included water, bottom sediment, soil, aquatic plants, aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, and fish. Semipermeable-membrane devices were used as a surrogate medium to sample both air and water in some instances. Sample measurements included concentrations of major ions, trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon compounds, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. This report presents tables of physical, chemical, and biological data collected for the U.S. Department of the Interior National Irrigation Water-Quality Program. Additionally, supplemental physical, chemical, and biological data collected in association with the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project are presented.

  17. Geothermal assessment of the lower Bear River drainage and northern East Shore ground-water areas, Box Elder County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauk, R.H.; Budding, K.E.

    1984-07-01

    The Utah Geological and Mineral Survey (UGMS) has been researching the low-temperature geothermal resource potential in Utah. This report, part of an area-wide geothermal research program along the Wasatch Front, concerns the study conducted in the lower Bear River drainage and northern East Shore ground-water areas in Box Elder County, Utah. The primary purpose of the study is to identify new areas of geothermal resource potential. There are seven known low-temperature geothermal areas in this part of Box Elder County. Geothermal reconnaissance techniques used in the study include a temperature survey, chemical analysis of well and spring waters, and temperature-depth measurements in accessible wells. The geothermal reconnaissance techniques identified three areas which need further evaluation of their low-temperature geothermal resource potential. Area 1 is located in the area surrounding Little Mountain, area 2 is west and southwest of Plymouth, and area 3 is west and south of the Cutler Dam. 5 figures, 4 tables.

  18. Use of real-time monitoring to predict concentrations of select constituents in the Menomonee River drainage basin, Southeast Wisconsin, 2008-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Graczyk, David J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.; Magruder, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Menomonee River drainage basin in southeast Wisconsin is undergoing changes that may affect water quality. Several rehabilitation and flood-management projects are underway, including removal of concrete channels and the construction of floodwater retention basins. The city of Waukesha may begin discharging treated wastewater into Underwood Creek, thus approximately doubling the current base-flow discharge. In addition, the headwater basins, historically dominated by agriculture and natural areas, are becoming increasingly urbanized.

  19. CONCENTRATION OF URANIUM IN WATERS OF THE BIGGEST LAKES OF THE TYWA RIVER DRAINAGE BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Kubiak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of uranium concentrations in its different kinds – suspended and dissolved – in waters of the largest lakes located in the catchment area of the River Tywa – Strzeszowskie Lake, Dłużyna Lake, Długie Lake and Dłuzec Lake. Small (or the order of several 0,01 µg/l variations in concentration of uranium in different lakes were noted. The study has also shown a seasonal variation – in a similar range – in concentrations of the above species of uranium, as well as total uranium. The content of dissolved uranium was highest in the autumn and winter, lower in the spring and summer. Overall, total uranium was found in greatest concentrations during the fall, in other seasons concentrations were lower and similar to each other. Suspended uranium was found in largest concentrations in autumn and summer, in lower ones in spring and winter. Concentrations of the different species of uranium during the study period showed a small variation – variation coefficient below 10% for total uranium and dissolved uranium, and about 25% for suspended uranium. The observed concentrations of uranium were typical of uncontaminated unpolluted water.

  20. Roles of the combined irrigation, drainage, and storage of the canal network in improving water reuse in the irrigation districts along the lower Yellow River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Luo, Yi; He, Chansheng; Lai, Jianbin; Li, Xiubin

    2010-09-01

    SummaryThe commonly used irrigation system in the irrigation districts (with a combined irrigation area of 3.334 × 10 6 ha) along the lower Yellow River of China is canal network. It delivers water from the Yellow River to the fields, collects surface runoff and drainage from cropland, and stores both of them for subsequent irrigation uses. This paper developed a new combined irrigation, drainage, and storage (CIDS) module for the SWAT2000 model, simulated the multiple roles of the CIDS canal system, and estimated its performance in improving water reuse in the irrigation districts under different irrigation and water diversion scenarios. The simulation results show that the annual evapotranspiration (ET) of the double-cropping winter wheat and summer maize was the highest under the full irrigation scenario (automatic irrigation), and the lowest under the no irrigation scenario. It varied between these two values when different irrigation schedules were adopted. Precipitation could only meet the water requirement of the double-cropping system by 62-96% on an annual basis; that of the winter wheat by 32-36%, summer maize by 92-123%, and cotton by 87-98% on a seasonal basis. Hence, effective irrigation management for winter wheat is critical to ensure high wheat yield in the study area. Runoff generation was closely related to precipitation and influenced by irrigation. The highest and lowest annual runoff accounted for 19% and 11% of the annual precipitation under the full irrigation and no irrigation scenarios, respectively. Nearly 70% of the annual runoff occurred during months of July and August due to the concentrated precipitation in these 2 months. The CIDS canals play an important role in delivering the diversion water from the Yellow River, intercepting the surface runoff and drainage from cropland (inflow of the CIDS canal) and recharging the shallow aquifer for later use. Roughly 14-26% of the simulated total flow in the CIDS canal system recharged

  1. Comprehensive hatchery management plan: Carson National Fish Hatchery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Hatchery Management Plan (CHMP) for the Carson National Fish Hatchery (NFH) is an operational management plan which outlines policy, legal...

  2. Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Rachel Carson NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  3. Inventory and Monitoring Plan for Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan documents and prioritizes inventory and monitoring surveys and research currently conducted, and proposed to be conducted, at the Rachel Carson National...

  4. Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge Annual Narrative Report: 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  5. Ground-water monitoring sites for Carson Valley, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the monitoring sites where water levels were collected and used to develop a spatial ground-water data base in Carson Valley, west-central...

  6. Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge Annual Narrative Report: 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2003 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  7. Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge Annual Narrative Report: 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2002 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  8. Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge Annual Narrative Report: 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  9. Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge Annual Narrative Report: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  10. Data Sources for NetZero Ft Carson Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Table of values used to parameterize and evaluate the Ft Carson NetZero integrated Model with published reference sources for each value. This dataset is associated...

  11. Suspended sediment export in five intensive agricultural river catchments with contrasting land use and soil drainage characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Melland, Alice; Jordan, Phil; Fenton, Owen; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion and sediment loss from land can have a negative impact on the chemical and ecological quality of freshwater resources. In catchments dominated by agriculture, prediction of soil erosion risk is complex due to the interaction of physical characteristics such as topography, soil erodibility, hydrological connectivity and climate. Robust measurement approaches facilitate the assessment of sediment loss magnitudes in relation to a range of agricultural settings. These approaches improve our understanding of critical sediment transfer periods and inform development of evidence-based and cost-effective management strategies. The aim of this study was to i) assess the efficacy of out-of-channel (ex-situ) suspended sediment measurement approaches, ii) to quantify the variability of sediment exported from five river catchments with varying hydrology and agricultural land uses over multiple years and iii) to investigate trends in relation to physical and land use characteristics when sediment data were compared between catchments. Sediment data were collected in five intensive agricultural river catchments in Ireland (3-11 km2) which featured contrasting land uses (predominantly intensive grassland or arable) and soil drainage classes (well, moderate and poor). High-resolution suspended sediment concentration data (SSC - using a calibrated turbidity proxy) were collected ex-situ and combined with in-stream discharge data measured at each catchment outlet to estimate suspended sediment yield (SSY - t km-2 yr-1). In two catchments additional in-stream turbidity monitoring equipment replicated ex-situ measurements including site specific calibration of individual in-stream and ex-situ turbidity probes. Depth-integrated samples were collected to assess the accuracy of both approaches. Method comparison results showed that true SSC values (from depth-integrated sampling) were predominantly within the 95% confidence interval of ex-situ predicted SSC consequently

  12. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Artificial Drainage (1992) and Irrigation (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the estimated area of artifical drainage for the year 1992 and irrigation types for the year 1997 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data sets were derived from tabular National Resource Inventory (NRI) data sets created by the National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1995, 2000). Artificial drainage is defined as subsurface drains and ditches. Irrigation types are defined as gravity and pressure. Subsurface drains are described as conduits, such as corrugated plastic tubing, tile, or pipe, installed beneath the ground surface to collect and/or convey drainage. Surface drainage field ditches are described as graded ditches for collecting excess water. Gravity irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field by canals or pipelines open to the atmosphere; and water is distributed by the force of gravity down the field by: (1) A surface irrigation system (border, basin, furrow, corrugation, wild flooding, etc.) or (2) Sub-surface irrigation pipelines or ditches. Pressure irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field in pump or elevation-induced pressure pipelines, and water is distributed across the field by: (1) Sprinkle irrigation (center pivot, linear move, traveling gun, side roll, hand move, big gun, or fixed set sprinklers), or (2) Micro irrigation (drip emitters, continuous tube bubblers, micro spray or micro sprinklers). NRI data do not include Federal lands and are thus excluded from this dataset. The tabular data for drainage were spatially apportioned to the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD, Kerie Hitt, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2005) and the tabular data for irrigation were spatially apportioned to an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCDe, Nakagaki and others, 2007). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified

  13. US Army hangar, Fort Carson, Colorado, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollick, J. [Solar Wall International Ltd., Downsview (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The US Army's first solar-ventilated hangar is located at Fort Carson, Colorado. Fumes from the fuel tanks of up to 30 helicopters stored in the building are displaced with solar-warmed fresh air. A conventional gas-heated ventilation system had been specified, but a value engineering analysis done for the Corps of Engineers showed that a solar-heated ventilation system would be comparable in cost to what was specified, so the design was changed. The fans were installed with the original building in 1992, but the solar cladding system was installed later, in 1995. The panels had to be supplied later as a retrofit project because of scheduling concerns at the time of construction. The solar-transpired collectors cover 725 m{sup 2} of the south wall above the hangar doors and heat 107,000 m{sup 3}/h of ventilation air. Cost savings have been calculated at US $14,000 (ECU 12,600) a year based on energy savings of 974,000 kWh a year. (author)

  14. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Fort Carson: Assessment and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K.; Markel, T.; Simpson, M.; Leahey, J.; Rockenbaugh, C.; Lisell, L.; Burman, K.; Singer, M.

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. Army's Fort Carson installation was selected to serve as a prototype for net zero energy assessment and planning. NREL performed the comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of Fort Carson to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric vehicle integration. This report summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations. This study is part of a larger cross-laboratory effort that also includes an assessment of renewable opportunities at seven other DoD Front Range installations, a microgrid design for Fort Carson critical loads and an assessment of regulatory and market-based barriers to a regional secure smart grid.

  15. Antibiotic resistance and community analysis of surface and subsurface drainage waters in the South Fork Iowa River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Midwest is a center for swine production leading to application of swine manure onto lands that have artificial subsurface drainage. Previous reports have indicated elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in surface water and groundwater around confined animal feeding operations w...

  16. Water-Quality Characteristics for Sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River Drainage Basins, Wyoming and Montana, Water Years 2001-05, with Temporal Patterns of Selected Long-Term Water-Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.

    2007-01-01

    Water-quality sampling was conducted regularly at stream sites within or near the Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana during water years 2001-05 (October 1, 2000, to September 30, 2005) to characterize water quality in an area of coalbed natural gas development. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, characterized the water quality at 22 sampling sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins. Data for general hydrology, field measurements, major-ion chemistry, and selected trace elements were summarized, and specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios were evaluated for relations with streamflow and seasonal variability. Trend analysis for water years 1991-2005 was conducted for selected sites and constituents to assess change through time. Average annual runoff was highly variable among the stream sites. Generally, streams that have headwaters in the Bighorn Mountains had more runoff as a result of higher average annual precipitation than streams that have headwaters in the plains. The Powder River at Moorhead, Mont., had the largest average annual runoff (319,000 acre-feet) of all the sites; however, streams in the Tongue River drainage basin had the highest runoff per unit area of the four major drainage basins. Annual runoff in all major drainage basins was less than average during 2001-05 because of drought conditions. Consequently, water-quality samples collected during the study period may not represent long-term water-quality con-ditions for all sites. Water-quality characteristics were highly variable generally because of streamflow variability, geologic controls, and potential land-use effects. The range of median specific-conductance values among sites was smallest in the Tongue River drainage basin. Median values in that basin ranged from 643 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (?S/cm at 25?C) on the

  17. 平原河网区排涝计算研究%Research on the Calculation of Drainage of River Networks in Plains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯铭; 董增川; 樊孔明; 李梓嘉; 胡昊; 王钰

    2012-01-01

    行洪排涝是平原河网区汛期的重要任务。利用MIKE11模型中的HD模块,以江苏省泗洪县城区水系为实例,建立了一维水动力学模型,并利用产汇流计算确定了模型的边界条件,对20年一遇暴雨条件下的城区河网水量进行了模拟计算。结果表明,在现有的排涝设施条件下,泗洪县城区河网能够满足设计暴雨下的排涝要求。%Flood defence and drainage are the mental task in the river networks in plains. This paper establishes a 1-D hydrodynamic model by using HD in MIKE11 model to get the boundary conditions of the model by means of produced convergence. And then a simulation is conducted of the river network of the city under the conditions of a rainstorm within 20 years. The results show that the river networks of Sihong County can meet the requirements of the designed rainstorm under the existing conditions.

  18. Carson-Washoe County Health Manpower and Education Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callen, John; And Others

    The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Carson-Washoe County area of Nevada, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general population…

  19. Variations of the spring precipitation day numbers reconstructed from tree rings in the Urumqi River drainage,Tianshan Mts. Over the last 370 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Yujiang; JIN Liya; SHAO Xuemei; HE Qing; LI Zhizhong; LI Jiangfeng

    2003-01-01

    The tree-ring cores of Tianshan spruces collected from nine sites in the Urumqi River drainage of the middle Tianshan Mountains were used to establishthree types of the tree-ring width chronologies over the last 370 years, using the international standard method of dendrochronology. Our study demonstrates that dendrochronology can be better used to reconstruct the number of the precipitation day than to reconstruct the precipitation amount in middle Tianshan Mountains. It is found that the residual chronology among the three tree-ring width chronologies has the best relationship with number of spring precipitation days from May 20 to June 8. The chronologies at Haxionggou B site and Zaierdegou site in the Urumiqi drainage have the highest correlation with the observed number of spring precipitation days at Daxigou meteorological station, and are used to reconstruct the spring precipitation days over the last 370 years in the drainage. The main significant decreasing trend of the number of the spring precipitation days occurred during 1665-1717, while the significant increasing trends happened during 1805-1841 and 1914-1943. The reconstructed series of the number of spring precipitation days has quasi-periodic variations of 3.3, 2.1, 2.5, 12.3 and32.0 years with the dominated short periodical changes. The long cycle of 32 years is shown quite clearly in the 10-year smoothed sequence. The maximum spring precipitation days occurred mainly in the 1630s, 1840s and 1940s, while the lowest number of spring precipitation days for the 10-year average occurred in the 1710s.

  20. Spinitectus osorioi (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae in the Mexican endemic fish Atherinella alvarezi (Atherinopsidae from the Atlantic River drainage system in Chiapas, Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Moravec

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Spinitectus osorioi Choudhury and Pérez-Ponce de León, an intestinal nematode species previously considered to be specific to Chirostoma spp and endemic to some lakes in the Pacific drainage in Michoacán, were collected from the freshwater fish Atherinella alvarezi (Díaz-Pardo (Atherinopsidae of the Michol River near Palenque, Chiapas, Southern Mexico, which belongs to the Atlantic drainage system. Studies using light and scanning electron microscopy revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported or erroneously reported features of S. osorioi, such as the location of the vulva, the actual number and distribution of postanal papillae and phasmids and the presence of a short median cuticular ridge anterior to the cloacal opening (in addition to two long subventral ridges. The recorded somewhat shorter spicules (420-465 and 105-111 μm and mostly smaller eggs (33-36 × 18-20 μm as compared to the original species description may be due to a different type of host, geographical region or generally smaller body measurements of these specimens. These biometrical differences are considered to be within the limits of the intraspecific variability of S. osorioi. A key to species of Spinitectus parasitizing freshwater fishes in Mexico is provided.

  1. Study of the Optimization and Adjustment of the Industrial Structure Subjected to Water Resource in the Drainage Area of the Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haiying; Fan Zhenjun; Hou Xiaoli; Dong Suocheng

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the Yellow River stream has been temporarily interrupted for several years,which affects the development of society, the economy and human life, limits the economic potential of the drainage areas, and especially causes great harm to regions on the lower reaches. Based on the analysis of the relationship between the development of society and economy and water scarcity, the author thinks it is necessary to optimize and adjust the industrial structure that has extravagantly consumed enormous amounts of water, and to develop ecological agriculture, industry and tourism which are balanced with the ecological environment. Finally, the author puts forward several pieces of advice and countermeasures about how to build the economic systems by which water can be used economically.

  2. Water-quality characteristics, including sodium-adsorption ratios, for four sites in the Powder River drainage basin, Wyoming and Montana, water years 2001-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, monitors streams throughout the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and parts of Montana for potential effects of coalbed natural gas development. Specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios may be larger in coalbed waters than in stream waters that may receive the discharge waters. Therefore, continuous water-quality instruments for specific conductance were installed and discrete water-quality samples were collected to characterize water quality during water years 2001-2004 at four sites in the Powder River drainage basin: Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming; Crazy Woman Creek near Arvada, Wyoming; Clear Creek near Arvada, Wyoming; and Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. During water years 2001-2004, the median specific conductance of 2,270 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (?S/cm) in discrete samples from the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming, was larger than the median specific conductance of 1,930 ?S/cm in discrete samples collected downstream from the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. The median specific conductance was smallest in discrete samples from Clear Creek (1,180 ?S/cm), which has a dilution effect on the specific conductance for the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. The daily mean specific conductance from continuous water-quality instruments during the irrigation season showed the same spatial pattern as specific conductance values for the discrete samples. Dissolved sodium, sodium-adsorption ratios, and dissolved solids generally showed the same spatial pattern as specific conductance. The largest median sodium concentration (274 milligrams per liter) and the largest range of sodium-adsorption ratios (3.7 to 21) were measured in discrete samples from the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming. Median concentrations of sodium and sodium-adsorption ratios were substantially smaller in Crazy Woman Creek and Clear Creek, which tend to

  3. Sorption of trace metals to an aluminum precipitate in a stream receiving acid rock-drainage; Snake River, Summit County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munk, L.A.; Faure, G.; Pride, D.E. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Bigham, J.M. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). School of Natural Resources

    2002-07-01

    The quality of water in streams that are contaminated by acid drainage from mines and from the weathering of mineralized rocks improves as the water flows downstream. The purpose of this study was to investigate the geochemical processes that occur in one such stream and to determine the fate of the trace metals that are removed from the water. The stream chosen for this purpose was the Snake River, Summit County, Colorado, which is affected by natural acid rock-drainage (ARD) containing SO{sub 4}, Al, Fe, and various trace elements such as Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, and others. Most of the Fe in the Snake River is removed from solution by the oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} to Fe{sup 3+} and the subsequent precipitation of Fe-oxyhydroxides that form a massive ferricrete deposit near the springs that feed the river. Further downstream, the Snake River (pH = 3.0) mixes with water from Deer Creek (pH = 7.0) thereby increasing its pH to 6.3 and causing SO{sub 4}-rich precipitates of Al-oxyhydroxide to form. The precipitates and associated organic C complexes sorb trace metals from the water and thus have high concentrations of certain elements, including Zn (540-11,400 ppm), Cu (34-221 ppm), Pb (90-340 ppm), and Ni (11-197 ppm). The concentrations of these elements in the precipitates that coat the streambed rise steeply in the zone of mixing and then decline downstream. The trace element concentrations of the water in the mixing zone at the confluence with Deer Creek decrease by 75% or more and are up to 3 orders of magnitude lower than those of the precipitates. Sorption curves for Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, and SO{sub 4} were derived by stepwise neutralization of a sample of Snake River water (collected above the confluence with Deer Creek) and indicate that the trace metals are sorbed preferentially with increasing pH in the general order Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni. Sulfate is removed between pH 4 and 5 to form an Al-hydroxysulfate and/or by sorption to microcrystalline gibbsite. The sorption data

  4. Preliminary natural resource survey : Carson River Mercury Site, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The survey in this report was conducted to determine if natural resources under the trusteeship of Interior have been affected by the release of hazardous substances...

  5. Diversity of lampreys and fishes of the Upper Vistula River drainage, Poland: present state and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Nowak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been some 57 lamprey and fish species recorded in the Upper Vistula Riverdrainage (S-E Poland. Among these there are a number of species-complexes (Carassius auratus, Gobiogobio, Cobitis taenia with unresolved taxonomy. Identity of some others (Barbus waleckii, Romanogobioalbipinnatus, Cottus gobio is questionable and needs a review. Phylogenetic relationships of anotherones (Eudontomyzon mariae, Lampetra planeri, Lampetra fluviatilis is also under debate. Knowledgeabout the distribution of many species is very scarce and needs to be filled. In the current work webriefly summarise present state of the diversity and classification of lampreys and fishes of the UpperVistula drainage and point some urgent questions that have arose in recent years and are waiting fornew solutions.

  6. IMPACT OF ADDITIONALS CONTAMINANTS DUE TO ACID MINE DRAINAGE IN TRIBUTARIES OF THE PILCOMAYO RIVER FROM CERRO RICO, POTOSÍ, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H.J. Strosnider

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intensive mining and processing of the polymetallic sulfide ore body of Cerro Rico de Potosí (Bolivia has occurred since 1545. To further investigate acid mine drainage (AMD discharges and their link to downstream contamination, data were gathered during two sampling events during the most extreme periods of the dry and wet seasons of one year. Concentrations of Ag, B, Ba, Mo, Sb, Se, Sn and V in AMD and receiving streams were greater than Bolivian discharge limits and receiving water body guidelines as well as international agricultural use standards. High concentrations of rare earth metals have been documented in this area. Results indicate that contamination from mining has a larger scope than previously thought and underscore the importance of remediation.

  7. 长沙市排水专项规划浅析 --河西主体部分%On special drainage planning in Changsha-the main area in the west of the Xiang river

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐生誉

    2001-01-01

    The present drainage condition and drainage planning for the main part in the west of Xiang river were introduced and the principle and measures for solving the problems of development and protection in the urban construction were also put forward.%介绍了河西主体部分的排水现状及排水规划,并针对在城市建设中所遇到的发展与保护的问题,提出了解决的原则和措施。

  8. Subsurface drainage volume reduction with drainage water management: Case studies in Ohio, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the main contributors to poor water quality in the Mississippi River and aeral increase in the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico is intensive drainage of the cropland within the watershed. Controlled drainage has been demonstrated as an approach to curb totla drainage outflow and nutrient di...

  9. Multidisciplinary work on barium contamination of the karstic upper Kupa River drainage basin (Croatia and Slovenia); calling for watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisković-Bilinski, S; Bilinski, H; Grbac, R; Zunić, J; Necemer, M; Hanzel, D

    2007-02-01

    The present work was designed as an extension of a previous study of a barium anomaly observed in stream sediments of the Kupa River. In its upper part the Kupa River drains a region underlain by a trans-boundary aquifer. The river is a significant water resource in a region of tourism, sport, and fishing in both Croatia and Slovenia. The contamination source is situated in Homer (Lokve), Croatia, where barite was mined until 10 years ago. The barium processing waste material (Kupa River. Barium waste and stream sediments were analyzed using comparative techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer spectroscopy, and grain size analysis. XRD of the waste material identified the major minerals quartz, barite, and dolomite and the Fe-containing minor minerals muscovite and goethite. Barite was identified as a minor or trace mineral in the Kupica River sediments. XRF analysis of the waste material has shown Ba and Fe to be the predominant elements, Ca and K to be minor elements, and Mn, Zn, Sr, Pb, Co, Cu, As, Zr, Rb, Y, and Mo to be trace elements. Mössbauer spectroscopy performed at room temperature (RT) was used to study iron minerals, particularly to obtain information on the valence status of Fe ions. Grain size analysis of the waste material (<63-microm fraction) has shown that it contains 23.5% clay-size material in comparison with 7-8% clay-size material in stream sediments. It is our aim to combine geochemical and medical methods to investigate the possible impact of waste disposal on human health in Lokve. At this stage of the work, concentrations of Ba and other toxic elements in the water compartment of the Kupica River (a source of drinking water) have not been monitored by Croatian Waters (name of the Croatian water authorities). The necessity of such measurements in future studies has been highlighted. A preliminary study of diseases diagnosed in Lokve shows that about 18% of the total inhabitants have serious medical

  10. A simulation model for Carson Ice Co-Generation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, N.K.W.; Elmasri, M. [Thermoflow, Inc., Wellesley, MA (United States); Brownell, G. [SMUD, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The paper describes a software system to simulate the performance of the Carson Ice Co-gen Facility operated by the Carson Energy Group. This 100 MW plant consists of a cogeneration combined cycle and a simple cycle unit powered by LM6000 gas turbine generators. Features of the system include inlet heating/absorption chilling for the gas turbines, supplementary firing capability, and a broad range of steam turbine extractions and admissions. The software enables the operator to model complex operating scenarios. It predicts technical and economic performance under a wide range of conditions, taking into account various equipment constraints and operation preferences. For any set of user-specified operating inputs, the corresponding heat and mass balance diagrams as well as economic figures may be viewed virtually instantaneously. Interactive plots of plant heat rate, incremental heat rate, operating income, and other parameters reveal issues and trade-offs involved in performance and economic optimization.

  11. Fractionation of Cu and Zn isotopes during adsorption onto amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide: Experimental mixing of acid rock drainage and ambient river water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Borrok, D.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Ridley, W.I.

    2008-01-01

    Fractionation of Cu and Zn isotopes during adsorption onto amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide is examined in experimental mixtures of metal-rich acid rock drainage and relatively pure river water and during batch adsorption experiments using synthetic ferrihydrite. A diverse set of Cu- and Zn-bearing solutions was examined, including natural waters, complex synthetic acid rock drainage, and simple NaNO3 electrolyte. Metal adsorption data are combined with isotopic measurements of dissolved Cu (65Cu/63Cu) and Zn (66Zn/64Zn) in each of the experiments. Fractionation of Cu and Zn isotopes occurs during adsorption of the metal onto amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide. The adsorption data are modeled successfully using the diffuse double layer model in PHREEQC. The isotopic data are best described by a closed system, equilibrium exchange model. The fractionation factors (??soln-solid) are 0.99927 ?? 0.00008 for Cu and 0.99948 ?? 0.00004 for Zn or, alternately, the separation factors (??soln-solid) are -0.73 ?? 0.08??? for Cu and -0.52 ?? 0.04??? for Zn. These factors indicate that the heavier isotope preferentially adsorbs onto the oxyhydroxide surface, which is consistent with shorter metal-oxygen bonds and lower coordination number for the metal at the surface relative to the aqueous ion. Fractionation of Cu isotopes also is greater than that for Zn isotopes. Limited isotopic data for adsorption of Cu, Fe(II), and Zn onto amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide suggest that isotopic fractionation is related to the intrinsic equilibrium constants that define aqueous metal interactions with oxyhydroxide surface sites. Greater isotopic fractionation occurs with stronger metal binding by the oxyhydroxide with Cu > Zn > Fe(II).

  12. Fractionation of Cu and Zn isotopes during adsorption onto amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide: Experimental mixing of acid rock drainage and ambient river water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Borrok, David M.; Wanty, Richard B.; Ridley, W. Ian

    2008-01-01

    Fractionation of Cu and Zn isotopes during adsorption onto amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide is examined in experimental mixtures of metal-rich acid rock drainage and relatively pure river water and during batch adsorption experiments using synthetic ferrihydrite. A diverse set of Cu- and Zn-bearing solutions was examined, including natural waters, complex synthetic acid rock drainage, and simple NaNO3 electrolyte. Metal adsorption data are combined with isotopic measurements of dissolved Cu (65Cu/63Cu) and Zn (66Zn/64Zn) in each of the experiments. Fractionation of Cu and Zn isotopes occurs during adsorption of the metal onto amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide. The adsorption data are modeled successfully using the diffuse double layer model in PHREEQC. The isotopic data are best described by a closed system, equilibrium exchange model. The fractionation factors (αsoln-solid) are 0.99927 ± 0.00008 for Cu and 0.99948 ± 0.00004 for Zn or, alternately, the separation factors (Δsoln-solid) are -0.73 ± 0.08‰ for Cu and -0.52 ± 0.04‰ for Zn. These factors indicate that the heavier isotope preferentially adsorbs onto the oxyhydroxide surface, which is consistent with shorter metal-oxygen bonds and lower coordination number for the metal at the surface relative to the aqueous ion. Fractionation of Cu isotopes also is greater than that for Zn isotopes. Limited isotopic data for adsorption of Cu, Fe(II), and Zn onto amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide suggest that isotopic fractionation is related to the intrinsic equilibrium constants that define aqueous metal interactions with oxyhydroxide surface sites. Greater isotopic fractionation occurs with stronger metal binding by the oxyhydroxide with Cu > Zn > Fe(II).

  13. The inflow of 234U and 238U from the River Odra drainage basin to the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Skwarzec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the activity of uranium isotopes 234U and 238U in Odra river water samples, collected from October 2003 to July2004, was measured using alpha spectrometry. The uranium concentrations were different in each of the seasons analysed; the lowest values were recorded in summer. In all seasons, uranium concentrations were the highest in Bystrzyca river waters (from 27.81 ± 0.29Bq m-3 of 234U and 17.82 ± 0.23 Bq m-3 of 238U in spring to 194.76 ± 3.43 Bq m-3 of 234U and 134.88 ± 2.85 Bq m-3 of 238U in summer. The lowest concentrations were noted in the Mała Panew (from 1.33 ± 0.02 Bq m-3 of 234U and 1.06 ± 0.02 Bq m-3 of 238U in spring to 3.52 ± 0.05 Bq m-3 of 234U and 2.59± 0.04 Bq m-3 of 238U in autumn. The uranium radionuclides 234U and 238U in the water samples were not in radioactive equilibrium. The 234U / 238U activity ratios were the highest in Odra water samples collected at Głogów (1.84 in autumn, and the lowest in water from the Noteć (1.03 in winter and spring. The 234U / 238U activity ratio decreases along the main stream of the Odra, owing to changes in the salinity of the river's waters. Annually, 8.19 tons of uranium (126.29 G Bq of 234U and 100.80 G Bq of 238U flow into the Szczecin Lagoon with Odra river waters.

  14. The Sacred Object: Anne Carson and Simone Weil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Coles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina la relación entre la lectura crítica y el objeto crítico en laobra de la poeta y ensayista canadiense Anne Carson, principalmente los textosque surgen de su largo acercamiento a los escritos de la filósofa y mística cristiana Simone Weil. Mi lectura de Carson se centra en los deseos conflictuales de la relación crítica que se encuentran confesados y no confesados en su obra, y en las formas de intimidad que sus respuestas logran con la obra de Weil. Agudizadas por su encuentro con el pensamiento y la fe de Weil, las preguntasde Carson para la crítica ―sobre sus propios objetos y la resistencia de ellos ala interpretación, sobre la distinción entre crítica y literatura, y sobre la vanidadde la estética de la crítica misma― encuentran su articulación en varios génerosde la escritura: estudiando la complicidad de cada uno de estos con Weil, yla capacidad de cada uno a radicalizar sus cuestiones, llego a unas conclusionspropias para la crítica literaria.

  15. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water-Quality Investigation 22 - Ground-Water Budget for the Straight Creek Drainage Basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAda, Douglas P.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    In April 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) began a cooperative study to infer the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine site in the Red River Valley. The Molycorp mine has been in operation since the 1920s. Because ground-water conditions prior to mining are not available, sites analogous to the pre-mining conditions at the mine site must be studied to infer those pre-mining conditions. The Straight Creek drainage basin (watershed) was selected as the primary analog site for this study because of its similar terrain and geology to the mine site, accessibility, potential for well construction, and minimal anthropogenic activity. The purpose of this report is to present results of a water-budget analysis of the debris-flow aquifer in the Straight Creek watershed. The water budget is based on mean annual conditions and is assumed to be steady state. For this study, the Straight Creek watershed was divided into sub-watersheds on the basis of locations of seismic lines, which were used to calculate cross-section area through the Straight Creek debris-flow deposits and underlying fractured and weathered bedrock (regolith). Water-budget components were calculated for areas upstream from and between the seismic lines. Components of the water budget were precipitation, evapotranspiration, surface-water flow, and ground-water flow under a steady-state mean annual condition. Watershed yield, defined as precipitation minus evapotranspiration, was separated into surface-water flow, ground-water flow through the debris-flow deposits and regolith, and ground-water flow through fractured bedrock. The approach to this calculation was to use Darcy?s Law to calculate the flow through the cross-section area of the saturated debris-flow deposits and underlying regolith as defined by the interpreted seismic data. The amount of watershed yield unaccounted for through this section then was attributed to

  16. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN GEOMORPHIC FACTS AND FOLDING GROUNDWORK THE EVOLUTION OF A DRAINAGE NETWORK ON THE ATLANTIC MARGIN OF THE BRAZILIAN PLATEAU: THE CASE OF THE WATERSHED OF THE RIVER BENEVENTE – ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto José Vervloet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues addressed in this article refer to the concluding part entitled research Morphologic and Structural Dynamics Constraints in the river basin of Rio hydroghaphy Benevente – Espirito Santo which aimed to investigate the lithostructural, tectonic, morphologic factors as constrain the in evolution of the drainage network of Benevente, river basin located in the south of Espírito Santo, state, Brazil. In this article it’s present the fold of background, studied by Ruellan (1952, set out the basic levels in local and regional erosion process, while also affects the evolution of the drainage network, as responsible for the dynamics of sub-compartments relief associated to lithostructural interface tectonic-relief-fluvial channels evolution. This article does homage to the pioneering work of Ruellan regarding the geomorphologic studies about Brazilian territory.

  17. Water-quality characteristics and trend analyses for the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins, Wyoming and Montana, for selected periods, water years 1991 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.

    2012-01-01

    The Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana is an area of ongoing coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development. Waters produced during CBNG development are managed with a variety of techniques, including surface impoundments and discharges into stream drainages. The interaction of CBNG-produced waters with the atmosphere and the semiarid soils of the Powder River structural basin can affect water chemistry in several ways. Specific conductance and sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of CBNG-produced waters that are discharged to streams have been of particular concern because they have the potential to affect the use of the water for irrigation. Water-quality monitoring has been conducted since 2001 at main-stem and tributary sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins in response to concerns about CBNG effects. A study was conducted to summarize characteristics of stream-water quality for water years 2001–10 (October 1, 2000, to September 30, 2010) and examine trends in specific conductance, SAR, and primary constituents that contribute to specific conductance and SAR for changes through time (water years 1991–2010) that may have occurred as a result of CBNG development. Specific conductance and SAR are the focus characteristics of this report. Dissolved calcium, magnesium, and sodium, which are primary contributors to specific conductance and SAR, as well as dissolved alkalinity, chloride, and sulfate, which are other primary contributors to specific conductance, also are described. Stream-water quality in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins was variable during water years 2001–10, in part because of variations in streamflow. In general, annual runoff was less than average during water years 2001–06 and near or above average during water years 2007–10. Stream water of the Tongue River had the smallest specific conductance values, sodium adsorption ratios

  18. Big River Reservoir Project - Pawcatuck River and Narragansett Bay Drainage Basins - Water and Related Land Resources Study. Volume III. Appendices H-K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    abundant taxa observed were: Odonata (0.5%), Nematoda (0.5%) and Turbellaria (2.5%) (Appendix A). Tarbox Pond Three Ponar samples yielded an average...included only snails (Gastropoda); other less abundant taxa observed were Odonata (1.0%), Trichoptera (0.5%) and Hydracarina (0.5%) (Appendix A). Big River...included Ceraclea; Oecetis, Lype and Phylocentropus. Other less abundant taxa observed included Mollusca (4.4%), Odonata (1.1%) and Megaloptera (1.8

  19. Diametric structure of the shrub and tree vegetation around the headwaters in the Piauitinga River drainage basin, Salgado – Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednei Santos de Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to analyze the diametric structure of the ciliary vegetation in headwaters in the Piauitinga River drainage basin, located at the town of Salgado, Sergipe, Brazil. One analyzed 14 headwaters, using a classification with regard to the conservation status and the type of reservoir, being divided into 4 categories: 1 punctual preserved (PPr, 1 punctual disturbed (PD, 6 punctual degraded (PD, and 6 diffuse degraded (DD. The survey was conducted through a population census of vegetation in a 50 m radius around the headwaters, equivalent to 0.79 ha, where one recorded all living shrub and tree individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH ≥ 5.0 cm. The individuals were distributed into diametric classes, at 2.5 cm intervals. The punctual preserved and the punctual disturbed headwaters showed a diametric structure characteristic of heterogeneous forests, with an “inverted J” shape. The diffuse and punctual degraded headwaters didn’t show the “inverted J” pattern, except for DD2, perhaps reflecting the higher numberof individuals in this headwater. The intense disturbance generated in the headwater areas, which are currently degraded, promoted the impoverishment of natural regeneration and, as a result, compromised the recruitment of individuals in the early diameter grades.

  20. Computationally efficient and flexible modular modelling approach for river and urban drainage systems based on surrogate conceptual models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfs, Vincent; Willems, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Water managers rely increasingly on mathematical simulation models that represent individual parts of the water system, such as the river, sewer system or waste water treatment plant. The current evolution towards integral water management requires the integration of these distinct components, leading to an increased model scale and scope. Besides this growing model complexity, certain applications gained interest and importance, such as uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, auto-calibration of models and real time control. All these applications share the need for models with a very limited calculation time, either for performing a large number of simulations, or a long term simulation followed by a statistical post-processing of the results. The use of the commonly applied detailed models that solve (part of) the de Saint-Venant equations is infeasible for these applications or such integrated modelling due to several reasons, of which a too long simulation time and the inability to couple submodels made in different software environments are the main ones. Instead, practitioners must use simplified models for these purposes. These models are characterized by empirical relationships and sacrifice model detail and accuracy for increased computational efficiency. The presented research discusses the development of a flexible integral modelling platform that complies with the following three key requirements: (1) Include a modelling approach for water quantity predictions for rivers, floodplains, sewer systems and rainfall runoff routing that require a minimal calculation time; (2) A fast and semi-automatic model configuration, thereby making maximum use of data of existing detailed models and measurements; (3) Have a calculation scheme based on open source code to allow for future extensions or the coupling with other models. First, a novel and flexible modular modelling approach based on the storage cell concept was developed. This approach divides each

  1. 78 FR 64909 - Southwestern Region: Invasive Plant Control Project, Carson and Santa Fe National Forests, New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... Forest Service Southwestern Region: Invasive Plant Control Project, Carson and Santa Fe National Forests... prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for controlling invasive plants in the Carson and Santa Fe.../landmanagement Santa Fe National Forest: http://www.fs.usda.gov/projects/santafe/landmanagement A limited...

  2. Refinement of regression models to estimate real-time concentrations of contaminants in the Menomonee River drainage basin, southeast Wisconsin, 2008-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.; Magruder, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District initiated a study to develop regression models to estimate real-time concentrations and loads of chloride, suspended solids, phosphorus, and bacteria in streams near Milwaukee, Wisconsin. To collect monitoring data for calibration of models, water-quality sensors and automated samplers were installed at six sites in the Menomonee River drainage basin. The sensors continuously measured four potential explanatory variables: water temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity. Discrete water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for five response variables: chloride, total suspended solids, total phosphorus, Escherichia coli bacteria, and fecal coliform bacteria. Using the first year of data, regression models were developed to continuously estimate the response variables on the basis of the continuously measured explanatory variables. Those models were published in a previous report. In this report, those models are refined using 2 years of additional data, and the relative improvement in model predictability is discussed. In addition, a set of regression models is presented for a new site in the Menomonee River Basin, Underwood Creek at Wauwatosa. The refined models use the same explanatory variables as the original models. The chloride models all used specific conductance as the explanatory variable, except for the model for the Little Menomonee River near Freistadt, which used both specific conductance and turbidity. Total suspended solids and total phosphorus models used turbidity as the only explanatory variable, and bacteria models used water temperature and turbidity as explanatory variables. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), used to compare the coefficients in the original models to those in the refined models calibrated using all of the data, showed that only 3 of the 25 original models changed significantly. Root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs

  3. Stream-Sediment Geochemistry in Mining-Impacted Drainages of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River, Custer County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Thomas P.; Box, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This reconnaissance study was undertaken at the request of the USDA Forest Service, Region 4, to assess the geochemistry, in particular the mercury and selenium contents, of mining-impacted sediments in the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River in Custer County Idaho. The Yankee Fork has been the site of hard-rock and placer mining, primarily for gold and silver, starting in the 1880s. Major dredge placer mining from the 1930s to 1950s in the Yankee Fork disturbed about a 10-kilometer reach. Mercury was commonly used in early hard-rock mining and placer operations for amalgamation and recovery of gold. During the late 1970s, feasibility studies were done on cyanide-heap leach recovery of gold from low-grade ores of the Sunbeam and related deposits. In the mid-1990s a major open-pit bulk-vat leach operation was started at the Grouse Creek Mine. This operation shut down when gold values proved to be lower than expected. Mercury in stream sediments in the Yankee Fork ranges from below 0.02 ppm to 7 ppm, with the highest values associated with old mill locations and lode and placer mines. Selenium ranges from below the detection limit for this study of 0.2 ppm to 4 ppm in Yankee Fork sediment samples. The generally elevated selenium content in the sediment samples reflect the generally high selenium contents in the volcanic rocks that underlie the Yankee Fork and the presence of gold and silver selenides in some of the veins that were exploited in the early phases of mining.

  4. From geodiversity and biodiversity through geoheritage to geoconservation; case study for the Dębnica River drainage basin (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Małgorzata; Najwer, Alicja; Borysiak, Janina; Gudowicz, Joanna; Zwoliński, Zbigniew

    2015-04-01

    The poster presents the geodiversity of morphogenetically youngest Polish areas, which are a part of the North European Plain. The representative study area was the Dębnica River catchment (200 square km), which includes postglacial landforms. The geodiversity is presented spatially, using the spatial units map, varied in terms of their geodiversity indicator. The indicator was determined by a geoinformation analysis, using the quality classification method, and it captures the landscape complexity. The factor maps relating to landform energy, selected geomorphometric parameters, landforms, lithology and hydrography were taken into consideration. The set of factor maps includes also the map of the syngenetic type of real vegetation, as well as land cover and land use maps. The data were extracted from the digital elevation model (DTED 2) and digital geomorphological, geological and hydrographic maps in a scale of 1:50,000. The data on land cover and land use were extracted from the CORINE Land Cover 2006 database. Details were added to the data using field mapping at a scale of 1:50,000, for the period 2012-2014. Spontaneous real vegetation was diagnosed using the phytosociological method, simultaneously with the field mapping procedure. Unified spatial units were assigned for each factor map. Relationships between the geodiversity and biodiversity were established, based on the calculated correlation coefficients. The spatial units which were varied in terms of geodiversity and biodiversity are presented on the final map. The map shows areas of very high geodiversity and biodiversity, which are the hotspots for the local natural and cultural geoheritage. Various geoconservation methods of such areas were also suggested in the study.

  5. Fort Carson Building 1860 Biomass Heating Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, Randolph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tomberlin, Gregg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gaul, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As part of the Army Net-Zero Energy Installation program, the Fort Carson Army Base requested that NREL evaluate the feasibility of adding a biomass boiler to the district heating system served by Building 1860. We have also developed an Excel-spreadsheet-based decision support tool--specific to the historic loads served by Building 1860--with which users can perform what-if analysis on gas costs, biomass costs, and other parameters. For economic reasons, we do not recommend adding a biomass system at this time.

  6. Neil Edwin Carson. Academic general practitioner, leader and achiever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Professor Neil Carson, who is to retire as Chairman of Monash University's Department of Community Medicine at the end of this year, has completed a significant and successful term marked by many achievements. His energy, vision and ability to acquire and channel resources have helped develop a vibrant and productive department. His wise counsel and negotiating skills have led to important achievements for the cause of general practice in both the political sphere and in academic institutions. He was the founder and first president of the Australian Association for Academic General Practice. His impact on medical education, especially for general practice in Australia, has been far reaching.

  7. Quantification of Tinto River sediment microbial communities: importance of sulfate-reducing bacteria and their role in attenuating acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Knittel, Katrin; Amann, Rudolf; Amils, Ricardo; Sanz, José Luis

    2012-07-01

    Tinto River (Huelva, Spain) is a natural acidic rock drainage (ARD) environment produced by the bio-oxidation of metallic sulfides from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. This study quantified the abundance of diverse microbial populations inhabiting ARD-related sediments from two physicochemically contrasting sampling sites (SN and JL dams). Depth profiles of total cell numbers differed greatly between the two sites yet were consistent in decreasing sharply at greater depths. Although catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization with domain-specific probes showed that Bacteria (>98%) dominated over Archaea (important differences were detected at the class and genus levels, reflecting differences in pH, redox potential, and heavy metal concentrations. At SN, where the pH and redox potential are similar to that of the water column (pH 2.5 and +400 mV), the most abundant organisms were identified as iron-reducing bacteria: Acidithiobacillus spp. and Acidiphilium spp., probably related to the higher iron solubility at low pH. At the JL dam, characterized by a banded sediment with higher pH (4.2 to 6.2), more reducing redox potential (-210 mV to 50 mV), and a lower solubility of iron, members of sulfate-reducing genera Syntrophobacter, Desulfosporosinus, and Desulfurella were dominant. The latter was quantified with a newly designed CARD-FISH probe. In layers where sulfate-reducing bacteria were abundant, pH was higher and redox potential and levels of dissolved metals and iron were lower. These results suggest that the attenuation of ARD characteristics is biologically driven by sulfate reducers and the consequent precipitation of metals and iron as sulfides.

  8. Relation of water quality to land use in the drainage basins of six tributaries to the lower Delaware River, New Jersey, 2002-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Esralew, Rachel A.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations and loads of water-quality constituents in six streams in the lower Delaware River Basin of New Jersey were determined in a multi-year study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Two streams receive water from relatively undeveloped basins, two from largely agricultural basins, and two from heavily urbanized basins. Each stream was monitored during eight storms and at least eight times during base flow during 2002-07. Sampling was conducted during base flow before each storm, when stage was first observed to rise, and several times during the rising limb of the hydrographs. Agricultural and urban land use has resulted in statistically significant increases in loads of nitrogen and phosphorus species relative to loads in undeveloped basins. For example, during the growing season, median storm flow concentrations of total nitrogen in the two streams in agricultural areas were 6,290 and 1,760 mg/L, compared to 988 and 823 mg/L for streams in urban areas, and 719 and 333 mg/L in undeveloped areas. Although nutrient concentrations and loads were clearly related to land useurban, agricultural, and undeveloped within the drainage basins, other basin characteristics were found to be important. Residual nutrients entrapped in lake sediments from streams that received effluent from recently removed sewage-treatment plants are hypothesized to be the cause of extremely high levels of nutrient loads to one urban stream, whereas another urban stream with similar land-use percentages (but without the legacy of sewage-treatment plants) had much lower levels of nutrients. One of the two agricultural streams studied had higher nutrient loads than the other, especially for total phosphorous and organic nitrogen. This difference appears to be related to the presence (or absence) of livestock (cattle).

  9. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the middle Green River basin, Utah, 1986-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, D.W.; Waddell, Bruce; Miller, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Reconnaissance of wildlife areas in the middle Green River basin of Utah was conducted during 1986 and 1987 to determine whether irrigation drainage has caused, or has the potential to cause significant harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of water for beneficial uses. Studies at Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area and Ouray National Wildlife Refuge indicated that concentrations of boron, selenium, and zinc in water, bottom sediment, and biological tissue were sufficiently large to be harmful to fish and wildlife, and to adversely affect beneficial uses of water. Selenium is the principal element of concern in both areas. Concentrations of dissolved selenium in irrigation drain water entering Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area ranged from 14-140 micrograms/L (ug/L) and consistently exceeded Utah standards for wildlife protection in water in two of the four drains. Concentrations of boron and zinc exceeded Utah standards only occasionally in the drain waters. Concentrations of total selenium in sediments collected where the drains discharge into the lake were 10-85 ug/gm. Liver tissue collected from American coots at Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area contained concentrations of selenium from 4.9-26 ug/gm (dry weight), and whole body samples of carp contained as much as 31 ug/gm (dry weight). Concentrations of selenium in Potamogeton and blue-green algae ranged from 2.1-27 ug/gm. Concentrations of boron, selenium, and zinc were also measured in water from Ouray National Wildlife Refuge. Liver tissue of American coots from the North Roadside Pond, which receives irrigation tailwater, contained a geometric-mean concentration of selenium of 32 ug/gm (dry weight). Five water-bird eggs collected from the North and South Roadside Ponds contained selenium concentrations of 63-120 ug/gm (dry weight). (Lantz-PTT)

  10. Drainage area data for Alabama streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, J.S.; Peirce, L.B.

    1957-01-01

    The drainage area of a river basin is an important parameter in many engineering equations used for hydrologic design. It is not a parameter, however, that always requires precise measurement. Factors in the hydrologic cycle such as rainfall, runoff, transpiration, and infiltration cannot be measured nearly as closely as drainage area. Largely for this reason, drainage areas are often measured to varying degrees of precision depending upon the immediate need, with little thought to some other use or some other user of the figure obtained. It can readily be appreciated that this practice, continued for long by many different agencies, will result in a heterogeneous collection of drainage area figures, often discordant and of an accuracy unknown to any but those who computed them. Figures of drainage area published by various Federal agencies are frequently discrepant or contradictory, giving rise to confusion in the use of drainage area data. Seeking to better this situation, the Federal Inter-Agency River Basin Committee (FIARBC) in November 1951 published its Bulletin No. 4, Inter-Agency Coordination of Drainage Area Data. That Bulletin recommended procedures to be followed by the interested Federal agencies “for coordinating drainage area data in the interest of promoting uniformity, reducing confusion and contradiction of published figures, and improving the ready availability of drainage area data pertaining to drainage basins of the United States and its possessions.”

  11. 渭干河平原绿洲灌区合理灌排比探讨%Rational Ratio of Irrigation to Drainage in Weigan River Irrigat ion District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡顺军; 艾尼瓦尔·吾买尔; 田长彦; 周宏飞; 宋郁东; 王永平; 蒋庆华; 艾则孜; 黄文山; 吐尔逊

    2001-01-01

    根据灌区盐量平衡原理,采用实际监测资料,对渭干河及其所属的库车、沙雅、新和县平原绿洲灌区进行盐均衡分析,深入探讨了临界灌排比的影响因素及其确定方法。研究结果表明:(1)灌排比的概念简捷明了,体现了干旱区水利建设、灌溉农业的特点,可作为衡量干旱区绿洲灌区水盐运动状况的一个指标,同时亦是进行灌排管理、规划设计的科学依据。(2)临界灌排比与灌溉引水量、排水量、河水含盐浓度、排水含盐浓度等因素有关。渭干河、库车、沙雅、新和灌区临界灌排比分别为10.80,6.55,20.09,21.48。若没有特殊的地形地貌,干旱区绿洲灌区临界灌排比为21左右。(3)在干旱区进行水量平衡计算,制定灌溉制度以及进行灌溉排水管理时,应保证有一定量的深层渗漏,便于淋洗盐分,同时应完善排水系统,使灌区在小于临界灌排比下运行。%Based on the principle of salt equilibrium in irrigationdistricts, the salt e qu ilibrium of Weigan river irrigation district is analyzed by using measured data. The factors of affecting critical ratio of irrigation to drainage and the metho d of determining critical ratio of irrigation to drainage are also discussed pro foundly. The results show that: (1) The conception of the ratio of irrigation to drainage is brief, embodies the characteristics of water conservation construct ion and irrigation agriculture, which can be used as the criterion of estimating the dynamics of moisture-salt movement in plain oasis irrigation distract in arid area,and can also used as the scientific basis of management of irrigatio n and drainage ,planning and designing.(2)Critical ratio of irrigation to drainage is related to the irrigation water volume, drainage water volume ,salt content of irrigation water and drainage water and so on. The critical ratio of irrigati o n to drainage for Weigan

  12. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 24. Seismic Refraction Tomography for Volume Analysis of Saturated Alluvium in the Straight Creek Drainage and Its Confluence With Red River, Taos County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a research effort directed by the New Mexico Environment Department to determine pre-mining water quality of the Red River at a molybdenum mining site in northern New Mexico, we used seismic refraction tomography to create subsurface compressional-wave velocity images along six lines that crossed the Straight Creek drainage and three that crossed the valley of Red River. Field work was performed in June 2002 (lines 1-4) and September 2003 (lines 5-9). We interpreted the images to determine depths to the water table and to the top of bedrock. Depths to water and bedrock in boreholes near the lines correlate well with our interpretations based on seismic data. In general, the images suggest that the alluvium in this area has a trapezoidal cross section. Using a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation model grid of surface elevations of this region and the interpreted elevations to water table and bedrock obtained from the seismic data, we generated new models of the shape of the buried bedrock surface and the water table through surface interpolation and extrapolation. Then, using elevation differences between the two grids, we calculated volumes of dry and wet alluvium in the two drainages. The Red River alluvium is about 51 percent saturated, whereas the much smaller volume of alluvium in the tributary Straight Creek is only about 18 percent saturated. When combined with average ground-water velocity values, the information we present can be used to determine discharge of Straight Creek into Red River relative to the total discharge of Red River moving past Straight Creek. This information will contribute to more accurate models of ground-water flow, which are needed to determine the pre-mining water quality in the Red River.

  13. Construction technology of soft foundation reinforcement with plastic drainage plates for Minjiang River flood dike%闽江防洪堤软土地基塑料排水板加固施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婉真

    2015-01-01

    The author discussed the engineering geological conditions of Fuzhou section(1st-stage)of Minjiang River Flood Protection Project and the working principle of soft foundation treatment with plastic drainage plates. An introduction was made on the material of plastic drainage plate, the construction machine, technical program, monitoring method and construction quality control measures.%论述了闽江防洪工程福州段(一期)工程的工程地质情况及塑料排水板处理软土地基的工作原理。介绍了塑料排水板的材料、施工机械、工艺流程、监测方法和施工质量控制措施。

  14. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2012: Individual refuge results for Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge and is part of the USGS Data Series 754. The survey was...

  15. Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rachel Carson NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  16. Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rachel Carson NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  17. Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rachel Carson NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  18. How to make a villain: Rachel Carson and the politics of anti-environmentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, David K

    2012-12-01

    This article explores the evolution of anti-Carson rhetoric. It argues that this rhetoric has evolved significantly over the past fifty years. Early critics of Silent Spring were primarily concerned with defending their vision of science from what they perceived as the threat embodied in Carson's ecological perspective. By the early twenty-first century, her main detractors were now neoliberal advocates of unfettered markets, who perceived in Carson a major reason for what they saw as related evils: environmentalism and an expanded state. These two sets of adversaries used distinct rhetorical strategies, corresponding to their different interests as well as to changing historical context. Across both eras, however, the perceived utility of Carson as an anti-heroine persisted.

  19. Screening level contaminant survey of the Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge lies within the Portsmouth, NH - Portland, ME urban corridor, and is situated within watersheds that reflect the developed...

  20. Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge Annual Narrative Report: January to December 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  1. The Rachel Carson Letters and the Making of Silent Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paull

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environment, conservation, green, and kindred movements look back to Rachel Carson’s 1962 book Silent Spring as a milestone. The impact of the book, including on government, industry, and civil society, was immediate and substantial, and has been extensively described; however, the provenance of the book has been less thoroughly examined. Using Carson’s personal correspondence, this paper reveals that the primary source for Carson’s book was the extensive evidence and contacts compiled by two biodynamic farmers, Marjorie Spock and Mary T. Richards, of Long Island, New York. Their evidence was compiled for a suite of legal actions (1957-1960 against the U.S. Government and that contested the aerial spraying of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT. During Rudolf Steiner’s lifetime, Spock and Richards both studied at Steiner’s Goetheanum, the headquarters of Anthroposophy, located in Dornach, Switzerland. Spock and Richards were prominent U.S. anthroposophists, and established a biodynamic farm under the tutelage of the leading biodynamics exponent of the time, Dr. Ehrenfried Pfeiffer. When their property was under threat from a government program of DDT spraying, they brought their case, eventually lost it, in the process spent US$100,000, and compiled the evidence that they then shared with Carson, who used it, and their extensive contacts and the trial transcripts, as the primary input for Silent Spring. Carson attributed to Spock, Richards, and Pfeiffer, no credit whatsoever in her book. As a consequence, the organics movement has not received the recognition, that is its due, as the primary impulse for Silent Spring, and it is, itself, unaware of this provenance.

  2. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 1. Depth to Bedrock Determinations Using Shallow Seismic Data Acquired in the Straight Creek Drainage Near Red River, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2004-01-01

    In late May and early June of 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired four P-wave seismic profiles across the Straight Creek drainage near Red River, New Mexico. The data were acquired to support a larger effort to investigate baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality in the Red River basin (Nordstrom and others, 2002). For ground-water flow modeling, knowledge of the thickness of the valley fill material above the bedrock is required. When curved-ray refraction tomography was used with the seismic first arrival times, the resulting images of interval velocity versus depth clearly show a sharp velocity contrast where the bedrock interface is expected. The images show that the interpreted buried bedrock surface is neither smooth nor sharp, but it is clearly defined across the valley along the seismic line profiles. The bedrock models defined by the seismic refraction images are consistent with the well data.

  3. Study of the dynamics of drainage of {sup 137C}s present on the catchment basins of French rivers; Etude de la dynamique de drainage du {sup 137}Cs present sur les bassins versants des cours d'eau francais. Etat d'avancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vray, F.; Debayle, Ch.; Metivier, J.M

    2005-07-01

    An operational model describing the drainage of radionuclides was selected from a bibliographical synthesis. This model supplies an expression of the dissolved flux in rivers according to the flow of the river and the activity deposited on the catchment basin. To adjust this model for {sup 137}Cs coming from the Chernobylsk accident and the main French rivers, series of data reporting the temporal evolution of the activity of {sup 137}Cs in the water are necessary.The difficulty inherent to the measure of this radionuclide in the water led to dread its activity through that, more easily measurable, sediments and water plants. Measures on these indicators, upstream to any release of industrial effluents, were notably realized since 1991 within the framework of the annual follow-up of French nuclear power plants. The model of drainage is thus adjusted essentially on these data within a multiplicative factor (this factor being K{sub d} or F{sub c}). This requires however some preliminary adaptations: K{sub d} being dependent on granulometry characteristics of the sediments samples, a standardization of their activity on granulometry criteria must be made. For the aquatic plants, it is necessary to look for their time of answer before being able to adjust the model. The obtained results, on plants as on sediments, indicate that for the big French rivers, the activity of {sup 137}Cs in aquatic environment decreases since 1987 with a period from 4 to 7 years. If the level of contamination of every river depends on the average contamination of the catchment basin (average deposit in Bq by m{sup 2}), it seems that this level is also influenced by the other parameters as the size of the catchment basin, even some characteristics of the drained soils. This part of the study remains to deepen. It joins the works led to the L.E.R.C.M. on the migration of radionuclides in soils. On the upstream part of the Rhone river, the aquatic plants indicate that the flow plays a role of

  4. Precipitation and Runoff Simulations of the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains, and Updated Estimates of Ground-Water Inflow and the Ground-Water Budgets for Basin-Fill Aquifers of Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada, and Alpine County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, Nevada, and California, from the adjacent Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains ranged from 22,000 to 40,000 acre-feet per year using water-yield and chloride-balance methods. In this study, watershed models were developed for watersheds with perennial streams and for watersheds with ephemeral streams in the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains to provide an independent estimate of ground-water inflow. This report documents the development and calibration of the watershed models, presents model results, compares the results with recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, and presents updated estimates of the ground-water budget for basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley. The model used for the study was the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Geographic Information System software was used to manage spatial data, characterize model drainages, and to develop Hydrologic Response Units. Models were developed for * Two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Carson Range and two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Pine Nut Mountains using measured daily mean runoff, * Ten watersheds with ungaged perennial streams using estimated daily mean runoff, * Ten watershed with ungaged ephemeral streams in the Carson Range, and * A large area of ephemeral runoff near the Pine Nut Mountains. Models developed for the gaged watersheds were used as index models to guide the calibration of models for ungaged watersheds. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for 4 gaged watersheds and for 10 ungaged watersheds in the Carson Range estimated in a previous study. The models were further constrained by annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study to provide

  5. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Artificial Drainage (1992) and Irrigation (1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the estimated area of artifical drainage for the year 1992 and irrigation types for the year 1997 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1...

  6. Experimental study on geotextile envelope for subsurface drainage in Yellow River Delta%黄河三角洲暗管排水土工布外包滤料的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文龙; 罗纨; 贾忠华; 卜凡敏; 潘延鑫; 唐双成; 袁黄春; 李山

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, subsurface drainage has been greatly advocated in the Yellow River Delta area for salinity control and land reclamation. With the very uniform textured silty sand as major soils in the Yellow River Delta, and lacking of gravel envelope material, there is an urgent need to select proper synthetic envelope for subsurface drainage construction in the area. Proper selection of envelope materials is critical for a subsurface drainage system construction. Geotextile envelope has multiple advantages, including good water conductivity, retaining soil particles from clogging the drains, low cost and convenience for mechanical construction. Thus geotextile envelope is widely used in subsurface drainage system constructions throughout the world. In China, however, very few subsurface drainage projects used geotextiles as envelope materials for various reasons. Therefore, geotextile envelope may find its wide application in many poorly drained areas, such as the Yellow River Delta in China provided that proper selection criteria are met. Based on soil particle size analysis and theoretical calculations, this paper presents an experimental study on geotextile material used for subsurface drainage envelope in the Yellow River Delta, China. A testing permeameter was built on the basis of existing literature-Materials for subsurface drainage system (IDP 60). The selection criteria have three major factors, including thickness, permeability and O90. After analyzing the soil particle size distribution and measuring the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) with the falling head method, we chose two types of geotextiles as the tested samples. One of these geo-textiles (Geotextile A) has a larger O90 than that in the criterion by IDP 60, while the other one (Geotextile B) meets the criterion. With these essential information, we conducted a series of experimental studies to evaluate the performance of geotextiles in filtration, permeability and anti-clogging. After

  7. Geomorphic indices of the river and drainage in Helan Mountain and its indication to tectonics%贺兰山水系流域数值地貌特征及其构造指示意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗盟; 高红山; 潘保田; 张忱; 刘芬良; 管东升

    2012-01-01

    基于Argis9.3与ASTER GDEM数据,提取了贺兰山两侧主要水系及其流域边界,根据河流及流域指标提取河流纵剖面、流域的Strahler曲线,并计算其面积高度积分值(Hypsometric Intergral)、河流纵剖面的凹度值(Concavity).通过HI值、凹度值同河流落差、河流长度、流域面积之间相关性分析发现,后3种地貌参数与HI值、凹度值间的相关性较差.对比分析贺兰山两侧河流HI值及凹度值发现:贺兰山东侧北段活动性大于南段,西侧构造活动性分布规律不明显.结合9条河流所处流域的Strahler曲线、河流纵剖面形态和HI值、凹度值分析发现:汝箕沟及其以北贺兰山地区处于地形演化的老年期,汝箕沟以南贺兰山段处于均衡调整的壮年期.%Watershed terrain and the relationship between drainage tectonic and erosion are one of the core content of geomorphology. The Helan Mountains area locates in the west edge of the Ordos, and it is a hinge area which links the western and eastern different geoteetonie units of the north of China. Research on river system and watershed area in the Helan Mountains can help us to construct in-depth understandling of river and landscape evolution in tectnnic movement active regions. Many authors have studied the characteristics of the tectonic and climate of the Helan Mountains, But For rivers, the especially quantitative analysis of river morphology is relatively rare. Hypsometric integral is a relief variable that is widely used to measure the degree ufuvial landscape erosion and describes the distribution of elevations across the drainage basin area. It is a powerful tool to tell apart the technically active and inactive areas. We choose hypsometric integral and stream profile concavity to study the tectonic activity and e-volution of the landforms in the Helan Mountains. The drainage network and drainage basins in the Helan Mountains and the hypsometric integral and concavity of the river

  8. Major and trace-element analyses of acid mine waters in the Leviathan mine drainage basin, California/Nevada - October, 1981 to October, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.W.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    Water issuing from the inactive Leviathan open-pit sulfur mine has caused serious degradation of the water quality in the Leviathan/Bryant Creek drainage basin which drains into the East Fork of the Carson River. This report presents the analytical results from this sampling survey. Sixty-seven water samples were filtered and preserved on-site at 45 locations and at 3 different times. Temperature, discharge, pH, and Eh and specific conductance were measured on-site. Concentrations of 37 major and trace constituents were determined later in the laboratory on preserved samples. The quality of the analyses was checked by using two or more techniques to determine the concentrations including d.c.-argon plasma emission spectrometry (DCP), flame and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry, hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography. Leviathan acid mine waters contain mg/L concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Tl, V and Zn, and hundreds to thousands of mg/L concentrations of Al, Fe, and sulfate at pH values as low as 1.8. Other elements including Ba, B, Be, Bi, Cd, Mo, Sb, Se and Te are elevated above normal background concentrations and fall in the microgram/L range. The chemical and 34 S/32 S isotopic analyses demonstrate that these acid waters are derived from pyrite oxidation and not from the oxidation of elemental sulfur. 16 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. 75 FR 57015 - Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Kit Carson Windpower, LLC's application for...

  10. Qingjiang River Developer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    THE 400-kilometer Qingjiang River, second tributary of the Yangtze River in Hubei Province, has a drainage area of 17,000 square kilometers. Its advantageous natural conditions have made it a key water power development project.

  11. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during

  12. A geometria fractal da rede de drenagem da bacia hidrográfica do Caeté, Alfredo Wagner-SC Fractal geometry of the drainage network of the Caeté river watershed, Alfredo Wagner-SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Redin Vestena

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar e avaliar a dimensão fractal da rede de drenagem da bacia hidrográfica do Caeté, em Alfredo Wagner, SC, a partir de diferentes métodos, com o propósito de caracterizar as formas geomorfológicas irregulares. A rede de drenagem apresenta propriedades multifractais. As dimensões fractais para os segmentos individuais (df e para a rede de drenagem inteira (Df foram determinadas por métodos que se fundamentaram nas razões de Horton e pelo método da contagem de caixas (Box-Counting. A rede de drenagem tem característica de autoafinidade. A dimensão fractal proveniente da relação de parâmetros obtidos pelas Leis de Horton apresentou resultados dentro dos limiares da teoria da geometria fractal.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the fractal dimensions of the drainage network of the Caeté river watershed, Alfredo Wagner/SC, with different methods in order to characterize the irregular geomorphologic forms. The drainage network possesses multi-fractal properties. That is why the fractal dimensions for the individual segments (df and for the entire network (Df were evaluated with Horton's Laws and the Box-Counting method. The drainage network has self-affinity characteristics. The fractal dimension obtained through the parameters relationship of Horton's Laws showed the results within the thresholds of the fractal geometry theory.

  13. Drainage-area boundaries for selected sampling stations, scale 1:100,000, Yellowstone River Basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, an investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin study unit is being conducted to...

  14. PALEODRAINAGES OF THE EASTERN SAHARA - THE RADAR RIVERS REVISITED (SIR - A/B IMPLICATIONS FOR A MID - TERTIARY TRANS - AFRICAN DRAINAGE SYSTEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, John F.; Breed, Carlos S.; Schaber, Gerald G.; McHugh, William P.; Issawi, Bahay; Haynes, C. Vance; Grolier, Maurice J.; El Kilani, Ali

    1986-01-01

    A complex history of Cenozoic fluvial activity in the presently hyperarid eastern Sahara is inferred from Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data and postflight field investigations in southwest Egypt and northwest Sudan. SIR images were coregistered with Landsat and existing maps as a guide to exploration of the buried paleodrainages (radar rivers) first discovered by SIR-A. Field observations explain the radar responses of three types of radar rivers: RR-1, RR-2, and RR-3. A generalized model of the radar rivers, based on field studies and regional geologic relations, shows apparent changes in river regimen since the large valleys were established during the late Paleogene-early Neogene eras. SIR-based mapping of these paleodrainages, although incomplete, reveals missing links in an area once thought to be devoid of master streams.

  15. A survey of the Population of Gambusia Affinis in a Part of Drainage Area of Suzhou River, Shanghai%苏州河部分流域食蚊鱼种群特征调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴继明

    2012-01-01

    食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)是苏州河一期治理后于2001年7月河里出现的第一种鱼。2010年7~8月在苏州河流域设置五个采样点,对食蚊鱼样品进行种群特征的数据统计和分析,检测鱼体、胚胎和样点水质的重金属离子含量。结果表明,目前河水重金属离子没有对食蚊鱼的生存造成影响,同时发现,苏州河食蚊鱼个体普遍偏小,种群正在形成发展中,合适的水文环境也是关系到食蚊鱼能否生存繁衍的一个重要因素。%The Gambusia affinis was the kind of first fish discovered in the Suzhou in July 2001. Based on collection of the Gamubusia at five sample localities in a part of River after the first of governance drainage area along the fiver, The population charactr/stics including sex ratio, body length and weight and reproduction ability were measured and analyzed and heavy metals in river water and fish body were anlyzed. The results showed that the heave metals in the river water did not affect to the Gambusia growth. The bodies of Gambusia in the fiver were smaller than that of the normal fish and the population of the Gambusia was developing. A suitable hydrology environments was vary important for development of the Gambusia population in the Suzhou River.

  16. Detrital Geochemical Fingerprints Of Rivers Along The Yalu Suture Zone In Tibet: Implications For Drainage Evolution, Timing Of Arc Development And Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassim, M. B.; Carrapa, B.; Gehrels, G. E.; Cosca, M. A.; Kapp, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Yalu suture zone between India and Asia comprises today a central depression occupied by the Yulu River, flanked to the north and to the south by high-elevation ranges. Rivers along the suture zone are derived from such ranges and drain into the Yulu River, which in turns drains eastward. Modern sands from these rivers provide an opportunity to broadly sample rocks present within the suture zone and study their regional geochemical fingerprints and tectono-erosional implications. Seven sand samples from rivers along the suture zone in Tibet between Xigatze to the east and Mt. Kailas to the west were collected for detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological analyses, white mica 40Ar/39Ar and apatite fission track thermochronology. Zircon U-Pb ages for all rivers range between 15 and 3568 Ma. Rivers draining the northern side of the suture zone mainly yield ages between 40 and 60 Ma, similar to the age of the Gangdese arc. Samples draining the southern side of the suture zone record a Tethyan signal characterized by age clusters at 500 Ma and 1050 Ma. Samples collected from the western rivers yield zircon ages that are younger compared to those from the east; with ages predominantly <100 Ma. U-Pb zircon ages indicate that ~85% of the zircon are younger than 100 Ma in the farthest west side of the river samples (near Mt. Kailas) whereas only ~5% of zircons are younger than 100 Ma in the farthest east side of the river samples (near Xigatze). A more detailed analysis of the youngest zircon U-Pb age components reveal strong signals between 30 Ma and 100 Ma with significant peaks at 47 - 50 Ma and at 37 - 40 Ma, 57 - 63 Ma and 94 - 97 Ma, recording the activity of the magmatic arc along strike. Further analysis of the young age components (below 100 Ma) suggest a trend in age along the suture zone, with younging direction towards the west - and probably younging northward. However, the variation in ages is small. Our U-Pb detrital zircon ages are overall in agreement with

  17. The effects of drainage basin geomorphometry on minimum low flow discharge: the study of small watershed in Kelang River Valley in Peninsular Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This study investigate the relationships between geomorphometric properties and the minimum low flow discharge of undisturbeddrainage basins in the Taman Bukit Cahaya Seri Alam Forest Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia.The drainage basins selected were third-orderbasins so as to facilitate a common base for sampling and performing an unbiased statistical analyses.Three levels of relationships were observedin the study.Significant relationships existed between the geomorphometric properties as shown by the correlation network analysis; secondly,individual geomorphometric properties were observed to influence minimum flow discharge; and finally, the multiple regression model set upshowed that minimum flow discharge( Q min) was dependent of basin area(AU), stream length( LS ), maximum relief( Hmax), average relief(HAV) and stream frequency (SF).These findings further enforced other studies of this nature that drainage basins were dynamic andfunctional entities whose operations were governed by complex interrelationships occurring within the basins.Changes to any of thegeomorphometric properties would influence their role as basin regulators thus influencing a change in basin response.In the case of the basin's minimum low flow, a change in any of the properties considered in the regression model influenced the "time to peak" of flow.A shorter timeperiod would mean higher discharge, which is generally considered the prerequisite to flooding.This research also conclude that the role ofgeomorphometric properties to control the water supply within the stream through out the year even though during the drought and lessprecipitations months.Drainage basins are sensitive entities and any deteriorations involve will generate reciprocals and response to the watersupply as well as the habitat within the areas.

  18. Impact of AMD on water quality in critical watershed in the Hudson River drainage basin: Phillips Mine, Hudson Highlands, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, S.; Gates, A.; Szabo, Z.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    A sulfur and trace element enriched U-Th-laced tailings pile at the abandoned Phillips Mine in Garrison, New York, releases acid mine drainage (AMD, generally pH iron hydroxides which act as sinks for metals, indicating progressive sequestration that correlates with dilution and sharp rise in pH when mine water mixes with tributaries. Seasonal variations in metal concentrations were partly attributable to dissolution of the efflorescent salts with their sorbed metals and additional metals from surging acidic seepage induced by precipitation.

  19. [Little Dry Creek Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map of the drainage boundary, direction of flow, canals and ditches, and streets for the drainage study plan and profile for Little Dry Creek sub area in the North...

  20. Percutaneous Abscess Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Percutaneous Abscess Drainage An abscess is an infected fluid collection ... are the benefits vs. risks? What is Percutaneous Abscess Drainage? An abscess is an infected fluid collection ...

  1. Transient drainage summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage.

  2. Fall 1979 moose surveys, Sheenjek, Old Woman, Coleen drainages

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of fall moose population statistics for the upper Sheenjek River drainage (including all tributaries upstream of Lobo Lake) and of Old Woman Creek. William...

  3. Historic and Current Distributions of River Otters (Lontra canadensis and (Lontra longicaudis in the Río Grande or Río Bravo del Norte Drainage of Colorado and New Mexico, USA and of Chihuahua, Mexico and Adjacent Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Polechla

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Río Grande drainage is an important and imperiled wetland of the US/Mexican border arid lands. There is a desire to restore otter populations in this river by interested parties. In order to follow IUCN guidelines for restoration, biologists need learn more fully the situation prior to implementation of restoration management. A prerequisite for proper restoration conservation is to know the organism’s taxonomy (i.e., what taxa or species and subspecies one is dealing with, distribution, and relative abundance. The historic and current distribution of the Nearctic otter (Lontra canadensis and Neotropical otter (L. longicaudis in the borderlands of US and Mexico are reviewed in this paper. The evidence indicates that otters were native to the Río Grande valley and has been recorded in the languages and customs of Native Americans such as the Pueblo people prior to European settlement of the area. The first Spanish documents we were able to find whereby otters were recorded, date to the middle 16th century. Otters during historical times were probably more numerous than previously thought and one of the first wildlife laws in the borderlands revolved around a moratorium on trapping the otter and beaver. Presently, populations of otters occur in 1 the Río San Pedro of Chihuahua, a tributary of the Río Conchos entering the Río Grande from the southeast, 2 the upper Río Grande near the Colorado/New Mexico border, and 3 the middle Pecos River in southeastern New Mexico entering the Río Grande from the west. These observations are corroborated by multiple observations by competent observers and in the case of the first population, otter photos and sign. These populations are centered on areas with macro-habitats characterized by a river flowing through 1 deep canyons, or 2 ancillary wetlands. Considerable more detailed survey work is needed to determine the full extent of the distribution of otters in the Río Grande drainage. A genetic

  4. Acts of Appropriation: Gender and Creativity in the Fiction of Carson McCullers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Phebe

    Students and teachers need to discuss authorial intent to understand some literary works on their own terms--this is particularly true in the case of Carson McCullers. McCullers' works can be understood as having a rich foundation of authorial intent based on the writer's central experience, as a Southern woman, of gender. The central importance…

  5. Utility Assessment Report for SPIDERS Phase 2: Ft. Carson (Rev 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Jonathan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hadley, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schneider, Kevin P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This document contains the Utility Assessment Report (UAR) for the Phase 2 operational Demonstration (OD) of the Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD). The UAR for Phase 2 shows that the SPIDERS system was able to meet the requirements of the Implementation Directive at Ft. Carson.

  6. Analysis of Non-Tactical Vehicle Utilization at Fort Carson Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Thomas A. Smart Automotive Insight Birmingham, MI Steven T. Eick TARDEC Warren, MI ABSTRACT The Department of Defense (DOD) is...Tactical Vehicle Utiliztation at Fort Carson Colorado 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Steven Eick ; Thomas

  7. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT HISTOLOGY LABORATORY XYLENE USE - FORT CARSON, COLORADO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the WREAFS program, RREL has performed a waste minimization opportunity assessment (WMOA) at the Evans Community Hospital Histopathology Laboratory on the Ft. Carson Army Base, Colorado, in the area of waste xylene and ethyl alcohol contaminated with human tissue. The waste...

  8. The Geochemistry of Acid Mine Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowes, D. W.; Ptacek, C. J.; Jambor, J. L.; Weisener, C. G.

    2003-12-01

    Mine wastes are the largest volume of materials handled in the world (ICOLD, 1996). The generation of acidic drainage and the release of water containing high concentrations of dissolved metals from these wastes is an environmental problem of international scale. Acidic drainage is caused by the oxidation of sulfide minerals exposed to atmospheric oxygen. Although acid drainage is commonly associated with the extraction and processing of sulfide-bearing metalliferous ore deposits and sulfide-rich coal, acidic drainage can occur wherever sulfide minerals are excavated and exposed to atmospheric oxygen. Engineering projects, including road construction, airport development, and foundation excavation are examples of civil projects that have resulted in the generation of acidic drainage. On United States Forest Service Lands there are (2-5)×104 mines releasing acidic drainage (USDA, 1993). Kleinmann et al. (1991) estimated that more than 6,400 km of rivers and streams in the eastern United States have been adversely affected by mine-drainage water. About (0.8-1.6)×104 km of streams have been affected by metal mining in the western United States. The annual worldwide production of mine wastes exceeded 4.5 Gt in 1982 (ICOLD, 1996). Estimated costs for remediating mine wastes internationally total in the tens of billions of dollars ( Feasby et al.,1991).

  9. Impact of AMD on water quality in critical watershed in the Hudson River drainage basin: Phillips Mine, Hudson Highlands, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Sivajini; Gates, Alexander; Szabo, Zoltan; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2009-03-01

    A sulfur and trace element enriched U-Th-laced tailings pile at the abandoned Phillips Mine in Garrison, New York, releases acid mine drainage (AMD, generally pH AMD evaporation during dry periods concentrates solid phase trace metals and sulfate, forming melanterite (FeSO4·7H2O) on sulfide-rich tailings surfaces. Wet periods dissolve these concentrates/precipitates, releasing stored acidity and trace metals into the CMB. Sediments along CMB are enriched in iron hydroxides which act as sinks for metals, indicating progressive sequestration that correlates with dilution and sharp rise in pH when mine water mixes with tributaries. Seasonal variations in metal concentrations were partly attributable to dissolution of the efflorescent salts with their sorbed metals and additional metals from surging acidic seepage induced by precipitation.

  10. Environmental Assessment : Implementation of federal mitigation requirements for changes in sewage treatment discharges within the Truckee-Carson watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to implement mitigation plans for two sewage effluent disposal systems in the Truckee-Carson watersheds. Implementation...

  11. Environmental contaminants in piping plover eggs from Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge and Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the 2011 breeding season, 4‐egg clutches of piping plover (Charadrius melodus) eggs were collected from single nests located at Rachel Carson National...

  12. Geology and ground-water resources of the lower Little Bighorn River Valley, Big Horn County, Montana, with special reference to the drainage of waterlogged lands, with a section on chemical quality of the water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, E.A.; Klug, M.F.; Morris, D.A.; Swenson, F.A.; Krieger, R.A.

    1960-01-01

    The lower Little Bighorn River valley, Montana, is in the unglaciated part of the Missouri Plateau section of the Great Plains physiographic province. The river and its principal tributaries rise in the Bighorn Mountains, and the confluence of this northward-flowing stream with the Bighorn River is near the east edge of Hardin, Mont. The normal annual precipitation ranges from about 12 inches in the northern part of the area to 15 inches in the southern part. The economy of the area is founded principally on farming, much of the low-lying land adjacent to the river being irrigated. The irrigated land is within the Crow Indian Reservation, although a part is privately owned. The bedrock formations exposed in the area are of Cretaceous age and include the Parkman sandstone, Claggett shale, Eagle sandstone, Telegraph Creek shale, and Cody shale. The Cloverly formation, Tensleep sandstone, and Madison limestone, which underlie but are not exposed in the area, and the Parkman sandstone in the southern half of the area appear to be the principal bedrock aquifers. All except the Parkman lie at depths ranging from a few feet to several thousand feet, and all appear to be capable of yielding water in commercial quantities. Some of the other formations arc capable of yielding enough water for domestic and stock needs. The river alluvium of Recent age and the Pleistocene terrace deposits are the principal unconsolidated formations in the area with respect to water supply and drainage. Wells yielding as much as 100 gallons per minute may be developed in favorable areas. Pumping tests reveal that the transmissibility of the coarser unconsolidated materials probably ranges from about 15,000 to 30,000 gallons per day per foot. Two tests of the Parkman sandstone showed transmissibilities of 6,000 and 20,000 gallons per day per foot. Although a test of the Cloverly formation showed a transmissibility of only 3,000 gallons per day per foot, the high artesian pressure--80 pounds per

  13. Field screening of water, soil, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Dolores Project and the Macos River basin, southwestern Colorado, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D.L.; Osmundson, B.C.; Krueger, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation for the National Irrigation Water Quality Program in 1990 indicated elevated selenium concentrations in some water and biota samples collected in the Dolores Project in southwestern Colorado. High selenium concentrations also were indicated in bird samples collected in the Mancos Project in 1989. In 1994, field screenings were done in parts of the Dolores Project and Mancos River Basin to collect additional selenium data associated with irrigation inthose areas. Selenium is mobilized from soils in newly irrigated areas of the Dolores Project called the Dove Creek area, which includes newly (since 1987) irrigated land north of Cortez and south of Dove Creek.Selenium was detected in 18 of 20stream samples, and the maximum concentration was 12micrograms per liter. The Dove Creek area is unique compared to other study areas of the National Irrigation Water Quality Program becauseselenium concentrations probably are indicative of initial leaching conditions in a newly irrigated area.Selenium concentrations in nine shallow soil samples from the Dove Creek area ranged from 0.13 to 0.20 micrograms per gram. Selenium concentrations in bottom sediment from six ponds were less than the level of concern for fish and wildlife of 4 micrograms per gram. Many biota samples collected in the Dove Creek area had elevated selenium concentrations when compared to various guidelines and effect levels,although selenium concentrations in water, soil, and bottom sediment were relatively low. Selenium concentrations in 12 of 14 aquatic-invertebratesamples from ponds exceeded 3 micrograms per gram dry weight, a dietary guideline for protection of fish and wildlife. The mean seleniumconcentration of 10.3 micrograms per gram dry weight in aquatic bird eggs exceeded the guideline for reduced hatchability of 8 micrograms per gramdry weight. Two ponds in the Dove Creek area had a high selenium hazard rating based on a new protocol for assessing selenium hazard in

  14. Topological Analysis of Urban Drainage Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock; McGrath, Gavan; Rao, Suresh

    2016-04-01

    Urban drainage networks are an essential component of infrastructure, and comprise the aggregation of underground pipe networks carrying storm water and domestic waste water for eventual discharge to natural stream networks. Growing urbanization has contributed to rapid expansion of sewer networks, vastly increasing their complexity and scale. Importance of sewer networks has been well studied from an engineering perspective, including resilient management, optimal design, and malfunctioning impact. Yet, analysis of the urban drainage networks using complex networks approach are lacking. Urban drainage networks consist of manholes and conduits, which correspond to nodes and edges, analogous to junctions and streams in river networks. Converging water flows in these two networks are driven by elevation gradient. In this sense, engineered urban drainage networks share several attributes of flows in river networks. These similarities between the two directed, converging flow networks serve the basis for us to hypothesize that the functional topology of sewer networks, like river networks, is scale-invariant. We analyzed the exceedance probability distribution of upstream area for practical sewer networks in South Korea. We found that the exceedance probability distributions of upstream area follow power-law, implying that the sewer networks exhibit topological self-similarity. The power-law exponents for the sewer networks were similar, and within the range reported from analysis of natural river networks. Thus, in line with our hypothesis, these results suggest that engineered urban drainage networks share functional topological attributes regardless of their structural dissimilarity or different underlying network evolution processes (natural vs. engineered). Implications of these findings for optimal design of sewer networks and for modeling sewer flows will be discussed.

  15. Geothermal investigations in Idaho. Part 12. Stable isotopic evaluation of thermal water occurrences in the Weiser and Little Salmon River drainage basins and adjacent areas, west-central Idaho with attendant gravity and magnetic data on the Weiser area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.C.; Bideganeta, K.; Palmer, M.A.

    1984-12-01

    Fifteen thermal springs, two thermal wells, and eight cold springs in the Weiser and Little Salmon river drainages were sampled for deuterium and oxygen-18 analysis during the fall of 1981. The straight-line fit of delta D and delta /sup 18/O versus latitude and longitude observed in the data is what would be expected if the recharge areas for the thermal and non-thermal waters were in close proximity to their respective discharge points. The discrete values of delta D and delta /sup 18/O for each thermal discharge suggest that none of the sampled thermal systems have common sources. The depleted deuterium and oxygen-18 contents of most thermal relative to non-thermal waters sampled suggests that the thermal waters might be Pleistocene age precipitation. The isotopic data suggest little or no evidence for mixing of thermal and non-thermal water for the sampled discharges. Thermal waters from Weiser, Crane Creek, Cove Creek, and White Licks hot springs show enrichment in oxygen-18 suggesting that these waters have been at elevated temperatures relative to other sampled thermal discharges in the area. Gravity and magnetic data gathered by the Idaho State University Geology Department in the Weiser Hot Springs area suggest that southeastward plunging synclinal-anticlinal couples, which underlie the hot springs, are cut south of the springs by a northeast trending boundary fault.

  16. Clock Without Hands: Carson McCullers and the rhythms of living and dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Frank

    2013-05-01

    Carson McCullers was one of the greatest American writers of the 20th century. For much of her adult life she struggled with illness. In her final novel, Clock Without Hands, a central character was diagnosed with a serious illness. Themes of illness, mortality, and creativity are examined in the physical and psychospiritual journey of both the character and the author herself. Reflections are made on the practice of palliative care.

  17. The Effects of Tactical Vehicle Training on the Lands of Fort Carson, Colorado. An Ecological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Springfield, VA 22161 IS. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side It necessary and Identify by block number) --Fort Carson, CO, tracked vehicles e.cology...99 .24 .68 .85 4.60 .60 2.60 Solanum spp. P P P P Sonchus sp. .09 .32 .30 1.00 Sphaeraclea coccinea 1.28 2.48 P 1.90 4.10 2.80 3.50 Sporobolus

  18. Foam consolidation and drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, S; Pelot, D D; Yarin, A L

    2012-03-27

    A theoretical model of foam as a consolidating continuum is proposed. The general model is applied to foam in a gravity settler. It is predicted that liquid drainage from foam in a gravity settler begins with a slow drainage stage. Next, a stage with faster drainage occurs where the drainage rate doubles compared to the initial stage. The experiments conducted within the framework of this work confirmed the theoretical predictions and allowed measurements of foam characteristics. Foams of three different concentrations of Pantene Pro-V Classic Care Solutions shampoo were studied, as well as the addition of polyethylene oxide (PEO) in one case. The shampoo's main foaming components are sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium laureth sulfate. It is shown to what extent foam drainage is slowed down by using higher shampoo concentrations and how it is further decreased by adding polymer (PEO).

  19. Temperature, vegetation and precipitation variability in the Nile River drainage during the past 27,000 years: Insights from molecular and isotopic proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Isla; Schouten, Stefan; Pätzold, Jürgen; Schefuß, Enno

    2013-04-01

    The paleoclimate history of the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) region is of much interest due to its long history of human occupation. To date, much of our knowledge of past climate in the EM region comes from marine sedimentary records. These indicate that since the Last Glacial Maximum, major and sometimes abrupt sea surface temperature (SST) fluctuations occurred in response to global climate events including the Younger Dryas (YD), the Bølling-Allerød, and Heinrich Event 1 (H1). In comparison, less is known regarding continental paleoclimate conditions in this region due to a scarcity of well-dated continuous climate archives, particularly from Saharan North Africa. Here, we present new reconstructions of continental precipitation (plant leaf wax δD), C3 vs. C4 vegetation (plant leaf wax δ13C) and soil temperature (MBT/CBT paleothermometer) in the Nile River catchment in conjunction with previously published U37k' and TEX86SST reconstructions from the EM Sea. Our multiproxy records indicate that relative to the present, the LGM was characterized by arid conditions with cooler SST and soil temperatures in the catchment. The H1 event stands out as a major excursion in nearly all proxies and is characterized by an abrupt decrease in SST and the most arid conditions of the past 27,000 years. The African Humid Period (AHP) of the early Holocene is the wettest interval of the entire record and is observed from ~10,000 to 5,500 cal BP, with maximum wet conditions noted at ~8,000 cal BP. Interestingly, a rather abrupt cooling is noted in the MBT/CBT record at ~5.5 cal kyr, coinciding with the end of the AHP off west Africa; however, the transition out of the AHP is more gradual in the δD record. Overall both the continental and marine climate records indicate millennial scale climate variability. Our records also shed light on shifting sources of organic matter in response to the sequential cessation and re-initiation of different tributaries to the main flow of the

  20. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  1. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  2. Airport Pavement Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    drainage layer and trench drains can be found in Cedergren (10). 4.2 COMPONENTS OF SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEM 4.2.1 Outflow Once the water has found...According to Cedergren (10) the open graded aggregate can replace the normally used dense graded materials on an inch-for-inch basis. A main problem in...the perforated pipe to prevent fines from entering, Figure 4.24 (11). Cedergren (10) suggests that collector pipes should be 42 laid with the

  3. Application of digital elevation model in delineating drainage networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yan-ling; XIE De-ti; LIU Hong-bin; WEI Chao-fu

    2005-01-01

    A practical method to extract drainage network from DEM (digital elevation model) is introduced. DEM pretreatment includes depression and flat areas treatment. The flow direction of each grid cell in DEM is calculated according to the 8-direction pour point model, and then the flow accumulation grid from the flow direction grid. With the flow accumulation grid, streams are defined according to the given threshold value of flow accumulation. Taking Gufo River watershed as an example, the extraction of drainage network was done from DEM. The results are basically consistent with the digitized drainage network from the relief maps.

  4. Change of the Surface Soil in the Ohno River Drainage and its Impact on the Detrital Composition of the Sediments in the Beppu Bay, the Southwestern Japan, during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irino, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Ikehara, K.; Kuwae, M.; Takemura, K.

    2012-12-01

    Detrtal fraction contained in marine sediments can be generally used as climate proxies because variations in provenance and mineralogy could be affected by the precipitation distribution and weathering intensity. Change in the surface soil composition could be observed if a well-preserved depositional soil sequence was found. In order to detect the change in provenances and interpret the terrestrial environment using detrital proxies in the marine sediments, it is necessary to know the variability or range of the mineral composition of a particular provenance during the targeted time periods. The Ohno River is located in the northeast Kyushu Island, the southwestern Japan, which has the head water region at the Mt. Kuju and Mt. Aso, flows eastward combining some tributaries from the south, and then flows northward to the Beppu Bay. Surface geology of the drainage area is roughly divided into two as andosol in the northeast and brown forest soil in the south. Such contrasting detrital provenances could provide a variety of grain composition to the marine sediments deposited in the Beppu Bay. The No. 5 boring core was drilled at a landfill site on the mouth of the Ono River. The core continuously recovers 97 m length and consists of Holocene marine sediments which could be a good record of the terrestrial environment of hinterland (the Ohno River Basin). We also found a soil sequence on the foot of the Mt. Kuju at 850 m altitude, which covers the similar time interval as the No.5. The soil sequence consists of brown loam overlain by the alternation of tephra and andosol. We tried to compare the variations in mineral compositions both for this soil sequence and the No.5 core since about 8,000 yrs age. The No. 5 core mainly consists of smectite, illite, chlorite (or kaolinite), amphiboles, quartz, feldspars, and amorphous materials with minor calcite. Amorphous material is supposed to mainly consists biogenic opal. Amorphous material is higher during 7000 to 3500 yrs

  5. The Breeding Ecology of White-faced Ibis in the Carson River Basin, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To ensure long-term breeding population viability of White-faced Ibis, it may be necessary to develop local water management strategies with consideration of habitat...

  6. Mercury characterization in Lahontan Valley Wetlands : Carson River Mercury Site : Lyon and Churchill Counties, Nevada, 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the Nevada Fish and Wildlife Office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Superfund Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 9...

  7. The Breeding Ecology of White-faced Ibis in the Lower Carson River Basin, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi) is a colonial waterbird that breeds in western North America and southern South America (Ryder 1967). Within North America,...

  8. The Role of Occupant Behavior in Achieving Net Zero Energy: A Demonstration Project at Fort Carson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Zalesny, Mary D.; Fernandez, Nicholas

    2013-09-30

    This study, sponsored by the U.S. General Services Administration’s Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings, aimed to understand the potential for institutional and behavioral change to enhance the performance of buildings, through a demonstration project with the Department of Defense in five green buildings on the Fort Carson, Colorado, Army base. To approach this study, the research team identified specific occupant behaviors that had the potential to save energy in each building, defined strategies that might effectively support behavior change, and implemented a coordinated set of actions during a three-month intervention.

  9. 格尔木河流域面积-高程积分值的地貌学分析%Geomorphologic Analysis of the Golmud River Drainage Basin Based on Hypsometric Integral Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬春; 李川川; 张梅; 刘耕年

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between tectonics and climate on landform has sparked much interest over years. The hypsometric integral (HI) value could reflect both tectonic activity and climate change, and might be a promising tool that links those two aspects. Based on SRTM - DEM data, this paper withdraws the measuring indicators of the landform and hypsometric integral from the third order basins and some of the second order basins in the Golmud river drainage basin using GIS spatial analysis, discusses the area and space dependence for hypsometric integral, and presents its significance in indicating tectonics, lithology and the degree of glacial erosion. The results show: the HI value depends on area and space; the southern fault of east Kunlun (F4) - Xidatan ( F3 ) fault can be divided into two parts, the east and the west, by the Kunlun Pass; both of them show similar scenario that the activity decrease from the center to the sides; there is no apparent change in the activity of the central fault of east Kunlun (Fl); intrusive rock shows greatest erosion-resistance while schist shows least and carbonate rocks shows modest, respectively; glacial processes could rework the landform and change the degree of erosion; the drainage basin with modern glacier and/or with extensively distributed palco-glacier is of higher HI value and develops U -shaped valley, compared to those without or with limited paleo-glacier.%在sRTM-DEM数据的基础上,运用GIS空间分析技术,系统提取了格尔木河三级流域及部分二级流域地形参数和面积-高程积分值,探讨了面积-高程积分值的面积及空间依赖性,并对面积-高程积分值(HI)对构造活动性、岩性变化、冰川作用强度的指示意义进行了研究.研究表明:HI值具有面积依赖及空间依赖性;东昆南断裂(F4)-西大滩断裂(F3)以昆仑山口为界可以分为东西两部分,各自的活动性都是中间强往两边依次减小,东昆中断裂(F1)的活动性变化不

  10. Impact of land drainage on peatland hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, J; Evans, M G; Burt, T P; Horton, M

    2006-01-01

    There is a long history of drainage of blanket peat but few studies of the long-term hydrological impact of drainage. This paper aims to test differences in runoff production processes between intact and drained blanket peat catchments and determine whether there have been any long-term changes in stream flow since drainage occurred. Hillslope runoff processes and stream discharge were measured in four blanket peat catchments. Two catchments were drained with open-cut ditches in the 1950s. Ditching originally resulted in shorter lag times and flashier storm hydrographs but no change in the annual catchment runoff efficiency. In the period between 2002 and 2004, the hydrographs in the drained catchments, while still flashy, were less sensitive to rainfall than in the 1950s and the runoff efficiency had significantly increased. Drains resulted in a distinctive spatial pattern of runoff production across the slopes. Overland flow was significantly lower in the drained catchments where throughflow was more dominant. In the intact peatlands, matrix throughflow produced by peat layers below 10 cm was rare and produced structure could explain the long-term changes in river flow, which are in addition to those occurring in the immediate aftermath of peatland drainage.

  11. River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The OECD report “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance” examines the efforts of OECD countries to prevent or reduce future disaster impacts, and highlights several key areas where improvements can be made. International collaboration is insufficiently utilised to address shocks that have increasingly global consequences. Institutional design plays a significant role in facilitating or hampering the engagement and investments of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in disaster risk prevention and mitigation. To inform the design of “better” institutions, the OECD proposes the application of a diagnostic framework that helps governments identify institutional shortcomings and take actions to improve them. The goal of the case study on the Rhone River is to conduct an analysis of the progress, achievements and existing challenges in designing and implementing disaster risk reduction strategies through the Rhone Plan from a comparative perspective across a set of selected countries of this study, like Austria and Switzerland, will inform how to improve institutional frameworks governing risk prevention and mitigation. The case study will be used to identify examples of successful practice taking into account their specific country contexts, and analyse their potential for policy transfer.

  12. Estimation of Total Dissolved Solids in Agricultural Drainwater of the Carson Division of the Newlands Project, Churchill County, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Section 206 of the Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act (P.L. 101-618, November, 1990) (Act) authorized the purchase of water rights to support a...

  13. Wound Drainage Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Wound Drainage Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Wound Drainage Culture Print A A A What's in this article? ... de heridas What It Is A wound drainage culture is a test to detect germs such as ...

  14. Acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  15. Predicting tile drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Petersen, Rasmus Jes;

    of the water load coming from the tile drainage system is therefore essential. This work aims at predicting tile drainage discharge using dynamic as well as a statistical predictive models. A large dataset of historical tile drain discharge data, daily discharge values as well as yearly average values were......More than 50 % of Danish agricultural areas are expected to be artificial tile drained. Transport of water and nutrients through the tile drain system to the aquatic environment is expected to be significant. For different mitigation strategies such as constructed wetlands an exact knowledge...... used in the analysis. For the dynamic modelling, a simple linear reservoir model was used where different outlets in the model represented tile drain as well as groundwater discharge outputs. This modelling was based on daily measured tile drain discharge values. The statistical predictive model...

  16. River and Reservoir Operations Model, Truckee River basin, California and Nevada, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berris, Steven N.; Hess, Glen W.; Bohman, Larry R.

    2001-01-01

    The demand for all uses of water in the Truckee River Basin, California and Nevada, commonly is greater than can be supplied. Storage reservoirs in the system have a maximum effective total capacity equivalent to less than two years of average river flows, so longer-term droughts can result in substantial water-supply shortages for irrigation and municipal users and may stress fish and wildlife ecosystems. Title II of Public Law (P.L.) 101-618, the Truckee?Carson?Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990, provides a foundation for negotiating and developing operating criteria, known as the Truckee River Operating Agreement (TROA), to balance interstate and interbasin allocation of water rights among the many interests competing for water from the Truckee River. In addition to TROA, the Truckee River Water Quality Settlement Agreement (WQSA), signed in 1996, provides for acquisition of water rights to resolve water-quality problems during low flows along the Truckee River in Nevada. Efficient execution of many of the planning, management, or environmental assessment requirements of TROA and WQSA will require detailed water-resources data coupled with sound analytical tools. Analytical modeling tools constructed and evaluated with such data could help assess effects of alternative operational scenarios related to reservoir and river operations, water-rights transfers, and changes in irrigation practices. The Truckee?Carson Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, to support U.S. Department of the Interior implementation of P.L. 101-618, is developing a modeling system to support efficient water-resources planning, management, and allocation. The daily operations model documented herein is a part of the modeling system that includes a database management program, a graphical user interface program, and a program with modules that simulate river/reservoir operations and a variety of hydrologic processes. The operations module is capable of simulating lake

  17. Soil nutrient distribution and its relations with topography in Huangshui River drainage baSin%黄水河小流域土壤养分分布及其与地形的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋轩; 李立东; 寇长林; 陈杰

    2011-01-01

    By using GIS and geostatistic techniques, this paper studied the spatial distribution patterns of soil nutrients and their relationships with topographic factors in Huangshui River drainage basin, a water source of Danjiangkou Reservoir. In the study area, the soil total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and organic matter varied spatially at medium level, with the variation coefficients being 51% , 66% , and 85% , respectively, whereas the soil available phosphorus displayed a strong spatial variation, with the variation coefficient reached 161%. The soil total nitrogen and organic matter exhibited a spatially positive autocorrelation, while the soil total and available phosphorus presented a spatially weak autocorrelation. Altitude was one of the main topographic factors affecting the spatial distribution patterns of the soil nutrients, having significant effects on the spatial distribution of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and organic matter. Slope and profile curvature also had significant effects on the spatial distribution of the soil total nitrogen and organic matter. Based on these, the regression prediction models of topographic factors and soil nutrient spatial distribution were established, and the digital mappings of the soil nutrients were made, which provided data support for the precise management of soil resources in the study area.%基于GIS和地统计学原理,对丹江口水库水源区黄水河小流域土壤养分空间分布及其与地形因子间的关系进行分析.结果表明:研究区土壤全氮、全磷、有机质的变异系数分别为51%、66%和85%,为中等变异,土壤速效磷的变异系数为161%,属强变异;土壤全氮和有机质表现为显著正向空间自相关,速效磷和全磷的空间自相关性较弱;海拔是影响该区土壤养分分布的主要因素,其对全氮、全磷和有机质都具有极显著影响,坡度和剖面曲率显著影响全氮和有机质分布.建立了地形因子与土壤

  18. Nutrition Policy Decreases Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Municipal Parks: Lessons Learned From Carson, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Kimberly; Mata, Alfred; Flores, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    In light of the childhood obesity epidemic, many cities are adopting healthy park vending policies, but the evidence on the effectiveness of these policies is scant. This study examines how implementation of a healthy vending policy in Carson, California, changes the types of beverages that are available in park vending machines. The study design is a pre-posttest with post-only comparison group. The main outcome is proportion of beverages in vending machines that is consistent with caloric and sugar content guidelines for children as defined by the Nutrition Environment Measures-Vending (NEMS-V) tool. This study finds that prior to implementation of the vending policy, 70% of the beverages did not meet NEMS-V guidelines, on average. After implementation of the vending policy, this number declined to 7%. This study suggests that healthy vending policies can have an impact on the types of beverages that are available in city parks.

  19. Integrated Assessment Plan Template and Operational Demonstration for SPIDERS Phase 2: Fort Carson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Hadley, Mark D.; Kreyling, Sean J.; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2013-09-01

    This document contains the Integrated Assessment Plan (IAP) for the Phase 2 Operational Demonstration (OD) of the Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability (SPIDERS) Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) project. SPIDERS will be conducted over a three year period with Phase 2 being conducted at Fort Carson, Colorado. This document includes the Operational Demonstration Execution Plan (ODEP) and the Operational Assessment Execution Plan (OAEP), as approved by the Operational Manager (OM) and the Integrated Management Team (IMT). The ODEP describes the process by which the OD is conducted and the OAEP describes the process by which the data collected from the OD is processed. The execution of the OD, in accordance with the ODEP and the subsequent execution of the OAEP, will generate the necessary data for the Quick Look Report (QLR) and the Utility Assessment Report (UAR). These reports will assess the ability of the SPIDERS JCTD to meet the four critical requirements listed in the Implementation Directive (ID).

  20. Georges-Claude Guilbert. Carson McCullers. Amours décalées.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Rivière

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avec le recul, on redécouvre Carson McCullers et l’on tente de lui rendre justice. Après l’édition annotée par Marie-Christine Lemardeley-Cunci de nouvelles traductions de la romancière (La Pochothèque 1994 et la flamboyante biographie de Josyane Savigneau (Stock 1995, Georges-Claude Guilbert s’attache dans le format ramassé du petit Belin à la défendre contre ses détracteurs. Il glisse sur les détails biographiques qui relèvent du « voyeurisme » et se démarque des traditionnels couplets su...

  1. “between that world and this”: A Reading of Breaking News by Ciaran Carson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Delattre

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Ciaran Carson, in the forty poems that constitute Breaking News – published in 2003 –, has used extraneous documents, i.e. the narration by an Anglo-Irish journalist of some of the best-known 19-th century military campaigns, but also the paintings by Francisco Goya, Théodore Géricault, Edward Hopper, or still the poetry of William Carlos Williams. This paper aims at showing how Carson’s poetry is given wider scope and deeper resonance through this uncommonly diverse historical, literary and cultural context. The uncanny coexists with reality or gets substituted for it and poetry becomes the ultimate recourse against the unnameable.

  2. Archaeological Survey and Site Testing in Sloughing Easement Areas along the Sac River Downstream from Stockton Dam, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    lower Pomme de Terre River Valley by McMillan (1976a). Post oak, white oak, and black oak were found to be the most abundant tree species; but...lists for the lower Pomme de Terre River Valley along with the habitat preferences of each species. Similar species were probably present in the...research has been carried out in the lover Sac River drainage, the Pomme de Terre River drainage, and the Osage River drainage. Most of this work

  3. The impact of thermal energy and materials derived from the hot spring drainage on the fish community near the estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, M.; Shoji, J.; Mishima, T.; Honda, H.; Fujii, M.; Ohsawa, S.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Beppu is a region with many hot springs in Japan. Some of environmental studies of the rivers in this region (e.g. Kawano et al., 1998, Ohsawa et al., 2008) show that hot spring drainage flows into a river and then flow into the coastal are, and it strongly affects the river water quality. On the other hands, several kinds of tropical fish lives in those rivers (Hiramatu et al., 1995). We can easily have watched those fish there. Although the relationship between hot spring drainage and the fish community had not been investigated in the past in this area, it is easily assumed that thermal energy and materials derived from the hot spring drainage strongly affect the ecosystem. However, the impact of the hot spring drainage on the ecosystem in river and coastal area is not clear. We investigated the river water quality and physical property of six rivers in this region. Additionally, we investigated the fish community near the estuary at two rivers which are strongly affected by the hot spring drainage and not the influence of the hot spring at all. We tried an evaluation about the influence of thermal energy and materials derived from the hot spring drainage on the fish community near the estuary.The results of chemical and physical data in these rivers are as follows. The size of influence of hot spring drainage on river is different every river. In this region, Hirata River is most strongly affected by the hot spring drainage. The water temperature of Hirata River maintains 25 degrees Celsius or more through the year and the concentrations of dissolved component is very high. On the other hand, the water temperature and the concentrations of dissolved component of Hiya Rive is low. These data are similar to data of the upper side of Hirata River. The results of investigating the fish community indicate that Oreochromis niloticus and Rhinogobius giurinus is the dominant species at Hirata River and Hiya River respectively. In addition, there is more the number of

  4. 75 FR 76453 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EG10-65-000; EG10-66-000; EG10-67-000; EG10-68-000; EG10- 69-000; EG10-70-000; EG10-71-000] Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC;...

  5. Thresholds of geographic environmental elements in sediment yield of drainage basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Hao; ZHOU; Jinxing; CAI; Qiangguo; LU; Zhongchen; LI

    2005-01-01

    Threshold of environmental elements in drainage basin sediment yield refers to, under effect of climate, underlying surface and human activity, a turning point of abrupt changes in drainage sediment yield related to environmental element characteristics. Previous studies on threshold of sediment yield of relevant drainage basins were mainly concentrated on impact of natural zones with a few researches on impact of other environmental elements. Particularly studies on compound environmental element threshold in drainage basin sediment yield remain blank today. Studies indicate that sediment yield in drainage basins is affected by compound interactions and complex actions. Based on single element analysis, the present paper gives quantitatively compound threshold of environmental elements affecting sediment yield of the drainage basin between Hekouzhen and Tongguan in the middle Yellow River by the method of multi-variant, polynomial formula regression analysis.

  6. Sustainable Drainage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban water management has somewhat changed since the publication of The Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS Manual in 2007 [1], transforming from building traditional sewers to implementing SuDS, which are part of the best management practice techniques used in the USA and seen as contributing to water-sensitive urban design in Australia. Most SuDS, such as infiltration trenches, swales, green roofs, ponds, and wetlands, address water quality and quantity challenges, and enhance the local biodiversity while also being acceptable aesthetically to the public. Barriers to the implementation of SuDS include adoption problems, flood and diffuse pollution control challenges, negative public perception, and a lack of decision support tools addressing, particularly, the retrofitting of these systems while enhancing ecosystem services. [...

  7. Special report of Horsefeldt-White River patrol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers a patrol made by horseback and pack train from the headwaters of the copper River across the upper drainage to the Tanana River and terminating on...

  8. Freshwater Mussel Surveys Of The Pee Dee River Basin in South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Pee Dee River Basin is a major drainage of the Atlantic slope in the southeastern United States. The 10,755 sq mile drainage area incorporates portions of...

  9. The "we of me": Carson McCullers as lesbian novelist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitt, J

    1999-01-01

    Although Carson McCullers camouflaged her love for women in her fiction, gay and lesbian themes are inarguably present in her work. The loneliness that her characters face takes on allegorical intensity, and it is even more potent due to her own sexual confusion and alienation. Married twice to the same man and falling in love repeatedly with both women and men, McCullers wrestled with bisexuality throughout her personal and literary life. Her deepest attachments were to her husband Reeves McCullers; David Diamond, a musician-composer in love with both McCullers and her husband; and Anne-marie Clarac-Schwarzenbach, a Swiss writer. All three of these love interests required that McCullers deal with complicated and ultimately destructive triangles. Given that fact, it is no surprise that she created fictional worlds peopled with characters engaged in three-way relationships. In her novels, Mick (The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter), Frankie (The Member of the Wedding), Miss Amelia (The Ballad of the Sad Cafe) and Weldon Penderton (Reflections in a Golden Eye) also reflect the author's sexual ambivalence and inability to fit into the prescribed social structures of the South.

  10. Chemical Analyses of Ground Water in the Carson Desert near Stillwater, Churchill County, Nevada, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosbury, DeEtta; Walker, Mark; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the chemical analyses of ground-water samples collected in 2005 from domestic wells located in the Stillwater area of the Carson Desert (fig. 1). These data were evaluated for evidence of mixing with nearby geothermal waters (Fosbury, 2007). That study used several methods to identify mixing zones of ground and geothermal waters using trace elements, chemical equilibria, water temperature, geothermometer estimates, and statistical techniques. In some regions, geothermal sources influence the chemical quality of ground water used for drinking water supplies. Typical geothermal contaminants include arsenic, mercury, antimony, selenium, thallium, boron, lithium, and fluoride (Webster and Nordstrom, 2003). The Environmental Protection Agency has established primary drinking water standards for these, with the exception of boron and lithium. Concentrations of some trace metals in geothermal water may exceed drinking water standards by several orders of magnitude. Geothermal influences on water quality are likely to be localized, depending on directions of ground water flow, the relative volumes of geothermal sources and ground water originating from other sources, and depth below the surface from which water is withdrawn. It is important to understand the areal extent of shallow mixing of geothermal water because it may have adverse chemical and aesthetic effects on domestic drinking water. It would be useful to understand the areal extent of these effects.

  11. Hydrogeology and potential effects of changes in water use, Carson Desert agricultural area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Douglas K.; Johnson, Ann K.; Welch, Alan H.

    1996-01-01

    Operating Criteria and Procedures for Newlands Project irrigation and Public Law 101-618 could result in reductions in surface water used for agriculture in the Carson Desert, potentially affecting ground-water supplies from shallow, intermediate, and basalt aquifers. A near-surface zone could exist at the top of the shallow aquifer near the center and eastern parts of the basin where underlying clay beds inhibit vertical flow and could limit the effects of changes in water use. In the basalt aquifer, water levels have declined about 10 feet from pre-pumping levels, and chloride and arsenic concentrations have increased. Conceptual models of the basin suggest that changes in water use in the western part of the basin would probably affect recharge to the shallow, intermediate, and basalt aquifers. Lining canals and removing land from production could cause water-level declines greater than 10 feet in the shallow aquifer up to 2 miles from lined canals. Removing land from production could cause water levels to decline from 4 to 17 feet, depending on the distribution of specific yield in the basin and the amount of water presently applied to irrigated fields. Where wells pump from a near-surface zone of the shallow aquifer, water level declines might not greatly affect pumping wells where the thickness of the zone is greatest, but could cause wells to go dry where the zone is thin.

  12. Distribution Characteristics and Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Liaohe River Drainage Basin,Northeast China.%辽河流域多环芳烃(PAHs)的分布特征及来源解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岩林; 胡健; 刘宝剑; 李思亮; 灌瑾

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) in surface water and suspended particulate matter(SPM) in the major rivers of the Liaohe River drainage basin were determined by GC/MS.The concentrations and distribution characteristics,pollution levels,and sources of PAHs were discussed.The total PAHs concentrations range from 0.41 to 76.45 μg·g-1(dry weight) in SPM,and 32.57 to 108.47 ng·L-1 in surface water,respectively.The PAHs concentrations in western Liaohe River are higher than those in eastern Liaohe River and its main streams.The compositions of PAHs are predominant by low-ring PAHs(including two-and three-ring PAHs),while the percentage of low-ring PAHs in dissolved form is higher than that in SPM.The two-ring PAHs percentage is highest with an average of 68.19 % in dissolved PAHs,while the three-ring PAHs percentage is highest with an average of 66.28% in SPM,respectively.Compared with other rivers both at home and abroad,the PAHs concentrations in the Liaohe River drainage basin are at a lower level,and some rivers have suffered PAHs contamination to a certain extent.The main sources of PAHs are petroleum and fossil fuel combustion-based mixture,which are related to the complex energy structure of Liaoning Province.%采用气相色谱-质谱(GC/MS)的分析方法,对辽河水系主要河流的表层水和悬浮物中的16种PAHs进行了定量分析,并对其分布特征、污染水平以及来源进行了探讨。结果显示:颗粒态PAHs的浓度范围为0.41~76.45μg.g-1,溶解态PAHs的浓度范围为32.57~108.47ng.L-1,西辽河PAHs的浓度比东辽河以及辽河干流中PAHs的浓度要高。在多环芳烃组成上,溶解态和颗粒态样品的PAHs均以低环数(二、三环)为主,且溶解态中低环数PAHs所占比例较颗粒态中所占的比例高。其中,溶解态中二环的PAHs比例最高(平均为68.19%),颗粒态中三环的PAHs比例最高(平均为66.28%)。相对于国内外

  13. Major and trace-element analyses of acid mine waters in the Leviathan Mine drainage basin, California/Nevada; October, 1981 to October, 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, J.W.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    Water issuing from the inactive Leviathan open-pit sulfur mine has caused serious degradation of the water quality in the Leviathan/Bryant Creek drainage basin which drains into the East Fork of the Carson River. As part of a pollution abatement project of the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, the U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic and water quality data for the basin during 1981-82. During this period a comprehensive sampling survey was completed to provide information on trace metal attenuation during downstream transport and to provide data for interpreting geochemical processes. This report presents the analytical results from this sampling survey. Sixty-seven water samples were filtered and preserved on-site at 45 locations and at 3 different times. Temperature, discharge, pH, and Eh and specific conductance were measured on-site. Concentrations of 37 major and trace constituents were determined later in the laboratory on preserved samples. The quality of the analyses was checked by using two or more techniques to determine the concentrations including d.c.-argon plasma emission spectrometry (DCP), flame and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry, hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography. Additional quality control was obtained by comparing measured to calculated conductance, comparing measured to calculated Eh (from Fe-2 +/Fe-3+ determinations), charge balance calculations and mass balance calculations for conservative constituents at confluence points. Leviathan acid mine waters contain mg/L concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, T1, V and Zn, and hundreds to thousands of mg/L concentrations of Al, Fe, and sulfate at pH values as low as 1.8. Other elements including Ba, B, Be, Bi, Cd , Mo, Sb, Se and Te are elevated above normal background concentrations and fall in the microgram/L range. The chemical and 34 S/32 S isotopic analyses demonstrate that these

  14. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Abdelkareem; Farouk El-Baz

    2014-01-01

    Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the anc...

  15. The impact of 90 years of drainage works on some chemical properties of raised peat bog organic soils - case study from valley of the Upper San river in Polish Bieszczady Mts. (Eastern Carpathians).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarczyk, Mateusz

    2016-04-01

    Wetland ecosystems, including raised peat bogs are characterized by a specific water conditions and unique vegetation, which makes peatland highly important habitats due to protection of biodiversity. Transformation of peat bog areas is particularly related to changes in the environment e.g. according to reclamation works. Drainage of peatlands is directly associated to the decrease of groundwater levels and lead to a number of changes in the chemical and physical properties of peat material, included contents of exchangeable cations in the surface layers of peat soils in the decession phase of peat development and release above compounds from the soil to ground or surface waters. The aim of the research was to determine the impact of extended drainage works on chemical composition of sorption complex of raised peat bog organic soils and identification the potential environmental effects of alkaline cations leaching to the surface waters. Research was carried out on the peat bogs located in the Upper San valley in Polish Bieszczady Mts. (Eastern Carpathians). Soil samples used in this study were collected from 3 soil profiles in 10 or 20 cm intervals to the approximately 130 cm depth. Laboratory analyses included determination of basic properties of organic material such as the degree of peat decomposition, ash content, soil pH and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen concentrations. Additionally the amount of alkaline cations, exchangeable and extractable acidity was determined. Furthermore, the degree of saturation of the sorption complex with alkaline cations (V) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) are calculated. In order to evaluate the impact of the examined peat bog to the environment, also water samples were collected and ions composition was measured. The obtained results show that studied organic soils are oligotrophic and strongly acidic. In the case of organic material related to decession phase of peat development, as a result of the lengthy drainage works

  16. Examining the provenance of branched GDGTs in the Tagus River drainage basin and its outflow into the Atlantic Ocean over the Holocene to determine their usefulness for paleoclimate applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warden, L.A.; Kim, J.H.; Zell, C.I.; Vis, G.J.; de Stigter, Henko; Bonnin, J.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs), which are transported from the soils where they are predominantly produced to marine sediments via rivers, have been applied in reconstructing mean annual air temperature (MAT) and pH of soils. However, paleoclimate recon

  17. Filter Fabrics for Airport Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    Systems for *r- field Pavements," Harry R. Cedergren . d. "Development of Guidelines for the Design of Subsurfac( Drainage Systems for Highway Pavement...Structural 4Sectic s," H. R. Cedergren , J. A. Arman, and K. H. O’Brien. e. Drainage of Highway and Airfield Pavements, Harry R. Cedergren .> Five...by Cedergren (974).5 Additionally, several references were used, particularly those describing experimental anu construction prolects using filter

  18. Geochemical Processes Controlling the Generation and Environmental Impacts of Acid Mine Drainage in Semi Arid Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Magombedze, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the geochemical processes that control the geochemistry of acid mine drainage in semi arid conditions. The central objective is to characterise and understand the evolution of acid mine drainage and its potential environmental impacts on the Mazowe River sub-catchment, in north east Zimbabwe. The work is based on a case study at three neighbouring metal sulphide mines, namely Trojan Nickel Mine, Mazowe Gold Mine and Iron Duke Pyrites.The methodology used in this research ...

  19. Wildland inventory and resource modeling for Douglas and Carson City Counties, Nevada, using LANDSAT and digital terrain data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, J. A.; Likens, W. C.; Thornhill, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    The potential of using LANDSAT satellite imagery to map and inventory pinyon-juniper desert forest types in Douglas and Carson City Counties, Nevada was demonstrated. Specific map and statistical products produced include land cover, mechanical operations capability, big game winter range habitat, fire hazard, and forest harvestability. The Nevada Division of Forestry determined that LANDSAT can produce a reliable and low-cost resource data. Added benefits become apparent when the data are linked to a geographical information system (GIS) containing existing ownership, planning, elevation, slope, and aspect information.

  20. Morphometry Governs the Dynamics of a Drainage Basin: Analysis and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atrayee Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountainous rivers are the most significant source of water supply in the Himalayan provinces of India. The drainage basin dynamics of these rivers are controlled by the tectonomorphic parameters, which include both surface and subsurface characteristics of a basin. To understand the drainage basin dynamics and their usefulness in watershed prioritisation and management in terms of soil erosion studies and groundwater potential assessment and flood hazard risk reduction in mountainous rivers, morphometric analysis of a Himalayan River (Supin River basin has been taken as a case study. The entire Supin River basin has been subdivided into 27 subwatersheds and 36 morphometric parameters have been calculated under four broad categories: drainage network, basin geometry, drainage texture, and relief characteristics, each of which is further grouped into five different clusters having similar morphometric properties. The various morphometric parameters have been correlated with each other to understand their underlying relationship and control over the basin hydrogeomorphology. The result thus generated provides adequate knowledge base required for decision making during strategic planning and delineation of prioritised hazard management zones in mountainous terrains.

  1. Nitrogen surface water retention in the Baltic Sea drainage basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stålnacke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we estimate the surface water retention of nitrogen (N in all the 117 drainage basins to the Baltic Sea with the use of a statistical model (MESAW for source apportionment of riverine loads of pollutants. Our results show that the MESAW model was able to estimate the N load at the river mouth of 88 Baltic Sea rivers, for which we had observed data, with a sufficient degree of precision and accuracy. The estimated retention parameters were also statistically significant. Our results show that around 380 000 t of N are annually retained in surface waters draining to the Baltic Sea. The total annual riverine load from the 117 basins to the Baltic Sea was estimated to 570 000 t of N, giving a total surface water N retention of around 40%. In terms of absolute retention values, three major river basins account for 50% of the total retention in the 117 basins; i.e. around 104 000 t of N is retained in Neva, 55 000 t in Vistula and 32 000 t in Oder. The largest retention was found in river basins with a high percentage of lakes as indicated by a strong relationship between N retention (% and share of lake area in the river drainage areas. For example in Göta älv, we estimated a total N retention of 72%, whereof 67% of the retention occurred in the lakes of that drainage area (Lake Vänern primarily. The obtained results will hopefully enable the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM to refine the nutrient load targets in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP, as well as to better identify cost-efficient measures to reduce nutrient loadings to the Baltic Sea.

  2. DRAINAGE AND FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIDDHARTHA ROKADE

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Providing adequate drainage to a pavement system has been considered as an important design consideration to prevent premature failures due to water related problems such as pumping action, loss of support, and rutting, among others. Most water in pavements is due to rainfall infiltration into unsaturated pavement layers, throughjoints, cracks, shoulder edges, and various other defects, especially in older deteriorated pavements. Water also seep upward from a high groundwater table due to capillary suction or vapour movements, or it may flow laterally from the pavement edges and side ditches. Providing adequate drainage to a pavement system has been considered as an important design consideration to ensure satisfactory performance of the pavement, particularly from the perspective of life cycle cost and serviceability. To minimize premature pavement distresses and to enhance the pavement performance, it is imperative to provide adequate drainage to allow infiltrated water to drain out from the base and sub-base, thus avoiding saturation of base and subgrade soils. This paper deals with the analysis of the impact of subsurface drainage on pavement system performance. The requirement ofeffective subsurface drainage for pavement performance is also discussed.

  3. Impact of acid mine drainage from mining exploitations on the Margajita River basin and the Hatillo reservoir (Dominican Republic); Impacto del drenaje acido de explotaciones mineras en la cuenca del Rio Margajita y Embalse de Hatillo (Republica Dominicana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, F.; Salas, J.; Arcos, D.; Archambault, A.; Cottard, F.

    2009-07-01

    Mining of the Pueblo Viejo high-sulphidation epithermal deposit (Dominican Republic) leads to environmental impact due to the formation of acid mine drainage associated with the oxidative dissolution of sulphides and sulpho salts. In addition to the very low pH, the acid waters are capable of transporting away from the mining areas high concentrations of metals and metalloids in solution. In the present work, a geochemical study of sediments deposited in the Hatillo reservoir is carried out. This reservoir is fed by the Margajita and Yuna streams which transport leachates from the Pueblo Viejo and Falcondo-Bonao (Cr-Ni) mining areas, respectively. The results show that these sediments have very high concentrations of Fe, Al and sulphate, along with significant amounts of As, Zn and Te, which are of especial environmental concern. The main contributor to this metal discharge into the reservoir is the Margajita stream, whereas the Yuna stream does not transport significant amounts of metals in solution due to its neutral pH, although it is likely that metals such as Mn, Cr, Ni and Co can be mobilised as a particulate. (Author) 5 refs.

  4. Irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater, Humboldt, and Fernley Wildlife Management Areas and Carson Lake, West-Central Nevada, 1988-90 : Part II effects on wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the affects of irrigation induced contaminants on fish, wildlife, and human health near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area. In 1988, the U.S....

  5. 干旱区石羊河流域河水孢粉组合特征%Pollen Assemblage Features of Modern Water Samples from the Shiyang River Drainage, Arid Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱艳; 陈发虎; 程波; 张家武; David B MADSEN

    2002-01-01

    Pollen analysis of 30 modern water samples from the Shiyang River, an internal river system located between the Tengger and Badain Jaran deserts, Northwest China was carried out to examine the river's capacity to carry pollen and spores, and to assess the contribution of the water-borne pollen to pollen assemblages in lake sediments at the end of the river system. Results indicate the pollen assemblages in water samples consist of both local and upland pollen. Percentages of upland pollen reach 30%-60%, and pollen assemblages in water samples do not indicate the nature of local vegetation at the sampling sites. Fluvial currents have the capacity to transport large quantities of pollen long distances, and the contribution of this fluvial transported pollen is relatively high. For example, percentages of Picea Dietr. pollen in water samples at sampling sites 130 km and 145 km away from Picea forests reach 16.5% and 7.7%, respectively. Fluvial pollen transport occurs primarily during flood periods, and pollen concentrations from the flood samples are 17.1-12.5 times those from normal fluvial flow. Reservoirs affect pollen transportation since pollen is deposited at reservoir inlets and pollen concentrations are much reduced at reservoir outlets. Human activity can thus change natural features of pollen transportation and deposition. The main factors influencing pollen concentrations and assemblages are sampling time, sampling location, and rainfall intensity.%石羊河流域初春和仲夏两季不同地点,洪水期、平水期30个河水样孢粉分析显示, 没有人类影响的情况下,河水样孢粉组合是由河流上游径流区的植物孢粉和采样点附近植被孢粉组成的,前者在孢粉组合中至少占30%~60%.河水搬运孢粉的能力非常强,可长距离、大量地搬运孢粉.孢粉组合中河水贡献孢粉的含量较高,如:云杉属(Picea Dietr.)花粉河水的贡献率在中下游可达16.5%和7.7%.采样时间、地点影响河

  6. The Concept of Coda in Carson McCullers's sic "The Ballad of the Sad Cafe," and August Strindberg's "The Ghost Sonata."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Elisabeth; Shadko, Jacqueline A.

    1996-01-01

    Discovers that Carson McCullers and August Strindberg both made extensive use of musical structure in their literature. Specifically discusses the use of the coda, a last section of music that creates a sense of finality by reiterating the principal theme. Briefly discusses literary uses of the ballad and sonata. (MJP)

  7. Preliminary assessment of specific conductance and total dissolved solids loading rates in agricultural drainwater of the Carson Division of the Newlands Project, Churchill County, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Section 206 of the Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act (P.L. 101-618, November 1990) (Act) authorized the purchase of water rights to support a...

  8. What have we learned from modelling of Carson Basin, Grand Banks, offshore Newfoundland?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielens, J.B.W.; Jauer, C.D.; Williams, G.L. [Natural Resources Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada

    2005-07-01

    The Carson Basin may be one of the many barely explored basins within the Grand Banks that may have hydrocarbon potential. The basin was formed by passive rifting and was filled with a sequence of Triassic to Tertiary/Quaternary strata that includes reservoirs, seals and a thick salt section. Although 4 exploratory wells have been drilled, no source rock was penetrated, nor were hydrocarbons found. However, salt tectonics from Jurassic through Paleogene times has formed many salt-related features while the early-late Cretaceous Avalon Uplift event caused deep erosional channel systems that cut into the section. A basin model was synthesized in this study in order to integrate this available knowledge. This involved a new level of detail in the geological data, including new biostratigraphy and paleo-reconstructions which indicated the presence of an Early Kimmeridgian source rock in the area east of the wells. Using conservative estimates, a Jeanne d'Arc basin Egret type of source rock was given values of 50 m thickness, 4 per cent total organic carbon (TOC) and 600 HI, a scenario that potentially generates 100 billion barrels of oil. A model simulated in 4-D with IES Petromod software was then built based on the revised biostratigraphic analyses, 4 interpreted seismic surfaces and other relevant geological data. A basin with a viable petroleum system and significant hydrocarbon potential was revealed. Billion-barrel fields are feasible in this basin, depending on the length of migration paths and size of reservoirs. In the model, petroleum generation was mainly driven by the increased rifting heatflow of about 100 mW/m{sup 2} during the rifting of Grand Banks and Iberia, between 125 and 68 Ma. Therefore, any of the younger structural traps will show a lower filling potential. This simulation study strongly suggests that stratigraphic traps were filled. Although heatflow is a main uncertainty, it has a major influence on the hydrocarbon generation. Therefore

  9. Examining the provenance of branched GDGTs in the Tagus River drainage basin and its outflow into the Atlantic Ocean over the Holocene to determine their usefulness for paleoclimate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Lisa; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Zell, Claudia; Vis, Geert-Jan; de Stigter, Henko; Bonnin, Jérôme; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2016-10-01

    The distributions of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs), which are transported from the soils where they are predominantly produced to marine sediments via rivers, have been applied in reconstructing mean annual air temperature (MAT) and pH of soils. However, paleoclimate reconstructions using sedimentary brGDGTs have proven difficult in arid regions, including the Iberian Peninsula. Recently, six novel 6-methyl brGDGTs have been described using new analytical methods (in addition to the nine 5-methyl brGDGTs previously used for climate reconstructions), and so new pH and MAT calibrations have been developed that were shown to improve the accuracy of reconstructions in a set of global soil samples, especially in arid regions. Because of this we decided to apply the new method to separate the 5- and 6-methyl isomers along with the novel calibrations to a sample set from the Iberian Peninsula to determine whether it improves paleoclimate reconstructions in this area. This set includes samples that run in a transect from source to sink along the Tagus River and out to the deep ocean off the Portuguese margin spanning the last 6000 years. We found that although pH reconstructions in the soils were improved using the new calibration, MAT reconstructions were not much better even with the separation of the 5- and 6-methyl brGDGTs. This confirmed the conclusion of previous studies that the amount of aquatically produced brGDGTs is overwhelming the soil-derived ones in marine sediments and complicating MAT reconstructions in the region. Additionally, the new separation revealed a strong and until now unseen relationship between the new degree of cyclization (DC') of the brGDGTs and MAT that could be making temperature reconstructions in this and other arid regions difficult.

  10. Sulphates Removal from Acid Mine Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luptáková, Alena; Mačingová, Eva; Kotuličová, Ingrida; Rudzanová, Dominika

    2016-10-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) are a worldwide problem leading to ecological destruction in river basins and the contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. In order to minimize negative impacts of AMD appropriate treatment techniques has to be chosen. Treatment processes are focused on neutralizing, stabilizing and removing pollutants. From this reason efficient and environmental friendly methods are needed to be developed in order to reduce heavy metals as well as sulphates. Various methods are used for remediation of acid mine drainage, but any of them have been applied under commercial-scale conditions. Their application depends on geochemical, technical, natural, financial, and other factors. The aim of the present work was to interpret the study of biological methods for sulphates removal from AMD out-flowing from the shaft Pech of the deposit Smolmk in Slovak Republic. In the experimental works AMD were used after removal of heavy metals by precipitation and sorption using the synthetic sorbent Slovakite. The base of the studied method for the sulphates elimination was the anaerobic bacterial sulphate reduction using sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera Desulfovibrio. SRB represent a group of bacteria that uses sulphates as a terminal electron acceptor for their metabolism. These bacteria realize the conversion of sulphate to hydrogen sulphide under anaerobic conditions. For the purposes of experiments a few variants of the selective medium DSM-63 culture media were used in term of the sulphates and sodium lactate contents in the selective medium as well as sulphates in the studied AMD.

  11. Conceptual design report for site drainage control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, M.R.

    1996-07-01

    The Mound Plant (Mound), located in Miamisburg, Ohio, is a Department of Energy (DOE) development and production facility performing support work for DOE`s weapons and energy-related programs. EG&G Mound Applied Technologies, Inc. (EG&G) is the Operating Contractor (OC) for this Government-Owned, Contractor-Operated (GOCO) facility. The work performed at Mound emphasizes nuclear energy and explosives technology. Mound is currently implementing an Environmental, Safety & Health (ES&H) Upgrades Program designed to protect its employees, the public, and the environment from adverse effects caused by facility activities. The first project of this multiphase program is now in the final stages of construction, and the second project is currently under design. Four additional projects, one of which is presented in this report, are in the conceptual design stage. At Mound, 22 soil zones have become contaminated with radioactive material. These zones cover approximately 20 percent of the total area of developed property at the site. During a storm event, the rainwater washes contaminated soil from these zones into the storm sewer system. These radioactive contaminants may then be discharged along with the stormwater into the Great Miami River via the Miami Erie Canal. This conceptual design report (CDR), Site Drainage Control, the fourth project in the ES&H program, describes a project that will provide improvements and much needed repairs to inadequate and deteriorating portions of the storm drainage system on the developed property. The project also will provide a stormwater retention facility capable of storing the stormwater runoff, from the developed property, resulting from a 100-year storm event. These improvements will permit the effective control and monitoring of stormwater to prevent the spread of radioactive contaminants from contaminated soil zones and will provide a means to collect and contain accidental spills of hazardous substances.

  12. Percutaneous drainage of abdominal abcess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Sueleyman E-mail: suleyman.men@deu.edu.tr; Akhan, Okan; Koeroglu, Mert

    2002-09-01

    The mortality in undrained abdominal abscesses is high with a mortality rate ranging between 45 and 100%. The outcome in abdominal abscesses, however, has improved due to advances in image guided percutaneous interventional techniques. The main indications for the catheter drainage include treatment or palliation of sepsis associated with an infected fluid collection, and alleviation of the symptoms that may be caused by fluid collections by virtue of their size, like pancreatic pseudocele or lymphocele. The single liver abscesses may be drained with ultrasound guidance only, whereas the multiple abscesses usually require computed tomography (CT) guidance and placement of multiple catheters. The pancreatic abscesses are generally drained routinely and urgently. Non-infected pancreatic pseudocysts may be simply observed unless they are symptomatic or cause problems such as pain or obstruction of the biliary or the gastrointestinal tract. Percutaneous routes that have been described to drain pelvic abscesses include transrectal or transvaginal approach with sonographic guidance, a transgluteal, paracoccygeal-infragluteal, or perineal approach through the greater sciatic foramen with CT guidance. Both the renal and the perirenal abscesses are amenable to percutaneous drainage. Percutaneous drainage provides an effective and safe alternative to more invasive surgical drainage in most patients with psoas abscesses as well.

  13. 天山北坡玛纳斯河流域晚冰期以来植被垂直带推移%Shifting of vertical vegetation zones in Manas River drainage on northern slope of Tianshan Mountains since the Late Glacier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪中奎; 刘鸿雁

    2009-01-01

    The statistical relationships between climate indexes(moisture index and warmth index)and typical pollen taxa were established with linear regression method on the Manas River drainage on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains.Climate and vegetation developments in this region were reconstructed based on the different pollen taxa content of a previously published sediment sequence from the Manas Lake, a desiccated end lake of the Manas River, as well as modern climate, vegetation and landform relationships.Since 13000 a BP, the palaeoclimate change in this area has experienced several important stages: warm-dry, cold-moist, warm-dry, cold-moist, warm-dry, cold-moist and warm-dry, in correspondance with the climate change, ancient vertical vegetation change around the area has experienced a series of succession processes: desert, desert steppe(to develop lowland meadow and stepped locally), extreme arid desert, desert steppe, desert, desert steppe, desert.When the climate in the Manas River drainage changed from warm-dry to cold-moist, all vegetation boundaries in the area moved downward, hence the area of desert and forest was enlarged and the lower limit of conifer may get to current steppe.When the palaeoclimate changed from cold-moist to warm-dry, all vegetation boundaries moved upward, the area of desert was enlarged, while the area of steppe and forest was decreased, and the lower limit of conifer may get to current alpine and sub alpine meadow.%建立了反映天山北坡玛纳斯河流域典型花粉类型与气候指标(湿润指数和温暖指数)的统计函数.基于前人研究得出的玛纳斯湖沉积剖面中不同花粉的百分含量复原了晚冰期以来玛纳斯河流域古气候的变化,并基于山地植被-气候-地形关系推断了玛纳斯河流域的植被演变过程.研究结果表明:该区晚冰期以来经历了暖干-冷湿-暖干-偏冷偏湿-暖干-冷湿-暖干的气候变化过程,植被垂直带基带相应为荒漠-

  14. Recent drainage events of glacial Lake Cachet 2, Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, G.; Wendt, J.; Wendt, A.; Escobar, F.; Lopez, P.; Carrasco, J.; Rivera, A.; Leidich, J.

    2009-04-01

    Lake Cachet 2 (47°12' S, 73°15' W, 422 m a.s.l.) is a proglacial lake of 4 km2 located on the eastern margin of the Northern Patagonia Icefield (3,953 km2, Rivera et al., 2007), which is dammed on its southern margin by Colonia Glacier. Until April 2008 there was no historical evidence of catastrophic flooding of this lake. In 2008 three sudden drainage events occurred at Lake Cachet 2 (April 6-7; October 7-8 and 21-22 December). During each event the flood wave traveled down Colonia River to the confluence with Baker River, then affected Baker River to a distance of up to 25 km upstream from the confluence and downstream all the way to its mouth on the Pacific Ocean fjords at Caleta Tortel (100 km to the southwest), transporting abundant sediments. In April the runoff of Baker River close to the confluence with Colonia River increased from a base level of 1,200 m3/s on April 7 to a peak runoff of 3,570 m3/s within a period of less than 48 hours, resulting in a river level increase of 4.5 m and an associated water temperature drop from 8°C to 4°C. In October the base level was 573 m3/s, with a peak runoff of 3,007 m3/s, a river level increase of 4.7 m and a water temperature drop from 7.3°C to 4.8°C, while in December the corresponding values were 1,145 m3/s, 3,052 m3/s, 11°C and 8°C. The flood affected roads, bridges, farms and cattle, fortunately not resulting in any human damage. Similar floods had been reported on Colonia River several decades ago, the last having occurred in the 1970s, all of which originated at that time at glacial Lake Arco, located south of Colonia Glacier. Airborne and ground explorations carried out after each event in 2008 confirmed that the floods originated at Lake Cachet 2, draining under Colonia Glacier for a distance of 8 km and emerging at the front of the glacier. As a result parts of the glacier front collapsed after each event, where large ice fractures could be observed. During the October event a complete drainage of

  15. Percutaneous catheter drainage of intrapulmonary fluid collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, E. D.; Kim, H. J.; Choi, P. Y.; Jung, S. H. [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-15

    With the success of percutaneous abdominal abscess drainage, attention is now being focused on the use of similar techniques in the thorax. We studied to evaluate the effect of percutaneous drainage in parenchymal fluid collections in the lungs. We performed percutaneous drainage of abscesses and other parenchymal fluid collections of the lungs in 15 patients. All of the procedures were performed under the fluoroscopic guidance with an 18-gauge Seldinger needle and coaxial technique with a 8-10F drainage catheter. Among 10 patients with lung abscess, 8 patients improved by percutaneous catheter drainage. In one patient, drainage was failed by the accidental withdrawal of the catheter before complete drainage. One patient died of sepsis 5 hours after the procedure. Among three patients with complicated bulla, successful drainage was done in two patients, but in the remaining patient, the procedure was failed. In one patient with intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst, the drainage was not successful due to the thick internal contents. In one patient with traumatic hematoma, after the drainage of old blood clots, the signs of infection disappeared. Overally, of 14 patients excluding one who died, 11 patients improved with percutaneous catheter drainage and three patients did not. There were no major complications during and after the procedure. We conclude that percutaneous catheter drainage is effective and safe procedure for the treatment of parenchymal fluid collections of the lung in patients unresponsive to the medical treatment.

  16. Polder Construction and its Ecological and Social Effects --An investigation of Joint River Embankment in Taihu Drainage Area ( 1950s - 1970s)%圩区建设与生态、社会效应——20世纪50-70年代太湖流域联圩并圩的考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张根福

    2012-01-01

    自20世纪50年代开始,太湖流域各级政府和民众为抵御洪涝灾害,在农田水利建设过程中进行了联圩并圩,至70年代中后期,联圩工程由低洼地区向半高田地区全面推开。这一时期的联圩并圩不同于80年代后的标准化圩区建设,而具有粗放性的特点,对生态和社会都产生了重要的影响。从积极方面看,联圩内抵制洪水的能力有所增强、农作物产量明显提高;从消极方面看,太湖流域水系蓄泄能力总体下降,水域生态环境遭到一定程度的破坏,部分联圩因施工质量低下和其他原因存在安全隐患,各种水利纠纷与矛盾屡有发生。%From the 1950s to the 1970s, people and governments at all levels in Taihu drainage area started joint river embankment in low-lying lands and then extended to higher lands to protect the polder lands from flood damage. Unlike standardized construction in the 1980s, the embankment in the 1970s was of an extensive style, casting various influences on ecological environment and social development. Positively, it strengthened anti -flooding capability and increased agricultural output in polder areas; while negatively it lowered overall storing and discharging capacity of the water system in Taihu drainage area, damaged ecological environment, produced potential safety risks due to poor construction quality of the joint dikes and other reasons, and caused various disputes and conflicts over irrigation.

  17. An advanced distributed automated extraction of drainage network model on high-resolution DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Y.; Ye, A.; Xu, J.; Ma, F.; Deng, X.; Miao, C.; Gong, W.; Di, Z.

    2014-07-01

    A high-resolution and high-accuracy drainage network map is a prerequisite for simulating the water cycle in land surface hydrological models. The objective of this study was to develop a new automated extraction of drainage network model, which can get high-precision continuous drainage network on high-resolution DEM (Digital Elevation Model). The high-resolution DEM need too much computer resources to extract drainage network. The conventional GIS method often can not complete to calculate on high-resolution DEM of big basins, because the number of grids is too large. In order to decrease the computation time, an advanced distributed automated extraction of drainage network model (Adam) was proposed in the study. The Adam model has two features: (1) searching upward from outlet of basin instead of sink filling, (2) dividing sub-basins on low-resolution DEM, and then extracting drainage network on sub-basins of high-resolution DEM. The case study used elevation data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) at 3 arc-second resolution in Zhujiang River basin, China. The results show Adam model can dramatically reduce the computation time. The extracting drainage network was continuous and more accurate than HydroSHEDS (Hydrological data and maps based on Shuttle Elevation Derivatives at multiple Scales).

  18. Nitrate-Nitrogen, Landuse/Landcover, and Soil Drainage Associations at Multiple Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing non–point-source pollution of water requires knowledge of land use/land cover (LULC) influences at altering watershed scales. To gain improved understanding of relationships among LULC, soil drainage, and dissolved nitrate-N dynamics within the Calapooia River Basin in w...

  19. 近60a来玛纳斯河流域气候变化趋势及突变分析%Analysis of the Climate Change and Abrupt Change in the Manas River Drainage Basin in Recent 60 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东方; 任刚; 张凤华

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective and Method ] Global climate change is the gravest environmental problem that human has ever faced. The climate change in China is similar to global change but is most significant in its arid land. Xinjiang is among the most eminent arid region. In this study, the Manas River Valley, which is the typical inland river formed from glacier - melted water in the Central Asia, was chosen as the sample. The temperature and precipitation change trend from 1956 to 2010 were analyzed by using linear regression analysis and Man - Kendall trend text. [ Result ] The results show the mean climate generally trended to be warm and humid in recent 60 years, and the rate of increase were 0. 44℃ /10 a and 12. 6 mm/10a; The temperature trend rates of spring, summer, autumn and winter respectively were 0.50℃/10 a, 0. 21℃/10 a, 0.52℃/10 a, 0.52℃/10 a, and the precipitation trend rate were 2.44 mm/10 a, 3.22 mm/10 a, 2.76 mm/10 a, 3.64 mm/10 a. The mean annual temperature of the Basin revealed a obvious increasing trend in 1980s. The point of abrupt change was in 1989, and the difference seasonal abrupt change of annual average temperature occurred in 1995, 1986, 1996 and 1987, respectively. The annual precipitation abrupt change also occurred in the late 1980s, and the points of abrupt change in autumn and winter occurred increased at 1983 and 1997, but there were not abrupt changes in spring and summer. [ Conclusion ] The findings are meaningful for us to have a comprehensive understanding of the climate change to predict the annual and seasonal climate change in the arid land.%[目的]气候变化是21世纪人类面临的最大环境问题之一.其中以干旱区较为明显,而新疆是最为突出的地区之一.[方法]以中亚典型冰川融化区玛纳斯河流域为例,运用线性回归及Mann - Kendall趋势检验方法分析其1956 ~2010年气温及降水资料的变化趋势和突变点.[结果]近60a来玛纳斯河流域经历了一个增温趋

  20. Technical note on drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    This technical note will present simple but widely used methods for the design of drainage systems. The note will primarily deal with surface water (rainwater) which on a satisfactorily way should be transport into the drainage system. Traditional two types of sewer systems exist: A combined system......’s not major different than described below - just remember to include this contribution for combined systems where the surface water (rain) and sewage are carried in the same pipes in the system and change some of the parameters for failure allowance (this will be elaborated further later on). The technical...... implemented. The document is only to be used in education, since newer (but smaller) changes to some of the statistical parameters are not implemented in this....

  1. EUS-Guided Biliary Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Giovannini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The echoendoscopic biliary drainage is an option to treat obstructive jaundices when ERCP drainage fails. These procedures compose alternative methods to the side of surgery and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, and it was only possible by the continuous development and improvement of echoendoscopes and accessories. The development of linear setorial array echoendoscopes in early 1990 brought a new approach to diagnostic and therapeutic dimenion on echoendoscopy capabilities, opening the possibility to perform punction over direct ultrasonographic view. Despite of the high success rate and low morbidity of biliary drainage obtained by ERCP, difficulty could be found at the presence of stent tumor ingrown, tumor gut compression, periampulary diverticula, and anatomic variation. The echoendoscopic technique starts performing punction and contrast of the left biliary tree. When performed from gastric wall, the access is made through hepatic segment III. From duodenum, direct common bile duct punction. Dilatation is required before stent introduction, and a plastic or metallic stent is introduced. This phrase should be replaced by: diathermic dilatation of the puncturing tract is required using a 6F cystostome. The technical success of hepaticogastrostomy is near 98%, and complications are present in 36%: pneumoperitoneum, choleperitoneum, infection, and stent disfunction. To prevent bile leakage, we have used the 2 stent techniques, the first stent introduced was a long uncovered metallic stent (8 or 10 cm, and inside this first stent a second fully covered stent of 6 cm was delivered to bridge the bile duct and the stomach. Choledochoduodenostomy overall success rate is 92% and described complications include, in frequency order, pneumoperitoneum and focal bile peritonitis, present in 19%. By the last 10 years, the technique was especially performed in reference centers, by ERCP experienced groups, and this seems to be a general

  2. A Visit to Gyigu by the Tongtian River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BYBAYINGDONGZHUBCERANG

    2004-01-01

    Tongtian River refers to the reach where the Tuto River, the origin of Yangtze River, joins the Tangqu, running southeast and passing the Batang outfall in Yushu, the Tibetan-inhabited area in Qinghai. It stretches 813 km, with a drainage area of 138,000 square km.

  3. 云南李仙江流域水电开发中的鱼类资源保护%Fishery resource protection by artificial propagation in hydroelectric development: Lixianjiang River drainage in Yunnan as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永宏; 杨君兴; 潘晓赋; 周伟; 杨美临

    2011-01-01

    Hydroelectric developments can result in a number of negative environmental consequences.Conservation aquaculture is a branch of science derived from conservation and population recovery studies on endangered fishes. Here we discuss the impacts on fishes caused by hydropower projects in Lixianjiang, and evaluate effects and problems on the propagation of Parazacco spilurus. Hemibagrus pluriradiatus. Neolissochilus benasi and Semilabeo obscurus. A successful propagation project includes foraging ecology in fields, pond cultivation, juvenile fish raising, prevention and curing on fish disease, genetic management, artificial releasing and population monitoring.Artificial propagation is the practicable act on genetic intercommunication, preventing population deterioration for fishes in upper and lower reaches of the dam. For long-term planning, fish stocks are not suitable for many kind of fishes, but can prevent fishes from going extinct in the wild. Basic data collection on fish ecology, parent fish hunting, prevention on fish disease are the most important factors on artificial propagation. Strengthening the genetic management of stock population for keeping a higher genetic diversity can increase the success of stock enhancement. The works on Lixianjiang provide a new model for river fish protection. To make sure the complicated proj ect works well, proj ect plans,comnussion contracts, base line monitoring and techniques on artificial reproduction must be considered early. Last,fishery conservation should be considered alongside location development.%水电工程的开发对江河道鱼类资源产生了诸多不利影响,在保护和恢复日益增多的濒危鱼类种群的实践中,孕育和逐渐形成了保护水产学.该文对李仙江流域水电开发与流域内珍稀鱼类异鱲、越鳠、软鳍新光唇鱼和暗色唇鱼人工增殖保护实践中的实施效果和存在问题进行了分析.李仙江水电开发与鱼类增殖保护为河流鱼类的

  4. Use of Natural and Applied Tracers to Guide Targeted Remediation Efforts in an Acid Mine Drainage System, Colorado Rockies, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Rory Cowie; Mark W. Williams; Mike Wireman; Robert L. Runkel

    2014-01-01

    Stream water quality in areas of the western United States continues to be degraded by acid mine drainage (AMD), a legacy of hard-rock mining. The Rico-Argentine Mine in southwestern Colorado consists of complex multiple-level mine workings connected to a drainage tunnel discharging AMD to passive treatment ponds that discharge to the Dolores River. The mine workings are excavated into the hillslope on either side of a tributary stream with workings passing directly under the stream channel. ...

  5. Final report: Initial ecosystem response of salt marshes to ditch plugging and pool creation: Experiments at Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge (Maine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, S.C.; Roman, C.T.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates the response of three salt marshes, associated with the Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge (Maine), to the practice of ditch plugging. Drainage ditches, originally dug to drain the marsh for mosquito control or to facilitate salt hay farming, are plugged with marsh peat in an effort to impound water upstream of the plug, raise water table levels in the marsh, and increase surface water habitat. At two study sites, Moody Marsh and Granite Point Road Marsh, ditch plugs were installed in spring 2000. Monitoring of hydrology, vegetation, nekton and bird utilization, and marsh development processes was conducted in 1999, before ditch plugging, and then in 2000 and 2001 (all parameters except nekton), after ditch plugging. Each study site had a control marsh that was monitored simultaneously with the plugged marsh, and thus, we employed a BACI study design (before, after, control, impact). A third site, Marshall Point Road Marsh, was plugged in 1998. Monitoring of the plugged and control sites was conducted in 1999 and 2000, with limited monitoring in 2001, thus there was no ?before? plug monitoring. With ditch plugging, water table levels increased toward the marsh surface and the areal extent of standing water increased. Responding to a wetter substrate, a vegetation change from high marsh species (e.g., Spartina patens) to those more tolerant of flooded conditions (e.g., Spartina alterniflora) was noted at two of the three ditch plugged sites. Initial response of the nekton community (fishes and decapod crustaceans) was evaluated by monitoring utilization of salt marsh pools using a 1m2 enclosure trap. In general, nekton species richness, density, and community structure remained unchanged following ditch plugging at the Moody and Granite Point sites. At Marshall Point, species richness and density (number of individuals per m2) were significantly greater in the experimental plugged marsh than the control marsh (ditch plugging, bird species

  6. Vertical drainage capacity of new electrical drainage board on improvement of super soft clayey ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈扬; 励彦德; 黄文君; 徐海东; 胡品飞

    2015-01-01

    As an advanced polymer composites electro-kinetic geosynthetics, the electro-osmotic vertical drainage (EVD) board could drain water quickly and accelerate consolidation process. However, the drainage rate was mainly impacted by the vertical drainage capability. Therefore, vertical drainage capability at the top of EVD board was theoretically analyzed. Basic requirements for drainage at the top of the board were summed up, as well as the formula of anode pore pressure when losing the vertical drainage capability. Meanwhile, a contrast test on the top and bottom drainage capacities was conducted. In use of the advanced EVD board, the voltage potential and pore pressure of anode were measured. Moreover, the derived formulas were verified. The result shows that the decrease of electric force gradient had an observable impact on the drainage capability. There was nearly no difference between the energy consumption for the two drainage methods. Although a little less water was discharged, the top drainage method had more advantages, such as high initial drainage velocity, few soil cracks, low anode water content and high soil strength. All of these show that the super soft soil ground could be consolidated quickly in use of the advanced EVD board through the top drainage. The top drainage method could efficiently improve the drainage effect, decrease the energy consumption and speed up the project proceeding.

  7. Assessment of the geothermal resources of Carson-Eagle valleys and Big Smoky Valley, Nevada. First annual report, May 1, 1979-May 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, D.T.; Koenig, B.A.; Flynn, T.; Bruce, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Two geothermal investigations were completed in three Nevada locations. The regions studied were selected from areas outlined as having direct utilization potential (Trexler and others, 1979) and included the Carson-Eagle Valley, Bis Smoky Valley and Caliente. Studies were organized around the completion of a group of tasks in each area. These tasks included: geologic reconnaissance, gravity surveys, aerial photography, fluid sampling and analysis, shallow depth temperature probe surveys, soil mercury surveys, shallow electrical resistivity measurements, and temperature gradient hole drilling. Goals of the project were to provide regional information about the nature and extent of the resources and to offer a critical evaluation of the techniques employed. Results from the work in the Carson-Eagle Valley and Big Smoky Valley are presented. (MHR)

  8. Ammonia-nitrogen removal from urban drainage using modified fresh empty fruit bunches: A case study in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricky, L. N. S.; Shahril, Y.; Nurmin, B.; Zahrim, AY

    2016-06-01

    Highly concentration of ammonia nitrogen in urban drainage could pollute the river and give pungent smell. The strong pungent odours that coming out from the urban drainage may degrade the image a city and could possibly reduce the present of tourist. To minimize the presence of pungent odours, the ammonia nitrogen can be removed from the urban drainage by applying proper adsorbent. In this study, an adsorbent produced through chemical modification of fresh empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers has been carried out. The maximum adsorption capacity is between 0.01-0.60 mg/g. The finding also shows that the retention time is vital when designing ammonia nitrogen filter.

  9. Deformation of an experimental drainage network in oblique collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerit, L.; Dominguez, S.; Malavieille, J.; Castelltort, S.

    2016-12-01

    In oblique collision settings, parallel and perpendicular components of the relative plate motion can be partitioned into different structures of deformation and may be localized close to the plate boundary, or distributed on a wider region. In the Southern Alps of New Zealand, it has been proposed that one-third of the regional convergence is distributed in a broad area along the Southern Alps orogenic wedge. To better document and understand the regional dynamics of such systems, reliable markers of the horizontal tectonic motion over geological time scales are needed. River networks are able to record a large amount of distributed strain and they can thus be used to reconstruct the mode and rate of distribution away from major active structures. To explore the controls on river resilience to deformation, we develop an experimental model to investigate river pattern evolution over a doubly-vergent orogenic wedge growing in a context of oblique convergence. We use a rainfall system to activate erosion, sediment transport and river development on the model surface. At the end of the experiment, the drainage network is statistically rotated clockwise, confirming that rivers can record the distribution of motion along the wedge. Image analysis of channel time-space evolution shows how the fault-parallel and fault-perpendicular components of motion decrease toward the fault and impose rotation to the main trunk valleys. However, rivers do not record the whole imposed rotation rate, which suggest that the natural lateral channel dynamics can alter the capacity of rivers to act as passive markers of deformation.

  10. Effects of irrigating with wastewater on ground-water quality at Fort Carson Military Reservation golf course near Colorado Springs, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Patrick

    1984-01-01

    Fort Carson Military Reservation has used treatment wastewater for irrigation of the Fort Carson golf course since 1971. The effect of applied wastewater on groundwater quality at Fort Carson golf course was evaluated using water levels and water-quality data from 20 observation wells. The water-quality constituents analyzed included dissolved solids, major ions, nutrients, detergents, dissolved organic carbon, chemical and biological oxygen demand, and trace elements. Effects of the applied wastewater on ground-water quality for most constituents were obscured by large areal variations and by high concentrations of the constituents upgradient from the golf course. The sources of nitrogen observed in the ground water beneath the golf course were applied wastewater, applied fertilizer, leachate from the organic-rich shale, and from unknown upgradient sources. Nitrogen loading at the golf course from wastewater and applied fertilizer was estimated to be 18 ,900 pounds per year. After 10 years, less than 1 percent of the nitrogen applied was actually present in the ground water. Loss of nitrogen to the atmosphere as nitrous oxides, absorption, and to fixation by grass resulted in the much smaller concentrations observed in the ground water. (USGS)

  11. Geometry of River Networks; 3, Characterization of Component Connectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Dodds, P S; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Rothman, Daniel H.

    2000-01-01

    River networks serve as a paradigmatic example of all branching networks. Essential to understanding the overall structure of river networks is a knowledge of their detailed architecture. Here we show that sub-branches are distributed exponentially in size and that they are randomly distributed in space, thereby completely characterizing the most basic level of river network description. Specifically, an averaged view of network architecture is first provided by a proposed self-similarity statement about the scaling of drainage density, a local measure of stream concentration. This scaling of drainage density is shown to imply Tokunaga's law, a description of the scaling of side branch abundance along a given stream, as well as a scaling law for stream lengths. This establishes the scaling of the length scale associated with drainage density as the basic signature of self-similarity in river networks. We then consider fluctuations in drainage density and consequently the numbers of side branches. Data is anal...

  12. Mineralogical correlation of surficial sediment from area drainages with selected sedimentary interbeds at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    Ongoing research by the US Geological Survey at the INEL involves investigation of the migration of radioactive elements contained in low-level radioactive waste, hydrologic and geologic factors affecting waste movement, and geochemical factors that influence the chemical composition of the waste. Identification of the mineralogy of the Snake River Plain is needed to aid in the study of the hydrology and geochemistry of subsurface waste disposal. The US Geological Surveys project office at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, used mineralogical data to correlate surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Greek drainages with selected sedimentary interbed core samples taken from test holes at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex), TRA (Test Reactors Area), ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant), and TAN (Test Area North). Correlating the mineralogy of a particular present-day drainage area with a particular sedimentary interbed provides information on historical source of sediment for interbeds in and near the INEL. Mineralogical data indicate that surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River drainage contained a larger amount of feldspar and pyroxene and a smaller amount of calcite and dolomite than samples from the Little Lost River and Birch Creek drainages. Mineralogical data from sedimentary interbeds at the RWMC, TRA, and ICPP correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day big Lost River drainage. Mineralogical data from a sedimentary interbed at TAN correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day Birch Creek drainage. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Mine Drainage Generation and Control Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xinchao; Rodak, Carolyn M; Zhang, Shicheng; Han, Yuexin; Wolfe, F Andrew

    2016-10-01

    This review provides a snapshot of papers published in 2015 relevant to the topic of mine drainage generation and control options. The review is broken into 3 sections: Generation, Prediction and Prevention, and Treatment Options. The first section, mine drainage generation, focuses on the characterization of mine drainage and the environmental impacts. As such, it is broken into three subsections focused on microbiological characterization, physiochemical characterization, and environmental impacts. The second section of the review is divided into two subsections focused on either the prediction or prevention of acid mine drainage. The final section focuses on treatment options for mine drainage and waste sludge. The third section contains subsections on passive treatment, biological treatment, physiochemical treatment, and a new subsection on beneficial uses for mine drainage and treatment wastes.

  14. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelkareem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the ancestral Nile Delta. Elements of topography and climate were considered. They show that the former segments of the Nile closely mirror present-day tributaries of the Nile basin in drainage geometry, landscape, and climate. A rainfall data interpolation scenario revealed that this basin received concurrent runoff from both flanks such as Gabgaba-Allaqi to the east and Tushka basin to the west, similar to present-day Sobat and White Nile tributaries, respectively. Overall the western tributaries such as those of Tushka basin and Howar lead to the Nile, which was (and still is the biggest river system in Africa.

  15. Solid Waste in Drainage Network of Rio do Meio Watershed, Florianópolis/SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiana Gava

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The urban drainage network is among the main pollution transport load factors. Researches on the identification of solid waste transported in the drainage network have been considered the allow evaluation of its impact. In this paper we analyze the main characteristics that influences the presence of solid wastes in the drainage network of the Rio do Meio basin, Florianópolis/SC. A metal net was installed in selected river section and monitored after each rain event. The results showed about 0.27 kg/ha.year of waste are carried in the drainage network. The majority being composed of plastics and building materials. Through the analysis of the data, it was possible to verify the presence of waste in the drainage network is due to poor packaging and to the lack of sweeping in some parts of the basin. It was also found that the total precipitation is directly proportional to the appearance of solid waste. It was concluded that the lack of an integrated management between the components of sanitary system leave unnoticed simple structural measures that ultimately decrease the amount of solid waste in the drainage basin, and that could eliminate this source of pollution.

  16. Mount St. Helens Project. Cowlitz River Levee Systems, 2009 Level of Flood Protection Update Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    Cowlitz River near Kosmos , WA 14233500 1040 Cowlitz River at Mossyrock, WA 14235000 1162 Tilton River above Bear Canyon near Cinebar, WA 14236200 141...Cowlitz Falls dam, the Cowlitz River near Randle gage was abandoned in 1994; however, the Cowlitz River near Kosmos , WA (#14233500) was in place just...downstream. The drainage areas are within 1% of eachother, so no adjustments were made to the Kosmos gage data. The Cowlitz River at Mossyrock, WA

  17. Strike slip faulting inferred from offsetting of drainages: Lower Narmada basin, western India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rachna Raj

    2007-10-01

    The detailed analysis of landforms,drainages and geology of the area between the rivers Amaravati and Karjan was carried out in order to understand the tectonic history of the lower Narmada basin. Movement along the various faults in the area was studied on the basis of the drainage offsetting. Horizontal offsetting of stream channels was found quite demonstrable along NNW –SSE trending transverse faults.Tectonic landforms including systematic de flection of stream channels and ridges, alignment of fault scarp and saddles and displacement in the basement rocks and alluvial deposits show that the area is undergoing active deformation driven by the NSF system.

  18. Drainage basin delineations for selected USGS streamflow-gaging stations in Virginia (Drainage_Basin)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Drainage_Basin polygon feature class was created as a digital representation of drainage basins for more than 1,650 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations,...

  19. Disaster characteristics and optimum cross-section design of drainage canal of debris flow in Ganlanba-sha Gully in the Baihetan reservoir area on the Jinsha River%金沙江白鹤滩水电站库区橄榄坝沙沟泥石流灾害及其排导槽的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游勇; 柳金峰; 陈兴长

    2012-01-01

      The Ganlanba-sha gully is a right branch of the Jinsha River, with a catchment area of 6.98 km2 and a total length of 5.32km. The precipitation of the gully is concentrated from May to October ac⁃counting for 90% of the year. The composition of landform,geology and rainstorm provides favorable condi⁃tion for the formation of debris flow. Through field observation,the characteristics of the debris flow in Gan⁃lanba-sha Gully can be described as viscous debris flow. The density of the gully is 2.0~2.2t/m3. The type of debris flow in the gully can be defined as rainstorm valley type with high density,high viscosity and high frequency. The major activity characteristics of debris flow are as follows:(1) The loose solid ma⁃terial for debris flow is mainly supplied by the slope landslip;(2) the frequency of the debris flow is very high;(3) rapid damage,strong erosion and great damage. Based on the analysis of the disaster characteris⁃tics,the optimal cross-section design method for the“trapezoid-v”shaped debris flow drainage canal of the Ganlanba-sha gully is discussed. The depths (h1 and h2) of the cross-section of the“trapezoid-v”shaped drainage canal and the optimal cross-section parameters using these two measurements are defined. In addi⁃tion, several formulae for calculating the cross-section measurements are deduced under optimal hydraulic conditions when discharge (Q),debris grain composition (D50) and longitudinal ratio (I) are known. Final⁃ly,the optimal dimensions for the cross-section of the Ganlanba-sha gully debris flow canal are determined.%  金沙江白鹤滩水电站库区右岸橄榄坝沙沟的泥石流活动具有松散固体物质以坡面崩塌补给为主、泥石流活动频率高和成灾快,冲刷强烈,危害严重等特征。在分析泥石流危害及活动特征的基础上,对橄榄坝沙沟泥石流排导槽的最佳过流横断面进行了分析研究,在已知排导槽排泄流量、排导槽纵

  20. Analysis on River Sediment Changes of the Upper Reaches of Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Xiang-hao; SHI Guo-yu; XU Quan-xi; CHEN Ze-fang; LIU Shu-zhen

    2005-01-01

    The sediment load and river sedimentation of the upper reaches of Yangtze River has been undergoing constant changes as complex landform, large mountain area and plentiful precipitation make the drainage area of Yangtze River very vulnerable to water erosion and gravity erosion. Through analyzing the hydrological and sediment load statistics recorded by major hydrological stations along Yangtze River since 1950s, and editing the accumulation graph of annual runoff volume and annual sediment load, we find out that the suspended-sediment of Yangtze river has been decreasing year by year in Wulong Hydrological Station on Wujiang River, Beibei Hydrological Station on Jialingjiang River, Lijiawan Hydrological Station on Tuojiang River and Gaochang Hydrological Station on Minjiang River, Yichang Hydrological Station, Cuntan Hydrological Station along Yangtze River mainstream share the same experience too. But the statistics obtained at Pingshan Hydrological Station on Jinshajiang River shows the sediment load there has increased. Taking ecological construction, hydraulic engineering construction and precipitation changes into consideration, the thesis analyses the causes for the sediment load decrease of Jialingjiang River, Tuojiang River, Minjiang River and Wujiang River and provides us both scientific foundation for further study of river sediment changes of the upper reaches of Yangtze River, and measures to control river sedimentation.

  1. Simple model for river network evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leheny, R.L. [The James Franck Institute and The Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    1995-11-01

    We simulate the evolution of a drainage basin by erosion from precipitation and avalanching on hillslopes. The avalanches create a competition in growth between neighboring basins and play the central role in driving the evolution. The simulated landscapes form drainage systems that share many qualitative features with Glock`s model for natural network evolution and maintain statistical properties that characterize real river networks. We also present results from a second model with a modified, mass conserving avalanche scheme. Although the terrains from these two models are qualitatively dissimilar, their drainage networks share the same general evolution and statistical features.

  2. 24 CFR 3285.604 - Drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 3285.604 Drainage system. (a) Crossovers. Multi-section homes with plumbing in more than one section require drainage system crossover connections to join all sections of the home. The crossover design requirements are located in, and must be designed in accordance with, § 3280.610 of this chapter. (b)...

  3. Agricultural drainage: Towards an integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdeldayem, S.; Hoevenaars, J.; Mollinga, P.P.; Scheuman, W.; Slootweg, R.; Steenbergen, van F.

    2005-01-01

    Drainage needs to reclaim its rightful position as an indispensable element in the integrated management of land and water. An integrated approach to drainage can be developed by means of systematic mapping of the functions of natural resources systems (goods and services) and the values attributed

  4. Contaminants evaluation of the Solomon River drainage in Kansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We detected low concentrations of the groups of agricultural chemicals and petroleum compounds in surface water analyzed with the kits. None of the groups of...

  5. An advanced distributed automated extraction of drainage network model on high-resolution DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mao

    2014-07-01

    distributed automated extraction of drainage network model (Adam was proposed in the study. The Adam model has two features: (1 searching upward from outlet of basin instead of sink filling, (2 dividing sub-basins on low-resolution DEM, and then extracting drainage network on sub-basins of high-resolution DEM. The case study used elevation data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM at 3 arc-second resolution in Zhujiang River basin, China. The results show Adam model can dramatically reduce the computation time. The extracting drainage network was continuous and more accurate than HydroSHEDS (Hydrological data and maps based on Shuttle Elevation Derivatives at multiple Scales.

  6. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Rowe, T.G.; Lico, M.S.; Burge, H.L.; Thompson, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    A reconnaissance was initiated in 1986 to determine whether the quality of irrigation-drainage water in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, wildlife, or other beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert, and analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Other analysis included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents were found to commonly exceed baseline concentrations or recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife: In water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, molybdenum, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appeared to be biomagnified, and arsenic bioaccumulated. Pesticides contamination in bottom sediments and biota was insignificant. Adverse biological effects observed during this reconnaissance included gradual vegetative changes and species loss, fish die-offs, waterfowl disease epidemics, and persistent and unexplained deaths of migratory birds. (USGS)

  7. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Andreas; Vilmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic pseudocysts are fluid collections in the peripancreatic tissues associated with acute or chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage has become an established indication, having better results as compared to percutaneous drainage, nonguided endoscopic drainage...

  8. Global 30m Height Above the Nearest Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchyts, Gennadii; Winsemius, Hessel; Schellekens, Jaap; Erickson, Tyler; Gao, Hongkai; Savenije, Hubert; van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Variability of the Earth surface is the primary characteristics affecting the flow of surface and subsurface water. Digital elevation models, usually represented as height maps above some well-defined vertical datum, are used a lot to compute hydrologic parameters such as local flow directions, drainage area, drainage network pattern, and many others. Usually, it requires a significant effort to derive these parameters at a global scale. One hydrological characteristic introduced in the last decade is Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND): a digital elevation model normalized using nearest drainage. This parameter has been shown to be useful for many hydrological and more general purpose applications, such as landscape hazard mapping, landform classification, remote sensing and rainfall-runoff modeling. One of the essential characteristics of HAND is its ability to capture heterogeneities in local environments, difficult to measure or model otherwise. While many applications of HAND were published in the academic literature, no studies analyze its variability on a global scale, especially, using higher resolution DEMs, such as the new, one arc-second (approximately 30m) resolution version of SRTM. In this work, we will present the first global version of HAND computed using a mosaic of two DEMS: 30m SRTM and Viewfinderpanorama DEM (90m). The lower resolution DEM was used to cover latitudes above 60 degrees north and below 56 degrees south where SRTM is not available. We compute HAND using the unmodified version of the input DEMs to ensure consistency with the original elevation model. We have parallelized processing by generating a homogenized, equal-area version of HydroBASINS catchments. The resulting catchment boundaries were used to perform processing using 30m resolution DEM. To compute HAND, a new version of D8 local drainage directions as well as flow accumulation were calculated. The latter was used to estimate river head by incorporating fixed and

  9. Utility of 222Rn as a passive tracer of subglacial distributed system drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhoff, Benjamin S.; Charette, Matthew A.; Nienow, Peter W.; Wadham, Jemma L.; Tedstone, Andrew J.; Cowton, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Water flow beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been shown to include slow-inefficient (distributed) and fast-efficient (channelized) drainage systems, in response to meltwater delivery to the bed via both moulins and surface lake drainage. This partitioning between channelized and distributed drainage systems is difficult to quantify yet it plays an important role in bulk meltwater chemistry and glacial velocity, and thus subglacial erosion. Radon-222, which is continuously produced via the decay of 226Ra, accumulates in meltwater that has interacted with rock and sediment. Hence, elevated concentrations of 222Rn should be indicative of meltwater that has flowed through a distributed drainage system network. In the spring and summer of 2011 and 2012, we made hourly 222Rn measurements in the proglacial river of a large outlet glacier of the GrIS (Leverett Glacier, SW Greenland). Radon-222 activities were highest in the early melt season (10-15 dpm L-1), decreasing by a factor of 2-5 (3-5 dpm L-1) following the onset of widespread surface melt. Using a 222Rn mass balance model, we estimate that, on average, greater than 90% of the river 222Rn was sourced from distributed system meltwater. The distributed system 222Rn flux varied on diurnal, weekly, and seasonal time scales with highest fluxes generally occurring on the falling limb of the hydrograph and during expansion of the channelized drainage system. Using laboratory based estimates of distributed system 222Rn, the distributed system water flux generally ranged between 1-5% of the total proglacial river discharge for both seasons. This study provides a promising new method for hydrograph separation in glacial watersheds and for estimating the timing and magnitude of distributed system fluxes expelled at ice sheet margins.

  10. River history and tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita-Finzi, C

    2012-05-13

    The analysis of crustal deformation by tectonic processes has gained much from the clues offered by drainage geometry and river behaviour, while the interpretation of channel patterns and sequences benefits from information on Earth movements before or during their development. The interplay between the two strands operates at many scales: themes which have already benefited from it include the possible role of mantle plumes in the breakup of Gondwana, the Cenozoic development of drainage systems in Africa and Australia, Himalayan uplift in response to erosion, alternating episodes of uplift and subsidence in the Mississippi delta, buckling of the Indian lithospheric plate, and changes in stream pattern and sinuosity along individual alluvial channels subject to localized deformation. Developments in remote sensing, isotopic dating and numerical modelling are starting to yield quantitative analyses of such effects, to the benefit of geodymamics as well as fluvial hydrology.

  11. Diatoms as an indicator for tile drainage flow in a German lowland catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Naicheng; Faber, Claas; Ulrich, Uta; Schmalz, Britta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    The separation of flow components within a model simulation is of great importance for a successful implementation of management measures. Tracers are commonly used to identify and assess runoff-generating processes and to detect sources of stream flow components within a target catchment. Diatoms could be an ideal tracer due to their diverse preferences to different aquatic habitats (van Dam et al. 1994, Pfister et al. 2009). As a part of a DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) project, we collected diatom samples of 9 sites (4 tile drainage, and 5 river sites) weekly or biweekly from March to July 2013 in a German lowland catchment (the Kielstau catchment). First results showed that diatom species Achnanthes lanceolata, Fragilaria biceps and Navicula ingapirca dominated in tile drainage flow with relative abundances of 22.2%, 21.5% and 10.9%, respectively. For river sites, the most abundant species was Navicula cryptocephala (20.5%), followed by Fragilaria biceps (12.9%), Cyclotella meneghiniana (9.5%) and Achnanthes lanceolata (9.3%). Compared with river sites, tile drainage flow had lower diatom density, biomass, species richness and percentage of Aquatic/Riparian diatoms (AqRi%). However, the proportion of Riparian diatoms (RiZo%) increased at tile drainage flow. Indicator value method (IndVal) revealed that the two water types were characterized by different indicator species. Fifteen taxa (e.g. Cocconeis placentula, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Navicula cryptocephala and Fragilaria biceps) were significant indicators for river sites. Achnanthes lanceolata, Achnanthes minutissima and Navicula ingapirca were significant indicators for tile drainage flow. These results highlight the suitability of diatoms as an indicator for tile drainage flow. Spatial and temporal variations of diatom community should be considered in future surveys. Keywords: Diatoms, Flow components, Indicator value method, Tracer References: Pfister, L., J. J. McDonnell, S. Wrede, D. Hl

  12. Subsurface old drainage detection and paleoenvironment analysis using spaceborne radar images in Alxa Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华东; 刘浩; 王心源; 邵芸; 孙岩

    2000-01-01

    For geological and environmental research in an arid area, a unique advantage of radar remote sensing is that radar wave can penetrate a certain layer of dry sand (a few centimeters to meters thick) to reach the buried bedrock. The penetration capability is able to reveal the subsurface geological structure and old drainage paths. Based on the analysis of SIR-A, SIR-B, SIR-C, Radarsat ScanSAR, Landsat MSS and Landsat TM images acquired on different dates and the investigations made in several field trips in Alxa Plateau of Inner Mongolia, a number of old river valley and lake basins buried by wind-blown sand were recognized. Two parallel old drainage systems in the north and middle of the study area are delineated. The study suggests that the moving sand belts mainly follow the old drainage courses. This study also establishes a preliminary drainage evolution model for an area of about 300 000 km2 since the Tertiary, and finds that the Alxa Plateau was once an area with many rivers and lakes with a warm

  13. Subsurface old drainage detection and paleoenvironment analysis using spaceborne radar images in Alxa Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    For geological and environmental research in an arid area, a unique advantage of radar remote sensing is that radar wave can penetrate a certain layer of dry sand (a few centimeters to meters thick) to reach the buried bedrock. The penetration capability is able to reveal the subsurface geological structure and old drainage paths. Based on the analysis of SIR-A, SIR-B, SIR-C, Radarsat ScanSAR, Landsat MSS and Landsat TM images acquired on different dates and the investigations made in several field trips in Alxa Plateau of Inner Mongolia, a number of old river valley and lake basins buried by wind-blown sand were recognized. Two parallel old drainage systems in the north and middle of the study area are delineated. The study suggests that the moving sand belts mainly follow the old drainage courses. This study also establishes a preliminary drainage evolution model for an area of about 300 000 km2 since the Tertiary, and finds that the Alxa Plateau was once an area with many rivers and lakes with a warm and humid climate. The relief reversion caused by neotectonic movement since "Qinghai-Tibet movement" is also analyzed.

  14. Vascular riffle flora of Appalachian streams: the ecology and effects of acid mine drainage on Justificia americana (L. ) Vahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koryak, M.; Reilly, R.J.

    1984-06-01

    Justicia americana is a stout-based colonial plant, abundant in most of the larger, low to moderate gradient streams of the upper Ohio River basin. The distribution of J. americana is related to acid drainage from bituminous coal mining operations in the upper Ohio River drainage basin. Possible fluvial and biological consequences of the colonization or absence of Justicia are considered. Luxuriant growths were noted on gravel bars and riffles of larger, unpolluted streams in the basin. Acid mine drainage severely depresses the growth of the plant, leaving gravel shoals and riffles in the acid streams either barren or dominated by other emergent species. Particular among these new species is Elecocharis acicularis. The elimination of J. americana from suitable habitat adversely affects channel morphology, substrate composition, general aesthetic quality and aquatic stream life in the region. 16 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Microbacter margulisiae gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel propionigenic bacterium isolated from sediments of an acid rock drainage pond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Andrea, I.; Luis Sanz, J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    A novel anaerobic propionigenic bacterium, strain ADRIT, was isolated from sediment of an acid rock drainage environment (Tinto River, Spain). Cells were small (0.4-0.6 x 1-1.7 µm), non-motile and non-spore forming rods. Cells possessed a Gram-negative cell wall structure and were vancomycin resista

  16. Environmental Inventory Report. East St. Louis and Vicinity, Cahokia Canal Drainage Area, Madison and St. Clair Counties, Illinois. Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    coal in the present drainage area was found in 1807 by Trappist monks, who were then living at the Cahokia Mounds. They mined enough for their own...and Clark begin journey from Wood River 1807 Coal discovered in area by Trappist Monks 1809 Territory of Illinois established 1811 National Road begun

  17. Gravity Drainage Kinetics of Papermaking Fibrous Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybysz Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses application possibilities of filtration and thickening models in evaluation of papermaking suspension drainage rate. The authors proposed their own method to estimate the drainage rate on the basis of an existing Ergun capillary model of liquid flow through a granular material. The proposed model was less sensitive to porosity changes than the Ergun model. An empirical verification proved robustness of the proposed approach. Taking into account discrepancies in the published data concerning how the drainage velocity of papermaking suspension is defined, this study examines which of the commonly applied models matches experimental results the best.

  18. Drainage network over the migrating front of dynamic uplift in Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandet, Louise; Robert, Xavier; Audin, Laurence; Husson, Laurent; Guillaume, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic topography disturbs the regional morphology at long wavelength and with very low topographic gradients. Nevertheless, fluvial erosion and the drainage pattern should respond to the spatial and temporal topographic variations. In Patagonia, the mid-Miocene, opening and northward migration of an asthenospheric window beneath the South American plate triggered a northward propagating wave of dynamic topography. Based on a morphometric analysis, we explore the long-wavelength response of the drainage system to the recent dynamics of the continental lithosphere. Our analysis of Patagonian rivers (stream profile analysis) and basins (R/Sr analysis) shows a transient state of the drainage network responding to a likely recent signal that prevails at the latitudes of the Chile Triple Junction in Argentina. Moreover, the distribution of the perturbation signal among the drainage network shows a South-to-North gradient, with the low Strahler order tributaries more affected with increasing latitudes. We interpret this observation as the differential timing of response to a Northward propagating signal of dynamic topography. We further use the geometry of the drainage network combined to numerical model predictions to infer the characteristic response time of the surface processes. While the main tributaries respond within ~1-3 Ma, the lower order remain disturbed for longer times. This observation is further supported by the persistently high mean elevation where incision is high, which we take as indicative of the fact that erosion has not yet thoroughly achieved its resurfacing action.

  19. Reducing nitrate loss in tile drainage water with cover crops and water-table management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Welacky, T W; Reynolds, W D; Zhang, T Q; Oloya, T O; McLaughlin, N B; Gaynor, J D

    2014-03-01

    Nitrate lost from agricultural soils is an economic cost to producers, an environmental concern when it enters rivers and lakes, and a health risk when it enters wells and aquifers used for drinking water. Planting a winter wheat cover crop (CC) and/or use of controlled tile drainage-subirrigation (CDS) may reduce losses of nitrate (NO) relative to no cover crop (NCC) and/or traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD). A 6-yr (1999-2005) corn-soybean study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of CC+CDS, CC+UTD, NCC+CDS, and NCC+UTD treatments for reducing NO loss. Flow volume and NO concentration in surface runoff and tile drainage were measured continuously, and CC reduced the 5-yr flow-weighted mean (FWM) NO concentration in tile drainage water by 21 to 38% and cumulative NO loss by 14 to 16% relative to NCC. Controlled tile drainage-subirrigation reduced FWM NO concentration by 15 to 33% and cumulative NO loss by 38 to 39% relative to UTD. When CC and CDS were combined, 5-yr cumulative FWM NO concentrations and loss in tile drainage were decreased by 47% (from 9.45 to 4.99 mg N L and from 102 to 53.6 kg N ha) relative to NCC+UTD. The reductions in runoff and concomitant increases in tile drainage under CC occurred primarily because of increases in near-surface soil hydraulic conductivity. Cover crops increased corn grain yields by 4 to 7% in 2004 increased 3-yr average soybean yields by 8 to 15%, whereas CDS did not affect corn or soybean yields over the 6 yr. The combined use of a cover crop and water-table management system was highly effective for reducing NO loss from cool, humid agricultural soils.

  20. Rye cover crop and gamagrass strip effects on NO3 concentration and load in tile drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, T C; Jaynes, D B; Parkin, T B; Moorman, T B

    2007-01-01

    A significant portion of the NO3 from agricultural fields that contaminates surface waters in the Midwest Corn Belt is transported to streams or rivers by subsurface drainage systems or "tiles." Previous research has shown that N fertilizer management alone is not sufficient for reducing NO3 concentrations in subsurface drainage to acceptable levels; therefore, additional approaches need to be devised. We compared two cropping system modifications for NO3 concentration and load in subsurface drainage water for a no-till corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) management system. In one treatment, eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) was grown in permanent 3.05-m-wide strips above the tiles. For the second treatment, a rye (Secale cereale L.) winter cover crop was seeded over the entire plot area each year near harvest and chemically killed before planting the following spring. Twelve 30.5x42.7-m subsurface-drained field plots were established in 1999 with an automated system for measuring tile flow and collecting flow-weighted samples. Both treatments and a control were initiated in 2000 and replicated four times. Full establishment of both treatments did not occur until fall 2001 because of dry conditions. Treatment comparisons were conducted from 2002 through 2005. The rye cover crop treatment significantly reduced subsurface drainage water flow-weighted NO3 concentrations and NO3 loads in all 4 yr. The rye cover crop treatment did not significantly reduce cumulative annual drainage. Averaged over 4 yr, the rye cover crop reduced flow-weighted NO3 concentrations by 59% and loads by 61%. The gamagrass strips did not significantly reduce cumulative drainage, the average annual flow-weighted NO3 concentrations, or cumulative NO3 loads averaged over the 4 yr. Rye winter cover crops grown after corn and soybean have the potential to reduce the NO3 concentrations and loads delivered to surface waters by subsurface drainage systems.

  1. Hydrogeomorphic effects of explosive volcanic eruptions on drainage basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Major, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    Explosive eruptions can severely disturb landscapes downwind or downstream of volcanoes by damaging vegetation and depositing large volumes of erodible fragmental material. As a result, fluxes of water and sediment in affected drainage basins can increase dramatically. System-disturbing processes associated with explosive eruptions include tephra fall, pyroclastic density currents, debris avalanches, and lahars—processes that have greater impacts on water and sediment discharges than lava-flow emplacement. Geo-morphic responses to such disturbances can extend far downstream, persist for decades, and be hazardous. The severity of disturbances to a drainage basin is a function of the specific volcanic process acting, as well as distance from the volcano and magnitude of the eruption. Postdisturbance unit-area sediment yields are among the world's highest; such yields commonly result in abundant redeposition of sand and gravel in distal river reaches, which causes severe channel aggradation and instability. Response to volcanic disturbance can result in socioeconomic consequences more damaging than the direct impacts of the eruption itself.

  2. Drainage filter technologies to mitigate site-specific phosphorus losses in agricultural drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Canga, Eriona;

    Losses of phosphorus (P) in drainage waters contribute an estimated 33% to the total agricultural P load in Denmark. Mitigating agricultural P losses is challenging, as critical P losses comprise only a very small fraction of actual soil P contents and are not directly related to fertilizer P input...... in drainage. The Danish “SUPREME-TECH” project (2010-2016) (www.supreme-tech.dk) aims at providing the scientific basis for developing cost-effective filter technologies for P in agricultural drainage waters. The project studies different approaches of implementing filter technologies including drainage well...... the occurrence of surface-induced precipitation processes. The P-retention efficiency of granular drainage filters and constructed wetlands was compared for treating drainage water, and a subcatchment analysis illustrated the potential of implementing such measures....

  3. Fractal Analysis of Drainage Basins on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Marinova, M. M.; McGovern, P. J.; Clifford, S. M.

    2002-01-01

    We used statistical properties of drainage networks on Mars as a measure of martian landscape morphology and an indicator of landscape evolution processes. We utilize the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to construct digital elevation maps (DEMs) of several, mostly ancient, martian terrains. Drainage basins and channel networks are computationally extracted from DEMs and their structures are analyzed and compared to drainage networks extracted from terrestrial and lunar DEMs. We show that martian networks are self-affine statistical fractals with planar properties similar to terrestrial networks, but vertical properties similar to lunar networks. The uniformity of martian drainage density is between those for terrestrial and lunar landscapes. Our results are consistent with the roughening of ancient martian terrains by combination of rainfall-fed erosion and impacts, although roughening by other fluvial processes cannot be excluded. The notion of sustained rainfall in recent Mars history is inconsistent with our findings.

  4. Results of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography drainages (PTCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenemann, J.; Willems, M.; Wolf, G.; Fromme, M.

    1987-12-01

    From September 1980 to December 1986, 72 percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography drainages (PTCD) were performed in 64 patients (58 palliative in malignant obstructions, 14 temporary). The median duration of drainage was 26.8 days (2-183 days). The median survival time in 37 patients with palliative tumour drainage was 55.3 days (7-473 days). 9/37 patients survived longer than 3 months (max. 15.5 months). Complications occurred in 29.5% (10.3% severe). 3/64 patients (4.7%) died. Patients with palliative transpapillary drainages (23), especially with endoprostheses (14), survived longer, and the complication rate was lower. Therefore, we prefer the endoscopic transpapillary approach. PTCD patients must be selected carefully.

  5. Percutaneous drainage of pelvic fluid collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Young; Sohn, Cheol Ho [School of Medicine Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    To evaluate safe access route and success rate of percutaneous drainage of pelvic fluid collection. The 35 percutaneous drainages of pelvic fluid collection under the CT and fluorosocpic guidance were done in 32 patients. The anterior transabdominal approach was done in 20 patients, while the nine patients used the transgluteal approach through greater sciatic foramen. Three patients, who had septated or noncommunicating abscesses, underwent drainage using both approaches. The catheter was removed when the patient's symptom and laboratory data were improved or the amount of drainage and the size of fluid collection were markedly reduced. Success, partial success and failure were classified. The causes of fluid collection were complication of intraabdominal operation in 27 patient. The diagnosis after drainage included abscess (21), loculated ascites (6), and hematoma (4). The 27 cases (30 procedure) were treated successfully and the mean duration of catheter insertion was 10 days. The partial successes were two cases (2 procedures), which had palliative purpose. Three cases (3 procedures) were failed, which were multiple loculated ascites of pancreatic origin (2) and recurrent abscess (1). The significant complication during the procedure or drainage was not noted.

  6. Nonlinear analysis of drainage systems to examine surface deformation: an example from Potwar Plateau (Northern Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shahzad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We devise a procedure in order to characterize the relative vulnerability of the Earth's surface to tectonic deformation using the geometrical characteristics of drainage systems. The present study focuses on the nonlinear analysis of drainage networks extracted from Digital Elevation Models in order to localize areas strongly influenced by tectonics. We test this approach on the Potwar Plateau in northern Pakistan. This area is regularly affected by damaging earthquakes. Conventional studies cannot pinpoint the zones at risk, as the whole region is characterized by a sparse and diffuse seismicity. Our approach is based on the fact that rivers tend to linearize under tectonic forcing. Thus, the low fractal dimensions of the Swan, Indus and Jehlum Rivers are attributed to neotectonic activity. A detailed textural analysis is carried out to investigate the linearization, heterogeneity and connectivity of the drainage patterns. These textural aspects are quantified using the fractal dimension, as well as lacunarity and succolarity analysis. These three methods are complimentary in nature, i.e. objects with similar fractal dimensions can be distinguished further with lacunarity and/or succolarity analysis. We generate maps of fractal dimensions, lacunarity and succolarity values using a sliding window of 2.5 arc minutes by 2.5 arc minutes (2.5'×2.5'. These maps are then interpreted in terms of land surface vulnerability to tectonics. This approach allowed us to localize several zones where the drainage system is highly structurally controlled on the Potwar Plateau. The region located between Muree and Muzaffarabad is found to be prone to destructive events whereas the area westward from the Indus seems relatively unaffected. We conclude that a nonlinear analysis of the drainage system is an efficient additional tool to locate areas likely to be affected by massive destructing events affecting the Earth's surface and therefore threaten human

  7. Comparative Analysis between Early-planting and Summer-planting Flue-cured Tabocco in Drainage Area of Longchuan River of the Irrawaddy River Branch%伊洛瓦底江支流保山龙川江流域冬春季早植烤烟与夏烟两种生产时令的气象因子比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓健; 方志存; 杨野; 李佛琳; 杨焕文; 范业晨; 胡定邦; 邵维雄; 杨中义; 崔宇翔; 杨悦章

    2011-01-01

    In order to clarify the climatic characteristics discipline of early-planting flue-cured tobacco production of low thermal valley area in Baoshan, provide a basis for drawing up scientific and reasona-ble regulatory technical measures of high quality early-planting tobacco production, light, heat, rainfall condition etc natural climatic conditions of early-planting tobacco during field period from January to July and summer-planting tobacco from May to September in drainage area of Long chuan river of the Irrawaddy River branch were compared and analyzed. The results showed that; (1) Baoshan were characterized by typical low weft plateau monsoon climate. Its thermal was rich, especially sunshine and heat natural conditions of low thermal valley area in Baoshan were generally suitable for the annual high quality tobacco leaves production. (2) Heat and water conditions of summer-planting tobacco were better than conditions of early-planting tobacco, ≥10℃ active accumulated temperature, ≥10℃ effective accumulated temperature, average temperature, maximum temperature ( day temperature ) , minimum temperature ( night temperature) , rainfall, relative humidity of summer-planting tobacco were higher 7. 0% , 27. 5% ,4.4℃, 2.7℃. , 6.5℃, 27. 4% and 9% , respectively, while difference in day temperature, duration of sunshine during field period and sunshine rate of early-planting tobacco were higher 3. 9℃, 1. 6h/d and 17. 5% than summer-planting tobacco, respectively. Except rainfall of summer-planting tobacco of the third and the forth months during the whole field period was more, variation range of rainfall, air temperature, sunshine duration of other months changed stably, while early-planting tobacco changed greatly as time after transplanting, rainfall and air temperature gradually increased, sunshine duration gradually reduced. (3) Flue-cured tobacco production of early-planting tobacco in winter existed certain chilling injury low temperature etc risk

  8. Location of Agricultural Drainage Pipes and Assessment of Agricultural Drainage Pipe Conditions Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods are needed to not only locate buried agricultural drainage pipe, but to also determine if the pipes are functioning properly with respect to water delivery. The primary focus of this research project was to confirm the ability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) to locate buried drainage pipe ...

  9. Phylogeographic Analysis of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii Reveals an Association with North American Freshwater Drainage Basins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R McTaggart

    Full Text Available Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii are dimorphic fungal pathogens that cause serious pulmonary and systemic infections in humans. Although their natural habitat is in the environment, little is known about their specific ecologic niche(s. Here, we analyzed 25 microsatellite loci from 169 strains collected from various regions throughout their known endemic range in North America, representing the largest and most geographically diverse collection of isolates studied to date. Genetic analysis of multilocus microsatellite data divided the strains into four populations of B. dermatitidis and four populations of B. gilchristii. B. dermatitidis isolates were recovered from areas throughout North America, while the B. gilchristii strains were restricted to Canada and some northern US states. Furthermore, the populations of both species were associated with major freshwater drainage basins. The four B. dermatitidis populations were partitioned among (1 the Nelson River drainage basin, (2 the St. Lawrence River and northeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins, (3 the Mississippi River System drainage basin, and (4 the Gulf of Mexico Seaboard and southeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins. A similar partitioning of the B. gilchristii populations was observed among the more northerly drainage basins only. These associations suggest that the ecologic niche where the sexual reproduction, growth, and dispersal of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii occur is intimately linked to freshwater systems. For most populations, sexual reproduction was rare enough to produce significant linkage disequilibrium among loci but frequent enough that mating-type idiomorphic ratios were not skewed from 1:1. Furthermore, the evolutionary divergence of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii was estimated at 1.9 MYA during the Pleistocene epoch. We suggest that repeated glaciations during the Pleistocene period and resulting biotic refugia may have

  10. Urban Drainage Modeling and Flood Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Theo G.; Thomas, Martin

    The European research project in the EUREKA framework, RisUrSim (Σ!2255) has been worked out by a project consortium including industrial mathematics and water engineering research institutes, municipal drainage works as well as an insurance company. The overall objective has been the development of a simulation to allow flood risk analysis and cost-effective management for urban drainage systems. In view of the regulatory background of European Standard EN 752, the phenomenon of urban flooding caused by surcharged sewer systems in urban drainage systems is analyzed, leading to the necessity of dual drainage modeling. A detailed dual drainage simulation model is described based upon hydraulic flow routing procedures for surface flow and pipe flow. Special consideration is given to the interaction between surface and sewer flow in order to most accurately compute water levels above ground as a basis for further assessment of possible damage costs. The model application is presented for small case study in terms of data needs, model verification, and first simulation results.

  11. Environmental contaminants in fish and wildlife of the Lower Gila River, Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Levels and potential effects of pesticides and metals on fish and wildlife of the lower Gila River and associated agricultural drainage canals in Maricopa County,...

  12. Organochlorine pesticides in fishes and sediments from the Tensas River Basin, Lousiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aquatic habitats of the Tensas River Basin in northeastern Louisiana have been heavily impacted by sediment and agrichemical runoff due to intensive drainage,...

  13. Trace elements and organic compounds in the Spring River Basin of southeastern Kansas in 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We sampled sediments and aquatic biota at five locations in the Spring River drainage in southeastern Kansas. The samples were analyzed for metals, organochlorine...

  14. Percutaneous epidural drainage through a burr hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila M Falsarella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial extradural collection may cause an increase in intracranial pressure, requiring rapid emergency treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality. We described an alternative CT-guided percutaneous access for extradural collection drainage. We report a case of a patient with previous craniectomy for meningioma ressection who presented to the Emergency Department with symptoms of intracranial hypertension. Brains CT showed a extradural collection with subfalcine herniation. After multidisciplinary discussion a CT-guided percutaneous drainage through previous burr hole was performed. The patient was discharged after 36 hours of admission, without further symptoms. We describe a safe and effective alternative percutaneous access for extradural collection drainage in patients with previous burr hole.

  15. Geomorphological analysis of the drainage system on the active convergent system in Azerbaijan, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh Firouz, Amaneh; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Giachetta, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    Rivers are important landforms to reconstruct recent tectonic history because they are sensitive to surface movements, especially uplift and tilting. The most important drainage basins of NW Iran are, from north to south, the Arax River, the Urmia Lake and the Ghezel Ozan River catchment. The morphology of the two adjacent catchments draining into the Caspian Sea, the Arax and Ghezel Ozan were studied to better understand the active tectonics and the effect of fault activity on morphology and erosion rate of NW Iran. We performed a quantitative analysis of channel steepness and concavity, from slope-area plots calculated from digital elevation model. This information has been combined with GPS velocity vectors and seismicity. Both catchments developed under uniform climate conditions. Results show that the two rivers are in morphological disequilibrium; they exhibit profiles with prominent convexities and knickpoints. The Arax River shows higher channel steepness and concavity index in downstream part of the profile. Distribution of knickpoints show scattered elevation between 700m and 3000m. GPS rates display shortening 10 ± 2 mma-1 and 14 ± 2 mma-1 in upstream and downstream, respectively. The river profiles of Ghezel Ozan River and its tributaries reveal more disequilibrium downstream where channel steepness and concavity index are higher than upstream. Most knickpoints occur between 1000m and 2000m. The amount of shortening by GPS measurement changes from upstream 13 ± 2 mma-1to downstream 14 ± 2 mma-1. Recorded earthquakes, such as Rudbar earthquake (Mw=7.3, 1990), are more frequent downstream. The Urmia Lake is surrounded by many small and large catchments. Only major catchments were considered for the analysis. One of the most active faults, the north Tabriz fault, corresponds to a major knickpoints on the Talkhe rud River. Concordance between river profile analysis, GPS and seismotectonic records suggests that the characteristics of the river profiles

  16. Pilot-Scale Selenium Bioremediation of San Joaquin Drainage Water with Thauera selenatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantafio, A. W.; Hagen, K. D.; Lewis, G. E.; Bledsoe, T. L.; Nunan, K. M.; Macy, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a simple method for the bioremediation of selenium from agricultural drainage water. A medium-packed pilot-scale biological reactor system, inoculated with the selenate-respiring bacterium Thauera selenatis, was constructed at the Panoche Water District, San Joaquin Valley, Calif. The reactor was used to treat drainage water (7.6 liters/min) containing both selenium and nitrate. Acetate (5 mM) was the carbon source-electron donor reactor feed. Selenium oxyanion concentrations (selenate plus selenite) in the drainage water were reduced by 98%, to an average of 12 (plusmn) 9 (mu)g/liter. Frequently (47% of the sampling days), reactor effluent concentrations of less than 5 (mu)g/liter were achieved. Denitrification was also observed in this system; nitrate and nitrite concentrations in the drainage water were reduced to 0.1 and 0.01 mM, respectively (98% reduction). Analysis of the reactor effluent showed that 91 to 96% of the total selenium recovered was elemental selenium; 97.9% of this elemental selenium could be removed with Nalmet 8072, a new, commercially available precipitant-coagulant. Widespread use of this system (in the Grasslands Water District) could reduce the amount of selenium deposited in the San Joaquin River from 7,000 to 140 lb (ca. 3,000 to 60 kg)/year. PMID:16535401

  17. Re-engineering the urban drainage system for resource recovery and protection of drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, B

    2000-01-01

    The Harare metropolis in Zimbabwe, extending upstream from Manyame Dam in the Upper Manyame River Basin, consists of the City of Harare and its satellite towns: Chitungwiza, Norton, Epworth and Ruwa. The existing urban drainage system is typically a single-use-mixing system: water is used and discharged to "waste", excreta are flushed to sewers and eventually, after "treatment", the effluent is discharged to a drinking water supply source. Polluted urban storm water is evacuated as fast as possible. This system not only ignores the substantial value in "waste" materials, but it also exports problems to downstream communities and to vulnerable fresh-water sources. The question is how can the harare metropolis urban drainage system, which is complex and has evolved over time, be rearranged to achieve sustainability (i.e. water conservation, pollution prevention at source, protection of the vulnerable drinking water sources and recovery of valuable materials)? This paper reviews current concepts regarding the future development of the urban drainage system in line with the new vision of "Sustainable Cities of the Future". The Harare Metropolis in Zimbabwe is taken as a case, and philosophical options for re-engineering the drainage system are discussed.

  18. Complex Drainage Response To Migrating Tectonic Uplift: Example From The Northern California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, J.; Furlong, K. P.

    Migration of the Mendocino triple junction in northern California produces rapid and dramatic changes in the processes and patterns of crustal deformation. In response to this tectonism, the river systems of the northern California Coast Ranges have devel- oped a complex drainage history and pattern. The tectonic response to this migrating triple junction is described by the Mendocino Crustal Conveyor model (MCC), which predicts a spatially and temporally varying pattern of crustal deformation and up- lift. We use a combination of geomorphic and geophysical observations, coupled with landscape evolution modeling to develop the links between the geomorphic observa- tions in the Coast Ranges and the uplift/subsidence pattern predicted by the MCC. In contrast to many previous landscape evolution studies that find that streams typically cut through or are diverted around growing structures, in the northern California Coast Ranges drainage reversal and stream capture appear to be the response to tectonism. Our landscape evolution modeling shows that the uplift predicted by the MCC pro- duces: (1) a topographic gradient that switches from trending northwest to southeast, causing streams that at first flow to the northwest to reverse and drain to the south- east, (2) drainage divides that migrate in concert with the triple junction, and (3) river evolution that will result in fish hooked drainage patterns, all characteristics similar to those observed in the Northern California Coast Ranges. The uplift/subsidence pat- tern in the northern Coast Ranges is further complicated by the interaction of a second tectonic driver - the Pioneer fragment. The Pioneer fragment migrates with the Pacific (south of the triple junction) and creates a mini-slab window, adjacent to the coast, to produce a superimposed secondary uplift/subsidence pattern. The effects of this Pioneer related uplift are recorded by the Eel River. Key to the complex evolution of river systems in northern

  19. Monitoring the mining effect at drainage basin level using geoinformation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenova, Vanya; Roumenina, Eugenia

    2009-09-01

    One of the priority lines of modern regional policy with regard to mining is a territory's sustainable use. One of the key issues is the development of local level monitoring systems to assess and control territories that are subject to intensive anthropogenic activity. The current work proposes a developed geodatabase model for remote sensing and ground-based monitoring of the effects of coal mining at drainage level using geoinformation technologies. Based on this model, the Kutina geographic information system for the drainage basin of the Kutina River has been constructed. The geodatabase is open and may be updated and supplemented with other types of information. This is the first monitoring of coal mining's anthropogenic impact on the land cover and the Kutina Pyramids natural landmark carried out on the territory of the Kutina River drainage basin, Bulgaria. It may assist local level managerial decision-making, among others. Generation of landslide processes and self-ignition of coal layers has been identified as well. The recorded change in the hydrographic network resulting from the performed open coal extraction affects directly the change of the erosion basis. Its increase enhances lateral erosion at the expense of vertical, which is one of the major causes for the Kutina Pyramids natural landmark's degradation.

  20. Curonian Lagoon drainage basin modelling and assessment of climate change impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja Čerkasova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Curonian Lagoon, which is the largest European coastal lagoon with a surface area of 1578 km2 and a drainage area of 100,458 km2, is facing a severe eutrophication problem. With its increasing water management difficulties, the need for a sophisticated hydrological model of the Curonian Lagoon's drainage area arose, in order to assess possible changes resulting from local and global processes. In this study, we developed and calibrated a sophisticated hydrological model with the required accuracy, as an initial step for the future development of a modelling framework that aims to correctly predict the movement of pesticides, sediments or nutrients, and to evaluate water-management practices. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to implement a model of the study area and to assess the impact of climate-change scenarios on the run-off of the Nemunas River and the Minija River, which are located in the Curonian Lagoons drainage basin. The models calibration and validation were performed using monthly streamflow data, and evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2 and the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE. The calculated values of the R2 and NSE for the Nemunas and Minija Rivers stations were 0.81 and 0.79 for the calibration, and 0.679 and 0.602 for the validation period. Two potential climate-change scenarios were developed within the general patterns of near-term climate projections, as defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report: both pessimistic (substantial changes in precipitation and temperature and optimistic (insubstantial changes in precipitation and temperature. Both simulations produce similar general patterns in river-discharge change: a strong increase (up to 22% in the winter months, especially in February, a decrease during the spring (up to 10% and summer (up to 18%, and a slight increase during the autumn (up to 10%.

  1. Evolution of drainage systems and its developing trend in connection with tectonic uplift of Eastern Kunlun Mt.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The Eastern Kunlun Mt. had been subjected to uplift together with the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau before the Early Pleistocene, but yet the Mt. did not protrude out of the Plateau surface. During that period lakes spread all over the studied region, with the drainage systems being all short rivers flowing into the lakes. At the end of the Early Pleistocene, intensive tectonic uplift led to the rising of the Eastern Kunlun Mt. and made the Mt. protrude onto the Plateau surface. As a result, a fault depression valley formed extending nearly from west to east along the fault belt of the Southern Kunlun Mt. Lakes in this region died out, surface runoffs joined into the valley of the Southern Kunlun Mt. resulting in a large river streaming nearly from west to east. Around 150 kaBP, because of the strong differential movement, rivers, such as the Jialu River and the Golmud River, retrogressively eroded seriously, cutting through the Burhan Budai Mt. Then they pirated the large river and divided it into four portions. Owing to the uplift of the Eastern Kunlun Mt., strongly retrogressive erosion of the upper reaches of the Jialu River has made the watershed of the Buqingshan Mt. migrate 6-10 km southward since Holocene. At present, it still remains a stronger trend of retrogressive erosion developing upward to the basin of the Yellow River Source and it seems that the Jialu River is scrambling for the streamhead of the Yellow River.

  2. Gas drainage technology of high gas and thick coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Tian-cai; LI Hai-gui; ZHANG Hai-jun

    2009-01-01

    Gas drainage in Jincheng Mining Group Co., Ltd. was introduced briefly and the importance of gas drainage in gas control was analyzed. Combined with coal-bed gas oc-currence and gas emission, the double system of gas drainage was optimized and a pro-gressive gas drainage model was experimented on. For guaranteed drainage, excavation and mining and realization of safety production and reasonable exploitation of gas in coal seams, many drainage methods were adopted to solve the gas problem of the working face.

  3. Drainage hydraulics of permeable friction courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbeneau, Randall J.; Barrett, Michael E.

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes solutions to the hydraulic equations that govern flow in permeable friction courses (PFC). PFC is a layer of porous asphalt approximately 50 mm thick that is placed as an overlay on top of an existing conventional concrete or asphalt road surface to help control splash and hydroplaning, reduce noise, and enhance quality of storm water runoff. The primary objective of this manuscript is to present an analytical system of equations that can be used in design and analysis of PFC systems. The primary assumptions used in this analysis are that the flow can be modeled as one-dimensional, steady state Darcy-type flow and that slopes are sufficiently small so that the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumptions apply. Solutions are derived for cases where storm water drainage is confined to the PFC bed and for conditions where the PFC drainage capacity is exceeded and ponded sheet flow occurs across the pavement surface. The mathematical solutions provide the drainage characteristics (depth and residence time) as a function of rainfall intensity, PFC hydraulic conductivity, pavement slope, and maximum drainage path length.

  4. Selecting the drainage method for agricultural land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    To facilitate crop growth excess water should be drained from the rooting zone to allow root development of the crop and from the soil surface to facilitate access to the field. Basically, there are three drainage methods from which the designer can select being; surface drains, pumped tube wells an

  5. [Artificial drainage devices--history, indications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Ileana Ramona; Pop, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Glaucoma is a degenerative optic neuropathy progressive, multifactorial, which can lead to blindness. Blindness in patients with glaucoma is defined as visual field reduction below 10 degrees. Artificial drainage systems are a solution for refractory to medication, laser treatment or conventional surgery. Used by over 100 years, improved with good surgical technique and careful patient follow-up surgery, postoperative results are satisfactory.

  6. Reality named endoscopic ultrasound biliary drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugo; Gon?alo; Guedes; Roberto; Iglesias; Lopes; Joel; Fernandez; de; Oliveira; Everson; Luiz; de; Almeida; Artifon

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound(EUS) is used for diagnosis and evaluation of many diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the past, it was used to guide a cholangio-graphy, but nowadays it emerges as a powerful thera-peutic tool in biliary drainage. The aims of this review are: outline the rationale for endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage(EGBD); detail the procedural technique; evaluate the clinical outcomes and limitations of the method; and provide recommendations for the practicing clinician. In cases of failed endoscopic retro-grade cholangiopancreatography(ERCP), patients are usually referred for either percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage(PTBD) or surgical bypass. Both these procedures have high rates of undesirable complications. EGBD is an attractive alternative to PTBD or surgery when ERCP fails. EGBD can be performed at two locations: transhepatic or extrahepatic, and the stent can be inserted in an antegrade or retrograde fashion. The drainage route can be transluminal, duodenal or trans-papillary, which, again, can be antegrade or retrograde [rendezvous(EUS-RV)]. Complications of all techniques combined include pneumoperitoneum, bleeding, bile leak/peritonitis and cholangitis. We recommend EGBD when bile duct access is not possible because of failed cannulation, altered upper GI tract anatomy, gastric outlet obstruction, a distorted ampulla or a periampullary diverticulum, as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery or radiology.

  7. Interventional radiology in the lacrimal drainage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgit, Erhan T. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Gazi University, Besevler 06510, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: erhanti@gazi.edu.tr; Oenal, Baran [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Gazi University, Besevler 06510, Ankara (Turkey); Coskun, Bilgen [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Gazi University, Besevler 06510, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-09-01

    This article presents a review of the interventional radiological procedures in the lacrimal drainage system. Balloon dacryocystoplasty and nasolacrimal polyurethane stent placement are the main fluoroscopically guided interventions for the treatment of epiphora by recanalizing the obstructed LDS. These procedures can also be used for dacryolith removal and lacrimal sac abscess treatment.

  8. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  9. Drainage Characteristics of Tectonically Active Areas: An Example from Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SWATI JAIN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The morphotectonic studies help in deciphering the role of tectonics and neotectonics in morphological evolution of drainage basins. On the basis of remote sensing technique, the relationship between morphology and tectonics have been investigated in Bundi-Indergarh sector of southeast Rajasthan. The area selected for present study is drained by Mej river and its tributaries and occupies the southeastern part of the Aravalli Mountain Range (AMR. The course of Mej river is mostly controlled by the Great Boundary Thrust (GBT and associated tectonic elements. GBT separates the folded, faulted and metamorphosed older rocks of the AMR in the west and relatively undeformed Vindhyan rocks in the east. This study has been carried out using digital and hard copy product of IRS 1C/1D LISS III geocoded FCC data. The morphometric and morphotectonic aspects have been studied for identification of present day tectonic activities in the area. The remote sensing data interpretation indicates that the landforms of the area are structurally controlled and mainly covered by linear and parallel strike ridges and valleys. These valleys indicate sign of stream rejuvenation and occasional presence of dynamic ravines. General morphometric parameters, bifurcation ratio, stream length and shape parameters have been computed. Longitudinal river profiles can be quantified by normalizing the elevation and the distance along rivers. Several parameters such as profile shape (concavity, gradient fluctuations, river grade and valley incision have been derived from longitudinal river profile. These quantified parameters and their interrelations are useful in comparing different drainage basins and also help drawing inferences on neotectonism. The computed values suggest that the area is covered by resistant rock and drainage network, affected by tectonic distur-bance. The valley floor ratio is very low, indicating channel down cutting vis-a-vis ground uplift. The gradient index

  10. Determination of uranium and {sup 2}10Po in the river Odiel to assess the radioactive impact of acid mine drainage; Determinacion de uranio y {sup 2}10Po en el rio Odiel para valorar el impacto radiactivo de los drenajes acidos mineros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjon, G.; Lehritani, M.; Mantero, J.; Diaz Frances, I.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2013-07-01

    Since 1986 this research group has been monitoring of radioactive environmental impact in the estuary of the river Odiel, generated by the factories of production of phosphoric acid from Huelva, that emitting NORM waste. Once closed factories, is observed a second source of contamination: mining drains. To verify this source have been studied concentration levels of natural radionuclides in the waters and sediments of the river Odiel, in areas that are incorporated drains. (Author)

  11. Geochemistry of acid mine drainage from a coal mining area and processes controlling metal attenuation in stream waters, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERIDIANA P. CAMPANER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid drainage influence on the water and sediment quality was investigated in a coal mining area (southern Brazil. Mine drainage showed pH between 3.2 and 4.6 and elevated concentrations of sulfate, As and metals, of which, Fe, Mn and Zn exceeded the limits for the emission of effluents stated in the Brazilian legislation. Arsenic also exceeded the limit, but only slightly. Groundwater monitoring wells from active mines and tailings piles showed pH interval and chemical concentrations similar to those of mine drainage. However, the river and ground water samples of municipal public water supplies revealed a pH range from 7.2 to 7.5 and low chemical concentrations, although Cd concentration slightly exceeded the limit adopted by Brazilian legislation for groundwater. In general, surface waters showed large pH range (6 to 10.8, and changes caused by acid drainage in the chemical composition of these waters were not very significant. Locally, acid drainage seemed to have dissolved carbonate rocks present in the local stratigraphic sequence, attenuating the dispersion of metals and As. Stream sediments presented anomalies of these elements, which were strongly dependent on the proximity of tailings piles and abandoned mines. We found that precipitation processes in sediments and the dilution of dissolved phases were responsible for the attenuation of the concentrations of the metals and As in the acid drainage and river water mixing zone. In general, a larger influence of mining activities on the chemical composition of the surface waters and sediments was observed when enrichment factors in relation to regional background levels were used.

  12. Ohtlik lend / Iain Carson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Carson, Iain

    2006-01-01

    Majanduslikesse raskustesse sattunud Euroopa tsiviillennukite tootjat Airbus, mis kuulub Prantsuse-Saksa-Hispaania emafirmale European Aeronautic Defence and Space (EADS), ootab ees natsionaliseerimine kolme riigi poolt

  13. 46 CFR 178.420 - Drainage of cockpit vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage of cockpit vessels. 178.420 Section 178.420... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.420 Drainage of cockpit vessels. (a) Except as follows, the cockpit on a cockpit vessel may be watertight: (1) A cockpit may...

  14. Consolidation drainage and climate change may reduce Piping Plover habitat in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Lisa A.; Anteau, Michael J.; Post van der Burg, Max

    2015-01-01

    Many waterbird species utilize a diversity of aquatic habitats; however, with increasing anthropogenic needs to manage water regimes there is global concern over impacts to waterbird populations. The federally threatened Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers) is a shorebird that breeds in three habitat types in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, South Dakota, and Canada: riverine sandbars; reservoir shorelines; and prairie wetlands. Water surface areas of these habitats fluctuate in response to wet-dry periods; decreasing water surface areas expose shorelines that plovers utilize for nesting. Climate varies across the region so when other habitats are unavailable for plover nesting because of flooding, prairie wetlands may periodically provide habitat. Over the last century, many of the wetlands used by plovers in the Prairie Pothole Region have been modified to receive water from consolidation drainage (drainage of smaller wetlands into another wetland), which could eliminate shoreline nesting habitat. We evaluated whether consolidation drainage and fuller wetlands have decreased plover presence in 32 wetlands historically used by plovers. We found that wetlands with more consolidation drainage in their catchment and wetlands that were fuller had a lower probability of plover presence. These results suggest that plovers could have historically used prairie wetlands during the breeding season but consolidation drainage and/or climate change have reduced available shoreline habitat for plovers through increased water levels. Prairie wetlands, outside of some alkali wetlands in the western portion of the region, are less studied as habitat for plovers when compared to river and reservoir shorelines. Our study suggests that these wetlands may have played a larger role in plover ecology than previously thought. Wetland restoration and conservation, through the restoration of natural hydrology, may be required to ensure that adequate habitat

  15. Reconstructing Glacial Lake Vitim and its cataclysmic drainage to the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margold, Martin; Jansen, John D.; Gurinov, Artem L.; Codilean, Alexandru T.; Preusser, Frank

    2013-04-01

    A large glacial lake (23500 km2/3000 km3) was formed when the River Vitim, one of the largest tributaries of the Lena River in Siberia, Russia, was blocked by glaciers from the Kodar Mountains. This lake, Glacial Lake Vitim, was subsequently drained in a large outburst flood that followed the rivers Vitim and Lena to the Arctic Ocean. Evidence of a cataclysmic drainage was first identified in the form of a large bedrock canyon in the area of the postulated ice dam. The enormous dimensions of this feature (6 x 2 x 0.3 km) suggest formation via a drainage event of extreme magnitude, and field inspection downstream revealed giant bars >100 m above the valley floor, similar to those described from cataclysmic floods elsewhere. We present chronological constraints for the duration of the ice dam and for the timing of the flood based on terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides and optically stimulated luminescence. Given that the volume of Glacial Lake Vitim was significantly larger than other well known lakes associated with cataclysmic outbursts-glacial lakes Missoula (northwestern USA) and Chuja-Kuray (Altai Mountains, Russia)-it is pertinent to assess the possible climatic consequences of Lake Vitim's drainage. The outburst flood from Glacial Lake Vitim is likely among the largest floods documented on Earth thus far. Possible impacts include rapid change of climate and precipitation patterns in the area of the former glacial lake, major disturbance along the flood course to the Arctic, and perhaps even regional-scale climatic feedbacks linked to altered sea ice dynamics in the Arctic Ocean.

  16. River Mileages and Drainage Areas for Illinois Streams. Volume 1. Illinois Except Illinois River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    rOUNTY n.4 POAr, S2’.T IR IW IRVINGTON 0.7 MISSOUPI-ILLINUIS Rk IRVINGTON 1.4 ROAr) %34*TOIN.R0IW IRVIN (;TON 2.5 ROAn 535.T IN.k IW IRVINGTON 4.0 ROAn...536.T IN.R IW IRVINGTON ’..2 ILLINOIS CENTRAL RR IRVIN &TON 4.6 WASHINGTON-MARION CO LN IRVINGTON 4.6 US wWY 51 IRVINGTON 4.7 ROAn 531*T I’ ,k Iw... WELSH HOLLOW L ELIZABETH 32.3 ROAD S 3 T27N R 3E ELIZABETH 35.8 ROAD S23 T28N R 3E SCALES MOUND E 36.2 COON CR R SCALES MOUND E 36.8 ROAD S24 T28N R 3E

  17. How integrated is river basin management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Peter W.; Gregory, Kenneth J.; Brookes, Andrew

    1991-05-01

    Land and water management is increasingly focused upon the drainage basin. Thirty-six terms recently used for schemes of “integrated basin management” include reference to the subject or area and to the aims of integrated river basin management, often without allusion to the multiobjective nature. Diversity in usage of terms has occurred because of the involvement of different disciplines, of the increasing coherence of the drainage basin approach, and the problems posed in particular parts of the world. The components included in 21 different approaches are analyzed, and, in addition to showing that components related broadly to water supply, river channel, land, and leisure aspects, it is concluded that there are essentially five interrelated facets of integrated basin management that involved water, channel, land, ecology, and human activity. Two aspects not fully included in many previous schemes concern river channel changes and the dynamic integrity of the fluvial system. To clarify the terminology used, it is suggested that the term comprehensive river basin management should be used where a wide range of components is involved, whereas integrated basin management can signify the interactions of components and the dominance of certain components in the particular area. Holistic river basin management is advocated as a term representing an approach that is both fully comprehensive and integrated but also embraces the energetics of the river system and consideration of changes of river channels and of human impacts throughout the river system. The paradigm of working with the river can be extended to one of working with the river in the holistic basin context.

  18. Numerical simulation of transient flow in horizontal drainage systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-yu MAO; Han XIAO; Ying LIU; Ying-jun HU

    2009-01-01

    A numerical simulation model based on the characteristic-based finite-difference method with a time-line interpolation scheme was developed for predicting transient free surface flow in horizontal drainage systems. The fundamental accuracy of the numerical model was first clarified by comparison with the experimental results for a single drainage pipe. Boundary conditions for junctions and bends, which are often encountered in drainage systems, were studied both experimentally and numerically. The numerical model was applied to an actual drainage system. Comparison with a full-scale model experiment indicates that the model can be used to accurately predict flow characteristics in actual drainage networks.

  19. Range of drainage effect of surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozanski, J.

    1978-03-01

    This paper discusses methods of calculating the range of effects of water drainage from surface coal mines and other surface mines. It is suggested that methods based on test pumping (water drainage) are time consuming, and the results can be distorted by atmospheric factors such as rain fall or dry period. So-called empirical formulae produce results which are often incorrect. The size of a cone shaped depression calculated on the basis of empirical formulae can be ten times smaller than the size of the real depression. It is suggested that using a formula based on the Dupuit formula is superior to other methods of depression calculation. According to the derived formulae the radius of the depresion cone is a function of parameters of the water bearing horizons, size of surface mine working and of water depression. The proposed formula also takes into account the influence of atmospheric factors (water influx caused by precipitation, etc.). (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  20. Thermokarst lakes, drainage, and drained basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, G.; Jones, B.; Arp, C.; Shroder, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins are widespread in Arctic and sub-Arctic permafrost lowlands with ice-rich sediments. Thermokarst lake formation is a dominant mode of permafrost degradation and is linked to surface disturbance, subsequent melting of ground ice, surface subsidence, water impoundment, and positive feedbacks between lake growth and permafrost thaw, whereas lake drainage generally results in local permafrost aggradation. Thermokarst lakes characteristically have unique limnological, morphological, and biogeochemical characteristics that are closely tied to cold-climate conditions and permafrost properties. Thermokarst lakes also have a tendency toward complete or partial drainage through permafrost degradation and erosion. Thermokarst lake dynamics strongly affect the development of landscape geomorphology, hydrology, and the habitat characteristic of permafrost lowlands.

  1. A test for the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two different hatcheries (Study site: Warm Springs Hatchery; Stocks: Warm Springs Hatchery and Carson Hatchery; Year class: 1993): Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was undertaken to determine the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared in a common environment, as a companion study to our investigation of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon. Pure-strain and reciprocal crosses were made between two hatchery stocks (Carson and Warm Springs National Fish Hatcheries). The offspring were reared together in one of the hatcheries to the smolt stage, and then were transferred to a seawater rearing facility (USGS-Marrowstone Field Station). Differences in survival, growth and disease prevalence were assessed. Fish with Carson parentage grew to greater size at the hatchery and in seawater than the pure-strain Warm Springs fish, but showed higher mortality at introduction to seawater. The analyses of maternal and stock effects were inconclusive, but the theoretical responses to different combinations of maternal and stock effects may be useful in interpreting stock comparison studies.

  2. Drainage Analysis of the South American Landscape and its Tectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Tribaldos, Verónica; White, Nicholas J.; Roberts, Gareth G.

    2016-04-01

    The majority of studies aimed at investigating topographic growth and landscape evolution have limited spatial coverage. Frequently, spot measurements of uplift and denudation are only available, which hampers spatial resolution of the growth of regional topographic features. This limitation can be overcome by quantitatively analysing substantial, continent-wide, drainage networks. The shapes of long wavelength longitudinal river profiles appear to be mainly controlled by regional uplift and moderated by erosional processes, both of which can vary as a function of space and time. By parametrizing erosional histories, it is feasible to develop inverse models that permit spatial and temporal patterns of regional uplift to be reliably retrieved. Here, a drainage inventory for South America consisting of 1827 rivers has been inverted. River profiles were extracted from the SRTM topographic dataset and modelled using a simplified version of the stream-power law, in which erosional processes are described using a linear advective formulation. The inverse problem is then solved by seeking smooth uplift rate histories that minimize the misfit between observed and calculated river profiles using a linearized, damped, non-negative, least squares algorithm. Calibration of erosional processes is achieved by inverting the complete drainage inventory and seeking a calculated uplift history that best honours independent geological observations from the Borborema Province of northeast Brazil. This province experienced regional Cenozoic uplift. Calculated uplift rate histories for South America suggest that the bulk of its topography developed during Cenozoic times. The model suggests, for instance, that the Andean mountain chain mostly arose in late Eocene-Oligocene (i.e. 40-28 Ma) times with an increase in elevation during Miocene times (i.e. the last 20 Ma). Uplift of the Central Andean Altiplano from an elevation of ~ 1 km to its present-day height of ~ 4 km occurred within the

  3. Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus from the Tigris drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir

    2017-03-02

    Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus are described from the Sirvan River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. Oxynoemacheilus gyndes, new species, is distinguished by having a very short lateral line, reaching behind the pectoral-fin base, no scales except on the posteriormost part of the caudal peduncle, a slightly emarginate caudal fin and no suborbital groove in males. Oxynoemacheilus hanae, new species, is distinguished by having a midlateral row of elongated blotches, isolated patches of dark-brown spots or blotches on lower flank, a deeply emarginate caudal fin and a suborbital groove in males.

  4. Urban drainage models - making uncertainty analysis simple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Deletic, Ana;

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing awareness about uncertainties in modelling of urban drainage systems and, as such, many new methods for uncertainty analyses have been developed. Despite this, all available methods have limitations which restrict their widespread application among practitioners. Here, a modif...... probability distributions (often used for sensitivity analyses) and prediction intervals. To demonstrate the new method, it is applied to a conceptual rainfall-runoff model using a dataset collected from Melbourne, Australia....

  5. Drawdown behavior of gravity drainage wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aasen, J.A.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    An analytical solution for drawdown in gravity drainage wells is developed. The free-surface flow is viewed as incompressible, and anisotropy effects are included. The well is a line source well, and the reservoir is infinitely large. The model is valid for small drawdowns. The uniform wellbore potential inner boundary condition is modelled using the proper Green`s function. The discontinuity at the wellbore is solved by introducing a finite skin radius, and the formulation produces a seepage face. The calculated wellbore flux distribution and wellbore pressures are in fair agreement with results obtained using a numerical gravity drainage simulator. Three distinct flow periods are observed. The wellbore storage period is caused by the moving liquid level, and the duration is short. During the long intermediate flow period, the wellbore pressure is nearly constant. In this period the free surface moves downwards, and the liquid is produced mainly by vertical drainage. At long times the semilog straight line appears. The confined liquid solutions by Theis (1935) and van Everdingen and Hurst (1949) may be used during the pseudoradial flow period if the flowrate is low. New type curves are presented that yield both vertical and horizontal permeabilities.

  6. Drainage and Stratification Kinetics of Foam Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek

    2014-03-01

    Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Foam lifetime, drainage kinetics and stability are strongly influenced by surfactant type (ionic vs non-ionic), and added proteins, particles or polymers modify typical responses. The rate at which fluid drains out from a foam film, i.e. drainage kinetics, is determined in the last stages primarily by molecular interactions and capillarity. Interestingly, for certain low molecular weight surfactants, colloids and polyelectrolyte-surfactant mixtures, a layered ordering of molecules, micelles or particles inside the foam films leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification. Though stratification is observed in many confined systems including foam films containing particles or polyelectrolytes, films containing globular proteins seem not to show this behavior. Using a Scheludko-type cell, we experimentally study the drainage and stratification kinetics of horizontal foam films formed by protein-surfactant mixtures, and carefully determine how the presence of proteins influences the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of foam films.

  7. Treatment of severe acute pancreatitis through retroperitoneal laparoscopic drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Tang; Baolin Wang; Bing Xie; Hongming Liu; Ping Chen

    2011-01-01

    A treatment method based on drainage via retroperitoneal laparoscopy was adopted for 15 severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients to investigate the feasibility of the method.Ten patients received only drainage via retroperitoneai laparoscopy,four patients received drainage via both retroperitoneal and preperitoneal laparoscopy,and one patient received drainage via conversion to laparotomy.Thirteen patients exhibited a good drainage effect and were successfully cured without any other surgical treatment.Two patients had encapsulated effusions or pancreatic pseudocysts after surgery,but were successfully cured after lavage and B ultrasound-guided percutaneous catheter drainage.SAP treatment via retroperitoneal laparoscopic drainage is an effective surgical method,resulting in minor injury.

  8. Decoding the role of tectonics, incision and lithology on drainage divide migration in the Mt. Alpi region, southern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscher, J. T.; Ascione, A.; Valente, E.

    2017-01-01

    The proclivity of river networks to progressively carve mountain surfaces and preserve markers of landscape adjustments has made analyses of fluvial systems fundamental for understanding the topographic development of orogens. However, the transient nature of uplift and erosion has posed a challenge for inferring the roles that tectonics and/or climate have played on generating topographic relief. The Mt. Alpi region in the southern Apennines has a heterogeneous distribution of elevated topography, erosionally-resistant lithology and uplift, making the area optimal for conducting topographic and river analyses to better understand the landscape development of a transient orogen. Stream length-gradient, normalized channel steepness, stream convexity and first-order channel gradient indices from 10 m digital elevation data from the region exhibit stream profile inconsistencies along the current drainage divide and a dominance of high values subparallel but inboard of the primary chain axis irrespective of known transient landscape factors, suggesting that the current river network may be in a state of transition. The location of these stream profile anomalies both near the modern drainage divide and subparallel to an isolated swath of high topography away from catchment boundaries is thought to be the topographic expression of an imminent drainage divide migration driven primarily by the northeast-vergent extension of the western chain axis.

  9. Geochemistry of the Birch Creek Drainage Basin, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Shawn A.; Rosentreter, Jeffrey J.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Knobel, LeRoy L.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, are conducting studies to describe the chemical character of ground water that moves as underflow from drainage basins into the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer (ESRPA) system at and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the effects of these recharge waters on the geochemistry of the ESRPA system. Each of these recharge waters has a hydrochemical character related to geochemical processes, especially water-rock interactions, that occur during migration to the ESRPA. Results of these studies will benefit ongoing and planned geochemical modeling of the ESRPA at the INEEL by providing model input on the hydrochemical character of water from each drainage basin. During 2000, water samples were collected from five wells and one surface-water site in the Birch Creek drainage basin and analyzed for selected inorganic constituents, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, tritium, measurements of gross alpha and beta radioactivity, and stable isotopes. Four duplicate samples also were collected for quality assurance. Results, which include analyses of samples previously collected from four other sites, in the basin, show that most water from the Birch Creek drainage basin has a calcium-magnesium bicarbonate character. The Birch Creek Valley can be divided roughly into three hydrologic areas. In the northern part, ground water is forced to the surface by a basalt barrier and the sampling sites were either surface water or shallow wells. Water chemistry in this area was characterized by simple evaporation models, simple calcite-carbon dioxide models, or complex models involving carbonate and silicate minerals. The central part of the valley is filled by sedimentary material and the sampling sites were wells that are deeper than those in the northern part. Water chemistry in this area was characterized by simple calcite-dolomite-carbon dioxide

  10. Preoperative biliary drainage for periampullary tumors causing obstructive jaundice; DRainage vs. (direct OPeration (DROP-trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosef Meindert N

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice caused by a periampullary (pancreas, papilla, distal bile duct tumor is associated with a higher risk of postoperative complications than in non-jaundiced patients. Preoperative biliary drainage was introduced in an attempt to improve the general condition and thus reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Early studies showed a reduction in morbidity. However, more recently the focus has shifted towards the negative effects of drainage, such as an increase of infectious complications. Whether biliary drainage should always be performed in jaundiced patients remains controversial. The randomized controlled multicenter DROP-trial (DRainage vs. Operation was conceived to compare the outcome of a 'preoperative biliary drainage strategy' (standard strategy with that of an 'early-surgery' strategy, with respect to the incidence of severe complications (primary-outcome measure, hospital stay, number of invasive diagnostic tests, costs, and quality of life. Methods/design Patients with obstructive jaundice due to a periampullary tumor, eligible for exploration after staging with CT scan, and scheduled to undergo a "curative" resection, will be randomized to either "early surgical treatment" (within one week or "preoperative biliary drainage" (for 4 weeks and subsequent surgical treatment (standard treatment. Primary outcome measure is the percentage of severe complications up to 90 days after surgery. The sample size calculation is based on the equivalence design for the primary outcome measure. If equivalence is found, the comparison of the secondary outcomes will be essential in selecting the preferred strategy. Based on a 40% complication rate for early surgical treatment and 48% for preoperative drainage, equivalence is taken to be demonstrated if the percentage of severe complications with early surgical treatment is not more than 10% higher compared to standard treatment

  11. Habitat Selection and Reproductive Success of White-faced Ibis in the Carson River Basin, Nevada: Final Progress Report for the 1996 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Great Basin White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi) population is listed under category 2 of the Endangered Species Act because of its dependence on closed, isolated,...

  12. Physical Data and Biological Data for Algae, Aquatic Invertebrates, and Fish from Selected Reaches on the Carson and Truckee Rivers, Nevada and California, 1993-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Oedogoniales Oedogoniaceae Bulbochaete sp. X Oedogonium sp. X X X Ulvophyceae Cladophorales Cladophoraceae Cladophora sp. X X X Cladophora glomerata X X...280,000 270,000 72,000 75,000 Oedogoniales Oedogoniaceae Oedogonium sp. 190,000 Ulvophyceae Cladophorales Cladophoraceae Cladophora sp. 20,000 Table 3...falcatus 2,900 0.3 3,600 Scenedesmaceae Scenedesmus acutus 140,000 Scenedesmus quadricauda 61,000 Oedongiales Oedononiacea Oedogonium sp. 1.0

  13. Institutional Arrangements for River Basin Management: A Case Study of Comparison between the United States and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Gang-yan

    2007-01-01

    This note compares institutional arrangements for water resources management in two river basins, namely, those of the Susquehanna River in the United States and the Yangtze River in China. The Susquehanna River Basin Commission is composed of the US federal government and the three states of New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland through which the Susquehanna River passes. Under the authority of the Susquehanna River Basin Compact, the Commission deals with water resources problems throughout its vast drainage area. In contrast, the Changjiang(Yangtze River) Water Resources Commission (CWRC) lacks relative effectiveness in mobilizing provincial governments in transboundary water resources management.

  14. Water resources of the Pomme de Terre River Watershed, West-central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, R.D.; Bidwell, L.E.

    1966-01-01

    The watershed is underlain by water-bearing glacial drift, cretaceous rocks, and Precambrian crystalline rocks.  It is an elongate basin 92 miles long and has a drainage area of 977 square miles.  The Pomme de Terre River flows within an outwash valley discharging into the Minnesota River at Marsh Lake.

  15. Fluoroscopy guided percutaneous catheter drainage of pneumothorax in good mid-term patency with tube drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ga Young; Oh, Joo Hyung; Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Wook [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    To evaluate efficacy and the safety of percutaneous catheter drainage in patients with pneumothorax that is difficult to treat with closed thoracotomy. We retrospectively reviewed effectiveness of percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) in 10 patients with pneumothorax. The catheter was inserted under fluoroscopic guidance. Seven patients had spontaneous pneumothorax caused by tuberculosis (n =4), reptured bullae (n = 2), and histiocytosis-X (n = 1). Three patients had iatrogenic pneumothorax caused by trauma (n = 1) and surgery (n = 2). All procedures were performed by modified Seldinger's method by using 8F-20F catheter. All catheter were inserted successfully. In 9 of 10 patients, the procedure was curative without further therapy. Duration of catheter insertion ranged from 1 day to 26 days. In the remaining 1 patient in whom multiple pneumothorax occurred after operation, catheter insertion was performed twice. Percutaneous catheter drainage under fluoroscopic guidance is effective and safe procedure for treatment of pneumothorax in patients with failed closed thoracotomy.

  16. 以DEM提取流域水系河源的最小误差分析%Analysis of Minimum Error at River Source to Extract River Network Based on DEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冬平; 陈莹; 陈兴伟

    2011-01-01

    With the development of hydrological model, extraction of river drainage network has been a hot topic in hydrology research. River drainage network was extracted based on topographic maps or drainage maps by digitization in the early years, but the result was influenced by data source resolution. There are presently two kinds of methods to extract river drainage network based on DEM. One is to overlay the extracted river drainage network based on DEM on the river digitalized maps which came from drainage maps or vector layer of river, to make the extract drainage network more similar to the actual river networks.But the accuracy of river drainage network depends on the resolution of drainage maps or vector layer of river. The other one is based on “inflection point” to extract river drainage network, however, the assumption of “inflection point” exists the problem of choice of scale-free interval. To solve the above problems, the river source minimum error (RSME) method was presented based on DEM in this paper. First,the relationship between the distance error of the actual river source and the extracted river network source and the size of grid was established; second, the minimum distance error was adopted as the principle to solve the problem of the uniqueness in watershed drainage network extraction, and then the river network was determined. Taking Jinjiang River as an example and using DEM with 30m resolution as data source, the RSME method was adopted to extract Jinjiang River drainage network on the platform of ArcGIS9.2. The result showed that the distance error between the river source and the extracted river network source is the smallest one when the grid numbers are up to 5814 and the minimum river length is 42m, the corresponding fractal dimension is 1. 389. Moreover, the result indicated that the proposed RSME method is reasonable to extract watershed drainage network.%目前,以水文模型提取流域水系已成为水文科学研究中的

  17. Fate and transport of metals in a natural wetland receiving mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlik, M.; Wildeman, T.; Kolm, K.; Emerick, J.; Robinson, R.

    1999-07-01

    The Forest Queen Wetland, adjacent to the Animas River near Silverton, Colorado receives acid mine drainage from the adit of the Forest Queen Mine. Because the pH of the mine drainage averages between 3 and 5 and the iron concentration averages 18 mg/L, it was thought that the wetland would naturally treat the water. One of the important contaminants to be treated is zinc which averages 0.60 mg/L in the adit water, while the aquatic criterion is 0.50 mg/L. In the study that was undertaken to determine whether metal removal was occurring, considerable effort was made to link the water and soil chemistry with the wetland hydrology. there are at least two water systems influencing the wetland; the mine drainage across the surface and ground water from the adjacent slope that typically grows under the wetland. These two are, for the most part, separated from each other by a layer of peat that is of low hydraulic conductivity and is over 1.8 meters deep in places. Because of the separated hydrologic systems, the Fe and Al is removed from the adit effluent when it flows across the surface. However, because the pH does not exceed 6.5 for the most part, Zn is not removed.

  18. Improving riparian wetland conditions based on infiltration and drainage behavior during and after controlled flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Tess A.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Roche, James W.

    2012-04-01

    SummaryWe present results of an observational and modeling study of the hydrologic response of a riparian wetland to controlled flooding. The study site is located in Poopenaut Valley, Yosemite National Park (USA), adjacent to the Tuolumne River. This area is flooded periodically by releases from the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, and was monitored during one flood sequence to assess the relative importance of inundation versus groundwater rise in establishing and maintaining riparian wetland conditions, defined on the basis of a minimum depth and duration of soil saturation, and to determine how restoration benefits might be achieved while reducing total flood discharge. Soil moisture data show how shallow soils were wetted by both inundation and a rising water table as the river hydrograph rose repeatedly during the controlled flood. The shallow groundwater aquifer under wetland areas responded quickly to conditions in the adjacent river, demonstrating a good connection between surface and subsurface regimes. The observed soil drainage response helped to calibrate a numerical model that was used to test scenarios for controlled flood releases. Modeling of this groundwater-wetland system suggests that inundation of surface soils is the most effective mechanism for developing wetland conditions, although an elevated water table helps to extend the duration of soil saturation. Achievement of wetland conditions can be achieved with a smaller total flood release, provided that repeated cycling of higher and lower river elevations is timed to benefit from the characteristic drainage behavior of wetland soils. These results are robust to modest variations in the initial water table elevation, as might result from wetter or dryer conditions prior to a flood. However, larger changes to initial water table elevation, as could be associated with long term climate change or drought conditions, would have a significant influence on wetland development. An ongoing controlled flooding

  19. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...

  20. Characterization and relation of precipitation, streamflow, and water-quality data at the U.S. Army Garrison Fort Carson and Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site, Colorado, water years 2013–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Michael J.; Stogner, Robert W.; Bruce, James F.

    2016-11-29

    To evaluate the influence of military training activities on streamflow and water quality, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army, began a hydrologic data collection network on the U.S. Army Garrison Fort Carson in 1978 and on the Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site in 1983. This report is a summary and characterization of the precipitation, streamflow, and water-quality data collected at 43 sites between October 1, 2012, and September 30, 2014 (water years 2013 and 2014).Variations in the frequency of daily precipitation, seasonal distribution, and seasonal and annual precipitation at 5 stations at the U.S. Army Garrison Fort Carson and 18 stations at or near the Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site were evaluated. Isohyetal diagrams indicated a general pattern of increase in total annual precipitation from east to west at the U.S. Army Garrison Fort Carson and the Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site. Between about 54 and 79 percent of daily precipitation was 0.1 inch or less in magnitude. Precipitation events were larger and more frequent between July and September.Daily streamflow data from 16 sites were used to evaluate temporal and spatial variations in streamflow for the water years 2013 and 2014. At all sites, median daily mean streamflow for the 2-year period ranged from 0.0 to 9.60 cubic feet per second. Daily mean streamflow hydrographs are included in this report. Five sites on the Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site were monitored for peak stage using crest-stage gages.At the Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site, five sites had a stage recorder and precipitation gage, providing a paired streamflow-precipitation dataset. There was a statistically significant correlation between precipitation and streamflow based on Spearman’s rho correlation (rho values ranged from 0.17 to 0.35).Suspended-sediment samples were collected in April through October for water years 2013–14 at one site at the U.S. Army Garrison Fort Carson and five sites at the Pi

  1. Ultrasound-guided drainage of deep pelvic abscesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Torben; Nolsøe, Christian; Skjoldbye, Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate and evaluate the ultrasound-guided drainage of deep pelvic abscesses in which transabdominal percutaneous access could not be performed because of overlying structures. A retrospective analysis of 32 consecutive patients with 33 deep pelvic abscesses...... (median diameter 7 cm), 19 were treated with catheter drainage and 18 of these cases resulted in favorable clinical outcomes. Of the smaller abscesses (median diameter 4 cm), 14 were treated with needle drainage. In two of these cases, follow-up US showed that a repeat puncture and drainage was necessary...... and the subsequent in-dwelling catheter period, there were no serious complications related to the drainage procedures. We conclude that ultrasound-guided transrectal, transvaginal, transperineal and transgluteal drainage of deep pelvic abscesses are safe and effective treatment approaches. Based on our findings...

  2. Enhancing the natural removal of As in a reactive fluvial confluence receiving acid drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, M. I.; Arce, G.; Montecinos, M.; Guerra, P. A.; Pasten, P.

    2014-12-01

    Fluvial confluences are natural reactors that can determine the fate of contaminants in watersheds receiving acid drainage. Hydrological, hydrodynamic and chemical factors determine distinct conditions for the formation of suspended particles of iron and aluminum oxyhydroxides. The chemical and physical properties of these particle assemblages (e.g. particle size, chemical composition) can vary according to inflow mixing ratios, hydrodynamic velocity profiles, and chemical composition of the flows mixing at the confluence. Due to their capacity to sorb metals, it is important to identify the optimal conditions for removing metals from the aqueous phase, particularly arsenic, a contaminant frequently found in acid drainage. We studied a river confluence in the Lluta watershed, located in the arid Chilean Altiplano. We performed field measurements and laboratory studies to find optimal mixing ratio for arsenic sorption onto oxyhydroxide particles at the confluence between the Azufre (pH=2, As=2 mg/L) and the Caracarani river (pH=8, Asplants could be used to engineer such intervention.Acknowledgements: Proyecto Fondecyt 1130936 and Proyecto CONICYT FONDAP 15110020

  3. Automated upscaling of river networks for macroscale hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huan; Kimball, John S.; Mantua, Nate; Stanford, Jack

    2011-03-01

    We developed a hierarchical dominant river tracing (DRT) algorithm for automated extraction and spatial upscaling of basin flow directions and river networks using fine-scale hydrography inputs (e.g., flow direction, river networks, and flow accumulation). In contrast with previous upscaling methods, the DRT algorithm utilizes information on global and local drainage patterns from baseline fine-scale hydrography to determine upscaled flow directions and other critical variables including upscaled basin area, basin shape, and river lengths. The DRT algorithm preserves the original baseline hierarchical drainage structure by tracing each entire flow path from headwater to river mouth at fine scale while prioritizing successively higher order basins and rivers for tracing. We applied the algorithm to produce a series of global hydrography data sets from 1/16° to 2° spatial scales in two geographic projections (WGS84 and Lambert azimuthal equal area). The DRT results were evaluated against other alternative upscaling methods and hydrography data sets for continental U.S. and global domains. These results show favorable DRT upscaling performance in preserving baseline fine-scale river network information including: (1) improved, automated extraction of flow directions and river networks at any spatial scale without the need for manual correction; (2) consistency of river network, basin shape, basin area, river length, and basin internal drainage structure between upscaled and baseline fine-scale hydrography; and (3) performance largely independent of spatial scale, geographic region, and projection. The results of this study include an initial set of DRT upscaled global hydrography maps derived from HYDRO1K baseline fine-scale hydrography inputs; these digital data are available online for public access at ftp://ftp.ntsg.umt.edu/pub/data/DRT/.

  4. Reuse of drainage water model : calculation method of drainage water and watertable depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, C.W.J.; Rijtema, P.E.; Abdel Khalik, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to assist the Ministry of Irrigation in Egypt in the planning of future watermanagement strategies incorporating reuse of drainage water practices. In order to achieve this main objective a comprehensive measurement programme has been initiated and a mathematical

  5. Comparing twist-drill drainage with burr hole drainage for chronic subdural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Xin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: The surgical management of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH is still a controver- sial issue, and a standard therapy has not been established because of the unclear pathogenic mechanisms in CSDH. The intention of this paper is to find a simple and efficient surgical procedure for CSDH. Methods: A retrospective study of 448 patients with CSDH by surgical treatment during 2005 to 2009 was con- ducted in order to compare the efficiency between two dif- ferent primary surgical methods, i.e. twist-drill drainage with- out irrigation in Group A (n=178 and one burr-hole with irrigation in Group B (n=270. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: The reoperation rates in Group A and Group B were 7.9% and 11.9% respectively. The good outcome rate was 88.8% and 75.5%, the complication was 7.9% and 20.7% in Group A and Group B, respectively. Conclusions: The burr-hole drainage with irrigation of the hematoma cavity is not beneficial to the outcome and prognosis. Irrigation is not important in the surgical treat- ment for CSDH. Thus in initial treatment, twist-drill drainage without irrigation of the hematoma cavity is recommended because it is relatively safe, time-saving and cost-effective. Key words: Hematoma, subdural; Brain injury, chronic; Drainage

  6. Preoperative biliary drainage for periampullary tumors causing obstructive jaundice; DRainage vs. (direct) OPeration (DROP-trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. van der Gaag (Niels); S.M.M. de Castro (Steve); E.A.J. Rauws (Erik); M.J. Bruno (Marco); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); J.J.G.M. Gerritsen (Josephus); J.P. Rutten (Joost Paul); J.W. Greve; E.J. Hesselink (Eric); J.H. Klinkenbijl (Jean); I.H.M.B. Rinkes; D. Boerma (Djamila); B.A. Bonsing (Bert); C.J. van Laarhoven (Cees); F.J. Kubben; E. van der Harst (Erwin); M.N. Sosef (Meindert); K. Bosscha (Koop); I.H.J.T. de Hingh (Ignace); L. Th de Wit (Laurens); O.M. van Delden (Otto); O.R.C. Busch (Olivier); T.M. van Gulik (Thomas); P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); D.J. Gouma (Dirk)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice caused by a periampullary (pancreas, papilla, distal bile duct) tumor is associated with a higher risk of postoperative complications than in non-jaundiced patients. Preoperative biliary drainage was introduced in an attempt to im

  7. Hydraulic Characteristics of the San Gregorio Creek Drainage Basin, California: a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. R.; Snow, M. K.; Pestrong, R.; Sklar, L. S.; Vavro, M.; Sawachi, A.; Talapian, E.; Bailey, E.

    2004-12-01

    Population pressures within the greater San Francisco Bay Area are forcing development into nearby rural communities, and are impacting local environments. This study of the San Gregorio Creek Watershed is designed as a baseline for evaluating the effect increasing development within the drainage basin has on its river system. We hope to provide evidence for that impact through laboratory and field studies that provide a snap-shot of this drainage basin's current characteristics. The San Gregorio Creek watershed, in the Coast Ranges, is located in the southwestern portion of San Mateo County, California. It drains the western slopes of the Santa Cruz Mountains, in the Coast Ranges into the Pacific Ocean at the town of San Gregorio. Most of its fingertip tributaries flow into the trunk from the north and west, with elevations as high as 2050 feet. The watershed includes an area of approximately 51.6 square miles and San Gregorio Creek, the trunk stream, is roughly 12 miles long. San Gregorio Creek is a fourth order perennial stream. It is fed by a number of major tributaries, the largest of which are Alpine, Mindego, and La Honda creeks. The U.S. Geological Survey maintains a stream gauging station for San Gregorio Creek at the town of San Gregorio, where it has been monitoring stream flows for more than 30 years through its Water Resources Department. The resulting data indicate a mean discharge of 36.4 cfs. Map studies of hydraulic geometry for the drainage basin reveal geometric characteristics for San Gregorio Creek that coincide with similar streams in comparable climatic and environmental settings. Stream table studies are used to further investigate fundamental stream processes. Field studies at selected reaches throughout the drainage basin will document hydraulic characteristics. The results of this study will contribute to more comprehensive studies demonstrateing channel response to changing environmental conditions.

  8. The Effects of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) on Fluorescent Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. H.; Gabor, R. S.; SanClements, M.; McKnight, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Located in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado, the catchments drained by the headwaters of the Snake River are dominated by metal- and sulfide-rich bedrock. The breakdown of these minerals results in acidic metal-rich waters in the Snake (pH ~3) that persist until the confluence with Deer Creek (pH ~7). Previous research has been conducted examining the interactions of acid-rock drainage (ARD) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), but the effects of ARD on DOM production is not as well understood. In a synoptic study, samples of creek water were collected at evenly spaced intervals along the length of a tributary to the Snake River which drains an area with ARD. At each sampling location, water samples were collected and pH, conductivity, and temperature were measured. Water samples were analyzed for metal chemistry, and the DOM was analyzed with UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The character of the DOM was described using PARAFAC and index calculations. This work demonstrates that the introduction of acid and dissolved metal species has notable effects on DOM composition. Preliminary data suggests that the introduction of acid drainage is responsible for the formation of a fluorophore not accounted for in the Cory and McKnight PARAFAC model. Both high concentrations of heavy metals (e.g. zinc) and the novel fluorophore are present downstream from a mining site, which indicates it as a possible source of both species. The data suggest a link between the introduction of fluorophores in acidic waters and acidophile populations at the source of the acid rock drainage.

  9. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Madsen, P

    1990-01-01

    Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure was measured in 10 patients undergoing drainage operations for painful chronic pancreatitis. The pressure was measured by the needle technique in the three anatomic regions of the pancreas before and at different stages of the drainage procedure, and the results...... a decrease in pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for pain in chronic pancreatitis. Regional pressure decrease were apparently unrelated to ERCP findings....

  10. Assessment of agricultural drainage water quality for safe reuse in irrigation applications-a case study in Borg El-Arab, Alexandria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmoud Nasr; Hoda Farouk Zahran

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To demonstrate the technical feasibility of the reuse of agricultural drainage water for irrigation. Methods: The agricultural drainage water near Banjar El-Sokar, Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria, Egypt was collected. The measured heavy metals in the drainage water were compared with the permissible levels stated in environmental regulations, Law No. 48 of 1982 concerning the protection of the Nile River and waterways from pollution. Results: Heavy metals and trace elements were detected in this agricultural drainage water as following: Al (1.64 mg/L), Ca (175.00 mg/L), Cd (1.87 mg/L), Co (2.23 mg/L), Cu (1.71 mg/L), Fe (1.64 mg/L), K (20.50 mg/L), and Pb (2.81 mg/L). According to allowable limits, item such as Fe is lower than permissible level of 3.00 mg/L, while Pb and Cu are higher than 0.10 mg/L and 1.00 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: Vegetables irrigated with such drainage water are not safe for human and animal consumption. Accordingly, the study suggests and recommeds remediation of drainage water using physical, chemical and/or biological methods.

  11. Assessment of agricultural drainage water quality for safe reuse in irrigation applications-a case study in Borg El-Arab, Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Nasr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the technical feasibility of the reuse of agricultural drainage water for irrigation. Methods: The agricultural drainage water near Banjar El-Sokar, Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria, Egypt was collected. The measured heavy metals in the drainage water were compared with the permissible levels stated in environmental regulations, Law No. 48 of 1982 concerning the protection of the Nile River and waterways from pollution. Results: Heavy metals and trace elements were detected in this agricultural drainage water as following: Al (1.64 mg/L, Ca (175.00 mg/L, Cd (1.87 mg/L, Co (2.23 mg/L, Cu (1.71 mg/L, Fe (1.64 mg/L, K (20.50 mg/L, and Pb (2.81 mg/L. According to allowable limits, item such as Fe is lower than permissible level of 3.00 mg/L, while Pb and Cu are higher than 0.10 mg/L and 1.00 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: Vegetables irrigated with such drainage water are not safe for human and animal consumption. Accordingly, the study suggests and recommeds remediation of drainage water using physical, chemical and/or biological methods.

  12. Bioreactor for acid mine drainage control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaluski, Marek H.; Manchester, Kenneth R.

    2001-01-01

    A bioreactor for reacting an aqueous heavy metal and sulfate containing mine drainage solution with sulfate reducing bacteria to produce heavy metal sulfides and reduce the sulfuric acid content of the solution. The reactor is an elongated, horizontal trough defining an inlet section and a reaction section. An inlet manifold adjacent the inlet section distributes aqueous mine drainage solution into the inlet section for flow through the inlet section and reaction section. A sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition in the inlet section provides sulfate reducing bacteria that with the sulfuric acid and heavy metals in the solution to form solid metal sulfides. The sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition is retained in the cells of a honeycomb structure formed of cellular honeycomb panels mounted in the reactor inlet section. The honeycomb panels extend upwardly in the inlet section at an acute angle with respect to the horizontal. The cells defined in each panel are thereby offset with respect to the honeycomb cells in each adjacent panel in order to define a tortuous path for the flow of the aqueous solution.

  13. Coupling between drainage and coarsening in wet foam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Saha; S Bhaumik; A Roy

    2009-06-01

    Drainage and coarsening are two coupled phenomena during the evolution of wet foam. We show the variation in the growth rate of bubble size, along the height in a column of Gillette shaving foam, by microscope imaging. Simultaneously, the drainage of liquid at the same heights has been investigated by Raman spectroscopic measurements. The observations made in these two sets of experiments indicate the coupling between drainage and coarsening in wet foam. We could explain the correlation between our observed data on drainage and coarsening by the empirical relation, proposed by others, in the literature.

  14. Isotopic composition of Lake Agassiz-Ojibway water just prior to final drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Helie, J.; McKay, J.; Lalonde, A.

    2006-12-01

    Controversies persist with respect to the impact of the final drainage of Lake Agassiz-Ojibway on the thermohaline circulation of the North Atlantic, some 8.4 ka ago. The lack of response of planktic foraminifer isotope records, off Hudson Strait (i.e., at the outlet of the drainage channel) constitutes one of the most puzzling elements in this debate. However, data on the isotopic composition of drainage waters are needed to estimate the response of the 18-O-salinity relationship in NW Atlantic surface waters. In the literature, a large array of isotopic compositions have been suggested, notably for modeling experiment purposes. Scattered information about the isotopic composition of Lake Agassiz water does exist. It includes isotopic measurements of pore waters of lacustrine sediments [1], analyses of oxygen isotopes in cellulose from algal or plant remains [2], and stable isotope compositions of concretions from varves [3]. Whereas, relatively low oxygen isotope values (apx. -25 per mil vs. VSMOW) are inferred for Lake Agassiz waters during cold pulses of the deglaciation, most data suggest much higher values during the final stages of Lake Agassiz-Ojiway, just prior to its drainage. Calcareous concretions from Lake Ojibway varves (not necessarily contemporaneous to the lacustrine stage) yielded oxygen isotope compositions of about -10 per mil (vs. VPDB), suggesting values as high as -14 per mil (vs. VSMOW) for pore waters (assuming a 0-4 degrees C temperature range). Similar high values (as high as -8 per mil vs. VSMOW [1]) were also estimated from pore water analyses of contemporaneous Lake Agassiz sediments. Here, we used a core raised from Eastern Hudson Bay, off Great Whale River, to further document isotopic compositions of the lake waters prior to their drainage into the North Atlantic. The 7.40 m long core has an apx. 1.3 m-thick lacustrine layer at its base, including the drainage sub- layer. It is overlain by Tyrrell Sea clays. Scarce valves of Candona

  15. Inventory of drainage wells and potential sources of contaminants to drainage-well inflow in Southwest Orlando, Orange County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George Fred

    1993-01-01

    Potential sources of contaminants that could pose a threat to drainage-well inflow and to water in the Floridan aquifer system in southwest Orlando, Florida, were studied between October and December 1990. Drainage wells and public-supply wells were inventoried in a 14-square-mile area, and available data on land use and activities within each drainage well basin were tabulated. Three public-supply wells (tapping the Lower Floridan aquifer) and 38 drainage wells (open to the Upper Floridan aquifer) were located in 17 drainage basins within the study area. The primary sources of drainage-well inflow are lake overflow, street runoff, seepage from the surficial aquifer system, and process-wastewater disposal. Drainage-well inflow from a variety of ares, including resi- dential, commercial, undeveloped, paved, and industrial areas, are potential sources of con- taminants. The four general types of possible contaminants to drainage-well inflow are inorganic chemicals, organic compounds, turbidity, and microbiological contaminants. Potential contami- nant sources include plant nurseries, citrus groves, parking lots, plating companies, auto- motive repair shops, and most commonly, lake- overflow water. Drainage wells provide a pathway for contaminants to enter the Upper Floridan aquifer and there is a potential for contaminants to move downward from the Upper Floridan to the Lower Floridan aquifer.

  16. Extension of geographic distribution of Chrysobrycon hesperus and C. myersi (Characiformes, Characidae, Stevardiinae for several drainages flowing into the Amazon River Basin in Peru and Colombia Extensión de la distribución geográfica de Chrysobrycon hesperus y C. myersi (Characiformes, Characidae, Stevardiinae para varios drenajes fluyendo hacia la cuenca del Amazonas en Perú y Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Anyelo Vanegas-Ríos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of Chrysobrycon hesperus (Böhlke and C. myersi Weitzman and Menezes is extended to new localities from the upper Amazon Basin in Peru and Colombia. Chrysobrycon hesperus is recorded for the first time for the Putumayo River Basin in Colombia.Se amplía la distribución geográfica de Chrysobrycon hesperus (Böhlke y C. myersi Weitzman y Menezes para nuevas localidades de la cuenca alta del Amazonas en Perú y Colombia. Chrysobrycon hesperus se registra por primera vez para la cuenca del río Putumayo en Colombia.

  17. Acid mine-water and agriculture pollution in a river skirting the Donana National Park (Guadiamar River, South West Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, F.; Toca, C.G.; Diaz, E.; De Arambarri, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Agrio river receives the drainage waters from Aznalcollar opencast-worked polymetallic sulfide deposits and the old mine spoil heaps. Some 7 km downstream, the Agrio river joins the Guadiamar river, which is the last tributary on the right of the Guadalquivir river. Drainage waters from the mine and old spoil heaps are the source of high concentrations of heavy metals in the water and sediments of the Agrio and Guadiamar rivers. When river flows increase because of heavy rains or reservoir discharges, sediments are resuspended and transported downstream. The presence of other effluents rich in organic matter with active chelating agents facilitates the dissolution and transport of the metals. Consequently, 30 km downstream from the mine heavy metal concentrations in Guadiamar river are still higher than those in other unpolluted rivers of this zone. Pollution by olive mill effluents (alpechines) is important during the grinding season, causing increases in the K, P and organic matter, and decreases in dissolved oxygen. Nitrogen and P fertilization of rice fields at present does not produce abnormal increases in the concentration of these elements in the water. Concentrations of herbicides in rice field canals and Donana National Park waters reach values considered as the limit of safety for aquatic life. 37 references, 8 figures, 7 tables.

  18. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil M Pophare; Umesh S Balpande

    2014-10-01

    Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order subbasins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the subsurface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the

  19. Seepage flow-stability analysis of the riverbank of Saigon river due to river water level fluctuation

    CERN Document Server

    Oya, A; Hiraoka, N; Fujimoto, M; Fukagawa, R

    2015-01-01

    The Saigon River, which flows through the center of Ho Chi Minh City, is of critical importance for the development of the city as forms as the main water supply and drainage channel for the city. In recent years, riverbank erosion and failures have become more frequent along the Saigon River, causing flooding and damage to infrastructures near the river. A field investigation and numerical study has been undertaken by our research group to identify factors affecting the riverbank failure. In this paper, field investigation results obtained from multiple investigation points on the Saigon River are presented, followed by a comprehensive coupled finite element analysis of riverbank stability when subjected to river water level fluctuations. The river water level fluctuation has been identified as one of the main factors affecting the riverbank failure, i.e. removal of the balancing hydraulic forces acting on the riverbank during water drawdown.

  20. Integrated urban drainage, status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul

    2002-01-01

    with a significant conservatism in the business. However, significant integrated analyses have been reported. Most of them deal with the sewer system and the treatment plant, while few incorporate the receiving water as anything but the object of the loads to be minimised by engineering measures up-stream. Important...... aspects of the papers presented at the INTERURBA-II conference in 2001 and the discussions during the conference. Tools for integrated analysis have been developed, but there is less implementation than could be expected. That is due to lack of adequate knowledge about important mechanisms, coupled......This paper summarises the status of urban storm drainage as an integrated professional discipline, including the management-policy interface, by which the goals of society are implemented. The paper assesses the development of the discipline since the INTERURBA conference in 1992 and includes...

  1. Exact solutions for nonlinear foam drainage equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, E. M. E.; Al-Nowehy, Abdul-Ghani

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the modified simple equation method, the exp-function method, the soliton ansatz method, the Riccati equation expansion method and the ( G^' }/G)-expansion method are used to construct exact solutions with parameters of the nonlinear foam drainage equation. When these parameters are taken to be special values, the solitary wave solutions and the trigonometric function solutions are derived from the exact solutions. The obtained results confirm that the proposed methods are efficient techniques for analytic treatments of a wide variety of nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics. We compare our results together with each other yielding from these integration tools. Also, our results have been compared with the well-known results of others.

  2. Exact solutions for nonlinear foam drainage equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, E. M. E.; Al-Nowehy, Abdul-Ghani

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the modified simple equation method, the exp-function method, the soliton ansatz method, the Riccati equation expansion method and the ( G^' }/G) -expansion method are used to construct exact solutions with parameters of the nonlinear foam drainage equation. When these parameters are taken to be special values, the solitary wave solutions and the trigonometric function solutions are derived from the exact solutions. The obtained results confirm that the proposed methods are efficient techniques for analytic treatments of a wide variety of nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics. We compare our results together with each other yielding from these integration tools. Also, our results have been compared with the well-known results of others.

  3. Urban drainage design and climate change adaptation decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian

    Since the middle of the 19th century urban drainage has been a vital infrastructure in cities. Traditionally, urban drainage has been used as a convenient cleaning mechanism for public hygiene and an efficient conveyance facility to tackle floods for life and assets protection. From the early 20th...

  4. 49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. 192.189 Section 192.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Components § 192.189 Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. (a) Each vault must be designed so as to...

  5. A synthesis and comparative evaluation of drainage water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viable large-scale crop production in the United States requires artificial drainage in humid and poorly drained agricultural regions. Excess water removal is generally achieved by installing tile drains that export water to open ditches that eventually flow into streams. Drainage water management...

  6. 7 CFR 1924.108 - Grading and drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... In questionable or unsurveyed areas, the applicant or developer will provide an engineering report... affect the structure and show proposed solutions. Grading will promote drainage of surface water away from buildings and foundations, minimize earth settlement and erosion, and assure that drainage...

  7. Ecology and management of agricultural drainage ditches: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are headwater streams that have been modified or constructed for agricultural drainage, and are often used in conjunction with tile drains. These modified streams are a common landscape feature in Ohio, and constitute 25% of stream habitat within the state. Management o...

  8. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  9. Environmental Ethics in River Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran Moorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Environmental ethics concerns human beings’ ethical relationship with the natural environment. The fundamental question regarding environmental ethics is basically-what moral obligations do we have concerning the natural environment? The main objective of this study is to examine the extent environmental ethics manifest in river management. The study employs the case study of Malaysia's Gombak River-one of the most polluted urban rivers that run through some heavily inhabited urban areas. The study examines how the Department of Environment (DOE, Drainage and Irrigation Department (DID and Selayang Municipal Council (MPS manage the problem of pollution in the Gombak River. Approach: This study uses both quantitative and qualitative analysis. A quantitative approach is employed to assess the water quality in several points along Gombak River. This is done by way of series of scientific testing to determine the level of pollution in the river. Secondly, a qualitative approach is applied on the data gathered through expert interviews on inter-agency coordination efforts to manage pollution problems. Results: The study firstly shows that the Gombak River is considerably polluted, with higher levels of pollution in upstream as compared to the downstream. The second finding suggests that notwithstanding several legislations that are already in place, there is sluggishness in the enforcement of pollution mitigation efforts as a result of ineffective inter-agency communication and coordination. Conclusion: The lack of concerted and coordinated efforts between river management agencies have been cited as one of the main factors contributing to river pollution. Therefore, the agencies concerned should embark on cohesive measures to ensure the rivers are managed well and its water quality controlled. This requires for a structured coordination mechanism between agencies to be put in place and such mechanism can be emulated in the

  10. River diversions, avulsions and captures in the Tortuguero coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galve, Jorge Pedro; Alvarado, Guillermo; Pérez Peña, José Vicente; Azañón, José Miguel; Mora, Mauricio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The Tortuguero area is a coastal plain that forms part of the North Limón sedimentary basin, the back-arc region of the Caribbean side of Costa Rica. This coastal plain is characterised by an abnormal drainage pattern with river captures, diversions and shifts in channel directions. We are analyzing this anomalous drainage network adopting a classical geomorphological approach combined with geomorphometric techniques. The SRTM DEM at 1 arc-second of resolution (~30 m) from NASA, topographic maps 1:50,000, satellital images and the digital cartography of the drainage network have been used for inventorying the channel pattern anomalies. River segments were categorized according to sinuosity, orientation, slope changes and incision using GIS tools. Initially, anomalies in the analyzed river courses suggested that buried thrust fronts could disrupt their natural pattern. However, we have not identified any evidence to link the activity of buried structures with the disruption of natural drainage. Blind thrusts detected through seismic subsurface exploration in the SE sector of the Tortuguero plain do not seem to produce changes in the sinuosity, orientation, slope and incision of rivers as those observed in the deeply studied tectonically active area of the Po Plain (Italy). The identified river pattern anomalies have been explained due to other alternative causes: (1) the migration of the mouths of Reventazón, Pacuare and Matina rivers is produced by sand sedimentation in the coast because of a successive ridge beach formation. This migration to the SE has the same direction than the main ocean currents those deposited the sand. (2) The anomalous course of Parismina river is most probably conditioned by the fracturation of the dissected volcanic apron of Turrialba volcano. (3) Channel migration and capture of Barbilla river by Matina river can be triggered by the tectonic tilting of the coastal plain towards the SE. The subsidence of the SE sector of the plain was

  11. Treatment of drainage solution from hydroponic greenhouse production with microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultberg, Malin; Carlsson, Anders S; Gustafsson, Susanne

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated treatment of the drainage solution from greenhouse production with microalgae, through inoculation with Chlorella vulgaris or through growth of the indigenous microalgal community. A significant reduction in nitrogen, between 34.7 and 73.7 mg L(-1), and particularly in phosphorus concentration, between 15.4 and 15.9 mg L(-1), was observed in drainage solution collected from commercial greenhouse production. The large reduction in nutrients was achieved through growth of the indigenous microalgal community i.e., without pre-treatment of the drainage solution or inoculation with the fast growing green microalgae C. vulgaris. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of the algal biomass revealed that compared with a standard growth medium for green algae, the drainage solution was inferior for lipid production. Despite the biorefinery concept being less promising, microalgae-based treatment of drainage solution from greenhouse production is still of interest considering the urgent need for phosphorus recycling.

  12. On the effectiveness of dry drainage in soil salinity control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU JingWei; ZHAO LiRong; HUANG JieSheng; YANG JinZhong; VINCENT Bernard; BOUARFA Sami; VIDAL Alain

    2009-01-01

    Dry drainage is thought to be a potential approach to control soil salinity.This study took the Hetao Irrigation District as an example and evaluated the effectiveness of dry drainage by using remote sensing, a conceptual model and a field experiment.Archived remote sensing images from 1973-2006 were used to delineate the temporal and spatial change of soil salinity.The conceptual water and salt balance model was used to evaluate the role of dry drainage in removing excess salt from the irrigated land.The field experiment was performed to get field validation and give more accurate estimation.The results show that dry drainage did contribute to remove excess salt from the irrigated land and succeed in controlling soil salinity in the Hetao Irrigation District.it can be taken as an alternative approach in (semi-)arid area where artificial drainage is not applicable.

  13. On the effectiveness of dry drainage in soil salinity control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VINCENT; Bernard; BOUARFA; Sami; VIDAL; Alain

    2009-01-01

    Dry drainage is thought to be a potential approach to control soil salinity. This study took the Hetao Irrigation District as an example and evaluated the effectiveness of dry drainage by using remote sensing, a conceptual model and a field experiment. Archived remote sensing images from 1973―2006 were used to delineate the temporal and spatial change of soil salinity. The conceptual water and salt balance model was used to evaluate the role of dry drainage in removing excess salt from the irrigated land. The field experiment was performed to get field validation and give more accurate estimation. The results show that dry drainage did contribute to remove excess salt from the irrigated land and succeed in controlling soil salinity in the Hetao Irrigation District. It can be taken as an alternative approach in (semi-)arid area where artificial drainage is not applicable.

  14. Modelling river history and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, T J; Van de Wiel, M J

    2012-05-13

    Over the last few decades, a suite of numerical models has been developed for studying river history and evolution that is almost as diverse as the subject of river history itself. A distinction can be made between landscape evolution models (LEMs), alluvial architecture models, meander models, cellular models and computational fluid dynamics models. Although these models share some similarities, there also are notable differences between them, which make them more or less suitable for simulating particular aspects of river history and evolution. LEMs embrace entire drainage basins at the price of detail; alluvial architecture models simulate sedimentary facies but oversimplify flow characteristics; and computational fluid dynamics models have to assume a fixed channel form. While all these models have helped us to predict erosion and depositional processes as well as fluvial landscape evolution, some areas of prediction are likely to remain limited and short-term owing to the often nonlinear response of fluvial systems. Nevertheless, progress in model algorithms, computing and field data capture will lead to greater integration between these approaches and thus the ability to interpret river history more comprehensively.

  15. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    River nomads is a movie about people on the move. The documentary film explores the lifestyle of a group of nomadic fishermen whose mobility has been the recipe of success and troubles. Engaged in trade and travel, twice a year the river nomads form impressive convoys of majestic pirogues and set...... and liberated lifestyle and the breath-taking landscapes and vistas offered by the Niger River. River Nomads is also a personal account of the Kebbawa’s way of life and their current struggles as nomadic folk living in a world divided by borders and ruled by bureaucrats....

  16. Using Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli data and Bayesian microbial risk assessment to examine public health risks in agricultural watersheds under tile drainage management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, P J; Pintar, K D M; Fazil, A M; Flemming, C A; Lanthier, M; Laprade, N; Sunohara, M D; Simhon, A; Thomas, J L; Topp, E; Wilkes, G; Lapen, D R

    2013-06-15

    Human campylobacteriosis is the leading bacterial gastrointestinal illness in Canada; environmental transmission has been implicated in addition to transmission via consumption of contaminated food. Information about Campylobacter spp. occurrence at the watershed scale will enhance our understanding of the associated public health risks and the efficacy of source water protection strategies. The overriding purpose of this study is to provide a quantitative framework to assess and compare the relative public health significance of watershed microbial water quality associated with agricultural BMPs. A microbial monitoring program was expanded from fecal indicator analyses and Campylobacter spp. presence/absence tests to the development of a novel, 11-tube most probable number (MPN) method that targeted Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. These three types of data were used to make inferences about theoretical risks in a watershed in which controlled tile drainage is widely practiced, an adjacent watershed with conventional (uncontrolled) tile drainage, and reference sites elsewhere in the same river basin. E. coli concentrations (MPN and plate count) in the controlled tile drainage watershed were statistically higher (2008-11), relative to the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed, but yearly variation was high as well. Escherichia coli loading for years 2008-11 combined were statistically higher in the controlled watershed, relative to the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed, but Campylobacter spp. loads for 2010-11 were generally higher for the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed (but not statistically significant). Using MPN data and a Bayesian modelling approach, higher mean Campylobacter spp. concentrations were found in the controlled tile drainage watershed relative to the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed (2010, 2011). A second-order quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was used, in a relative way, to identify

  17. Characterize the hydraulic behaviour of grate inlet in urban drainage to prevent the urban's flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez Alvarez, Jackson David; Gomez, Manuel; Russo, Beniamino; Redondo, Jose M.

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important problems that have some cities is the urban floods because of poor drainage design. Therefore the systems the drainage do not have the capacity of capture the flow of discharge generated in a rain event and insert it into the drainage network. Even though the two problems that have caught the main attention are the evaluation of the volumes falling in the river basin because extreme rainfall events often lead to urban pluvial flooding being a hydrologic problem and the hydraulic design of the sewer network being a hydraulic problem to limiting capacity of the drainage system, there is an intermediate step between these two processes that is necessary to solve that is the hydraulic behavior of the grate inlet. We need to collect the runoff produced on the city surface and to introduce it in the sewer network. Normally foundry companies provide complete information about drainage grate structural capacity but provide nothing about their hydraulic capacity. This fact can be seen because at the moment does not exist any official regulation at national or international level in this field. It's obvious that, nowadays, there is a great gap in this field at the legislative level owing to the complexity of this field and the modernity of the urban hydrology as science [1]. In essence, we shows the relevance to know the inlet hydraulic interception capacity because surface drainage requires a satisfactory knowledge on storm frequency, gutter flow and above all inlet capacity. In addition, we development an important achievement is the invention and development of techniques for measurement of field velocities in hydraulics engineering applications. Hence knowledge the technological advances in digital cameras with high resolution and high speed found in the environmental, and the advances in image processing techniques, therefore now is a tremendous potential to obtain of behavior of the water surface flow [2]. A novel technique using particle

  18. Unilobar versus bilobar biliary drainage: effect on quality of life and bilirubin level reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Gamanagatti

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Percutaneous biliary drainage provides good palliation of malignant obstructive jaundice. Partial-liver drainage achieved results as good as those after complete liver drainage with significant improvements in QOL and reduction of the bilirubin level.

  19. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  20. The Valley Bottom Extraction Tool (V-BET): A GIS tool for delineating valley bottoms across entire drainage networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jordan T.; Macfarlane, William W.; Wheaton, Joseph M.

    2016-12-01

    The shape, size and extent of a valley bottom dictates the form and function of the associated river or stream. Consequently, accurate, watershed-wide delineation of valley bottoms is increasingly recognized as a necessary component of watershed management. While many valley bottom delineation approaches exist, methods that can be effectively applied across entire drainage networks to produce reasonably accurate results are lacking. Most existing tools are designed to work using high resolution topography data (i.e. > 2 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM)) and can only be applied over relatively short reach lengths due to computational or data availability limitations. When these precise mapping approaches are applied throughout drainage networks (i.e. 102-104 km), the computational techniques often either do not scale, or the algorithms perform inconsistently. Other tools that produce outputs at broader scale extents generally utilize coarser input topographic data to produce more poorly resolved valley bottom approximations. To fill this methodology gap and produce relatively accurate valley bottoms over large areas, we developed an algorithm that accepts terrain data from one to 10 m with slope and valley width parameters that scale based on drainage area, allowing for watershed-scale valley bottom delineation. We packaged this algorithm in the Valley Bottom Extraction Tool (V-BET) as an open-source ArcGIS toolbox for ease of use. To illustrate V-BET's scalability and test the tool's robustness across different physiographic settings, we delineated valley bottoms for the entire perennial drainage network of Utah as well as twelve watersheds across the interior Columbia River Basin (totaling 55,400 km) using 10 m DEMs. We found that even when driven with relatively coarse data (10 m DEMs), V-BET produced a relatively accurate approximation of valley bottoms across the entire watersheds of these diverse physiographic regions.

  1. Subsurface recharge to the Tesuque aquifer system from selected drainage basins along the western side of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains near Santa Fe, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiolek, Maryann

    1995-01-01

    Water budgets developed for basins of five streams draining the western side of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in northern New Mexico indicate that subsurface inflow along the mountain front is recharging the Tesuque aquifer system of the Espanola Basin. Approximately 14,700 acre-feet of water per year, or 12.7 percent of average annual precipitation over the mountains, is calculated to leave the mountain block and enter the basin as subsurface recharge from the drainage basins of the Rio Nambe, Rio en Medio, Tesuque Creek, Little Tesuque Creek, and Santa Fe River. About 5,520 acre- feet per year, or about 12 percent of average annual precipitation, is calculated to enter from the Rio Nambe drainage basin; about 1,710 acre- feet per year, or about 15 percent of average annual precipitation, is calculated to enter from the Rio en Medio drainage basin; about 1,530 acre- feet, or about 10 percent of average annual precipi- tation, is calculated to enter from the Tesuque Creek drainage basin; about 1,790 acre-feet, or about 19 percent of average annual precipitation, is calculated to enter from the Little Tesuque Creek drainage basin; and about 4,170 acre-feet per year, or about 12 percent average annual precipitation, is calculated to enter from the Santa Fe River drainage basin. Calculated subsurface recharge values were used to define maximum fluxes permitted along the specified-flux boundary defining the mountain front of the Sangre De Cristo Mountains in a numerical computer model of the Tesuque aquifer system near Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  2. MACROSCOPIC RIVERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBERG, IP

    1991-01-01

    We present a mathematical model for the ''river-phenomenon'': striking concentrations of trajectories of ordinary differential equations. This model of ''macroscopic rivers'' is formulated within nonstandard analysis, and stated in terms of macroscopes and singular perturbations. For a subclass, the

  3. Herbicide and nutrient transport from an irrigation district into the South Saskatchewan River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cessna, A J; Elliott, J A; Tollefson, L; Nicholaichuk, W

    2001-01-01

    Pesticides and nutrients can be transported from treated agricultural land in irrigation runoff and thus can affect the quality of receiving waters. A 3-yr study was carried out to assess possible detrimental effects on the downstream water quality of the South Saskatchewan River due to herbicide and plant nutrient inputs via drainage water from an irrigation district. Automated water samplers and flow monitors were used to intensively sample the drainage water and to monitor daily flows in two major drainage ditches, which drained approximately 40% of the flood-irrigated land within the irrigation district. Over three years, there were no detectable inputs of ethalfluralin into the river and those of trifluralin were less than 0.002% of the amount applied to flood-irrigated fields. Inputs of MCPA, bromoxynil, dicamba and mecoprop were 0.06% or less of the amounts applied, whereas that for clopyralid was 0.31%. The relatively higher input (1.4%) of 2,4-D to the river was probably due its presence in the irrigation water. Corresponding inputs of P (as total P) and N (as nitrate plus ammonia) were 2.2 and 1.9% of applied fertilizer, respectively. Due to dilution of the drainage water in the river, maximum daily herbicide (with the exception of 2,4-D) and nutrient loadings to the river would not have resulted in significant concentration increases in the river water. There was no consistent remedial effect on herbicides entering the river due to passage of the drainage water through a natural wetland. In contrast, a considerable portion of the nutrients entering the river originated from the wetland.

  4. River Water Quality Zoning: A Case Study of Karoon and Dez River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karamouz, N Mahjouri, R Kerachian

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Karoon-Dez River basin, with an area of 67000 square kilometers, is located in southern part of Iran. This river system supplies the water demands of 16 cities, several villages, thousands hectares of agricultural lands, and several hydropower plants. The increasing water demands at the project development stage including agricultural networks, fish hatchery projects, and inter-basin water transfers, have caused a gloomy future for water quality of the Karoon and Dez Rivers. A good part of used agricultural water, which is about 8040 million cubic meters, is returned to the rivers through agricultural drainage systems or as non-point, return flows. River water quality zoning could provide essential information for developing river water quality management policies. In this paper, a methodology is presented for this purpose using methods of -mean crisp classification and a fuzzy clustering scheme. The efficiency of these clustering methods was evaluated using water quality data gathered from the monitoring sampling points along Karoon and Dez Rivers. The results show that the proposed methodology can provide valuable information to support decision-making and to help river water quality management in the region.

  5. Distinguishing the Transition Reach between Torrent and River Using Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Morphology in River Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, F. Y.; Chen, S. C.; An, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    To distinguish a transition reach between river and torrent, this study designed a method to quantify the morphology of channel cross-section. The 5m DEM, which administered by central government, was used to obtain cross-sections from third and fourth order river of 10 main drainages in Taiwan with an interval of 140 to 150 m. We designed a Cross-Sectional Complex-Index (Ics) to determine the morphological complexity and quantify the degrees of wide-shallow for each sections. This index can be applied to define the location of notch, because it can be knew form river regime that a notch is defined as a narrow-deep cross-section and narrow-deep and relatively large slope to adjacent reach. Therefore, this study defined notch index (Inotch) as the gradient divided by cross-sectional complex-index, and applied it to present the distribution of notch-type sections in study drainages, and the results of field investigation in 22 site showed that a section can be defined as notch while Inotch is lager then 60. The distribution of notch in a drainage shown that the notch which conform our quantitative definitions almost concentrated into several reaches intersecting with some broad-shallow section, and the gradient of these reaches are between 2% to 3%. Therefore, we can define that these reaches are the transition reaches between river and torrent. There are 54 sites of transition reach in our study drainages, 80% of the sites had a watershed area within a range of 2000 to 6000 ha. It proof that our method can define transition reach effectively and consistently. In addition, because of the type of disaster is collapse and debris flow in torrent and flood damages in river. It can be found that type of disaster are derived from the river morphology. Therefore, our method and result can be applied to determine the disaster type and strategic planning of disaster prevention as a reference.

  6. River capture and sediment redistribution in northern Tunisia: The doom of Utica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Camafort, Miquel; Pérez-Peña, J. Vicente; Melki, Fetheddine; Ranero, César; Azañón, José Miguel; Gracia, Eulalia; Ouadday, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Utica was a flourishing port city in northern Tunisia since the Phoenician times, 12-9th century B.C., until the 4th century A.D.. However, at present it is located 10 km from the coastline after very fast late Holocene progradation of the Mejerda River delta into the bay of Utica. This fast delta progradation occurred after Mejerda River captured Tine River increasing 140 % the river catchment area. Charcoal fragments present in the youngest Tine river terrace at the wind gap give a conventional radiocarbon age of 3240 +/- 30yr BP, indicating that the capture occurred after this date. Quaternary fluvial terraces located in the Tine River paleovalley have been folded and uplifted above a fold related to the active El Alia Tebousouk reverse fault (ETF). Continued uplift of the Tine River valley above the ETF favoured headward erosion of the Medjerda river tributaries creating a transverse drainage that captured Tine River. This capture produced an important change in sediment discharge along the northern Tunisia coast driving sediments to the Gulf of Tunis instead of feeding the Tyrrhenian Sea through the Ichkeul and Bizerte lakes. Although anthropogenic derived degradation of northern Tunisia land for agricultural purposes probably influenced the increase in sediment into the Utica bay, the main cause of rapid progradation of the Medjerda River delta during the late Holocene is related to its increase in drainage area after capturing the Tine River. This process was mostly driven by local contractive tectonics linked to the seismogenic Alia Tebousouk reverse fault.

  7. The cold air drainage model KLAM_21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossmann, M.

    2010-09-01

    A brief description of the physics and numerical techniques of the cold air drainage model KLAM_21 is presented. The model has been developed by the Deutscher Wetterdienst (Sievers, 2005) for simulations of nocturnal airflow in hilly and mountainous terrain under dry fair weather conditions. The model has been widely used as an environmental consultancy tool. Typical model applications include frost protection (cold air ponding) and air quality (nocturnal ventilation). The single-layer model calculates the depth and the mean wind of a surface based stable layer that evolves from a neutrally stratified atmosphere during nighttime. The prediction of the velocity and direction of the cold air drainage is based on vertically averaged momentum tendency equations. Temporal changes in the total heat deficit in the cold air layer are calculated from a prescribed local heat loss rate (describing turbulent and radiative cooling) and advection (donor-cell algorithm). The depth of the cold air layer (depth of the surface based temperature inversion) is calculated diagnostically from the total heat loss deficit. The model is initialised with neutral stratification at sunset (onset time of nocturnal cooling). Optionally, effects of an ambient (regional) wind and/or the dispersion of a passive tracer can be simulated. Integration over time is carried out on a regular Arakawa C grid using dynamically calculated time steps. Spatial gradients are discretised using centred differential quotients. The standard size of the computational domains can reach up to 1500 x 1500 grid cells. Grid resolutions usually range between 10 m and 500 m. High resolution simulation can be limited to a nested inner grid domain, while the courser outer domain is covering the entire airshed of interest. A friendly user interface allows easy setup, control, and evaluation of model simulations. Some selected examples of KLAM_21 applications are shown to illustrate the features and capabilities of the model

  8. Technology of gas drainage and utilization in Huaibei mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; XU Rui

    2009-01-01

    With the characteristics of coal seam geology and gas occurrence, a "ground-underground" integrated gas drainage method was formed, which can relieve gas pressure and increase permeability by mining the protection seams in conditional regions. After coal seam gas drainage, high gas outburst seam was converted to low gas safety seam. In the coal face mining process, safety and high efficient coal mining were realized by the measure of gas-suction over mining. In addition to the drainage gas for civil gas and gas power generation, the Huaibei Mining Group has actively carried out research on the utilization technology of methane drainage by ventilation. On the one hand, it can save precious energy; on the other hand, it can protect the environment for people's survival. In 2007, the amount of coal mine gas drainage was 120 hm3; the rate of coal mine gas drainage was 44%. Compared with the year 2002, the amount of coal mine gas drainage increased by two times. Meanwhile, the utilization rate of gas increased rapidly.

  9. Comparative experiments of gas drainage in different types of drillings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cheng-wu; WEI Shan-yang; WANG Chuan; GAO Tian-bao; FU Yu-kai

    2012-01-01

    Gas drainage effect is the utmost important factor for mining speed and mining safety.It has great meaning to study the effect of gas drainage.Comparative experiment of gas drainage in different types of drillings shows that the initial rate of gas natural emission by hydraulic loosed cross drilling is 1.5 times more than that of parallel drilling,and the drilling gas attenuation coefficients reduces to 0.78 times,the effect of gas drainage is good.The ultimate quantity of gas drainage of parallel drilling,cross drilling,hydraulic loosed cross drilling are 859.1,1 323.5 and 1 833.6 m3/100 m.The results of the measurement through these three kinds of drillings of 100 meters drilling is considered as following:cross drilling is 1.54 times more than that of parallel drillings,hydraulic loosed cross drilling are 2.13 times more than parallel drilling.The drainage rate of parallel drilling,cross drilling and hydraulic loosed cross drilling reached 10% to 15% in 3 months with the pre-draining time.Among these,the drainage effect of hydraulic loosed cross drilling increased by 46% than that of parallel drilling in three months.

  10. Systematic review comparing endoscopic, percutaneous and surgical pancreatic pseudocyst drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anthony Yuen Bun Teoh; Vinay Dhir; Zhen-Dong Jin; Mitsuhiro Kida; Dong Wan Seo; Khek Yu Ho

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To perform a systematic review comparing the outcomes of endoscopic, percutaneous and surgical pancreatic pseudocyst drainage.METHODS: Comparative studies published between January 1980 and May 2014 were identified on Pub Med, Embase and the Cochrane controlled trials register and assessed for suitability of inclusion. The primary outcome was the treatment success rate. Secondary outcomes included were the recurrence rates, re-interventions, length of hospital stay, adverse events and mortalities.RESULTS: Ten comparative studies were identified and 3 were randomized controlled trials. Four studies reported on the outcomes of percutaneous and surgical drainage. Based on a large-scale national study, surgical drainage appeared to reduce mortality and adverse events rate as compared to the percutaneous approach. Three studies reported on the outcomes of endoscopic ultrasound(EUS) and surgical drainage. Clinical success and adverse events rates appeared to be comparable but the EUS approach reduced hospital stay, cost and improved quality of life. Three other studies comparedEUS and esophagogastroduodenoscopy-guided drainage. Both approaches were feasible for pseudocyst drainage but the success rate of the EUS approach was better for non-bulging cyst and the approach conferred additional safety benefits.CONCLUSION: In patients with unfavorable anatomy, surgical cystojejunostomy or percutaneous drainage could be considered. Large randomized studies with current definitions of pseudocysts and longer-term follow-up are needed to assess the efficacy of the various modalities.

  11. Comparison of Methane Drainage Methods Used in Polish Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlązak, Nikodem; Borowski, Marek; Obracaj, Dariusz; Swolkień, Justyna; Korzec, Marek

    2014-10-01

    Methane drainage is used in Polish coal mines in order to reduce mine methane emissions as well as to keep methane concentration in mine workings at safe levels. This article describes methods of methane drainage during mining used in Polish coal mines. The first method involves drilling boreholes from tailgate roadway to an unstressed zone in roof or floor layers of a mined seam. It is the main method used in Polish mining, where both the location of drilled boreholes as well as their parameters are dependent on mining and ventilation systems of longwalls. The second method is based on drilling overlying drainage galleries in seams situated under or over the mined seam. This article compares these methods with regard to their effectiveness under mining conditions in Polish mines. High effectiveness of methane drainage of longwalls with different ventilation and methane drainage systems has been proven. The highest effectiveness of methane drainage has been observed for the system with overlying drainage gallery and with the parallel tailgate roadways. In case of classic U ventilation system of longwall panel, boreholes drilled from the tailgate roadway behind the longwall front are lost.

  12. Mortality of centrarchid fishes in the Potomac drainage: Survey results and overview of potential contributing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Starliper, Clifford E.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Barbash, P.; Hedrick, J.D.; Reeser, S.J.; Mullican, J.E.; Kelble, J.

    2010-01-01

    Skin lesions and spring mortality events of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu and selected other species were first noted in the South Branch of the Potomac River in 2002. Since that year morbidity and mortality have also been observed in the Shenandoah and Monocacy rivers. Despite much research, no single pathogen, parasite, or chemical cause for the lesions and mortality has been identified. Numerous parasites, most commonly trematode metacercariae and myxozoans; the bacterial pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, and Flavobacterium columnare; and largemouth bass virus have all been observed. None have been consistently isolated or observed at all sites, however, nor has any consistent microscopic pathology of the lesions been observed. A variety of histological changes associated with exposure to environmental contaminants or stressors, including intersex (testicular oocytes), high numbers of macrophage aggregates, oxidative damage, gill lesions, and epidermal papillomas, were observed. The findings indicate that selected sensitive species may be stressed by multiple factors and constantly close to the threshold between a sustainable (healthy) and nonsustainable (unhealthy) condition. Fish health is often used as an indicator of aquatic ecosystem health, and these findings raise concerns about environmental degradation within the Potomac River drainage. Unfortunately, while much information has been gained from the studies conducted to date, due to the multiple state jurisdictions involved, competing interests, and other issues, there has been no coordinated approach to identifying and mitigating the stressors. This synthesis emphasizes the need for multiyear, interdisciplinary, integrative research to identify the underlying stressors and possible management actions to enhance ecosystem health.

  13. Petrology and Bulk Chemistry of Modern Bed Load Sediments From Rivers Draining the Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, J. B.

    2003-12-01

    We studied river bed load petrology and bulk sediment chemistry of the headwaters of the Changjiang, Huang He and Red rivers in China and Vietnam. These rivers drain the eastern and southeastern parts of the Tibetan Plateau which includes part of the Indian-Eurasian suture zone. The eastern Tibetan Plateau is dominated by marine sedimentary rocks with a few scattered intrusive igneous outcrops, while the suture zone is characterized by a mixture of high-grade metamorphic, ultramafic, granitic, volcanic arc and marine sedimentary rocks. The arithmetic average for Qt: Ft: Rft along the suture zone varies from 56:2:42 along the Red River Fault (RRF) zone to 38:6:56 in the interior of the continent, while sands from rivers draining the plateau average 32:8:60. The sands analyzed in this study are relatively immature compared to most data available from most rivers in the tropics. The average Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) for samples from the RRF suture zone (0.62) is similar to that of rivers draining other tropical regions like the Niger, Chao Phraya, Mekong, Ganges, Amazon and Brahmaputra. The CIA values from the RRF zone are also significantly different from the rest of the suture zone (0.36) and the plateau area (0.38). The difference can be attributed to the combined effect of relief and precipitation. The RRF lies in the Red River drainage and receives ˜1820 mm of precipitation annually, while the plateau area averages ˜620 mm annually. In the case of the Red River drainage, the relief combined with higher humidity can increase physical weathering and reduce the residence time of sediment in the river drainage, therefore, continuously replacing the sediment transported out of the drainage by freshly weathered immature materials. In the plateau area, lower precipitation and runoff may limit sediment transport and chemical weathering leading to sediment immaturity.

  14. Separation of drainage runoff during rainfall-runoff episodes using the stable isotope method and drainage water temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajíček, Antonín; Kvítek, Tomáš; Pomije, Tomáš

    2014-05-01

    Stabile isotopes of 2H 18O and drainage water temperature were used as natural tracers for separation rainfall-runoff event hydrograph on several tile drained catchments located in Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic. Small agricultural catchments with drainage systems built in slopes are typical for foothill areas in the Czech and Moravian highland. Often without permanent surface runoff, the drainage systems represent an important portion of runoff and nitrogen leaching out of the catchment. The knowledge of the drainage runoff formation and the origin of its components are prerequisites for formulation of measures leading to improvement of the drainage water quality and reduction of nutrient leaching from the drained catchments. The results have proved presence of event water in the drainage runoff during rainfall-runoff events. The proportion of event water observed in the drainage runoff varied between 15 - 60 % in the summer events and 0 - 50 % in winter events, while the sudden water temperature change was between 0,1 - 4,2 °C (2 - 35 %). The comparison of isotope separation of the drainage runoff and monitoring the drainage water temperature have demonstrated that in all cases of event water detected in the runoff, a rapid change in the drainage water temperature was observed as well. The portion of event water in the runoff grows with the growing change in water temperature. Using component mixing model, it was demonstrated that water temperature can be successfully used at least as a qualitative and with some degree of inaccuracy as a quantitative tracer as well. The drawback of the non-conservative character of this tracer is compensated by both its economic and technical accessibility. The separation results also resemble results of separations at small streams. Together with a similarly high speed of the discharge reaction to beginning of precipitation, it is obvious that the mechanism of surface runoff formation and drainage runoff formation

  15. Information technology and decision support tools for stakeholder-driven river basin salinity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T; Cozad, D.B.; Lee, G.

    2010-01-01

    Innovative strategies for effective basin-scale salinity management have been developed in the Hunter River Basin of Australia and more recently in the San Joaquin River Basin of California. In both instances web-based stakeholder information dissemination has been a key to achieving a high level of stakeholder involvement and the formulation of effective decision support salinity management tools. A common element to implementation of salinity management strategies in both river basins has been the concept of river assimilative capacity for controlling export salt loading and the potential for trading of the right to discharge salt load to the river - the Hunter River in Australia and the San Joaquin River in California. Both rivers provide basin drainage and the means of exporting salt to the ocean. The paper compares and contrasts the use of monitoring, modeling and information dissemination in the two basins to achieve environmental compliance and sustain irrigated agriculture in an equitable and socially and politically acceptable manner.

  16. Drainage filters and constructed wetlands to mitigate sitespecific nutrient losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Canga, Eriona; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2012-01-01

    typically applied to point sources. This calls for a shift of paradigm towards the development of new, cost-efficient technologies to mitigate site-specific nutrient losses in drainage. A newly launched Danish research project “SUPREME-TECH” (2010-2015) (www.supreme-tech.dk) funded by the Danish Strategic...... Research Council, aims at providing the scientific basis for developing cost-effective filter technologies targeting P-retention and N-removal in agricultural subsurface drainage. The project studies different approaches of implementing the filter technologies including drainage well filters as well...

  17. Foam drainage wave coalescing and its energy evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN QiCheng; HUANG Jin; WANG GuangQian

    2008-01-01

    Liquid foam is a dense packing of gas bubbles in a small amount of surfactant solution. Liquid drains out of foams until equilibrium is reached due to the compromise between gravity and capillarity, which greatly affects the stability of foam. Based on a series of work on foam structure and drainage we conducted previously, this paper reports the results on coalescence of an original forced drainage wave at a low flow rate with subsequent drainage waves with higher flow rates. The evolutions of vis-cous energy and surface energy during the process of coalescence are theoretically analyzed.

  18. DROUGHT ANALYSIS IN OZANA DRAINAGE BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina IOSUB

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozana drainage basin is located at the contact between large landscape units (the Carpathian mountains, the Subcarpathian area, and the plateau region. This placement determines the existence of a complex climate in the region. Despite being small in size, and its extension on an W-E direction, differences can be observed, especially of the way extreme phenomena take place. In the case of droughts, it had different intensities in the mountains, compared to the plateau region. In order to emphasize the different distribution on the territory, several climatic indexes have been calculated, regarding dryness (De Martonne Index, Hellman criterion. The analysis of these indexes at the same monitoring stations (Pluton, Leghin and Dumbrava emphasizes the growth of the drought periods in the plateau region and the fact that they shorten in the mountain area. In the mountainous area, where the land is very well forested, the values of the De Martonne index can reach 45.4, and in the plateau regions, where the forest associations are sparse, the values dropped to 30.6. According to the Hellman criterion, several differences can be emphasized, at basin level. In the mountainous region, there is only one month that, at a multi-annual level, has stood up among the rest, as being excessively droughty, while in the median /central region of the basin, three months have been identified, that have such potential, as well as five months, at Dumbrava.

  19. Long hole waterjet drilling for gas drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Stockwell; M. Gledhill; S. Hildebrand; S. Adam; Tim Meyer [CMTE (Australia)

    2003-04-01

    In-seam drilling for gas drainage is now an essential part of operations at many Australian underground coalmines. The objective of this project is to develop and trial a new drilling method for the accurate and efficient installation of long inseam boreholes (>1000 metres). This involves the integration of pure water-jet drilling technology (i.e. not water-jet assisted rotary drilling) developed by CMTE with conventional directional drilling technology. The system was similar to conventional directional drilling methods, but instead of relying on a down-hole-motor (DHM) rotating a mechanical drill bit for cutting, high pressure water-jets were used. The testing of the system did not achieve the full objectives set down in the project plan. A borehole greater than 1000 metres was not achieved. The first trial site had coal that was weathered, oxidized and dry. These conditions significantly affected the ability of the drilling tool to stay 'in-seam'. Due to the poor conditions at the first trial, many experimental objectives were forwarded to the second field trial. In the second trial drilling difficulties were experienced, this was due to the interaction between the confinement of the borehole and the dimensions of the down hole drilling assembly. This ultimately reduced the productivity of the system and the distance that could be drilled within the specified trial periods. Testing in the first field trial did not show any indication that the system would have this difficulty.

  20. THE FLASH FLOODS ANALYSIS, REPRESENTATIVE FOR NIRAJ RIVER BETWEEN 1970-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞCA SANDA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The flash floods analysis, representative for Niraj River between 1970-2008. The need to know the characteristics of the flash floods is derived from the number and the intensity of floods occurred in the drainage basin of the Niraj river. Therefore, there were analyzed only the flash floods representatives for the years: 1970, 1995, 1998, 2001, 2008.The classification of the floods was realized according to the genesis and the flash flood hydrograph shape for the period 1970-2008, before and after the completion of the drainage basin planning/management depending on climatic, morphometric and morphological factors.

  1. Bibliography for acid-rock drainage and selected acid-mine drainage issues related to acid-rock drainage from transportation activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael W.; Worland, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-rock drainage occurs through the interaction of rainfall on pyrite-bearing formations. When pyrite (FeS2) is exposed to oxygen and water in mine workings or roadcuts, the mineral decomposes and sulfur may react to form sulfuric acid, which often results in environmental problems and potential damage to the transportation infrastructure. The accelerated oxidation of pyrite and other sulfidic minerals generates low pH water with potentially high concentrations of trace metals. Much attention has been given to contamination arising from acid mine drainage, but studies related to acid-rock drainage from road construction are relatively limited. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Transportation, is conducting an investigation to evaluate the occurrence and processes controlling acid-rock drainage and contaminant transport from roadcuts in Tennessee. The basic components of acid-rock drainage resulting from transportation activities are described and a bibliography, organized by relevant categories (remediation, geochemical, microbial, biological impact, and secondary mineralization) is presented.

  2. The Role of County Surveyors and County Drainage Boards in Addressing Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Mike; Mullendore, Nathan; de Jalon, Silvestre Garcia; Prokopy, Linda Stalker

    2016-06-01

    Water quality problems stemming from the Midwestern U.S. agricultural landscape have been widely recognized and documented. The Midwestern state of Indiana contains tens of thousands of miles of regulated drains that represent biotic communities that comprise the headwaters of the state's many rivers and creeks. Traditional management, however, reduces these waterways to their most basic function as conveyances, ignoring their role in the ecosystem as hosts for biotic and abiotic processes that actively regulate the fate and transport of nutrients and farm chemicals. Novel techniques and practices such as the two-stage ditch, denitrifying bioreactor, and constructed wetlands represent promising alternatives to traditional management approaches, yet many of these tools remain underutilized. To date, conservation efforts and research have focused on increasing the voluntary adoption of practices among agricultural producers. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the roles of the drainage professionals responsible for the management of waterways and regulated drains. To address this gap, we draw on survey responses from 39 county surveyors and 85 drainage board members operating in Indiana. By examining the backgrounds, attitudes, and actions of these individuals, we consider their role in advocating and implementing novel conservation practices.

  3. The relationship between drainage density, erosion rate, and hilltop curvature: Implications for sediment transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubb, Fiona J.; Mudd, Simon M.; Attal, Mikaël.; Milodowski, David T.; Grieve, Stuart W. D.

    2016-10-01

    Drainage density is a fundamental landscape metric describing the extent of the fluvial network. We compare the relationship between drainage density (Dd) and erosion rate (E) using the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) numerical model. We find that varying the channel slope exponent (n) in detachment-limited fluvial incision models controls the relationship between Dd and E, with n > 1 resulting in increasing Dd with E if all other parameters are held constant. This result is consistent when modeling both linear and nonlinear hillslope sediment flux. We also test the relationship between Dd and E in five soil-mantled landscapes throughout the USA: Feather River, CA; San Gabriel Mountains, CA; Boulder Creek, CO; Guadalupe Mountains, NM; and Bitterroot National Forest, ID. For two of these field sites we compare Dd to cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN)-derived erosion rates, and for each site we use mean hilltop curvature as a proxy for erosion rate where CRN-derived erosion rates are not available. We find that there is a significant positive relationship between Dd, E, and hilltop curvature across every site, with the exception of the San Gabriel Mountains, CA. This relationship is consistent with an n exponent greater than 1, suggesting that at higher erosion rates, the transition between advective and diffusive processes occurs at smaller contributing areas in soil-mantled landscapes.

  4. Adaptive Drainage Slots for Acoustic Noise Attenuation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to demonstrate feasibility in the reduction of noise attributed to drainage slots in jet engine acoustic liners....

  5. Gravity Drainage of Activated Sludge on Reed Beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Dominiak, Dominik Marek; Keiding, Kristian;

    Activated sludge is a by-product from waste water treatment plants, and the water content in the sludge is high (> 90%). Among several methods to remove the water, sludge drying reed beds are often used to dewater the sludge by drainage. There is, however, no well-defined criterion for design...... has therefore been developed to measure relevant quality parameters: specific cake resistance, settling velocity and cake compressibility. It has been found that activated sludge form highly compressible cake even at the low compressive pressures obtained during drainage. Numerical simulation shows...... that the compressibility has a high influence on the drainage process especially during the start-up phases where the volumetric load on the sludge bed is critical. The load has to be low in order to ensure that the drainage properties of the bed are not destroyed. The data also shows that transport of activated sludge...

  6. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorine in drainage water. Nano photo-Fenton like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drainage water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms (EMs removed 100% of the lindane initial concentration. There is no remaining toxicity in lindane contaminated-water after remediation on treated rats relative to control with respect to histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Advanced oxidation processes especially with nanomaterials and bioremediation using effective microorganisms can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies of lindane in water.

  7. Recycling Facilities - Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Recycling Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Reclamation Locations are clean-up projects that are working to eliminate some form of abandoned mine. The following sub-facility types...

  8. Adaptive Drainage Slots for Acoustic Noise Attenuation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG) demonstrated feasibility in the reduction of noise attributed to drainage slots in jet engine acoustic liners. This was...

  9. Shallow Melting and Underground Drainage in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costard, F.; Sejourne, A.; Kargel, J.; Soare, R.

    2012-03-01

    Based on the identification of sinuous and elongated pits in Utopia Planitia, we suggest that shallow melting and underground drainage are possible. We test that hypothesis using a thermal model that comprises a thick insulating dusty layer.

  10. Mercury mine drainage and processes that control its environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Mine drainage from mercury mines in the California Coast Range mercury mineral belt is an environmental concern because of its acidity and high sulfate, mercury, and methylmercury concentrations. Two types of mercury deposits are present in the mineral belt, silica-carbonate and hot-spring type. Mine drainage is associated with both deposit types but more commonly with the silica-carbonate type because of the extensive underground workings present at these mines. Mercury ores consisting primarily of cinnabar were processed in rotary furnaces and retorts and elemental mercury recovered from condensing systems. During the roasting process mercury phases more soluble than cinnabar are formed and concentrated in the mine tailings, commonly termed calcines. Differences in mineralogy and trace metal geochemistry between the two deposit types are reflected in mine drainage composition. Silica-carbonate type deposits have higher iron sulfide content than hot- spring type deposits and mine drainage from these deposits may have extreme acidity and very high concentrations of iron and sulfate. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in mine drainage are relatively low at the point of discharge from mine workings. The concentration of both mercury species increases significantly in mine drainage that flows through and reacts with calcines. The soluble mercury phases in the calcines are dissolved and sulfate is added such that methylation of mercury by sulfate reducing bacteria is enhanced in calcines that are saturated with mine drainage. Where mercury mine drainage enters and first mixes with stream water, the addition of high concentrations of mercury and sulfate generates a favorable environment for methylation of mercury. Mixing of oxygenated stream water with mine drainage causes oxidation of dissolved iron(II) and precipitation of iron oxyhydroxide that accumulates in the streambed. Both mercury and methylmercury are strongly adsorbed onto iron oxyhydroxide over the p

  11. Abdominal drainage following cholecystectomy: high, low, or no suction?

    OpenAIRE

    McCormack, T T; Abel, P D; Collins, C. D.

    1983-01-01

    A prospective trial to assess the effect of suction in an abdominal drain following cholecystectomy was carried out. Three types of closed drainage system were compared: a simple tube drain, a low negative pressure drain, and a high negative pressure drain: 120 consecutive patients undergoing cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to one of the three drainage groups. There was no significant difference in postoperative pyrexia, wound infection, chest infection, or hospital stay. This study f...

  12. ANWR progress report number FY84-4: Population size, composition, and distribution of moose along the Canning and Kongakut Rivers within the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, fall 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys to determine the population size, composition, and distribution of moose (Alces alces) along the Canning and Kongakut River drainages were conducted...

  13. The Martain drainage system and the origin of valley networks and fretted channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Michael H.

    1995-04-01

    Outflow channels provide strong evidence for abundant water near the Martian surface and an extensive groundwater system. Collapse of the surface into some channels suggests massive subsurface erosion and/or solution in addition to erosion by flow across the surface. Flat floors, steep walls, longitudinal striae and ridges, downstream deflection of striae from channel walls, and lack of river channels suggest that fretted channels form dominantly by mass wasting. A two-stage process is proposed. In the first stage, extension of valleys heads is favored by seepage of groundwater into debris shed from slopes. The debris moves downstream, aided by interstitial groundwater at the base of the debris, possibly with high pore pressures. In the second stage, because of climate change or a lower heat flow, groundwater can no longer seep into the debris flows in the valleys, their movement almost stops, and more viscous ice-lubricated debris aprons form. Almost all uplands at elevations greater than +1 km are dissected by valley networks, although the drainage densities are orders of magnitude less than is typical for the Earth. The valley networks resemble terrestrial river systems in planimetric shape, but U-shaped and rectangular-shaped cross sections, levee- like peripheral ridges, median ridges, patterns of branching and rejoining, and flat floors without river channels suggest that the networks may not be true analogs to terrestrial river valleys. It is proposed that they, like the fretted channels, formed mainly by mass wasting, aided by groundwater seepage into the mass-wasted debris. Movements of only millimeters to centimeters per year are needed to explain the channel lengths. Most valley formation ceased early at low latitudes because of progressive dehydration of the near surface, the result of sublimation of water and/or drainage of groundwater to regions of lower elevations. Valley formation persisted to later dates where aided by steep slopes, as on crater

  14. Rules of the road: A qualitative and quantitative synthesis of large wood transport through drainage networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Natalie; Wohl, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    To effectively manage wood in rivers, we need a better understanding of wood mobility within river networks. Here, we review primarily field-based (and some numerical) studies of wood transport. We distinguish small, medium, large, and great rivers based on wood piece dimensions relative to channel and flow dimensions and dominant controls on wood transport. We suggest further identification and designation of wood transport regimes as a useful way to characterize spatial-temporal network heterogeneity and to conceptualize the primary controls on wood mobility in diverse river segments. We draw analogies between wood and bedload transport, including distinguishing Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches, exploring transport capacity, and quantifying thresholds of wood mobility. We identify mobility envelopes for remobilization of wood with relation to increasing peak discharges, stream size, and dimensionless log lengths. Wood transport in natural channels exhibits high spatial and temporal variability, with discontinuities along the channel network at bankfull flow and when log lengths equal channel widths. Although median mobilization rates increase with increasing channel size, maximum mobilization rates are greatest in medium-sized channels. Most wood is transported during relatively infrequent high flows, but flows under bankfull can transport up to 30% of stored wood. We use conceptual models of dynamic equilibrium of wood in storage and of spiralling wood transport paths through drainage networks, as well as a metaphor of traffic on a road, to explore discontinuous wood movement through a river network. The primary limitations to describing wood transport are inappropriate time scales of observation and lack of sufficient data on mobility from diverse rivers. Improving models of wood flux requires better characterization of average step lengths within the lifetime travel path of a piece of wood. We suggest that future studies focus on: (i) continuous or high

  15. Effects of drainage salinity evolution on irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Iddo

    2003-12-01

    A soil physics theory of solute movement through a drained saturated zone underlying agricultural land is introduced into a long-term economic analysis of farm-level irrigation management; this is an alternative to the immediate, homogeneous blending assumption employed in previous studies as a base for calculating changes in drainage salinity over time. Using data from California, the effect of drainage salinity evolution is analyzed through a year-by-year profit optimization under the requirement of on-farm drainage disposal. Paths of optimal land allocation among crop production with fresh surface water, saline drainage reuse and evaporation ponds appear to depend on the relative profitability of the first two; that of reuse is affected by the trend of drainage salinity. Tile spacing and environmental regulations associated with evaporation ponds affect the timing of evaporation pond construction. The system converges into a solution involving both drainage-disposal activities; this solution includes an outlet for salts and is therefore sustainable. Following this strategy, the system is asymptotically approaching a steady state that possesses both hydrological and salt balances. Economic implications associated with land retirement programs in California are discussed.

  16. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: analysis of 175 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kyung Jin; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kim, Tae Hun; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duk Sik [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-10-15

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is a safe, effective and palliative means of treatment in biliary obstruction, especially in cases with malignant obstruction which are inoperable. 175 cases of transhepatic biliary drainage were performed on 119 patients with biliary obstruction from January 1985 to June 1989 at Kyung-pook National University Hospital. The causes of obstructive jaundice were 110 malignant diseases and 9 benign diseases. The most common indication for drainage was palliative intervention of obstruction secondary to malignant tumor in 89 cases. 86 cases of external drainage were performed including 3 cases of left duct approach, 29 cases of external-internal drainage and 60 cases of endoprosthesis. In external and external-internal drainages, immediate major complications (11.9%) occurred, including not restricted to, but sepsis, bile peritonitis and hemobilia. Delayed major complications (42.9%) were mainly catheter related. The delayed major complication of endoprosthesis resulted from obstruction of the internal stent. The mean time period to reobstruction of the internal stent was about 12 weeks. To improve management status, regular follow-up is required, as is education of both patients and their families as to when immediate clinical attention is mandated. Close communication amongst the varying medical specialities involved will be necessary to provide optional treatment for each patient.

  17. Percutaneous catheter drainage of intraabdominal abscesses and fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Tae; Kwon, Tae Hee; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Suh, Jung Ho [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ho [Cheil General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    Percutaneous catheter drainage has been reported to be an effective method in the management of selected patients with abscess and fluid collection. Its high success rate and relatively low complications make the procedure an alternative to surgery in the individual cases. During past two years percutaneous catheter drainage in 25 patients with intraabdominal abscesses and fluid collection was performed at the Department of Radiology, Yonsei University College of medicine. Here the technique and author's results were summarized. 1. The total 25 patients who had percutaneous catheter drainage are 10 liver abscesses, 3 subphrenic, one subhepatic, 4 renal and perirenal, 2 pelvic, one psoas, one anterior pararenal fluid from acute pancreatitis, one pancreas pseudocyst and 2 malignant tumor necrosis. 2. The modified Seldinger technique used for all cases of abscess and fluid drainage under guidance of ultrasound scan. The used catheters were 10F. Pigtail and 14F. Malecot (Cook c/o) catheters. 3. The abscesses and fluid of 17 patients among 25 were cured by the percutaneous catheter drainage and 4 patients were clinically improved. The catheter drainage was failed in 2 patients and 3 complication were developed. 4. The success rate of this procedure was 91.3%, failure rate was 8.7% and complication rate was 12%.

  18. Efficient removal of meltwater runoff through supraglacial streams and rivers on the southwestern Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. C.; Yang, K.; Pitcher, L. H.; Overstreet, B. T.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Chu, V. W.; Ryan, J.; Hubbard, A.; Cooper, M. G.; Tedesco, M.; Mote, T. L.; Young, K.; Behar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Supraglacial streams and rivers flowing on the Greenland Ice Sheet have received little physical study. We present remotely sensed (UAV, WorldView) and in situ (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, Lagrangian drifters) measurements of supraglacial river drainage pattern, hydraulic properties, and discharge in the Kangerlussuaq region. This area of the ice sheet is characterized by large, well-organized supraglacial stream/river networks that efficiently drain the ice surface with minimal retention of surface water, with river moulins being the the dominant physical mechanism by which surface meltwater enters the ice sheet. An intensive 2015 field campaign acquired novel datasets of watershed extent, drainage pattern, ablation rate, albedo and discharge for a ~70 km2 mid-elevation ice catchment ("Rio Behar"), including a continuous 72-hour record of discharge and water temperature in a supraglacial river upstream of its terminal moulin. We conclude that this area of the ice sheet is efficiently drained by supraglacial stream/river networks, that ice-surface DEMs alone cannot fully describe supraglacial drainage and its connection to subglacial systems; and that in situ measurements of supraglacial river discharge offer a unique opportunity to test runoff predictions of regional climate models.

  19. 渭河下游某金矿排水渠附近土壤中Ag、Ni、Cd和Mo的污染分析%Analysis of soil contamination by Ag, Ni, Cd and Mo along a gold mine drainage canal down Weihe River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庚飞

    2012-01-01

    The soil around a gold mine near Weihe River was chosen as the research object, and the contents of heavy metals were analyzed including silver, nickel, cadmium and molybdenum, so as to provide the theoretical basis for treating soil contamination and establishing the artificial ecological restoration system. The results show that the Nemerow comprehensive pollution indexes of the soil are all more than 3 in all sampling area and they are in gross pollution. The contents of silver, nickel, cadmium and molybdenum are all very high in all sample regions with the average contents in the descending order nickel > cadmium > silver > molybdenum. The descending order according to the single factor pollution index is cadmium > silver > molybdenum > nickel. The variation coefficients of all heavy metals are the highest in the fourth sample region, and the contents distribution of all heavy metals is inhomogeneous. It may be caused by other pollution sources. The main pollution sources may be caused by the irrigation and diffusion of waste water,the mineral waste residue dust and vehicle and so on in the mine area.%以渭河附近某金矿排水沟周边土壤为研究对象,对土壤中Ag、Ni、Cd和Mo 4种重金属含量进行分析,为渭河周围土壤污染治理及人工生态修复提供依据.实验结果表明,5个样区内梅罗综合污染指数均大于3,处于严重污染状态;Ag、Ni、Cd和Mo在5个样区中含量均很高,其平均值总体存在Ni> Cd> Ag>Mo;各重金属单项污染指数值总体存在Cd>Ag> Mo>Ni;第4样区重金属变异系数较大,各样点重金属含量分布不均一,外源污染严重.各样区污染主要来源于矿区废水排放与灌溉,以及废渣粉尘和车辆扬尘等.

  20. Surgical vs ultrasound-guided drainage of deep neck space abscesses: a randomized controlled trial: surgical vs ultrasound drainage

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Deep neck space abscesses (DNAs) are relatively common otolaryngology-head and neck surgery emergencies and can result in significant morbidity with potential mortality. Traditionally, surgical incision and drainage (I&D) with antibiotics has been the mainstay of treatment. Some reports have suggested that ultrasound-guided drainage (USD) is a less invasive and effective alternative in select cases. Objectives To compare I&D vs USD of well-defined DNAs, using a randomized control...

  1. Evidence of varying magma chambers and magmatic evolutionary histories for the Table Mountain Formation in the Carson-Iceberg Wilderness region, Sonora Pass, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, R.; Putirka, K. D.; Pluhar, C. J.; Farner, M. J.; Torrez, G.; Shrum, B. L.; Jones, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Sonora Pass- Dardanelles region in the Carson- Iceberg Wilderness area is located in the central Sierra Nevada and home to the type section for latites (Slemmons, 1953), a volcanic rock that contains high potassium, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase phenocysts. Latite lavas and tuffs exposed in the Sonora Pass region originated from the sources in the eastern Sierra Nevada (Noble et al., 1974) where lavas flowed toward California's Great Valley, and were emplaced in stream valleys along the way, which are now inverted to form "table mountains", ergo the name "Table Mountain Latite" (TML) (Slemmons, 1966). Similarly high-K volcanic rocks of the same age are exposed at Grouse Meadows, which is just north of the Walker Lane Caldera east of Sonora Pass, and at the type section, between Red Peak and Bald Peak west of Sonora Pass. Latites lavas and tuffs in all three regions were analyzed for major oxides and trace elements with X-ray fluorescence spectrometry at California State University, Fresno. Analysis of three locations of (TML) at the type section show that they (Ransome, 1898), may have a different magmatic evolutionary history compared to other latites, exposed at Sonora Pass and Grouse Meadows, as the latter two show similar major oxide and trace element compositions. Most compelling is the contrast in the behavior of Al2O3 and CaO at the type section. Variation diagrams show that at the type section Al2O3 and CaO enrichment decreases with increasing amounts of MgO as fractional crystallization occurs. Conversely, at Sonora Peak and Grouse Meadows, CaO and Al2O3 concentrations mostly increase as MgO decreases with fractional crystallization. This contrasts shows that plagioclase was a major fractioning phase at the type section, but not at the other two localities. This suggests that the lava flows at the type section were erupted from a distinct set of magma chambers and vents that underwent a very distinct magmatic evolutionary history, perhaps involving

  2. Effects of acid rock drainage on stocked rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): an in-situ, caged fish experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Andrew S; McKnight, Diane M; Jaros, Chris L; Marchitto, Thomas M

    2007-07-01

    In-situ caged rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) studies reveal significant fish toxicity and fish stress in a river impacted by headwater acid rock drainage (ARD). Stocked trout survival and aqueous water chemistry were monitored for 10 days at 3 study sites in the Snake River watershed, Colorado, U.S.A. Trout mortality was positively correlated with concentrations of metals calculated to be approaching or exceeding conservative toxicity thresholds (Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd). Significant metal accumulation on the gills of fish stocked at ARD impacted study sites support an association between elevated metals and fish mortality. Observations of feeding behavior and significant differences in fish relative weights between study site and feeding treatment indicate feeding and metals-related fish stress. Together, these results demonstrate the utility of in-situ exposure studies for stream stakeholders in quantifying the relative role of aqueous contaminant exposures in limiting stocked fish survival.

  3. Drainage-Area Data for Wisconsin Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Mich., 42 N 35 W SW1/4SE1/4 21 Iron 7 2.07 at mouth (Mich .) )4059903 Huff Creek near Tipler , at mouth 41 N 15 E NW1/4SE1/4 31 Florence 7 5 .52 )4059904...Chuks Creek near Tipler , at mouth 41 N 15 E NE1/4SE1/4 31 Florence 7 1 .98 )4059905 Duck Creek near Tipler , at mouth 41 N 15 E NW1/4SW1/4 32 Florence...7 3 .32 )4059906 Brule River near Tipler , State Highway 189 42 N 35 E NE1/4SW1/4 35 Iron 7 164 (Mich .) and State Highway 139 (Wis .) (Mich

  4. Drainage pits in cohesionless materials: implications for surface of Phobos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstman, K C; Melosh, H J

    1989-09-10

    Viking orbiter images show grooves and chains of pits crossing the surface of Phobos, many of which converge toward the large crater Stickney or its antipode. Although it has been proposed that the pits and grooves are chains of secondary craters, their morphology and geometric relations suggest that they are the surface traces of fractures in the underlying solid body of Phobos. Several models have been proposed to explain the pits, of which the most plausible are gas venting and drainage of regolith into open fractures. the latter mechanism is best supported by the image data and is the mechanism studied in this investigation. Drainage pits and fissures are modeled experimentally by using two rigid substrate plates placed edge to edge and covered by uniform thicknesses of dry fragmental debris (simulated regolith). Fracture extension is simulated by drawing the plates apart, allowing drainage of regolith into the newly created void. A typical drainage experiment begins with a shallow depression on the surface of the regolith, above the open fissure. Increased drainage causes local drainage pits to form; continued drainage causes the pits to coalesce, forming a cuspate groove. The resulting experimental patterns of pits and grooves have pronounced similarities to those observed on Phobos. Characteristics such as lack of raised rims, linearity of grooves and chains of pits, uniform spacing of pits, and progression from discrete pits to cuspate grooves are the same in the experiments and on Phobos. In contrast, gas-venting pits occur in irregular chains and have raised rims. These experiments thus indicate that the Phobos grooves and pits formed as drainage structures. The pit spacing in an experiment is measured at the time that the maximum number of pits forms, prior to groove development. The average pit spacing is compared to the regolith thickness for each material. Regression line fits indicate that the average spacing of drainage pits in unconsolidated

  5. Consequences of suppressing natural vegetation in drainage areas for freshwater ecosystem conservation: considerations on the new "Brazilian forest code"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Ongaro Pinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The input of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM and DOM, respectively from terrestrial ecosystem drainage basins is an important energy and nutrient source in limnic food chains. Studies indicated that semi-deciduous seasonal forests located in drainage areas in Brazil have the potential to produce 7.5 - 10.3 Mg ha−1/year of POM. The global increase in vegetation destruction, such as forests, threatens this allochthonous resource and can have significant impacts on river and lake communities and food chains. Therefore, it is critical that exploitation and occupation protocols are updated to protect the transition areas between terrestrial and limnic ecosystems. This review highlights the existing knowledge of these ecosystem interactions and proposes responsible sustainable methods for converting the vegetation in drainage basins. This was based on Brazilian ecosystem data and the new "Brazilian Forest Code." This study also considers the importance of including flood tracks in permanently protected areas to improve Brazilian legislation and protect hydric resources.

  6. Morphometric analysis of the drainage system and its hydrological implications in the rain shadow regions, Kerala, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jobin THOMAS; Sabu JOSEPH; K.P. THRIVIKRAMJI; George ABE

    2011-01-01

    The rain shadow regions requisite a comprehensive watershed development and management plan for sustainable water resources management.The Pambar River Basin (PRB) lies on the rain shadow region of the southern Western Ghats,India,where climate showed marked intra-basin variation.A morphometric analysis was done to evaluate the drainage characteristics of PRB using topographical maps and digital elevation data.PRB was divided into eighteen 4th order basins (SB1-SB18),distributed along various climatic gradients.Lower order streams mostly dominate PRB and drainage pattern is a function of relief and structure.The terrain is highly dissected and prone to soil erosion during heavy storms and the elongated shape of PRB enables easier flood management.The influence of climate on drainage characteristics was evidently emphasized in basin morphometry.Four distinctively different classes were identified based on the morphometric similarities.The significance of morphometric analysis on the hydrological characterization is discussed and the relevance of the present study in water harvesting has been explicated.

  7. Use of Natural and Applied Tracers to Guide Targeted Remediation Efforts in an Acid Mine Drainage System, Colorado Rockies, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Cowie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Stream water quality in areas of the western United States continues to be degraded by acid mine drainage (AMD, a legacy of hard-rock mining. The Rico-Argentine Mine in southwestern Colorado consists of complex multiple-level mine workings connected to a drainage tunnel discharging AMD to passive treatment ponds that discharge to the Dolores River. The mine workings are excavated into the hillslope on either side of a tributary stream with workings passing directly under the stream channel. There is a need to define hydrologic connections between surface water, groundwater, and mine workings to understand the source of both water and contaminants in the drainage tunnel discharge. Source identification will allow targeted remediation strategies to be developed. To identify hydrologic connections we employed a combination of natural and applied tracers including isotopes, ionic tracers, and fluorescent dyes. Stable water isotopes (δ18O/δD show a well-mixed hydrological system, while tritium levels in mine waters indicate a fast flow-through system with mean residence times of years not decades or longer. Addition of multiple independent tracers indicated that water is traveling through mine workings with minimal obstructions. The results from a simultaneous salt and dye tracer application demonstrated that both tracer types can be successfully used in acidic mine water conditions.

  8. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF AMELIORATIVE WORKS ON SOME SOIL QUALITY PARAMETERS FROM BAIA –MOLDOVA EXPERIMENTAL AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Moca

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The soil-climatic conditions from Baia Depression – the hydrographical basin from the extra-Carpathian area of the Moldova River - have frequently determined the presence, under different forms, intensities and periods, of temporary water excess from soil. The underground drainage, as a measure of water excess control, with stagnant character, caused mainly by rainfall amounts registered for 1-5 consecutive days, was firstly arranged in pilot-experimental fields during 1972-1978. We followed the behaviour in exploitation of underground drainage technical solutions, as concerns the functional efficiency of the means of water excess removal and of the improved soil favourableness and/or suitability for crop growing.In order to assess the long-term effects of ameliorating works, applied in 1978 in the drainage field of Baia, on an area of 3.50 ha, we have qualitatively classified and estimated the albic stagnic glossic Luvosoil (S.R.T.S. – 2003, improved and unimproved. Based on this study, we have estimated the present favourableness for crops of the improved soil, as compared to unimproved soil, used as natural grassland, after an exploitation cycle of 30 years (1978- 2008.

  9. On-site tests to estimate aquifer permeability of drainage area of south caisson anchorage construction of Taizhou Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhaoxiang; Zhao Yanrong

    2011-01-01

    During the construction of the south caisson anchorage of Taizhou Bridge, the drainage area is located in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the permeability of stratums there is considerable. In order to maintain progress and guarantee safety during the sinking of the caisson, water should be drained in the initial period. Subsequently, detailed information about the aquifer permeability is required to make sure that the drainage will proceed successfully,which consequently necessitates the on-site estimation of the aquifer permeability in the drainage area. Therefore, the traditional pumping test and slug test are implemented respectively on site. The comparison of computational results of these two tests indicates that they are consistent overall. Notwithstanding, as slug test can be conducted with portable facilities in a short time and the manipulation is easy and few people need to be involved, the advantages of slug test is conspicuous compared with the traditional pumping test. It could be speculated that slug test will gain a prevalent application in the measurement of aquifer permeability in the future.

  10. The Amazon River reversal explained by tectonic and surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacek, V.

    2014-12-01

    The drainage pattern in Amazonia was expressively modified during the mountain building of central and northern Andes. In Early Miocene, the fluvial systems in western Amazonia flowed to the foreland basins and northward to the Caribbean. By Late Miocene the drainage reversal occurred and formed the transcontinental Amazon River, connecting the Andes and the equatorial Atlantic margin. This event is recorded in the stratigraphic evolution of the Foz do Amazonas Basin by the onset of Andean-derived sedimentation. Additionally, an abrupt increase in sedimentation rate after the reversal occurred in the Foz do Amazonas Basin. Based on three-dimensional numerical models that couple surface processes, flexural isostasy and crustal thickening due to orogeny, I concluded that the Miocene drainage reversal can be explained by the flexural and surface processes response to the Andes formation with no need to invoke dynamic topography induced by mantle convection, as previously proposed. I observed that the instant of drainage reversal is directly linked to the rate of crustal thickening in the orogeny, the rate of erosion and, mainly, the efficiency of sediment transport. Moreover, the numerical experiments were able to predict the increase in sedimentation rate in the Amazon fan after the drainage reversal of the Amazon River as observed in the Late Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary record. However, the present numerical model fails to fully reproduce the evolution of the Pebas system, a megawetland in western Amazonia that preceded the drainage reversal. Therefore, further investigation is necessary to evaluate the mechanisms that generated and sustained the Pebas system.

  11. Analysis of the Transport and Fate of Metals Released From the Gold King Mine in the Animas and San Juan Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project’s objectives were to provide analysis of water quality following the release of acid mine drainage in the Animas and San Juan Rivers in a timely manner to 1) generate a comprehensive picture of the plume at the river system level, 2) help inform future monitoring eff...

  12. Pseudobagrus emarginatus (Regan, 1913), a valid Chinese bagrid species from the upper Yangtze River drainage (Teleostei:Bagridae)%凹尾拟鲿(Pseudobagrus emarginatus)--长江上游中国鲇类一有效种(硬骨鱼纲:鲿科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程建丽; 张鹗; 张建强; 杨德国

    2016-01-01

    对中国鲿科鱼类系统分类学研究中发现,凹尾拟鲿为一不同于细体拟鲿(P. pratti)的有效种,仅分布于长江上游。凹尾拟鲿胸刺前缘光滑无锯齿,颌须较短,后伸不超过胸鳍起点,本属中同时具有这两个特征的还包括18个有效种。在这18个物种中,乌苏里拟鲿(P. ussuriensis)、长脂拟鲿(P. adiposalis)、短尾拟鲿(P. brevicaudatus)和越南拟鲿(P. kyphus)与凹尾拟鲿一样,具有中等分叉的尾鳍。凹尾拟鲿与乌苏里拟鲿和长脂拟鲿的区别在于游离脊椎骨数目和背刺长短等性状上,与短尾拟鲿和越南拟鲿在背刺后缘程度、枕骨棘与项背骨间的间距上存在差异。凹尾拟鲿与细体拟鲿在形态上最为相似,但在体高、背鳍前长、脂鳍高及尾柄高等性状上存在差别。同时,在颅骨、犁骨、项背骨及腰带等骨骼特征上也存在较大差异。%Pseudobagrus emarginatus is here regarded as a species distinct from P. pratti, and known only from the upper Yangtze River basin. It can be assigned to the species group comprising 18 species of Pseudobagrus characterized by having a smooth anterior margin of the pectoral-fin spine and short maxillary barbels not extending to the pectoral-fin insertion. It, along with P. ussuriensis, P. adiposalis, P. brevicaudatus, P. kyphus and P. pratti, differs from all congeners of the group in having a moderately forked caudal fin. Pseudobagrus emarginatus differs from P. ussuriensis and P. adiposalis in the number of vertebrae, dorsal-fin spine length, and P. brevicaudatus and P. kyphus in the structure of dorsal spine, and the presence or absence of the interspace between the supraoccipital process and the nuchal plate. It differs from P. pratti, in body depth, predorsal length, adipose-fin depth and caudal-peduncle depth. Both differ in many osteological characters related to the cranium, vomer, nuchal plate and pelvic girdle.

  13. Discharge estimation from planform characters of the Shedhi River, Gujarat alluvial plain: Present and past

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alpa Sridhar

    2007-08-01

    In the absence of long-term hydrologic and streamflow records an understanding of river morphology (present and past) can help delineate changes in magnitudes of water and sediment discharges. The relict drainage system of Gujarat alluvial plain provides an opportunity to reconstruct the palaeochannel morphology-related discharge estimations. In this paper, based on the geomorphological evidence and channel geometry, an attempt has been made to reconstruct the palaeohydrological condition in the Shedhi River during the Holocene. A comparison of the present day channel of the Shedhi River with that of its palaeo counterpart reveals that the former was carrying much higher bankfull discharge (∼5500m3s−1) as compared to the present (∼200m3s−1). This is attributed to a larger drainage area and enhanced precipitation in the Shedhi River basin.

  14. Impact assessment of mine drainage water and municipal wastewater on the surface water in the vicinity of Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardić Vojka R.

    2015-01-01

    impact on the environment. The study included the following sources of pollution: mining waste and drainage water originating from the active mine (Bor pit , field 1 Krivelj large tailings, flotation tailings in Bor RTH, metallurgical water, as well as the drainage water from the flotation tailings, which are no longer in operation (field 2 flotation tailings Great Krivelj, drainage water from the old Bor flotation tailings, the old inactive landfill mine gangue (Saraka landfill, Veliki planir - tailings from the old Bor mine, landfill mine gangue from mine RTH and the city - urban waste water, which are discharged without treatment directly into the watercourse Bor River. Wastewater directly pollute Bor River and Krivalj River.

  15. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems

  16. Geochemical characterisation of seepage and drainage water quality from two sulphide mine tailings impoundments: Acid mine drainage versus neutral mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, P.M.; Raisanen, M.L.; Johnson, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Seepage water and drainage water geochemistry (pH, EC, O2, redox, alkalinity, dissolved cations and trace metals, major anions, total element concentrations) were studied at two active sulphide mine tailings impoundments in Finland (the Hitura Ni mine and Luikonlahti Cu mine/talc processing plant). The data were used to assess the factors influencing tailings seepage quality and to identify constraints for water treatment. Changes in seepage water quality after equilibration with atmospheric conditions were evaluated based on geochemical modelling. At Luikonlahti, annual and seasonal changes were also studied. Seepage quality was largely influenced by the tailings mineralogy, and the serpentine-rich, low sulphide Hitura tailings produced neutral mine drainage with high Ni. In contrast, drainage from the high sulphide, multi-metal tailings of Luikonlahti represented typical acid mine drainage with elevated contents of Zn, Ni, Cu, and Co. Other factors affecting the seepage quality included weathering of the tailings along the seepage flow path, process water input, local hydrological settings, and structural changes in the tailings impoundment. Geochemical modelling showed that pH increased and some heavy metals were adsorbed to Fe precipitates after net alkaline waters equilibrated with the atmosphere. In the net acidic waters, pH decreased and no adsorption occurred. A combination of aerobic and anaerobic treatments is proposed for Hitura seepages to decrease the sulphate and metal loading. For Luikonlahti, prolonged monitoring of the seepage quality is suggested instead of treatment, since the water quality is still adjusting to recent modifications to the tailings impoundment.

  17. Wind River Watershed Restoration 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G. [U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-11-10

    During 2004, researchers from U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize physical habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. Juvenile salmonid population surveys were conducted within select study areas throughout the subbasin. We expanded our survey coverage of the mainstem Wind River to a reach in the vicinity of Carson National Fish Hatchery to assess effects of non-indigenous Chinook on native steelhead. These efforts add to a database of habitat and fish data collected in the Wind River since 1996. This research contributes to the Wind River Restoration Project, which includes active stream habitat restoration and monitoring of adult and juvenile steelhead populations. We maintained a network of 32 thermographs in the Wind River subbasin during 2004. Additionally, Underwood Conservation District provided us with data from seven thermographs that they maintained during 2004. Thermograph data are identifying areas with chronic high water temperatures and stream sections where high rates of warming are occurring. During 2004, water temperatures at 26 thermograph sites exceeded the 16 C limit for surface waters set by the Washington Department of Ecology. Water temperatures exceeded 20 C at five sites in the Trout Creek watershed. Our thermograph dataset includes information from as early as 1996 at some sites and has become a valuable long-term dataset, which will be crucial in determining bioenergetic relationships with habitat and life-histories. We have monitored salmonid populations throughout the Wind River subbasin by electrofishing and snorkeling. We electrofished four stream sections for population estimates during 2004. In these sections, and others where we simply collected fish without a population estimate, we tagged juvenile steelhead and Chinook salmon with Passive Integrated Transponder

  18. Distributed model of hydrological and sediment transport processes in large river basins in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliziana, S.; Tanuma, K.; Yoshimura, C.; Saavedra, O. C.

    2015-07-01

    Soil erosion and sediment transport have been modeled at several spatial and temporal scales, yet few models have been reported for large river basins (e.g., drainage areas > 100 000 km2). In this study, we propose a process-based distributed model for assessment of sediment transport at a large basin scale. A distributed hydrological model was coupled with a process-based distributed sediment transport model describing soil erosion and sedimentary processes at hillslope units and channels. The model was tested on two large river basins: the Chao Phraya River Basin (drainage area: 160 000 km2) and the Mekong River Basin (795 000 km2). The simulation over 10 years showed good agreement with the observed suspended sediment load in both basins. The average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and average correlation coefficient (r) between the simulated and observed suspended sediment loads were 0.62 and 0.61, respectively, in the Chao Phraya River Basin except the lowland section. In the Mekong River Basin, the overall average NSE and r were 0.60 and 0.78, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that suspended sediment load is sensitive to detachability by raindrop (k) in the Chao Phraya River Basin and to soil detachability over land (Kf) in the Mekong River Basin. Overall, the results suggest that the present model can be used to understand and simulate erosion and sediment transport in large river basins.

  19. Distributed model of hydrological and sediment transport processes in large river basins in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zuliziana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion and sediment transport have been modeled at several spatial and temporal scales, yet few models have been reported for large river basins (e.g., drainage areas > 100 000 km2. In this study, we propose a process-based distributed model for assessment of sediment transport at a large basin scale. A distributed hydrological model was coupled with a process-based distributed sediment transport model describing soil erosion and sedimentary processes at hillslope units and channels. The model was tested on two large river basins: the Chao Phraya River Basin (drainage area: 160 000 km2 and the Mekong River Basin (795 000 km2. The simulation over 10 years showed good agreement with the observed suspended sediment load in both basins. The average Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE and average correlation coefficient (r between the simulated and observed suspended sediment loads were 0.62 and 0.61, respectively, in the Chao Phraya River Basin except the lowland section. In the Mekong River Basin, the overall average NSE and r were 0.60 and 0.78, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that suspended sediment load is sensitive to detachability by raindrop (k in the Chao Phraya River Basin and to soil detachability over land (Kf in the Mekong River Basin. Overall, the results suggest that the present model can be used to understand and simulate erosion and sediment transport in large river basins.

  20. Summary of biological investigations relating to surface-water quality in the Kentucky River basin, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, A.D.; Porter, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Kentucky River basin, an area of approximately 7,000 sq mi, is divided into five hydrologic units that drain parts of three physiographic regions. Data on aquatic biological resources were collected and reviewed to assess conditions in the major streams for which data were available. The North, Middle, and South Forks of the Kentucky River are in the Eastern Coal Field physiographic region. Streams in this region are affected by drainage from coal mines and oil and gas operations, and many support only tolerant biotic stream forms. The Kentucky River from the confluence of the three forks to the Red River, is in the Knobs physiographic region. Oil and gas production operations and point discharges from municipalities have affected many streams in this region. The Red River, a Kentucky Wild River, supported a unique flora and fauna but accelerated sedimentation has eliminated many species of mussels. The Millers Creek drainage is affected by brines discharged from oil and gas operations, and some reaches support only halophilic algae and a few fish. The Kentucky River from the Red River to the Ohio River is in the Bluegrass physiographic region. Heavy sediment loads and sewage effluent from urban centers have limited the aquatic biota in this region. Silver Creek and South Elkhorn Creek have been particularly affected and aquatic communities in these streams are dominated by organisms tolerant of low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Biological data for other streams indicate that habitat and water quality conditions are favorable for most commonly occurring aquatic organisms. (USGS)

  1. Implications of deep drainage through saline clay for groundwater recharge and sustainable cropping in a semi-arid catchment, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Timms

    2011-11-01

    in land use and a thick clay dominated vadose zone. This is in contrast to regional groundwater modelling that assumes annual recharge of 0.5% of rainfall. Importantly, it was found that leaching from episodic deep drainage could not cause discharge of saline groundwater in the area, since the water table was several meters below the incised river bed.

  2. Implications of deep drainage through saline clay for groundwater recharge and sustainable cropping in a semi-arid catchment, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Timms

    2012-04-01

    rainfall and large potential evapotranspiration, transient hydrological conditions after changes in land use and a thick clay dominated vadose zone.

    This is in contrast to regional groundwater modelling that assumes annual recharge of 0.5% of rainfall. Importantly, it was found that leaching from episodic deep drainage could not cause discharge of saline groundwater in the area, since the water table was several meters below the incised river bed.

  3. Parameterizing sub-surface drainage with geology to improve modeling streamflow responses to climate in data limited environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Tague

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic models are one of the core tools used to project how water resources may change under a warming climate. These models are typically applied over a range of scales, from headwater streams to higher order rivers, and for a variety of purposes, such as evaluating changes to aquatic habitat or reservoir operation. Most hydrologic models require streamflow data to calibrate subsurface drainage parameters. In many cases, long-term gage records may not be available for calibration, particularly when assessments are focused on low order stream reaches. Consequently, hydrologic modeling of climate change impacts is often performed in the absence of sufficient data to fully parameterize these hydrologic models. In this paper, we assess a geologic-based strategy for assigning drainage parameters. We examine the performance of this modeling strategy for the McKenzie River watershed in the US Oregon Cascades, a region where previous work has demonstrated sharp contrasts in hydrology based primarily on geological differences between the High and Western Cascades. Based on calibration and verification using existing streamflow data, we demonstrate that: (1 a set of streams ranging from 1st to 3rd order within the Western Cascade geologic region can share the same drainage parameter set, and (2 streams from the High Cascade geologic region, however, require a distinctive parameter set. Further, we show that a watershed comprised of a mixture of High and Western Cascade geology can be modeled without additional calibration by transferring parameters from these distinctive High and Western Cascade end-member parameter sets. Using this geologically-based parameter transfer scheme, our model predictions for all watersheds capture dominant historic streamflow patterns, and are sufficiently accurate to resolve geo-climatic differences in how these different watersheds are likely to respond to simple warming scenarios.

  4. Parameterizing sub-surface drainage with geology to improve modeling streamflow responses to climate in data limited environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Tague

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic models are one of the core tools used to project how water resources may change under a warming climate. These models are typically applied over a range of scales, from headwater streams to higher order rivers, and for a variety of purposes, such as evaluating changes to aquatic habitat or reservoir operation. Most hydrologic models require streamflow data to calibrate subsurface drainage parameters. In many cases, long-term gage records may not be available for calibration, particularly when assessments are focused on low-order stream reaches. Consequently, hydrologic modeling of climate change impacts is often performed in the absence of sufficient data to fully parameterize these hydrologic models. In this paper, we assess a geologic-based strategy for assigning drainage parameters. We examine the performance of this modeling strategy for the McKenzie River watershed in the US Oregon Cascades, a region where previous work has demonstrated sharp contrasts in hydrology based primarily on geological differences between the High and Western Cascades. Based on calibration and verification using existing streamflow data, we demonstrate that: (1 a set of streams ranging from 1st to 3rd order within the Western Cascade geologic region can share the same drainage parameter set, while (2 streams from the High Cascade geologic region require a different parameter set. Further, we show that a watershed comprised of a mixture of High and Western Cascade geologies can be modeled without additional calibration by transferring parameters from these distinctive High and Western Cascade end-member parameter sets. More generally, we show that by defining a set of end-member parameters that reflect different geologic classes, we can more efficiently apply a hydrologic model over a geologically complex landscape and resolve geo-climatic differences in how different watersheds are likely to respond to simple warming scenarios.

  5. PIT-Tag effects on hatchery salmonids: Carson National Fish Hatchery spring Chinook Salmon: Annual report 2011 and work plan 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Coded-wire-tags (CWT) and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags are usedextensively throughout the Columbia River Basin to address a wide variety of management...

  6. Basin Geomorphology and Drainage Morphometry Parame-ters Used as Indicators for Groundwater Prospect:Insight from Geographical Information System (GIS) Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumar Avinash; B Deepika; K S Jayappa

    2014-01-01

    Influence of structural and lithological controls of various drainage patterns and their stream orientations (for 2nd, 3rd and 4th order steams) were identified to evaluate the direction and controlling factors of drainage network. To investigate the prospect of groundwater, hydrogeomor-phological features of river basin viz. Mulki-Pavanje were identified and mapped. To evaluate the characteristics of the basin, different morphometric parameters (linear, areal and relief) were com-puted in sub-basin wise (SB-I to -VII). The linear parameters suggest drainage network is controlled by geomorphology. The form factor (Ff), elongation ratio (Re) and circularity ratio (Rc) suggest that the basin is in an elongated shape. The drainage density (Dd) indicates resistant/permeable strata un-der medium-dense vegetation with moderate relief. The areal parameters of the sub-basins (except SB-I and III) indicates moderate ground-slopes associated with moderately permeable rocks, which pro-mote moderate run-off and infiltration. Drainage texture (T) of the whole basin indicates coarse tex-ture while the SB-I, and III showing an intermediate texture. The relief parameters namely rugged-ness number (Rn) infers low basin relief and poor drainage density. To identify the most deficit/surplus zones of groundwater suitable weightages were assigned to the hydrogeomorphological units and morphometric parameters. The study reveal that the basin manifest that SB-III shall be most deficit zone of groundwater, whereas SB-VII, VI and V are found to show increase in groundwater potential-ity. Groundwater prospect area in this basin is estimated to be 7% area under poor, 44% area under moderate and 49% area under good to excellent. This paper demonstrated the potential application of geographical information system (GIS) techniques to evaluate the groundwater prospect in absence of traditional groundwater monitoring data.

  7. Efficiency of lachrymal sac drainage in newborns with dacryocystocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakovich V.N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article represents results of treatment of 14 newborns with unilateral dacryocystocele. Patients age was 7.2±0.5 days. In 9 newborns (64.3% dacryocystocele was complicated with lachrymal sac phlegmon; in 5 children (35.7% any complications were absent. Drainage of lachrymal sac through the lower lachrymal canaliculus, instillation of antibiotics, systemic antibiotic therapy in case of phlegmon were performed in all the children. Lachrymal sac washing was performed with a solution of the antibiotic ofloxacin till clear fluid evacuation. If necessary the drainage was repeated in 10 days. The drainage of lachrymal sac was successful in all the patients. 2-3 weeks after the drainage probing of nasolachrymal duct was perfomed in 4 children (28.6% including those 3 with lacrymal sac phlegmon. In 71.4% regression of dacryocystocele occurred itself. Any complications and side effects were not observed. Positive effect of the drainage, according to the authors, can be explained so that dilatation of lachrymal canaliculus before the procedure allows to eliminate Rosenmьller valve stenosis and evacuation of fluid, mucus and pus, being breeding ground for microorganisms from lachrymal sac, promotes inflammation subsiding. Authors also recommend to pay attention on prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele, using ultrasound investigation in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy.

  8. Current status of preoperative drainage for distal biliary obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harutoshi; Sugiyama; Toshio; Tsuyuguchi; Yuji; Sakai; Rintaro; Mikata; Shin; Yasui; Yuto; Watanabe; Dai; Sakamoto; Masato; Nakamura; Reina; Sasaki; Jun-ichi; Senoo; Yuko; Kusakabe; Masahiro; Hayashi; Osamu; Yokosuka

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative biliary drainage(PBD) was developed to improve obstructive jaundice, which affects a number of organs and physiological mechanisms in patients waiting for surgery. However, its role in patients who will undergo pancreaticoduodenectomy for biliary obstruction remains controversial. This article aims to review the current status of the use of preoperative drainage for distal biliary obstruction. Relevant articles published from 1980 to 2015 were identified by searching MEDLINE and Pub Med using the keywords "PBD", "pancreaticoduodenectomy", and "obstructive jaundice". Additional papers were identified by a manual search of the references from key articles. Current studies have demonstrated that PBD should not be routinely performed because of the postoperative complications. PBD should only be considered in carefully selected patients, particularly in cases where surgery had to be delayed. PBD may be needed in patients with severe jaundice, concomitant cholangitis, or severe malnutrition. The optimal method of biliary drainage has yet to be confirmed. PBD should be performed by endoscopic routes rather than by percutaneous routes to avoid metastatic tumor seeding. Endoscopic stenting or nasobiliary drainage can be selected. Although more expensive, the use of metallic stents remains a viable option to achieve effective drainage without cholangitis and reintervention.

  9. Basinsoft, a computer program to quantify drainage basin characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Craig A.; Eash, David A.

    2001-01-01

    Surface water runoff is a function of many interrelated factors including climate, soils, landuse, and the physiography of the drainage basin. A practical and effective method to quantify drainage basin characteristics would allow analysis of the interrelations of these factors, leading to an improved understanding of the effects of drainage basin characteristics on surface-water runoff. Historically, the quantification of drainage basin characteristics has been a tedious and time-consuming process. Recent improvements in computer hardware and software technology have enabled the developers of a program called Basinsoft to automate this process. Basinsoft requires minimal preprocessing of data and provides an efficient, automated procedure for quantifying selected morphometric characteristics and the option to area-weight characteristics for a drainage basin. The user of Basinsoft is assumed to have a limited amount of experience in the use of ARC/INFO, a proprietary geographic information system (GIS). (The use of brand names in this chapter is for identification purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey [USGS].)

  10. Connected subglacial lake drainage beneath Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin E.; Gourmelen, Noel; Huth, Alexander; Joughin, Ian

    2017-02-01

    We present conventional and swath altimetry data from CryoSat-2, revealing a system of subglacial lakes that drained between June 2013 and January 2014 under the central part of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica (TWG). Much of the drainage happened in less than 6 months, with an apparent connection between three lakes spanning more than 130 km. Hydro-potential analysis of the glacier bed shows a large number of small closed basins that should trap water produced by subglacial melt, although the observed large-scale motion of water suggests that water can sometimes locally move against the apparent potential gradient, at least during lake-drainage events. This shows that there are important limitations in the ability of hydro-potential maps to predict subglacial water flow. An interpretation based on a map of the melt rate suggests that lake drainages of this type should take place every 20-80 years, depending on the connectivity of the water flow at the bed. Although we observed an acceleration in the downstream part of TWG immediately before the start of the lake drainage, there is no clear connection between the drainage and any speed change of the glacier.

  11. Management of chest drainage tubes after lung surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Yukitoshi

    2016-06-01

    Since chest tubes have been routinely used to drain the pleural space, particularly after lung surgery, the management of chest tubes is considered to be essential for the thoracic surgeon. The pleural drainage system requires effective drainage, suction, and water-sealing. Another key point of chest tube management is that a water seal is considered to be superior to suction for most air leaks. Nowadays, the most common pleural drainage device attached to the chest tube is the three-bottle system. An electronic chest drainage system has been developed that is effective in standardizing the postoperative management of chest tubes. More liberal use of digital drainage devices in the postoperative management of the pleural space is warranted. The removal of chest tubes is a common procedure occurring almost daily in hospitals throughout the world. Extraction of the tube is usually done at the end of full inspiration or at the end of full expiration. The tube removal technique is not as important as how it is done and the preparation for the procedure. The management of chest tubes must be based on careful observation, the patient's characteristics, and the operative procedures that had been performed.

  12. Bubble motion measurements during foam drainage and coarsening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurdev, G; Saint-Jalmes, A; Langevin, D

    2006-08-15

    We have studied bubble motion within a column of foam allowed to undergo free drainage. We have measured bubble motion upward with time and as a function of their initial positions. Depending on the gas used, which sets the coarsening and drainage rates, different bubble upward motion types have been identified (constant speed, acceleration or deceleration) and explained in relation with liquid downward flows. The proofs of the consistency between bubble upward motion and liquid downward flow are obtained both by comparing the bubble motion curves to the liquid drainage ones, and by comparing the time variations of the liquid fraction extracted from bubble motion to direct liquid fraction measurements by electrical conductimetry. The agreement between bubble position tracking and electrical conductivity shows in particular that it is possible to determine the drainage regime from such simple bubble motion measurements. This work also allowed us to demonstrate a special case of foam coarsening and expansion, occurring when the foam gas is less soluble than the outside one, caused by diffusion of this external gas into the foam. All these results allow us to build a picture of drainage and coarsening seen from the bubble point of view.

  13. Influences of acid mine drainage and thermal enrichment on stream fish reproduction and larval survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafs, Andrew W.; Horn, C.D.; Mazik, P.M.; Hartman, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Potential effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) and thermal enrichment on the reproduction of fishes were investigated through a larval-trapping survey in the Stony River watershed, Grant County, WV. Trapping was conducted at seven sites from 26 March to 2 July 2004. Overall larval catch was low (379 individuals in 220 hours of trapping). More larval White Suckers were captured than all other species. Vectors fitted to nonparametric multidimensional scaling ordinations suggested that temperature was highly correlated to fish communities captured at our sites. Survival of larval Fathead Minnows was examined in situ at six sites from 13 May to 11 June 2004 in the same system. Larval survival was lower, but not significantly different between sites directly downstream of AMD-impacted tributaries (40% survival) and non-AMD sites (52% survival). The lower survival was caused by a significant mortality event at one site that coincided with acute pH depression in an AMD tributary immediately upstream of the site. Results from a Cox proportional hazard test suggests that low pH is having a significant negative influence on larval fish survival in this system. The results from this research indicate that the combination of low pH events and elevated temperature are negatively influencing the larval fish populations of the Stony River watershed. Management actions that address these problems would have the potential to substantially increase both reproduction rates and larval survival, therefore greatly enhancing the fishery.

  14. Toyavita Piavuhuru Koroin ’Canyon of Mother Earth’ Ethnohistory and Native American Religious Concerns in the Fort Carson - Pinon Canyon Maneuver Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-10

    rises in the Sangre de Cristo range, I and the headwaters of the Rio Grande. This pre-reservation range overlapped with that of the Taos Pueblo Indians...river was commonly called the El Rio de Las Animas Perdidas en Purgatorio, Las Animas, Purgatory, Purgatoire, Picket-Wirei and Picketwire. The original...et al. 1974:183). The Jicarilla Apache ethnic origin account considers the Arkansas, Canadian, Rio Grande and Pecos Rivers sacred streams the Creator

  15. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) in the Conterminous United States: Artificial Drainage (1992) and Irrigation Types (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geological Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 4, 5, 7 and 9. MRB4, covering the Missouri River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 10-lower and 10-upper. MRB5, covering the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 8, 11 and 12. MRB6, covering the Rio Grande, Colorado and Great Basin River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 13, 14, 15 and 16. MRB7, covering the Pacific Northwest River basins, contains

  16. Evolution of continental-scale drainage in response to mantle dynamics and surface processes: An example from the Ethiopian Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembroni, Andrea; Molin, Paola; Pazzaglia, Frank J.; Faccenna, Claudio; Abebe, Bekele

    2016-05-01

    Ethiopia offers an excellent opportunity to study the effects and linkage between mantle dynamics and surface processes on landscape evolution. The Ethiopian Highlands (NW Ethiopia), characterized by a huge basaltic plateau, is part of the African Superswell, a wide region of dynamically-supported anomalously high topography related to the rising of the Afar plume. The initiation and steadiness of dynamic support beneath Ethiopia has been explored in several studies. However the presence, role, and timing of dynamic support beneath Ethiopia and its relationship with continental flood basalts volcanism and surface processes are poorly defined. Here, we present a geomorphological analysis of the Ethiopian Highlands supplying new constraints on the evolution of river network. We investigated the general topographic features (filtered topography, swath profiles, local relief) and the river network (river longitudinal profiles) of the study area. We also apply a knickpoint celerity model in order to provide a chronological framework to the evolution of the river network. The results trace the long-term progressive capture of the Ethiopian Highlands drainage system and confirm the long-term dynamic support of the area, documenting its impact on the contrasting development of the Blue Nile and Tekeze basins.

  17. A Topological Phase Transition in Models of River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Jacob; Magnasco, Marcelo

    2012-02-01

    The classical Scheidegger model of river network formation and evolution is investigated on non-Euclidean geometries, which model the effects of regions of convergent and divergent flows - as seen around lakes and drainage off mountains, respectively. These new models may be differentiated by the number of basins formed. Using the divergence as an order parameter, we see a phase transition in the number of distinct basins at the point of a flat landscape. This is a surprising property of the statistics of river networks and suggests significantly different properties for riverine networks in uneven topography and vascular networks of arteries versus those of veins among others.

  18. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

  19. Links between river water acidity, land use and hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, T.; Celebi, A.; Kloeve, B. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Water Resources and Environmental Eng. Lab.], Email: tuomas.saarinen@oulu.fi

    2013-11-01

    In western Finland, acid leaching to watercourses is mainly due to drainage of acid sulphate (As) soils. This study examined how different land-use and land-cover types affect water acidity in the northwestern coastal region of Finland, which has abundant drained AS soils and peatlands. Sampling conducted in different hydrological conditions in studied river basins revealed two different catchment types: catchments dominated by drained forested peatlands and catchments used by agriculture. Low pH and high electric conductivity (EC) were typical in rivers affected by agriculture. In rivers dominated by forested peatlands and wetlands, EC was considerably lower. During spring and autumn high runoff events, water quality was poor and showed large spatial variation. Thus it is important to ensure that in river basin status assessment, sampling is carried out in different hydrological situations and in also water from some tributaries is sampled. (orig.)

  20. Occurrence of preservatives and antimicrobials in Japanese rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kumiko; Kameda, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Nakada, Norihide; Tamura, Ikumi; Miyazaki, Motonobu; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2014-07-01

    We established a method for the simultaneous analysis of seven preservatives and five antimicrobials in water. These chemicals are widely used in cosmetics, and their presence in river water is of concern. We used the method to test 13 sites in Japanese rivers and streams contaminated by domestic wastewater, effluent, or industrial wastewater. 2-Phenoxyethanol (2-PE), isopropylmethylphenol, resorcinol, and triclosan were detected at most sites; the maximum concentration of 2-PE detected was 14000 ng L(-1). The results suggest that the major sources of 2-PE were cosmetics and household detergents. The ratio of methylparaben to n-propylparaben in river waters with direct wastewater drainage was similar to that in common cosmetics. This is the first research on levels of 2-PE, isopropylmethylphenol, and chlorphenesin in river water.

  1. Drainage filter technologies to mitigate site-specific phosphorus losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Iversen, Bo Vangsø;

    2014-01-01

    high risks areas of P loss and applying site-specific measures therefore seems a more cost-efficient approach. The Danish Commission for Nature and Agriculture has now called for a shift of paradigm towards targeted mitigation and development of new, cost-efficient technologies to mitigate site......-specific nutrient losses in drainage. The “SUPREME-TECH” project (2010-2015), funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council, aims at providing the scientific basis for developing cost-effective drainage filter technologies to retain P in agricultural drainage waters. The project studies different approaches......-scale surface-flow constructed wetland. In the former, various natural and industrial P filter substrates have been tested for their ability to reduce inlet P concentrations to below environmental threshold values (

  2. Electronic versus traditional chest tube drainage following lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lijkendijk, Marike; Licht, Peter B; Neckelmann, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Electronic drainage systems have shown superiority compared with traditional (water seal) drainage systems following lung resections, but the number of studies is limited. As part of a medico-technical evaluation, before change of practice to electronic drainage systems for routine...... thoracic surgery, we conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating chest tube duration and length of hospitalization. METHODS: Patients undergoing lobectomy were included in a prospective open label RCT. A strict algorithm was designed for early chest tube removal, and this decision...... time for chest tube removal, as well as length of hospitalization. RESULTS: A total of 105 patients were randomized. We found no significant difference between the electronic group and traditional group in optimal chest tube duration (HR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.55-1.25; P = 0.367), actual chest tube duration...

  3. Urban Drainage System Improvement for Climate Change Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narae Kang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, urban areas have experienced frequent, large-scale flooding, a situation that has been aggravated by climate change. This study aims to improve the urban drainage system to facilitate climate change adaptation. A methodology and a series of mitigation strategies are presented to efficiently improve the urban drainage system in light of climate change. In addition, we assess the impact of climate change and predict the scale of potential future flood damage by applying the methodology and mitigation strategies to urban areas. Based on the methodology presented, urban flood prevention measures for Gyeyang-gu (Province, Incheon, Korea, was established. The validity of the proposed alternatives is verified by assessing the economic feasibility of the projects to reduce flood damage. We expect that the methodology presented will aid the decision-making process and assist in the development of reasonable strategies to improve the urban drainage system for adaptation to climate change.

  4. Measure Guideline: Guidance on Taped Insulating Sheathing Drainage Planes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grin, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this research is to provide durable and long-term water management solutions using exterior insulating sheathing as part of the water management system. It is possible to tape or seal the joints in insulating sheathing to create a drainage plane and even an air control layer. There exists the material durability component of the tape as well as the system durability component being the taped insulating sheathing as the drainage plane. This measure guideline provides best practice and product recommendations from the interviewed contractors and homebuilders who collectively have a vast amount of experience. Three significant issues were discussed with the group, which are required to make taped insulating sheathing a simple, long-term, and durable drainage plane: horizontal joints should be limited or eliminated wherever possible; where a horizontal joint exists use superior materials; and frequent installation inspection and regular trade training are required to maintain proper installation.

  5. A new thermogeomechanical theory for gravity drainage in SAGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cokar, M.; Kallos, M.S.; Gates, I.D. [Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil and bitumen industry, the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process is often used to enhance oil recovery. In such deposits, oil usually has no mobility due to its high viscosity and the injection of steam leads to an increase in the mobility of bitumen. Since the thermogeomechanical evolution of the oil sand at the chamber edge is important to the SAGD's performance, this paper aimed at taking these effects into account in a new SAGD drainage formula. The SAGD theory was modified to incorporate the effects of geomechanics and the results were then compared with Butler's model and the Sharma and Gates model. Results showed that thermal expansion has an important impact on oil rates and that geomechanical effects need to be considered when analysing the flow at the edge of steam chambers. This study developed a SAGD drainage formula and demonstrated the importance of geomechanics in the SAGD's performance.

  6. Gas drainage management systems for modern coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creedy, D.; Lunarzewski, L. [Wardell Armstrong, Newcastle-under-Lyme (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    Gas emission and outburst problems remain one of the major difficulties facing the world coal mining industry. Methane emission in coal mines adversely affects the efficiency of coal production and mine safety conditions. Risk can be reduced by gas drainage. The methane thus recovered is a potentially valuable energy source which if used can produce both financial and environmental benefits. The generic gas control methods of gas drainage and ventilation are common to most coal mining countries but the detailed technologies applied differ according to the geological, mining and economic conditions, and also with the magnitudes of coal production. However, the critical element of all gas drainage management systems is the management organisation which ensures allocation of responsibility and provides a systematic framework for effective application of the most appropriate technology. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. [Endosonography control of percutaneous paracoccygeal drainage of deep pelvic abscesses after rectum resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, S; Willis, S; Jansen, M; Neuerburg, J; Schumpelick, V

    1997-06-01

    Pelvic abscesses are severe complications after rectal surgery. In recent years, surgical drainage has been edged out by percutaneous drainage techniques. We report our experience with the drainage of postoperative pelvic abscesses via the paracoccygeal route controlled by endosonography. In eight patients the diagnosis of a retrorectal pelvic abscess was established by endosonography and confirmed by endosonographically controlled exploratory puncture. Drainage of the abscesses was performed via the paracoccygeal access route by trocar or Seldinger technique under permanent visual control by endoluminal sonography. Irrigation of the abscess cavity was than performed daily. In all cases drainage was successful without complications. Duration of drainage was 9-14 days with a mean of 10.8 days. In one patient there was a recurrence of the abscess because of early removal of the drainage catheter. Because of its overall availability and its good results, paracoccygeal percutaneous endosonographically controlled drainage seems to be a suitable uncomplicated method for drainage of postoperative pelvic abscesses.

  8. The impact of global warming on river runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    A global atmospheric model is used to calculate the annual river runoff for 33 of the world's major rivers for the present climate and for a doubled CO2 climate. The model has a horizontal resolution of 4 x 5 deg, but the runoff from each model grid box is quartered and added to the appropriate river drainage basin on a 2 x 2.5 deg resolution. The computed runoff depends on the model's precipitation, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture storage. For the doubled CO2 climate, the runoff increased for 25 of the 33 rivers, and in most cases the increases coincide with increased rainfall within the drainage basins. There were runoff increases in all rivers in high northern latitudes, with a maximum increase of 47 percent. At low latitudes there were both increases and decreases ranging from a 96 increase to a 43 percent decrease. The effect of the simplified model assumptions of land-atmosphere interactions on the results is discussed.

  9. Hydrodynamic Modeling Analysis of Union Slough Restoration Project in Snohomish River, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping

    2010-12-20

    A modeling study was conducted to evaluate additional project design scenarios at the Union Slough restoration/mitigation site during low tide and to provide recommendations for finish-grade elevations to achieve desired drainage. This was accomplished using the Snohomish River hydrodynamic model developed previously by PNNL.

  10. The Mark Twain Lake/Salt River CEAP Project – Progress and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mark Twain Lake collects drainage from approximately 6600 km2 of the Salt River basin, most of which represents the Midwest claypan major land resource area. Thus, it is likely the watershed most prone to surface runoff in the CEAP benchmark network. High surface runoff from agricultural land wi...

  11. Nocturnal drainage wind characteristics in two converging air sheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedayloo, T.; Clements, W.E.; Barr, S.; Archuleta, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    During the short experimental period in the Grants Basin of Northeastern New Mexico a survey was conducted on the complex meteorology of this area. Emphasis was placed on the nocturnal drainage flow because of the potential hazards to the populated areas of Milan and Grants from the effluents of the uranium mining and milling operation in this area. This investigation has shown that the nocturnal drainage flow patterns agree with the winds predicted on the basis of the complex terrain of the area. Because of the surface cooling at night (over 25/sup 0/C during summer and about 20/sup 0/C during winter), air from elevated surrounding areas flows to the low lying regions consequently setting up a nocturnal drainage flow. This regime exists over 60% of the time during summer months and over 65% of the time during winter months with a depth generally less than 200 m. In the San Mateo air shed the drainage flow is east northeast, and in the Ambrosia Lake air shed it is from northwest. The confluence of these two air flows contributes mainly to the drainage flow through the channel formed by La Ja Mesa and Mesa Montanosa. The analysis of data collected by the recording Flats Station confirms the prediction that although the area south of the channel region broadens considerably causing a reduction in flow speed, contributions from the southside of La Jara Mesa and Mesa Montanosa partly compensate for this reduction. The position of this recording station is 15 to 20 km from the populated towns of Milan and Grants. A drainage flow speed of approximately 2.2 m s/sup -1/ and the duration of over 11 hours as recorded by this station indicates that air from the San Mateo and Ambrosia Lake regions may be transported southwards to these population centers during a nocturnal period. In order to test this prediction, a series of multi-atmospheric tracer experiments were conducted in the Grants Basin.

  12. Spontaneous drainage in syringomyelia: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, E.I.; Mendelevich, E.G. [Kazan State Medical Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Neurology and Rehabilitation; Ibatullin, M.M. [Republic Medical Diagnostic Centre of Tatarstan, Kazan (Russian Federation). Department of Radiology

    2000-09-01

    We present five cases of syringomyelia associated with Chiari I or other causes of partial obstructions at the cervicomedullary junction, with spontaneous disruption of the wall of a cervical syrinx and formation of a communication between the cavity and the subarachnoid space, shown on axial MRI. MRI can be used to investigate the hydrodynamics, showing the liquid inside the disrupted syrinx wall and the pathway of drainage. The finding of spontaneous drainage may be important for understanding the pathogenesis of syringomyelia and may be helpful for choosing a surgical approach. (orig.)

  13. THE APPLICATION OF CATIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE AS DRAINAGE AND RETENTION AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinWang; KefuChen; FushanChent; ChuanshanZhao; RendangYang

    2004-01-01

    Cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) which was prepared through complex initiation system in laboratory and cationic polyacrylamide (Ciba) were used asretention and drainage aids for bleached wheat strawpulp. The influences of (polydiallyldimethlammonium chloride) PDADMAC and PDADMAC/CPAMon Zeta potential and drainability of pulp was investigated. The dual drainage and retention systems suchas CPAM/modified bentonite, CPAM/colloidal SiO2,as well as their comparison between the two systemswere discussed, and the optimal dosages of additiveswere determined. The results showed that: the complex systems can further enhance filler retention,drainability of pulp and strength properties of paper.

  14. Fluxes of dissolved organic matter and mineral weathering products from Corn Belt landscapes dominated by subsurface drainage: large-scale soil and hydrologic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinski, N. A.; Yoo, K.; Strock, J.; Dalzell, B. J.; Finlay, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The human alteration of agricultural landscapes is one of the most important factors in pedologic and geomorphic change, and can influence hydrology and aquatic chemistry at large scales. Most of the Midwestern Corn Belt that is currently dominated by subsurface tile drainage (such as southern Minnesota) was historically prairie and wetland which had hydrologic flow-paths through organic-rich surface soil horizons, a condition that favored the export of dissolved organic matter. When hydrology is altered through subsurface drainage, adsorption of organic materials to mineral surfaces and increases in mineral weathering may result because more water is flowing through subsurface mineral soils. We suggest that the alteration of hydrologic flowpaths in agricultural landscapes can dramatically alter the rate of mineral weathering as well as surface export of weathering products and dissolved organic matter. This could be at least one contributing factor to observed increases in Mississippi River alkalinity over the past four decades. Here, we examine trends in dissolved organic carbon, total dissolved nitrogen, dissolved organic nitrogen, total suspended solids, and indicators of mineral weathering (Si, Ca, Na, K) from subsurface drainage systems located in southwestern MN. Then, using a simple conceptual model, we estimate the effects of subsurface drainage on the regional fluxes of these parameters and present directions for future research.

  15. Hydrogeologic setting and simulation of groundwater flow near the Canterbury and Leadville Mine Drainage Tunnels, Leadville, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Tristan P.; Paschke, Suzanne S.; Minsley, Burke; Dupree, Jean A.

    2011-01-01

    The Leadville mining district is historically one of the most heavily mined regions in the world producing large quantities of gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, and manganese since the 1860s. A multidisciplinary investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, to characterize large-scale groundwater flow in a 13 square-kilometer region encompassing the Canterbury Tunnel and the Leadville Mine Drainage Tunnel near Leadville, Colorado. The primary objective of the investigation was to evaluate whether a substantial hydraulic connection is present between the Canterbury Tunnel and Leadville Mine Drainage Tunnel for current (2008) hydrologic conditions. Altitude in the Leadville area ranges from about 3,018 m (9,900 ft) along the Arkansas River valley to about 4,270 m (14,000 ft) along the Continental Divide east of Leadville, and the high altitude of the area results in a moderate subpolar climate. Winter precipitation as snow was about three times greater than summer precipitation as rain, and in general, both winter and summer precipitation were greatest at higher altitudes. Winter and summer precipitation have increased since 2002 coinciding with the observed water-level rise near the Leadville Mine Drainage Tunnel that began in 2003. The weather patterns and hydrology exhibit strong seasonality with an annual cycle of cold winters with large snowfall, followed by spring snowmelt, runoff, and recharge (high-flow) conditions, and then base-flow (low-flow) conditions in the fall prior to the next winter. Groundwater occurs in the Paleozoic and Precambrian fractured-rock aquifers and in a Quaternary alluvial aquifer along the East Fork Arkansas River, and groundwater levels also exhibit seasonal, although delayed, patterns in response to the annual hydrologic cycle. A three-dimensional digital representation of the extensively faulted bedrock was developed and a geophysical direct

  16. Water resources of the Waccasassa River Basin and adjacent areas, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G.F.; Snell, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    This map report was prepared in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District which, with the Waccasassa River Basin Board, had jurisdiction over waters within the Waccasassa River basin, the coastal areas adjacent to the basin, and other adjacent areas outside the basin. New water management district boundaries, effective January 1977, place most of the Waccasassa River basin in the Suwannee River Water Management District. The purpose of the report is to provide water information for consideration in land-use and water development which is accelerating, especially in the northeastern part of the study area. It is based largely on existing data in the relatively undeveloped area. Of the total area included in the topographic drainage basin for the Waccasassa River about 72 percent is in Levy County, 18 percent in Alachua County, 9 percent in Gilchrist County, and 1 percent in Marion County. The elongated north-south drainage basin is approximately 50 mi in length, averages 13 mi in width, and lies between the Suwannee River, the St. Johns River, and the Withlacoochee River basins. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Morphometric Characters of a Himalayan River Basin-Pindari river of Pindari Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, L. K.; Pillai, J.

    2011-12-01

    Himalayan region consist many glaciers and glacier-fed rivers. About 17% of the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) is under permanent cover of Ice and snow and have more than 9000 glaciers and high altitude fresh water lakes. Stream runoff originating from the glaciers has direct implication in geomorphology of the region. Present study is an attempt to find out the stages in the geomorphic development of a higher altitudinal river basin, Pindari river basin. Development of a landscape is equal to the some total of the development of each individual drainage basin of which it is composed. Morphometric parameters of the river basin had been identified viz. linear, areal and relief aspect and examined. Pindari river basin is a 5th order high altitudinal, sub-dendratic, parallel and perennial tributary of Alaknanda River, formed by three main tributaries (Sunderdhunga, Pindari and Kafini). It has the catchment area above 557.63 Km2. This river originates from combined action of rain and snow fall from Pindari glacier which is part of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (a world heritage site). Pindari river basin is located between 1600 m to 6880 m elevation ,and 300 03' 23" -300 19' 04" N Latitude and 790 45' 59" - 80 0 04' 13"E Longitude. Due to microclimatic conditions Pindari river basin generally dry with low annual precipitation. There is heavy rainfall during monsoon season. The approximate variation in the precipitation is from 750 mm to 2000 mm. For estimating the Morphometric parameter SOI toposheet on 1:50000 scale and Landsat data (ETM+) having 15m resolution were georectified in RS and GIS environment. SRTM data was used in analysis of elevation and slope range of the study area. Extensive field study was held on during the year 2010. Morphometric parameters (linear, aerial and relief) of the study area had been estimated. It is observed that Pindari river basin is a sub-dendratic, higher relief, youth, fine texture; elongated basin has peak flow, high discharge, and

  18. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY HYDRAULIC ROUGHNESS FOR KAN TIN MAIN DRAINAGE CHANNEI IN HONG KONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tao; YANG Kai-lin; GUO Xing-lei; XIE Sheng-zong; FU Hui; GUO Yong-xin

    2012-01-01

    The Kam Tin Main Drainage Channel (KTMDC) is an important river for the city drainage in Hong Kong.The roughness and its variations have an obvious effect on the flood control capacity and the flow capacity.So physical model tests are designed to study the KTMDC.Due to its complex channel structure,the tests are completed in two steps.In Step 1,the energy loss is measured along the main channel without inflows,with all inflows and outflows being sealed.In Step 2,all the inflow and outflow structures are measured,with the sealed inflows and outflows being opened on the basis of Step 1.In each step,two schemes are employed.One of the key issues is the choice of suitable materials to make the model's roughness similar to that of the prototype.According to the gravity similarity criterion,the 1:25 scale model is built,with the main channel made of Perspex.The facing slopes of the grasscrete and the stone masonry need to be roughened.A kind of the nylon net is selected to simulate the roughness of the stone masonry and the plastic lawn for the grasscrete facing slope.For the different structure reaches,the roughness coefficients are estimated based on the hydraulic theory.The rationality of the test results is verified in this study.The results of testing can provide a reliable basis for the renovation,the expansion,the optimization of this channel.

  19. Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Alan

    2001-01-01

    In 2000, we continued our assessment of the Sawtooth Hatchery steelhead stock to reestablish natural populations in Beaver and Frenchman creeks in the upper Salmon River. We stocked both streams with 15 pair of hatchery adults and estimated the potential smolt production from the 1999 outplant. I estimated that about nine smolts per female could be produced in both streams from the 1999 outplant. The smolt-to-adult return would need to exceed 20% to return two adults at this level of production. In the Red River drainage, we stocked Dworshak hatchery stock fingerlings and smolts, from 1993 to 1999, to assess which life-stage produces more progeny when the adults return to spawn. In 2000, we operated the Red River weir to trap adults that returned from these stockings, but none were caught from either group. We continued to monitor wild steelhead populations in the Lochsa and Selway river drainages. We estimated that 26 wild adult steelhead returned to Fish Creek. This is the lowest adult escapement we have documented (when the weir was intact all spring) since we began monitoring Fish Creek in 1992. I estimated that nearly 25,000 juvenile steelhead migrated out of Fish Creek this year. Juvenile steelhead densities in Lochsa and Selway tributaries were similar to those observed in 1999. In 2000, we obtained funding for a DNA analysis to assess Idaho's steelhead stock structure. We collected fin samples from wild steelhead in 70 streams of the Clearwater, Snake, and Salmon River drainages and from our five hatchery stocks. The DNA analysis was subcontracted to Dr. Jennifer Nielsen, Alaska Biological Science Center, Anchorage, and will be completed in 2001.

  20. Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers : 2001 Project Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Alan

    2002-03-01

    In 2001, Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued an assessment of the Sawtooth Hatchery steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss stock to reestablish natural populations in Beaver and Frenchman creeks in the upper Salmon River. Crews stocked both streams with 20 pair of hatchery adults, and I estimated the potential smolt production from the 2000 adult outplants. n the Red River drainage, IDFG stocked Dworshak hatchery stock fingerlings and smolts from 1993 to 1999 to assess which life stage produces more progeny when the adults return to spawn. In 2001, IDFG operated the Red River weir to trap adults that returned from these stockings, but none were caught from either group. Wild steelhead populations in the Lochsa and Selway river drainages were assessed and the chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha escapement was enumerated in Fish Creek. I estimated that 75 wild adult steelhead and 122 adult chinook salmon returned to Fish Creek in 2001. I estimated that slightly more than 30,000 juvenile steelhead migrated out of Fish Creek. This is the largest number of steelhead to migrate out of Fish Creek in a single year since I began estimating the yearly migration in 1994. Juvenile steelhead densities in Lochsa and Selway tributaries were somewhat higher in 2001 than those observed in 2000. Crews from IDFG collected over 4,800 fin samples from wild steelhead in 74 streams of the Clearwater, Snake, and Salmon river drainages and from five hatchery stocks during the summer of 2000 for a DNA analysis to assess Idaho's steelhead stock structure. The DNA analysis was subcontracted to Dr. Jennifer Nielsen, Alaska Biological Science Center, Anchorage. Her lab developed protocols to use for the analysis in 2001 and is continuing to analyze the samples. Dr. Nielsen plans to have the complete set of wild and hatchery stocks analyzed in 2002.