WorldWideScience

Sample records for cars

  1. Cars, Cars, Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Cars are the focus of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of cars in the United States, the national highway system, safety and pollution concerns, mobility and freedom for women, classic car shows, and the road trip in American literature and film. Also included are links to the websites of Automobile in American Life…

  2. Car Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Head Neck & Nervous System > Car Sickness Health Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Car Sickness Page Content ...

  3. Car sick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, M G

    1988-01-01

    The automobile is currently seen as the most desirable mode of transportation. However, this view needs to be changed since the proliferation of the automobile worldwide is leading to the poisoning of the environment and people. In the US the number of passenger cars grew 51% between 1971-86 and in the noncommunist industrialized community that figure is 71%. The gasoline and diesel fuel used to power the overwhelming majority of cars creates a variety of problems. The pollution is estimated to have a hidden cost of US $.80/gallon. Others estimate that the pollution causes 30,000 premature deaths annually just in the US. 75% of the carbon monoxide (CO), 48% of nitrogen oxides (NO2), 13% of particulates (P), and 3% of sulfur (S) emissions come from cars in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which includes the US, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. 17% of all worldwide carbon dioxide (CO2) emission comes from the production and use of fossil fuels for cars. The single biggest problem associated with cars is the photochemical smog they create in urban areas. In 1986 75 million Americans lived in areas that failed to meet national air quality standards for CO, P, and ozone (03). The only area of major improvement has been the removal of lead from gasoline. It was known to cause problems from the beginning of its use in the 1920s, but remained for 50 years because of auto and oil company pressure. Ground 03 is estimated by the US government to cost US $4 billion in annual losses, just for corn, wheat, soybeans, and peanuts. Acid rain is the other major problem associated with cars, and its damage is estimated at US $5 billion annually. Both these problems are shortterm, their effects occur immediately; the longterm disadvantage is the build up of CO2 and its contribution to the greenhouse effect. While the US is at the forefront of regulation and many other countries are modeling their emission

  4. Clean cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.

  5. CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Access and Control Service

    2004-01-01

    Following to the operational circular No2 title III. Conditions of access, paragraph 21 . Except in the case of exemptions authorized by the Director-General, all drivers must facilitate the identification of their vehicle. For CERN car stickers to be valid in 2004, they must have the numbers 04 printed on them. As of Monday, March 15th, the security agents on duty at the various access points will have no alternative but to refuse entry to vehicles which do not have a valid sticker. Anyone in this situation is requested to follow the regularization procedure either by logging on to the web site, or by going in person to the registration service in bldg. 55, first floor, between 07h30 et 16h30, Monday through Friday. Access and Control Service - FM Group, TS Department

  6. Car Seat Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Car Seat Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Car Seat Safety ... certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose a seat with a label that ...

  7. Jet Car Track Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...

  8. Car Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club

    2012-01-01

    The Car Club wishes all its members Good road and Happy New Year 2012. It is time to think about renewing your subscription for this year, at a cost of 50 CHF, unchanged since several years. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to going to more details, as we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. Therefore don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. We remind you that everyone who works on the CERN site can be members of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and the personnel of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the installations, alternatively you can visit our web site: http://club-acc.web.cern.ch/club-acc/ The use of the club’s installations is strictly reserved for members. Pour t...

  9. The Socialist Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars K.

    2013-01-01

    Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011.......Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011....

  10. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  11. Tank car leaks gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    On January 27, 1994, a Canadian National (CN) tank car loaded with gasoline began to leak from a crack in the tank shell on the end of the car near the stub sill. The tank car had been damaged from impact switching. A part of the tank car was sent for laboratory analysis which concluded that: (1) the fracture originated in two locations in welds, (2) the cracks propagated in a symmetrical manner and progressed into the tank plate, (3) the fracture surface revealed inadequate weld fusion. A stress analysis of the tank car was conducted to determine the coupling force necessary to cause the crack. It was noted that over the last decade several problems have occurred pertaining to stub sill areas of tank cars that have resulted in hazardous material spills. An advisory was sent to Transport Canada outlining many examples where tank cars containing serious defects had passed CN inspections that were specifically designed to identify such defects. 4 figs

  12. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sovka

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  13. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Pollak, P.; Vopicka, J.; Hanzl, V.; Sovka, Pavel

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo) speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  14. Electric Car Special

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoethout, T.; Belin, H.; Verwijs, H.; Nicola, S.; De Saint Jacob, Y.; Gatermann, R.

    2009-09-15

    In six articles, two columns and two interviews a part of this issue is dedicated to electric car developments: about winners and losers in the electric car race; a unique business model to rolling out the electric car by the electric battery company Better Place and the automobile industry Renault Nissan; interview with entrepreneur Shai Agassi of the Indian company Better Place; the development of electric cars in Germany; interview with Jean-Jacques Chanaron, an economist specialising in innovation management and a firm believer in electric cars; start of mass production of electric vehicles at the Japanese Nissan automobile industry; the constraints in Sweden in developing fuel-efficient automobiles; plans for 1 million electric or hybrid cars by 2025 in the Netherlands.

  15. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    Based on calls for innovative ways of reducing car traffic and research indicating that car driving is often the result of habitual decision-making and choice processes, this paper reports on a field experiment designed to test a tool aimed to entice drivers to skip the habitual choice of the car...... and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  16. Car stickers for 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    The 2011 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive their 2011 car stickers by internal mail as of 15 December.   Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents for the vehicles concerned must be presented. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/ISG/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  17. Car stickers for 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The 2012 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive by internal mail their 2012 car stickers as of 5 December. Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents related to the vehicles concerned are mandatory. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/IS/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  18. UV exposure in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehrle, Matthias; Soballa, Martin; Korn, Manfred

    2003-08-01

    There is increasing knowledge about the hazards of solar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation to humans. Although people spend a significant time in cars, data on UV exposure during traveling are lacking. The aim of this study was to obtain basic information on personal UV exposure in cars. UV transmission of car glass samples, windscreen, side and back windows and sunroof, was determined. UV exposure of passengers was evaluated in seven German middle-class cars, fitted with three different types of car windows. UV doses were measured with open or closed windows/sunroof of Mercedes-Benz E 220 T, E 320, and S 500, and in an open convertible car (Mercedes-Benz CLK). Bacillus subtilis spore film dosimeters (Viospor) were attached to the front, vertex, cheeks, upper arms, forearms and thighs of 'adult' and 'child' dummies. UV wavelengths longer than >335 nm were transmitted through car windows, and UV irradiation >380 nm was transmitted through compound glass windscreens. There was some variation in the spectral transmission of side windows according to the type of glass. On the arms, UV exposure was 3-4% of ambient radiation when the car windows were shut, and 25-31% of ambient radiation when the windows were open. In the open convertible car, the relative personal doses reached 62% of ambient radiation. The car glass types examined offer substantial protection against short-wave UV radiation. Professional drivers should keep car windows closed on sunny days to reduce occupational UV exposure. In individuals with polymorphic light eruption, produced by long-wave UVA, additional protection by plastic films, clothes or sunscreens appears necessary.

  19. The Electric Cars Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  20. Collaborative Car Pooling System

    OpenAIRE

    João Ferreira; Paulo Trigo; Porfírio Filipe

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture for a collaborative Car Pooling System based on a credits mechanism to motivate the cooperation among users. Users can spend the accumulated credits on parking facilities. For this, we propose a business model to support the collaboration between a car pooling system and parking facilities. The Portuguese Lisbon-s Metropolitan area is used as application scenario.

  1. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  2. Car Covers | Outdoor Covers Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Covers, Outdoor

    2018-01-01

    Protect your car from the elements with Ultimate Touch Car Cover. The multi-layer non-woven fabric is soft on the finish and offers 4 seasons all weather protection.https://outdoorcovers.ca/car-covers/

  3. Distortionary company car taxation: deadweight losses through increased car ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, J.N.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the effects of distortionary company car taxation through increased household car consumption for the Netherlands. We use several identification strategies and demonstrate that for about 20 % of households company car possession increases car ownership. The annual welfare loss of

  4. CAR: no longer forgotten?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Lanzer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The international community is waking up to the strategic importance of the Central African Republic (CAR in the crisis over Darfur. Will current interest endure long enough to help the people of CARCAR beyond the immediate future?

  5. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  6. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding...... consequences. Since the decision is made quite automatically and only one choice alternative is considered (the habitually chosen one), behaviour guided by habit is difficult to change. The implications of car use habits for converting drivers to commuters using public transportation is analysed based...... to do so, car use habit, and the interaction between the two, confirms the theory-derived hypothesis that car use habits act as an obstacle to the transformation of intentions to commute by public transportation into action....

  7. NREL Model Car Competitions | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    work together building cars with guidance from a parent, teacher, or coach to compete in race and Solar and Lithium Ion model car races in Colorado. Building solar- and battery-powered cars requires listPDF for Junior Solar Sprint and Lithium-Ion Battery model cars. Junior Solar Sprint Solar Made Pitsco

  8. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  9. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  10. Car stickers for 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (Building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2009 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the documents relating to the vehicles(s) concerned. If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2009 sticker using the request form on the Web (via internet Explorer only). NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2008. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  11. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  12. The market for gasoline cars and diesel cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verboven, F.

    1999-01-01

    In Europe the tax tariff is much lower for diesel fuel than for gasoline. This benefit is used by manufacturers to increase the price of diesel-fueled cars, which limits the possibility to control the use of diesel cars by means of a fiscal policy (tax incidence). Attention is paid to the impact of fiscal advantages for diesel cars on the purchasing behavior of the consumer and the pricing policy (price discrimination) of the car manufacturers. 1 ref

  13. Gas Tank for Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lorenz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the development of a highly efficient pressure vessel for liquid petroleum gas (LPG in integral design is described. The pressure vessel can be customized in an optimal available installation space and thus means that the suitable for everyday use of existing modified cars or trucks can be increased.

  14. Modeling the Mousetrap Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element…

  15. Race Car Rally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Joan L.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an activity where teams of parents and children work together to solve problems involving matchbox-sized race cars. The teams collect, record, and analyze data; measure distances in metric; and explore concepts related to mass, friction, and force. (PR)

  16. Lego Car Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Familiar toys can be used to scaffold young children's learning about basic physics as well as guide scientific inquiry. Teachers looking for resources to engage young children and develop science inquiry skills need look no further than the toy box. In this two-part activity, children first construct a Lego® car and use it to explore the effects…

  17. Motor car driving; Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergensohn, T. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). ISS-Fahrzeugtechnik; Timpe, K.P. (eds.) [Technische Univ. Berlin (DE). Zentrum Mensch-Maschine-Systeme (ZMMS)

    2001-07-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on motor car driving, i.e. all aspects of motor car technology that cannot be looked at separately from the needs, characteristics and limitations of the human driver. This includes ergonomics as well as the design of the driver interface in consideration of the findings of cognitive science, problems of driving simulation in the context of simulation of technical systems, problems relating to optimal car automation up to traffic psychology. The book is in honour of Prof. Dr. Willumeit who died in summer 2000. Prof. Willumeit was one of the few scientists in Germany who had been an expert on all aspects of motor car driving for many years. [German] Erstmalig wird das Thema der Fahrzeugfuehrung geschlossen dargestellt. Die Thematik der 'Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung' umfasst in diesem Zusammenhang alle Aspekte der Kraftfahrzeugtechnik, die nicht isoliert von den Erfordernissen, Eigenschaften und Grenzen des menschlichen Fahrers betrachtet werden koennen. Dies beinhaltet u.a. Probleme der Ergonomie, aber auch Fragen nach einer kognitionswissenschaftlich unterstuetzten Schnittstellengestaltung, Fragen der Simulation des Fahrverhalten im Kontext der Simulation technischer Systeme oder Fragen einer optimalen Fahrzeugautomatisierung bis hin zu verkehrspsychologischen Aspekten. Das Buch ist als Gedenkband fuer Prof. Dr. Willumeit konzipiert, der im Sommer 2000 verstarb. Prof. Willumeit war einer der wenigen Wissenschaftler in Deutschland, der ueber viele Jahre diese Thematik der Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung in ihrer vollen Breite verfolgte. (orig.)

  18. Misuse of car safety seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, M J; Stroup, K B; Gerhart, S

    1988-01-01

    Correct use of car seats for small children is essential to prevent serious injuries and death from automotive accidents. Failure to use a car seat properly can contribute to serious injury or death of a child. A case study in which misuse of a car seat occurred is reported. The infant died of hemorrhage and shock secondary to liver laceration which resulted from excessive pressure over the abdomen sustained on impact. Surveys of car seat use for small children prior to and following a child restraint law are also reported. Observers noted types of car seats and specific forms of misuse. Survey results suggest that parents are more likely to misuse car seats for infants than toddlers. Medical professionals can reinforce the importance of proper car seat use by incorporating specific car seat use questions into the patient interview and by providing educational materials.

  19. Design of an intelligent car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yongyi

    2017-03-01

    The design of simple intelligent car, using AT89S52 single chip microcomputer as the car detection and control core; The metal sensor TL - Q5MC induction to iron, to detect the way to send feedback to the signal of single chip microcomputer, make SCM according to the scheduled work mode to control the car in the area according to the predetermined speed, and the operation mode of the microcontroller choose different also can control the car driving along s-shaped iron; Use A44E hall element to detect the car speeds; Adopts 1602 LCD display time of car driving, driving the car to stop, take turns to show the car driving time, distance, average speed and the speed of time. This design has simple structure and is easy to implement, but are highly intelligent, humane, to a certain extent reflects the intelligence.

  20. Our Car as Power Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell cars can provide more efficient and cleaner transportation. However, we use our cars for transportation only 5% of the time. When parked, the fuel cell in the car can produce electricity from hydrogen, which is cleaner and more efficient than the current electricity system, generating

  1. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  2. CERN car stickers 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the car stickers for 2005 are now available. If you have not received the new one by internal mail, you should go along in person to the Registration Service (bldg. 55 - 1st floor), open non-stop from 7:30 to 16:30, taking with you your 2004 sticker and the log-book of your vehicle. Thank you for your collaboration. Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department.

  3. CuseCar--community car-sharing program : car sharing lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    CuseCar of Syracuse launched services in December 2008 with 3 Toyota Prius Hybrids. CuseCar initially, due to : concerns about availability, limited membership to Origination Sponsor Locations, which in turn developed few : members. In 2009 CuseCar o...

  4. Car stickers for 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    The 2010 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue stickers will receive their 2010 stickers through the internal mail from 1st December onwards. Holders of red stickers are required to go to the Registration Service (Building 55, first floor), which is open non-stop from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. Mondays to Fridays, in order to obtain their new stickers. They will be asked to present documents relating to the vehicles concerned. Owners of vehicles registered on green and CD plates should disregard this message. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/SEM/LS

  5. Car monitoring information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica KALAŠOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to characterize alternatives of information systems used for managing, processing and evaluation of information related to company vehicles. Especially we focus on logging, transferring and processing of on-road vehicle movement information in inland and international transportation. This segment of company information system has to monitor the car movement – actively or passively – according to demand of the company and after the processing it has to evaluate and give the complex monitoring of a situation of all the company vehicles to the controller.

  6. Flying car design and testing

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, S.; Smrcek, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is primarily concerned with the inverted design process and manufacture of a flying car prototype which can overcome the problem of traffic management in the world today. A possible solution to the problem of overcrowded roads would be to design a flying or hovering car. Given technological advances in aircraft construction, navigation and operation, flying cars or personal aircraft are now a feasible proposition. The viability of such a concept was investigated in terms of produci...

  7. Electric Cars and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the joint dynamics of oil prices and interest in electric cars, measured as the volume of Google searches for related phrases. Not surprisingly, I find that oil price shocks predict increases in Google searches for electric cars. Much more surprisingly, I also find that an increase in Google searches predicts declines in oil prices. The high level of public interest in electric cars between April and August of 2008 can explain approximately half of the decline in oil prices...

  8. Product declaration for cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    This reports for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the possible ways of declaring product information on cars. The basic elements of such a declaration are discussed and a recommendation for an energy label for cars is presented. The report discusses the fundamental questions posed such as how long a label should be valid, if comparisons should be made and if it is to be based on CO 2 -emissions or on fuel consumption. Also, the criteria to be used for comparisons - such as vehicle weight, size or power - are looked at and methods of classification are examined along with data fundamentals. Further, the expectations placed on the product declarations with respect to their energetic and economic impact are discussed. The design of the label and the legislature on which it is based are discussed and initial reactions of the automobile industry are noted. The report is rounded off by a discussion of the effects of the declaration in relation to other instruments that have been proposed

  9. Proton - Malaysia's national car project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Daniel; Søborg, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The rise and development of the Malaysian national car project. How this project has become an esential part of the industrial development in Malaysia and how it has underpinned a growing middle class consumption culture with house and car as it pivotal goods.......The rise and development of the Malaysian national car project. How this project has become an esential part of the industrial development in Malaysia and how it has underpinned a growing middle class consumption culture with house and car as it pivotal goods....

  10. Background free CARS imaging by phase sensitive heterodyne CARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurna, M.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Otto, Cornelis; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we show that heterodyne CARS, based on a controlled and stable phase-preserving chain, can be used to measure amplitude and phase information of molecular vibration modes. The technique is validated by a comparison of the imaginary part of the heterodyne CARS spectrum to the

  11. Initial heating in cold cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Teunissen, L.P.J.; Hoogh, I.M. de

    2012-01-01

    During the initial minutes after entering a cold car, people feel uncomfortably cold. Six different warming systems were investigated in a small car in order to find out how to improve the feeling of comfort using 16 volunteers. The methods were: no additional warming next to a standard heating

  12. Energy Use of Passenger Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use...

  13. Shopping for a safer car

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This brochure provides some helpful tips on what to look for when shopping for a safer car. Automakers are increasingly advertising the safety features of their cars. The problem is sorting out their claims and zeroing in on the safety features that ...

  14. FUEL PRICES AND CAR SALES

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Cârstea

    2008-01-01

    Automotive industry is a very important economic sector that is highly responsive to changes in the world economy. The fuel price is the biggest enemy of car manufacturers. This is a compared analysis between Europe and Romania regarding new car registrations.

  15. Panorama 2014 - Car-sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, Simon

    2013-10-01

    Car-sharing is a new mode of transportation that consists of multiple users sharing the same vehicle. This type of service is expanding with the arrival of larger players, such as traditional car rental companies, automotive manufacturers, and large firms specializing in transportation. This new mode of transportation offers real potential and is currently finding its users, in France and worldwide. (author)

  16. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked on...

  17. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with the...

  18. AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats Page Content Article Body Children should ride ... of approved car safety seats. Healthy Children Radio: Car Seat Safety Dennis Durbin, MD, FAAP, lead author ...

  19. Nanobody Based Dual Specific CARs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn De Munter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials have shown that adoptive chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cell therapy is a very potent and possibly curative option in the treatment of B cell leukemias and lymphomas. However, targeting a single antigen may not be sufficient, and relapse due to the emergence of antigen negative leukemic cells may occur. A potential strategy to counter the outgrowth of antigen escape variants is to broaden the specificity of the CAR by incorporation of multiple antigen recognition domains in tandem. As a proof of concept, we here describe a bispecific CAR in which the single chain variable fragment (scFv is replaced by a tandem of two single-antibody domains or nanobodies (nanoCAR. High membrane nanoCAR expression levels are observed in retrovirally transduced T cells. NanoCARs specific for CD20 and HER2 induce T cell activation, cytokine production and tumor lysis upon incubation with transgenic Jurkat cells expressing either antigen or both antigens simultaneously. The use of nanobody technology allows for the production of compact CARs with dual specificity and predefined affinity.

  20. Nanobody Based Dual Specific CARs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munter, Stijn; Ingels, Joline; Goetgeluk, Glenn; Bonte, Sarah; Pille, Melissa; Weening, Karin; Kerre, Tessa; Abken, Hinrich; Vandekerckhove, Bart

    2018-01-30

    Recent clinical trials have shown that adoptive chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a very potent and possibly curative option in the treatment of B cell leukemias and lymphomas. However, targeting a single antigen may not be sufficient, and relapse due to the emergence of antigen negative leukemic cells may occur. A potential strategy to counter the outgrowth of antigen escape variants is to broaden the specificity of the CAR by incorporation of multiple antigen recognition domains in tandem. As a proof of concept, we here describe a bispecific CAR in which the single chain variable fragment (scFv) is replaced by a tandem of two single-antibody domains or nanobodies (nanoCAR). High membrane nanoCAR expression levels are observed in retrovirally transduced T cells. NanoCARs specific for CD20 and HER2 induce T cell activation, cytokine production and tumor lysis upon incubation with transgenic Jurkat cells expressing either antigen or both antigens simultaneously. The use of nanobody technology allows for the production of compact CARs with dual specificity and predefined affinity.

  1. CERN CAR CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile club

    2009-01-01

    You are cordially invited to the next General Assembly of the CERN Car Club Tuesday 12 January 2010 at 5:45pm Bldg. 593 / room 11 As the end of 2009 is approaching, it is time to think about renewing your subscription. Therefore next time you are on the CERN-Meyrin site or at the Post Office counter don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. The fee remains unchanged: 50 CHF. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know of all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to give details, we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. We remind you everyone working on CERN site is entitled to become a member of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and staff of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the facilities, or you can visit our web site. The use of the club&...

  2. CERN CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Accueil et Controle d'Accès; ST Division

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with Operational Circular n¡ 2, paragraph 21, CERN car stickers are to be renewed. The new stickers are now available and will be valid for a year.Youare therefore requested:either to obtain them from the distribution points for new stickers (see below); or to send us the application form below, duly completed, via the internal mail; or to complete the application form directly via the Web at the address: http://cern.ch/registration-stickers. Each vehicle has to carry a sticker and needs a separate application form.Vehicles bearing CERN diplomatic plates (CD07, 431K and CD series) do not need a sticker for access to the CERN areas.Thank you.List of distribution points:Registration Service (bldg 55 1st floor), open from 07h30 to 16h30. Building 33 (entrance hall), open from 08h00 to 18h00. Building 120 (ground floor), outside working hours.Name Surname CERN identification number Vehicle registration plates Country issuing the plates Vehicle ma...

  3. Engineering CAR-T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Jun; Zhong, Jiang F; Zhang, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor redirected T cells (CAR-T cells) have achieved inspiring outcomes in patients with B cell malignancies, and are now being investigated in other hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. CAR-T cells are generated by the T cells from patients' or donors' blood. After the T cells are expanded and genetically modified, they are reinfused into the patients. However, many challenges still need to be resolved in order for this technology to gain widespread adoption. In this review, we first discuss the structure and evolution of chimeric antigen receptors. We then report on the tools used for production of CAR-T cells. Finally, we address the challenges posed by CAR-T cells.

  4. Dwelling on Everyday Car Journeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølbøll, Lene; Jensen, Hanne Louise

    different traffic conditions as well as the emotional states related to the drivers’ thoughts about work and family issues, the materiality of the car and the recreational activities inside the car. Analyses are based on a web-based questionnaire, sent to 373 participating drivers in the Big Data research...... project Intelligent Transportation System Platform North Denmark (Lahrmann 2012). In that project data on e.g. position and speed was collected via an On Board Unit from more than 400 cars in 2012-2014 (Tøfting et. al. 2014). The full dataset includes a driven distance of approximately 14 million km...... experiences related to commuting. The findings will be discussed using theoretical inspiration from Sheller (2004), Bull (2003) and Thrift (2004) and we will suggest that the various emotional experiences of the commuters are of great importance for their ability to use of the car as a dwelling place....

  5. CHINA ACCOUNTING REVIEW(CAR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China Accounting Review(CAR)is a new accounting journal in Chinese,spon- sored by Peking University,Tsinghua University,Beijing National Accounting Insti- tute and ten more universities,and published by the Peking University Press.

  6. Adaptation Model for Corporate Car Sharing in the Car Rental Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Matthes, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this thesis was on developing an adaption model for implementing a corporate car sharing service within the existing infrastructure of a car rental company. The investigated case companies were a leading Finnish car rental franchisee and an international car sharing subsidiary, largely owned by the car rental franchisor, which offers corporate car sharing solutions in major European countries. Adapting this new service in Finland will help the car rental franchisee to assert its ...

  7. Passenger car fuel consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    This survey originated from a proposal to monitor the fuel consumption and fuel economy of personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. Its purpose is to establish a data base which would contain information on total distance travelled, total amount of fuel consumed, average distance obtained per unit of fuel, total expenditures on fuel, and seasonal fluctuations in fuel consumption and in distance travelled. Among the needs served by this data base are the monitoring of passenger car fuel economy standards and the estimation of pasenger car fuel requirements in conditions involving fuel shortages. Survey methodology is by telephone interview to trace selected vehicles to the registered owners, at which time a fuel purchase diary is then mailed to the principal driver of the car. The results are tabulated on a quarterly basis and to be released as they become available in bulletins similar to this. Data are presented for each province and the total for Canada is given. During the fourth quarter of 1982, it is estimated that there were 7.3 million personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. These cars were driven 28 billion kilometers and consumed 4.3 billion litres of fuel. Their average litres/100 kilometres and the average fuel consumption was 590 litres. 8 tabs.

  8. Engineering an Affordable Self-Driving Car

    KAUST Repository

    Budisteanu, Alexandru Ionut

    2018-01-01

    for affordable self-driving cars and he designed a low-cost self-driving car. The car's roof has cameras and low-resolution 3D LiDAR equipment to detect traffic lanes, other cars, curbs and obstacles, such as people crossing by. To process this dizzying amount

  9. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) [Reserved] (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless...

  10. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for...

  11. Art Cars: Transformations of the Mundane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienecker, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The automobile itself is often understood as an extension of oneself, where individuals may manipulate the interior and exterior of cars and trucks, decorating them through detailing, stickers, custom colors, and so on. Others go further and change their cars into unique works of art called art cars. Such cars break away from the banality of mass…

  12. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than 50...

  13. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars. [57 FR 54334, Nov. 18, 1992] ...

  14. Car sharing à la carte

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Do you want to make your commute to CERN easier, while saving money at the same time? Would you prefer not to spend a quarter of an hour crawling round the CERN car parks looking for a space? If so, read on: this article might well be of great interest to you.   We would like to draw your attention to a well established, albeit sadly under-used, method of transport: car sharing. To promote car-sharing, the GS Department has stepped in to call on the services of the Swiss firm Green Monkeys which specialises in this user-friendly and intelligent transport scheme. The company’s slogan is:  “Car-sharing as you want, when you want and as much as you want”. The principle is very straightforward. To use this car-sharing facility, you simply complete your free online registration with Green Monkeys, providing the following details: your journey, departure time, arrival time and days of the week, and indicating whether you are a passenger or driver or both. &a...

  15. Seatbelts in CAR therapy: How Safe Are CARS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Minagawa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available T-cells genetically redirected with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR to recognize tumor antigens and kill tumor cells have been infused in several phase 1 clinical trials with success. Due to safety concerns related to on-target/off-tumor effects or cytokine release syndrome, however, strategies to prevent or abate serious adverse events are required. Pharmacologic therapies; suicide genes; or novel strategies to limit the cytotoxic effect only to malignant cells are under active investigations. In this review, we summarize results and toxicities of investigations employing CAR redirected T-cells, with a focus on published strategies to grant safety of this promising cellular application.

  16. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  17. Positive and negative spillover effects from electric car purchase to car use

    OpenAIRE

    Kløckner, Christian; Nayum, Alim; Mehmetoglu, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the results of two online surveys conducted on buyers of conventional combustion engine cars compared to those of electric vehicles in Norway. The results show that electric cars are generally purchased as additional cars, do not contribute to a decrease in annual mileage if the old car is not substituted, and that electric car buyers use the car more often for their everyday mobility. Psychological determinants derived from the theory of planned behavior and the norm-activ...

  18. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent two-car households substitute the use of their less fuel efficient car by the use of their more fuel efficient car after an increase in fuel prices. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car...... households to estimate, for each car owned by the household, own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometer. The empirical results point at important substitution effects, so that models that estimate responses to fuel prices on the implicit or explicit assumption of one car per...

  19. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…

  20. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  1. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  2. Transit Car Performance Comparison, State-of-the-Art Car vs. PATCO Transit Car, NYCTA R-46, MBTA Silverbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-01

    The first phase of this contract authorized the design, development, and demonstration of two State-Of-The-Art Cars (SOAC). This document reports on the gathering of comparative test data on existing in-service transit cars. The three transit cars se...

  3. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim; Mohd Hafzi Md Isa; Yahaya Ahmad; Intan Osman; Lawrence Arokiasamy

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP). Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers' car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers' purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were dis...

  4. Ground effect aerodynamics of racing cars

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin; Toet, Willem; Zerihan, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    We review the progress made during the last thirty years on ground effect aerodynamics associated with race cars, in particular open wheel race cars. Ground effect aerodynamics of race cars is concerned with generating downforce, principally via low pressure on the surfaces nearest to the ground. The “ground effected” parts of an open wheeled car's aerodynamics are the most aerodynamically efficient and contribute less drag than that associated with, for example, an upper rear wing. Whilst dr...

  5. CAR SECURITY ENHANCEMENT IN PARKING AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    NANYONGA BERINDA; AYESIGA LINDSEY PATRA; BYEKWASO FAISAL; NATULINDA LADAN

    2017-01-01

    Over time, car thefts have been reported within Kampala parking areas. This has been majorly due to inefficient security measures of the available parking systems which focus mainly on the car and not the driver, making parking management a challenge. The focus of this survey was to explore the requirements of a new system called Car to Driver Matching Security System to enhance security of cars in Kampala, in particular, from the experience of 15 people. The data collected was then analyzed ...

  6. Active deceleration support in car following

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.; Pauwelussen, J.J.A.; Paassen, M.M. van; Mulder, M.; Abbink, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    A haptic gas pedal feedback system is developed that provides car-following information via haptic cues from the gas pedal. During normal car-following situations, the haptic feedback (HF) cues were sufficient to reduce control activity and improve car-following performance. However, in more

  7. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed. ...

  8. Trial products of solar cars; Solar car no shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, A; Hatakeyama, S; Sugiura, S; Shinoda, S; Daigo, Y; Fujihara, Y; Yano, K; Kasuga, M [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    A solar car was trially manufactured installing solar panels on a motor-wheelchair for the old (senior car). It is a car for one person with maximum speed of 6km/h, motor of 360w, two of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and two of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar cell is about 100W, which may not be enough to drive a 360W motor. However, if action time per day is about 2 hours, the required power 700WH, and the sunshine duration 7 hours per day, solar cells of 100W can generate 700WH. This is stored in battery, and when it is short, it is supplemented by nighttime power. Product prices are 200,000-250,000 yen. A solar go-cart was trially manufactured remodeling the gasoline-run go-cart. It is a solar go-cart for one person with maximum speed of 30km/h, a motor of 600W, four of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and four of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar battery at 200W is a third of the motor power, with battery charged three times the travel time. More than 1000 persons trially rode the go-cart. 2 figs.

  9. An improved car-following model accounting for the preceding car's taillight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Tang, Tie-Qiao; Yu, Shao-Wei

    2018-02-01

    During the deceleration process, the preceding car's taillight may have influences on its following car's driving behavior. In this paper, we propose an extended car-following model with consideration of the preceding car's taillight. Two typical situations are used to simulate each car's movement and study the effects of the preceding car's taillight on the driving behavior. Meanwhile, sensitivity analysis of the model parameter is in detail discussed. The numerical results show that the proposed model can improve the stability of traffic flow and the traffic safety can be enhanced without a decrease of efficiency especially when cars pass through a signalized intersection.

  10. SMART SECURITY SYSTEM FOR CARS

    OpenAIRE

    Akshay V. Balki*, Ankit A. Ramteke, Akshay Dhankar, Prof. Nilesh S. Panchbudhe

    2017-01-01

    This propose work is an attempt to model design an smart advance vehicle security system that uses biometric scanner and RFID card reader to give ignition pulse using two main module and to prevent theft. The system contains biometric scanner, RFID card reader, alcohol sensor, vibration sensor, GSM module, microcontroller (8051), relay switch, high voltage mesh..The safety of car is exceptionally essential. It provides pulse to ignition system by synchronizing driver’s data from license and t...

  11. Car insurance information management system

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    A customer information system is a typical information management system. It involves three aspects, the backstage database establishment, the application development and the system maintenance. A car insurance information management system is based on browser/server structure. Microsoft SQL Server establishes the backstage database. Active Server Pages, from Microsoft as well is used as the interface layer. The objective of this thesis was to apply ASP to the dynamic storage of a web page...

  12. Solar Powered Heat Control System for Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Abin John; Jithin Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It takes times for an air-conditioner to effectively start cooling the passenger compartment in the car. So the passenger of the car will feel the heat in the car extremely before the air-conditioner fully cooling the interior of the car. Excessive heat can also damage an automobile's interior as well as personal property kept in the passenger compartment. So, a system to reduce this excessive heat by pumping out hot air and allowing cooler ambient air to enter the car by mean...

  13. CAR-T cells are serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Alexander J; Jenkins, Misty R; Ritchie, David S; Prince, H Miles; Trapani, Joseph A; Kershaw, Michael H; Darcy, Phillip K; Neeson, Paul J

    2015-12-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have enjoyed unprecedented clinical success against haematological malignancies in recent years. However, several aspects of CAR T cell biology remain unknown. We recently compared CAR and T cell receptor (TCR)-based killing in the same effector cell and showed that CAR T cells can not only efficiently kill single tumor targets, they can also kill multiple tumor targets in a sequential manner. Single and serial killing events were not sustained long term due to CAR down-regulation after 20 hours.

  14. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP. Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers’ car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers’ purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among consumers visiting different car showrooms and dealer shops. The findings suggest that safety was considered as one of the top three factors by the respondents when purchasing their present cars. Awareness of ASEAN NCAP has increased as compared to a previous study. This information is essential for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion of car safety in the country.

  15. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0.......98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...

  16. Preferences for Alternative Fuel Vehicles of Company Car Drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.J.; Hoen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Costs of car ownership for company cars drivers and private car owners are very different. Car use, car choice decisions and preferences for car characteristics may therefore differ substantially between these two markets. In this paper, we present results of a study on the preferences of company

  17. 49 CFR 215.121 - Defective car body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective car body. 215.121 Section 215.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Car Bodies § 215.121 Defective car body. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if: (a) Any portion of...

  18. Prediction of future car forms based on historical trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijendra Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cars are one of the most important products that affects our daily life. Manufacturers of cars are inclined to know factors that affect the sales of cars and how to influence them. Car is a very competitive product whose technology is already matured. Thus, purchase decisions of a car depend on factors such as, aesthetics, ergonomics, features available and price. Exterior form and colour of a car are the most important factors that influence likeness of the car. We did a case study on car aesthetics (form, colour, shape, and user focus with more than 500 car advertisements over the past 70 years, appearing in various car magazines. Results show that form of cars has changed from sharp to smooth over the years, and white colour cars are becoming more popular. Additionally, car size is becoming smaller and increasingly focused towards family. Thus, manufacturers are recommended to develop compact, efficient and hybrid cars.

  19. Driving CAR T-cells forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Hollie J.; Rafiq, Sarwish; Brentjens, Renier J.

    2017-01-01

    The engineered expression of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) on the surface of T cells enables the redirection of T-cell specificity. Early clinical trials using CAR T cells for the treatment of patients with cancer showed modest results, but the impressive outcomes of several trials of CD19-targeted CAR T cells in the treatment of patients with B-cell malignancies have generated an increased enthusiasm for this approach. Important lessons have been derived from clinical trials of CD19-specific CAR T cells, and ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in haematological and solid malignancies. In this Review, we discuss these trials and present strategies that can increase the antitumour efficacy and safety of CAR T-cell therapy. Given the fast-moving nature of this field, we only discuss studies with direct translational application currently or soon-to-be tested in the clinical setting. PMID:27000958

  20. Research of braking peculiarities of used cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mitunevičius

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly describes some analysis of a car braking process - the peculiarities of car wheel-to-road adhesion, the influence of distribution of braking forces on car stability between front and rear axles. The requirements of EU Directive 71/320/EEC to braking force coefficients of car front and rear axles are exposed. Structural designs of braking systems are analyzed with respect to their meeting the EU standards. Experimental measurements of braking force coefficients for some models of cars which are used in Lithuania, are presented with the analysis how these coefficients meet the EU standards. The analysis of test results, suggestions for the ratio of braking forces of car front and rear axles are presented.

  1. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Vynakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical and safe in operation. With every year the maximum range of an electric car is increasing and its battery charging time is decreasing.Solving the problem of environmental safety, the governments of most countries are trying to encourage people to switch to electric cars by creating subsidy programs, lending and abolition of taxation. Therefore, the advent of an electric vehicle in all major cities of the world is inevitable.

  2. Benefits of magnesium wheels for consumer cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishfelds, Vilnis; Timuhins, Andrejs; Bethers, Uldis

    2018-05-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of magnesium wheels are considered based on a mechanical model of a car. Magnesium wheels are usually applied to racing cars as they provide slightly better strength/weight ratio than aluminum alloys. Do they provide notable benefits also for the everyday user when the car speeds do not exceed allowed speed limit? Distinct properties of magnesium rims are discussed. Apart from lighter weight of magnesium alloys, they are also good in dissipating the energy of vibrations. The role of energy dissipation in the rim of a wheel is estimated by a quarter car model. Improvements to safety by using the magnesium wheels are considered. Braking distance and responsiveness of the car is studied both with and without using an Anti Blocking System (ABS). Influence of rim weight on various handling parameters of the car is quantitatively tested.

  3. Should Diesel cars in Europe be discouraged?

    OpenAIRE

    Mayeres, Inge; Proost, Stef

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the rationale for the different tax treatment of gasoline and diesel cars currently observed in Europe. First, we analyse possible justifications for a different tax treatment: pure tax revenue considerations, externality cons0iderations and constraints on the tax instruments used for cars and trucks. Next, an applied general equilibrium model is used to assess the welfare effects of revenue neutral changes in the vehicle and fuel taxes on diesel and gasoline cars. The mod...

  4. PLC Based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System

    OpenAIRE

    Swanand S .Vaze; Rohan S. Mithari

    2014-01-01

    This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detecte...

  5. Alcohol Fuel in Passenger Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Polcar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article studies the effects of combustion of high-percentage mixture of bioethanol and gasoline on the output parameters of a passenger car engine. The car engine has not been structurally modified for the combustion of fuels with higher ethanol content. The mixture used consisted of E85 summer blend and Natural 95 gasoline in a ratio of 50:50. The parameters monitored during the experiment included the air-fuel ratio in exhaust gasses, the power output and torque of the engine and also the specific energy consumption and efficiency of the engine. As is apparent from the results, E85+N95 (50:50 mixture combustion results in lean-burn (λ > 1 due to the presence of oxygen in bioethanol. The lean-burn led to a slight decrease in torque and power output of the engine. However, due to the positive physicochemical properties of bioethanol, the decrease has not been as significant as would normally be expected from the measured air-fuel ratio. These findings are further confirmed by the calculated energy required to produce 1 kWh of energy, and by the higher efficiency of the engine during the combustion of a 50% bioethanol mixture.

  6. Air quality inside passenger cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Faber

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle interior is a specific environment of relatively small volume, with variety of materials placed inside, including hard and soft plastics, adhesives, paints, lubricants and many others. As a result, particularly in case of newly produced vehicles, large amounts and numbers of volatile species, especially volatile organic compounds (VOCs, may be emitted and have influence vehicle interior air quality (VIAQ. Despite the fact that many of these compounds may not be harmful for human health, some of them may be toxic, and this is the reason for increasing concern of vehicle manufacturers and users recently. The level of contamination varies from one vehicle to another and may be influenced by atmospheric conditions, external pollution, user habits, quality of materials used and others. The main aim of this paper was to present current knowledge status on VIAQ, with indication of main air pollutants and their concentrations. Vehicle interior air quality is discussed on the basis of studies on new and used cars in different conditions and locations. Main sources of VOCs presence inside car cabin are discussed in this paper with additional information regarding materials emissions. Differences in sampling and analytical methodologies were not debated, however, since the results differs largely in the scope of both number and amount of VOCs, a need of testing methods harmonization is indicated. Presented data may be helpful for legislative requirements introduction.

  7. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    O. F. Vynakov; E. V. Savolova; A. I. Skrynnyk

    2016-01-01

    This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья) describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical ...

  8. Stock-car racing makes intuitive physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Formula One races involve cars festooned with gadgets and complex electronic devices, in which millions of dollars are spent refining a vehicle's aerodynamics and reducing its weight. But in events run by America's National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR), cars hurtle round an oval track at speeds of about 300 km h-1 without the help of the complex sensors that are employed in Formula One cars. To avoid crashing, drivers must make their own adjustments to track conditions, engine problems and the traffic around them.

  9. Car allocation between household heads in car deficient households : A decision model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anggraini, Renni; Arentze, Theo A.; Timmermans, Harry J P

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers car allocation choice behaviour in car-deficient households explicitly in the context of an activity-scheduling process, focusing on work activities. A decision tree induction method is applied to derive a decision tree for the car allocation decision in automobile deficient

  10. 49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains shall...

  11. 49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180... QUALIFICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification of tank cars. (a) Each tank car marked as meeting a “DOT” specification or any other tank car used...

  12. CERN car stickers for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The stickers on your vehicles will cease to be valid at the end of 2013. We kindly request that you inform us as soon as possible if you no longer own a vehicle that is in our records. In particular, please inform the CERN Registration Service (Building 55, first floor) if you receive a sticker for a vehicle that you no longer own.   Stickers for 2014 are valid immediately and can be displayed as soon as you receive them. The Guards Service will continue to allow cars displaying a 2013 sticker into the CERN site until no later than 31 January 2014. After that date, the Guards Service will be obliged to deny access to any vehicles not displaying a valid sticker. Please see Operational Circular No. 2 for more details. We wish you a pleasant day and happy holidays, GS/DI security and access control service

  13. Reactions of Met-Cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.; Guo, B.C.

    1993-01-01

    A new class of metal-carbon complexes, termed metallo-carbohedrenes (Met-Cars), have been discovered to form in a plasma reactor in which early transition metals are vaporized into a stream carrying small hydrocarbon molecules. The initial discovery involved the species Ti 8 c 12 + , while subsequent studies revealed the stability of the anion and, most importantly, the neutral species. Subsequent investigations show that similar molecules, predicted to have a pentagonal dodecahedral structure, can also be formed with vanadium, hafnium, and zirconium. In the case of the latter, more recent investigations have displaced an interesting growth pattern. In particular, pentagonal dodecahedrons with dangling carbon atoms can undergo further growth, adding at least a second and third cage. The latest results on the properties and reactivities of these new cage-like molecular clusters will be discussed

  14. Vibration in car repair work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, J E; Eklund, L; Kihlberg, S; Ostergren, C E

    1987-03-01

    The main objective of the study was to find efficient hand tools which caused only minor vibration loading. Vibration measurements were carried out under standardised working conditions. The time during which car body repairers in seven companies were exposed to vibration was determined. Chisel hammers, impact wrenches, sanders and saws were the types of tools which generated the highest vibration accelerations. The average daily exposure at the different garages ranged from 22 to 70 min. The risk of vibration injury is currently rated as high. The difference between the highest and lowest levels of vibration was considerable in most tool categories. Therefore the choice of tool has a major impact on the magnitude of vibration exposure. The importance of choosing the right tools and working methods is discussed and a counselling service on vibration is proposed.

  15. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive... packages of Class 1 (explosive) materials are placed in a “magazine” box made of sound lumber not less than...

  16. Gates Auto Door Car With Lights Modulated

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Carolina; Luyung Dinani, Skom, MMSi

    2002-01-01

    In scientific writing wi ll be explained about automatic gates with modulated headlights, where to find the car lights were adjusted by the relative frequency darker because of this background that the author alleviate human task in performing daily activities by using an automatic gate with the car lights modulated.

  17. The Hungarian car insurance cartel saga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cseres, K.J.; Szilágyi, P.; Rodger, B.

    2013-01-01

    his chapter discusses the landmark Hungarian case relating to the car insurance and repair markets, which involved both vertical and horizontal agreements. The case concerned the horizontal relationship between Hungary’s two largest insurance companies and their vertical relationships with car

  18. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  19. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based

  20. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  1. Modelling of fire spread in car parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, L.M.; Lemaire, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Currently, design codes assume that in a car park fire at most 3-4 vehicles are on fire at the same time. Recent incidents in car parks have drawn international attention to such assumptions and have raised questions as to the fire spreading mechanism and the resulting fire load on the structure.

  2. Automated Coal-Mine Shuttle Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Cable-guided car increases efficiency in underground coal mines. Unmanned vehicle contains storage batteries in side panels for driving traction motors located in wheels. Batteries recharged during inactive periods or slid out as unit and replaced by fresh battery bank. Onboard generator charges batteries as car operates.

  3. A Radio-Controlled Car Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Watching a radio-controlled car zip along a sidewalk or street has become a common sight. Within this toy are the basic ingredients of a mobile robot, used by industry for a variety of important and potentially dangerous tasks. In this challenge, students consider modifying an of-the-shelf, radio-controlled car, adapting it for a robotic task.

  4. Engineering an Affordable Self-Driving Car

    KAUST Repository

    Budisteanu, Alexandru Ionut

    2018-01-17

    "More than a million people die in car accidents each year, and most of those accidents are the result of human errorヤ Alexandru Budisteanu is 23 years old and owns a group of startups including Autonomix, an Artificial Intelligence software for affordable self-driving cars and he designed a low-cost self-driving car. The car\\'s roof has cameras and low-resolution 3D LiDAR equipment to detect traffic lanes, other cars, curbs and obstacles, such as people crossing by. To process this dizzying amount of data, Alexandru employed Artificial Intelligence algorithms to extract information from the visual data and plot a safe route for the car. Then, he built a manufacturing facility in his garage from Romania to assembly affordable VisionBot Pick and Place robots that are used to produce electronics. During this lecture, Alexandru will talk about this autonomous self-driving car prototype, for which he received the grand prize of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair, and was nominated by TIME magazine as one of the worldメs most influential teens of 2013.

  5. The Green City Car. A holistic approach for NVH abatement of city cars

    OpenAIRE

    Bein, Thilo; Mayer, Dirk; Elliott, Steve; Ferrali, Leonardo; Casella, Mauro; Saemann, Ernst-Ulrich; Kropp, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Finn Kryger; Meschke, Jens; Pisano, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    Pursuing the different passive and active concepts in a holistic approach, the FP7 project Green City Car demonstrates the feasibility of applying active systems to NVH-related problems light city cars from a system point-of view. During the project, a city car equipped with a small engine has been considered equipped with the latest technology in terms of safety aspects related to pedestrian’s impact and car-to-car compatibility, which are of major importance in an urban environment. The noi...

  6. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  7. Flex cars and the alcohol price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Alex Luiz; Da Silveira, Jaylson Jair; De Almeida Prado, Fernando Pigeard

    2009-01-01

    We build a model that incorporates the effect of the innovative 'flex' car, an automobile that is able to run with either gasoline or alcohol, on the dynamics of fuel prices in Brazil. Our model shows that differences regarding fuel prices will now depend on the proportions of alcohol, gasoline and flex cars in the total stock. Conversely, the demand for each type of car will also depend on the expected future prices of alcohol and gasoline (in addition to the car prices). The model reflects our findings that energy prices are tied in the long run and that causality runs stronger from gasoline to alcohol. The estimated error correction parameter is stable, implying that the speed of adjustment towards equilibrium remains unchanged. The latter result is probably due to a still small fraction of flex cars in the total stock (approx. 5%), despite the fact that its sales nearly reached 100% in 2006. (author)

  8. Modelling and optimization of car-to-car compatibility - Modellierung und optimierung von pkw-pkw-kompatibilität

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, H.G.; Nastic, T.; Huibers, J.H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper simple and more detailed MADYMO multibody models were used to simulate the car structure for improving the car-to-car compatibility of the whole car fleet. As a first step, survey studies were performed to develop a method for the optimization of car design with respect to frontal and

  9. Clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingshan Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Novel immunotherapeutic agents targeting tumor-site microenvironment are revolutionizing cancer therapy. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-engineered T cells are widely studied for cancer immunotherapy. CD19-specific CAR-T cells, tisagenlecleucel, have been recently approved for clinical application. Ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in hematological and solid malignancies. In addition to trials of single-target CAR-T cells, simultaneous and sequential CAR-T cells are being studied for clinical applications. Multi-target CAR-engineered T cells are also entering clinical trials. T cell receptor-engineered CAR-T and universal CAR-T cells represent new frontiers in CAR-T cell development. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of CAR constructs and registered clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China and provided a quick glimpse of the landscape of CAR-T studies in China.

  10. Clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingshan; Song, Yongping; Liu, Delong

    2017-10-23

    Novel immunotherapeutic agents targeting tumor-site microenvironment are revolutionizing cancer therapy. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells are widely studied for cancer immunotherapy. CD19-specific CAR-T cells, tisagenlecleucel, have been recently approved for clinical application. Ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in hematological and solid malignancies. In addition to trials of single-target CAR-T cells, simultaneous and sequential CAR-T cells are being studied for clinical applications. Multi-target CAR-engineered T cells are also entering clinical trials. T cell receptor-engineered CAR-T and universal CAR-T cells represent new frontiers in CAR-T cell development. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of CAR constructs and registered clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China and provided a quick glimpse of the landscape of CAR-T studies in China.

  11. First results from car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure radio channel measurements at 5.2GHZ

    OpenAIRE

    Paier, Alexander; Kåredal, Johan; Czink, Nicolai; Hofstetter, Helmut; Dumard, Charlotte; Zemen, Thomas; Tufvesson, Fredrik; Mecklenbräuker, Christoph; Molisch, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure (henceforth called C2X) communications are constantly gaining importance for road-safety and other applications. In order to design efficient C2X systems, an understanding of realistic C2X propagation channels is required, but currently, only few measurements have been published. This paper presents a description of an extensive measurement campaign recently conducted in an urban scenario, a rural scenario, and on a highway. We focused on 4 ÿ 4 multiple-in...

  12. Emergency information systems for cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkarasu, M.; Vani Manasa, N.; Kumar, K. Rajesh; Sundar, S.

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of this work is to create a Health Care monitoring and Guidance system for persons who are travelling in outdoor environments like cars. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies are separately and combined today in many applications in our day to day life. The GSM module will send a message along with the GPS location to the end user through text, and a call is initiated to the user for further instructions. The Global Positioning System (GPS) will give the location of the interested vehicle. This system helps the doctor or anyone to monitor the accident who is outdoor and has less help. This will help the hospital to monitor the accident as well as guide the injured through difficult situations. Using a buzzer, the persons nearby will come to know that the person is in danger or in poor health conditions. This project provides a good two-way communication with the injured and the hospital to assist them to give first aid before an ambulance arrives. So, this paper devices a novel technique to assist the people who just met with accident through GPS and GSM.

  13. Charging electric cars from solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xusheng; Tanyi, Elvis; Zou, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Before vehicles were heavily relied on coal, fossil fuels and wind for power.  Now, they are rapidly being replaced by electric vehicles and or plug-in hybrid electric cars. But these electric cars are still faced with the problem of energy availability because they rely on energy from biomass, hydro power and wind turbines for power generation. The abundance of solar radiation and its use as solar energy as a power source in driving these rapidly increasing electric cars is not only an impor...

  14. PC-based car license plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  15. Will Brazil's cars go on the wagon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homewood, B.

    1993-01-01

    The use of ethanol as an alternative fuel for cars in Brazil, may shortly be reduced. Falling world oil prices have meant that ethanol, derived from sugar cane, following a fourteen year research program, has ceased to be a financially viable replacement for petrol. Although about a third of Brazil's cars are at present powered by ethanol, only substantial government subsidies could reinstate this fuel despite its reduced pollutant status. Government officials now predict that ethanol will become merely a petrol additive and production of ethanol cars will have stopped by the year 2000. (UK)

  16. Electric cars as mobile power storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, B.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the use of electric cars as a means of optimising the use of renewable energy sources. Charging the cars' batteries during periods when cheap electricity prices prevail and then using excess capacity to supply the mains with electricity during periods of peak demand is discussed. The possible use of wind for power generation is discussed and a system proposed by a leading supplier of electrical apparatus and systems is examined. Two examples of electric cars and associated power chains are looked at and tests in everyday practice are described

  17. THEORETICAL BASIS OF MOTOR CAR QUALITY EVALUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bazhinova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive assessment of the quality of cars, which is based on the integral parameters of comfort, reliability, safety, environmental and technical solutions are considered and defined. The amount of parameters that define the quality level of the car use throughout the country is defined. Mathematical formulas and quality indicators of the integral index are developed. The integral quality index of vehicles allows comparing the vehicles of different classes based on external operating conditions. The numerical values of the integral index determines the quality of the car.

  18. Density and temperature measurement using CARS spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirth, A.; Vollrath, K.

    1979-01-01

    Coherent Anti Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) a technique derived from nonlinear optics offers two major advantages compared with the spontaneous Raman method: improved scattering efficiency and spatial coherence of the scattered signal. The theory of the coherent mixing in resonant media serves as a quantitative background of the CARS technique. A review of several applications on plasma physics and gasdynamics is given, which permits to consider the CARS spectroscopy as a potential method for nonintrusive measurement of local concentration and temperature in gas flows and reactive media. (Auth.)

  19. CAR models: next-generation CAR modifications for enhanced T-cell function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Abate-Daga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available T cells genetically targeted with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR to B-cell malignancies have demonstrated tremendous clinical outcomes. With the proof in principle for CAR T cells as a therapy for B-cell malignancies being established, current and future research is being focused on adapting CAR technology to other cancers, as well as enhancing its efficacy and/or safety. The modular nature of the CAR, extracellular antigen-binding domain fused to a transmembrane domain and intracellular T-cell signaling domains, allows for optimization by replacement of the various components. These modifications are creating a whole new class of therapeutic CARs. In this review, we discuss the recent major advances in CAR design and how these modifications will impact its clinical application.

  20. Computer Security: your car, my control

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    We have discussed the Internet of Things (IoT) and its security implications already in past issues of the CERN Bulletin, for example in “Today’s paranoia, tomorrow’s reality” (see here). Unfortunately, tomorrow has come. At this years's Black Hat conference researchers presented their findings on how easily your car can be hacked and controlled remotely. Sigh.   While these researchers have just shown that they can wirelessly hijack a Jeep Cherokee, others have performed similar studies with SmartCars, Fords, a Tesla, a Corvette, BMWs, Chryslers and Mercedes! With the increasing computerisation of cars, the engine management system, air conditioning, anti-lock braking system, electronic stability programme, etc. are linked to the infotainment, navigation and communication systems, opening the door for these vehicles to be hacked remotely. The now prevalent Bluetooth connection with smartphones is one entry vector to attack your car remotely...

  1. Design of two wheel self balancing car

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chun-hong; Ren, Bin

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes a design scheme of the two-wheel self-balancing dolly, the integration of the gyroscope and accelerometer MPU6050 constitutes the car position detection device.System selects 32-bit MCU stmicroelectronics company as the control core, completed the processing of sensor signals, the realization of the filtering algorithm, motion control and human-computer interaction. Produced and debugging in the whole system is completed, the car can realize the independent balance under the condition of no intervention. The introduction of a suitable amount of interference, the car can adjust quickly to recover and steady state. Through remote control car bluetooth module complete forward, backward, turn left and other basic action..

  2. Papers on vehicle size : cars and trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    The four papers in this volume describe analyses of car size : trends and truck occupant injuries and fatalities. All four were : written between June 1985 and December 1987. The topics : addressed include where heavy truck accidents occur, injury an...

  3. CARs in the Lead Against Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormhøj, Maria; Bedoya, Felipe; Frigault, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    The recent clinical success of CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy in chronic and acute leukemia has led to increased interest in broadening this technology to other hematological malignancies and solid tumors. Now, advances are being made using CAR T cell technology...... to target myeloma antigens such as B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), CD138, and kappa-light chain as well as CD19 on putative myeloma stem cells. To date, only a limited number of multiple myeloma patients have received CAR T cell therapy but preliminary results have been encouraging. In this review, we...... summarize the recently reported results of clinical trials conducted utilizing CAR T cell therapy in multiple myeloma (MM)....

  4. CARS diagnostics of high pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenbusch, J.

    2001-01-01

    After a short description of the principles of the CARS, RECARS and POLCARS techniques and a discussion of setups for CARS experiments some experimental results are summarized. The results concern mainly plasma under atmospheric pressure, in particular the determination of temperature in a CO 2 laser-induced pyrolysis flame burning in a silane-acetylene gas mixture, the measurements of N 2 vibrational and rotational temperatures as well as the electron density by CARS and of an NO minority by POLCARS in an atmospheric microwave discharge, and finally RECARS experiments on indium iodide, Which is present in metal halide discharge lamps. Guided by these examples some problems and difficulties arising when performing CARS measurements are discussed

  5. Design consideration of solar powered cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koten, Hasan; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Zafer Gul, M. [Marmara University Mechanical Engineering Department (Turkey)], E-mail: hasan.koten@marmara.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    With the coming shortage of fossil fuels and the rising concerns over the environment, it is important to develop new technologies that reduce both energy consumption and pollution at the same time. Using solar energy is a good solution which could meet the world's energy needs. The aim of this study is to present the design process in the production of a solar powered car. Designing a solar powered car is a difficult task as there are strict requirements in term of efficiency: the car must have low drag resistance, be light-weight, and have low rolling resistance. In addition this paper presents the use of the solar powered Stirling engine technology rather than a photovoltaic conversion system for vehicle propulsion. This study presented a design process in the construction of a solar powered car and is expected to provide a new topic of research in the transportation field.

  6. SODA-IIoT4ConnectedCars: Spread updates between cars with limited Internet access

    OpenAIRE

    Boudguiga , Aymen; Quesnel , Flavien; Bouzerna , Nabil

    2017-01-01

    International audience; A blockchain infrastructure, combined with cryptographic signatures, can improve availability and accountability for the deployment of IoT updates.However, cars with limited or intermittent Internet access may have difficulties in downloading full updates fromthe blockchain. Therefore, we allow cars that successfully downloaded updates to share them with other cars by means of a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) mechanism.

  7. Uncertainty quantification and race car aerodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bradford, J; Montomoli, F; D'Ammaro, A

    2014-01-01

    28.04.15 KB. Ok to add accepted version to spiral, embargo expired Car aerodynamics are subjected to a number of random variables which introduce uncertainty into the downforce performance. These can include, but are not limited to, pitch variations and ride height variations. Studying the effect of the random variations in these parameters is important to predict accurately the car performance during the race. Despite their importance the assessment of these variations is difficult and it...

  8. Driving Cars by Means of Genetic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez Achaerandio, Yago; Pérez, Diego; Sanjuan, Óscar; Isasi Viñuela, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Proceedings of: 10th International Conference on Parallel Problem Solving From Nature, PPSN 2008. Dortmund, Germany, September 13-17, 2008 The techniques and the technologies supporting Automatic Vehicle Guidance are an important issue. Automobile manufacturers view automatic driving as a very interesting product with motivating key features which allow improvement of the safety of the car, reducing emission or fuel consumption or optimizing driver comfort during long journeys. Car raci...

  9. GLYCAN-DIRECTED CAR-T CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steentoft, Catharina; Migliorini, Denis; King, Tiffany R; Mandel, Ulla; June, Carl H; Posey, Avery D

    2018-01-23

    Cancer immunotherapy is rapidly advancing in the treatment of a variety of hematopoietic cancers, including pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and diffuse large B cell lymphoma, with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells. CARs are genetically encoded artificial T cell receptors that combine the antigen specificity of an antibody with the machinery of T cell activation. However, implementation of CAR technology in the treatment of solid tumors has been progressing much slower. Solid tumors are characterized by a number of challenges that need to be overcome, including cellular heterogeneity, immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), and, in particular, few known cancer-specific targets. Post-translational modifications that differentially occur in malignant cells generate valid cell surface, cancer-specific targets for CAR-T cells. We previously demonstrated that CAR-T cells targeting an aberrant O-glycosylation of MUC1, a common cancer marker associated with changes in cell adhesion, tumor growth, and poor prognosis, could control malignant growth in mouse models. Here, we discuss the field of glycan-directed CAR-T cells and review the different classes of antibodies specific for glycan-targeting, including the generation of high affinity O-glycopeptide antibodies. Finally, we discuss historic and recently investigated glycan targets for CAR-T cells and provide our perspective on how targeting the tumor glycoproteome and/or glycome will improve CAR-T immunotherapy. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Situations of car-to-pedestrian contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Hitosugi, Masahito; Takahashi, Kunio; Doi, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the severity of injuries and the number of pedestrian deaths in traffic accidents, active safety devices providing pedestrian detection are considered effective countermeasures. The features of car-to-pedestrian collisions need to be known in detail to develop such safety devices. Because information on real-world accidents is limited, this study investigated near-miss situations captured by drive recorders installed in passenger cars. We showed similarities of the contact situation between near-miss incidents and real-world fatal pedestrian accidents in Japan. We analyzed the near-miss incident data via video capturing pedestrians crossing the road in front of forward-moving cars. Using a video frame captured by a drive recorder, the time to collision (TTC) was calculated from the car velocity and the distance between the car and pedestrian at the moment that the pedestrian initially appeared. The average TTC in the cases where pedestrians were not using a pedestrian crossing was shorter than that in the cases where pedestrians were using a pedestrian crossing. The average TTC in the cases where pedestrians emerged from behind obstructions was shorter than that in the cases where drivers had unobstructed views of the pedestrians. We propose that the specifications of the safety device for pedestrian detection and automatic braking should reflect the severe approach situation for a pedestrian and car including the TTC observed for near-miss incidents.

  11. Car radiator burns: a prevention issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitts, Angela; Alden, Nicole E; Conlin, Tara; Yurt, Roger W

    2004-01-01

    Scald burns continue to be the major cause of injury to patients admitted to the burn center. Scald burns occurring from car radiator fluid comprise a significant subgroup. Although manufacturer warning labels have been placed on car radiators, these burns continue to occur. This retrospective review looks at all patients admitted to our burn center who suffered scald burns from car radiator fluid to assess the extent of this problem. During the study period, 86 patients were identified as having suffered scald burns as a result of contact with car radiator fluid. Seventy-one percent of the burn injuries occurred in the summer months. The areas most commonly burned were the head and upper extremities. Burn prevention efforts have improved greatly over the years; however, this study demonstrates that scald burns from car radiator fluid continue to cause physical, emotional, and financial devastation. The current radiator warning labels alone are not effective. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has proposed a new federal motor vehicle safety standard to aid in decreasing the number of scald burns from car radiators. The results of this study were submitted to the United States Department of Transportation for inclusion in a docket for federal legislation supporting these safety measures.

  12. 49 CFR 231.9 - Tank cars without end sills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to practically... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars without end sills. 231.9 Section 231.9..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.9 Tank cars without end sills. (a...

  13. 49 CFR 231.11 - Caboose cars without platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inches end-ladder clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caboose cars without platforms. 231.11 Section 231... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.11 Caboose cars without...

  14. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a...

  15. Modelling strategic responses to car and fuel taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.; Kooreman, P.

    We develop a model to analyse the interactions between actors involved in car and fuel taxation: consumers, car producers, fuel producers and the government. Heterogeneous consumers choose between two versions of a car that differ in engine type (diesel or gasoline). Car manufacturers and fuel

  16. 49 CFR 173.31 - Use of tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of tank cars. 173.31 Section 173.31... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.31 Use of tank cars. (a) General. (1) No person may offer a hazardous material for transportation in a tank car unless the tank car...

  17. 49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or flat switched unless coupled to...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocking mine cars. 57.19079 Section 57.19079... Hoisting Procedures § 57.19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars are hoisted by cage or skip, means for blocking cars shall be provided at all landings and also on the cage. ...

  19. 49 CFR 215.303 - Stenciling of restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stenciling of restricted cars. 215.303 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Stenciling § 215.303 Stenciling of restricted cars. (a) Each restricted railroad freight car that is described in § 215.205(a) of...

  20. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars. ...

  1. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built or...

  2. 30 CFR 56.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocking mine cars. 56.19079 Section 56.19079... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars are hoisted by cage or skip, means for blocking cars shall be provided at all landings and also on the cage. ...

  3. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ansong

    Full Text Available When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487 were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  4. Influence in the car taxation system. Henkiloeautojen vermuutosten vaikutukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alppivuori, K; Kallberg, H; Pekki, M

    1986-06-01

    In Finland the car prices are exeptionally high due to car taxes included in the new car prices. The gasoline price, which is at international leve, includes also taxes. The aim of this study was to calculate the effects of reducing the car taxes and correspondingly rising fuel taxes so that the state income car taxation does not change. The study was performed in two stages: an interview and a simulation study. The interview was aimed at the general public (postal poll) and at experts in car trade (personal interview). The aim was to reveal the parameters in the economic models explaining the behaviour of the public in car purchasing and car use. The simulation study was performed to calculate quantitative changes in, e.g. car park, traffic volumes and energy consumption caused by supposed changes in the taxation. One of the main results was that unchanged taxation is leading to rapidly increasing traffic volumes and total taxes for car use.

  5. Pollutants Characterization of Car Wash Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge quantity of water consumed per car during washing cars yields the untreated effluents discharged to the stormwater system. Wastewater samples from snow car wash and two full hand service car wash station were analyzed for pH and the presence of PO43-,TP, O&G, alkalinity, TSS, NO3-, NO2-, COD and surfactant in accordance Standard Method of Water and Wastewater 2012. Two full hand wash service stations and one station of snow foam service were investigated in this study. Amongst the stations, snow foam car wash station indicates the highest concentration of PO43-, TP, O&G, TSS, COD and surfactant with the average value of 10.18 ± 0.87 mg/L, 30.93 ± 0.31 mg/L , 85.00 ± 0.64 mg/L 325.0 ± 0.6 mg/L, 485.0 ± 0.3 mg/L and 54.00 ± 2.50 mg/L as MBAS, respectively. Whereas, in parameters characterization in different stages throughout the car wash process, O&G was found to be the highest in pre soak stage, PO43-, TP, TSS and COD in washing stage and NO3- and NO2- in rinse stage. All parameters were compared to Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent Regulations, 2009. There is a strong need to study on the characterization of car wash water in order to suggest the suitable treatment need for this type of wastewater.

  6. Operation car for horizontal coke ovens. Bedienungswagen fuer waagrechte Verkokungsoefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwasnik, H J; Piduch, H G

    1981-07-30

    An operation car which is driveable on the coke side of a coke oven battery is described. The operation car is equipped with a door lifter, a door and frame cleaner, a coke guiding grid and a collection hood for emissions developed on coke pushing. The car has a portal construction and it is driveable on both sides of the path of the coke receiving car. The operation has a considerable lower weight than usual cars. (HGOE).

  7. Gasoline-powered series hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Christoph; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2012-02-01

    Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available series hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains in electric drivetrains (regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox) even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze life cycle GHG emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art plug-in battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available series hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that series hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer emissions (126g CO2eq per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2eq per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental emissions from plug-in battery cars due to losses during grid transmission and battery dis-/charging, and manufacturing larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

  8. Gasoline-powered serial hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2011-04-01

    Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available serial hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains from regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox, and light weighting - even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available serial hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that serial hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer life cycle GHG emissions (126g CO2e per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2e per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental life cycle emissions from battery cars from losses during grid transmission, battery dis-/charging, and larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

  9. Forecasting U.S. Car Sales and Car Registrations in Japan: Rationality, Accuracy and Herding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Rülke, Jan; Pierdzioch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We analyze forecasts of car sales in the U.S. and forecasts of car registrations in Japan. We document a substantial heterogeneity of forecasts, and we show that, based on traditional criteria, forecasts are neither rational nor unbiased. We also report that forecasters anti-herd, that is...

  10. 49 CFR 173.314 - Compressed gases in tank cars and multi-unit tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or secondary Division 2.1 (flammable gas) hazard. For single unit tank cars, interior pipes of... lading exceeding 1.52 mm (0.060 inch) diameter must be equipped with excess flow valves. For single unit... inches) glass fiber placed over 5.08 cm (2 inches) of ceramic fiber. Tank cars must have excess flow...

  11. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. CARS 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The conference proceedings include contributions to the following topics: (1) CARS Clinical Day: minimally invasive spiral surgery, interventional radiology; (2) CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery: ophthalmology, stimulation methods, new approaches to diagnosis and therapy; (3) Computer assisted radiology 24th International congress and exhibition: computer tomography and magnetic resonance, digital angiographic imaging, digital radiography, ultrasound, computer assisted radiation therapy, medical workstations, image processing and display; (4) 14th Annual conference of the International Society for computer aided surgery; ENT-CMF head and neck surgery computer-assisted neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, image guided liver surgery, abdominal and laparoscopic surgery, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery, image processing and visualization, surgical robotics and instrumentation, surgical modeling, simulation and education; (5) 28th International EuroPACS meeting: image distribution and integration strategies, planning and evaluation, telemedicine and standards, workflow and data flow in radiology; (6) 11th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, management and assessment of OR systems and integration; (7) 12th International workshop on computer-aided diagnosis: special session on breast CAD, special session on thoracic CAD, special session on abdominal brain, lumbar spine CAD; (8) 16th computed Maxillofacial imaging congress: computed maxillofacial imaging in dental implantology, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics; approaches to 3D maxillofacial imaging; surgical navigation; (9) 2nd EuroNOTES/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge; (10) 2nd EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT.; (11)poster sessions.

  12. The old-new car sticker

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    You have had the same car sticker for ten years and have been driving in and out of CERN every day. Suddenly one morning the guard stops you and tells you need a new one. Hmmm ?! “There were 60 000 stickers in circulation in Geneva and we could not control wether the sticker had been distributed to the right person”, saysa Claude Ducastel, responsible for Entrance Security. “So to solve this problem, last year DSU decided to change Operational Circular N°2 and introduce new car stickers that will be changed every year.” Three types of car stickers were introduced: blue, green and red. The blue one is for staff members whose contract is for one year or more. It indicates the plate number of the car. The green one is for staff members whose contract is for less than one year. It indicates the plate number of the car and the date the contract of the employee terminates. It also has a big L for "Limited". The red one is for enterprise subcontractors whose contracts finish at the end of the year. If ...

  13. Consumer demand for cars in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R P

    1975-01-01

    Since the Second World War the American public has bought almost two hundred million cars, and the abrupt year to year variations in the number of new cars sold have had a substantial impact on the level of activity of the U.S. economy. This book examines the factors that determine the demand for cars and suggests an explanation for the large fluctuations in their sales. A wide variety of information, including data from market research, surveys of industry and consumer opinion, cross section studies and aggregate time series, is used to construct and estimate econometric models that will explain consumer decisions about the ownership, purchase and replacement of cars. This quantitative analysis is supplemented by information of a more qualitative nature on the significance for the car market of such factors as model changes, the oil crisis, and the prevailing social climate. One of the main conclusions of the book is that traditional neo-classical models of consumer behavior do not provide a satisfactory explanation of observed market behavior, and that account has to be taken of the role of variations in consumer confidence and expectations in determining demand. The study will be of interest to students and teachers of economics and business studies as well as to those concerned with the motor industry. (50 references) (from publisher's description)

  14. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. CARS 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-06-15

    The conference proceedings include contributions to the following topics: (1) CARS Clinical Day: minimally invasive spiral surgery, interventional radiology; (2) CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery: ophthalmology, stimulation methods, new approaches to diagnosis and therapy; (3) Computer assisted radiology 24th International congress and exhibition: computer tomography and magnetic resonance, digital angiographic imaging, digital radiography, ultrasound, computer assisted radiation therapy, medical workstations, image processing and display; (4) 14th Annual conference of the International Society for computer aided surgery; ENT-CMF head and neck surgery computer-assisted neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, image guided liver surgery, abdominal and laparoscopic surgery, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery, image processing and visualization, surgical robotics and instrumentation, surgical modeling, simulation and education; (5) 28th International EuroPACS meeting: image distribution and integration strategies, planning and evaluation, telemedicine and standards, workflow and data flow in radiology; (6) 11th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, management and assessment of OR systems and integration; (7) 12th International workshop on computer-aided diagnosis: special session on breast CAD, special session on thoracic CAD, special session on abdominal brain, lumbar spine CAD; (8) 16th computed Maxillofacial imaging congress: computed maxillofacial imaging in dental implantology, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics; approaches to 3D maxillofacial imaging; surgical navigation; (9) 2nd EuroNOTES/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge; (10) 2nd EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT.; (11)poster sessions.

  15. Car suspension system monitoring under road conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Kuznetsov, N. Y.; Lysenko, A. V.; Vlasov, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper describes an advanced gyro-based measuring system comprising a CGV-4K central vertical gyro and a G-3M gyrocompass. The advanced system provides additional functions that help measure unsprung mass rotation angles about a vertical axis, rolling angles, trim angles and movements of the unsprung masses of the front (ap and al) and rear b axes when a car wheel hits a single obstruction. The paper also describes the operation of the system, which measures movements of unsprung masses about the body of a car when it hits a single obstruction. The paper presents the dependency diagrams ap = f(t) and al = f(t) for front and rear wheels respectively, as well as b = f(t) for a rear left wheel, which were determined experimentally. Test results for a car equipped with an advanced gyro-based measuring system moving around a circle can form a basis for developing a mathematical model of the process.

  16. Noise mapping inside a car cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kim; Sjøj, Sidsel Marie Nørholm; Jacobsen, Finn

    The mapping of noise is of considerable interest in the car industry where a good noise mapping can make it much easier to identify the sources that generate the noise and eventually reduce the individual contributions to the noise. The methods used for this purpose include delay-and-sum beamform......The mapping of noise is of considerable interest in the car industry where a good noise mapping can make it much easier to identify the sources that generate the noise and eventually reduce the individual contributions to the noise. The methods used for this purpose include delay......-and-sum beamforming and spherical harmonics beamforming. These methods have a poor spatial esolution at low frequencies, and since much noise generated in cars is dominated by low frequencies the methods are not optimal. In the present paper the mapping is done by solving an inverse problem with a transfer matrix...

  17. Analysis of a model race car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Evans, Jonathan

    2008-10-01

    We analyze the motion of a gravity powered model race car on a downhill track of variable slope. Using a simple algebraic function to approximate the height of the track as a function of the distance along the track, and taking account of the rotational energy of the wheels, rolling friction, and air resistance, we obtain analytic expressions for the velocity and time of the car as functions of the distance traveled along the track. Photogates are used to measure the time at selected points along the track, and the measured values are in excellent agreement with the values predicted from theory. The design and analysis of model race cars provides a good application of principles of mechanics and suggests interesting projects for classes in introductory and intermediate mechanics.

  18. Design Process Improvement for Electric CAR Harness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdee, Thiwarat; Chutima, Parames

    2017-06-01

    In an automobile parts design company, the customer satisfaction is one of the most important factors for product design. Therefore, the company employs all means to focus its product design process based on the various requirements of customers resulting in high number of design changes. The objective of this research is to improve the design process of the electric car harness that effects the production scheduling by using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) as the main tools. FTA is employed for root cause analysis and FMEA is used to ranking a High Risk Priority Number (RPN) which is shows the priority of factors in the electric car harness that have high impact to the design of the electric car harness. After the implementation, the improvements are realized significantly since the number of design change is reduced from 0.26% to 0.08%.

  19. BilBooking CarAdmin

    OpenAIRE

    Ensrud, Marius; Gjerde, Ketil; Solberg, Yngve

    2005-01-01

    ETC CarAdmin er en biladministreringsløsning utviklet for å effektivisere og lette kostnadene ved den interne biladministrasjonen i kommuner og bedrifter. Det var her to hovedoppdrag vi fikk av oppdragsgiver. Det ene var å bruke Microsoft Outlook sin kalender mot Microsoft Exchange, som har mulighet for ressursreservering, til å gi brukere av CarAdmin-løsningen mulighet til å reservere biler. Oppdrag to, var å bygge opp en webside som kunne gi en kalender visning til bruker og også gi m...

  20. The 2009 Simulated Car Racing Championship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loiacono, Daniele; Lanzi, Pier Luca; Togelius, Julian

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we overview the 2009 Simulated Car Racing Championship-an event comprising three competitions held in association with the 2009 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), the 2009 ACM Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), and the 2009 IEEE Symposium....... The organizers provide short summaries of the other competitors. Finally, we summarize the championship results, followed by a discussion about what the organizers learned about 1) the development of high-performing car racing controllers and 2) the organization of scientific competitions....

  1. The end of the Dutch car tax?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besseling, P.J.; Lebouille, R.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the project 'Paying differently for mobility' an option that is considered is to switch the Dutch Tax on Motor cars and Vehicles (BPM) to a higher tariff for the future road pricing system. Due to some special characteristics of the BPM, this will be a highly complex financial operation. In this article, we explore three variants for their effect on the vehicle market and on the budget. We also explain the advantages and disadvantages for several groups of car owners. [nl

  2. Development of RaRaII solar car. Solar car RaRaII no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, M [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1991-05-31

    A solar car was developed to be able to travel, by utilizing solar energy, as a guiding car for the marathon race in the public road. That car is 210kg in weight, 1 in number of riding persons and 4.8m in smallest rotating radius. Its traveling performance is 44km h in highest speed, 10{degree} in hill-climbing ability and 0.6m s{sup 2} in acceleration. Those principal particulars satisfied the required condition of guiding car for the marathon race. That car was equipped with a polycrystalline silicon type solar cell, 6m{sup 2} in area to generate 870Wp power. A silver oxide-zinc battery, used as a secondary battery to secure traveling in case of rain, is of a performance to travel twice the marathon race road through. To satisfy the public road traveling in safety standard, that car was equipped with head lamps, wiper, direction winkers, rear-view mirrors, etc. As material of the body, aramid fiber and carbon fiber were adopted for securing the rigidity to cover the lightening in weight. That car, as used at an opportunity of intercollegiate marathon relay race, traveled a distance of about 30km which was its entire public road portion of course. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Gasoline cars produce more carbonaceous particulate matter than modern filter-equipped diesel cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, S M; El Haddad, I; Pieber, S M; Zardini, A A; Suarez-Bertoa, R; Clairotte, M; Daellenbach, K R; Huang, R-J; Slowik, J G; Hellebust, S; Temime-Roussel, B; Marchand, N; de Gouw, J; Jimenez, J L; Hayes, P L; Robinson, A L; Baltensperger, U; Astorga, C; Prévôt, A S H

    2017-07-13

    Carbonaceous particulate matter (PM), comprising black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (POA) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA, from atmospheric aging of precursors), is a highly toxic vehicle exhaust component. Therefore, understanding vehicle pollution requires knowledge of both primary emissions, and how these emissions age in the atmosphere. We provide a systematic examination of carbonaceous PM emissions and parameterisation of SOA formation from modern diesel and gasoline cars at different temperatures (22, -7 °C) during controlled laboratory experiments. Carbonaceous PM emission and SOA formation is markedly higher from gasoline than diesel particle filter (DPF) and catalyst-equipped diesel cars, more so at -7 °C, contrasting with nitrogen oxides (NO X ). Higher SOA formation from gasoline cars and primary emission reductions for diesels implies gasoline cars will increasingly dominate vehicular total carbonaceous PM, though older non-DPF-equipped diesels will continue to dominate the primary fraction for some time. Supported by state-of-the-art source apportionment of ambient fossil fuel derived PM, our results show that whether gasoline or diesel cars are more polluting depends on the pollutant in question, i.e. that diesel cars are not necessarily worse polluters than gasoline cars.

  4. Perancangan dan Implementasi Kontroler PID untuk Pengaturan Autonomous Car-Following Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Parluhutan Bonor Sinaga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pengiriman logistik ke daerah-daerah rawan bencana merupakan hal yang sangat sulit dilakukan, tentunya diperlukan pengetahuan mengenai kondisi medan jalan. Salah satu dampak yang utama adalah sulitnya melakukan manuver dalam pengendalian performansi  truk logistik yang pada umumnya berupa truk-truk gandeng. Untuk membantu pengemudi truk dalam berkendara pada kondisi tersebut, dirancang sebuah prototype mobil mandiri (Autonomous Car yang mampu melakukan manuver-manuver pergerakan secara sendirinya, salah satu manuver tersebut ialah Following Car.  Dalam Tugas Akhir ini perancangan sistem yang akan dilakukan dengan  memodelkan  dua buah kendaraan mobil RC (remote control yang bertindak sebagai  follower dan leader car. Pengoperasian dari  following car dilakukan dengan memodifikasi dari kendaraan RC-1, sedangkan RC-2 bertindak sebagai leader car yang dikondisikan secara manual. Dengan penerapan kontroler PID pada implementasi sistem didapatkan penurunan time settling menjadi 2,7 Detik dan peningkatan error steady state sebesar 2,44%. Pada implementasi diberikan kecepatan leader secara acak, dengan implementasi kontroler PID, kondisi jarak antara autonomous car dengan leader car masih dalam range keadaan ideal pada set point.

  5. The development of CAR design for tumor CAR-T cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dandan; Jin, Guoliang; Chai, Dafei; Zhou, Xiaowan; Gu, Weiyu; Chong, Yanyun; Song, Jingyuan; Zheng, Junnian

    2018-03-02

    In recent years, the chimeric antigen receptor modified T cells (Chimeric antigen receptor T cells, CAR-T) immunotherapy has developed rapidly, which has been considered the most promising therapy. Efforts to enhance the efficacy of CAR-based anti-tumor therapy have been made, such as the improvement of structures of CAR-T cells, including the development of extracellular antigen recognition receptors, intracellular co-stimulatory molecules and the combination application of CARs and synthetic small molecules. In addition, effects on the function of the CAR-T cells that the space distance between the antigen binding domains and tumor targets and the length of the spacer domains have are also being investigated. Given the fast-moving nature of this field, it is necessary to make a summary of the development of CAR-T cells. In this review, we mainly focus on the present design strategies of CAR-T cells with the hope that they can provide insights to increase the anti-tumor efficacy and safety.

  6. Demand for mini cars and large cars; decay effects, and gasoline demand in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla, David; Schmitz, Klaus E.; Akisawa, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    This article explains why: (a) consumers underinvest in new car fuel economy by opting to buy large vehicles; (b) macro shifts in vehicle classes have occurred in the last decades; and how (c) the effects of vehicle fuel economy and shifts in vehicle type influence the growth path of gasoline demand, which is the key to designing effective energy efficiency goals for transport. From 2008, 1.9 EXJ (Exajoules) of energy were consumed in Japan by private vehicles producing 124 MtCO 2 emissions. For the period 1980 to 2008, we estimated: (1) gasoline demand for three vehicle sizes; (2) vehicle sales; (3) new car fuel economy changes (the ‘real’ technical change); and (4) vehicle stocks. Using a data sample for 1980–2008 we found that: (a) in the short term consumers buy fuel economy, that is sales of mini and small cars increase, but this is not sustained in the long term: and (b) consumers increasingly traded in their cars for larger cars. A further finding was that gasoline demand is projected to increase to 2.3 EXJ by 2035, even with a growing number of mini cars. The policy implication is clear: Japan’s policy to reduce oil dependency to 80% by 2030 is in peril as long as buyers prefer larger cars and drive ever longer distances.

  7. Development, Problems and Countermeasures of Chinese Racing Car Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. J.

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, motor car racing has developed rapidly in China. However, under the background of maximum vehicle production and car ownership in China, the racing car industry has a long way compared with that of the developed countries. The paper analyzes the current situation and summarizes the problems of Chinese racing car industry with supporting documentation and review of the literature. The future trend of the development of car industry in China is discussed. On the basis of the analysis and prediction, the strategies to respond to the future racing car industry in China are presented.

  8. Increase of child car seat temperature in cars parked in the outpatient parking lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Tetsu; Suzue, Junji; Kamada, Makoto; Ozaki, Yukiko; Tananari, Yoshifumi; Maeno, Yasuki; Ito, Shinichi; Nishino, Hiroshi; Kakimoto, Noriko; Yamakawa, Rumi

    2011-12-01

    A guideline for the safe use of child car seats (CS) was published by the Japan Pediatric Society in 2008. There have been few studies of the increase of temperature of a CS in parked cars. The aim of this study was to determine the change in the temperature of the CS in cars parked in full sun. The temperature of CS was measured during summer (July and August) in 2006, 2007, and 2008. The CS used in this study (n= 50) were for children (≤ 6 years old) who were taken by car to Sugimura Children's Medical Clinic. Temperatures were only measured on sunny days. Measurements were performed from 09.00 to 17.00 hours. Thermochron (Thermochron i-Button: G type, Maxim Integrated Products, CA, USA) was used to measure the temperatures. The maximum temperatures of CS were compared in time at the clinic, taking into consideration seat colors, and car colors. Of the 50 cars, three cars were excluded due to being in the shade while the temperature was measured. A total of 47 cars were used for this study. The temperature of the CS ranged from 38.0 to 65.5°C (47.8 ± 5.8°C). Eighteen CS (38.3%) reached a temperature of 50°C or above. The maximum temperature of the 13.00-15.00-hours group was significantly higher than that of the 09.00-11.00-hours group (P= 0.035). The CS temperatures in the black car group were significantly higher than those of the white car group (P= 0.013). CS may become very hot while a car is parked in sun, especially if the car and the CS are black, so the CS should be cooled before a young child is placed in it. Guardians of small children should be aware of this risk. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Perceptions and attitudes of car owners on innovative automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pol, M.; Brunsting, S.

    2012-01-01

    To abate the detrimental effects of transport a transition is foreseen from the conventional fossil cars to energy-sustainable cars. A successful transition requires a major behavioral change of car consumers who need to make choices about new options for transport with uncertain costs and benefits compared to their current car. This paper examines consumers' perceptions about innovative cars and considerations for buying or not buying innovative cars (hybrid, electric, plug-in electric, hydrogen, flexifuel). In this study an on-line questionnaire on attitudes, interests and social norms regarding innovative cars was conducted among 339 Dutch respondents who recently bought a new car. To obtain in-depth understanding of the answers, a follow-up study was conducted consisting of two focus groups with a sample of survey participants. These focus groups respectively concentrated on respondents' perceptions of innovative cars, and on the personality traits of the 'typical' innovative car driver. The results of the survey shows that the attitude towards innovative cars are strongly influenced by affective aspects (such as comfort and pleasant) and to a (much) smaller extent by environmental considerations. The results of the focus groups confirm these findings. According to the participants the price of the car is decisive whereby environmental concerns play no role. The design and image of the car are important. In addition, it appears that the familiarity with (and thus the knowledge about) the innovative cars is still very limited (with the exception of the hybrid car). This point of view stresses the importance of the way in which innovative cars are positioned thereby affecting the image (social norms) people will have regarding these cars. [nl

  10. Model analysis of adaptive car driving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with two modeling approaches to car driving. The first one is a system theoretic approach to describe adaptive human driving behavior. The second approach utilizes neural networks. As an illustrative example the overtaking task is considered and modeled in system theoretic terms.

  11. Aerodynamic Noise Generated by Shinkansen Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    KITAGAWA, T.; NAGAKURA, K.

    2000-03-01

    The noise value (A -weighted sound pressure level, SLOW) generated by Shinkansen trains, now running at 220-300 km/h, should be less than 75 dB(A) at the trackside. Shinkansen noise, such as rolling noise, concrete support structure noise, and aerodynamic noise are generated by various parts of Shinkansen trains. Among these aerodynamic noise is important because it is the major contribution to the noise generated by the coaches running at high speed. In order to reduce the aerodynamic noise, a number of improvements to coaches have been made. As a result, the aerodynamic noise has been reduced, but it still remains significant. In addition, some aerodynamic noise generated from the lower parts of cars remains. In order to investigate the contributions of these noises, a method of analyzing Shinkansen noise has been developed and applied to the measured data of Shinkansen noise at speeds between 120 and 315 km/h. As a result, the following conclusions have been drawn: (1) Aerodynamic noise generated from the upper parts of cars was reduced considerably by smoothing car surfaces. (2) Aerodynamic noise generated from the lower parts of cars has a major influence upon the wayside noise.

  12. Hydrogen fuel cells for cars and buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The use of hydrogen fuel cells for cars is strongly promoted by the governments of many countries and by international organizations like the European Community. The electrochem. behavior of the most promising fuel cell (polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, PEMFC) is critically discussed, based

  13. Improvement of crash compatibility between cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, J.A.H.M.; Faerber, E.; Cesari, D.; Hobbs, A.C.; Kampen, B. van; Paez, J.; Wykes, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the research work of the European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC) in the field of crash compatibility between passenger cars. Since July 1997 the EC Commission is partly funding the research work of EEVC. The running period of this project will be two

  14. Microcomputers, Model Rockets, and Race Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Edward A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The industrial education orientation program at Wisconsin School for the Deaf (WSD) presents problem-solving situations to all seventh- and eighth-grade hearing-impaired students. WSD developed user-friendly microcomputer software to guide students individually through complex computations involving model race cars and rockets while freeing…

  15. Colleges Drive Research on Electric Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basken, Paul

    2009-01-01

    As the General Motors Corporation shuts assembly plants and veers toward bankruptcy, the lonely remnants of one of its top technological achievements--the first modern mass-produced electric car--lie scattered across a few dozen American college campuses. GM produced and leased to customers more than 1,000 "EV1" automobiles beginning in 1996. In…

  16. Floating car data for traffic monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a complete prototype system that uses Floating Car Data (FCD) for both automatic and manual detection of queues in traffic. The system is developed under EU’s Tempo program. The systems consists of small hardware units placed in mobile traffic report units (we use taxis...

  17. Gleaning and Dreaming on Car Park Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Croft

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores beachcombing and gleaning as practices that combine mobility with daydreaming and which allow us to experience our environment with the perception of ‘tactile nearness’ (Benjamin. Through eco-poetics shaped by ‘inconceivable analogies and connections’ (Benjamin, the author re-imagines a neglected space used as a short-cut on the way to work—the Liverpool Adelphi car park in Liverpool—as “Car Park Beach”. Inspired by the situationists’ slogan ‘Sous les pavés, la plage’, the author argues that Car Park Beach opens up imaginative possibilities for a different form of ecological encounter with our own precarity, one ushered in by a ‘close-up’ awareness of how waste transforms our world. Car Park Beach is a site that the author associates with the drift-like, distracted movements of both people and matter, and this article therefore attempts to deploy an equivalent method of analysis. Drawing on her own practice of gleaning photos and objects on the way to work, the author places a vocabulary of flotsam and jetsam at the axis of her discussion. Allusive, often layered, connections are followed between a diverse range of sources including beachcombing guides, literary memoirs, documentary films, eco-criticism, and auto-ethnography.

  18. Anastomose carótido-basilar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Reixach-Granés

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available O autor relata um caso de anastomose carótido-basilar por persistência da artéria trigeminal, demonstrado angiogràficamente. O paciente apresentou hemiplegia súbita e era portador de transtornos mentais de tipo deficitário. A pneumencefalografia evidenciou atrofia do parênquima cerebral do lado da anomalia.

  19. Markov chain of distances between parked cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seba, Petr

    2008-01-01

    We describe the distribution of distances between parked cars as a solution of certain Markov processes and show that its solution is obtained with the help of a distributional fixed point equation. Under certain conditions the process is solved explicitly. The resulting probability density is compared with the actual parking data measured in the city. (fast track communication)

  20. What Happens at a Car Wash?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallick, Barbara; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    A class of 3- to 5-year-old children in a child care center in the midwestern United States chose to study a car wash as a group project. This article discusses how the project evolved, describes the three phases of the project, and provides the teachers' reflections on the project. Photos taken during the project and children's sketches are…

  1. Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Mario N.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the inflation rate problem and offers an interesting analogy with chemical kinetics. Presents and solves the car devaluation problem as a normal chemical kinetic problem where the order of the rate law and the value of the rate constant are derived. (JRH)

  2. Can a road-driven car outrace a free-falling car?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, Diego J.

    2011-11-01

    Motivated by an advertising scenario in which a luxury sports sedan races against a similar car falling under the influence of gravity, a calculation using undergraduate physics and calculus is performed to theoretically predict the outcome.

  3. A longitudinal analysis of cars, transit, and employment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Access to cars and transit can influence individuals ability to reach opportunities such as jobs, health care, and other important : activities. While access to cars and public transit varies considerably across time, space, and across populations...

  4. Improved tank car design development : ongoing studies on sandwich structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-02

    The Government and industry have a common interest in : improving the safety performance of railroad tank cars carrying : hazardous materials. Research is ongoing to develop strategies : to maintain the structural integrity of railroad tank cars carr...

  5. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car is like leaving your child in a lit ...

  6. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car is like leaving your child in a lit ...

  7. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    OpenAIRE

    GANDZHA S.A.; KIESSH I.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding) for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric...

  8. CarSim: Automatic 3D Scene Generation of a Car Accident Description

    OpenAIRE

    Egges, A.; Nijholt, A.; Nugues, P.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of generating a 3D simulation of a car accident from a written description can be divided into two subtasks: the linguistic analysis and the virtual scene generation. As a means of communication between these two system parts, we designed a template formalism to represent a written accident report. The CarSim system processes formal descriptions of accidents and creates corresponding 3D simulations. A planning component models the trajectories and temporal values of every vehicle ...

  9. Is this car looking at you? How anthropomorphism predicts fusiform face area activation when seeing cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Brick, Timothy R; Müller, Barbara C N; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Anthropomorphism encompasses the attribution of human characteristics to non-living objects. In particular the human tendency to see faces in cars has long been noticed, yet its neural correlates are unknown. We set out to investigate whether the fusiform face area (FFA) is associated with seeing human features in car fronts, or whether, the higher-level theory of mind network (ToM), namely temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) show a link to anthropomorphism. Twenty participants underwent fMRI scanning during a passive car-front viewing task. We extracted brain activity from FFA, TPJ and MPFC. After the fMRI session participants were asked to spontaneously list adjectives that characterize each car front. Five raters judged the degree to which each adjective can be applied as a characteristic of human beings. By means of linear mixed models we found that the implicit tendency to anthropomorphize individual car fronts predicts FFA, but not TPJ or MPFC activity. The results point to an important role of FFA in the phenomenon of ascribing human attributes to non-living objects. Interestingly, brain regions that have been associated with thinking about beliefs and mental states of others (TPJ, MPFC) do not seem to be related to anthropomorphism of car fronts.

  10. Parents smoking in their cars with children present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi-Burza, Emara; Regan, Susan; Drehmer, Jeremy; Ossip, Deborah; Rigotti, Nancy; Hipple, Bethany; Dempsey, Janelle; Hall, Nicole; Friebely, Joan; Weiley, Victoria; Winickoff, Jonathan P

    2012-12-01

    To determine prevalence and factors associated with strictly enforced smoke-free car policies among smoking parents. As part of a cluster, randomized controlled trial addressing parental smoking, exit interviews were conducted with parents whose children were seen in 10 control pediatric practices. Parents who smoked were asked about smoking behaviors in their car and receipt of smoke-free car advice at the visit. Parents were considered to have a "strictly enforced smoke-free car policy" if they reported having a smoke-free car policy and nobody had smoked in their car within the past 3 months. Of 981 smoking parents, 817 (83%) had a car; of these, 795 parents answered questions about their car smoking policy. Of these 795 parents, 29% reported having a smoke-free car policy, and 24% had a strictly enforced smoke-free car policy. Of the 562 parents without a smoke-free car policy, 48% reported that smoking occurred with children present. Few parents who smoke (12%) were advised to have a smoke-free car. Multivariable logistic regression controlling for parent age, gender, education, and race showed that having a younger child and smoking ≤10 cigarettes per day were associated with having a strictly enforced smoke-free car policy. The majority of smoking parents exposed their children to tobacco smoke in cars. Coupled with the finding of low rates of pediatricians addressing smoking in cars, this study highlights the need for improved pediatric interventions, public health campaigns, and policies regarding smoke-free car laws to protect children from tobacco smoke.

  11. Clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China

    OpenAIRE

    Bingshan Liu; Yongping Song; Delong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Novel immunotherapeutic agents targeting tumor-site microenvironment are revolutionizing cancer therapy. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells are widely studied for cancer immunotherapy. CD19-specific CAR-T cells, tisagenlecleucel, have been recently approved for clinical application. Ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in hematological and solid malignancies. In addition to trials of single-target CAR-T cells, simultaneous...

  12. Transient Heat Transfer Model for Car Body Primer Curing

    OpenAIRE

    D. Zabala; N. Sánchez; J. Pinto

    2010-01-01

    A transient heat transfer mathematical model for the prediction of temperature distribution in the car body during primer baking has been developed by considering the thermal radiation and convection in the furnace chamber and transient heat conduction governing equations in the car framework. The car cockpit is considered like a structure with six flat plates, four vertical plates representing the car doors and the rear and front panels. The other two flat plates are the...

  13. National car and customer loyalty: the Malaysian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Md Isa, Mohd Azwardi

    2017-01-01

    The ASEAN Free Trade Agreement has facilitated the entrance of foreign cars into Malaysia’s passenger car market and consequently imported cars are posing a serious threat to domestic automotive companies. This can be seen by decreasing sales figures and the deteriorating market share for the Proton and Perodua (companies partly-owned by government). Driven by this situation, this study examines customer satisfaction and loyalty for the consumers who have purchased these cars. ...

  14. The Antifouling of ACLW-CAR Based on Ultrasonic Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guohua; Liu, Shixuan; Qin, Qingliang

    2017-10-01

    Equipped with ACLW-CAR, the buoy provided effective technical platform for on-site rapid monitoring of the chlorophyll and turbidity. Performance index and usage in the ocean buoy of ACLW-CAR was introduced. Ultrasonic cleaning method in seawater was developed for preventing ACLW-CAR from biofouling. Marine chlorophyll and turbidity data can serve for oceanographic research and marine resource exploitation.

  15. Students to Race Solar-Powered Model Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    race model solar cars on Saturday, May 12. The cars, designed to tap into energy from the sun, are than 12 inches wide, 24 inches long and 12 inches high. The 20-meter race is a double elimination competition with awards going to the five fastest cars. Five design awards also will be given out for

  16. 30 CFR 56.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 56.14215 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and then moved at minimum...

  17. 49 CFR 231.18 - Cars of special construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars of special construction. 231.18 Section 231... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.18 Cars of special construction. Cars of construction not covered specifically in the foregoing sections in this part, relative to...

  18. 49 CFR 231.22 - Operation of track motor cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of track motor cars. 231.22 Section 231... motor cars. On and after August 1, 1963, it shall be unlawful for any railroad subject to the requirements of the Safety Appliance Acts to operate or permit to be operated on its line track motor cars to...

  19. 49 CFR 238.413 - End structures of trailer cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false End structures of trailer cars. 238.413 Section... II Passenger Equipment § 238.413 End structures of trailer cars. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the end structure of a trailer car shall be designed to include the following...

  20. CAN PUBLIC TRANSPORT COMPETE WITH THE PRIVATE CAR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda STEG

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transport is often perceived to be a poor alternative for car use. This paper describes who may be open to use public transport more often, and how people might be persuaded to use it. A computerised questionnaire study was conducted among 1,803 Dutch respondents in May 2001. Results revealed that especially fervent car users disliked public transport. For them, the car outperformed public transport not only because of its instrumental function, but also because the car represents cultural and psychological values, e.g. the car is a symbol of freedom and independence, a status symbol and driving is pleasurable. So, for fervent car users, car use is connected with various important values in modern society. Infrequent car users judged less positively about the car and less negatively about public transport. Consequently, they may be open to use public transport more regularly. In contrast, many efforts are needed to stimulate fervent car users to travel by public transport, because in their view, public transport cannot compete with their private car. In this case, policies should be aimed at reducing the functional, psychological and cultural values of private cars, as well as increasing the performance of public transport and other (more environmentally sound modes of transport on these aspects.

  1. Car App's Persuasive Design Principles and Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Wan, Lili; Min, Daihwan

    2016-01-01

    The emphasis of this study lies in behavior change after using car apps that assist users in using their vehicles and establishing a process for examining the interrelationship between car app's persuasive characteristics and behavior change. A categorizing method was developed and 697 car apps were investigated and classified into eight…

  2. Charging free floating shared cars in metropolitan areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, Gijs; Tensen, Tim; van Goeverden, Tom; van den Hoed, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of two new developments: electrification and ‘free floating’ car sharing and their impact on public space. Contrary to station based shared cars, free floating cars do not have dedicated parking or charging stations. They therefore park at public parking spots and

  3. 49 CFR 231.8 - Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.8 Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see § 231.1(a)(1...

  4. Report on electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars; Redegoerelse - elbiler og plug-in hybridbiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkjaer Toennesen, A.; Winther, K.; Noerregaard, K. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Larsen, Esben; Christensen, Linda; Kveiborg, O. (Danmarks Teknologiske Univ., Kgs. Lyngby (DTU) (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    The Center for Green Transport at the Danish Transport Authority has prepared this statement in order to uncover driving technical aspects, user expectations and needs, and the environmental consequences of using electric and plug-in hybrid cars. An electric car is defined as a car driven by an electric motor that has a battery that can be charged with power from the grid. A plug-in hybrid car is defined as a car that combines gasoline or diesel engine with an electric motor with a battery which can be recharged with power from the grid. From an overall consideration related to the transport sector electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars have the major advantage that negative impacts on environment and climate from traffic can be reduced while the high mobility is maintained. Through an increased use of electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars, the many advantages attached to the car as an individual transportation form is maintained, while CO{sub 2} emissions etc. are reduced. Electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars is one of the technologies that are considered to have particularly great prospects in the medium term when it comes to promoting new technologies in transport. Another advantage of using electric vehicles is the power supply factor. An increased use of electricity in transport will reduce the need for and dependence on fossil fuels in the sector. Both electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars are expected to be used for storage of wind power, a possibility which is hardly available today. The plug-in hybrid car could meet some of the challenges facing the pure electric car, because it also can use conventional fuel. The report presents analyses based on three focus areas: a) Users' needs, expectations and economics in relation to vehicles; b) The technology - and hence the manufacturers' opportunities and challenges; c) Connection to the power grid. (ln)

  5. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes... car tanks. ...

  6. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section 179.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and... liquid tank car tanks. ...

  7. Investigation of factors that stimulate car drivers to change from car to carpooling in city center oriented work trips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waerden, P.J.H.J.; Lem, A.; Schaefer, W.F.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to get more insight into the attributes that stimulate car drivers to use carpool as an alternative for their commuting trips in which the car is still the most used travel mode. The study was set up as a stated choice experiment. In the experiment, car drivers were asked to

  8. Car Builder: Design, Construct and Test Your Own Cars. School Version with Lesson Plans. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highsmith, Joni Bitman

    Car Builder is a scientific CD-ROM-based simulation program that lets students design, construct, modify, test, and compare their own cars. Students can design sedans, four-wheel-drive vehicles, vans, sport cars, and hot rods. They may select for aerodynamics, power, and racing ability, or economic and fuel efficiency. It is a program that teaches…

  9. Simulation of car movement along circular path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Tikhov-Tinnikov, D. A.; Ovchinnikova, N. I.; Lysenko, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    Under operating conditions, suspension system performance changes which negatively affects vehicle stability and handling. The paper aims to simulate the impact of changes in suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling. Methods. The paper describes monitoring of suspension system performance, testing of vehicle stability and handling, analyzes methods of suspension system performance monitoring under operating conditions. The mathematical model of a car movement along a circular path was developed. Mathematical tools describing a circular movement of a vehicle along a horizontal road were developed. Turning car movements were simulated. Calculation and experiment results were compared. Simulation proves the applicability of a mathematical model for assessment of the impact of suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling.

  10. MicroCar 2003. Abstracts of papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Mechatronics for automotive applications is an important trend, combining mechanics, electronics and information technology. Micro- and nanomechatronics, particularly innovative research disciplines, will help create, in combination with advanced solutions from microsystem technologies, e.g. the electronic packaging, a range of entirely new developments in automobiles. Under the umbrella of the Automotive Suppliers Fair Z2003, it is happening for the very first time now that a momentous scientific conference, such as the MicroCar 2003, brings together representatives from car manufacturers and the electronics industry, as well as a large number of experts from technical colleges, universities and research institutes to discuss the new potentials and possibilities presented by the use of micro and nanomaterials in Leipzig. With the presentation of 50 papers, speakers will inform about their latest research results as well as current trends in micro and nanotechnologies for automotives. This issue is publishing the abstracts of this scientific event.

  11. A Bumpy Ride for Electric Cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaure, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    In July 2017 Nicolas Hulot, the French Minister of Ecological and Inclusive Transition, presented a climate plan featuring an end to electricity generation from coal by 2022, a reduction in the nuclear component of electricity supply by one third, a total ban on the sale of petrol or diesel cars by 2040 and an incentive scheme designed gradually to remove polluting vehicles from the roads. Other European partners are following suit and promoting the spread of electric vehicles (Norway, Germany, Netherlands etc.). Yet is this the panacea that will meet the targets for greenhouse gas reduction in the battle against climate change? Futuribles examines the question in this issue, first through this article by Pierre Bonnaure that assesses the forces driving the spread of electric cars and the impediments to that process, and then with an article by Veronique Lamblin offering a general overview of electric road vehicles. (author)

  12. Thermal modelling of a torpedo-car

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdeja-Gonzalez, L. F.; Barbes-Fernandez, M. F.; Gonzalez-Ojeda, R.; Castillo, G. A.; Colas, R.

    2005-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite element model for computing the temperature distribution in a torpedo-car holding pig iron is described in this work. The model determines the temperature gradients in steady and transient conditions whiting the different parts that constitute the systems, which are considered to be the steel casing, refractory lining, liquid iron, slag and air. Heat transfer within the main fluid phases (iron and air) is computed assuming an apparent thermal conductivity term incorporating the contribution from convention and radiation, and it is affected by the dimensions of the vessel. Thermal gradients within the constituents of the torpedo-car are used to calculate heat losses during operation. It was found that the model required the incorporate of a region within the iron-refractory interface to reproduce thermographic data recorded during operation; the heat transfer coefficient of this interface was found to be equal to 30 Wm''-2K''-1. (Author) 11 refs

  13. Spectral analysis of Floating Car Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gössel, F.; Michler, E.; Wrase, B.

    2003-01-01

    Floating Car Data (FCD) are one important data source in traffic telematic systems. The original variable in these systems is the vehicle velocity. The paper analyses the measured value “vehicle velocity" by methods of information technology. Consequences for processing, transmission and storage of FCD under condition of limited resources are discussed. Starting point of the investigation is the analysis of spectral characteristics of velocity-time-profiles. The spectra are determined by...

  14. How energy efficient is your car?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Pere; Oliu, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    A detailed energy balance indicating how fuel energy is transferred from the engine to the wheels of a commercial car is obtained using non-specialized experiments that can be readily understood using elementary mechanics. These experiments allow us to determine the engine's thermal efficiency, its mechanical losses, and the rolling (friction) and aerodynamic (drag) coefficients. We find that approximately 28% of the fuel energy is transferred to the wheels.

  15. Reclaiming Pedestrian Space from Car Dominated Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas L. Savvides

    2012-01-01

    For a long time as a result of accommodating car traffic, planning ideologies in the past put a low priority on public space, pedestrianism and the role of city space as a meeting place for urban dwellers. In addition, according to authors such as Jan Gehl, market forces and changing architectural perceptions began to shift the focus of planning practice from the integration of public space in various pockets around the contemporary city to individual buildings. Eventuall...

  16. Country watch: Central African Republic (CAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubel, J; Sobela, F; Voga, P

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the activities of the Community Peer AIDS Education Project, initiated in 1995 in the Central African Republic (CAR). The CAR project was created by the National AIDS Committee (NAC) and the US Peace Corps. A 4-day workshop was held at the onset for project staff and consultants. Staff developed a simple monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system that emphasizes "learning." M&E schemes measure project outputs, expenditures, and other measures of program implementation in order to help staff gradually improve implementation. M&E helps staff document activities, share information, and learn from the implementation process. Project activities are documented by maintaining community logbooks, taking photos of significant aspects of the educational activities, and leading informal discussion groups. The CAR project engaged in sharing and learning activities by holding meetings with peer leaders, team meetings, meetings with project managers, and meetings with the NAC. Once a month, peer field coordinators conducted a structured exercise with peer leaders. One aim was to gain their feedback on the successes and constraints of activities. Another was to make suggestions on how to improve activities. These structured exercises are recorded as lessons learned in a project book. Team meetings are held periodically. During meetings, staff review project books and photos and discuss successes and problems encountered. Project manager meetings provide time to share lessons learned and to suggest project strengthening options. NAC meetings between the project manager and field coordinators allow for a bottom-up learning process. CAR project staff were receptive to M&E efforts.

  17. Heterogeneous car buyers: a stylized fact

    OpenAIRE

    Ana M. Aizcorbe; Benjamin Bridgman; Jeremy J. Nalewaik

    2009-01-01

    Using a new dataset, we document a systematic pattern in the demographic characteristics of car buyers over the model year: as vehicle prices fall over the model year, so do buyer incomes. This pattern is consistent with price-insensitive buyers purchasing early in the year, while others wait until prices decline, and suggests price skimming (i.e. intertemporal price discrimination). Such consumer heterogeneity over the model year raises questions for measuring quality improvements in new goods.

  18. Archetypes and Mythical Narratives in Car Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara LÄMMLEIN

    2014-01-01

    This article represents an excerpt of the PhD thesis Branding & Advertising and Communication Strategies by the author. Within this thesis inter - disciplinary approaches for deciphering messages of selected car advertising were used. Multiple methods and paradigms such as cultural studies, media communication, sociology, anthropology, semiotics, and psychoanalysis, were applied in order to analyze TV spots and print advertisements from a variety of angles. The purpose of this strategy was to...

  19. Possible use of electric cars as balancing instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirez, Andreas; Luickx, Patrick; Woitrin, Dominique

    2010-09-15

    A massive introduction of electric cars is foreseeable in the mid to long term. Implementing a 'vehicle-to-grid' setting makes it possible to use these cars to deliver ancillary services to the electricity system. In this paper, the possibility of delivering active reserves in the Belgian control area is analyzed. We assume one million electric cars that can be connected to the Belgian grid. Based on our simulation, electric cars could be used for delivering all primary, all secondary and part of the tertiary reserves. Using electric cars as a balancing instrument would facilitate absorbing intermittent energy into the electricity system.

  20. Car Deceleration Considering Its Own Velocity in Cellular Automata Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Keping

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new cellular automaton model, which is based on NaSch traffic model. In our method, when a car has a larger velocity, if the gap between the car and its leading car is not enough large, it will decrease. The aim is that the following car has a buffer space to decrease its velocity at the next time, and then avoid to decelerate too high. The simulation results show that using our model, the car deceleration is realistic, and is closer to the field measure than that of NaSch model.

  1. The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husemann, B.; Tremblay, G.; Davis, T.; Busch, G.; McElroy, R.; Neumann, J.; Urrutia, T.; Krumpe, M.; Scharwächter, J.; Powell, M.; Perez-Torres, M.; The CARS Team

    2017-09-01

    The role of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the evolution of galaxies remains a mystery. The energy released by these accreting supermassive black holes can vastly exceed the entire binding energy of their host galaxies, yet it remains unclear how this energy is dissipated throughout the galaxy, and how that might couple to the galaxy's evolution. The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS) is a multi-wavelength survey of a representative sample of luminous Type I AGN at redshifts 0.01 connection. These AGN are more luminous than very nearby AGN but are still close enough for spatially resolved mapping at sub-kpc scales with various state- of-the art facilities and instruments, such as VLT-MUSE, ALMA, JVLA, Chandra, SOFIA, and many more. In this article we showcase the power of CARS with examples of a multi-phase AGN outflow, diverse views on star formation activity and a unique changing-look AGN. CARS will provide an essential low-redshift reference sample for ongoing and forthcoming AGN surveys at high redshift.

  2. Aerodynamic analysis of formula student car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmawan, Mohammad Arief; Ubaidillah, Nugraha, Arga Ahmadi; Wijayanta, Agung Tri; Naufal, Brian Aqif

    2018-02-01

    Formula Society of Automotive Engineering (FSAE) is a contest between ungraduated students to create a high-performance formula student car that completes the regulation. Body and the other aerodynamic devices are significant because it affects the drag coefficient and the down force of the car. The drag coefficient is a measurement of the resistance of an object in a fluid environment, a lower the drag coefficient means it will have a less drag force. Down force is a force that pushes an object to the ground, in the car more down force means more grip. The objective of the research was to study the aerodynamic comparison between the race vehicle when attached to the wings and without it. These studies were done in three dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation method using the Autodesk Flow Design software. These simulations were done by conducted in 5 different velocities. The results of those simulations are by attaching wings on race vehicle has drag coefficient 0.728 and without wings has drag coefficient 0.56. Wings attachment will decrease the drag coefficient about 23 % and also the contour pressure and velocity were known at these simulations.

  3. CARS microscopy of Alzheimer's diseased brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enejder, Annika; Kiskis, Juris; Fink, Helen; Nyberg, Lena; Thyr, Jakob; Li, Jia-Yi

    2014-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder currently without cure, characterized by the presence of extracellular plaques surrounded by dystrophic neurites. In an effort to understand the underlying mechanisms, biochemical analysis (protein immunoblot) of plaque extracts reveals that they consist of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides assembled as oligomers, protofibrils and aggregates. Their spatial distribution has been confirmed by Thioflavin-S or immuno-staining with fluorescence microscopy. However, it is increasingly understood that the protein aggregation is only one of several mechanism that causes neuronal dysfunction and death. This raises the need for a more complete biochemical analysis. In this study, we have complemented 2-photon fluorescence microscopy of Thioflavin-S and Aβ immuno-stained human AD plaques with CARS microscopy. We show that the chemical build-up of AD plaques is more complex and that Aβ staining does not provide the complete picture of the spatial distribution or the molecular composition of AD plaques. CARS images provide important complementary information to that obtained by fluorescence microscopy, motivating a broader introduction of CARS microscopy in the AD research field.

  4. Backset-stationary and during car driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Bertil; Stenlund, Hans; Björnstig, Ulf

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to measure and analyze backset, defined as the horizontal distance between the back of the occupant's head and a point located on the ventral/top aspect of the sewn rim of the head restraint, with the car stationary and during driving, in the driver's position in a modern car. A population of 65 subjects, 35 males and 30 females, was studied in a Volvo V70 car, model year 2007. The subjects were studied in the driver's position, in a self-selected posture. Stationary backset was measured with the technique described by Jonsson et al. (2007) and backset during driving with video analysis. Descriptive data were calculated, and variability and correlation analyses were performed. A t-test was used to test differences of means. Significance level was set to 0.05. In comparison to stationary backset, mean backset during driving was 43 mm greater in males and 41 mm greater in females. Driving backset was 44 mm larger in males than in females. Driving backset was moderately correlated (0.37-0.43) to stature, seated height, and seat back angle in males and moderately correlated (0.44-0.52) to hip width, waist circumference, and weight in females. The overall intraclass correlation coefficient for backset during driving was 0.81 (CI: 0.75-0.86). These results may be of use in designing future updates of test protocols/routines for geometric backset, such as RCAR and RCAR-IIWPG.

  5. Energy Chain Analysis of Passenger Car Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Walnum

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transport makes up 20 percent of the World’s energy use; in OECD countries this has exceeded 30 percent. The International Energy Agency (IEA estimates that the global energy consumption will increase by 2.1 percent annually, a growth rate that is higher than for any other sector. The high energy consumption means that transportation accounts for nearly 30 percent of CO2 emission in OECD countries and is also one of the main sources of regional and local air pollution. In this article, we analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from passenger car transport using an energy chain analysis. The energy chain analysis consists of three parts: the net direct energy use, the energy required for vehicle propulsion; the gross direct chain, which includes the net direct energy consumption plus the energy required to produce it; and, finally, the indirect energy chain, which includes the energy consumption for production, maintenance and operation of infrastructure plus manufacturing of the vehicle itself. In addition to energy consumption, we also analyze emissions of greenhouse gases measured by CO2-equivalents. We look at the trade-offs between energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to see whether some drivetrains and fuels perform favourable on both indicators. Except for the case of electric cars, where hydropower is the only energy source in the Norwegian context, no single car scores favourably on both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Bessel beam CARS of axially structured samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuke, Sandro; Zheng, Juanjuan; Akimov, Denis; Heintzmann, Rainer; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    We report about a Bessel beam CARS approach for axial profiling of multi-layer structures. This study presents an experimental implementation for the generation of CARS by Bessel beam excitation using only passive optical elements. Furthermore, an analytical expression is provided describing the generated anti-Stokes field by a homogeneous sample. Based on the concept of coherent transfer functions, the underling resolving power of axially structured geometries is investigated. It is found that through the non-linearity of the CARS process in combination with the folded illumination geometry continuous phase-matching is achieved starting from homogeneous samples up to spatial sample frequencies at twice of the pumping electric field wave. The experimental and analytical findings are modeled by the implementation of the Debye Integral and scalar Green function approach. Finally, the goal of reconstructing an axially layered sample is demonstrated on the basis of the numerically simulated modulus and phase of the anti-Stokes far-field radiation pattern.

  7. Anaheim electric vehicle car-sharing project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, D. [City of Anaheim Transportation Programs Planner, Anaheim, CA (United States); Chase, B. [Costa Mesa Planning Center, Costa Mesa, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper described how the city of Anaheim in California is looking into a variety of clean transportation options for visitors, employees and residents in an effort to minimize air quality and congestion impacts. The city, which attracts approximately 24 million visitors annually, is looking into an electric vehicle (EV) car-sharing program that promotes EV use in multiple applications for both short- and long-term rental opportunities. There are two components to the program which provides eight 5-passenger electric Toyota RAV4 vehicles to both local employees and visitors. The electric RAV4s include nickel-hydride batteries which provide a range of 120 miles per charge. The city has already developed a network of public accessible EV charging stations and this project is a perfect extension of the city's continued efforts to seek opportunities to apply EV technologies within its jurisdictions. The Station Car Program provides flexibility for rail commuters to get from the rail station to their place of employment. On weekdays, the EVs are available to registered commuters at two rail stations to drive to and from work. A total of 32 commuters can benefit from the program at a cost of $40 per month. On weekends, the EVs are offered to visitors through Budget Rent-a-Car Agency at a rate comparable to gasoline-fueled vehicles. So far, participant feedback has been positive and the city is looking into expanding its efforts to provide clean transportation options. tab.

  8. Cognitive compatibility of motorcyclists and car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Salmon, Paul M

    2011-05-01

    Incompatibility between different types of road user is a problem that previous research has shown to be resistant to a range of interventions. Cars and motorcycles are particularly prone to this. Insight is provided in this paper by a naturalistic method using concurrent verbal protocols and an automatic, highly reliable semantic network creation tool. The method shows how the same road situation is interpreted differently by car drivers and motorcyclists in ways congruent with wider accident rates. Analysis of the structure and content of the semantic networks reveals a greater degree of cognitive compatibility on faster roads such as motorways, but evidence of more critical incompatibilities on country roads and junctions. Both of these road types are implicated in helping to activate cognitive schema which in turn generate stereotypical behaviors unfavourable to the anticipation of motorcyclists by car drivers. The results are discussed in terms of practical measures such as road signs which warn of events behind as well as in front, cross-mode training and the concept of route driveability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Viability of fuel cells for car production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchel, J.-P. [Renault, Trappes (France); Lisse, J.-P. [P.S.A., Trappes (France); Bernard, S. [Alten, Trappes (France)

    2000-07-01

    The two French car manufacturers PSA Peugeot Citroen and Renault both sell pure electric cars in an effort to reduce pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, they have each studied fuel cell car prototypes in relation to the FEVER program for Renault and the HYDRO-GEN program for PSA. In 1999, the two manufacturers joined forces in a common program to evaluate the technical, economical and environmental viability of the fuel cell vehicle potential. The joint program has active contributions by Air Liquid, the French Atomic Energy Agency, De Nora Fuel Cells, Elf-Antar-France, Totalfina and Valeo. This paper highlighted many of the components of this program and the suitability of this new technology for industrial production at a cost competitive price. Certain automotive constraints have to be considered to propose vehicles which could provide good performance in varying temperature and operating conditions. Safety is also an important concern given that the vehicles are powered by hydrogen and a high voltage power source. Another challenges is the choice of the fuel and the economic cost of a new refueling infrastructure. Recycling was suggested as a means to recover expensive fuel cell system components such as precious catalysts, bipolar plates, membranes and other main specific parts of the fuel cell vehicle. This paper also discussed issues regarding the thermal management of the fuel cell power plant and air conditioning of the vehicles. figs.

  10. Construction of coherent antistokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, M. D.; Jazmati, A.

    2007-01-01

    Coherent Antistokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) has been built. It consists of a Raman cell, which is filled with CO 2 gas at 5 atm pressure and a frequency doubled Nd-YAG laser pumped dye laser. The two beams are focused by means of a bi-convex lens into Raman cell. The Antistokes signals (CARS signals) are generated due to Four-wave mixing process. The antistokes signals were directed to monochrometer entrance slit by prism . The signals are detected by photomultiplier detector which is fixed on the exit slit and connected to data acquisition card located inside the computed case. The dye laser frequency has to be tuned to satisfy the energy difference between the ν 1 beam (Nd- YAG laser beam) and the ν 2 beam (the stokes beam or the dye laser beam) exactly corresponds to a vibrational - rotational Raman resonance (ν 2 - ν 1 = ν M ) in the 12 CO 2 or 13 CO 2 molecule, then the antistokes signals (ν 3 ) will be generated. The spectra of the CARS signals have been recorded to determine the isotope shift of 12 CO 2 , 13 CO 2 , which is 18.3 cm -1 . (author)

  11. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) contaminated well cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    In support of past operations, railcars were used to ship irradiated fuel from the 100 Area fuel storage basins to the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility. There are two configurations for the packaging systems that transported the fuel: the Three-Well Cask Car, which is outfitted with three casks, and the taller, single well, New Production Reactor (NPR) Cask Car. In this document, these cask cars are referred to collectively as well cars. The purpose of this document is to evaluate and authorize the onsite transportation of well cars that contain significant levels of contamination. No irradiated fuel will be transported in the well cars. Neutron detection data confirmed that the well cars do not contain fuel. The intention is to move 14 retired well cars from their current locations in the 100 Area to a suitable storage location in the 200 Area. Each well car contains Type B quantities of radioactivity; so that the hazard of the transport operation is relatively low. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the contaminated well cars meet the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for Hazardous Material Shipments for an onsite packaging. The scope of this document addresses the preparation and transportation of the contaminated well cars

  12. Establishing guidelines for CAR-T cells: challenges and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Di-Yuan; Zhang, Bing-Lan; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-04-01

    T cells, genetically modified by chimeric antigen receptors (CAR-T), are endowed with specificity to a desired antigen and are cytotoxic to cells expressing the targeted antigen. CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy is a promising therapy for curing hematological malignancy, such as acute lymphoid leukemia, and is promising for extending their efficacy to defeat solid tumors. To date, dozens of different CAR-T cells have been evaluated in clinical trials to treat tumors; this necessitates the establishment of guidelines for the production and application of CAR-T cells. However, it is challenging to standardize CAR-T cancer therapy because it involves a combination of gene therapy and cell therapy. In this review, we compare the existing guidelines for CAR-T cells and discuss the challenges and considerations for establishing guidance for CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy.

  13. CARS 2009. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The CARS 2009 proceedings include contributions and poster sessions concerning different conferences and workshops: computer assisted radiology, 23rd international congress and exhibition, CARS clinical day, 13th annual conference of the international society for computer aided surgery, 10th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, 11th international workshop on computer-aided diagnosis, 15th computed maxillofacial imaging congress, CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery, 1st EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT, JICARS - Japanese institutes of CARS, 1st EuroNotes/CTAC/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge, 13th annual conference for computer aided surgery, 27th international EuroPACS meeting.

  14. CHANGE TRENDS IN THE USE OF PASSENGER CARS ON URBAN TRIPS: CAR-POOLING IN GDYNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna HEBEL

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide accessibility of European citizens to cars results in problems caused by their excessive use as a means of urban transport. Given this situation, it is necessary to find new solutions for the more efficient use of passenger cars in cities. This problem affects almost all European cities, including those in Poland. The paper analyses the level of motorization and modal split in Polish cities with county status, while selected European cities serve as a background to determine the scale of the problem. In the search of solutions in relation to Poland, an analysis of different documents outlining the directions of urban mobility was conducted. One of these documents concerned the promotion of car-pooling, the history of which dates back to the Second World War and the 1950s. Initially introduced in the USA, its increasing development in European cities has been witnessed in recent years. Research on the evaluation of real car-pooling in Polish cities was conducted in Gdynia by the authors of this study. The results of marketing research presented in the article have determined the degree to which participants in urban mobility are inclined to take part in car-pooling schemes in Polish cities.

  15. 49 CFR 210.9 - Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. 210.9 Section 210.9 Transportation Other Regulations... locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. A locomotive, rail car, or consist of a...

  16. External exposure dose of car mechanics during the maintenance of the cars from the risk cautionary area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Hiroto; Yamada, Norikazu; Sasaki, Satoru; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2011-12-01

    At the request of the Local Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters, JNES has estimated the effective external exposure dose of car mechanics during the maintenance of the cars from the risk cautionary area. JNES investigated the contamination of the cars from the risk cautionary area and of the average cars at Fukushima city cooperated by the Japan Automobile Dealers Association. Data of screed cars by the Local Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters is also considered in. Effective external exposure dose of car mechanics treating the cars screened with the emergency situation screening level is estimated to be less than 1 mSv/y under the conservative conditions. This result shows that particular health concern isn't necessary for them. (author)

  17. ADULTEROUS BEHAVIOUR WITHIN THE CAR-OWNER COUPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis PAPON

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to analyse two activities: who rents a car and why? Which households share the driving of their cars? In order to do that, the Parc-Auto (Car-Fleet database, built from annual postal surveys conducted with a panel of 10,000 French households, has been processed. Among approximately one hundred questions in the survey, two key questions have been crossed against many social, economic, demographic, geographic or time variables. KQ1: “During the last 12 months, did you — or another person from your home — rent a car in France for personal purposes?” KQ2: “Is this car occasionally used by other persons?” Here are the main findings. Renting households are mainly working, high income households, living in the core of big cities, and in particular in Paris. Most of them have two wage-sheets and two cars, one of which is generally a recent, high power, high quality car. Car rental is mainly an occasional practice. Yet for a minority of renters, it is a sustained habit. Households with more licence holders than cars share the most: about three quarters of them share their cars. On the contrary, single driver-single car households have less opportunity to share: only 15% share. Household car sharing shed light on the gender role within households: while 58% of the main users of the shared cars are male, 55% of secondary users are female. Household car sharing is mainly a regular practice. Finally, without diminishing the merits of innovative transport solutions proposed here and there, it is not a waste of time to give some insight on self established behaviour within households. This reveals that complex patterns have been built over time by the people themselves, to cope with diverse situations that cannot be easily handled by straightforward classifications. The car cannot be reduced to a personal object. Household car sharing also carries strong links with the issue of car dependency. Sifting car

  18. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandzha S.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric machine. The machine was modeled using Solidworks program for creating design and Maxwell program for the magnetic field analysis. The result of tests is shown as well.

  19. 10 Years of Car-2-X Communication - a Success Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischhof, Lars; Ebner, André

    2012-05-01

    For more than ten years, car-2-x communication has been a major topic of research in the scientific community and an important development focus for the automotive industry. First, this article takes a retrospective look at the evolution of car-2-x and the two different communication paradigms: decentralized car-2-car communication and centralized cellular solutions. Afterwards, a comparison of their technical advantages and limitations is presented, respectively. The result shows that in order to implement safety-relevant applications, car-2-car communication has strong advantages compared to cellular technologies but requires high market penetration. However, its introduction solely for safety applications is difficult since the required penetration will not be achieved until several years after initial deployment. Therefore, car-2-car communication must provide a benefit to the customer, even in the phase of market introduction. For this purpose, the article outlines an approach called SODAD (Segment-Oriented Data Abstraction and Dissemination). It offers a possibility to introduce decentralized vehicular applications with early customer benefit, in order to enable safety applications based on car-2-car communication on a long term.

  20. Electric cars: technical characteristics and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmers, Eckard; Marx, Patrick [Trier University of Applied Sciences, Birkenfeld (Germany). Institut fuer Angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement (IfaS)

    2012-12-15

    Electric vehicles have been identified as being a key technology in reducing future emissions and energy consumption in the mobility sector. The focus of this article is to review and assess the energy efficiency and the environmental impact of battery electric cars (BEV), which is the only technical alternative on the market available today to vehicles with internal combustion engine (ICEV). Electricity onboard a car can be provided either by a battery or a fuel cell (FCV). The technical structure of BEV is described, clarifying that it is relatively simple compared to ICEV. Following that, ICEV can be 'e-converted' by experienced personnel. Such an e-conversion project generated reality-close data reported here. Practicability of today's BEV is discussed, revealing that particularly small-size BEVs are useful. This article reports on an e-conversion of a used Smart. Measurements on this car, prior and after conversion, confirmed a fourfold energy efficiency advantage of BEV over ICEV, as supposed in literature. Preliminary energy efficiency data of FCV are reviewed being only slightly lower compared to BEV. However, well-to-wheel efficiency suffers from 47% to 63% energy loss during hydrogen production. With respect to energy efficiency, BEVs are found to represent the only alternative to ICEV. This, however, is only true if the electricity is provided by very efficient power plants or better by renewable energy production. Literature data on energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission by ICEV compared to BEV suffer from a 25% underestimation of ICEV-standardized driving cycle numbers in relation to street conditions so far. Literature data available for BEV, on the other hand, were mostly modeled and based on relatively heavy BEV as well as driving conditions, which do not represent the most useful field of BEV operation. Literature data have been compared with measurements based on the converted Smart, revealing a distinct GHG emissions

  1. Concept Car Design and Ability Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jiefeng; Lu, Hairong

    The concept design as a symbol of creative design thinking, reflecting on the future design of exploratory and prospective, as a vehicle to explore the notion of future car design, design inspiration and creativity is not only a bold display, more through demonstrate the concept, reflects the company's technological strength and technological progress, and thus enhance their brand image. Present Chinese automobile design also has a very big disparity with world level, through cultivating students' concept design ability, to establish native design features and self-reliant brand image is practical and effective ways, also be necessary and pressing.

  2. Creative use of plastics in cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    The increasing use being made of plastics in vehicle construction is due to the concerted efforts made to apply the results of research and development work on raw materials and use these for large-scale production. This is important, since material costs account for more than 50% of production costs. In new and important areas however, car developers are lagging behind or are proposing solutions hardly likely to effect a real breakthrough. People should get out of this rut. What we need is innovation and creativity - and this is also the slogan of the 1984 Annual Conference on April 4 and 5 at Mannheim.

  3. Wireless vehicular networks for car collision avoidance

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Vehicular Networks for Car Collision Avoidance focuses on the development of the ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) in order to minimize vehicular accidents. The book presents and analyses a range of concrete accident scenarios while examining the causes of vehicular collision and proposing countermeasures based on wireless vehicular networks. The book also describes the vehicular network standards and quality of service mechanisms focusing on improving critical dissemination of safety information. With recommendations on techniques and protocols to consider when improving road safety policies in order to minimize crashes and collision risks.

  4. Dealing with dirt : servicing and repairing cars.

    OpenAIRE

    Dant, Tim; Bowles, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the significance of dirt in the work of technicians who service and repair private cars. Rather than being useful in understanding how dirt is dealt with, the historical and anthropological analyses of dirt are shown to be overly concerned with cultural significance and the idea that dirt is no more than ‘matter out of place’. Such accounts suppress the more common sense approach that dirt is unpleasant to human beings and is to be avoided if possible. In work such as gara...

  5. Fuel Savings and Aerodynamic Drag Reduction from Rail Car Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Bruce; Salari, Kambiz; Babb, Alex

    2008-01-01

    The potential for energy savings by reducing the aerodynamic drag of rail cars is significant. A previous study of aerodynamic drag of coal cars suggests that a 25% reduction in drag of empty cars would correspond to a 5% fuel savings for a round trip [1]. Rail statistics for the United States [2] report that approximately 5.7 billion liters of diesel fuel were consumed for coal transportation in 2002, so a 5% fuel savings would total 284 million liters. This corresponds to 2% of Class I railroad fuel consumption nationwide. As part of a DOE-sponsored study, the aerodynamic drag of scale rail cars was measured in a wind tunnel. The goal of the study was to measure the drag reduction of various rail-car cover designs. The cover designs tested yielded an average drag reduction of 43% relative to empty cars corresponding to an estimated round-trip fuel savings of 9%.

  6. Modelling of Fire in an Open Car Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Timea; Dederichs, Anne Simone; Giuliani, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Steel car parks exhibit high vulnerability to fire, as a consequence of the degradation of the steel mechanical properties at high temperatures and of the combustible type and amount. Real fire accidents in open car parks demonstrated a much faster and extended fire spread than predictions......, assuming that a fire spread rate of 12 min and consider at most 3-4 vehicles on fire at the same time. Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS) is applied in this current paper to study fire spread between cars. The outcomes of the investigations show that the fire spread is strongly influenced by the geometrical...... layout and that the distance between cars plays a determinant role on the fire spread rate and ignition of adjacent cars. In particular it was found that the fire spread can be faster than 12 minutes in the case of the cars parked 40 and 60 cm from each other....

  7. A FPGA Implementation of the CAR-FAC Cochlear Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a digital implementation of the Cascade of Asymmetric Resonators with Fast-Acting Compression (CAR-FAC cochlear model. The CAR part simulates the basilar membrane's (BM response to sound. The FAC part models the outer hair cell (OHC, the inner hair cell (IHC, and the medial olivocochlear efferent system functions. The FAC feeds back to the CAR by moving the poles and zeros of the CAR resonators automatically. We have implemented a 70-section, 44.1 kHz sampling rate CAR-FAC system on an Altera Cyclone V Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA with 18% ALM utilization by using time-multiplexing and pipeline parallelizing techniques and present measurement results here. The fully digital reconfigurable CAR-FAC system is stable, scalable, easy to use, and provides an excellent input stage to more complex machine hearing tasks such as sound localization, sound segregation, speech recognition, and so on.

  8. A FPGA Implementation of the CAR-FAC Cochlear Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Thakur, Chetan S; Singh, Ram K; Hamilton, Tara Julia; Wang, Runchun M; van Schaik, André

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a digital implementation of the Cascade of Asymmetric Resonators with Fast-Acting Compression (CAR-FAC) cochlear model. The CAR part simulates the basilar membrane's (BM) response to sound. The FAC part models the outer hair cell (OHC), the inner hair cell (IHC), and the medial olivocochlear efferent system functions. The FAC feeds back to the CAR by moving the poles and zeros of the CAR resonators automatically. We have implemented a 70-section, 44.1 kHz sampling rate CAR-FAC system on an Altera Cyclone V Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with 18% ALM utilization by using time-multiplexing and pipeline parallelizing techniques and present measurement results here. The fully digital reconfigurable CAR-FAC system is stable, scalable, easy to use, and provides an excellent input stage to more complex machine hearing tasks such as sound localization, sound segregation, speech recognition, and so on.

  9. Automobile scrap regulation. Give-away presents. Polluting cars and trade-in for cleaner cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annema, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    A scrap regulation for old vehicles has been in place in the Netherlands for almost one year now. Has it been an effective instrument? What are the societal costs and benefits? Is it a fair regulation? Was it a good idea to introduce the car scrap regulation? The answer to all these questions is: doubtful. [nl

  10. Running performance of racing solar car; Kyogiyo solar car no soko seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, H [Osaka Sangyo Univ., Osaka (Japan); Ando, Y

    1997-11-25

    The paper reported on `96 World Solar Challenge which is a solar car race traveling a total of 3010km from Darwin to Adelaide of the Australian continent. We accomplished running with general cars on general roads at mean speed of 60.3km/h for 6 days. To reduce vehicle weight, the monocock structure honeycombed with carbon fiber and aramid was adopted to the whole vehicle, and a light alloy to driving system parts. To reduce air resistance, adopted were reduction in the front projection area and the smooth body form. The required power is 44.8 kWh, and the power consumption ratio during travel is very high, approximately 67 km/kWh. In the travel of solar car in the unstable weather, dependence upon battery becomes higher, and therefore the battery capacity of 3.5 kWh with which the car was loaded is small, which resulted in affecting the race totally. To predict the travel in the race and determine the travel method, needed are collection and management of realtime and accurate travel data. The measuring management system developed this time together with the vehicle was applicable to the actual race and high in practicality. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. CarSim: Automatic 3D Scene Generation of a Car Accident Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egges, A.; Nijholt, A.; Nugues, P.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of generating a 3D simulation of a car accident from a written description can be divided into two subtasks: the linguistic analysis and the virtual scene generation. As a means of communication between these two system parts, we designed a template formalism to represent a written

  12. Lateral car collisions : characteristics of lateral car collisions based on SWOV accident investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1979-01-01

    During 1976 and part of 1977 the Dutch institute for road safety research SWOV carried out the field work for an accident study involving passenger cars. The purpose of this crash injury investigation was to evaluate the influence of relevant crash safety factors (like safety belts and head

  13. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... from a train or when placed on a shop or repair track, as defined in § 232.303(a); (2) A car is on a shop or repair track, as defined in § 232.303(a), for any reason and has not received a single car air... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232...

  14. Coefficient of restitution of model repaired car body parts

    OpenAIRE

    D. Hadryś; M. Miros

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The qualification of influence of model repaired car body parts on the value of coefficient of restitution and evaluation of impact energy absorption of model repaired car body parts.Design/methodology/approach: Investigation of plastic strain and coefficient of restitution of new and repaired model car body parts with using impact test machine for different impact energy.Findings: The results of investigations show that the value of coefficient of restitution changes with speed (ene...

  15. Direction and Policies Needed to Support Hybrid Electric Car Research

    OpenAIRE

    Subekti, Ridwan Arief; Hartanto, Agus; Susanti, Vita

    2012-01-01

    The rising number of vehicles over the years has driven the increase of air pollution and fuel consumption. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is using hybrid electric car because it is environmentally friendly and efficient in fuel consumption. LIPI has conducted electric car research since 1997, but there were so many problems in its development that electric car can not be developed into a national industry scale. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study that maps the probl...

  16. IMPLEMENTATION OF IMAGE PROCESSING IN REAL TIME CAR PARKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    SAYANTI BANERJEE,; PALLAVI CHOUDEKAR,; M.K.MUJU

    2011-01-01

    Car parking lots are an important object class in many traffic and civilian applications. With the problems of increasing urban trafficcongestion and the ever increasing shortage of space, these car parking lots are needed to be well equipped with automatic parkingInformation and Guidance systems. Goals of intelligent parking lot management include counting the number of parked cars, and identifyingthe available location. This work proposes a new system for providing parking information and g...

  17. Vibrations of a delivery car excited by railway track crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litak, Grzegorz; Borowiec, Marek; Hunicz, Jacek; Koszalka, Grzegorz; Niewczas, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Vertical vibrations of a delivery car passing through railway tracks have been investigated in this paper. The application of recurrence plots allows to examine short time series of acceleration non-stationary courses. Recurrence quantification analysis and square deviations estimated in small windows have been used to monitor car vibrations and transient behaviour. Measuring acceleration on the 'sprung' and 'unsprung' masses of a vehicle has enabled also to test the quality of a car suspension.

  18. 19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage arriving in baggage car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Baggage arriving in baggage car. 123.61 Section... car. An inward foreign manifest on Customs Form 7533 shall be used for all baggage arriving in baggage cars. [T.D. 70-121, 35 FR 8215, May 26, 1970, as amended by T.D. 82-145, 47 FR 35478, Aug. 16, 1982] ...

  19. An Automatic Car Counting System Using OverFeat Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Debojit; Su, Hongbo; Wang, Chengyi; Blankenship, Jason; Stevanovic, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Automatic car counting is an important component in the automated traffic system. Car counting is very important to understand the traffic load and optimize the traffic signals. In this paper, we implemented the Gaussian Background Subtraction Method and OverFeat Framework to count cars. OverFeat Framework is a combination of Convolution Neural Network (CNN) and one machine learning classifier (like Support Vector Machines (SVM) or Logistic Regression). With this study, we showed another poss...

  20. Prototipe Critting Badot (Car Security System Monitoring Based On STNK)

    OpenAIRE

    Nasruloh, Agan; Kurniawan, Deny; Subekti, Massus

    2017-01-01

    The crime of burglary vehicle accompanied also by forgery vehicle registration certificate of vehicle number.For it, needed CRITING BADOT (Car Security System Monitoring Based On Stnk), an apparatus capable of preventing motor vehicle theft by means of technology RFID and SMS Gateway, blends the ignition and vehicle registration into a single entity, change the key of the car being contact id card, capable of being on the monitoring of the position the car.This tool requires the driver to be ...

  1. Car and motorcycle deaths: an evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís dos Santos Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract Our aim was to assess differences between men and women in the likelihood of exposure to traffic as drivers of cars and motorcycles, and in the risk of dying from a car or a motorcycle crash, in order to verify the extent to which Darwin's Sexual Selection Theory could have predicted the findings and can help to interpret them. Study population was composed of men and women aged 18 to 60 years residents in the state of Rio de Janeiro between 2004 and 2010, and in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 2001 and 2010. We built frequency distribution tables and drew bar charts in order to check whether there were differences between the sexes and interactions of sex with age. More men exposed themselves to and died in traffic than women, especially the young. Society should have an especially vigilant attitude towards men on the wheel due to their increased innate tendency to exposure to risk. Darwin's sexual selection theory can be an important ally when postulating hypotheses and interpreting epidemiological findings aiming at improving public policies to reduce the excessive number of traffic deaths, especially in societies where machismo is strong or the stimulus to masculinity is exaggerated.

  2. Car and motorcycle deaths: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, André Luís Dos Santos; Nadanovsky, Paulo

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to assess differences between men and women in the likelihood of exposure to traffic as drivers of cars and motorcycles, and in the risk of dying from a car or a motorcycle crash, in order to verify the extent to which Darwin's Sexual Selection Theory could have predicted the findings and can help to interpret them. Study population was composed of men and women aged 18 to 60 years residents in the state of Rio de Janeiro between 2004 and 2010, and in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 2001 and 2010. We built frequency distribution tables and drew bar charts in order to check whether there were differences between the sexes and interactions of sex with age. More men exposed themselves to and died in traffic than women, especially the young. Society should have an especially vigilant attitude towards men on the wheel due to their increased innate tendency to exposure to risk. Darwin's sexual selection theory can be an important ally when postulating hypotheses and interpreting epidemiological findings aiming at improving public policies to reduce the excessive number of traffic deaths, especially in societies where machismo is strong or the stimulus to masculinity is exaggerated.

  3. Product declaration for cars; Warendeklaration fuer Personenwagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruetter, J.M.

    2000-07-01

    This reports for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the possible ways of declaring product information on cars. The basic elements of such a declaration are discussed and a recommendation for an energy label for cars is presented. The report discusses the fundamental questions posed such as how long a label should be valid, if comparisons should be made and if it is to be based on CO{sub 2}-emissions or on fuel consumption. Also, the criteria to be used for comparisons - such as vehicle weight, size or power - are looked at and methods of classification are examined along with data fundamentals. Further, the expectations placed on the product declarations with respect to their energetic and economic impact are discussed. The design of the label and the legislature on which it is based are discussed and initial reactions of the automobile industry are noted. The report is rounded off by a discussion of the effects of the declaration in relation to other instruments that have been proposed.

  4. Thermal modelling of a torpedo-car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdeja-Gonzalez, L. F.; Barbes-Fernandez, M. F.; Gonzalez-Ojeda, R.; Castillo, G. A.; Colas, R.

    2005-07-01

    A two-dimensional finite element model for computing the temperature distribution in a torpedo-car holding pig iron is described in this work. The model determines the temperature gradients in steady and transient conditions whiting the different parts that constitute the systems, which are considered to be the steel casing, refractory lining, liquid iron, slag and air. Heat transfer within the main fluid phases (iron and air) is computed assuming an apparent thermal conductivity term incorporating the contribution from convention and radiation, and it is affected by the dimensions of the vessel. Thermal gradients within the constituents of the torpedo-car are used to calculate heat losses during operation. It was found that the model required the incorporate of a region within the iron-refractory interface to reproduce thermographic data recorded during operation; the heat transfer coefficient of this interface was found to be equal to 30 Wm''-2K''-1. (Author) 11 refs.

  5. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  6. Ortho-aminoazotoluene activates mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) and increases expression of mCAR target genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetanina, Mariya A.; Pakharukova, Mariya Y.; Kurinna, Svitlana M.; Dong, Bingning; Hernandez, Juan P.; Moore, David D.; Merkulova, Tatyana I.

    2011-01-01

    2'-3-dimethyl-4-aminoazobenzene (ortho-aminoazotoluene, OAT) is an azo dye and a rodent carcinogen that has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a possible (class 2B) human carcinogen. Its mechanism of action remains unclear. We examined the role of the xenobiotic receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a mediator of the effects of OAT. We found that OAT increases mouse CAR (mCAR) transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is specific because another closely related azo dye, 3'-methyl-4-dimethyl-aminoazobenzene (3'MeDAB), did not activate mCAR. Real-time Q-PCR analysis in wild-type C57BL/6 mice revealed that OAT induces the hepatic mRNA expression of the following CAR target genes: Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11, Ugt1a1, Mrp4, Mrp2 and c-Myc. CAR-null (Car -/- ) mice showed no increased expression of these genes following OAT treatment, demonstrating that CAR is required for their OAT dependent induction. The OAT-induced CAR-dependent increase of Cyp2b10 and c-Myc expression was confirmed by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry analysis of wild-type and Car -/- livers showed that OAT did not acutely induce hepatocyte proliferation, but at much later time points showed an unexpected CAR-dependent proliferative response. These studies demonstrate that mCAR is an OAT xenosensor, and indicate that at least some of the biological effects of this compound are mediated by this nuclear receptor. - Highlights: → The azo dye and mouse carcinogen OAT is a very effective mCAR activator. → OAT increases mCAR transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. → OAT CAR-dependently increases the expression of a specific subset of CAR target genes. → OAT induces an unexpectedly deferred, but CAR-dependent hepatocyte proliferation.

  7. Comparative analysis of used car price evaluation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuancan; Hao, Lulu; Xu, Cong

    2017-05-01

    An accurate used car price evaluation is a catalyst for the healthy development of used car market. Data mining has been applied to predict used car price in several articles. However, little is studied on the comparison of using different algorithms in used car price estimation. This paper collects more than 100,000 used car dealing records throughout China to do empirical analysis on a thorough comparison of two algorithms: linear regression and random forest. These two algorithms are used to predict used car price in three different models: model for a certain car make, model for a certain car series and universal model. Results show that random forest has a stable but not ideal effect in price evaluation model for a certain car make, but it shows great advantage in the universal model compared with linear regression. This indicates that random forest is an optimal algorithm when handling complex models with a large number of variables and samples, yet it shows no obvious advantage when coping with simple models with less variables.

  8. Analysis of Flexible Car Body of Straddle Monorail Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuanmu

    2018-03-01

    Based on the finite element model of straddle monorail vehicle, a rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model considering vehicle body’s flexibility is established. The influence of vertical stiffness and vertical damping of the running wheel on the modal parameters of the car body is analyzed. The effect of flexible car body on modal parameters and vehicle ride quality is also studied. The results show that when the vertical stiffness of running wheel is less than 1 MN / m, the car body bounce and pitch frequency increase with the increasing of the vertical stiffness of the running wheel, when the running wheel vertical stiffness is 1MN / m or more, car body bounce and pitch frequency remained unchanged; When the vertical stiffness of the running wheel is below 1.8 MN / m, the vehicle body bounce and pitch damping ratio increase with the increasing of the vertical stiffness of the running wheel; When the running wheel vertical stiffness is 1.8MN / m or more, the car body bounce and pitch damping ratio remained unchanged; The running wheel vertical damping on the car body bounce and pitch frequency has no effect; Car body bounce and pitch damping ratio increase with the increasing of the vertical damping of the running wheel. The flexibility of the car body has no effect on the modal parameters of the car, which will improve the vehicle ride quality index.

  9. Autonomous Car Parking System through a Cooperative Vehicular Positioning Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Alejandro; Boquet, Guillem; Morell, Antoni; Lopez Vicario, Jose

    2017-04-13

    The increasing development of the automotive industry towards a fully autonomous car has motivated the design of new value-added services in Vehicular Sensor Networks (VSNs). Within the context of VSNs, the autonomous car, with an increasing number of on-board sensors, is a mobile node that exchanges sensed and state information within the VSN. Among all the value added services for VSNs, the design of new intelligent parking management architectures where the autonomous car will coexist with traditional cars is mandatory in order to profit from all the opportunities associated with the increasing intelligence of the new generation of cars. In this work, we design a new smart parking system on top of a VSN that takes into account the heterogeneity of cars and provides guidance to the best parking place for the autonomous car based on a collaborative approach that searches for the common good of all of them measured by the accessibility rate, which is the ratio of the free parking places accessible for an autonomous car. Then, we simulate a real parking lot and the results show that the performance of our system is close to the optimum considering different communication ranges and penetration rates for the autonomous car.

  10. A Critical Analysis of Rational & Emotional Approaches in Car Selling

    OpenAIRE

    Krishn A. Goyal; A. Sadasivam

    2010-01-01

    A well known fact is that investment in a Car is the costliest investment made in a life time only next to construction of a house, for any human being. It is a common knowledge that all of us are attracted towards cars right from childhood and we have developed our own perceptions for cars. When we acquire the capacity to buy cars, our experience of buying, involves both emotional and rational aspects which lead to a purchase decision. Unlike other consumable durables, the decision to buy sp...

  11. Autonomous Car Parking System through a Cooperative Vehicular Positioning Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Alejandro; Boquet, Guillem; Morell, Antoni; Lopez Vicario, Jose

    2017-01-01

    The increasing development of the automotive industry towards a fully autonomous car has motivated the design of new value-added services in Vehicular Sensor Networks (VSNs). Within the context of VSNs, the autonomous car, with an increasing number of on-board sensors, is a mobile node that exchanges sensed and state information within the VSN. Among all the value added services for VSNs, the design of new intelligent parking management architectures where the autonomous car will coexist with traditional cars is mandatory in order to profit from all the opportunities associated with the increasing intelligence of the new generation of cars. In this work, we design a new smart parking system on top of a VSN that takes into account the heterogeneity of cars and provides guidance to the best parking place for the autonomous car based on a collaborative approach that searches for the common good of all of them measured by the accessibility rate, which is the ratio of the free parking places accessible for an autonomous car. Then, we simulate a real parking lot and the results show that the performance of our system is close to the optimum considering different communication ranges and penetration rates for the autonomous car. PMID:28406426

  12. Modelling future private car energy demand in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Hannah E.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted measures influencing vehicle technology are increasingly a tool of energy policy makers within the EU as a means of meeting energy efficiency, renewable energy, climate change and energy security goals. This paper develops the modelling capacity for analysing and evaluating such legislation, with a focus on private car energy demand. We populate a baseline car stock and car activity model for Ireland to 2025 using historical car stock data. The model takes account of the lifetime survival profile of different car types, the trends in vehicle activity over the fleet and the fuel price and income elasticities of new car sales and total fleet activity. The impacts of many policy alternatives may only be simulated by such a bottom-up approach, which can aid policy development and evaluation. The level of detail achieved provides specific insights into the technological drivers of energy consumption, thus aiding planning for meeting climate targets. This paper focuses on the methodology and baseline scenario. Baseline results for Ireland forecast a decline in private car energy demand growth (0.2%, compared with 4% in the period 2000–2008), caused by the relative growth in fleet efficiency compared with activity. - Highlights: ► Bottom-up private car energy forecasting model developed. ► The demographic and technological distribution of vehicle activity is a key veriable. ► Irish car energy demand growth predicted to slow steadily. ► Change in vehicle taxation forecast to save 10% energy.

  13. Levels of house dust mite allergen in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Howard J; Smith, Ian; Anua, Siti Marwanis; Tagiyeva, Nargiz; Semple, Sean; Devereux, Graham

    2015-09-01

    This small study investigated house dust mite (HDM) allergen levels in cars and their owners' homes in north-east Scotland. Dust samples from twelve households and cars were collected in a standardised manner. The dust samples were extracted and measured for the Dermatophagoides group 2 allergens (Der p 2 and Der f 2) and total soluble protein. Allergen levels at homes tended to be higher than in the cars, but not significantly. However, they significantly correlated with paired car dust samples expressed either per unit weight of dust or soluble protein (rho=0.657; p=0.02 and 0.769; p=0.003, respectively). This points to house-to-car allergen transfer, with the car allergen levels largely reflecting levels in the owner's home. Car HDM allergen levels were lower than those reported in Brazil and the USA. Twenty-five percent of the houses and none of the cars had allergen levels in dust greater than 2000 ng g(-1). This value is often quoted as a threshold for the risk of sensitisation, although a number of studies report increased risk of sensitisation at lower levels. This small study does not allow for characterisation of the distribution of HDM allergen in vehicles in this geographic area, or of the likely levels in other warmer and more humid areas of the UK. Cars and other vehicles are an under-investigated micro-environment for exposure to allergenic material.

  14. Comfortable car interiors: Experiments as a basis for car interior design contributing to the pleasure of the driver and passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Kamp, I.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges for car manufacturers is complying with the stringent environmental regulations without compromising driving comfort and pleasure. Reducing the overall weight of a car reduces fuel consumption and increases acceleration. However weight reduction seems in contradiction with another important aspect of car-sales; comfort. In this PhD thesis five experiments are presented proving that weight reduction and comfort improvement can go hand in hand. In these studies specif...

  15. DISTRIBUTED EXTERNAL SURFACE HARDENING OF CAR DESIGN BY WINDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Fomin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper involves coverage of features and results of the research conducted by the authors to determine the feasibility and establishment of pre-stressed-strained state of freight cars by winding in order to improve their strength characteristics. It is also necessary to present the theoretical justification for the effectiveness of the application of this method for car designs and an appropriate example for the tank-car. Methodology. The conducted study is based on an analysis of known works on the subject, mathematical justification and computer modeling. At the calculations of rolling stock components contemporary conventional techniques were used. Findings. Authors found that the winding method for pre-stressed-strained state is effective and appropriate for use in the construction of railway rolling stock and, in particular freight cars. Freight car designs with the pre-stressed-strained state are characterized by a number of strength advantages, among which there is an improvement of the work on the perception of operational loads and resource conservation. Originality. For the first time it is proposed the improvement of bearing capacity of freight car constructions through the creation of its component in the directed stress-strained state. It is also for the first time proposed the use of distributed external surface hardening by the method of winding to create a pre-stress-strained state of structural components of freight cars. The methods for winding designs of freight cars and their implementation were considered. Practical value. The studies developed a number of technical solutions for improving the design of freight cars and tank-container, which has been patented. Corresponding solutions for the tank-car are partially presented. Practical implementation of such solutions will significantly improve the technical, economic and operational performances of car designs.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF GONDOLA CARS ON PERSPECTIVE BOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In this paper, it is necessary to examine the dynamic properties of the gondola car with bogies, model 18-1711 when it moves on straight and curved sections of a track. Methodology. The calculations were performed using the object-oriented programming on the program "Dynamics of Rail Vehicles" ("DYNRAIL" Myamlin S.V. registered 20.03.2003. Mathematical models of a gondola car and bogies 18-100 and 18-711 were created for the calculations. Findings. Dynamic performances comparison of the gondola car with bogies 18-1711 and the gondola car with bogies 18-100, obtained by calculation method was carried out. Originality. Firstly calculations in order to determine the dynamic properties of the gondola car with bogies 18-1711 when it moves on straight and curved sections of track were performed. At the same time an assessment of the dynamic characteristics of the gondola car was made. The following dynamic standards were determined: the coefficient of vertical dynamics (Cdv, the coefficient of horizontal dynamics (Cdh, and the safety factor against derailment (SFd. Track irregularities in vertical and horizontal transverse planes were assigned as perturbations. They should be so that the dynamic indexes of the widely used in operation gondola car on bogies model 18-100 keep in admissible range of speeds up to 80km / h for the empty gondola car and at speeds up to 90km / h for the loaded gondola cars. Practical value. As a result of the calculations and comparisons of their results, we have findings that the use of bogies with bilinear characteristic of the central suspension will improve the dynamic performances of gondola cars, currently operating on bogies, model 18-100. And by improving the dynamic performances it is possible to increase the permissible speeds of these cars motion.

  17. 49 CFR 179.4 - Changes in specifications for tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes in specifications for tank cars. 179.4... TANK CARS Introduction, Approvals and Reports § 179.4 Changes in specifications for tank cars. (a...—Tank Car Safety, AAR, for consideration by its Tank Car Committee. An application for construction of...

  18. Ellipsoidal fuzzy learning for smart car platoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Julie A.; Kosko, Bart

    1993-12-01

    A neural-fuzzy system combined supervised and unsupervised learning to find and tune the fuzzy-rules. An additive fuzzy system approximates a function by covering its graph with fuzzy rules. A fuzzy rule patch can take the form of an ellipsoid in the input-output space. Unsupervised competitive learning found the statistics of data clusters. The covariance matrix of each synaptic quantization vector defined on ellipsoid centered at the centroid of the data cluster. Tightly clustered data gave smaller ellipsoids or more certain rules. Sparse data gave larger ellipsoids or less certain rules. Supervised learning tuned the ellipsoids to improve the approximation. The supervised neural system used gradient descent to find the ellipsoidal fuzzy patches. It locally minimized the mean-squared error of the fuzzy approximation. Hybrid ellipsoidal learning estimated the control surface for a smart car controller.

  19. Tickover speed controller for car engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, R L

    1980-05-22

    In general, the tickover speed of a car engine is made sufficiently high, in order to permit an assumed maximum load to be taken from the engine at tickover. This setting of the tickover speed is usually done by stops in the fuel supply. Matching the actual load would lead to lower fuel consumption, without any danger of the engine stalling. The purpose of the invention is to provide a tickover speed controller, so that the tickover speed is adjusted by electronic control equipment, independently of the machine load. The fuel consumption on tickover is reduced and the emission of noxious substances is decreased. The electro-magnetic control of the throttle valve tickover setting is explained by extensive section drawings of the system. This process dispenses with the special tickover cams for a cold start.

  20. Policies towards a more efficient car fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandell, Svante

    2009-01-01

    Transportation within the EU, as in most of the industrialized world, shows an increasing trend in CO 2 emissions. This calls for measures to decrease the amount of transportation but also to increase the efficiency in the vehicle fleet. To achieve this, numerous policy measures are available, all of which targets the agents in the economy in various ways. Policy makers thus face a highly complex task. The present paper aims at providing a simple and transparent analytical model that illustrates how different policy measures address different parts of an interlinked system, which determines the composition of the future car fleet. Apart from being simple, and thereby providing an intuitive framework, the model provides important lessons for policy design, e.g., through highlighting the difference between initial responses to policies and the outcome in equilibrium both in the short and the long run.

  1. Sound design for diesel passenger cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belluscio, Michele; Ruotolo, Romualdo [GM Powertrain Europe, Torino (Italy); Schoenherr, Christian; Schuster, Guenter [GM Europe, Ruesselsheim (Germany); Eisele, Georg; Genender, Peter; Wolff, Klaus; Van Keymeulen, Johan [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    With the growing market contribution of diesel passenger cars in Europe, it becomes more important to create a brand and market segment specific vehicle sound. Beside the usually considered pleasantness related topics like diesel knocking and high noise excitation, it is important to fulfil also the requirements regarding a dynamic vehicle impression. This impression is mainly influenced by the load dependency of the engine induced noise, which is reduced for diesel engines due to the missing throttle valve and the damping effect of the turbocharger and the diesel particulate filter. By means of a detailed noise transfer path analysis the contribution with dynamic potential can be identified. Furthermore the load dependency itself of a certain noise contribution can be strengthened, which allows for a dynamic sound character comparable to sporty gasoline vehicles. (orig.)

  2. SENSITIVITY EVALUATION OF THE ELECTRONIC CAR SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz KĄDZIOŁKA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During every day activities related with performed work or homework duties we meet a lot of equipment and we don't realize about their complex construction. This can be different type of equipment making every day work easier, such as food processors, dishwashers, ecologic furnaces, gas stoves or mechanisms, which are intended for protection against rain, which are personal umbrellas or devices ensuring higher safety such as ABS in a car or equipment used for measuring different values such as thermometers, barometers and finally scales. Scales due to performed tasks should be rated to measuring equipment which in metrology for example are used to specify linear and angular dimensions or deviations from nominal dimensions. In this article we present results of electronic scales sensitivity tests. For comparison of test results two electronic scales with different measuring range were analyzed

  3. Trajectory generation for car-like robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, H.A.; Pin, F.G.

    1990-01-01

    Autonomous robots or remotely operated vehicles have raised high hopes in the military and industrial communities because of the potential safety improvement and gain of productivity they may provide. Waste management on nuclear sites, pallet manipulation in factories, interventions on battlefields, etc., are actively studied. A lot of these applications require powerful four-wheel vehicles, the kinematics of which is similar to that of a car. Such vehicles have three degrees of freedom: the (x,y) positions in a plane and the orientation of the vehicle. Path planning is often understood as only changing the position of the vehicle, whereas the tasks performed by this kind of robot require a perfect orientation of the vehicle: forklifting a pallet or docking at a loading or unloading station requires accuracy in the orientation of the vehicle. It is this requirement and the kinematic constraints of the motion mode that have led to the path-planning algorithm presented in this paper

  4. Shady Car Dealings and Taxing Work Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2014-01-01

    of the oligopticon and on Foucault’s notion of the panopticon. The analysis shows that tax inspectors produce oligoptic and panoptic visions when they account for taxpayers’ economic activities and that tax inspectors’ visions are received differently by the represented taxpayers. Some taxpayers fall out of sight......, whereas others are highly visible and are interrogated in detail. Using the concepts of the oligopticon and the panopticon to analyse the tax audit process is significant for interpretative tax and accounting studies, because this theoretical approach represents an original method of conceptualising......The empirical focus of this article is a ten-month ethnography of a tax audit process led by the Danish Tax and Customs Administration. The tax audit concerns a number of shady car dealings from which taxable income is not reported. This article focuses on the process whereby the tax administration...

  5. The car and fuel of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romm, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    This paper is based on a review of the technical literature on alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and discussions with experts in vehicle technology and energy analysis. It is derived from analysis provided to the bipartisan National Commission on Energy Policy. The urgent need to reverse the business-as-usual growth path in global warming pollution in the next two decades to avoid serious if not catastrophic climate change necessitates action to make our vehicles far less polluting. In the near-term, by far the most cost-effective strategy for reducing emissions and fuel use is efficiency. The car of the near future is the hybrid gasoline-electric vehicle, because it can reduce gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions 30 to 50% with no change in vehicle class and hence no loss of jobs or compromise on safety or performance. It will likely become the dominant vehicle platform by the year 2020. Ultimately, we will need to replace gasoline with a zero-carbon fuel. All AFV pathways require technology advances and strong government action to succeed. Hydrogen is the most challenging of all alternative fuels, particularly because of the enormous effort needed to change our existing gasoline infrastructure. The most promising AFV pathway is a hybrid that can be connected to the electric grid. These so-called plug-in hybrids or e-hybrids will likely travel three to four times as far on a kilowatt-hour of renewable electricity as fuel cell vehicles. Ideally these advanced hybrids would also be a flexible fuel vehicle capable of running on a blend of biofuels and gasoline. Such a car could travel 500 miles on 1 gal of gasoline (and 5 gal of cellulosic ethanol) and have under one-tenth the greenhouse gas emissions of current hybrids

  6. Rational-driver approximation in car-following theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubashevsky, Ihor; Wagner, Peter; Mahnke, Reinhard

    2003-11-01

    The problem of a car following a lead car driven with constant velocity is considered. To derive the governing equations for the following car dynamics a cost functional is constructed. This functional ranks the outcomes of different driving strategies, which applies to fairly general properties of the driver behavior. Assuming rational-driver behavior, the existence of the Nash equilibrium is proved. Rational driving is defined by supposing that a driver corrects continuously the car motion to follow the optimal path minimizing the cost functional. The corresponding car-following dynamics is described quite generally by a boundary value problem based on the obtained extremal equations. Linearization of these equations around the stationary state results in a generalization of the widely used optimal velocity model. Under certain conditions (the “dense traffic” limit) the rational car dynamics comprises two stages, fast and slow. During the fast stage a driver eliminates the velocity difference between the cars, the subsequent slow stage optimizes the headway. In the dense traffic limit an effective Hamiltonian description is constructed. This allows a more detailed nonlinear analysis. Finally, the differences between rational and bounded rational driver behavior are discussed. The latter, in particular, justifies some basic assumptions used recently by the authors to construct a car-following model lying beyond the frameworks of rationality.

  7. Direction and Policies Needed to Support Hybrid Electric Car Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Arief Subekti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The rising number of vehicles over the years has driven the increase of air pollution and fuel consumption. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is using hybrid electric car because it is environmentally friendly and efficient in fuel consumption. LIPI has conducted electric car research since 1997, but there were so many problems in its development that electric car can not be developed into a national industry scale. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study that maps the problems and finds the solutions to prevent the same failure of electric car commercialization process from happening to hybrid electric car . This study was done by collecting and analyzing the primary and secondary data through interviews, discussing electric hybrid car with stakeholders, and examining earlier study results and regulations. Based on this study, several policies to support sustainability research of hybrid electric car were proposed. Some recommendations were the making of national roadmap and regulation for the usage of hybrid electric car on the road. For policy makers at LIPI, a research focus, research coordination, and pre-commercialization program were recommended.

  8. RESONANCE CARS IN BR2 MOLECULES AND BR-ATOMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aben, I.; Levelt, P.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Hogervorst, W.

    1991-01-01

    Resonance-enhanced CARS processes were studied in molecular bromine. On the basis of the known spectroscopic constants of the two electronic states involved, the features in the spectra could be identified. CARS signals from Br-atoms produced from dissociation of Br2 were obtained by tuning (omega-1

  9. Panorama 2015 - The global market for compact cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, Simon; Ivanic, Tanja

    2014-12-01

    The search for fuel-saving solutions has led to a trend for acquiring smaller and lighter cars. Small compact cars, whether powered by internal combustion or electric engines, have gained and are continuing to gain market share, in both mature automobile markets such as Europe or Japan and emerging markets such as India. (authors)

  10. Walking frequency, cars, dogs, and the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    This report explains ways to reduce car usage in order to meet climate targets and how to analyze these effects. Much of : the analysis has focused on differences between more compact areas that are more walkable versus more extensive car-dependent :...

  11. The Physics of Bump Drafting in Car Racing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiolhais, Miguel C. N.; Amor dos Santos, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The technique of bump drafting, also known as two-car drafting in motorsports, is analysed in the framework of Newtonian mechanics and simple aerodynamic drag forces. As an apparent unnatural effect that often pleases the enthusiasts of car racing, bump drafting provides a unique pedagogical opportunity for students to gain insights into the…

  12. Femtosecond spectral phase shaping for CARS spectroscopy and imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, S.; van Rhijn, A.C.W.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Corkum, P.; de Silvestri, S.; Nelson, K.A.; Riedle, E.; Schoenlein, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) is a third-order non-linear optical process that provides label-free, chemically selective microscopy by probing the internal vibrational structure of molecules. Due to the resonant enhancement of the CARS process, faster imaging is possible compared to

  13. Measures of Disadvantage: Is Car Ownership a Good Indicator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Victoria; Currie, Graham; Stanley, Janet

    2010-01-01

    A need to better understand the multidimensional nature of disadvantage is leading to the adoption of a wider range of measurement variables. One variable now commonly adopted is zero car ownership. This paper challenges the logic of including "not having a car" as an indicator of disadvantage. It argues that this can distort the real picture of…

  14. 78 FR 59866 - New Car Assessment Program (NCAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... further commented that additional consideration should be given to autonomous vehicle controls that may... [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0076] New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... Car Assessment Program (NCAP) that the agency announced in its June 26, 2013 request for comments (78...

  15. Students To Compete in Model Solar Car Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    cars in the 1998 Junior Solar Sprint. The race will be held at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE Compete in Model Solar Car Race For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo ., May 8, 1998 — Middle school students from across Colorado will design, build and race model solar

  16. SEAT BELT USE AMONG CAR USERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KULANTHAYAN

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.

  17. Energy consumption of auxiliary systems of electric cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evtimov Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the power demand of the auxiliary systems of electric cars. On the basis of existing electric cars an analysis of energy consumption of different auxiliary systems is done. As a result possibilities for rational use of these systems have been proposed, which can increase the mileage per one charge of the battery.

  18. Configurations of hybrid-electric cars propulsion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cundev, Dobri; Sarac, Vasilija; Stefanov, Goce

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, hybrid electric cars have taken significant role in automotive market. There are successful technological solutions of hybrid-electric propulsion systems implemented in commercial passenger cars. Every automobile manufacturer of hybrid vehicles has unique hybrid propulsion system. In this paper, all implemented systems are described, analyzed and compared.

  19. Spring-Wound Toy Cars--Experiments in Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Charles

    1983-01-01

    Use of spring-wound toy cars in kinematics experiments is described. The cars, used in place of traditional dynamics carts rolling down an inclined plane, are inexpensive, motivational, and give reproducible results. Details of acceleration experiments and suggestions for additional experiments are provided. (JN)

  20. Eye-based head gestures for interaction in the car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    2013-01-01

    that can be used as an alternative input in the multimodal interaction context. Two approaches are described for using this method for interaction with objects inside or outside the car. Some application examples are described where the discrete or continuous head movements in combination with the driver......’s visual attention can be used for controlling the objects inside the car....

  1. Performance-based standards for South African car-carriers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Saxe, C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, car-carriers in South Africa operated under abnormal load permits allowing a finite relaxation of legal height and length limits. This practice is being phased out, and exemption will only be granted if a car-carrier complies...

  2. Do We Blindly Trust Self-Driving Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egedal Andersen, Kamilla; Köslich, Simon; Pedersen, Bjarke Maigaard Kjær

    2017-01-01

    - to-day activities, such as driving a car, we carried out a series of experiments with an autonomous car simulator. Partici- pants (N=73) engaged in a scenario with no, correct or false audible information regarding the state of traffic around the self-driving vehicle, and were told they could assume...

  3. The taxation of diesel cars in Belgium – revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayeres, Inge; Proost, Stef

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares the current taxation of diesel and gasoline cars in Belgium with the guidelines for optimal taxation. We find that diesel cars are still taxed much less than gasoline cars, resulting in a dominant market share for diesel cars in the car stock. If the fuel tax is the main instrument to control for externalities and generate revenues, the diesel excise should be much higher than the excise on gasoline for two reasons: diesel is more polluting than gasoline and more importantly, through the better fuel efficiency, diesel cars contribute less fiscal revenues per mile. - Highlights: ► With a correct tax system the diesel excise should be higher than that on gasoline. ► When this is difficult, the fixed annual charge should be higher for diesel cars. ► The current tax structure for gasoline and diesel cars in Belgium is suboptimal. ► It implies that CO 2 emissions are reduced, but in a very cost-inefficient way

  4. 78 FR 58383 - Renewal of National Grain Car Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... of National Grain Car Council AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to... of the National Grain Car Council (NGCC). ADDRESSES: A copy of the charter is available at the... solutions and recommendations to the STB on matters affecting grain transportation. The NGCC functions...

  5. 76 FR 59186 - Renewal of National Grain Car Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... of National Grain Car Council AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to... National Grain Car Council (NGCC). ADDRESSES: A copy of the charter is available at the Library of the... grain transportation. The NGCC functions solely as an advisory body, and complies with the provisions of...

  6. Crippling load test of Budd Pioneer Car 244, test 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This report summarizes Test 3, a crippling load test on Budd Pioneer Car 244, conducted on June 28, 2011. Before the crippling load test, Transportation Technology Center, Inc., conducted two 800,000-pound (lb) quasi-static tests on Car 244 in accord...

  7. Car drivers' perceptions of electronic stability control (ESC) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadeby, Anna; Wiklund, Mats; Forward, Sonja

    2011-05-01

    As a way to reduce the number of car crashes different in-car safety devices are being introduced. In this paper one such application is being investigated, namely the electronic stability control system (ESC). The study used a survey method, including 2000 private car drivers (1000 driving a car with ESC and 1000 driving a car without ESC). The main objective was to investigate the effect of ESC on driver behaviour. Results show that drivers report that they drive even more carelessly when they believe that they have ESC, than when they do not. Men are more risk prone than women and young drivers more than older drivers. Using the theory of planned behaviour the results show that attitude, subjective norm and perceived control explain between 62% and 67% of driver's variation of intentions to take risks. When descriptive norm was added to the model a small but statistically significant increase was found. The study also shows that more than 35% erroneously believe that their car is equipped with an ESC system. These findings may suggest that driver behaviour could reduce the positive effect ESC has on accidents. It also shows that drivers who purchase a new car are not well informed about what kind of safety devices the car is equipped with. These findings highlight the need for more targeted information to drivers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. California Dreaming - Sustaining American Lifestyle and the Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2001-01-01

    California has for several years supported new innovation in zero-emission and low emission cars and set measures for the reduction of emissions in the state for the coming years.......California has for several years supported new innovation in zero-emission and low emission cars and set measures for the reduction of emissions in the state for the coming years....

  9. Car-following Behavior Model Learning Using Timed Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yihuan; Lin, Q.; Wang, Jun; Verwer, S.E.; Dochain, D.; Henrion, D.; Peaucelle, D.

    Learning driving behavior is fundamental for autonomous vehicles to “understand” traffic situations. This paper proposes a novel method for learning a behavioral model of car-following using automata learning algorithms. The model is interpretable for car-following behavior analysis. Frequent common

  10. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 599 - CARS Purchaser Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARS Purchaser Survey D Appendix D to Part 599 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Pt. 599, App. D Appendix D to Part 599—CARS Purchaser Survey ER29JY09.008 ...

  11. 49 CFR 231.7 - Tank cars with side platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars with side platforms. 231.7 Section 231.7..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.7 Tank cars with side platforms. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see § 231.1(a)(1)). (2...

  12. Can privacy concerns for insurance of connected cars be compensated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derikx, S; de Reuver, G.A.; Kroesen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet-of-things technologies enable service providers such as insurance companies to collect vast amounts of privacy-sensitive data on car drivers. This paper studies whether and how privacy concerns of car owners can be compensated by offering monetary benefits. We study the case of usage based

  13. Keeping Order: Motor-Car Regulation and the Defeat of Victoria's 1905 Motor-Car Bill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Clapton

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the twentieth century some upper-class Victorians became motorists; consequently, for the first time ever, regulation and policing intersected with this class of society. By 1905 so many concerns had been raised about compromised public order and safety that the Victorian State Government attempted to implement a Motor Car Bill based on its English predecessor (1903. Wealthy motorists possessed power and influence, however, which contributed to the postponement of legislation until 1910. Additionally, parliamentarians were drawn from the same social class as motorists, and, in creating regulation, they were potentially regulating their peers, colleagues and friends. The private motor-car also brought with it new issues of civil liberty and responsibility. Finding a balance between the two continued to be a problem, as private transport gradually became affordable for middle- and working-class people, and both the number of regulations and the power of the motoring lobby increased.

  14. Forces on wheels and fuel consumption in cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by real classroom discussions, we analyze the forces acting on moving vehicles, specifically friction on their wheels. In typical front-wheel-drive cars when the car accelerates these forces are in the forward direction in the front wheels, but they are in the opposite direction in the rear wheels. The situation may be intriguing for students, but it may also be helpful and stimulating to clarify the role of friction forces on rolling objects. In this paper we also study the thermodynamical aspects of an accelerating car, relating the distance traveled to the amount of fuel consumed. The fuel consumption is explicitly shown to be Galilean invariant and we identify the Gibbs free energy as the relevant quantity that enters into the thermodynamical description of the accelerating car. The more realistic case of the car's motion with the dragging forces taken into account is also discussed.

  15. Forces on wheels and fuel consumption in cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Güémez, J; Fiolhais, M

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by real classroom discussions, we analyze the forces acting on moving vehicles, specifically friction on their wheels. In typical front-wheel-drive cars when the car accelerates these forces are in the forward direction in the front wheels, but they are in the opposite direction in the rear wheels. The situation may be intriguing for students, but it may also be helpful and stimulating to clarify the role of friction forces on rolling objects. In this paper we also study the thermodynamical aspects of an accelerating car, relating the distance traveled to the amount of fuel consumed. The fuel consumption is explicitly shown to be Galilean invariant and we identify the Gibbs free energy as the relevant quantity that enters into the thermodynamical description of the accelerating car. The more realistic case of the car's motion with the dragging forces taken into account is also discussed. (paper)

  16. Temperature rise and Heat build up inside a parked Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Rose; Maheswaranathan, Ponn

    2001-11-01

    We have studied the heat build up inside a parked car under the hot summer Sun. Inside and outside temperatures were monitored every ten seconds from 9 AM to about 4 PM for a 2000 Toyota Camry parked in a Winthrop University parking lot without any shades or trees. Two PASCO temperature sensors, one inside the car and the other outside the car, are used along with PASCO-750 interface to collect the data. Data were collected under the following conditions while keeping track of the outside weather: fully closed windows, slightly open windows, half way open windows, fully open windows, and with window shades inside and outside. Inside temperatures reached as high as 150 degrees Fahrenheit on a sunny day with outside high temperature of about 100 degrees Fahrenheit. These results will be presented along with results from car cover and window tint manufacturers and suggestions to keep your car cool next time you park it under the Sun.

  17. Dynamic imaging for CAR-T-cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami-Shahri, Nia; Papa, Sophie

    2016-04-15

    Chimaeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy is entering the mainstream for the treatment of CD19(+)cancers. As is does we learn more about resistance to therapy and the role, risks and management of toxicity. In solid tumour CAR therapy research the route to the clinic is less smooth with a wealth of challenges facing translating this, potentially hugely valuable, therapeutic option for patients. As we strive to understand our successes, and navigate the challenges, having a clear understanding of how adoptively transferred CAR-T-cells behavein vivoand in human trials is invaluable. Harnessing reporter gene imaging to enable detection and tracking of small numbers of CAR-T-cells after adoptive transfer is one way by which we can accomplish this. The compatibility of certain reporter gene systems with tracers available routinely in the clinic makes this approach highly useful for future appraisal of CAR-T-cell success in humans. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  18. New development in CAR-T cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenguang; Wu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yang; Han, Weidong

    2017-02-21

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells (CAR-T cells) have yielded unprecedented efficacy in B cell malignancies, most remarkably in anti-CD19 CAR-T cells for B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) with up to a 90% complete remission rate. However, tumor antigen escape has emerged as a main challenge for the long-term disease control of this promising immunotherapy in B cell malignancies. In addition, this success has encountered significant hurdles in translation to solid tumors, and the safety of the on-target/off-tumor recognition of normal tissues is one of the main reasons. In this mini-review, we characterize some of the mechanisms for antigen loss relapse and new strategies to address this issue. In addition, we discuss some novel CAR designs that are being considered to enhance the safety of CAR-T cell therapy in solid tumors.

  19. University of Calgary solar car set for American solar challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    This article described a solar car designed by a team from the University of Calgary for the 2010 American Solar Challenge, a 1100 mile race that starts in Tulsa, Oklahoma and ends 5 days later in Chicago, Illinois. The Shulich Axiom car is comprised of 2000 solar cells with batteries that can store enough power to drive the car for a 4-hour period. The car has a top speed of 140 km per hour and is totally powered by solar energy. The team has taken the car on a 5-day tour of Alberta, stopping in 7 communities across the province before heading back to Calgary. The team is one of only 2 Canadian teams competing in the challenge this year. 1 fig.

  20. New development in CAR-T cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenguang Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-engineered T cells (CAR-T cells have yielded unprecedented efficacy in B cell malignancies, most remarkably in anti-CD19 CAR-T cells for B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL with up to a 90% complete remission rate. However, tumor antigen escape has emerged as a main challenge for the long-term disease control of this promising immunotherapy in B cell malignancies. In addition, this success has encountered significant hurdles in translation to solid tumors, and the safety of the on-target/off-tumor recognition of normal tissues is one of the main reasons. In this mini-review, we characterize some of the mechanisms for antigen loss relapse and new strategies to address this issue. In addition, we discuss some novel CAR designs that are being considered to enhance the safety of CAR-T cell therapy in solid tumors.

  1. Modeling the number of car theft using Poisson regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Malina; Ling, Agnes Beh Yen; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ismail, Noriszura

    2016-10-01

    Regression analysis is the most popular statistical methods used to express the relationship between the variables of response with the covariates. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the factors that influence the number of car theft using Poisson regression model. This paper will focus on the number of car thefts that occurred in districts in Peninsular Malaysia. There are two groups of factor that have been considered, namely district descriptive factors and socio and demographic factors. The result of the study showed that Bumiputera composition, Chinese composition, Other ethnic composition, foreign migration, number of residence with the age between 25 to 64, number of employed person and number of unemployed person are the most influence factors that affect the car theft cases. These information are very useful for the law enforcement department, insurance company and car owners in order to reduce and limiting the car theft cases in Peninsular Malaysia.

  2. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each person...

  3. Who are the early adopters of car sharing? A brief history and an analysis of the early adoption of car sharing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Norre, Lise

    1999-01-01

    After briefly outlining the context, focusing primarily on the economic conditions for car sharing and on the history of the first car sharing initiatives in Denmark, this paper presents results from a study of the early adopters of the car sharing idea in Denmark and some speculations about...... the future of car sharing in this country....

  4. THEORETICAL BASIS OF PARAMETRIC SYNTHESIS FOR CARRYING SYSTEMS OF CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Fomin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is aimed to systematize and structure representation of theoretical grounds for the optimization designing of railway car components and practical ways of its implementation. Methodology. The study is based on analysis of several well-known articles on the subject, as well as on authors' researches, some mathematical foundations and computer modeling. The rolling stock components structural analysis was made by applying modern and acknowledged methods. Findings. In the study the authors systematized the set of methodological approaches to the freight car design processes; they also analyzed every application phase of the designing process and its conditions. The article presents the developed mathematical model of the car component implementation. This model takes into account all the calculated cases of the car life cycle. Moreover, the model also can be applied to other transport modes accounting their specific operation modes. The possibility to generate different construction options for equally strong car component with minimum material intensity was also shown in the article. There were several methods developed for finding optimal solutions that make it possible to calculate the sought characteristics of construction elements with the reliable accuracy. The presented variety of different approaches significantly extends engineering apparatus by increasing the synthesis and analysis abilities of the car design. Originality. The authors proposed the methodological foundations of the car components design aimed at creating their optimal structural parameter execution and the operating features based on the results of the detailed research. Practical value. Expediency and effectiveness of the presented methods has been confirmed by positive experience of its application when constructing the general-purpose gondola cars, models 12-9904 and 12-9904-01, as well as when upgrading existing constructions of freight cars, model

  5. Comfortable car interiors : Experiments as a basis for car interior design contributing to the pleasure of the driver and passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, I.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges for car manufacturers is complying with the stringent environmental regulations without compromising driving comfort and pleasure. Reducing the overall weight of a car reduces fuel consumption and increases acceleration. However weight reduction seems in contradiction with

  6. Thermal modelling of a torpedo-car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdeja-González, L. F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional finite element model for computing the temperature distribution in a torpedo-car holding pig iron is described in this work. The model determines the temperature gradients in steady and transient conditions within the different parts that constitute the system, which are considered to be the steel casing, refractory lining, liquid iron, slag and air. Heat transfer within the main fluid phases (iron and air is computed assuming an apparent thermal conductivity term incorporating the contribution from convection and radiation, and it is affected by the dimensions of the vessel. Thermal gradients within the constituents of the torpedo-car are used to calculate heat losses during operation. It was found that the model required the incorporation of a region within the iron-refractory interface to reproduce thermographic data recorded during operation; the heat transfer coefficient of this interface was found to be equal to 30 Wm-2K-1.

    En este trabajo se describe un modelo bidimensional basado en el método del elemento finito para calcular la distribución de temperaturas en un carro torpedo lleno de arrabio. El modelo determina los gradientes térmicos en condiciones estacionarias y transitorias dentro de las partes que constituyen el sistema considerado, como son cubierta de acero, recubrimientos refractarios, arrabio líquido, escoria y aire. La transferencia de calor en las fases fluidas (arrabio y aire se calcula suponiendo un coeficiente de conductividad térmica aparente que incorpora las contribuciones por convección y radiación y está afectado por las dimensiones del recipiente. El conocimiento de los gradientes térmicos permite calcular las pérdidas de calor durante la operación del carro. Se encontró que el modelo requiere de la incorporación de una región en la intercara hierro-refractario para reproducir la información termográfica recopilada durante pruebas en planta. El

  7. Self-Brand Personality Differences and Attitudes towards Electric Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Moons

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In two representative Belgian samples, by means of an online survey, we investigate the effect of self-brand personality differences on car brand evaluation, the evaluation of an eco-friendly branded electric car extension and the evaluation of car brands after electric extension. We show that self-brand personality differences influence the attitude towards car brands. The relative importance of personality dimensions that drive extension judgment and parent brand attitudes after electric extension is different from that of brand evaluation without extension. More particularly, perceptions of a brand being more responsible than one’s self is a much more important driver of brand evaluation after electric extension than without extension. Car personality characteristics, such as activity and sophistication, drive brand evaluations before, as well as after electric extension. These effects are moderated by brand ownership in that the relative importance of brand personality dimensions is different for brand owners than for consumers who do not own a specific brand. Car manufacturers can fine-tune their marketing approach when launching eco-friendly extensions, taking into account that, in this context, partly different self-brand personality fit considerations are used by consumers than for car brands without electric extension.

  8. Analysis of modal frequency optimization of railway vehicle car body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available High structural modal frequencies of car body are beneficial as they ensure better vibration control and enhance ride quality of railway vehicles. Modal sensitivity optimization and elastic suspension parameters used in the design of equipment beneath the chassis of the car body are proposed in order to improve the modal frequencies of car bodies under service conditions. Modal sensitivity optimization is based on sensitivity analysis theory which considers the thickness of the body frame at various positions as variables in order to achieve optimization. Equipment suspension design analyzes the influence of suspension parameters on the modal frequencies of the car body through the use of an equipment-car body coupled model. Results indicate that both methods can effectively improve the modal parameters of the car body. Modal sensitivity optimization increases vertical bending frequency from 9.70 to 10.60 Hz, while optimization of elastic suspension parameters increases the vertical bending frequency to 10.51 Hz. The suspension design can be used without alteration to the structure of the car body while ensuring better ride quality.

  9. Household choices of car-use reduction measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerling, T. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology; Gaerling, A. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology; Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Road and Traffic Planning; Johannsson, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Road and Traffic Planning

    2000-07-01

    The present research investigated what car-use reduction measures are perceived by households to be feasible if their goal is to reduce car driving. In Study 1 a number of such measures were included in a survey questionnaire requesting a total of 770 randomly selected respondents to rate how likely they would be to choose the different measures. The ratings suggested that for shopping trips choosing closer stores and trip chaining are more likely to be chosen than any other measure. A similar pattern was observed for leisure trips. Switching to public transport was the most. likely choice for work trips. Women were more likely than men to choose public transport and trip chaining, whereas men were more likely than women to choose motorbike/moped. Choices of car pooling, biking. and motorbike/moped decreased with age. In Study 2 it was determined in interviews what choices households would make in forming car-use reduction intentions, then 1-week travel diaries were collected to assess whether their car-use intentions were implemented. A random sample of 113 multiperson households participated. They expected to he able to change approximately 10% of their car trips. However they made many more trips than they had expected. Constraints, perceived costs, and preferences for different car-use reduction measures may all play a role for the choices. Further research needs to disentangle these roles since their implications for policies are different. (Author)

  10. Advantages and Applications of CAR-Expressing Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eGlienke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to donor T cells, natural killer (NK cells are known to mediate anti-cancer effects without the risk of inducing graft-versus-host disease (GvHD. In order to improve cytotoxicity against resistant cancer cells, auspicious efforts have been made with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR expressing T- and NK cells. These CAR-modified cells express antigen receptors against tumor-associated surface antigens, thus redirecting the effector cells and enhancing tumor-specific immunosurveillance. However, many cancer antigens are also expressed on healthy tissues, potentially leading to off tumor/ on target toxicity by CAR-engineered cells. In order to control such potentially severe side effects, the insertion of suicide genes into CAR-modified effectors can provide a means for efficient depletion of these cells. While CAR-expressing T cells have entered successfully clinical trials, experience with CAR-engineered NK cells is mainly restricted to pre-clinical investigations and predominantly to NK cell lines. In this review we summarize the data on CAR expressing NK cells focusing on the possible advantage using these short-lived effector cells and discuss the necessity of suicide switches. Furthermore, we address the compliance of such modified NK cells with regulatory requirements as a new field in cellular immunotherapy.

  11. Directional control-response compatibility of joystick steered shuttle cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Zupanc, Christine M; Wallis, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Shuttle cars are an unusual class of vehicle operated in underground coal mines, sometimes in close proximity to pedestrians and steering errors may have very serious consequences. A directional control-response incompatibility has previously been described in shuttle cars which are controlled using a steering wheel oriented perpendicular to the direction of travel. Some other shuttle car operators are seated perpendicular to the direction of travel and steer the car via a seat mounted joystick. A virtual simulation was utilised to determine whether the steering arrangement in these vehicles maintains directional control-response compatibility. Twenty-four participants were randomly assigned to either a condition corresponding to this design (consistent direction), or a condition in which the directional steering response was reversed while driving in-bye (visual field compatible). Significantly less accurate steering performance was exhibited by the consistent direction group during the in-bye trials only. Shuttle cars which provide the joystick steering mechanism described here require operators to accommodate alternating compatible and incompatible directional control-response relationships with each change of car direction. A virtual simulation of an underground coal shuttle car demonstrates that the design incorporates a directional control-response incompatibility when driving the vehicle in one direction. This design increases the probability of operator error, with potential adverse safety and productivity consequences.

  12. Expression of Human CAR Splicing Variants in BAC-Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Lu, Hong; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a key regulator for drug metabolism in liver. Human CAR (hCAR) transcripts are subjected to alternative splicing. Some hCAR splicing variants (SVs) have been shown to encode functional proteins by reporter assays. However, in vivo research on the activity of these hCAR SVs has been impeded by the absence of a valid model. This study engineered an hCAR-BAC-transgenic (hCAR-TG) mouse model by integrating the 8.5-kbp hCAR gene as wel...

  13. An experimental investigation of tobacco smoke pollution in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendzik, Taryn; Fong, Geoffrey T; Travers, Mark J; Hyland, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    Tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) has been identified as a serious public health threat. Although the number of jurisdictions that prohibit smoking in public places has increased rapidly, just a few successful attempts have been made to pass similar laws prohibiting smoking in cars, where the cabin space may contribute to concentrated exposure. In particular, TSP constitutes a potentially serious health hazard to children because of prolonged exposure and their small size. The present study investigated the levels of TSP in 18 cars via the measurement of fine respirable particles (Car owners smoked a single cigarette in their cars in each of five controlled air-sampling conditions. Each condition varied on movement of the car, presence of air conditioning, open windows, and combinations of these airflow influences. Smoking just a single cigarette in a car generated extremely high average levels of PM(2.5): more than 3,800 microg/m3 in the condition with the least airflow (motionless car, windows closed). In moderate ventilation conditions (air conditioning or having the smoking driver hold the cigarette next to a half-open window), the average levels of PM(2.5) were reduced but still at significantly high levels (air conditioning = 844 microg/m3; holding cigarette next to a half-open window = 223 microg/m3). This study demonstrates that TSP in cars reaches unhealthy levels, even under realistic ventilation conditions, lending support to efforts occurring across a growing number of jurisdictions to educate people and prohibit smoking in cars in the presence of children.

  14. In-vehicle VOCs composition of unconditioned, newly produced cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzik, Krzysztof; Faber, Joanna; Łomankiewicz, Damian; Gołda-Kopek, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The in-vehicle volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations gains the attention of both car producers and users. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine if analysis of air samples collected from an unconditioned car cabin can be used as a quality control measure. The VOCs composition of in-vehicle air was analyzed by means of active sampling on Carbograph 1TD and Tenax TA sorbents, followed by thermal desorption and simultaneous analysis on flame ionization and mass detector (TD-GC/FID-MS). Nine newly produced cars of the same brand and model were chosen for this study. Within these, four of the vehicles were equipped with identical interior materials and five others differed in terms of upholstery and the presence of a sunroof; one car was convertible. The sampling event took place outside of the car assembly plant and the cars tested left the assembly line no later than 24 hr before the sampling took place. More than 250 compounds were present in the samples collected; the identification of more than 160 was confirmed by comparative mass spectra analysis and 80 were confirmed by both comparison with single/multiple compounds standards and mass spectra analysis. In general, aliphatic hydrocarbons represented more than 60% of the total VOCs (TVOC) determined. Depending on the vehicle, the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons varied from 12% to 27% of total VOCs. The very short period between car production and sampling of the in-vehicle air permits the assumption that the entire TVOC originates from off-gassing of interior materials. The results of this study expand the knowledge of in-vehicle pollution by presenting information about car cabin air quality immediately after car production. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A rental car strategy for commercialization of hydrogen in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lines, Lee [Department of Environmental Studies, Rollins College, 1000 Holt Avenue, Box 2753, Winter Park, FL 32789-4499 (United States); Kuby, Michael; Clancy, James [School of Geographical Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5302 (United States); Schultz, Ronald; Xie, Zhixiao [Department of Geosciences, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    This article proposes a hydrogen rental-car strategy for transitioning from fleets to consumers in Orlando, Florida. Orlando is the No. 1 tourist destination in the United States, but most car renters visit only a few destinations. A hydrogen rental-car fleet serving this cluster of destinations could provide visitors with a positive first exposure to hydrogen vehicles with minimal commitment, creating hydrogen advocates and potential early adopters in their home regions. The rental-car business combines the logistical advantages of a fleet operation with outreach to many consumers. A hydrogen-powered rental-car fleet at the Orlando International Airport could provide guaranteed demand, supporting an initial rollout of refueling stations. We surveyed 435 rental-car customers in Orlando to understand the idea from the consumer point of view. We analyzed the bundles of destinations visited by the respondents and found that only three stations - an existing station at the Orlando International Airport plus new stations near the theme parks and in downtown Orlando - could serve 64% of renters. Half of all respondents indicated a willingness to pay more to rent a hydrogen car, and this subset of customers ranked the ability to use a pollution-free car as the most important factor in their decision. We then identify the major barriers to a hydrogen rental-car business model from the corporate point of view and propose a number of potential solutions. The most significant barrier appears to be the fleet purchase costs, which we think can be offset by the benefits of free media coverage and contained by beginning with converted internal-combustion vehicles and converting eventually to fuel-cell vehicles. We also outline possible synergies with NASA, Disney, refueling stations, manufacturers and state government. (author)

  16. The motor car past, present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Genta, Giancarlo; Cavallino, Francesco; Filtri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to automotive engineering, to give freshmen ideas about this technology. The text is subdivided in parts that cover all facets of the automobile, including legal and economic aspects related to industry and products, product configuration and fabrication processes, historic evolution and future developments. The first part describes how motor vehicles were invented and evolved into the present product in more than 100 years of development. The purpose is not only to supply an historical perspective, but also to introduce and discuss the many solutions that were applied (and could be applied again) to solve the same basic problems of vehicle engineering. This part also briefly describes  the evolution of automotive technologies and market, including production and development processes. The second part deals with the description and function analysis of all car subsystems, such as: ·         vehicle body, ·         chassis, including wheels, suspensions, brakes a...

  17. Powering the cars and homes of tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, T R; Hards, G A [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, Reading (United Kingdom)

    1998-05-04

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology and its applications are reviewed. As a small, light power source, a PEMFC stack operates at low temperature and high power density, offers fast start-up and low pollution and is ideal for transport applications. PEMFC systems are modular and energy efficient and are being developed as portable power sources (25W-1kW) for the leisure industry and as stationary power units for the home (5-10kW), hotels and hospitals (up to 500kW). Stacks are combined in series or parallel to give the desired power output. Each stack consist of a number of single fuel cells in which the site of the power generation is a membrane electrode assembly less than a millimetre thick. Developments in reducing the cost of PEMFC stacks are described. Over the past few years, successful demonstrations have been carried out, particularly showing the potential cost-effectiveness and low pollution of PEMFC engines for buses and cars. There are aggressive plans to demonstrate PEMFC power plants for the large stationary market. (UK)

  18. Entropie analysis of floating car data systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gössel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the actual traffic state is a basic prerequisite of modern traffic telematic systems. Floating Car Data (FCD systems are becoming more and more important for the provision of actual and reliable traffic data. In these systems the vehicle velocity is the original variable for the evaluation of the current traffic condition. As real FCDsystems are operating under conditions of limited transmission and processing capacity the analysis of the original variable vehicle speed is of special interest. Entropy considerations are especially useful for the deduction of fundamental restrictions and limitations. The paper analyses velocity-time profiles by means of information entropy. It emphasises in quantification of the information content of velocity-time profiles and the discussion of entropy dynamic in velocity-time profiles. Investigations are based on empirical data derived during field trials. The analysis of entropy dynamic is carried out in two different ways. On one hand velocity differences within a certain interval of time are used, on the other hand the transinformation between velocities in certain time distances was evaluated. One important result is an optimal sample-rate for the detection of velocity data in FCD-systems. The influence of spatial segmentation and of different states of traffic was discussed.

  19. Material Stock Demographics: Cars in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M

    2016-03-15

    Recent literature on material flow analysis has been focused on quantitative characterization of past material flows. Fewer analyses exist on past and prospective quantification of stocks of materials in-use. Some of these analyses explore the composition of products' stocks, but a focus on the characterization of material stocks and its relation with service delivery is often neglected. We propose the use of the methods of human demography to characterize material stocks, defined herein as stock demographics, exploring the insights that this approach could provide for the sustainable management of materials. We exemplify an application of stock demographics by characterizing the composition and service delivery of iron, steel, and aluminum stocks of cars in Great Britain, 2002-2012. The results show that in this period the stock has become heavier, it is traveling less, and it is idle for more time. The visualization of material stocks' dynamics demonstrates the pace of product replacement as a function of its usefulness and enables the formulation of policy interventions and the exploration of future trends.

  20. Pc-based car license plate reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Katsuyoshi; Marubayashi, Eisaku; Kawashima, Harumi; Nakanishi, Tadashi; Shio, Akio

    1994-03-01

    A PC-based car license plate recognition system has been developed. The system recognizes Chinese characters and Japanese phonetic hiragana characters as well as six digits on Japanese license plates. The system consists of a CCD camera, vehicle sensors, a strobe unit, a monitoring center, and an i486-based PC. The PC includes in its extension slots: a vehicle detector board, a strobe emitter board, and an image grabber board. When a passing vehicle is detected by the vehicle sensors, the strobe emits a pulse of light. The light pulse is synchronized with the time the vehicle image is frozen on an image grabber board. The recognition process is composed of three steps: image thresholding, character region extraction, and matching-based character recognition. The recognition software can handle obscured characters. Experimental results for hundreds of outdoor images showed high recognition performance within relatively short performance times. The results confirmed that the system is applicable to a wide variety of applications such as automatic vehicle identification and travel time measurement.

  1. The Formation of Usage Intention of Electric Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbarossa, Camilla; de Pelsmacker, Patrick; Beckmann, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we propose a model in which green self-identity (GSI) is an antecedent of both environmental concern (EC) and moral obligation (MO), which in turn influence the attitude towards electric cars (ATT). GSI is also assumed to have a direct effect on ATT. The attitude towards...... the electric car then determines the intention to adopt it. The model is empirically tested in three culturally different European countries: Denmark, Belgium and Italy. Results show that the three countries differ in the way they develop positive attitudes and intentions towards the electric car on the basis...

  2. A small Maglev car model using YBCO bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W M [Department of Physics, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710016 (China); Zhou, L [Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, PO Box 51, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710016 (China); Yong, Feng [Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, PO Box 51, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710016 (China); Zhang, P X [Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, PO Box 51, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710016 (China); Chao, X X [Department of Physics, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710016 (China); Bian, X B [Department of Physics, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710016 (China); Zhu, S H [Department of Physics, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710016 (China); Wu, X L [Department of Physics, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710016 (China); Liu, P [Department of Physics, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710016 (China)

    2006-07-15

    Models of two small Maglev cars have been made. The track was paved with NdFeB magnets. The arrangement of the magnets made it easy to get a uniform magnetic field distribution along the length of the track and a magnetic field gradient in the lateral direction. When the car with YBCO bulk superconductors was field cooled to LN{sub 2} temperature at a certain distance above the track, the car could be automatically levitated over the track and moved along the track without any obvious friction. The model can be used to demonstrate the Meissner effect and a fast transportation system to students and adults.

  3. Modeling and simulation of cars in frontal collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deac, S. C.; Perescu, A.; Simoiu, D.; Nyaguly, E.; Crâştiu, I.; Bereteu, L.

    2018-01-01

    Protection of cars, mainly drivers and passengers in a collision are very important issues worldwide. Statistics given by “World Health Organization” are alarming rate of increase in the number of road accidents, most claiming with serious injury, human and material loss. For these reasons has been a continuous development of protection systems, especially car causing three quarters of all accidents. Mathematical modeling and simulation of a car behavior during a frontal collision leads to new solutions in the development of protective systems. This paper presents several structural models of a vehicle during a frontal collision and its behavior is analyzed by numerical simulation using Simulink.

  4. A small Maglev car model using YBCO bulk superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W M; Zhou, L; Yong, Feng; Zhang, P X; Chao, X X; Bian, X B; Zhu, S H; Wu, X L; Liu, P

    2006-01-01

    Models of two small Maglev cars have been made. The track was paved with NdFeB magnets. The arrangement of the magnets made it easy to get a uniform magnetic field distribution along the length of the track and a magnetic field gradient in the lateral direction. When the car with YBCO bulk superconductors was field cooled to LN 2 temperature at a certain distance above the track, the car could be automatically levitated over the track and moved along the track without any obvious friction. The model can be used to demonstrate the Meissner effect and a fast transportation system to students and adults

  5. Three remarks on Powers' theorem about irreducible fields fulfilling CAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.

    1986-01-01

    First it is shown that within a relativistic Fermi field theory, a bound parallelPsi/sub k/( f,t)parallel 2 already implies canonical anticommutation relations (CAR). Then under Powers' assumptions a linear, first-order differential equation for the fields psi/sub k/(x,t) is derived. This shows that in the set of generalized free fields fulfilling CAR only the free fields are irreducible at time zero. Finally Fermi fields in two space-time dimensions are considered. It is shown that only four-fermion interaction might be compatible with CAR and a bound on the coupling strength is derived

  6. Car ownership and use taxes as pollution correcting instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Mulalic, Ismir

    There have been many attempts to alter the taxation of private vehicles to obtain more energy-efficient car transport. The last significant reform in Denmark was completed in 2007. The most important objective was to improve fuel efficiency and consequently to reduce emissions related to car tran...... a change in car taxes. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data to estimate the joint demand for vehicles and kilometres. The empirical results point at effects that have important implications....

  7. Traction Control Study for a Scaled Automated Robotic Car

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents the use of sliding mode control applied to a 1/10th scale robotic car to operate at a desired slip. Controlling the robot car at any desired slip has a direct relation to the amount of force that is applied to the driving wheels based on road surface conditions. For this model, the desired traction/slip is maintained for a specific surface which happens to be a Lego treadmill platform. How the platform evolved and the robot car was designed are also covered. To parame...

  8. Demand for luxury cars in China: development, trends and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Heinonen, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of this thesis was to investigate what is demand for luxury cars in People's Republic of China and how it has developed, what trends there are and what direction development is going currently. The topic of this thesis was selected based on how interesting it is and how current the topic is at the moment. Objective was to find out what is the demand of luxury cars in China, what kind of buyers Chinese consumers are in field of luxury cars, what trends there are and what are the charac...

  9. Total quality management: care dealers vs. car dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, I M

    1992-01-01

    Let's turn our "flawed system into the Toyota City of world health care," proposes Fortune magazine. I shudder at the thought. Deming-Juran-type TQM procedures can help to ensure that cars and their drivers do not die on the road. Skillfully adapted for health care, these same procedures can help keep patients from dying on the operating table. These procedures can also respond to Fortune's indictment that the "U.S. medical system is as wasteful and managerially backward as Detroit before Henry Ford." However, people are not cars, and care dealers are not car dealers.

  10. How does Euro NCAP results correlate to real life injury risks - a paired comparison study of car-to-car crashes in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lie, A. [Swedish National Road Administration, Borlaenge (Sweden)]|[ Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Tingvall, C. [Monash University, Accident Research Centre (Australia)

    2001-07-01

    Euro NCAP is a resource for consumers regarding vehicle crash safety. The program also promotes safety developments, and credits car manufacturers focussing on safety. This study, based on real life car to car crashes, shows that the overall indication of the safety level, provided by the crash testing, is a valid prediction, at least when looking at the star rating and severe to fatal injuries. For minor injuries no significant injury risk differences are seen. The cars with three or four stars are approximately 30% safer, compared to two star cars or cars without an Euro NCAP score, in car to car collisions. The good general correlation between injury risk, and Euro NCAP scores is not necessarily similarly good for individual car models. Pedestrian safety and child occupant protection was not studied. (orig.)

  11. The mechanism of the growth-inhibitory effect of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) on human bladder cancer: a functional analysis of car protein structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okegawa, T; Pong, R C; Li, Y; Bergelson, J M; Sagalowsky, A I; Hsieh, J T

    2001-09-01

    The coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is identified as a high-affinity receptor for adenovirus type 5. We observed that invasive bladder cancer specimens had significantly reduced CAR mRNA levels compared with superficial bladder cancer specimens, which suggests that CAR may play a role in the progression of bladder cancer. Elevated CAR expression in the T24 cell line (CAR-negative cells) increased its sensitivity to adenovirus infection and significantly inhibited its in vitro growth, accompanied by p21 and hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma accumulation. Conversely, decreased CAR levels in both RT4 and 253J cell lines (CAR-positive cells) promoted their in vitro growth. To unveil the mechanism of action of CAR, we showed that the extracellular domain of CAR facilitated intercellular adhesion. Furthermore, interrupting intercellular adhesion of CAR by a specific antibody alleviates the growth-inhibitory effect of CAR. We also demonstrated that both the transmembrane and intracellular domains of CAR were critical for its growth-inhibitory activity. These data indicate that the cell-cell contact initiated by membrane-bound CAR can elicit a negative signal cascade to modulate cell cycle regulators inside the nucleus of bladder cancer cells. Therefore, the presence of CAR cannot only facilitate viral uptake of adenovirus but also inhibit cell growth. These results can be integrated to formulate a new strategy for bladder cancer therapy.

  12. 30 CFR 57.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery... uncoupling shall not be attempted from the inside of curves unless the railroad and cars are designed to...

  13. Mechanical properties of tank car steels retired from the fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-03

    As a consequence of recent accidents involving the release of hazardous materials (hazmat), the structural integrity and crashworthiness of railroad tank cars have come under scrutiny. Particular attention has been given to the older portion of the f...

  14. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Health Tips Share this! Home » Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning the public about the overwhelming dangers associated with leaving anyone, ...

  15. System integration and control strategy analysis of PEMFC car

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.; Chen, Y.; Liu, Y.; Shi, P.

    2004-01-01

    A new fuel car was designed according to the prototype LN2000 hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell car. The new prototype consists of a compact fuel cell engine with separated fuel cell stack, nickel metal hydride battery, a motor with power of 30Kw/100Kw and an inverter with high efficiency. With in the powertrain, a two-shift Planet gear transmission was employed. The power performance was greatly improved. New battery with EMS, new self-developed fuel cell engine, the motor propulsion system and electronic controlled transmission make it feasible to control the whole fuel car automatically and efficiently with optimization. The presents the system integration and the control strategy analysis of the fuel cell car prototype. The paper can be used for reference for engineers in the field of fuel cell vehicle. (author)

  16. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vehicle’s window will act like a greenhouse, trapping sunlight and heat inside with no ventilation. A car parked in direct sunlight can reach up to 131 degrees inside while ...

  17. General Vehicle Test Plan (GVTP) for Urban Rail Transit Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    The General Vehicle Test Plan provides a system for general vehicle testing and for documenting and utilizing data and information in the testing of urban rail transit cars. Test procedures are defined for nine categories: (1) Performance; (2) Power ...

  18. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... with leaving anyone, especially children in hot, unventilated vehicles during the summer. Children throughout the country die ...

  19. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergency Medicine Seconds Save Lives Be Prepared Safe Citizen Day Organize Important Medical Information ER Checklists Preparing ... will act like a greenhouse, trapping sunlight and heat inside with no ventilation. A car parked in ...

  20. Greeley's Maplewood Middle School Stellar in Solar Car Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado entered the 20-meter race, which gave students the opportunity to show off their engineering and design skills by building and racing model solar-powered vehicles. Trophies for the fastest cars were

  1. Car wash wastewater treatment and water reuse - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneti, R N; Etchepare, R; Rubio, J

    2013-01-01

    Recent features of a car wash wastewater reclamation system and results from a full-scale car wash wastewater treatment and recycling process are reported. This upcoming technology comprises a new flocculation-column flotation process, sand filtration, and a final chlorination. A water usage and savings audit (22 weeks) showed that almost 70% reclamation was possible, and fewer than 40 L of fresh water per wash were needed. Wastewater and reclaimed water were characterized by monitoring chemical, physicochemical and biological parameters. Results were discussed in terms of aesthetic quality (water clarification and odour), health (pathological) and chemical (corrosion and scaling) risks. A microbiological risk model was applied and the Escherichia coli proposed criterion for car wash reclaimed water is 200 CFU 100 mL(-1). It is believed that the discussions on car wash wastewater reclamation criteria may assist institutions to create laws in Brazil and elsewhere.

  2. Economic and environmental evaluation of compressed-air cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutzig, Felix; Kammen, Daniel M; Papson, Andrew; Schipper, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and energy security require a reduction in travel demand, a modal shift, and technological innovation in the transport sector. Through a series of press releases and demonstrations, a car using energy stored in compressed air produced by a compressor has been suggested as an environmentally friendly vehicle of the future. We analyze the thermodynamic efficiency of a compressed-air car powered by a pneumatic engine and consider the merits of compressed air versus chemical storage of potential energy. Even under highly optimistic assumptions the compressed-air car is significantly less efficient than a battery electric vehicle and produces more greenhouse gas emissions than a conventional gas-powered car with a coal intensive power mix. However, a pneumatic-combustion hybrid is technologically feasible, inexpensive and could eventually compete with hybrid electric vehicles.

  3. Prediction of energy balance and utilization for solar electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K.; Guo, L. M.; Wang, Y. K.; Zafar, M. T.

    2017-11-01

    Solar irradiation and ambient temperature are characterized by region, season and time-domain, which directly affects the performance of solar energy based car system. In this paper, the model of solar electric cars used was based in Xi’an. Firstly, the meteorological data are modelled to simulate the change of solar irradiation and ambient temperature, and then the temperature change of solar cell is calculated using the thermal equilibrium relation. The above work is based on the driving resistance and solar cell power generation model, which is simulated under the varying radiation conditions in a day. The daily power generation and solar electric car cruise mileage can be predicted by calculating solar cell efficiency and power. The above theoretical approach and research results can be used in the future for solar electric car program design and optimization for the future developments.

  4. Restraint use by car occupants: Great Britain, 1982-91.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broughton, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the major developments in road safety in Great Britain during the last decade has been the increasing use of seat belts by people travelling in cars. This has been achieved by legislation, with supporting publicity.

  5. Quieter Cars and the Safety of Blind Pedestrians: Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration recognizes that quieter cars such as hybrid-electric vehicles in low-speed operation using their : electric motors, may introduce a safety issue for pedestrians who are blind. This study documents th...

  6. Development of an Intelligent Car Engine Fault Troubleshooting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of an Intelligent Car Engine Fault Troubleshooting System (CEFTS) ... and also provides a troubleshooting framework for other researchers to work on. Keywords: ... inference engine, knowledge acquisition, artificial intelligence.

  7. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Emergency Phycisians Toggle navigation Emergency 101 Is it an Emergency? Emergency Care or Urgent Care? When ... being left alone in a hot vehicle. “Putting it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car ...

  8. CAR-T Cell Therapies From the Transfusion Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesnak, Andrew; Lin, ChieYu; Siegel, Don L; Maus, Marcela V

    2016-07-01

    The use of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies has generated significant excitement over the last several years. From a transfusion medicine perspective, the implementation of CAR-T therapy as a potential mainstay treatment for not only hematologic but also solid-organ malignancies represents a significant opportunity for growth and expansion. In this review, we will describe the rationale for the development of genetically redirected T cells as a cancer therapeutic, the different elements that are required to engineer these cells, as well as an overview of the process by which patient cells are harvested and processed to create and subsequently validate CAR-T cells. Finally, we will briefly describe some of the toxicities and clinical efficacy of CAR-T cells in the setting of patients with advanced malignancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ATMX-600 rail car safety analysis report for packaging (SARP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adcock, F.E.; McCarthy, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The ATMX-600 series rail car is used by Rockwell International, Rocky Flats Plant, for shipping low-level radioactive waste under the provisions of DOT Special Permit 5948. Fissile Class I shipments are authorized with the car loaded to capacity with drums containing up to 200 grams of plutonium-239. Inner packaging may be polyethylene-lined steel drums or fiberglass-coated plywood crates. These massive double-walled steel cars provide the equivalent protection of a Type B package. Rapid loading and unloading of the 9- by 9- by 50-foot cargo space are accomplished by prepackaging the waste in standard 20-foot steel cargo containers. The ATMX-600 rail car will hold two cargo containers, each carrying seventy 55-gallon drums and up to 44,800 pounds gross weight. This report is a revision of an earlier document and describes improvements to inner packaging. It also reflects current shipping practices

  10. The first car fuel of the post-petroleum era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willot, D.

    2006-01-01

    French authorities have decided to back the development and the use of ethanol. A program called Flex-fuel-2010 favours the production and a wide use of the E85 fuel for transport in France. It appears that the volume of France's exports in cereals and beet sugar represent, in ethanol equivalent, 70% of our needs in car fuel for private transport. Oil companies and supermarket chains compel themselves to open more than 500 selling spots of E85 fuel throughout France in 2007. In 2007, car manufacturers like Renault and PSA will begin to sell cars running on E85 at a price equivalent to that of current cars. Fiscal incentives are also expected to favour the use of E85. (A.C.)

  11. ATMX-600 rail car safety analysis report for packaging (SARP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adcock, F.E.; McCarthy, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The ATMX-600 series rail car is used by Rockwell International, Rocky Flats Plant, for shipping low-level radioactive waste under the provisions of DOT Special Permit 5948. Fissile Class I shipments are authorized with the car loaded to capacity with drums containing up to 200 g of 239 Pu. Inner packaging may be polyethylene-lined steel drums or fiberglass-coated plywood crates. These massive double-walled steel cars provide the equivalent protection of a Type B package. Rapid loading and unloading of the 9- by 9- by 50-ft cargo space is accomplished by prepackaging the waste in standard 20-ft steel cargo containers. The ATMX-600 rail car will hold two cargo containers, each carrying seventy 55-gal drums and up to 44,800 lb gross weight. Improvements to inner packaging and current shipping practices are discussed

  12. Evaluation of Water Consumption by Car Wash Facilities in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Nigeria. 2Ofijidalillah Environmental Services, Ado Karu, Nasarawa State Nigeria ... were analysed using statistical method such as random sampling techniques and simple descriptive ... weekend, a long queue of cars is usually formed, all.

  13. Toxicity and management in CAR T-cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Challice L Bonifant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available T cells can be genetically modified to target tumors through the expression of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR. Most notably, CAR T cells have demonstrated clinical efficacy in hematologic malignancies with more modest responses when targeting solid tumors. However, CAR T cells also have the capacity to elicit expected and unexpected toxicities including: cytokine release syndrome, neurologic toxicity, “on target/off tumor” recognition, and anaphylaxis. Theoretical toxicities including clonal expansion secondary to insertional oncogenesis, graft versus host disease, and off-target antigen recognition have not been clinically evident. Abrogating toxicity has become a critical step in the successful application of this emerging technology. To this end, we review the reported and theoretical toxicities of CAR T cells and their management.

  14. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the car. Be especially careful if you are sleep deprived or experience changes in your schedule or ... these extreme conditions can cause damage to the brain and other vital organs, as well as heat ...

  15. Measurement of vertical track deflection from a moving rail car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The University of Nebraska has been conducting research sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development to develop a system that measures vertical track deflection/modulus from a moving rail car. Previous work ...

  16. Base fluid in improving heat transfer for EV car battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin-Abdun, Nazih A.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman, A. B.; Wan, Khairunizam; Hazry, D.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Adnan, Nazrul H.; Heng, R.; Kamarudin, H.; Zunaidi, I.

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of base fluid (as coolants) channeling inside the heat exchanger in the process of the increase in thermal conductivity between EV car battery and the heat exchanger. The analysis showed that secondary cooling system by means of water has advantages in improving the heat transfer process and reducing the electric power loss on the form of thermal energy from batteries. This leads to the increase in the efficiency of the EV car battery, hence also positively reflecting the performance of the EV car. The present work, analysis is performed to assess the design and use of heat exchanger in increasing the performance efficiency of the EV car battery. This provides a preface to the use this design for nano-fluids which increase and improve from heat transfer.

  17. Optical Automatic Car Identification (OACI) : Volume 1. Advanced System Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    A performance specification is provided in this report for an Optical Automatic Car Identification (OACI) scanner system which features 6% improved readability over existing industry scanner systems. It also includes the analysis and rationale which ...

  18. An Automatic Car Counting System Using OverFeat Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Debojit; Su, Hongbo; Wang, Chengyi; Blankenship, Jason; Stevanovic, Aleksandar

    2017-06-30

    Automatic car counting is an important component in the automated traffic system. Car counting is very important to understand the traffic load and optimize the traffic signals. In this paper, we implemented the Gaussian Background Subtraction Method and OverFeat Framework to count cars. OverFeat Framework is a combination of Convolution Neural Network (CNN) and one machine learning classifier (like Support Vector Machines (SVM) or Logistic Regression). With this study, we showed another possible application area for the OverFeat Framework. The advantages and shortcomings of the Background Subtraction Method and OverFeat Framework were analyzed using six individual traffic videos with different perspectives, such as camera angles, weather conditions and time of the day. In addition, we compared the two algorithms above with manual counting and a commercial software called Placemeter. The OverFeat Framework showed significant potential in the field of car counting with the average accuracy of 96.55% in our experiment.

  19. Effects of Car Accidents on Three-Lane Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to investigate the effect of car accidents on the traffic flow. The model is an extension of the full velocity difference (FVD model by taking into account the lane changing. The extended lane-changing rules are presented to model the lane-changing behaviour. The cases that the car accidents occupy the exterior or interior lane, the medium lane, and two lanes are studied by numerical simulations. The time-space diagrams and the current diagrams are presented, and the traffic jams are investigated. The results show that the car accident has a different effect on the traffic flow when it occupies different lanes. The car accidents have a more serious effect on the whole road when they occupy two lanes. The larger the density is, the greater the influence on the traffic flow becomes.

  20. The risk of airborne influenza transmission in passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbs, L D; Morawska, L; Bell, S C

    2012-03-01

    Travel in passenger cars is a ubiquitous aspect of the daily activities of many people. During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic a case of probable transmission during car travel was reported in Australia, to which spread via the airborne route may have contributed. However, there are no data to indicate the likely risks of such events, and how they may vary and be mitigated. To address this knowledge gap, we estimated the risk of airborne influenza transmission in two cars (1989 model and 2005 model) by employing ventilation measurements and a variation of the Wells-Riley model. Results suggested that infection risk can be reduced by not recirculating air; however, estimated risk ranged from 59% to 99·9% for a 90-min trip when air was recirculated in the newer vehicle. These results have implications for interrupting in-car transmission of other illnesses spread by the airborne route.

  1. Cars & Censorship: How Advertising Pressure Can Corrupt a Free Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Ronald K. L.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses "private censorship" as it relates to car dealers and television advertising. Defines "private censorship" as that which occurs when a broadcaster suppresses or alters a news story that affects commercial clients (advertisers). Makes recommendations for a freer press. (JOW)

  2. Interaction of the phosphorylated DNA-binding domain in nuclear receptor CAR with its ligand-binding domain regulates CAR activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizu, Ryota; Min, Jungki; Sobhany, Mack; Pedersen, Lars C; Mutoh, Shingo; Negishi, Masahiko

    2018-01-05

    The nuclear protein constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR or NR1I3) regulates several liver functions such as drug and energy metabolism and cell growth or death, which are often involved in the development of diseases such as diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma. CAR undergoes a conversion from inactive homodimers to active heterodimers with retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), and phosphorylation of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) at Thr-38 in CAR regulates this conversion. Here, we uncovered the molecular mechanism by which this phosphorylation regulates the intramolecular interaction between CAR's DBD and ligand-binding domain (LBD), enabling the homodimer-heterodimer conversion. Phosphomimetic substitution of Thr-38 with Asp increased co-immunoprecipitation of the CAR DBD with CAR LBD in Huh-7 cells. Isothermal titration calorimetry assays also revealed that recombinant CAR DBD-T38D, but not nonphosphorylated CAR DBD, bound the CAR LBD peptide. This DBD-LBD interaction masked CAR's dimer interface, preventing CAR homodimer formation. Of note, EGF signaling weakened the interaction of CAR DBD T38D with CAR LBD, converting CAR to the homodimer form. The DBD-T38D-LBD interaction also prevented CAR from forming a heterodimer with RXRα. However, this interaction opened up a CAR surface, allowing interaction with protein phosphatase 2A. Thr-38 dephosphorylation then dissociated the DBD-LBD interaction, allowing CAR heterodimer formation with RXRα. We conclude that the intramolecular interaction of phosphorylated DBD with the LBD enables CAR to adapt a transient monomer configuration that can be converted to either the inactive homodimer or the active heterodimer.

  3. Travel habits of electrical car owners; Elbileieres reisevaner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-18

    There are about 1300 electric motor cars (elcars) in Norway, of which about 75 percent are privately owned and 25 percent owned by enterprises. Elcars are most frequently used for short travels, especially to/from work and in connection with purchases. Elcar owners emphasize economic and some of the driving privileges as main reasons for acquiring the car. Elcar owners appear in little extent to be more environmentally conscious than the rest of the population.

  4. Risk Management Analysis on the Car Drivers in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntohadi, Hendro; Pahala, Yosi; Sitanggang, Rohana

    2015-01-01

    Car drivers in Indonesia will always face many kinds of risks. This research contains the context determination of this research, identifies all the significant risks, measures the frequency and impact of all the risks, draws all the identified risks in the chart, and describes how to manage or mitigate the risks. The dangerous risks which have high frequency and high impact are: 1) Many car drivers get the driving license without taking a driving course and without learning carefully the the...

  5. Using in-car feedback to influence travel decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, I T [WS Atkins plc, Dublin (Ireland); O' Mahony, M M; Broderick, B M [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering

    1999-11-01

    It is widely accepted that there is a need to reduce private car use, thereby alleviating congested urban areas and reducing fuel consumption and emissions from transport vehicles. This paper examines one approach to achieving this aim, based on the hypothesis that car owners do not correctly perceive the full cost of a car trip. The primary objective of the research was to assess the potential for correcting this misperception through the use of a digital car running-cost meter, installed on the dashboard of a car, which displays on a real-time basis the cost of each trip. Cost meter information on marginal trip cost, external cost and the effect of driving style was provided to a sample of drivers in a small pilot action in Dublin. The findings from the data (diaries and interviews) are presented and extrapolated by means of a transport network model to assess potential energy saving. The key findings from the work are as follows. (a) There was a significant reduction in off-peak-period trips observed as a result of the car meter but there was no significant reduction in time spent in the car, distance travelled by car and cost of driving. (b) A surprising finding from the project was that 40% of the subjects who happened to be changing their vehicle shortly after being involved in the project chose more fuel-efficient vehicles. They attributed their choice in part to their increased awareness of fuel costs as a result of their involvement in the project. (author)

  6. Psychological determinants of fuel consumption of purchased new cars

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, A; Gutscher, H; Scholz, R W

    2011-01-01

    With regard to reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of road transport consumers' adoption of fuel-efficient vehicles is crucial. However, facing the ongoing trend of increasing car size and power, fuel consumption is apparently of lesser importance to most buyers. For the design of effective measures to change behavior and promote fuel-efficient cars, psychological factors should be considered. Drawing from psychological research on environmental behavior, we propose a model which inte...

  7. Influence of Unsteady Aerodynamics on Driving Dynamics of Passenger Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Huemer, J.; Stickel, T.; Sagan, E.; Schwarz, M.; Wall, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with CFD-Methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared to steady state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore innovative vehicle concepts like electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve...

  8. Purchase Involvement of New Car Buyers: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Abramson; Peggy D. Brewer

    1993-01-01

    The purchase of a new automobile is often cited as the quintessence of a high involvement purchase decision; the financial risks and personal relevance of the purchase dictate that car buyers put forth much effort before making a decision. In this research such efforts as dealers shopped, brands shopped, and information sources used are studied in a large sample of new car buyers in West Virginia. The purchase behavior of respondents in this study seems more like low-involvement than high inv...

  9. Membrane processes for the reuse of car washing wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Uçar

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates alternative treatments of car wash effluents. The car wash wastewater was treated by settling, filtration, and membrane filtration processes. During settling, total solid concentration decreased rapidly within the first 2 hours and then remained constant. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and conductivity were decreased by 10% and 4%, respectively. After settling, wastewater was filtered throughout a 100 μm filter. It was found that filtration had a negligible effect on COD...

  10. Sustainable procurement of official cars for the Dutch government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notenboom, M.

    2009-04-01

    The objectives of this study are to develop more strict sustainability criteria for procurement policy for official cars for the Dutch government, to examine the effects of alternative scenarios and to provide recommendations that can be used by the Netherlands Society for Nature and Environment to stimulate the government in using more ambitious criteria in their latest tender for official cars. These recommendations involve both the government?s choice of vehicles and the government?s use of these vehicles. [nl

  11. Stability Analysis for Car Following Model Based on Control Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiang-Pei; Li Zhi-Peng; Ge Hong-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Stability analysis is one of the key issues in car-following theory. The stability analysis with Lyapunov function for the two velocity difference car-following model (for short, TVDM) is conducted and the control method to suppress traffic congestion is introduced. Numerical simulations are given and results are consistent with the theoretical analysis. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  12. Heat transfer augmentation of a car radiator using nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Adnan M.; Bakar, R. A.; Kadirgama, K.; Sharma, K. V.

    2014-05-01

    The car radiator heat transfer enhancement by using TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in water as a base fluid was studied experimentally. The test rig is setup as a car radiator with tubes and container. The range of Reynolds number and volume fraction are (250-1,750) and (1.0-2.5 %) respectively. Results showed that the heat transfer increases with increasing of nanofluid volume fraction. The experimental data is agreed with other investigator.

  13. ARE PRICING POLICIES EFFECTIVE TO CHANGE CAR USE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geertje SCHUITEMA

    2007-01-01

    Results revealed that under pricing policies most people did not intend to change their car use. Pricing policies were relatively more effective when prices increased significantly. Especially visiting and shopping trips were affected, while commuting trips were hardly affected. Moreover, respondents were most likely to reduce their car use for short trips, which are an important source of CO2 emissions and local air pollution.

  14. Force-controlled adjustment of car body fixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Production technology in modern car body assembling is affected by highly automated and complex facilities. However, in mounting car body assemblies adjustments are always necessary to react on quality instabilities of the input parts. Today these adjustments are made according to experience and with a high content of manual operation. This paper describes an innovative method that detects part deformations in a force sensitive way following the works of Dr. Muck, who developed a force sensit...

  15. Media Bias and Advertising: Evidence from German Car Magazines

    OpenAIRE

    Dewenter, Ralf; Heimeshoff, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the existence of a possible media bias by analyzing the impact of automobile manufactures' advertisements on automobile reviews in German car magazines. By accounting for both endogeneity and sample selection we find a positive impact of advertising volumes on test scores. Moreover, also a home bias in terms of higher scores for German cars is observable. We account these results as some evidence for a media bias, induced by the two-sidedness of the markets.

  16. Media bias and advertising: Evidence from a German car magazine

    OpenAIRE

    Dewenter, Ralf; Heimeshoff, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the existence of a possible media bias by analyzing the impact of auto- mobile manufacturer’s advertisements on automobile reviews in a leading German car maga- zine. By accounting for both endogeneity and sample selection using a two-step procedure, we find a positive impact of advertising volumes on test scores. The main advantage of our study is the measurement of technical characteristics of cars to explain test scores. Due to this kind of measurement, we avoid ser...

  17. Modelling of Security Principles Within Car-to-Car Communications in Modern Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Durech

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent transportation systems (ITS bring advanced applications that provide innovative services for various transportation modes in the area of traffic control, and enable better awareness for different users. Communication connections between intelligent vehicles with the use of wireless communication standards, so called Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs, require ensuring verification of validity of provided services as well as services related to transmission confidentiality and integrity. The goal of this paper is to analyze secure mechanisms utilised in VANET communication within Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITS with a focus on safety critical applications. The practical part of the contribution is dedicated to modelling of security properties of VANET networks via OPNET Modeler tool extended by the implementation of the OpenSSL library for authentication protocol realisation based on digital signature schemes. The designed models simulate a transmission of authorised alert messages in Car-to-Car communication for several traffic scenarios with recommended Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES. The obtained results of the throughput and delay in the simulated network are compared for secured and no-secured communications in dependence on the selected digital signature schemes and the number of mobile nodes. The OpenSSL library has also been utilised for the comparison of time demandingness of digital signature schemes based on RSA (Rivest Shamir Adleman, DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm and ECDSA (Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm for different key-lengths suitable for real time VANET communications for safety-critical applications of C-ITS.

  18. Observed use of automatic seat belts in 1987 cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N

    1989-10-01

    Usage of the automatic belt systems supplied by six large-volume automobile manufacturers to meet the federal requirements for automatic restraints were observed in suburban Washington, D.C., Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. The different belt systems studied were: Ford and Toyota (motorized, nondetachable automatic shoulder belt), Nissan (motorized, detachable shoulder belt), VW and Chrysler (nonmotorized, detachable shoulder belt), and GM (nonmotorized detachable lap and shoulder belt). Use of automatic belts was significantly greater than manual belt use in otherwise comparable late-model cars for all manufacturers except Chrysler; in Chrysler cars, automatic belt use was significantly lower than manual belt use. The automatic shoulder belts provided by Ford, Nissan, Toyota, and VW increased use rates to about 90%. Because use rates were lower in Ford cars with manual belts, their increase was greater. GM cars had the smallest increase in use rates; however, lap belt use was highest in GM cars. The other manufacturers supply knee bolsters to supplement shoulder belt protection; all--except VW--also provide manual lap belts, which were used by about half of those who used the automatic shoulder belt. The results indicate that some manufacturers have been more successful than others in providing automatic belt systems that result in high use that, in turn, will mean fewer deaths and injuries in those cars.

  19. Autist mobile seat's frame strength simulation used in a car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryo, S. H.; Jamari, J.; Naufal, G. K.; Ismail, R.; Bayuseno, A. P.; Desiningrum, D. R.

    2016-04-01

    Going on a car with autistic children needs a special handling. Autistic children that tend to be hyperactive in the car may disturb driving. A tool is needed to keep them in a calm state when they are in the car. Autist Mobile Seat is an aid for the autistic children when going on a car. The aid is an additional seat paired with the main seat of the car. This aid consists of three main things: Main frame, body skin, and pneumatic system. Frame as the main component supporting the Autist Mobile Seat functions as a holder as well as a body skin retainer in order to be able to retain the body of the autistic children. The strength of the frame from this Autist Mobile Seat should be counted as an anticipation from the failure of the frame function when receiving load when used by the autistic children in the car. Consequently, a test on the frame of the Autist Mobile Seat towards the load received should be conducted by using a method of FEM (Finite Element Method) with the help of commercial software. The simulation produces the maximum strength, the frame towards the load received as well as the critical point on the frame when loading occurs.

  20. From acoustic descriptors to evoked quality of car door sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezat, Marie-Céline; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Roussarie, Vincent; Ystad, Sølvi

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the first part of a study aiming at adapting the mechanical car door construction to the drivers' expectancies in terms of perceived quality of cars deduced from car door sounds. A perceptual cartography of car door sounds is obtained from various listening tests aiming at revealing both ecological and analytical properties linked to evoked car quality. In the first test naive listeners performed absolute evaluations of five ecological properties (i.e., solidity, quality, weight, closure energy, and success of closure). Then experts in the area of automobile doors categorized the sounds according to organic constituents (lock, joints, door panel), in particular whether or not the lock mechanism could be perceived. Further, a sensory panel of naive listeners identified sensory descriptors such as classical descriptors or onomatopoeia that characterize the sounds, hereby providing an analytic description of the sounds. Finally, acoustic descriptors were calculated after decomposition of the signal into a lock and a closure component by the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method. A statistical relationship between the acoustic descriptors and the perceptual evaluations of the car door sounds could then be obtained through linear regression analysis.

  1. CAR-T therapy for leukemia: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Xiao, Qing; Wang, Zhe; Feng, Wen-Li

    2017-04-01

    Despite the rapid development of therapeutic strategies, leukemia remains a type of difficult-to-treat hematopoietic malignancy that necessitates introduction of more effective treatment options to improve life expectancy and quality of patients. Genetic engineering in adoptively transferred T cells to express antigen-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has proved highly powerful and efficacious in inducing sustained responses in patients with refractory malignancies, as exemplified by the success of CD19-targeting CAR-T treatment in patients with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Recent strategies, including manipulating intracellular activating domains and transducing viral vectors, have resulted in better designed and optimized CAR-T cells. This is further facilitated by the rapid identification of an accumulating number of potential leukemic antigens that may serve as therapeutic targets for CAR-T cells. This review will provide a comprehensive background and scrutinize recent important breakthrough studies on anti-leukemia CAR-T cells, with focus on recently identified antigens for CAR-T therapy design and approaches to overcome critical challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. PENGARUH CAR DAN LDR TERHADAP RETURN ON ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deden Edwar Yokeu Bernardin

    2016-10-01

      Banking is one of the sectors that dominate perkonomian Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR and the Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR Of Return On Assets (ROA at Bank BJB listed on the Stock Exchange with the observation period 2009 - 2015. The method used by researchers is using dekskriptif and verification method with quantitative approach using multiple regression analysis. This study uses a support program SPSS 20. The results in this study stated that partially showed that the CAR significant effect on ROA, means to show the truth of the factual from the Bank BJB is possible with the increased quality of the CAR will be the effect on the profit shown by the increase in ROA and LDR no significant effect on ROA, that the increase in liquidity does not necessarily increase profits in the analysis using ROA and by no means influence. Additionally simultaneously both CAR and LDR significant effect on ROA, means that the ratio analysis done of the higher value of CAR and LDR will necessarily increase in the profits of the Bank BJB by using ROA.   Keywords: CAR, LDR and ROA

  3. CERN car sharing scheme now open to everyone

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The CERN car sharing service is a self-service scheme providing a pool of 30 CERN cars available for pick-up free of charge from 13 points around the Meyrin and Prévessin sites. From Thursday, 1st December 2011, the service will be open to all members of the CERN personnel and contractors' personnel, in the framework of their professional activities at CERN only. The conditions of use can be consulted at: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/en/content/Mobility/Car_sharing To be able to use the service, members of the CERN personnel and contractors' personnel must: have a contractual link to CERN, possess an e-mail address registered in the CERN databases; hold an RFID access card, which can be obtained from the CERN Car Pool on presentation of a valid CERN access card. Car Pool, Building 130-R-012, open Monday-Friday, 8.00 a.m.-12.00 noon/1.00 p.m.-5.00 p.m. https://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/en/content/car-pool GS-IS

  4. Development, Control, and Evaluation of an Actuated Car Door.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strolz, M; Mortl, A; Graf, M; Buss, M

    2009-01-01

    Actuated car doors are a promising way to increase the convenience of access to cars. We propose an advanced actuation and control concept which can easily be integrated into conventional car doors. By utilizing a linear, nonbackdrivable actuator and various sensors, both automatic and manual door operations are enabled. A discrete state controller ensures a safe operation of the door, including automatic opening and closing. The realization of a supportive, high-quality haptic interaction with the car door for the manual operation is the principal part of our work. Due to the impracticality of a direct measurement of the user interaction force at a car door, we chose impedance control to render the desired dynamics. The impedance was designed to provide a convenient, intuitive, and safe manual handling of the door. We implemented and tested four different impedance control schemes, of which impedance control with actuator force feedback performed best. Two experimental evaluations with 16 and 27 participants revealed a predominant approval of the actuated car door.

  5. Effects of preprocessing method on TVOC emission of car mat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Jia, Li

    2013-02-01

    The effects of the mat preprocessing method on total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) emission of car mat are studied in this paper. An appropriate TVOC emission period for car mat is suggested. The emission factors for total volatile organic compounds from three kinds of new car mats are discussed. The car mats are preprocessed by washing, baking and ventilation. When car mats are preprocessed by washing, the TVOC emission for all samples tested are lower than that preprocessed in other methods. The TVOC emission is in stable situation for a minimum of 4 days. The TVOC emitted from some samples may exceed 2500μg/kg. But the TVOC emitted from washed Polyamide (PA) and wool mat is less than 2500μg/kg. The emission factors of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) are experimentally investigated in the case of different preprocessing methods. The air temperature in environment chamber and the water temperature for washing are important factors influencing on emission of car mats.

  6. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF UNSTEADY HEAT EXCHANGE IN A PASSENGER CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Khomenko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Existing mathematicalmodelsofunsteadyheatexchangeinapassengercardonotsatisfytheneedofthedifferentconstructivedecisionsofthelifesupportsystemefficiencyestimation. They also don’t allow comparing new and old life support system constructions influence on the inner environment conditions. Moreoverquite frequently unsteady heat exchange processes were studied at the initial car motion stage. Due to the new competitive engineering decisionsof the lifesupportsystemthe need of a new mathematical instrument that would satisfy the mentioned features and their influence on the unsteadyheatexchangeprocesses during the whole time of the road appeared. The purpose of this work is creation of the mathematicalmodel ofunsteadyheatexchangeinapassengercarthatcan satisfythe above-listed requirements. Methodology. Fortheassigned task realizationsystemofdifferentialequationsthatcharacterizesunsteadyheatexchangeprocessesinapassengercarwascomposed; forthesystemof equationssolution elementary balance method was used. Findings. Computational algorithm was developed andcomputer program for modeling transitional heat processes in the car was designed. It allows comparing different life support system constructions influence on the inner environment conditionsand unsteady heat exchange processes can be studied at every car motion stage. Originality.Mathematicalmodelofunsteadyheatexchangeinapassengercarwasimproved. That is why it can be used for the heat engineering studying of the inner car state under various conditions and for the operation of the different life support systems of passenger cars comparison. Mathematicalmodelingofunsteadyheatexchangeinapassengercarwas made by the elementary balance method. Practical value. Created mathematical model gives the possibility to simulate temperature changes in passenger car on unsteady thermal conditions with enough accuracy and to introduce and remove additional elements to the designed model. Thus different

  7. Research on some auxiliary mechanisms used in passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonescu, Daniela; Iozsa, Daniel; Antonescu, Ovidiu; Fratila, Gh.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of researches on the topological structure and geometrical analysis of the planar mechanisms with articulated bars, which are used for actuating the doors of cars. The main five types of car doors with rotate movement (folding) are presented, being described both as constructive structure and mode of operation, through suitable kinematic schemes. Some innovative solutions for vehicle door actuating mechanisms aim to use as little space as possible, which is beneficial for car parking. There are three types of car door movements: rotation, sliding and planar rotational-sliding. Most of the cars are equipped with folding doors, where the rotate movement is limited and operates horizontally. Almost all sliding doors are placed on the rear of the car (only for passengers, not for driver). Unlike rotate doors, the sliding doors require a minimum lateral space, which is an advantage, especially in parking places. In the end of the paper, a kinematic analysis of the canopy 4-bar mechanism has been performed, in order to increase the passenger comfort on the access into the vehicle.

  8. Tendencies in the selection of materials for passenger cars from the viewpoint of the development of sport cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott, H

    1981-05-18

    Aluminium as a substitute material for steel is discussed. A short discussion of glass fiber reinforced plastics and polyurethane is given. Car weights, components, and relevant construction materials are discussed. The outlook for tendencies and developments is described.

  9. Building a CAR Garage: Preparing for the Delivery of Commercial CAR T Cell Products at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perica, Karlo; Curran, Kevin J; Brentjens, Renier J; Giralt, Sergio A

    2018-03-01

    Two commercial chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies for CD19-expressing B cell malignancies, Kymriah and Yescarta, have recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The administration of CAR T cells is a complex endeavor involving cell manufacture, tracking and shipping of apheresis products, and management of novel and severe toxicities. At Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, we have identified 8 essential tasks that define the CAR T cell workflow. In this review, we discuss practical aspects of CAR T cell program development, including clinical, administrative, and regulatory challenges for successful implementation. Copyright © 2018 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation of the CAR II model for Flanders, Belgium; Validatie van het model CAR II voor Vlaanderen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marien, S.; Celis, D.; Roekens, E.

    2013-04-15

    In Flanders, Belgium, the CAR model (Calculation of Air pollution from Road traffic) for air quality along urban roads was recently extensively validated for NO2. More clarity has been gained about the quality and accuracy of this model [Dutch] In Vlaanderen is het CAR-model (Calculation of Air pollution from Road traffic) voor de luchtkwaliteit langs binnenstedelijke wegen onlangs uitvoerig gevalideerd voor NO2. Er is nu meer duidelijkheid over de kwaliteit en nauwkeurigheid van dit model.

  11. Benefit of energy absorption by the truck in a frontal car-to-truck collision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coo, P.J.A. de; Adalian, C.

    2000-01-01

    EEVC Working Group 14 is investigating the effect of fixing energy absorbing front underrun protection systems (eaFUPS) to trucks instead of rigid devices in order to reduce the injury severity to car occupants in car-to-truck frontal collisions. Three car-to-truck crash tests with cars from

  12. 49 CFR 179.100 - General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.100 Section 179.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100 General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks. ...

  13. 49 CFR 179.101 - Individual specification requirements applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to pressure tank car tanks. 179.101 Section 179.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT... tank car tanks. Editorial Note: At 66 FR 45186, Aug. 28, 2001, an amendment published amending a table...

  14. 49 CFR 179.102 - Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.102 Section 179.102 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102 Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks. (a) In addition to...

  15. 49 CFR 179.103 - Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.103 Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks. (a) In addition to the applicable...

  16. 49 CFR 179.301 - Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-unit tank car tanks. 179.301 Section 179.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.301 Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) In...

  17. Car and Motorcycle Show Brings “Gearheads” and Fans Together | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer On Sept. 24, the Building 549 parking lot was full of cars; however, unlike any regular work day, the spaces were filled with a variety of classic cars, street rods, motorcycles, and unique modern cars for display in the first car and motorcycle show hosted at NCI at Frederick.

  18. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight Car...

  19. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.500 Section 179.500 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks. ...

  20. 49 CFR 218.75 - Methods of protection for camp cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of protection for camp cars. 218.75... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.75 Methods of protection for camp cars. When camp cars requiring protection are on either main track...

  1. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31... cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars (measured...

  2. 49 CFR 174.304 - Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars... (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars. A tank car containing a Class 3 (flammable liquid) material, other... the liquid from the tank car to permanent storage tanks of sufficient capacity to receive the entire...

  3. 49 CFR 223.17 - Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cars and cabooses. 223.17 Section 223.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.17 Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. Each locomotive, passenger car and caboose that is fully equipped with glazing...

  4. 49 CFR 231.2 - Hopper cars and high-side gondolas with fixed ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hopper cars and high-side gondolas with fixed ends... cars and high-side gondolas with fixed ends. (Cars with sides more than 36 inches above the floor are high-side cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see...

  5. Molecular study on the carAB operon reveals that carB gene is required for swimming and biofilm formation in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Tao; Rou, Wei; Song, Xue; Guo, Jing; Fan, Xiaojing; Kamau, Gicharu Gibson; Zou, Huasong

    2015-10-23

    The carA and carB genes code the small and large subunits of carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (CPS) that responsible for arginine and pyrimidine production. The purpose of this work was to study the gene organization and expression pattern of carAB operon, and the biological functions of carA and carB genes in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. RT-PCR method was employed to identify the full length of carAB operon transcript in X. citri subsp. citri. The promoter of carAB operon was predicted and analyzed its activity by fusing a GUS reporter gene. The swimming motility was tested on 0.25% agar NY plates with 1% glucose. Biofilm was measured by cell adhesion to polyvinyl chloride 96-well plate. The results indicated that carAB operon was composed of five gene members carA-orf-carB-greA-rpfE. A single promoter was predicted from the nucleotide sequence upstream of carAB operon, and its sensitivity to glutamic acid, uracil and arginine was confirmed by fusing a GUS reporter gene. Deletion mutagenesis of carB gene resulted in reduced abilities in swimming on soft solid media and in forming biofilm on polystyrene microtiter plates. From these results, we concluded that carAB operon was involved in multiple biological processes in X. citri subsp. citri.

  6. AD HOC Networks for the Autonomous Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Davidescu; Negrus, Eugen

    2017-10-01

    The future of the vehicle is made of cars, roads and infrastructures connected in a two way automated communication in a holistic system. It is a mandatory to use Encryption to maintain Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability in an ad hoc vehicle network. Vehicle to Vehicle communication, requires multichannel interaction between mobile, moving and changing parties to insure the full benefit from data sharing and real time decision making, a network of such users referred as mobile ad hoc network (MANET), however as ad hoc networks were not implemented in such a scale, it is not clear what is the best method and protocol to apply. Furthermore the visibility of secure preferred asymmetric encrypted ad hoc networks in a real time environment of dense moving autonomous vehicles has to be demonstrated, In order to evaluate the performance of Ad Hoc networks in changing conditions a simulation of multiple protocols was performed on large number of mobile nodes. The following common routing protocols were tested, DSDV is a proactive protocol, every mobile station maintains a routing table with all available destinations, DSR is a reactive routing protocol which allows nodes in the MANET to dynamically discover a source route across multiple network hops, AODV is a reactive routing protocol Instead of being proactive. It minimizes the number of broadcasts by creating routes based on demand, SAODV is a secure version of AODV, requires heavyweight asymmetric cryptographic, ARIANDE is a routing protocol that relies on highly efficient symmetric cryptography the concept is primarily based on DSR. A methodical evolution was performed in a various density of transportation, based on known communication bench mark parameters including, Throughput Vs. time, Routing Load per packets and bytes. Out of the none encrypted protocols, It is clear that in terms of performance of throughput and routing load DSR protocol has a clear advantage the high node number mode. The encrypted

  7. The linkage between car-related fringe benefits and the travel behavior of knowledge workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon; Kaplan, Sigal

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the linkage between car-related fringe benefits and the travel behavior of knowledge workers in commute and leisure trips. Specifically, this study compares the commuting and leisure travel behavior of knowledge workers who receive either a company-car or car allowance...... with the travel behavior of workers who do not receive car-related fringe benefits. Data are based on a revealed-preferences survey among knowledge workers in Israel. Results show that car-related fringe benefits are associated with (i) high car ownership and car use intensity, (ii) long commute distances...... and travel times and non-sustainable transport modes, and (iii) high frequency of long-distance leisure trips. Policy implications include (i) directing policies towards reducing car ownership induced by car-related fringe benefits, (ii) encouraging company-car holders to ‘pay their way’, and (iii...

  8. Car free cities: Pathway to healthy urban living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Khreis, Haneen

    2016-09-01

    Many cities across the world are beginning to shift their mobility solution away from the private cars and towards more environmentally friendly and citizen-focused means. Hamburg, Oslo, Helsinki, and Madrid have recently announced their plans to become (partly) private car free cities. Other cities like Paris, Milan, Chengdu, Masdar, Dublin, Brussels, Copenhagen, Bogota, and Hyderabad have measures that aim at reducing motorized traffic including implementing car free days, investing in cycling infrastructure and pedestrianization, restricting parking spaces and considerable increases in public transport provision. Such plans and measures are particularly implemented with the declared aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. These reductions are also likely to benefit public health. We aimed to describe the plans for private car free cities and its likely effects on public health. We reviewed the grey and scientific literature on plans for private car free cities, restricted car use, related exposures and health. An increasing number of cities are planning to become (partly) private car free. They mainly focus on the reduction of private car use in city centers. The likely effects of such policies are significant reductions in traffic-related air pollution, noise, and temperature in city centers. For example, up to a 40% reduction in NO2 levels has been reported on car free days. These reductions are likely to lead to a reduction in premature mortality and morbidity. Furthermore the reduction in the number of cars, and therefore a reduction in the need for parking places and road space, provides opportunities to increase green space and green networks in cities, which in turn can lead to many beneficial health effects. All these measures are likely to lead to higher levels of active mobility and physical activity which may improve public health the most and also provide more opportunities for people to interact with each other in public space. Furthermore, such

  9. Advanced Infant Car Seat Would Increase Highway Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

    2004-01-01

    An advanced infant car seat has been proposed to increase highway safety by reducing the incidence of crying, fussy behavior, and other child-related distractions that divert an adult driver s attention from driving. In addition to a conventional infant car seat with safety restraints, the proposed advanced infant car seat would include a number of components and subsystems that would function together as a comprehensive infant-care system that would keep its occupant safe, comfortable, and entertained, and would enable the driver to monitor the baby without having to either stop the car or turn around to face the infant during driving. The system would include a vibrator with bulb switch to operate; the switch would double as a squeeze toy that would make its own specific sound. A music subsystem would include loudspeakers built into the seat plus digital and analog circuitry that would utilize plug-in memory modules to synthesize music or a variety of other sounds. The music subsystem would include a built-in sound generator that could synthesize white noise or a human heartbeat to calm the baby to sleep. A second bulb switch could be used to control the music subsystem and would double as a squeeze toy that would make a distinct sound. An anti-noise sound-suppression system would isolate the baby from potentially disturbing ambient external noises. This subsystem would include small microphones, placed near the baby s ears, to detect ambient noise. The outputs of the microphone would be amplified and fed to the loudspeakers at appropriate amplitude and in a phase opposite that of the detected ambient noise, such that the net ambient sound arriving at the baby s ears would be almost completely cancelled. A video-camera subsystem would enable the driver to monitor the baby visually while continuing to face forward. One or more portable miniature video cameras could be embedded in the side of the infant car seat (see figure) or in a flip-down handle. The outputs of

  10. Vehicle compatibility in car-to-car collisions : literature review in the framework of the European research project "Improvement of crash compatibility between cars", Workpackage 1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, J. van der

    2000-01-01

    In this report, a literature review is given on the subject of crash compatibility and incompatibility between cars. The study is based on scientific publications on this subject published over the last 15 years. The compatibility problem is described from three points of view: statistical,

  11. An IoT Based Predictive Connected Car Maintenance Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Dhall

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT is fast emerging and becoming an almost basic necessity in general life. The concepts of using technology in our daily life is not new, but with the advancements in technology, the impact of technology in daily activities of a person can be seen in almost all the aspects of life. Today, all aspects of our daily life, be it health of a person, his location, movement, etc. can be monitored and analyzed using information captured from various connected devices. This paper discusses one such use case, which can be implemented by the automobile industry, using technological advancements in the areas of IoT and Analytics. ‘Connected Car’ is a terminology, often associated with cars and other passenger vehicles, which are capable of internet connectivity and sharing of various kinds of data with backend applications. The data being shared can be about the location and speed of the car, status of various parts/lubricants of the car, and if the car needs urgent service or not. Once data are transmitted to the backend services, various workflows can be created to take necessary actions, e.g. scheduling a service with the car service provider, or if large numbers of care are in the same location, then the traffic management system can take necessary action. ’Connected cars’ can also communicate with each other, and can send alerts to each other in certain scenarios like possible crash etc. This paper talks about how the concept of ‘connected cars’ can be used to perform ‘predictive car maintenance’. It also discusses how certain technology components, i.e., Eclipse Mosquito and Eclipse Paho can be used to implement a predictive connected car use case.

  12. The Study of Fabric Performance for Car Seats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonin Havelka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the investigation of the performance of car seat fabrics in terms of physiological comfort of sitting, specifi cally their water vapour resistance and air permeability. The current work presents an alternative approach to increasing the effectiveness of car seat fabrics through a combination of newly designed middle layer with forced convection achieved by a supplementary suction ventilation device. The supplementary device was designed to measure water vapour permeability by means of the sweating guarded hot plate (SGHP system. It consists of two parts: a frame to grip a tested sample for measurements within the SGHP system and two suction ventilators which are arranged at one end of the mentioned frame in order to provide suction into the tested fabric plane during the SGHP test. The results of this investigation show that water vapour transport is increased by approximately 20% compared to the standard way of measurement by means of SGHP because of forced air flow in the plane of ribbed – channelled structure of the car seat middle layer. The findings of this study have a number of important implications for future practice. The combination of a car seat cover with channelled structure and forced air fl ow improves physiological comfort of sitting which is a key issue for both drivers and manufacturers. The suggested device for forced air flow convection in the plane of a car seat fabric has not yet been part of an actual car seat, however it is possible to use its principles in a smart car seat prototype.

  13. Car Travel-Related Thrombosis: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2018-06-01

    The condition sometimes referred to as "economy class syndrome," and also known as "traveler's thrombosis," is a distinctive pathological condition characterized by occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a patient who has recently experienced a long journey (i.e., ≥ 4 h). Typically, the identified travel is by airplane, but travel with other vehicles, such as trains, trucks, buses, or cars, could potentially qualify as contributing to VTE events. Although the enhanced risk of VTE after long haul flights is now widely acknowledged, albeit potentially overhyped, the risk of venous thrombosis after prolonged travel by other modes of transport, in particular, by cars, is less well appreciated. Current evidence, collected from some epidemiological studies, suggests that if any risk of VTE can be attributed to prolonged and uninterrupted car travels, and we give moderate credibility to such an association, the risk may be similar to that already proven for long haul flights. The risk is especially high in individuals undergoing uninterrupted car journeys lasting 4 hours or longer, in vehicles with a narrow seat-pitch, and in particularly would affect those with pre-existing acquired or inherited prothrombotic conditions. The putative biological mechanisms basically entail venous stasis and edema, which are often compounded by a certain degree of hypercoagulability. When these factors are combined with preexistent prothrombotic conditions, the risk may be substantially magnified. In this perspective, then, 'car thrombosis' may be regarded as a trigger rather than a risk factor for venous thrombosis. Although the current evidence is certainly not solid enough to endorse the use of general chemical prophylaxis for lowering the risk of car-related VTE, a set of possible precautionary measures, with no or very little side effects, may be suggested before planning prolonged car travels, especially for at risk individuals. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue

  14. Averaged emission factors for the Hungarian car fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haszpra, L. [Inst. for Atmospheric Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Szilagyi, I. [Central Research Inst. for Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-12-31

    The vehicular emission of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of NMHC in Hungary and in most of the industrialized countries. Non-methane hydrocarbon plays key role in the formation of photo-chemical air pollution, usually characterized by the ozone concentration, which seriously endangers the environment and human health. The ozone forming potential of the different NMHCs differs from each other significantly, while the NMHC composition of the car exhaust is influenced by the fuel and engine type, technical condition of the vehicle, vehicle speed and several other factors. In Hungary the majority of the cars are still of Eastern European origin. They represent the technological standard of the 70`s, although there are changes recently. Due to the long-term economical decline in Hungary the average age of the cars was about 9 years in 1990 and reached 10 years by 1993. The condition of the majority of the cars is poor. In addition, almost one third (31.2 %) of the cars are equipped with two-stroke engines which emit less NO{sub x} but much more hydrocarbon. The number of cars equipped with catalytic converter was negligible in 1990 and is slowly increasing only recently. As a consequence of these facts the traffic emission in Hungary may differ from that measured in or estimated for the Western European countries and the differences should be taken into account in the air pollution models. For the estimation of the average emission of the Hungarian car fleet a one-day roadway tunnel experiment was performed in the downtown of Budapest in summer, 1991. (orig.)

  15. ICT-Platform to Transform Car Dealerships to Regional Providers of Sustainable Mobility Services

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Wagner vom Berg; Jorge Marx Gómez; Alexander Sandau

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: The topic of this study is the ICT-enabled transformation of car dealerships to regional providers of sustainable mobility (e.g., car sharing). Background: Car dealerships offer specific conditions that enable a sustainable mobility offer, based on individual motorized transport like car sharing. This is especially useful in small towns or rural areas where people’s mobility is strongly dominated by private cars, and public transport coverage is limited. However, these new m...

  16. Development of a Control Systems Platform for an Autonomous Soft-Car

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Pratish

    2015-01-01

    Balloon Cars (Soft Cars) used for active-system testing are presently statically following one specific path. Autonomous GPS driven balloon cars can be extremely useful if made to be accurate.Volvo group’s long term plan involves usage of such cars to improve active-safety systems. Thisreport presents comprehensive details about the development of the control system of the soft-car.Software development was preceded by purchase of parts. Detailed descriptions of the ballooncar hardware compone...

  17. The sustainable car company - or the comeback of the electric car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sticher, Georg; Rizoulis, Dimitrios [The Boston Consulting Group, Muenchen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Every day there are article published about the future of propulsion technology. Opinions are diverging: 'We'll sell nothing but hybrids by 2020' says one automotive executive; whereas for another power train executive ''Hybrids are a violation of physics'. The topic has moved beyond specialized automotive magazines and is strongly emotionalized: Hollywood stars appear driving hybrid vehicles and a documentary film charges the automotive industry as guilty for conspiring against and 'killing the electric car'. Those emotional discussions are largely driven by the announcement of many new vehicles powered by hybrid-electric power trains, fuel cells or batteries. The public is overwhelmed by announcements and can hardly tell concept vehicles from production announcements apart. One core aspect of sustainability is the reduction of CO2 emissions and the increase of vehicle efficiency. The electrification of the vehicle will have to be an integral part of every OEMs and suppliers' portfolio. But without adequate incentives of consumers to purchase the cars and of utilities and/or private investors to provide the necessary infrastructure, the emergence of the electric vehicle may be off to another false start. We do want to offer a structured, multi-stakeholder view in an attempt to de-mystify this rather complex topic. To this, we will present facts on what drives the need for change in the propulsion systems market, what are the viable technological options, what market scenario is likely for 2020 and what does this entail for the major stakeholders. (orig.)

  18. enviroCar - citizen science for sustainable traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasch, Christoph; Remke, Albert; Jirka, Simon; Nuest, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Optimizing traffic flow is a challenging task, affecting both the mobility of people and the environment. Up to now, traffic monitoring is based on small samples using GPS devices or remote sensors such as cameras. Citizens are usually not actively involved in the process of collecting or analyzing traffic data. The enviroCar project (www.envirocar.org) aims at addressing this situation by providing an open platform that can be used by everyone to collect and analyze traffic-related data and thus to achieve sustainable traffic management by answering questions such as: How is the average speed on a certain route? Where are exceptionally long waiting times in front of traffic lights? At which crossings do more cars stop than drive through? Where are hotspots of fuel consumption and air pollutant emission during a certain time interval? In this presentation, an overview on the enviroCar project is given and current research challenges addressed in the context of the project are presented. Citizens are able to participate by registering at the enviroCar portal and downloading the enviroCar Android app. Once installed, the Android app allows citizens to collect car sensor data, e.g. speed, mass air flow, or intake temperature via an On-Board Diagnosis 2 (OBD-II) Adapter. After finishing a car ride, the data can be uploaded to the central enviroCar server where the data is anonymized and published as open data. Each enviroCar member has a profile page giving control on his own data and providing statistics on personal driving behavior. The portal also allows comparing personal statistics with the statistics of other members. It thus facilitates analysis whether, for example, a member is driving in a more fuel saving manner than other users. Besides only acting as a data collector, citizens can also explore the enviroCar data in online maps or download the data in standard formats for certain spatial areas and/or time intervals allowing them to conduct spatio

  19. Competing expectations. The case of the hydrogen car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, S.

    2011-04-15

    Firms and governments can support only a limited number of emerging technologies. Some emerging technologies receive support for further development while others are discarded. But how do decision makers in firms and governments assess which of the options earns their support? Straightforward assessments of prices and performance levels can not be sufficient as emerging technologies are, by definition, in an early stage of development and have not reached their maximum levels of performance yet. It is therefore not so much of interest which of the options performs best at any point in time, but rather which of the options will eventually perform best in the future. As a consequence, this competition is based on expectations about future price and performance levels. It is studied how both the relevant decision makers and the technology developers deal with these expectations about the different options. The development of the hydrogen car takes up a central position in this thesis. The hydrogen car is one of the contenders in the race towards 'the car of the future'. While the hydrogen car is indeed in competition with the other contenders there is also competition between different configurations of the hydrogen car. Expectations with regard to the different options are measured through patents, prototype cars, and statements from scientists and car manufacturers. From the research it shows that technology developers, the enactors, do not only try to shape positive expectations about their own option, but also negative expectations about their competitors. Technology selectors assess the credibility of the diverse expectations mainly on the basis of past progress and the possible paths forward towards higher levels of performance and lower prices. The roles of enactor and selector are interrelated and so is the process of enaction and selection. A main conclusion to this thesis is that selectors tend to narrow their portfolios in times of low general

  20. A guide to manufacturing CAR T cell therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vormittag, Philipp; Gunn, Rebecca; Ghorashian, Sara; Veraitch, Farlan S

    2018-02-17

    In recent years, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cells have been used as a treatment for haematological malignancies in several phase I and II trials and with Kymriah of Novartis and Yescarta of KITE Pharma, the first CAR T cell therapy products have been approved. Promising clinical outcomes have yet been tempered by the fact that many therapies may be prohibitively expensive to manufacture. The process is not yet defined, far from being standardised and often requires extensive manual handling steps. For academia, big pharma and contract manufacturers it is difficult to obtain an overview over the process strategies and their respective advantages and disadvantages. This review details current production processes being used for CAR T cells with a particular focus on efficacy, reproducibility, manufacturing costs and release testing. By undertaking a systematic analysis of the manufacture of CAR T cells from reported clinical trial data to date, we have been able to quantify recent trends and track the uptake of new process technology. Delivering new processing options will be key to the success of the CAR-T cells ensuring that excessive manufacturing costs do not disrupt the delivery of exciting new therapies to the wide possible patient cohort. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The research into head injury criteria dependence on car speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pelenytė-Vyšniauskienė

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways of car collisions which depend on car motion modes before and after crashes, speed, kinds of baskets, their heights, weights and rigidity. The machinery of the occupant’s movement at the moment of the crash is even more diffi cult. In order to find out precisely the chance of body injury, it is important to measure not only parameters that were mentioned above but also occupant’s height, weight, age, position of sitting, condition of body, whether there was any protection system used. The largest number of car crashes happen at the moment of frontal crash. This article’s aim is to analyse the types of frontal crashes and their repartition, to diagnose what part in occupant’s safety the protection system’s use takes, and also to analyse head injury coefficient dependence on car speed and show critical injuries and fatality limits in cases when driver is driving with no seat-belts in and while the car is without airbag. The research is done at the moment of ideal frontal crash by simulating distance from the occupant body to the wheel in diff erent types of baskets.

  2. Parental practice of child car safety in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndu, K I; Ekwochi, U; Osuorah, D C; Ifediora, O C; Amadi, F O; Asinobi, I N; Okenwa, O W; Orjioke, J C; Ogbuka, F N; Ulasi, T O

    2016-01-01

    Child safety restraints and seat belts are regarded as the most successful safety and cost-effective protective devices available to vehicle occupants, which have saved millions of lives. This cross-sectional descriptive study evaluated the practice and use of child car restraints (CCRs) among 458 purposively selected respondents resident in two local government areas in Enugu State, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to parents of children attending private schools who owned a car. Chi-square and multivariate analyses were used to assess the determinants of the use of car restraints in children among respondents. In all, 56% and 45% of adults and children, respectively, used car restraints regularly. The awareness of child safety laws and actual use of age-appropriate CCRs among respondents was negatively and weakly correlated ( r =-0.121, P =0.310). Only respondent's use of seat belt during driving ( P =0.001) and having being cautioned for non-use of CCRs ( P =0.005) maintained significance as determinants of the use of CCRs in cars on multivariate analysis. The most frequent reasons given for the non-use of CCRs included the child being uncomfortable, 64 (31%); restraints not being important, 53 (26%), and restraints being too expensive, 32 (15%). Similarly, for irregular users, exceptions for non-use included the child being asleep (29%), inadequate number of CCRs (22%), and the child being sick (18%). There is a need for a strategy change to enforce the use of CCRs in Nigeria.

  3. Treatment of car wash wastewater by UF membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istirokhatun, Titik; Destianti, Puti; Hargianintya, Adenira; Oktiawan, Wiharyanto; Susanto, Heru

    2015-12-01

    The existence of car wash service facilitates car owners to remove dirt and grime from their vehicles. However, the dirt washed off vehicles as well as the cleaning materials themselves may be harmful to the environment if they are not properly managed and discharged. Many technologies have been proposed to treat car wash wastewater such as coagulation flocculation, tricking filter and flocculation-flotation. Nevertheless, these technologies have low efficiency to eliminate oil and small organic compounds. Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were used in this study to treat car wash wastewater. This study investigated the performance of UF membranes under various pressures to remove COD, oil and grease, and also turbidity from car wash waste water. The membrane performance was examined by investigation of permeate flux and membrane rejection. The results meet the standard of environmental regulation and it is possible to be reused. The highest rejection was shown by PES10 (polyethersulfone 10 kDa) in 1 bar operation with complete rejection for both turbidity and oil and grace and 95% rejection for COD.

  4. Gravity Chromatic Imaging of the Eta Car's Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bermudez, Joel

    2018-04-01

    Eta Car is one of the most massive, and intriguing, Luminous Blue Variables known. In its core resides a binary with a 5.54 years orbital period. Visible, infrared, and X-raobservations suggest that the primary star exhibits a very dense wind with a terminal velocity of about 420 km/s, while the secondary shows a much faster and less dense wind with a terminal velocity of 3000 km/s. The wind-wind collision zone at the core of Eta Car is thus a complex region that deserves a detailed study to understand the effect of the binary interaction in the evolution of the system. Here, we will present a unique imaging campaign with GRAVITY/VLTI of the Eta Car's core. The superb quality of our interferometric data, together with state-of-the-art image reconstruction techniques, allowed us to obtain, with milliarcsecond resolution, continuum and chromatic images cross the BrG and HeI lines in the Eta Car K-band spectrum (R 4000). These new data together with models of the primary wind of Eta Car has letting us to characterize the spatial distribution of the dust and gas in the inner 40 AU wind-wind collision zone of the target.

  5. Roadworks around the "Les Cèdres" car park

    CERN Multimedia

    SMB Department

    2016-01-01

    Diversions will be in place on Route Scherrer and Route Bohr from 4 to 31 July.   As we announced in a previous article, the SMB department is currently installing vehicle registration plate readers at the entrances and exits of the Les Cèdres car park and of the Building 4 and 5 car park, both on the Meyrin site. Please note that, due to the installation work involved: access to Buildings 50 and 52 via Route Scherrer (passing under the Building 50 walkway) will be closed from 4 to 8 July, access to the Les Cèdres car park via Route Scherrer will be closed from 4 to 14 July, access to the Les Cèdres car park via Route Bohr will be closed from 16 to 31 July, Route Bohr will be closed between Route Greinacher and Route Bell from 16 to 31 July. Please also note that, following the completion of the work, the Les Cèdres car park will operate as a one-way system, with entry only from Route Scherrer and exit only onto Route Bohr. Thank you for your understand...

  6. Hydrogen storage capacity of titanium met-cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akman, N; Durgun, E; Yildirim, T; Ciraci, S

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of hydrogen molecules on the titanium metallocarbohedryne (met-car) cluster has been investigated by using the first-principles plane wave method. We have found that, while a single Ti atom at the corner can bind up to three hydrogen molecules, a single Ti atom on the surface of the cluster can bind only one hydrogen molecule. Accordingly, a Ti 8 C 12 met-car can bind up to 16 H 2 molecules and hence can be considered as a high-capacity hydrogen storage medium. Strong interaction between two met-car clusters leading to the dimer formation can affect H 2 storage capacity slightly. Increasing the storage capacity by directly inserting H 2 into the met-car or by functionalizing it with an Na atom have been explored. It is found that the insertion of neither an H 2 molecule nor an Na atom could further promote the H 2 storage capacity of a Ti 8 C 12 cluster. We have also tested the stability of the H 2 -adsorbed Ti 8 C 12 met-car with ab initio molecular dynamics calculations which have been carried out at room temperature

  7. A new look for the CERN car sharing service

    CERN Multimedia

    GS-IS

    2015-01-01

    From Tuesday, 2 June 2015 onwards, the CERN car sharing service will have a new service provider.   Two information days will be organised with the new provider – Mobility – in the Main Building (501) on 28 and 29 May. This will be an opportunity for us to present to you this new service and to distribute cards to current users. Please make sure you bring along the “Mobility number” that you received by e-mail. After this date, you can still pick up your card at the Car Pool (Building 130). For technical reasons, car sharing will be out of service on 1 June and we apologise for any inconvenience this might cause. New users should contact the Car Pool from 2 June onwards. Please be reminded that this service is available to CERN and contractor personnel in the pursuit of their professional activities, exclusively at CERN. The conditions of use can be consulted at the Car Sharing website. *A 35-strong fleet of ready-to-use CER...

  8. Braking distance algorithm for autonomous cars using road surface recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, C.; Ashok, B.; Nanthagopal, K.; Desai, Rohan; Rastogi, Nisha; Shetty, Siddhanth

    2017-11-01

    India is yet to accept semi/fully - autonomous cars and one of the reasons, was loss of control on bad roads. For a better handling on these roads we require advanced braking and that can be done by adapting electronics into the conventional type of braking. In Recent years, the automation in braking system led us to various benefits like traction control system, anti-lock braking system etc. This research work describes and experiments the method for recognizing road surface profile and calculating braking distance. An ultra-sonic surface recognition sensor, mounted underneath the car will send a high frequency wave on to the road surface, which is received by a receiver with in the sensor, it calculates the time taken for the wave to rebound and thus calculates the distance from the point where sensor is mounted. A displacement graph will be plotted based on the output of the sensor. A relationship can be derived between the displacement plot and roughness index through which the friction coefficient can be derived in Matlab for continuous calculation throughout the distance travelled. Since it is a non-contact type of profiling, it is non-destructive. The friction coefficient values received in real-time is used to calculate optimum braking distance. This system, when installed on normal cars can also be used to create a database of road surfaces, especially in cities, which can be shared with other cars. This will help in navigation as well as making the cars more efficient.

  9. Car Motivations in the Young Target Group: An International Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bahles

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Globally, there are many profound changes going on within the automotive sector. There are new technological developments like e-mobility and autonomous cars, as well as new business models such as car sharing that may make purchasing a car obsolete for the younger, international target group. The intention of this paper is to identify the role and importance of cars in the young target group internationally and to explore current motives for buying an automobile. To this end, the authors conducted a psychological research study on a diverse group of upper division undergraduate and master’s degree level students originating from more than twenty different nations. Research methods used include structured one-on-one interviews and in-depth focus groups. The study’s results are useful for international marketing practitioners as they contribute to understanding the relevance and importance of automobiles for the international youth target market as well as identification of motives regarding car purchase across various countries. The results have implications for international managers within the automotive industry for the development of new mobility concepts as well as for international marketing communications within the automotive sector.

  10. (Intersubjectification des connecteurs : le cas de car et parce que

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Degand

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paradigm of French causal conjunctions, car and parce que make quite an odd pair. While both of them can be translated by «because», their use in Spoken vs Written French is very different: they roughly have the same frequency in written corpora, but parce que is by far more frequent in the spoken language than in written texts, whereas car is almost absent from Spoken French. Besides, previous studies have shown that, while car is quite stable semantically, parce que is very different in Written and Spoken French. Is it possible to explain these differences? The goal of this paper is to find answers to this question in the diachrony of French. A detailed corpus study of car and parce que in Medieval French enables us to make assumptions about their subsequent evolution. Our hypothesis is that the grammaticalization of parce que was accompanied by a process of subjectification and that it ended up replacing car in the spoken language, but has not yet done so in Written French.

  11. The CERN car stickers for 2008 are now available

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2008 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the following documents: the 2007 sticker for the vehicle in question, the "carte grise" registration paper of the vehicle in question (photocopies accepted). If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2008 sticker using the request form on the Web.NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2007. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  12. Automatic Parking of Self-Driving CAR Based on LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B.; Wei, Y.; Guo, I. Y.

    2017-09-01

    To overcome the deficiency of ultrasonic sensor and camera, this paper proposed a method of autonomous parking based on the self-driving car, using HDL-32E LiDAR. First the 3-D point cloud data was preprocessed. Then we calculated the minimum size of parking space according to the dynamic theories of vehicle. Second the rapidly-exploring random tree algorithm (RRT) algorithm was improved in two aspects based on the moving characteristic of autonomous car. And we calculated the parking path on the basis of the vehicle's dynamics and collision constraints. Besides, we used the fuzzy logic controller to control the brake and accelerator in order to realize the stably of speed. At last the experiments were conducted in an autonomous car, and the results show that the proposed automatic parking system is feasible and effective.

  13. The European New Car Assessment Programme: A historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ratingen, Michiel; Williams, Aled; Lie, Anders; Seeck, Andre; Castaing, Pierre; Kolke, Reinhard; Adriaenssens, Guido; Miller, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Established in 1997, the European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP) provides consumers with a safety performance assessment for the majority of the most popular cars in Europe. Thanks to its rigorous crash tests, Euro NCAP has rapidly become an important driver safety improvement to new cars. After ten years of rating vehicles, Euro NCAP felt that a change was necessary to stay in tune with rapidly emerging driver assistance and crash avoidance systems and to respond to shifting priorities in road safety. A new overall rating system was introduced that combines the most important aspects of vehicle safety under a single star rating. The overall rating system has allowed Euro NCAP to continue to push for better fitment and higher performance for vehicles sold on the European market. In the coming years, the safety rating is expected to play an important role in the support of the roll-out of highly automated vehicles.

  14. Autonomous Cars: In Favor of a Mandatory Ethics Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoll, Jan; Müller, Julian F

    2017-06-01

    The recent progress in the development of autonomous cars has seen ethical questions come to the forefront. In particular, life and death decisions regarding the behavior of self-driving cars in trolley dilemma situations are attracting widespread interest in the recent debate. In this essay we want to ask whether we should implement a mandatory ethics setting (MES) for the whole of society or, whether every driver should have the choice to select his own personal ethics setting (PES). While the consensus view seems to be that people would not be willing to use an automated car that might sacrifice themselves in a dilemma situation, we will defend the somewhat contra-intuitive claim that this would be nevertheless in their best interest. The reason is, simply put, that a PES regime would most likely result in a prisoner's dilemma.

  15. Climate effects of non-compliant Volkswagen diesel cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Lund, Marianne T.; Aamaas, Borgar; Berntsen, Terje

    2018-04-01

    On-road operations of Volkswagen light-duty diesel vehicles equipped with defeat devices cause emissions of NOx up to 40 times above emission standards. Higher on-road NOx emissions are a widespread problem not limited to Volkswagen vehicles, but the Volkswagen violations brought this issue under the spotlight. While several studies investigated the health impacts of high NOx emissions, the climatic impacts have not been quantified. Here we show that such diesel cars generate a larger warming on the time scale of several years but a smaller warming on the decadal time scale during actual on-road operations than in vehicle certification tests. The difference in longer-term warming levels, however, depends on underlying driving conditions. Furthermore, in the presence of defeat devices, the climatic advantage of ‘clean diesel’ cars over gasoline cars, in terms of global-mean temperature change, is in our view not necessarily the case.

  16. AFFECTIVE COMPUTING AND AUGMENTED REALITY FOR CAR DRIVING SIMULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș Datcu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Car simulators are essential for training and for analyzing the behavior, the responses and the performance of the driver. Augmented Reality (AR is the technology that enables virtual images to be overlaid on views of the real world. Affective Computing (AC is the technology that helps reading emotions by means of computer systems, by analyzing body gestures, facial expressions, speech and physiological signals. The key aspect of the research relies on investigating novel interfaces that help building situational awareness and emotional awareness, to enable affect-driven remote collaboration in AR for car driving simulators. The problem addressed relates to the question about how to build situational awareness (using AR technology and emotional awareness (by AC technology, and how to integrate these two distinct technologies [4], into a unique affective framework for training, in a car driving simulator.

  17. AUTOMATIC PARKING OF SELF-DRIVING CAR BASED ON LIDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the deficiency of ultrasonic sensor and camera, this paper proposed a method of autonomous parking based on the self-driving car, using HDL-32E LiDAR. First the 3-D point cloud data was preprocessed. Then we calculated the minimum size of parking space according to the dynamic theories of vehicle. Second the rapidly-exploring random tree algorithm (RRT algorithm was improved in two aspects based on the moving characteristic of autonomous car. And we calculated the parking path on the basis of the vehicle’s dynamics and collision constraints. Besides, we used the fuzzy logic controller to control the brake and accelerator in order to realize the stably of speed. At last the experiments were conducted in an autonomous car, and the results show that the proposed automatic parking system is feasible and effective.

  18. Voltage Sag Compensator for CAR and SOR of HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung-Kyoo; Jung, Hoan-Sung; Wu, Jong-Sup

    2007-01-01

    HANARO is designed so as to be tripped automatically by insertion of control absorber rods(CAR) and shut-off rods(SOR) and the process systems, such as primary cooling system, secondary cooling system and reflector cooling system, etc., stop whenever the off-site power failure occurs, the reactor trips automatically. When voltage sag or momentary interruption occurs, the process systems are in operation but the reactor has an unwanted trip by insertion of CARs and SORs. We installed the voltage sag compensator on the power supply for CARs and SORs so as to prevent a nuisance trip. The compensated time is decided not to exceed 1 sec in consideration of reactor safety. This paper is concerned with the impact of the momentary interruption on the reactor and the effect of the voltage sag compensator

  19. NOx Emissions from Diesel Passenger Cars Worsen with Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuche; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens

    2016-04-05

    Commonly, the NOx emissions rates of diesel vehicles have been assumed to remain stable over the vehicle's lifetime. However, there have been hardly any representative long-term emission measurements. Here we present real-driving emissions of diesel cars and light commercial vehicles sampled on-road over 15 years in Zurich/Switzerland. Results suggest deterioration of NOx unit emissions for Euro 2 and Euro 3 diesel technologies, while Euro 1 and Euro 4 technologies seem to be stable. We can exclude a significant influence of high-emitting vehicles. NOx emissions from all cars and light commercial vehicles in European emission inventories increase by 5-10% accounting for the observed deterioration, depending on the country and its share of diesel cars. We suggest monitoring the stability of emission controls particularly for high-mileage light commercial as well as heavy-duty vehicles.

  20. Temporal overlap estimation based on interference spectrum in CARS microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongning; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Kun; Huang, Can; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Xuezhi; Liu, Tiegen

    2018-01-01

    Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy has attracted lots of attention because of the advantages, such as noninvasive, label-free, chemical specificity, intrinsic three-dimension spatial resolution and so on. However, the temporal overlap of pump and Stokes has not been solved owing to the ultrafast optical pulse used in CARS microscopy. We combine interference spectrum of residual pump in Stokes path and nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) to realize the temporal overlap of pump pulse and Stokes pulse. At first, based on the interference spectrum of pump pulse and residual pump in Stokes path, the optical delay is defined when optical path difference between pump path and Stokes path is zero. Then the relative optical delay between Stokes pulse and residual pump in PCF can be calculated by NLSE. According to the spectrum interference and NLSE, temporal overlap of pump pulse and Stokes pulse will be realized easily and the imaging speed will be improved in CARS microscopy.

  1. Traffic experiment reveals the nature of car-following.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin; Zhang, H M; Gao, Zi-You; Jia, Bin; Wu, Qing-Song; Wang, Bing; Yang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    As a typical self-driven many-particle system far from equilibrium, traffic flow exhibits diverse fascinating non-equilibrium phenomena, most of which are closely related to traffic flow stability and specifically the growth/dissipation pattern of disturbances. However, the traffic theories have been controversial due to a lack of precise traffic data. We have studied traffic flow from a new perspective by carrying out large-scale car-following experiment on an open road section, which overcomes the intrinsic deficiency of empirical observations. The experiment has shown clearly the nature of car-following, which runs against the traditional traffic flow theory. Simulations show that by removing the fundamental notion in the traditional car-following models and allowing the traffic state to span a two-dimensional region in velocity-spacing plane, the growth pattern of disturbances has changed qualitatively and becomes qualitatively or even quantitatively in consistent with that observed in the experiment.

  2. On practicality of a hybrid car with solar cells; Taiyo denchi wo tosaishita hybrid car no jitsuyosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, K; Nagayoshi, H; Kamisako, K [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    The paper stated a development of a hybrid car which is a parallel type with gasoline engine and electric motor as driving source (connecting each according to the situation) and is also equipped with solar cells. Specifications are gasoline engine of 1200cc, induction motor of 5.5kW, lead battery of 288V and 7.2kWh, monocrystal silicon solar cells of 180W maximum output, and body weight of 1100kg. The rear wheel is driven by electric motor, and the front wheel by gasoline engine. The car is loaded with battery charge use solar cells on hood and roof. To enhance cleaning degree, 1.6kW solar cells are installed as an installed power system and used for battery charge. Even by an electric motor with output less than that of the usual electric car, harmful exhaust gas emitted in start-up can be controlled. This is because the electric motor can be used in accelerating. It was confirmed that the power required for it could be supplied by solar cells installed on the car. The hybrid car is practically useful for prevention of local air pollution. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. The importance of high vehicle power for passenger car emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C.; Williams, Martin L.; Tate, James E.; Beevers, Sean D.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we use a quantile regression technique to explore the emissions characteristics of petrol and diesel passenger cars to reveal the importance of high vehicle power on exhaust emissions. A large database of ≈67,000 passenger cars from vehicle emission remote sensing data was used from surveys from several campaigns around the UK. Most previous remote sensing studies have focused on presenting mean emission estimates by vehicle type over time. However, as shown in the current work, considerably more insight can be gained into vehicle emission characteristics if techniques are used that can describe and model the full distribution of vehicle emissions as a function of important explanatory variables. For post-2000 model year (Euro 3-5) diesel cars it is shown that there is a strong dependence of vehicle specific power for emissions of NOx that was absent in earlier models and is absent for other pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbons and 'smoke'. Furthermore, we also find a stronger dependence on vehicle specific power for older catalyst-equipped petrol vehicles (Euro 1/2) on emissions of NOx that is less important for other emissions such as CO and hydrocarbons. Moreover, it is shown that while the rated maximum power output of petrol cars has remained almost constant over the past 15-20 years, the power output from diesel cars has increased markedly by about 50%. These results suggest that changes to vehicle technology, driving conditions and driver behaviour have become more important determinants of passenger car NOx emissions in recent years and may help explain why urban ambient concentrations of NOx have not decreased as much as anticipated.

  4. Car Purchasing Behavior in Beijing : - An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Xuan; Dongyan, Liu

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to give an overview on young Chinese consumers’ car purchase behavior. The results show that car purchasing decision is an important decision for most of Chinese. Consumers get information from different channels. The results of this study also tells us that Chinese consumers take “safety” as the most important characteristic and take “value for money” as the second most important and “riding comfort” as the third important characteristic. Chinese consumers take “after-sale ma...

  5. Car surfing: an uncommon cause of traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, T; Timberlake, G; Yeager, A; Jadali, M; Royer, K

    1999-02-01

    Car surfing is an infrequent cause of traumatic injuries treated by emergency physicians. This very dangerous activity can result in serious injury or death. We report 5 cases of injuries caused by car surfing seen at our hospital during 1996 and 1997. All involved head injuries after a fall from a moving motor vehicle. There were 3 male and 2 female patients, and 3 cases were fatal. Health care providers should be aware of this type of injury and support efforts to prevent it.

  6. Start of Eta Car's X-ray Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Michael F.; Liburd, Jamar; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Gull, Theodore; Madura, Thomas; Teodoro, Mairan; Moffat, Anthony; Richardson, Noel; Russell, Chris; Pollock, Andrew; hide

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of Eta Car's X-ray spectrum in the 2-10 keV band using quicklook data from the XRay Telescope on Swift shows that the flux on July 30, 2014 was 4.9 plus or minus 2.0×10(exp-12) ergs s(exp-1)cm(exp-2). This flux is nearly equal to the X-ray minimum flux seen by RXTE in 2009, 2003.5, and 1998, and indicates that Eta Car has reached its X-ray minimum, as expected based on the 2024-day period derived from previous 2-10 keV observations with RXTE.

  7. Mode Calculation and Testing of a Car Body in White

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic parameters of a car body in white (BIW are important during a new car developing. Based on the finite element method, the model of a BIW is developed in which the welding points are treated specially as a new element type and the vibration modes of it are calculated. In modal testing, a fixed sine-sweeping exciter is used to conduct a single-point input force for the structure, whereas the output responses are picked up at different points to identify modes. The obtained modes are coincided both with the FE results and the practical testing.

  8. CERN cars drive by the Geneva Motor Show

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    One of CERN's new gas-fuelled cars was a special guest at the press days of the Geneva motor show this year. The car enjoyed a prominent position on the Gazmobil stand, right next to the latest Mazeratis and Ferraris. Journalists previewing the motor show could discover CERN's support for green technologies and also find out more about the lab - home to the fastest racetrack on the planet, with protons in the LHC running at 99.9999991% of the speed of light.    

  9. Bunker C tank cars derailment in remote region of Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinto, I.; Preziosi, L.

    1995-01-01

    Methods of cleaning up following a 1994 train derailment involving six Bunker C tank cars in a remote region of Labrador were described. 345,000 litres of Bunker C spilled in a ditch, through a culvert and into a section of the Summit River. Methods used in the reclamation of the bunker oil from the tank cars, from inside the culvert, and from the bottom of the Summit River were also reviewed.Principal problems encountered in the clean-up included severe winter conditions, remoteness of the spill site, and the onset of spring breakup. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Voltage sags impact on CAR and SOR of HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyoo; Jung, Hoan Sung; Wu, Jong Sup

    2004-01-01

    The combination of the unstable electric power and sensitive equipment may cause the nuisance of reactor trip. The reactor is tripped by the RRS and RPS during the occurrence of the voltage sags or momentary interruptions. We tested the components of RRS and RPS for the immunity from voltage sags and momentary interruptions. The tested components are DC power supply for CAR (control absorbed rod) of RRS and AC coil contactor for SOR (shut off rod) of RPS. We briefly describe the power quality standard for the voltage sags. This paper summarizes the magnitudes and durations of the voltage sags which impact on the CAR and SOR system

  11. Topology Optimization in Electric Car Body Frame Based on Optistruct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Dongdong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the structure of the electric car body frame, the static analysis of the car frame were carried on. For the goal of the frame’s weight minimum, OptiStruct software was used to topology optimization design. And the optimal material distribution program of the frame structure was got. Static strength before and after optimization was comprehensive compared through the stress, deformation. The results showed that the weight of frame after optimization was reduced by 18.96%, and the requirements of the strength and stiffness were ensured.

  12. AUTOMATIC PARKING OF SELF-DRIVING CAR BASED ON LIDAR

    OpenAIRE

    B. Lee; Y. Wei; I. Y. Guo

    2017-01-01

    To overcome the deficiency of ultrasonic sensor and camera, this paper proposed a method of autonomous parking based on the self-driving car, using HDL-32E LiDAR. First the 3-D point cloud data was preprocessed. Then we calculated the minimum size of parking space according to the dynamic theories of vehicle. Second the rapidly-exploring random tree algorithm (RRT) algorithm was improved in two aspects based on the moving characteristic of autonomous car. And we calculated the parking path on...

  13. Car-Like Mobile Robot Oriented Positioning by Fuzzy Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Ouadah

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, fuzzy logic controllers (FLC are used to implement an efficient and accurate positioning of an autonomous car-like mobile robot, respecting final orientation. To accomplish this task, called "Oriented Positioning", two FLC have been developed: robot positioning controller (RPC and robot following controller (RFC. Computer simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. Finally, real-time experiments have been made on an autonomous car-like mobile robot called "Robucar", developed to perform people transportation. Obtained results from experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  14. Car-Like Mobile Robot Oriented Positioning by Fuzzy Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Ouadah

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, fuzzy logic controllers (FLC are used to implement an efficient and accurate positioning of an autonomous car-like mobile robot, respecting final orientation. To accomplish this task, called “Oriented Positioning”, two FLC have been developed: robot positioning controller (RPC and robot following controller (RFC. Computer simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. Finally, real-time experiments have been made on an autonomous car-like mobile robot called “Robucar”, developed to perform people transportation. Obtained results from experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  15. Societal lifecycle costs of cars with alternative fuels/engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, Joan M.; Williams, Robert H.; Larson, Eric D.

    2004-01-01

    Effectively addressing concerns about air pollution (especially health impacts of small-particle air pollution), climate change, and oil supply insecurity will probably require radical changes in automotive engine/fuel technologies in directions that offer both the potential for achieving near-zero emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases and a diversification of the transport fuel system away from its present exclusive dependence on petroleum. The basis for comparing alternative automotive engine/fuel options in evolving toward these goals in the present analysis is the 'societal lifecycle cost' of transportation, including the vehicle first cost (assuming large-scale mass production), fuel costs (assuming a fully developed fuel infrastructure), externality costs for oil supply security, and damage costs for emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases calculated over the full fuel cycle. Several engine/fuel options are considered--including current gasoline internal combustion engines and a variety of advanced lightweight vehicles: internal combustion engine vehicles fueled with gasoline or hydrogen; internal combustion engine/hybrid electric vehicles fueled with gasoline, compressed natural gas, Diesel, Fischer-Tropsch liquids or hydrogen; and fuel cell vehicles fueled with gasoline, methanol or hydrogen (from natural gas, coal or wind power). To account for large uncertainties inherent in the analysis (for example in environmental damage costs, in oil supply security costs and in projected mass-produced costs of future vehicles), lifecycle costs are estimated for a range of possible future conditions. Under base-case conditions, several advanced options have roughly comparable lifecycle costs that are lower than for today's conventional gasoline internal combustion engine cars, when environmental and oil supply insecurity externalities are counted--including advanced gasoline internal combustion engine cars, internal combustion engine

  16. Rhodium in car exhaust tips by total automatic activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.; Westphal, G.P.; Lemmel, H.; Sterba, J.

    2007-01-01

    Exhaust systems of modern cars contain catalysts for the reduction of CO, NO x and hydrocarbons. These catalysts are made of ceramic materials with a large surface on which platinum metals catalyse the oxidation. The catalysts contain approximately 2 g of platinum and 0.4 g of rhodium. Recently platinum is being replaced by palladium. During driving the platinum-group elements (PGEs) are expelled from the tip in fine particles and are deposited in the environment. For a projected study of emissions from cars driven on streets and highways it is important to know which elements can be measured by short time activation analysis without any chemical procedure. (author)

  17. IL-7 and CCL19 expression in CAR-T cells improves immune cell infiltration and CAR-T cell survival in the tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Keishi; Kano, Yosuke; Nagai, Tomohiko; Okuyama, Namiko; Sakoda, Yukimi; Tamada, Koji

    2018-04-01

    Infiltration, accumulation, and survival of chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells in solid tumors is crucial for tumor clearance. We engineered CAR-T cells to express interleukin (IL)-7 and CCL19 (7 × 19 CAR-T cells), as these factors are essential for the maintenance of T-cell zones in lymphoid organs. In mice, 7 × 19 CAR-T cells achieved complete regression of pre-established solid tumors and prolonged mouse survival, with superior anti-tumor activity compared to conventional CAR-T cells. Histopathological analyses showed increased infiltration of dendritic cells (DC) and T cells into tumor tissues following 7 × 19 CAR-T cell therapy. Depletion of recipient T cells before 7 × 19 CAR-T cell administration dampened the therapeutic effects of 7 × 19 CAR-T cell treatment, suggesting that CAR-T cells and recipient immune cells collaborated to exert anti-tumor activity. Following treatment of mice with 7 × 19 CAR-T cells, both recipient conventional T cells and administered CAR-T cells generated memory responses against tumors.

  18. What a car does to your perception: Distance evaluations differ from within and outside of a car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Birte; Zoppke, Hartmut; Frings, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Almost a century ago it was first suggested that cars can be interpreted as tools, but consequences of this assumption were never tested. Research on hand-held tools that are used to manipulate objects in the environment suggests that perception of near space is extended by using tools. Literature on environment perception finds perception of far space to be modulated by the observer's potential to act in the environment. Here we argue that a car increases the action potential and modulates perception of far space in a way similar to how hand-held tools modulate perception of near space. Five distances (4 to 20 meters) were estimated by pedestrians and drivers before and after driving/walking. Drivers underestimated all distances to a larger percentage than did pedestrians. Underestimation was even stronger after driving. We conclude that cars modulate the perception of far distances because they modulate the driver's perception, like a tool typically does, and change the perceived action potential.

  19. Analysis of mixed traffic flow with human-driving and autonomous cars based on car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Xing; Zhang, H. M.

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the mixed traffic flow with human-driving and autonomous cars. A new mathematical model with adjustable sensitivity and smooth factor was proposed to describe the autonomous car's moving behavior in which smooth factor is used to balance the front and back headway in a flow. A lemma and a theorem were proved to support the stability criteria in traffic flow. A series of simulations were carried out to analyze the mixed traffic flow. The fundamental diagrams were obtained from the numerical simulation results. The varying sensitivity and smooth factor of autonomous cars affect traffic flux, which exhibits opposite varying tendency with increasing parameters before and after the critical density. Moreover, the sensitivity of sensors and smooth factors play an important role in stabilizing the mixed traffic flow and suppressing the traffic jam.

  20. Understanding adolescents' intentions to commute by car or bicycle as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the intentions of adolescents to commute by car or bicycle as adults. The behavioral model is based on intrapersonal and interpersonal constructs from the theory of planned behavior extended to include constructs from the institutional, community and policy domains. Data from...... a survey among Danish adolescents is analyzed. It is found that car use intentions are related to positive car passenger experience, general interest in cars, and car ownership norms, and are negatively related to willingness to accept car restrictions and perceived lack of behavioral control. Cycling...