WorldWideScience

Sample records for carrots

  1. The Carrot Highway [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Ron

    "The Carrot Highway" is a 40-minute award-winning videotape that takes viewers on a whirlwind tour around the world to tell the story of the carrot. This videotape reveals the carrot in all its glory by cleverly integrating live-action, music, animation, videotape footage, and games. Viewers travel with a troupe of animated carrot characters to…

  2. Control carrot fly

    OpenAIRE

    van den Broek, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The larva of the carrot fly, Psila rosae, may in some umbelliferous plants cause significant damage. The insect is mainly in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, but also in some subtropical areas. Everywhere in the Netherlands where carrots are grown, is degradation. In the Netherlands organic growers seem well with the carrot fly problem to go, the number of reports of harm and disapproval is not too bad. With smart cultivation measures, the problems are manageable and, underst...

  3. Hybrids between wild and cultivated carrots in Danish carrot fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Thure Pavlo; Bjørn, G. K.

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that wild carrots may pollute the seed crops of cultivated carrots, but whether cultivated carrots can also disperse pollen and seed, and thereby introduce genes into wild carrot populations, is only little described. In Denmark, there is no commercial seed production of carrots...... seeds. Pollen and seed dispersal from fields into wild carrot populations is probably rather frequent in Denmark. A closer inspection of the morphology of flowering plants indicate that some of these (2-60%) are bolters of pure cultivar origin, as indicated primarily by orange root colour. The remainder...... frequencies of bolters with white roots in different carrot cultivars tested in the field...

  4. Carrots for dessert

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde

    2010-01-01

    Carrots for dessert is the title of a section of the paper `On polynomial-like mappings' by Douady and Hubbard. In that section the authors define a notion of dyadic carrot fields of the Mandelbrot set M and more generally for Mandelbrot like families. They remark that such carrots are small when the dyadic denominator is large, but they do not even try to prove a precise such statement. In this paper we formulate and prove a precise statement of asymptotic shrinking of dyadic Carrot-fields around M. The same proof carries readily over to show that the dyadic decorations of copies M' of the Mandelbrot set M inside M and inside the parabolic Mandelbrot set shrink to points when the denominator diverge to infinity.

  5. CarrotDB: a genomic and transcriptomic database for carrot

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Tan, Hua-Wei; Wang, Feng; Hou, Xi-Lin; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is an economically important vegetable worldwide and is the largest source of carotenoids and provitamin A in the human diet. Given the importance of this vegetable to humans, research and breeding communities on carrot should obtain useful genomic and transcriptomic information. The first whole-genome sequences of ‘DC-27’ carrot were de novo assembled and analyzed. Transcriptomic sequences of 14 carrot genotypes were downloaded from the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) d...

  6. Carrot yellow leaf virus is associated with carrot internal necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ian P; Skelton, Anna; Macarthur, Roy; Hodges, Tobias; Hinds, Howard; Flint, Laura; Nath, Palash Deb; Boonham, Neil; Fox, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Internal necrosis of carrot has been observed in UK carrots for at least 10 years, and has been anecdotally linked to virus infection. In the 2009 growing season some growers had up to 10% of yield with these symptoms. Traditional diagnostic methods are targeted towards specific pathogens. By using a metagenomic approach with high throughput sequencing technology, other, as yet unidentified causes of root necrosis were investigated. Additionally a statistical analysis has shown which viruses are most closely associated with disease symptoms. Carrot samples were collected from a crop exhibiting root necrosis (102 Affected: 99 Unaffected) and tested for the presence of the established carrot viruses: Carrot red leaf virus (CtRLV), Carrot mottle virus (CMoV), Carrot red leaf associated viral RNA (CtRLVaRNA) and Parsnip yellow fleck virus (PYFV). The presence of these viruses was not associated with symptomatic carrot roots either as single viruses or in combinations. A sub-sample of carrots of mixed symptom status was subjected to MiSeq sequencing. The results from these tests suggested Carrot yellow leaf virus (CYLV) was associated with symptomatic roots. Additionally a novel Torradovirus, a novel Closterovirus and two novel Betaflexiviradae related plant viruses were detected. A specific diagnostic test was designed for CYLV. Of the 102 affected carrots, 98% were positive for CYLV compared to 22% of the unaffected carrots. From these data we conclude that although we have yet to practically demonstrate a causal link, CYLV appears to be strongly associated with the presence of necrosis of carrots. PMID:25365290

  7. Resurrecting deadly carrots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzel, Corinna; Rønsted, Nina; Spalik, Krysztof;

    2014-01-01

    carrot because of the poisonous effects. The resin from species of Thapsia has been used in traditional medicine and included in European pharmacopoeias, and several species contain biologically important sesquiterpene lactones such as thapsigargin. Accordingly, Thapsia has for decades been subject...

  8. The Carrot Is Back

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 It is winter.The rabbit is very hungry.He goes out to look for food.A while later,he finds two carrots.He's very happy."It is so cold," the rabbit says to himself, "The monkey must be hungry.I'll give her one."

  9. Carrot and stick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2013-01-01

    Defects are considered a lack of product quality and represent an economic loss. Since 1986, systems or initiatives applying a carrot-or-stick approach have been implemented in the Danish construction sector to improve the quality of buildings. The initiatives range from mandatory solutions to more...

  10. Recent advance in carrot genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years there has been an effort towards the development of genomic resources in carrot. The number of available sequences for carrot in public databases has increased recently. This has allowed the design of SSRs markers, COS markers and a high-throughput SNP assay for genotyping. Additiona...

  11. Genomics and genetic improvement of carrot pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The color of carrots was an important attribute during its domestication as a root crop. Modern carrot researchers continue to include color as a major breeding attribute so that the carotene content of U.S. carrots is 70% higher today than 30 years ago. Carrot breeding stocks have been developed wi...

  12. Carrot yellow leaf virus Is Associated with Carrot Internal Necrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Ian P.; Anna Skelton; Roy Macarthur; Tobias Hodges; Howard Hinds; Laura Flint; Palash Deb Nath; Neil Boonham; Adrian Fox

    2014-01-01

    Internal necrosis of carrot has been observed in UK carrots for at least 10 years, and has been anecdotally linked to virus infection. In the 2009 growing season some growers had up to 10% of yield with these symptoms. Traditional diagnostic methods are targeted towards specific pathogens. By using a metagenomic approach with high throughput sequencing technology, other, as yet unidentified causes of root necrosis were investigated. Additionally a statistical analysis has shown which viruses ...

  13. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  14. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-01-01

    Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  15. Radappertization of minimally processed carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The goal of this work was to obtain shelf-stable irradiated carrots. It was evaluate the effect of high-doses (radappertization) of gamma radiation (Cobalt-60) on minimally processed carrots cv. Nantes. Before irradiation carrots were blanched, vacuum packaged in polyethylene film (52 μm) and frozen (-80 deg C) prior to and during radiation processing. Used doses were 10, 20 and 30 kGy. After irradiation the carrot bags were kept at room conditions (25 - 28 deg C and RH 60-80 %) for 90 days period. Physical-chemical characteristics and microorganism population were determined at 1, 30 60 and 90 days after radiation process. Radappertization decreased total soluble solids (TSS), hardness and color. Radiation was responsible for reduction of 15,5% of total carotenoids content. By the other hand the storage period was responsible for 35 % losses. pH was not affected by radiation nor by storage period. Complete sterilization was achieved with doses of 20 kGy and 30 kGy. Radappertization affected negatively the sensorial characteristics of flavor, color and general appearance. Through sensorial analysis was possible to evaluate that polyethylene seal was inadequate for the purpose because allowed photo-chemical reactions in the carrots during the storage period. The metallized film kept best appearance of the irradiated carrots after 90 days storage. (author)

  16. Storage Diseases of Carrots and Management

    OpenAIRE

    TÜLEK, Senem; DOLAR, F. Sara

    2011-01-01

    As conclusions of the worldwide studies a lot of detrimental organisms pest and fungal diseases that are seen pre- harvest and post-harvest, period on carrots, are described and methods are suggested for control and prevention of diseases. Carrots are stored for a long time after harvest and fungal agents cause considerable losses due to improper storage conditions in carrot stores. These agents and diseases caused by their; Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea), Black Root Rot Carrots (Chalara elega...

  17. 21 CFR 73.300 - Carrot oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carrot oil. 73.300 Section 73.300 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.300 Carrot oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive carrot oil is the liquid or the solid portion of the mixture or the mixture itself obtained by the...

  18. The demography of wild carrot in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild carrot was likely introduced to North America as a weed from Europe. It has spread since its introduction, now occurs in every state and has been declared invasive. Because wild carrot can easily hybridize with cultivated carrots, is an outcrosser and is pollinated by various insects, the intro...

  19. Looking for ecological control of carrot psyllid

    OpenAIRE

    Nissinen, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The results suggest that a one-week trap replacement period, which is the current practise in carrot psyllid monitoring, is too long at the early growth stages of carrot. Regardless of the oviposition (laying of eggs) preference for a certain carrot cultivars, the possibility of a functional push-pull control strategy based on limonene seems unlikely, since the repellent effect of limonene could not be verified. Further field studies with possible repellent compounds, such as winter host vola...

  20. Meloidogyne incognita nematode resistance QTL in carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are major pests attacking carrots (Daucus carota) worldwide, causing galling and forking of the storage roots, rendering them unacceptable for market. Genetic resistance could significantly reduce the need for broad-spectrum soil fumigants in carrot production....

  1. Optimization of flat plate drying of carrot pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot pomace is a co-product of the carrot juice and cut-carrot industry; it has high nutritional value but is currently underutilized. Drum drying is one method that could be used to dry and stabilize carrot pomace. However, optimum conditions for the dryer inlet temperature, product dwell time, c...

  2. First Report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in Carrots in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) plants exhibiting symptoms that resembled those of carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis) damage were observed in commercial fields in southern Finland in August 2008. Carrot psyllid is a serious pest of carrots in northern and central Europe, where it can cause up to 100% yield los...

  3. in Artificially Polluted Soil—Carrots System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Sablayrolles

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are widely used in household and industrial products. The risk of incorporation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS from biosolids, wastewater, and fertilizers land application to the food chain is being assessed at present by the European Union. In the present work, a complete analytical method for LAS trace determination has been developed and successfully applied to LAS (C10–C13 uptake in carrot plants used as model. These carrots were grown in soil with the trace organics compounds added directly into the plant containers in pure substances form. LAS trace determination (μg kg-1 dry matter in carrots samples was achieved by Soxtec apparatus and high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. The methodology developed provides LAS determination at low detection limits (5 μg kg-1 dry matter for carrot sample (2 g dry matter with good recoveries rate (>90%. Transfer of LAS has been followed into the various parts of the carrot plant. LAS are generally found in the carrot leaves and percentage transfer remains very low (0.02%.

  4. Antioxidant Activity and Sensory Properties Carrot (Daucus carrota) Soyghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Susiloningsih Enny Karti Basuki; Sarofa Ulya; Sholihah Fauziah Imroatus

    2016-01-01

    Carrot (Dascus carota L.) is one of the more commonly used vegetables of human nutrition. It is rich in beta carotene, ascorbic acid, tocopherol and classified as vitaminized food. Combination of carrot juice and yoghurt produce a nutritionally balanced food. The aim of this study is to determine the best combination of carrot juice concentration and was fermentation duration. soyghurt was prepared in the laboratory scale production from soymilk and carrot juice was fermented with Streptococc...

  5. Association Between Pachytene Chromosomes and Linkage Groups in Carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome of carrot (Daucus carota L.) consists of ~ 480 Mb/1C organized in 9 chromosome pairs. The importance of carrots in human nutrition is triggering the development of genomic resources, including carrot linkage maps, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone library and BAC end sequence...

  6. Soil solarization for weed control in carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARENCO RICARDO ANTONIO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil solarization is a technique used for weed and plant disease control in regions with high levels of solar radiation. The effect of solarization (0, 3, 6, and 9 weeks upon weed populations, carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. Brasília yield and nematode infestation in carrot roots was studied in São Luís (2º35' S; 44º10' W, MA, Brazil, using transparent polyethylene films (100 and 150 mm of thickness. The maximum temperature at 5 cm of depth was about 10ºC warmer in solarized soil than in control plots. In the study 20 weed types were recorded. Solarization reduced weed biomass and density in about 50% of weed species, including Cyperus spp., Chamaecrista nictans var. paraguariensis (Chod & Hassl. Irwin & Barneby, Marsypianthes chamaedrys (Vahl O. Kuntze, Mitracarpus sp., Mollugo verticillata L., Sebastiania corniculata M. Arg., and Spigelia anthelmia L. Approximately 40% of species in the weed flora were not affected by soil mulching. Furthermore, seed germination of Commelina benghalensis L. was increased by soil solarization. Marketable yield of carrots was greater in solarized soil than in the unsolarized one. It was concluded that solarization for nine weeks increases carrot yield and is effective for controlling more than half of the weed species recorded. Mulching was not effective for controlling root-knot nematodes in carrot.

  7. RESIDUES IN CARROTS TREATED WITH LINURON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out on residues of linuron and its breakdown products in carrots sprayed with Jinuron at 1, 2, or 4 kg a.i./ha, 0, 19, 28, 36 or 60 days after sowing (up to 57 days before harvesting). The extracted residues were separated into three fractions by liquid-liquid par......Investigations have been carried out on residues of linuron and its breakdown products in carrots sprayed with Jinuron at 1, 2, or 4 kg a.i./ha, 0, 19, 28, 36 or 60 days after sowing (up to 57 days before harvesting). The extracted residues were separated into three fractions by liquid......,4-dichloroaniline and iodide ion, followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Only 5-13% of the extract-able residues were breakdown products. Most of the detectable residue (87-95%) was identified as linuron. The relative proportions of linuron and breakdown products in carrots at the time...

  8. Keeping carrots quality during storage by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh carrots were gamma irradiated at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 KGy doses using cobalt-60 source. A portion of the irradiated carrots was stored at ambient temperature (20-25 degree C) and the rest was packed in polyethylene bags and stored in refrigerator temperature (5± 1 degree C). The results indicated that the sprouting of carrots were completely inhibited by radiation dose of 0.2 KGy either at ambient temperature or cold storage, while the non-irradiated samples started to sprout after 2 and 4 weeks of storage at ambient temperature and cold storage respectively. Furthermore, samples treated with gamma rays showed lower values of weight loss compared to the untreated ones during storage. Concerning storage temperature, it was found that the rate of weight loss during storage was higher at ambient temperature than in refrigerator. Micro-organisms were greatly affected by gamma rays, their counts were found to be decreased by increasing irradiation dose as compared with the control sample. Moreover, during storage period, refrigerated samples showed lower bacterial and molds counts than samples stored at ambient temperature. On the other hand, it was also observed that irradiated samples at the higher dose i.e. 1.0 KGy stored either at ambient temperature or in refrigerator showed higher bacterial and molds counts than unirradiated ones. The lowest dose (0.1 KGy) had no effect on carotene and sugars contents of carrots while increasing the dose above 0.2 KGy led to gradual decrease in carotene contents and gradual increase in total soluble sugars contents of the samples with increasing the irradiation dose compared with the nonirradiated ones. The results proved that gamma irradiation dose of 0.2 Gy was effective for sprout inhibition of carrots and increase their shelf-life to 10 weeks at ambient temperature without adverse effects on carotene and sugars contents of treated carrots

  9. RESIDUES IN CARROTS TREATED WITH LINURON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out on residues of linuron and its breakdown products in carrots sprayed with Jinuron at 1, 2, or 4 kg a.i./ha, 0, 19, 28, 36 or 60 days after sowing (up to 57 days before harvesting). The extracted residues were separated into three fractions by liquid......,4-dichloroaniline and iodide ion, followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Only 5-13% of the extract-able residues were breakdown products. Most of the detectable residue (87-95%) was identified as linuron. The relative proportions of linuron and breakdown products in carrots at the time of...

  10. Influence of technical processing units on polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of carrot (Daucus carrot L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tingting; Tian, Chengrui; Luo, Jiyang; Zhou, Rui; Sun, Xiangyu; Ma, Jinjin

    2013-12-01

    The effect of three processing units (blanching, enzyme liquefaction, and pasteurisation) on polyphenols and antioxidant activity of carrot juices was investigated. Polyphenols and antioxidant activity of carrot juices varied with different processes. Five polyphenolic acids were identified in fresh carrot juice, and the predominant compound was chlorogenic acid. Compared with fresh carrot juice, blanching and enzyme liquefaction could result in the increase of the total polyphenol content (TPC) and the antioxidant activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals (DPPH) and Fe(2+)-chelating capacity (FC), whereas pasteurisation could result in the decrease of the TPC and the antioxidant activity in DPPH and FC. Meanwhile blanching, enzyme liquefaction, and pasteurisation showed little influence on the antioxidant activity in lipid peroxidation protection. The antioxidant activities in DPPH and FC increased with increasing concentration while no correlation between lipid peroxidation protection and polyphenols concentration. Polyphenols still retained high antioxidant activity after the processes, which have potential health benefits for consumers. PMID:23870871

  11. Residual tembotrione and atrazine in carrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, Amanda F; Carneiro, Gabriella D P; Guimarães, Fernanda A R; Dos Reis, Marcelo R; Silva, Daniel V; Rocha, Bruno H; Souza, Matheus F; Sediyama, Tocio

    2016-07-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a vegetable crop that is grown throughout the year across various regions of Brazil in rotation or in succession to other cultures. Herbicide residual effect has emerged as a concern, because of the possibility of carryover. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of tembotrione and atrazine residues - in mixture and isolated - on carrot planted in succession to corn. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks with five replications. Treatments consisted of tembotrione (50.4 g ha(-1)), tembotrione (100.8 g ha(-1)), tembotrione + atrazine (50.4 g ha(-1)+ 2 L ha(-1)), tembotrione + atrazine (100.8 g ha(-1)+ 2 L ha(-1)), and atrazine (2.00 L ha(-1)) applied eight months before carrot seeding, plus a control treatment with no herbicide application. Investigated variables were shoot dry mass, productivity, and classification of carrot roots. The presence of atrazine and tembotrione decreased dry mass in the area, and only tembotrione reduced total root productivity. Thus, there is a carryover effect to tembotrione application that reduces the dry matter accumulation of shoot and total productivity, and an atrazine + tembotrione (100.8 g ha(-1)) mixture reduces the total productivity after application of these herbicides to soil. PMID:27052932

  12. Genetic structure and domestication of carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus)(Apiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated domestication and genetic structure in wild and open pollinated cultivated carrots (Daucus carota L.) with 3481 SNPs developed from carrot transcriptome sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a clear genetic separation between wild and cultivated carrot accessions. Among the wild ...

  13. Component-resolved in vitro diagnosis of carrot allergy in three different regions of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballmer-Weber, B K; Skamstrup Hansen, K; Sastre, J;

    2012-01-01

    Carrot is a frequent cause of food allergy in Europe. The objective of this study was to evaluate a panel of carrot allergens for diagnosis of carrot allergy in Spain, Switzerland and Denmark.......Carrot is a frequent cause of food allergy in Europe. The objective of this study was to evaluate a panel of carrot allergens for diagnosis of carrot allergy in Spain, Switzerland and Denmark....

  14. The Big Carrot: High Stake Incentives Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; García-Muñoz, Teresa; Neuman, Shoshana

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical demonstration of high stakes incentives in relation to religious practice. It shows that, when both positive (carrot) and negative (stick) incentives are available, the former are more effective than the latter. Specifically, it is shown that beliefs in heaven are much more relevant than beliefs in hell when estimating the production of religious commodities (church-attendance and praying equations).

  15. Vegetables of temperate climates: Carrot, parsnip and beetroot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrots, parsnips and beets are horticultural root crops eaten around the world. These root vegetables have a long shelf-life when kept in cold storage. Among them are sources of vitamin A, vitamin C, fiber, and other colorful pigments that provide antioxidant activity. Carrots come in many color...

  16. Development of EST based markers for exploiting the carrot genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot is the most economically important member of the Apiaceae family and a major source of provitamin A in the human diet. Breeding and genetic studies are ongoing to improve quantitative and qualitative traits. However, carrot molecular resources are relatively underdeveloped, hampering progress...

  17. Detection and prediction of post harvest carrot diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot is the most important outdoor vegetable crop in Norway with a market value of NOK 675 million in 2010. Because demand for carrots is year-round but the growing season is short, the crop is typically stored after harvest for as long as 6 months. Diseases that develop during low temperature sto...

  18. SE-ENRICHMENT OF CARROT AND ONION VIA FOLIAR APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kapolna, Emese; Laursen, Kristian H; Hillestrøm, Peter; Husted, Søren; Larsen, Erik H.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the selenium accumulation in carrot and onion plants using foliar application by sodium selenite and sodium selenate. Furthermore, we aimed at identifying the Se species biosynthesised by onion and carrot plants. The results were used to prepare for production of 77Se enriched plants for an ongoing human absorption study.

  19. The effect of temperature on phenolic content in wounded carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cong; Li, Jing; Jin, Peng; Li, Xiaoan; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Yonghua

    2017-01-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to play important roles in biosynthesis of phenolic antioxidants in wounded carrots. This study has gone further to understand the effects of storage temperature on phenolics accumulation in wounded carrots. The results indicated that both increased wounding intensity and higher storage temperature promoted the generation of ROS and enhanced phenolics accumulation in wounded carrots. Moreover, treatment with ROS inhibitor inhibited ROS generation, suppressed the activities of key enzymes in phenylpropanoid pathway (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, PAL; cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, C4H; 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase, 4CL) and restrained phenolics accumulation in shredded carrots confirming previous reports. In contrast, treatment with ROS elicitor promoted ROS generation, enhanced the activities of PAL, C4H and 4CL, and induced phenolics accumulation. Thus, our results confirmed that ROS are essential for mediating wound-induced phenolics accumulation in carrots and suggested that increase temperature enhanced the accumulation of phenolics through inducing ROS generation. PMID:27542457

  20. Tunnel production enhances quality in organic carrot seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2009-01-01

    production of open-pollinated carrot varieties increased the yield and germination percentages when compared with normal field conditions. Yield was in the range of 100-250 g and 2-17 g seeds m-2 respectively, and germination percentage was 84-95 and 43-55, respectively. However, hybrid carrot seed...... production showed lower yields than did their open-pollinated counterparts. Yields ranging from 60-123 g seeds m-2 can be obtained, but the production needs to be carefully planned and monitored. Different growing systems in tunnels have been studied in both open-pollinated and hybrid carrot (Daucus carota L...

  1. Industrial Production of High-carotene-content Carrot Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Scientific experiments have shown that β-carotene from fresh carrots and other fruits and vegetables, rather than chemosynthetic ones, could have preventive effects on the lung cancer. This makes β-carotene processing an industry with great prospects.

  2. New insights into domestication of carrot from root transcriptome analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rong, J.; Lammers, Y.; Strasburg, J.L.; Schidlo, N.S.; Ariyurek, Y.; Jong, de T.J.; Klinkhamer, P.G.L.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Vrieling, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background - Understanding the molecular basis of domestication can provide insights into the processes of rapid evolution and crop improvement. Here we demonstrated the processes of carrot domestication and identified genes under selection based on transcriptome analyses. Results - The root transcr

  3. Development and quality evaluation of honey based carrot candy

    OpenAIRE

    Durrani, Anisa Musarath; P.K. Srivastava; Verma, Sangeeta

    2011-01-01

    Candy was prepared with 3 different combinations of honey and carrot by using 750 g honey + 1,000 g carrot (T1), 1,000 g honey + 1,000 g carrot (T2) and 1,250 g honey + 1,000 g carrot (T3). To establish the best product, sensory evaluation was done on 9-point Hedonic scale. T1 was found to be most preferred candy. Further the T1 candy was assessed for overall quality during storage at room temperature (25–30 °C) for 6 months. Candy can be preserved safely for 6 months in both glass and LDPE p...

  4. Modelling of lactic fermentation of carrot slices in salted brines

    OpenAIRE

    Nabais, R.M.; Malcata, F. X.

    1997-01-01

    Increases in suspended biomass and variation in the concentrations of reducing sugars, salt, and lactic acid in brine containing sliced carrots were followed for a period of several days. A tentative unstructured, unsegregated model for the metabolism of suspended Lactobacillus plan tarum coupled with Fick's second law of diffusion for the transport of solutes within the carrot material was postulated. This general model was fitted by non-linear multiresponse regression analysis to an extensi...

  5. Losses of bioactive polyacetylenes during minimal processing of carrots

    OpenAIRE

    Koidis, Anastasios; Rawson, Ashish; Osorio, Teresa; Brunton, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    Vegetables of the Apiaceae plant family such as carrots, parsnip, celery and parsley,contain in minor quantities, a group of bioactive aliphatic C17-polyacetylenes (falcarinol,falcarindiol, falcarindiol-3- acetate). Recent studies have highlighted important biologicalfunctions in vitro and in vivo (animal studies) although the beneficial effect in humannutrition attributable to an increased in polyacetylenes diet are yet to be confirmed(Lund, 1990).Carrots not only contain relatively high pol...

  6. Physical Weed Control in Organic Carrot in Sicily (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Peruzzi, A.; Raffaelli, M.; M. Fontanelli; C. Frasconi; Ginanni, M.; Lulli, L.

    2008-01-01

    Weeds are the major biotic factor that negatively affects organic carrot yield. As a matter of fact, weeds can reduce carrot growth from early stages to harvest because of the low competitive attitude of this vegetable. Innovative and conventional crop and weed managements were compared in an experiment carried out on farm in the Catania Plain (Sicily, Italy) in 2005-2006. Innovative planting pattern, operative machines (rolling harrow, flaming machine, precision hoe) and crop management incr...

  7. Effect of different cooking methods on structure and quality of industrially frozen carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciulli, Maria; Ganino, Tommaso; Carini, Eleonora; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Pugliese, Alessandro; Chiavaro, Emma

    2016-05-01

    The effect of boiling, steaming and microwaving on microstructure, texture and colour of raw and industrially frozen carrots was investigated. The raw carrots, after cooking, showed dehydrated and separated cells with swollen walls. The carrots subjected to blanching, freezing and followed by frozen storage exhibited marked tissue damages indicating deep oriented fissures. Cooking caused cellular dehydration and separation in the tissue, with the same intensity between raw and frozen carrots and independently from the cooking treatment applied. Among different cooking methods, microwaving showed better retention of the initial texture and colour quality for both raw and frozen carrots. On the other hand, the steamed carrots revealed the highest degree of softening and colour differences from the control for both raw and frozen carrots, despite the worst tissue conditions were observed for the boiled carrots. PMID:27407211

  8. Exogenous gibberellin altered morphology, anatomic and transcriptional regulatory networks of hormones in carrot root and shoot

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guang-Long; Que, Feng; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Gibberellins stimulate cell elongation and expansion during plant growth and development. Carrot is a root plant with great value and undergoes obvious alteration in organ size over the period of plant growth. However, the roles of gibberellins in carrot remain unclear. Results To investigate the effects of gibberelliins on the growth of carrot, we treated carrot plants with gibberellic acid 3 (GA3) or paclobutrazol (a gibberellin inhibitor). The results found that GA3 dramatically...

  9. Comparisons of Pathological Responses in Carrot to Root-knot Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Yong Su; Park, Yong; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-01-01

    Carrot (Dacus carota var. sativus) is one of the top-ten most economically important vegetable crops produced worldwide, and the root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., are one of the most important pests in the carrot. In Korea, M. hapla and M. incognita are presumed to be the major root-knot nematodes distributing mostly in open carrot fields and greenhouses, respectively. In our study, currently-developed and commercial carrot cultivars and the parental lines were examined for their patholo...

  10. First Report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ Associated with Psyllid-Infested Carrots in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot plants with symptoms resembling those associated with the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” were observed in commercial carrot fields in Lower Saxony, Germany in September 2014. The fields were infested with the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and the infection rate was about 50...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L... consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus) for consumption measuring 10...

  12. Incidence and severity of cavity spot of carrot as affected by pigmentation, temperature, and rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field trials to determine the effect of carrot pigmentation and weather parameters on cavity spot of carrot (CS) were conducted in the Holland/Bradford Marsh region of Ontario between 2002 and 2009. Twenty three colored carrots from the USDA-ARS breeding program at the University of Wisconsin (5) an...

  13. The effect of gamma rays on carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of several doses (5-400 Gy) of gamma rays from a 137Cs source were studied on several biological indices in carrots. Doses higher than 50 Gy reduced the wet weight of the cells in the suspension medium whereas the doses of 5 and 10 Gy affected the wet weight positively and to a lesser extent the dry weight. This may be due to higher water absorption of the irradiated cells since their number was less than that of the control. The different doses did not affect the chromosome number of the cells but reduced the cell division rates. At doses higher than 200 Gy no singel cell was recorded as dividing after two days of irradiation. A week later, however, the cells seemed to have recovered some ability for division, but with an increase of prophase stage in mitosis and also in the mitotic division abnormalities. Cells irradiation with 10 Gy caused the cells to differentiate and to form somatic embryos due to halting the effect of 2,4-D hormon. Higher doses, however, prohibited or reduced cells differentiation, probably due to higher mitotic division abnormalities. Nevertheless, it has been possible to attain mature plants from all treatments except for the 400 Gy. The low doses of 5 and 10 Gy, contrary to the higher ones, affected positively the speed of seed germination, increased the plant height, and also increased the root weight. 11 refs. (author)

  14. NM-Scale Anatomy of an Entire Stardust Carrot Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.; Clemett, S. J.; Messenger, S.

    2009-01-01

    Comet Wild-2 samples collected by NASA s Stardust mission are extremely complex, heterogeneous, and have experienced wide ranges of alteration during the capture process. There are two major types of track morphologies: "carrot" and "bulbous," that reflect different structural/compositional properties of the impactors. Carrot type tracks are typically produced by compact or single mineral grains which survive essentially intact as a single large terminal particle. Bulbous tracks are likely produced by fine-grained or organic-rich impactors [1]. Owing to their challenging nature and especially high value of Stardust samples, we have invested considerable effort in developing both sample preparation and analytical techniques tailored for Stardust sample analyses. Our report focuses on our systematic disassembly and coordinated analysis of Stardust carrot track #112 from the mm to nm-scale.

  15. Variation in Content of Carotenoids and Vitamin C in Carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana MATĚJKOVÁ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Carrots are the most popular and wide-spread of all root vegetables, and are the principal source of carotenoids in human diet. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between cultivars and the effect of storage regarding the carotenoid and vitamin C content in carrots. Six carrot cultivars were used in this study, ranging from early to late ones. Observed carotenoid content ranged from 60 mg kg-1 to 134 mg kg-1. Significantly higher levels of carotenoids were found in late and moderately late cultivars in comparison to early ones. Vitamin C content in these cultivars ranged from 54 mg kg-1 to 132 mg kg-1. Significantly higher contents of vitamin C were also found in the late cultivars. 30-day storage resulted in a significant reduction in vitamin C content, on average of 47%. There was also a reduction in the carotenoids content, but to a lesser extent, on average of 11%.

  16. Microbial population of shredded carrot in modified atmosphere packaging as related to irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shredded carrots in modified atmosphere packaging were treated with low-dose irradiation of 0.5 kGy in order to determine whether additional reduction of microbial population would be achieved for carrots previously treated with chlorine. Commercially prepared shredded carrots treated with irradiation had a mean microbial population of 1300 CFU/g at the expiration date (9 days after irradiation) compared with 87,000 CFU/g for nonirradiated, chlorinated controls. Oxygen content of the headspace gas and ethanol content of the carrots were not significantly affected. Irradiation appears to be a suitable technology for shredded carrots

  17. Quality of grated carrot (var. Nantes) packed under vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Ada MCN; Ferreira, João FFC; Silva, Ângelo MM; Almeida, Gonçalo N; Morais, Alcina MMB

    2007-01-01

    The quality of grated carrot (variety Nantes) was evaluated throughout 10 days of storage in two different atmospheres: air and vacuum at 2 ◦C. The parameters of quality were microbiological and physico-chemical. Sensory evaluation of vacuum-packed grated carrots was performed after the microbiology study. The objective was to study the use of a vacuum for preservation of this type of product. The use of a vacuum was sufficiently promising with respect to the capacity to extend the shel...

  18. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by Carrot residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of Copper(II), Zinc(II), and Chromium (III) from wastewater by carrot residues was investigated to evaluate cation exchange capacity. The effects of solution P H and co-ions were studied in batch experiments. Adsorption equilibria were initially rapidly established, and then decreased markedly after 10 min. Column experiments were carried out in a glass column filled with carrot residues to evaluate the metal removal capacity. The influences of the feed concentration and feed rate were also studied in order to compare the dynamic capacity for metal binding in different feed concentrations

  19. Susceptibility of wild carrot (Daucus carota ssp. carota) to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brita Dahl; Finckh, M.R.; Munk, Lisa;

    2008-01-01

    Sclerotinia soft rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a severe disease of cultivated carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus) in storage. It is not known whether Sclerotinia soft rot also affects wild carrots (D. carota ssp. carota), which hybridise and exchange genes, among them resistance...... genes, with the cultivated carrot. We investigated the susceptibility of wild carrots to S. sclerotiorum isolates from cultivated carrot under controlled and outdoor conditions. Inoculated roots from both wild and cultivated plants produced sclerotia and soft rot in a growth chamber test. Two isolates...... differed significantly in the ability to produce lesions and sclerotia on roots of both wild carrots and cv. Bolero. Flowering stems of wild carrots produced dry, pale lesions after inoculation with the pathogen, and above-ground plant weight was significantly reduced 4 weeks after inoculation...

  20. An elemental analysis of conventionally, organically and self-grown carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejčová, Anna; Návesník, Jakub; Jičínská, Jaroslava; Černohorský, Tomáš

    2016-02-01

    Conventionally-, organically- and self-grown carrots available across the Czech market were characterised based on their elemental, nitrate and dry matter content (218 samples, 20 parameters) in order to assess the quality of the carrots and address the question whether organic also means better. The results were compared with information describing the elemental composition of carrots published previously, recommended daily intakes, and legislative limits for contaminants in food. Significant differences in the amounts of Na, K, S, Al, Mn, Ni, As and Cd were observed between conventional and organic carrots. From the perspective of inter-element interactions, and the origin of these, a principal components analysis of the datasets found no significant differences between conventionally- and organically-grown carrots. For the consumer, it is valuable to know there are no differences between conventionally- and organically-grown carrots, and no potential harm arising from heavy metal contamination. Based on our data, carrots are an excellent source of potassium. PMID:26304343

  1. Expression and mapping of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthocyanin gene expression has been extensively studied in leaves, fruits and flowers of numerous plants. Little, however, is known about anthocyanin accumulation in roots, or in carrots or other Apiaceae. We quantified expression of six anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (...

  2. The carrot genome sequence brings colors out of the dark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2016-05-27

    The genome sequence of carrot (Daucus carota L.) is the first completed for an Apiaceae species, furthering knowledge of the evolution of the important euasterid II clade. Analyzing the whole-genome sequence allowed for the identification of a gene that may regulate the accumulation of carotenoids in the root. PMID:27230684

  3. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on carrot in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    In March of 2014, carrot plants (Daucus carota L. var. Mascot) exhibiting symptoms of yellowing, purpling, and curling of leaves, proliferation of shoots, formation of hairy secondary roots, general stunting and plant decline were observed in commercial fields in the Gharb region of Morocco. The sym...

  4. Improving Classroom Behavior: The Carrot and the Stick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talent, Barbara K.; Busch, Suzanne G.

    A set of practical behavior change techniques for improving young children's classroom behavior are briefly discussed. Techniques are classified and discussed under two general categories: those that reduce frequency of behaviors ("sticks") and those that increase their frequency ("carrots"). Included under "sticks" are techniques such as ignoring…

  5. Cultivation of carrot and its use as fooder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is an important winter crop and used as vegetable as well as fodder for livestock. It is cultivated in temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. Carrot is cultivated in all provinces of Pakistan. It is a cool-climate crop and develops normally in a wide range of temperatures. Root-growth is fastest at temperatures between 15 degree C and 18 degree C; carrot plant is biennial and completes its life-cycle in two years. It needs light soil, which has well manured. It grows in two ways i.e on ridges and on flat beds. Seed is planted about 1.25 to 2 cm deep, keeping row-distance 30 to 60 cm. Carrot requires abundant and well- distributed supply of water.. The weed-control during the early stage of growing-season is essential. The yields are about 20,000 to 30,000 kg per hectare. Higher yields can be obtained by using advanced agronomic practices. (author)

  6. Influence of technical processing units on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot (Daucus carrot L.) juice essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tingting; Luo, Jiyang; Tian, Chengrui; Sun, Xiangyu; Quan, Meiping; Zheng, Cuiping; Kang, Lina; Zhan, Jicheng

    2015-03-01

    The effect of three processing units (blanching, enzyme liquefaction, pasteurisation) on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot juice essential oil was investigated in this paper. A total of 36 compounds were identified by GC-MS from fresh carrot juice essential oil. The main constituents were carotol (20.20%), sabinene (12.80%), β-caryophyllene (8.04%) and α-pinene (6.05%). Compared with the oil of fresh juice, blanching and pasteurisation could significantly decrease the components of the juice essential oil, whereas enzyme liquefaction had no considerable effect on the composition of juice essential oil. With regard to the antimicrobial activity, carrot juice essential oil could cause physical damage and morphological alteration on microorganisms, while the three different processing units showed noticeable differences on the species of microorganisms, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Results revealed that the carrot juice essential oil has great potential for application as a natural antimicrobial applied in pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:25306362

  7. An eco-metabolomic study of host plant resistance to Western flower thrips in cultivated, biofortified and wild carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiss, Kirsten A; Cristofori, Gabriele; van Steenis, Rosalinda; Verpoorte, Robert; Klinkhamer, Peter G L

    2013-09-01

    Domestication of plants and selection for agronomic traits may reduce plant secondary defence metabolites relative to their ancestors. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is an economically important vegetable. Recently, carrot was developed as a functional food with additional health-promoting functions. Biofortified carrots contain increased concentrations of chlorogenic acid as an antioxidant. Chlorogenic acid is involved in host plant resistance to Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), one of the key agri- and horticultural pests worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate quantitative host plant resistance to thrips in carrot and to identify candidate compounds for constitutive resistance. As such we explored whether cultivated carrot is more vulnerable to herbivore attack compared to wild carrot. We subjected a set of 14 biofortified, cultivated and wild carrot genotypes to thrips infestation. We compared morphological traits and leaf metabolic profiles of the three most resistant and susceptible carrots using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). In contrast to our expectation, wild carrots were not more resistant to thrips than cultivated ones. The most thrips resistant carrot was the cultivar Ingot which is known to be tolerant against carrot root fly (Psila rosae). Biofortified carrots were not resistant to thrips. Plant size, leaf area and number of leaf hairs did not differ between resistant and susceptible carrots. The metabolic profiles of the leaves of resistant carrots were significantly different from those of susceptible carrots. The leaves of resistant carrots contained higher amounts of the flavanoid luteolin, the phenylpropanoid sinapic acid and the amino acid β-alanine. The negative effect of these compounds on thrips was confirmed using in-vitro bioassays. Our results have potential implications for carrot breeders. The natural variation of metabolites present in cultivated carrots can be used for improvement of

  8. Temporal Characterization of Carrot Broth-Enhanced Real-Time PCR as an Alternative Means for Rapid Detection of Streptococcus agalactiae from Prenatal Anorectal and Vaginal Screenings ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Munson, Erik; Napierala, Maureen; Munson, Kimber L.; Culver, Anne; Hryciuk, Jeanne E.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of overnight carrot broth culture using the BD GeneOhm StrepB assay (carrot broth-enhanced PCR) yields increased sensitivity compared to that of carrot broth culture alone for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae. We investigated the prospect of reducing the carrot broth incubation time prior to PCR performance. In vitro experimentation demonstrated that carrot broth-enhanced PCR nominally detected 10 CFU S. agalactiae after 4 h of carrot broth incubation with competitive flora....

  9. Effect of foliar application of selenium on its uptake and speciation in carrot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kápolna, Emese; Hillestrøm, Peter René; Laursen, K.H.;

    2009-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) shoots were enriched by selenium using foliar application. Solutions of sodium selenite or sodium selenate at 10 and 100 mu g Se ml(-1), were sprayed on the carrot leaves and the selenium content and uptake rate of selenium were estimated by ICP-MS analysis. Anion and cation......(-1) (dry mass) in the carrot root whereas the selenium concentration in the controls was below the limit of detection at 0.045 mu g Se g(-1) (dry mass). Selenate-enriched carrot leaves accumulated as much as 80 mu g Se g(-1) (dry mass), while the selenite-enriched leaves contained approximately 50 mu...... were used for foliar application. Only selenomethionine was detected in the carrot leaves. The identity of selenomethionine contained in carrot roots and leaves was successfully confirmed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS....

  10. Vitamin C content and sensorial properties of dehydrated carrots blanched conventionally or by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Cristina Soria, A; Pérez-Mateos, Miriam; Carrasco, J Atanasio; Montilla, Antonia; Villamiel, Mar

    2013-01-15

    Vitamin C content and sensorial properties have been evaluated in air-dried carrots previously subjected to different ultrasound (US) or conventional blanching pretreatments. In addition, mass spectral fingerprints obtained by the Headspace ChemSensor System have been evaluated for the first time for classification of carrots according to their processing. Conventional blanching treatments at high temperature gave rise to carrots with retention of vitamin C in the range 37.5-85%, whereas carrots blanched conventionally at 60°C and by US-probe at temperatures up to 60 and 70°C showed vitamin C retention values lower than 4%. Regarding sensorial analysis of rehydrated carrots, US-pretreated samples presented acceptable quality, and no statistically significant differences with respect to conventionally blanched carrots, were detected. In spite of this, differentiation of samples processed under comparable intensity conditions and/or with similar composition was possible from their mass spectral fingerprints after chemometric data analysis. PMID:23122127

  11. Convective Air Drying Characteristics for Thin Layer Carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Dumitru Velescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carrot is one of the most commonly used vegetables for human nutrition due to high vitamin and fibre content. Drying is one of the oldest methods of food preservation, and it represents a very important aspect of food processing. Sun drying is the most common method used to preserve agricultural products in most tropical countries; this technique is extremely weather dependent, and has the problems of contamination with dust, soil, sand particles and insects. Also, the required drying time can be quite long. Therefore, using solar and hot-air dryers, which are far more rapid, providing uniformity and hygiene are inevitable for industrial food drying processes. Aim: This paper presents a kinetic study of convective drying without pre-treatment of carrot. The effects of the temperature of the drying agent, the speed of the drying agent and the thickness of the kinetics of drying the sample of carrots were investigated. Materials and methods: The experiments were carried out with the aid of an installation for drying food products, that is capable of ensuring the temperature of the drying agent (air in the range of +25 ... +125 °C. The drying process was conducted at temperature of 45 °C in first hour of process, 2 hours at 55 °C, and 3 hours at 60 °C. The air velocity was setup  at 1.0 - 2.5 m/s. Carrots were divided into segments of a thickness of 0.4 cm. Two mathematical models available in the literature were fitted to the experimental data. Results: The drying rate increases with temperature and decreases with the sample diameter. The Page model is given better prediction than the Henderson and Pabis model and satisfactorily described drying characteristics of carrot slices. Conclusions: The most important characteristics of carrot required for simulation and optimization of the drying were studied. The values of calculated effective diffusivity for drying at 45, 55 and 60oC of air temperature and 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 m

  12. CHANGES IN THE BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF CARROT ROOTS DUE TO BACTERIAL SOFT ROT

    OpenAIRE

    V. K. Parthiban; V. Prakasam; Prabakar, K.

    2013-01-01

    Carrot is a rich source of nutrients. The carrot contains carotene and lycopene, which gives bright color to the roots. The quality of the carrots was assessed based on the carotene, lycopene and other biochemical constituents like sugars, starch and protein. To study the effect of various isolates of the Erwinia carotovora var. carotovora on the above biochemical constituents, the pathogens were inoculated and the contents were analyzed separately at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 days after inoculation. The...

  13. Host-parasite Relationship of Carrot Cultivars and Meloidogyne chitwoodi Races and M. hapla

    OpenAIRE

    Santo, G. S.; Mojtahedi, H.; Wilson, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    Most of the 15 carrot cultivars tested were moderate to good hosts to Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 1, whereas all except Orlando Gold were nonhosts or poor hosts for M. chitwoodi race 2. All carrot cultivars were good hosts for M. hapla. The plant weights of the carrot cultivars Red Cored Chantenay and Orlando Gold infected with either race of M. chitwoodi were significantly less than uninoculated checks in pots. Under field microplot conditions, however, detrimental effects on quality were rar...

  14. Production of Bioethanol from Carrot Pomace Using the Thermotolerant Yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus

    OpenAIRE

    Kow-Jen Duan; Bo-Hong Jiang; Chi-Yang Yu

    2013-01-01

    Carrot pomace, a major agricultural waste from the juice industry, was used as a feedstock for bioethanol production by fermentation with the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus . Treatment of the carrot pomace with Accellerase TM 1000 and pectinase at 50 °C for 84 h, resulted in conversion of 42% of its mass to fermentable sugars, mainly glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 42 °C was performed on 10% ( w / v ) carrot pomace; the c...

  15. Evaluation the Sensory and Probiotics Properties of the Yogurt Supplemented with Carrot Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen R. Pop; Cătălina Topan; Ancuţa M. Rotar; Cristina Semeniuc; Liana Salanţă

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new type of yogurt through addition of carrot juice. Yogurt is a fermented milk product obtained from fermentation of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains. The effect of carrot juice at different levels (0%, 8%, 16%, 24%) on sensory properties and the viability of probiotic bacteria in yogurts during storage (21 days) at refrigerated temperature (4°C) was evaluated. The yogurt supplementation with 24 % carrot juice significantly improve...

  16. The Content of Phenolic Compounds and Radical Scavenging Activity Varies with Carrot Origin and Root Color

    OpenAIRE

    Leja, Maria; Kamińska, Iwona; Kramer, Maike; Maksylewicz-Kaul, Anna; Kammerer, Dietmar; Carle, Reinhold; Baranski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    The contents of phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activities were assessed in a carrot collection comprising 35 cultivars, landraces and breeding populations. The accessions originated from various world regions and they represented Eastern and Western carrot gene pools. In two-year field trial carrot roots of orange, red, yellow, white and purple color were cultivated, freeze-dried and analyzed for phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu assay and UV/Vis assay. Radical scavenging activit...

  17. Health biomarkers in a rat model after intake of organically grown carrots

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Maja M.; Jørgensen, Henry; Halekoh, Ulrich; Watzl, Bernhard; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organic food is perceived as being of better quality and healthier than conventional foods although the scientific research on organic foodstuffs is highly contradictory. The aim of the present study was to investigate if an intake of carrots from four different cultivation systems grown in two consecutive years would influence various biomarkers of health in a rat model. All rats were fed a diet with 40% carrot content. The carrots were grown under conventional (C), “minimalisti...

  18. Researches concerning nitrates and nitrites accumulation in carrots, along of the vegetation stages

    OpenAIRE

    Monica NEGREA; Aurel LAZUREANU; Alexa ERSILIA; Alina BULMAGA

    2008-01-01

    The presented paper deals with the determination of nitrates and nitrites content in carrots, in different vegetation stages of the carrot culture. High nitrates and nitrites concentration in vegetables is mainly due to excessive nitrogen content in the soil system, thus deteriorating the nutritional and hygienic values of products and complicating the processing and storage. The determination was tested on carrot samples assayed from an experimental field set up near Timisoara. In experiment...

  19. Characterization of the carrot defect in 4H-SiC epitaxial layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, J.; Henry, A.; McNally, P. J.; Bergman, J. P.

    2010-05-01

    Characterization of the epitaxial defect known as the carrot defect was performed in thick 4H-SiC epilayers. A large number of carrot defects have been studied using different experimental techniques such as Nomarski optical microscopy, KOH etching, cathodoluminescence and synchrotron white beam X-ray topography. This has revealed that carrot defects appear in many different shapes and structures in the epilayers. Our results support the previous assignment of the carrot defect as related to a prismatic stacking fault. However, we have observed carrot defects with and without a visible threading dislocation related etch pit in the head region, after KOH etching. Polishing of epilayers in a few μm steps in combination with etching in molten KOH and imaging using Nomarski optical microscope has been used to find the geometry and origin of the carrot defects in different epilayers. The defects were found to originate both at the epi-substrate interface and during the epitaxial growth. Different sources of the carrot defect have been observed at the epi-substrate interface, which result in different structures and surfaces appearance of the defect in the epilayer. Furthermore, termination of the carrot defect inside the epilayer and the influence of substrate surface damage and growth conditions on the density of carrot defects are studied.

  20. Effects of ionization and nitrous oxide on grated carrot respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two treatments (nitrous oxide and irradiation) have been applied on grated carrots to reduce the respiratory crisis induced by wounding. Nitrous oxide inhibited cytochrome c oxidase; but, it neither diminished O2 consumption of the tissues, nor modified atmospheres in a favourable way for conservation of grated carrots, stored in plastic bags (in the conditions chosen for this study). On the contrary, irradiation inhibited simultaneously the respiratory crisis and the ethylene production, both induced by wounding. This behaviour led to a lower consumption of sugars in irradiated tissues and to the generation of atmospheres, which were better adapted to the conservation needs (it was necessary to use plastic film with high permeability). Finally, an applied study demonstrated that irradiation, by permitting a less denaturing preparation than industrial process, allowed the conservation of produces with a better quality (nutritional, sensory and microbiological). Biochemical analyses have been validated by sensory analyses

  1. Carrot cells: a pioneering platform for biopharmaceuticals production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Tello-Olea, Marlene Anahí

    2015-03-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is of importance in the molecular farming field as it constitutes the first plant species approved to produce biopharmaceuticals for human use. In this review, features that make carrot an advantageous species in the molecular farming field are analyzed and a description of the developments achieved with this crop thus far is presented. A guide for genetic transformation procedures is also included. The state of the art comprises ten vaccine prototypes against Measles virus, Hepatitis B virus, Human immunodeficiency virus, Yersinia pestis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium diphtheria/Clostridium tetani/Bordetella pertussis, and Helicobacter pylori; as well as the case of the glucocerebrosidase, an enzyme used for replacement therapy, and other therapeutics. Perspectives for these developments are envisioned and innovations are proposed such as the use of transplastomic technologies-, hairy roots-, and viral expression-based systems to improve yields and develop new products derived from this advantageous plant species. PMID:25572939

  2. Interdisciplinary cantilever physics: Elasticity of carrot, celery, and plasticware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestka, Kenneth A.

    2014-05-01

    This article presents several simple cantilever-based experiments using common household items (celery, carrot, and a plastic spoon) that are appropriate for introductory undergraduate laboratories or independent student projects. By applying Hooke's law and Euler beam theory, students are able to determine Young's modulus, fracture stress, yield stress, strain energy, and sound speed of these apparently disparate materials. In addition, a cellular foam elastic model is introduced—applicable to biologic materials as well as an essential component in the development of advanced engineering composites—that provides a mechanism to determine Young's modulus of the cell wall material found in celery and carrot. These experiments are designed to promote exploration of the similarities and differences between common inorganic and organic materials, fill a void in the typical undergraduate curriculum, and provide a foundation for more advanced material science pursuits within biology, botany, and food science as well as physics and engineering.

  3. Studies in utilization of fertilizer and soil nitrogen by carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pot experiments were conducted to determine the extent of fertilizer N utilization by carrots, using double-labelled 15N-ammonium nitrate. The degree of soil N utilization was also studied. The residual effect of nitrogen in the individual variants was determined in spinach grown as succeeding crop. Under the experimental conditions, N utilization was highest at high water supply (100 % of water capacity). Due to the daily rhythm of pot watering to approximately 100 % of water capacity, gas exchange (air and oxygen) was ensured as well, providing optimum growth conditions. At medium nitrogen rates (12.5 g N/m2), carrots took up 44.5 % of the fertilizer N on sand and 54.5 % on loess soil. When water supply decreased to 70 % of the water capacity, utilization of fertilizer N declined to 26 % on sand and 43.8 % on loess soil. Spinach grown as succeeding crop took up more soil N than fertilizer N. (author)

  4. COST OF PROCESSING CARROT PRODUCTION IN WEST CENTRAL MICHIGAN

    OpenAIRE

    Dartt, Barbara; Black, J. Roy; Breinling, Jim; Morrone, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin represents a tool that can help producers, consultants, educators, and agribusinesses working with producers estimate costs of production and expected profit based on "typical" carrot management strategies found in west central Michigan. The budget included in this bulletin will allow users to revise inputs based on their management strategies and calculate their expected cost and profit. This flexibility provides a decision aid to search for systems that generate higher net ret...

  5. The fungi causin damping-off of carrot seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When 136 samples of dying carrot seedlings from several fields were analyzed Alternaria rudicina proved to be the most common seedling pathogen (41%, followed by some Fusarium species (27%, mostly F. avenaceum.The less common seedling pathogens were Pythium spp. (13%, Phoma spp.(2,5% and Botrytis cinerea (1,4%. Some other fungi (Bipolaris sorokiniana, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Stemphylium botryosym and Ulocladium consortiale were found in less than 1% of seedlings examined.

  6. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal Rai Aneja; Romika Dhiman; Neeraj Kumar Aggarwal; Vikas Kumar; Manpreeet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot) by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juic...

  7. Seed treatment technology of carrot seeds with plant volatile substances

    OpenAIRE

    Ličková, Simona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of carrot (Daucus carota L.) seed treatment using essential oil vapour phase, especially focused on finding appropriate combination of concentration, temperature and application time to decrease number of native fungi and evaluating the effect of essential oil on seed germination. Seed samples were contaminated with natural microorganisms. Essential oils of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry) and ci...

  8. Convective Air Drying Characteristics for Thin Layer Carrots

    OpenAIRE

    Ionut Dumitru Velescu; Ioan Tenu; Petru Carlescu; Vasile Dobre

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Carrot is one of the most commonly used vegetables for human nutrition due to high vitamin and fibre content. Drying is one of the oldest methods of food preservation, and it represents a very important aspect of food processing. Sun drying is the most common method used to preserve agricultural products in most tropical countries; this technique is extremely weather dependent, and has the problems of contamination with dust, soil, sand particles and insects. Also, the required ...

  9. Performance of carrot genotypes at two Jequitinhonha Valley sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Antônio Mendes Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The successful commercial use of carrot depends on the choice of cultivars that are well-adapted to soil and climate conditions at the cultivation site and on good consumer acceptance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of carrot cultivars grown in autumn-winter in two towns with different climatic characteristics, in the High Jequitinhonha Valley, MG, Brazil. The experiments were conducted on the Rio Manso farm, in the town of Couto de Magalhães de Minas and on Campus JK at UFVJM, in the town of Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Six carrot cultivars (Brasília, Nantes, Kuronan, Esplanada, Planalto and Tornado were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The following morpho-agronomic characteristics were evaluated 100 days after sowing: shoot height, root length, root dry matter, total dry matter, harvest index, commercial yield and total yield root. The most suitable cultivars in Diamantina were Planalto, Tornado and Kuronan, and the cultivatar Planalto was the best suited to Couto de Magalhães de Minas. The agronomic performance of the cultivars was higher in Couto de Magalhães de Minas for the majority of the study variables, resulting in a higher total yield and commercial root yield. The climatic and soil conditions of Diamantina induced flowering in most cultivars, causing a loss to the commercial yield in autumn-winter cultivation.

  10. Gamma irradiation induced variation in carrots (Daucus Carota L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrot tissue cultures, germinating seed, and dry seed were exposed to gamma radiation. Irradiation accelerated germination of carrot seed in the M1 generation at low doses (0.5 and 1 krad), whereas higher doses delayed germination. A high negative correlation was observed between dose and survival of plants after seed irradiation. Plant size and root weight were 20% to 35% greater than control plants after seeds, but not tissue culture, were exposed to low doses of gamma irradiation. Higher doses reduced M1 plant size by > 50% in germinating seed and tissue culture treatments but less for the dry seed treatment. Seed production decreased while phenotypic variation of M1 plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. Root weight and total dissolved solids were highly variable in M2 families. Less variation was observed in total carotene content and none was seen in sugar type [reducing vs. non reducing sugars]. Induced variation in root color and rot shape was also observed. Irradiation of germinating seed and tissue cultures yielded more M2 variation than irradiation of dry seed. Putative point mutations were not observed. Unirradiated carrot tissue cultures did not yield significant M2 somaclonal variation. Average root weight of M2 plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage, especially for the dry seed treatment (Author)

  11. Gamma irradiation-induced variation in carrots (Daucus carota L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrot tissue cultures, germinating seed, and dry seed were exposed to gamma radiation. Irradiation accelerated germination of carrot seed in the M1 generation at low doses (0.5 and 1 krad), whereas higher doses delayed germination. A high negative correlation was observed between dose and survival of plants after seed irradiation. Plant size and root weight were 20% to 35% greater than control plants after seeds, but not tissue cultures, were exposed to low doses of gamma irradiation. Higher doses reduced M1 plant size by 50% in germinating seed and tissue culture treatments but less for the dry seed treatment. Seed production decreased while phenotypic variation of M1 plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. Root weight and total dissolved solids were highly variable in M2 families. Less variation was observed in total carotene content and none was seen in sugar type (reducing vs. non reducing sugars). Induced variation in root color and root shape was also observed. Irradiation of germinating seed and tissue cultures yielded more M2 variation than irradiation of dry seed. Putative point mutations were not observed. Unirradiated carrot tissue cultures did not yield significant M2 somaclonal variation. Average root weight of M2 plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage, especially for the dry seed treatment

  12. Characterization of inositol phosphates in carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have shown previously that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) stimulates an efflux of 45Ca2+ from fusogenic carrot protoplasts. In light of these results, we suggested that IP3 might serve as a second messenger for the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ in higher plant cells. To determine whether or not IP3 and other inositol phosphates were present in the carrot cells, the cells were labeled with myo-[2-3H]inositol for 18 hours and extracted with ice-cold 10% trichloroacetic acid. The inositol metabolites were separated by anion exchange chromatography and by paper electrophoresis. We found that [3H]inositol metabolites coeluted with inositol bisphosphate (IP2) and IP3 when separated by anion exchange chromatography. However, we could not detect IP2 or IP3 when the inositol metabolites were analyzed by paper electrophoresis even though the polyphosphoinositides, which are the source of IP2 and IP3, were present in these cells. Thus, [3H]inositol metabolites other than IP2 and IP3 had coeluted on the anion exchange columns. The data indicate that either IP3 is rapidly metabolized or that it is not present at a detectable level in the carrot cells

  13. Inheritance and mapping of Mj-2, a new source of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) resistance in carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-knot nematodes limit carrot production around the world by inducing taproot forking and galling deformities that render carrots unmarketable. In warmer climates, Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita are most prevalent. In F2 and F3 progeny from the cross between an Asian carrot resistant to M....

  14. Survey of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrot crops affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    The carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis Förster (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a serious insect pest of carrot (Daucus carota L.) in northern Europe, where it can cause up to 100% crop loss. Although it was long believed that T. apicalis causes damage to carrot by injection of toxins into the plant, it was re...

  15. Morphological characteristics, anatomical structure, and gene expression: novel insights into gibberellin biosynthesis and perception during carrot growth and development

    OpenAIRE

    Guang-Long Wang; Fei Xiong; Feng Que; Zhi-Sheng Xu; Feng Wang; Ai-Sheng Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are considered potentially important regulators of cell elongation and expansion in plants. Carrot undergoes significant alteration in organ size during its growth and development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying gibberellin accumulation and perception during carrot growth and development remain unclear. In this study, five stages of carrot growth and development were investigated using morphological and anatomical structural techniques. Gibberellin levels in l...

  16. Biological characterization and complete genomic sequence of Carrot thin leaf virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The host range of a cilantro isolate of Carrot thin leaf virus (CTLV-Cs) was determined to include 15 plant species. The virus was also transmitted to 9 of 11 tested apiaceous species by aphids. Complete genomic sequences of CTLV-Cs and a carrot isolate of CTLV were determined. Their genomic sequenc...

  17. Cloning and characterization of DcLEA1, a new member of carrot LEA gene family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yiming; DIAO Fengqiu; ZHANG Lei; HUANG Meijuan; WU Naihu

    2005-01-01

    Using a modified cDNA representational difference analysis (RDA) method, a LEA gene fragment was isolated from the regulated carrot somatic embryo, which was used as the probe to screen the cDNA library of the regulated carrot somatic embryo and the genomic library constructed by the method of altering osmotic pressure. Sequence analysis showed that it is homologous to LEA gene family and designated as DcLEA1 (GenBank number: AF308739), a new member of the carrot LEA gene family. Its transcription region contains 5′ UTR, two exons, one intron and 3′ UTR region; its coding region is 480 bp long, coding for 159 amino acids and one stop codon. Northern hybridization indicated that DcLEA1 gene was not expressed in the adult carrot but expressed at high levels in the regulated carrot somatic embryo. In carrot somatic embryo which had been deregulated for 12 hours, the expression levels dropped rapidly; with the prolongation of deregulation, the radicle of carrot somatic embryo began to stretch, and the expression level of DcLEA1 gene increased. This phenomenon is similar to the expression pattern of LEA gene in the course of dormancy and germination of the seed; thus suggesting that the sucrose regulation-deregulation system of the carrot somatic embryo can be used to mimic plant seed dormancy and germination and can also be used to study the molecular mechanisms of these two biological processes.

  18. Hydrogen production from carrot pulp by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrije, Truus de; Budde, Miriam A.W.; Lips, Steef J.; Bakker, Robert R.; Mars, Astrid E.; Claassen, Pieternel A.M. [Wageningen UR, Food and Biobased Research, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    Hydrogen was produced from carrot pulp hydrolysate, untreated carrot pulp and (mixtures of) glucose and fructose by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana in pH-controlled bioreactors. Carrot pulp hydrolysate was obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction in carrot pulp. The main sugars in the hydrolysate were glucose, fructose, and sucrose. In fermentations with glucose hydrogen yields and productivities were similar for both strains. With fructose the hydrogen yield of C. saccharolyticus was reduced which might be related to uptake of glucose and fructose by different types of transport systems. With T. neapolitana the fructose consumption rate and consequently the hydrogen productivity were low. The hydrogen yields of both thermophiles were 2.7-2.8 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose with 10 g/L sugars from carrot pulp hydrolysate. With 20 g/L sugars the yield of T. neapolitana was 2.4 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose while the yield of C. saccharolyticus was reduced to 1.3 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose due to high lactate production in the stationary growth phase. C. saccharolyticus was able to grow on carrot pulp and utilized soluble sugars and, after adaptation, pectin and some (hemi)cellulose. No growth was observed with T. neapolitana when using carrot pulp in agitated fermentations. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction prior to fermentation increased the hydrogen yield with almost 10% to 2.3 g/kg of hydrolyzed carrot pulp. (author)

  19. Potato carrot agar with manganese as an isolation medium for Alternaria, Epicoccum and Phoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Thrane, Ulf;

    2009-01-01

    A semi-selective medium for isolation of Alternaria spp., Epicoccum sp. and Phoma spp. from soil and plant samples was developed. The basal medium was a modified potato carrot agar (PCA), containing 10 g/L of potato and carrot. It is known that the target genera sporulate well on standard PCA when...

  20. Bioavailability of Anthocyanins from Purple Carrot Juice: Effects of Acylation and Plant Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioavailability of anthocyanins from juiced purple carrots was investigated through a human feeding study. Ten healthy adults consumed three doses of purple carrot juice, and bioavailability was assessed by appearance of anthocyanins in plasma for 8 hours after the dose. Doses were 50 mL, 150 mL, ...

  1. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) plants with symptoms resembling those associated with the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” were observed in 70-80% of commercial fields and experimental plots in southeastern Norway from late July to mid-September 2011; al...

  2. New carrot and garlic germplasm to advance breeding and understand crop origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic variation provided by diverse plant germplasm is the basic building material used for crop improvement that shapes the crops we grow today. Wild carrot from the U.S. provided the cytoplasm used to develop a reliable system to produce hybrid carrots that account for most of the commercial...

  3. Selectivity lists of pesticides to beneficial arthropods for IPM programs in carrot--first results.

    OpenAIRE

    Hautier, L.; Jansen, J.-P.; Mabon, N.; Schiffers, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve IPM programs in carrot, 7 fungicides, 12 herbicides and 9 insecticides commonly used in Belgium were tested for their toxicity towards five beneficial arthropods representative of most important natural enemies encountered in carrot: parasitic wasps- Aphidius rhopalosiphi (De Stefani-Perez) (Hym., Aphidiidae), ladybirds - Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Col., Coccinellidae), hoverfly - Episyrphus balteatus (Dipt., Syrphidae), rove beetle - Aleochara bilineata (Col., Staphyllinida...

  4. Transfer of resistance traits from carrot into tobacco by asymmetric somatic hybridization: Regeneration of fertile plants

    OpenAIRE

    Dudits, Denes; Maroy, Eszter; Praznovszky, Tunde; Olah, Zoltan; Gyorgyey, Janos; Cella, Rino

    1987-01-01

    Transfer of methotrexate and 5-methyltryptophan resistance from carrot (Daucus carota) to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was achieved by fusion between leaf mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco and irradiated cell culture protoplasts of carrot. Some of the regenerated somatic hybrids exhibited normal tobacco morphology with coexpression and independent segregation of the transferred resistance markers. Chromosomal instability resulted in aneuploid somatic hybrids with significantly lower chromosome ...

  5. Genetic diversity of carrot (Daucus carota L.) cultivars revealed by analysis of SSR loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work we evaluate a collection of 88 carrot cultivars and landraces for polymorphisms at SSR loci and use the obtained markers to assess the genetic diversity, and we show molecular evidence for divergence between Asiatic and Western carrot genetic pools. The use of primer pairs flanking repe...

  6. Molecular mapping of vernalization requirement and fertility restoration genes in carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a cool-season vegetable normally classified as a biennial species, requiring vernalization to induce flowering. Nevertheless, some cultivars adapted to warmer climates require less vernalization and can be classified as annual. Most modern carrot cultivars are hybrids wh...

  7. Biofortified Carrot Intake Enhances Liver Antioxidant Capacity and Vitamin A Status in Mongolian Gerbils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofortification efforts have increased concentrations of bioactive compounds in carrots. Vitamin A bioefficacy and antioxidant potential of four biofortified carrot varieties [purple/orange (PO), purple/orange/red (POR), orange/red (OR) and orange (O)] were measured in Mongolian gerbils (n = 73). ...

  8. New carrot microsatellites – linkage mapping, diversity analysis and transferability to other apiaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly 300 new microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from genomic sequences of carrot. Efforts to map these markers and evaluate their usefulness in diversity studies are underway. In one F2 carrot population, a total of 51 polymorphic markers, including 37 codominan...

  9. Beyond Carrots and Sticks: Toward a Transformative Model of Division I Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubb, Sandy Hatfield

    2012-01-01

    The old expression about the carrot and the stick, which refers to the application of reward and punishment to induce action, dates back to the days when pack mules were used for transportation. The mules would move toward carrots that dangled just ahead of them--and move all the faster because they feared drivers with sticks behind them. In 2012,…

  10. Some microbiological, histopathological and biochemical changes in the broiler chicken fed carrot leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninety 21 day old Arbor Acres chicks arranged into 6 equal groups were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of substitution of 10% yellow corn (YC) with berseem, green carrot leaves without and with digestive enzymatic mixture, untreated dry carrot leaves and treated ones with Aspergillus niger on the intestinal microflora, histopathology of liver and intestine in addition to some biochemical parameters. Replacement of (YC) with green carrot leaves, untreated and treated carrot leaves caused significant (P<0.05) increase in total bacterial count and significant (P<0.05) decrease in Lactobacilli, while the addition of enzyme to the green carrot leaves led to decrease in total bacterial count and increase in Lactobacillus count. The histopathological changes of both intestine and liver were restricted only to both groups of dried carrot leaves. Similarly untreated and treated dry carrot leaves groups were also associated with significant increase in triglyceride, ALT and significant (P<0.05) decrease in cholesterol in serum. From the above mentioned results, it could be concluded that dried carrot leaves, untreated or treated with Aspergillus niger, were unsuitable for broiler chicken feeding since they directly affected bird's gut health causing change in nutrient absorption and considerable decrease in the beneficial bacterial count

  11. The next generation of carotenoid studies in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange carrot (Daucus carota L.) is one of the richest sources of naturally occurring ß-carotene while red and yellow carrot varieties contain large quantities of lycopene and lutein. The human body utilizes carotenoids, particularly ß-carotene (provitamin A) as a precursor for the production of ret...

  12. Evaluation the Sensory and Probiotics Properties of the Yogurt Supplemented with Carrot Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen R. Pop

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a new type of yogurt through addition of carrot juice. Yogurt is a fermented milk product obtained from fermentation of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains. The effect of carrot juice at different levels (0%, 8%, 16%, 24% on sensory properties and the viability of probiotic bacteria in yogurts during storage (21 days at refrigerated temperature (4°C was evaluated. The yogurt supplementation with 24 % carrot juice significantly improves the stability of the lactic acid bacteria, that contained the recommended levels of 107 cfu/g probiotic bacteria at the end of 21-days shelf life. The yogurt with 24% carrot juice was the most appreciated (7.07 points, followed by the classic yogurt (6 points, yogurt with 8% (5.28 points and yogurt with16% carrot juice (5.5 points.

  13. Analysis of texture in baby carrot (Daucus carota) subjected to the process of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: ssabato@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The carrot is a vegetable of great economic value due to its versatility in the food industry and can be used as raw or minimally processed vegetable or aggregating value to the product, transforming the fresh carrots in baby carrots. It is well known that the application of gamma radiation in food may help in maintaining the quality of food. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the low doses of ionizing radiation on texture of minimally processed baby carrot after the processing in a Multipurpose {sup 60}Co irradiator. It can be concluded that the treatment with low doses of gamma radiation keep the quality of fresh-cut baby carrot. (author)

  14. Assessing the Likelihood of Transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum to Carrot by Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaneza, Joseph E; Mustafa, Tariq; Fisher, Tonja W; Sengoda, Venkatesan G; Horton, David R

    2016-01-01

    'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso) is a phloem-limited bacterium that severely affects important Solanaceae and Apiaceae crops, including potato, tomato, pepper, tobacco, carrot and celery. This bacterium is transmitted to solanaceous species by potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, and to Apiaceae by carrot psyllids, including Trioza apicalis and Bactericera trigonica. Five haplotypes of Lso have so far been described, two are associated with solanaceous species and potato psyllids, whereas the other three are associated with carrot and celery crops and carrot psyllids. Little is known about cross-transmission of Lso to carrot by potato psyllids or to potato by carrot psyllids. Thus, the present study assessed whether potato psyllid can transmit Lso to carrot and whether Lso haplotypes infecting solanaceous species can also infect carrot and lead to disease symptom development. In addition, the stylet probing behavior of potato psyllid on carrot was assessed using electropenetrography (EPG) technology to further elucidate potential Lso transmission to Apiaceae by this potato insect pest. Results showed that, while potato psyllids survived on carrot for several weeks when confined on the plants under controlled laboratory and field conditions, the insects generally failed to infect carrot plants with Lso. Only three of the 200 carrot plants assayed became infected with Lso and developed characteristic disease symptoms. Lso infection in the symptomatic carrot plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assay and Lso in the carrots was determined to be of the haplotype B, which is associated with solanaceous species. EPG results further revealed that potato psyllids readily feed on carrot xylem but rarely probe into the phloem tissue, explaining why little to no Lso infection occurred during the controlled laboratory and field cage transmission trials. Results of our laboratory and field transmission studies, combined with our EPG results, suggest

  15. Researches concerning nitrates and nitrites accumulation in carrots, along of the vegetation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica NEGREA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the determination of nitrates and nitrites content in carrots, in different vegetation stages of the carrot culture. High nitrates and nitrites concentration in vegetables is mainly due to excessive nitrogen content in the soil system, thus deteriorating the nutritional and hygienic values of products and complicating the processing and storage. The determination was tested on carrot samples assayed from an experimental field set up near Timisoara. In experimental field, to the carrot culture was administrated different doses of fertilizers (NPK and the samples for analysis were assayed in different phases of vegetation. The obtained results indicated that the highest level of nitrate in carrots was found to the variant b3 (N150P90K90 in experimental field, who was above maximum limit allowed (LMA. Maximum limit allowed for nitrates in carrots, in accordance with ORDER No. 293/640/2001-1/2002 regarding security and quality conditions for vegetables and fresh fruits for human consumption is 400 ppm. For all other samples of carrots the nitrates level was below of LMA. The nitrite content grows in case of fertilizer administration during the whole vegetation stages of the plant. In variant N150P90K90 the nitrite content was above (LMA in carrot samples in all stages of vegetation. The nitrite content in carrots should not exceed 1-2 ppm. Nitrate and nitrite content in carrots was done with the help of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC in the Laboratory for the Measurement of Residues of the Department of Agro-techniques of the U.S.A-V.M.B in Timisoara.

  16. Irradiation treatment of minimally processed carrots for ensuring microbiological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are very common in developed countries and are gaining popularity in developing countries due to their convenience and freshness. However, minimally processing may result in undesirable changes in colour, taste and appearance due to the transfer of microbes from skin to the flesh. Irradiation is a well-known technology for elimination of microbial contamination. Food irradiation has been approved by 50 countries and is being applied commercially in USA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the quality of minimally processed carrots. Fresh carrots were peeled, sliced and PE packaged. The samples were irradiated (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 kGy) and stored at 5 deg. C for 2 weeks. The samples were analyzed for hardness, organoleptic acceptance and microbial load at 0, 7th and 15th day. The mean firmness of the control and all irradiated samples remained between 4.31 and 4.42 kg of force, showing no adverse effect of radiation dose. The effect of storage (2 weeks) was significant (P5 cfu/g, 3.0x102 and few colonies(>10) in all other irradiated samples(1.0, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy) after 2 weeks storage. No coliform or E. coli were detected in any of the samples (radiated or control) immediately after irradiation and during the entire storage period in minimally processed carrots. A dose of 2.0 kGy completely controlled the fungal and bacterial counts. The irradiated samples (2.0 kGy) were also acceptable sensorially

  17. Diversity, genetic mapping, and signatures of domestication in the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome, as revealed by Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers

    OpenAIRE

    Grzebelus, Dariusz; Iorizzo, Massimo; Senalik, Douglas; Ellison, Shelby; Cavagnaro, Pablo; Macko-Podgorni, Alicja; Heller-Uszynska, Kasia; Kilian, Andrzej; Nothnagel, Thomas; Allender, Charlotte; Simon, Philipp W; Baranski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    Carrot is one of the most economically important vegetables worldwide, but genetic and genomic resources supporting carrot breeding remain limited. We developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for wild and cultivated carrot and used it to investigate genetic diversity and to develop a saturated genetic linkage map of carrot. We analyzed a set of 900 DArT markers in a collection of plant materials comprising 94 cultivated and 65 wild carrot accessions. The accessions were attribu...

  18. Expression of a Carrot Antifreeze Protein Gene in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xinyu; Shen Xin; Lu Cunfu

    2003-01-01

    The recombinant expression vectorpET43. lb-AFP, which contains full encoding region of a carrot 36 kD antifreeze protein (AFP) gene was constructed. The recombinant was transformed into expression host carrying T7 RNA polymerase gene (DE3 lysogen) and induced by 1 mmol. L-1 IPTG (isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside) to express 110 kD polypeptide of AFP fusion protein.The analysis of product solubility revealed that pET43. 1b-AFP was predominately soluble, and the expressed amount reached the maximum after the IPTG treatment for 3 h.

  19. Comparisons of Pathological Responses in Carrot to Root-knot Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Yong Su; Park, Yong; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-12-01

    Carrot (Dacus carota var. sativus) is one of the top-ten most economically important vegetable crops produced worldwide, and the root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., are one of the most important pests in the carrot. In Korea, M. hapla and M. incognita are presumed to be the major root-knot nematodes distributing mostly in open carrot fields and greenhouses, respectively. In our study, currently-developed and commercial carrot cultivars and the parental lines were examined for their pathological responses to M. incognita and M. hapla 7 weeks after inoculation with about 1,000 second-stage juveniles (J2) of the nematodes. All the carrot cultivars and lines showed susceptible responses to both nematodes with the gall index (GI) of 2.4-4.4, which were always higher on the carrot plants infected with M. incognita than M. hapla. Gall sizes were remarkably larger with more serious reduction of the root growths in the plants infected with M. incognita than M. hapla, suggesting the carrot lines examined in our study were more susceptible to the former than the latter. In the infection sites of the root tissues, giant cells were more extensively formed, occupying larger stellar regions with the prominent destruction of adjacent xylem vessels by M. incognita than M. hapla. All of these results suggest M. incognita affect more seriously on the carrot plants that are grown in greenhouses, compared to M. hapla that has a major distribution in open carrot fields, which would be used for determining cropping systems based on target nematode species, their damage and pathological characteristics. PMID:26675114

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of fluidized bed drying of carrot cubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazghelichi, Tayyeb; Kianmehr, Mohammad Hossein; Aghbashlo, Mortaza [Department of Agrotechnology, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 33955-159, Pakdasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, the energy and exergy analyses of fluidized bed drying of carrot cubes were investigated. Drying experiments were conducted at inlet air temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 C, BD (bed depths) of 30, 60, and 90 mm and square-cubed carrot dimensions of 4, 7, and 10 mm. The effects of drying variables on energy utilization, energy utilization ratio, exergy loss and exergy efficiency were studied. The energy utilization and energy utilization ratio varied between 0.105-1.949 kJ/s and 0.074-0.486, respectively. The exergy loss and exergy efficiency were found to be in the range of 0.206-1.612 kJ/s and 0.103-0.707, respectively. The results showed that small particles, deep beds and high inlet air temperatures increased energy utilization, energy utilization ratio, and exergy loss due to high value of heat and mass transfer. Also, the exergy efficiency had maximum value when higher drying air temperature, larger CS (cube size) and shorter BD were used for drying experiment. (author)

  1. Thioredoxin and NADP-thioredoxin reductase from cultured carrot cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. C.; Cao, R. Q.; Kung, J. E.; Buchanan, B. B.

    1987-01-01

    Dark-grown carrot (Daucus carota L.) tissue cultures were found to contain both protein components of the NADP/thioredoxin system--NADP-thioredoxin reductase and the thioredoxin characteristic of heterotrophic systems, thioredoxin h. Thioredoxin h was purified to apparent homogeneity and, like typical bacterial counterparts, was a 12-kdalton (kDa) acidic protein capable of activating chloroplast NADP-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.82) more effectively than fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11). NADP-thioredoxin reductase (EC 1.6.4.5) was partially purified and found to be an arsenite-sensitive enzyme composed of two 34-kDa subunits. Carrot NADP-thioredoxin reductase resembled more closely its counterpart from bacteria rather than animal cells in acceptor (thioredoxin) specificity. Upon greening of the cells, the content of NADP-thioredoxin-reductase activity, and, to a lesser extent, thioredoxin h decreased. The results confirm the presence of a heterotrophic-type thioredoxin system in plant cells and raise the question of its physiological function.

  2. Kinetic of softening of carrot by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raw carrots were diced into 9.5 mm cubes, and subjected to gamma radiation between an array of Co60 pencils. A series of doses ranging from 0 to approximately 50 kGy was given. A plot of log (extrusion force) versus dose showed two distinct regions; the first is a rectilinear plot with a steep negative slope for doses up to about 15 kGy. The second is also a rectilinear plot with a shallow negative slope beyond 15 kGy. Sixty-seven percent of the firmness is lost with the first 15 kGy but only 4% of the firmness is lost with the highest 15 kGy increase in dose. This two-stage softening rate curve is consistent with the model of two first-order kinetic rate processes and is qualitatively similar to that for thermal softening of carrot. The term “radiation firmness” is proposed to describe the amount of firmness that is resistant to degradation by irradiation

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of fluidized bed drying of carrot cubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the energy and exergy analyses of fluidized bed drying of carrot cubes were investigated. Drying experiments were conducted at inlet air temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 oC, BD (bed depths) of 30, 60, and 90 mm and square-cubed carrot dimensions of 4, 7, and 10 mm. The effects of drying variables on energy utilization, energy utilization ratio, exergy loss and exergy efficiency were studied. The energy utilization and energy utilization ratio varied between 0.105-1.949 kJ/s and 0.074-0.486, respectively. The exergy loss and exergy efficiency were found to be in the range of 0.206-1.612 kJ/s and 0.103-0.707, respectively. The results showed that small particles, deep beds and high inlet air temperatures increased energy utilization, energy utilization ratio, and exergy loss due to high value of heat and mass transfer. Also, the exergy efficiency had maximum value when higher drying air temperature, larger CS (cube size) and shorter BD were used for drying experiment.

  4. Effects of ethylene on gene expression in carrot roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate ethylene effects on expression of genetic information, cDNA clones corresponding to ethylene-induced carrot root mRNAs were constructed and isolated. RNA dot blot analysis showed that for the three clones studied peak cytosolic mRNA prevalence occurred at 21 hours of treatment followed thereafter by rapid messenger decay. DNA filter excess hybridization to in vitro synthesized nuclear RNA showed that the ethylene-induced mRNA increase is engendered by transcription of previously quiescent genes. The kinetics and magnitude of changes in mRNA prevalence parallel changes in transcriptional activity; therefore, the ethylene effect is primarily at the level of the transcription. In vivo pulse labelling with [35S]-methionine showed that between 18 and 27 hours of ethylene treatment a 2.5 fold increase in translational efficiency occurred for one message studied. The resulting protein is the predominant protein synthesized in carrots treated with ethylene for 27 hours. Thus, ethylene exerts multiple regulatory controls on the expression of genetic information

  5. Caron-14-trifluralin residues in soil and carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The persistence and movement of 14C-trifluralin and its metabolites were studied in sandy loam soil under outdoor conditions. Uptake by carrots of the herbicide from the treated soil was also investigated. The bulk of the 14C residues was present in the upper 0-7.5 cm layer during the growing period. The non-extractable 14C residues increased with time. Downward movement of the 14C-trifluralin, or its degradation products, was not observed at significant concentrations. After 4 months, 2.7 and 6.1% of the initially applied radioactivity were found in the form of metabolites, designated TR-1 and TR-2, respectively, in the combined soil samples from the three depths. The metabolites TR-4 and TR-1, as well as trace amounts of the metabolite TR-21, were present in the form of soil bound 14C residues. Most of the radioactivity was located in the peel of the carrots. The pulp contained 14C residues of TR-1 and TR-2 (0.010 and 0.004 ppm, respectively). 14 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Mathematical modelling of thin layer hot air drying of carrot pomace

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Navneet; Sarkar, B. C.; Sharma, H. K.

    2011-01-01

    Thin layer carrot pomace drying characteristics were evaluated in a laboratory scale hot air forced convective dryer. The drying experiments were carried out at 60, 65, 70 & 75 °C and at an air velocity of 0.7 m/s. Mathematical models were tested to fit drying data of carrot pomace. The whole drying process of carrot pomace took place in a falling rate period except a very short accelerating period at the beginning. The average values of effective diffusivity ranged from 2.74 × 10−9 to 4.64 ×...

  7. Screening and Histopathological Characterization of Korean Carrot Lines for Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhee Seo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In total, 170 carrot lines developed in Korea were screened for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 to select parental genetic resources useful for the development of nematode-resistant carrot cultivars. Using the gall index (GI, gall formation was examined on carrot roots inoculated with approximately 1,000 second-stage juveniles of the nematode 7 weeks after inoculation. Sixty-one carrot lines were resistant (GI ≤ 1.0, while the other 109 were susceptible (GI > 1.0 with coefficient of variance (CV of GI for total carrot lines 0.68, indicating low-variation of GI within the lines examined. The histopathological responses of two carrot plants from resistant and susceptible lines were examined after nematode infection. In susceptible carrots, giant cells formed with no discernible necrosis around the infecting nematodes. In the resistant carrot line, however, no giant cells formed, although modified cells were observed with extensive formation of necrotic layers through their middle lamella and around the infecting nematodes. This suggested that these structural modifications were related to hypersensitive responses governed by the expression of true resistance genes. Therefore, the Korean carrot lines resistant to the nematode infection are potential genetic resources for the development of quality carrot cultivars resistant to M. incognita race 1.

  8. Effect of simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration on quality characteristics of carrot slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of various processing parameters on carrot slices exposed to infrared (IR) radiation heating for achieving simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration (SIRDBD). The investigated parameters were product surface temperature, slice thickness and processing ti...

  9. Mathematical modelling of thin layer hot air drying of carrot pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Navneet; Sarkar, B C; Sharma, H K

    2012-02-01

    Thin layer carrot pomace drying characteristics were evaluated in a laboratory scale hot air forced convective dryer. The drying experiments were carried out at 60, 65, 70 & 75 °C and at an air velocity of 0.7 m/s. Mathematical models were tested to fit drying data of carrot pomace. The whole drying process of carrot pomace took place in a falling rate period except a very short accelerating period at the beginning. The average values of effective diffusivity ranged from 2.74 × 10(-9) to 4.64 × 10(-9) m(2)/s for drying carrot pomace. The activation energy value was 23.05 kJ/mol for the whole falling rate period. PMID:23572823

  10. Bioaccessibility of Polyphenols from Plant-Processing Byproducts of Black Carrot (Daucus carota L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiloglu, Senem; Capanoglu, Esra; Bilen, Fatma Damla; Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Grootaert, Charlotte; Van de Wiele, Tom; Van Camp, John

    2016-03-30

    Plant-processing byproducts of black carrot represent an important disposal problem for the industry; however, they are also promising sources of polyphenols, especially anthocyanins. The present study focused on the changes in polyphenols from black carrot, peel, and pomace during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMAC), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined using spectrophotometric methods, whereas identification and quantification of polyphenols were carried out using UPLC-ESI-MS(E) and HPLC-DAD, respectively. TPC, TMAC, and TAC significantly decreased (23-82%) as a result of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nevertheless, the amount of pomace anthocyanins released at all stages of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was higher than black carrot anthocyanins, suggesting that pomace may be a better source of bioaccessible anthocyanins. Overall, the current study highlighted black carrot byproducts as substantial sources of polyphenols, which may be used to enrich food products. PMID:26262673

  11. The effect of solar radiation on beta-carotene and other carotenoid content in carrot roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three following cultivars of carrot - Napoli F1, Fantazja, Kazan F1 - were grown in the years 1998-00. The seeds were sown in ridges from the end of April until the beginning of June. Throughout the growth period the total solar radiation was recorded by an automatic system. Every 2 weeks, the leaf area index and the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were calculated. Correlation was found between solar radiation and beta-carotene as well as other carotenoid content in carrot roots. It was found that beta-carotene content depended mainly on the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation by single carrot plants, and not by area unit. Differences in beta-carotene content in carrot cultivars were caused by the time of root formation, rate of beta-carotene production, and total absorbed PAR (PARa)

  12. Studies on causes of rising the nitrate content in carrots before harvest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was confirmed that large nitrogen amounts in the soil may cause the nitrate content in carrot roots to rise before harvest when conditions are unfavourable, that is e.g., when the weather is cool, humid and cloudy over a longer period of time or when the carrot leaves died off or were removed before harvest. Experiments with 15N-nitrate showed that rising nitrate content in the roots are not caused by a translocation of nitrate from the leaves to the roots. The production of low-nitrate carrots requires to avoid excessive and late nitrogen application and to grow carrots, particularly those used later on for infant food, on low nitrogen soils. Phytosanitary measures should be taken to prevent premature dying back of the leaves caused by pests. (author)

  13. Influence Organic Fertilizer and Gamma Ray on the Quality and Yield of Carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, Two field experiment were carried out in the experimental farm belonging at Inshas, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt, during the two growing season 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 to study the effect of pre sowing seeds irradiation with different doses of gamma rays and/or organic and NPK fertilizers on carrot yield and quality. The doses 20 and 30 Gy of gamma rays increased significantly one carrot weight per gm., number of carrot/line, weight of carrot ton/feddan in comparison with the control. The same trend was seen in weight of carbohydrate and nitrogen (mg/100 gm) in the two seasons. As for organic and NPK fertilizer at was found that both fertilizers increased significantly yield characters in comparison with control but the increase of NPK was more than organic fertilizer. The interaction (30 Gy × NPK fertilizer) produced the highest mean values of most characters.

  14. Influence of pre-treatment on some physical-chemical properties of dried carrots

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Sério, Susana; Correia, Paula; Barroca, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Carrot is the most commonly used vegetable for human nutrition and is an excellent source of β-carotene, vitamin A and potassium, and contains cholesterol-lowering pectin, vitamin C, vitamin B6, thiamine, folic acid, and magnesium. Carrots are highly seasonal and abundantly available at particular times of the year. For extending the availability of this root, several preservation processes can be used, but convective drying is one of the most important since it not only extends...

  15. Biochemical and physiological analysis in carrot seeds from different orders of umbels

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Pereira da Silva; Marcelo Coelho Sekita; Denise Cunha Fernandes dos Santos Dias; Warley Marcos Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In carrot seed production, harvesting of the umbels is generally staggered, or sometimes the whole plant is harvested with the umbels at different stages of maturation; in that case, there is a risk of harvesting immature seeds and of losses due to natural dehiscent, or to physiological deterioration as a result of unfavourable environmental factors. The present study aimed to evaluate the physiological and biochemical changes related to the maturation of 'Planalto' carrot seeds from...

  16. Molecular characterization of lactic acid bacteria recovered from natural fermentation of beet root and carrot Kanji

    OpenAIRE

    Kingston, J. J.; Radhika, M.; Roshini, P. T.; Raksha, M. A.; H.S. Murali; Batra, H. V.

    2010-01-01

    The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play an important role in the fermentation of vegetables to improve nutritive value, palatability, acceptability, microbial quality and shelf life of the fermented produce. The LAB associated with beetroot and carrot fermentation were identified and characterized using different molecular tools. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) provided similar DNA profile for the 16 LAB strains isolated from beetroot and carrot fermentation while repetitive ...

  17. Development of Job’s tears ice cream recipes with carrot juice and pumpkin paste

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2011-01-01

    Carrot juice and pumpkin paste were used as ingredients in Job’s tears ice cream. Carrot juice or pumpkin paste added at 50% was equally preferred by 100 consumers compared to the original Job’s tears ice cream. The new types of ice cream were lower in antioxidant capacity and higher in total phenolic content but could still be considered as potential antioxidant products. Purchase intent was significantly increased (p

  18. Chemical ecology of the carrot fly, Psila rosae (F.): laboratory and field studies

    OpenAIRE

    Selby, Martin James

    2004-01-01

    The carrot fly (Psila rosae F.) is an important pest of the cultivated carrot (Daucus carota) and other crop species in the family Apiaceae, since the larvae burrow into and feed on the developing roots. Current P. rosae control relies heavily upon the use of chemical insecticides, but these are inadequate. The aims of this study were to investigate the chemical ecology of P. rosae, particularly with regard to long range attractant and repellent semiochemicals suitable for incorporation into ...

  19. Effect of Carrot Intake in the Prevention of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Jalali, Ali; MOMAYYEZI, MAHDIEH; Bazm, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality, with the incidence and mortality being higher in men than in women. Various studies have shown that eating carrots may play a major role in the prevention of gastric cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the relationship between carrot consumption and gastric cancer. Materials and Methods We searched multiple databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Persian databases like...

  20. Effects of Cropping Sequences on Population Densities of Meloidogyne hapla and Carrot Yield in Organic Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Bélair, Guy

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various cropping sequences on population densities of Meloidogyne hapla and carrot yield was studied in organic soil under microplot-and field conditions. Spinach, radish, barley, oat, and wheat were poor or nonhosts for M. hapla. Population densities of M. hapla were maintained or increased on cabbage, celery, lettuce, leek, marigold, and potato. Marketable percent-age and root weight of carrots were greater following spinach, oat, radish, and fallow-onion than those followi...

  1. Development and sensory evaluation of yogurt added of “caviar” of carrot by children

    OpenAIRE

    Richtier Gonçalves Cruz; Henrique Silvano Arruda; Martha Elisa Ferreira de Almeida; Virgínia Souza Santos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed investigated to the preparation of yogurt with addition of “caviar” carrot and realize carried out sensory analysis of acceptance by children from elementary school. The “caviar” was prepared using the spherification technique with sodium alginate and added to the beaten-type yogurt without pulp addition at the ratio of one portion of the carrot for one portion of yogurt. Were conducted microbiological analyses and subsequently the sensory evaluation with children. The microb...

  2. Impact of Biofield Treatment on Yield, Quality and Control of Nematode in Carrots

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the Null Hypothesis for the effect of biofield treatment when used for control of nematode on carrot crops, Daucus carota , under typical growing conditions in year 2012 at Guadalupe, California, USA. Following biofield treatment, carrot seeds were planted in replicate plots with mechanical seeder and their development was recorded compared to control seed growth from untreated plots and plots treated with the commercial standard nematicide, further Vydate L was applied thre...

  3. Influence of chronic irradiation of tobacco and carrot plants on the regeneration in the tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of chronic irradiation of tobacco and carrot donor plants on the regeneration processes in vitro has been studied. The plants were grown on the soil containing different concentrations of caesium-137 and strontium-90. The morphogenesis intensity was decreased after irradiation of the tobacco plants by the dose of 0,5 Gy and the carrot plants by the dose of 0.07-0.4 Gy

  4. Effect of Plant Age and Longidorus africanus on the Growth of Lettuce and Carrot

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiang; Ploeg, Antoon T.

    2001-01-01

    Needle nematodes, Longidorus africanus, were added to carrot and lettuce seedlings in a range of inoculum levels and at various times after seeding. The effects of inoculum density and delayed inoculation on plant growth were analyzed according to Seinhorst's damage function. Growth of both lettuce and carrot was severely affected by L. africanus, but delaying nematode inoculation until 10 days after seeding significantly increased estimated minimum yields in both crop species. Tolerance leve...

  5. Identification and Characterization of Terpene Synthases Potentially Involved in the Formation of Volatile Terpenes in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Tholl, Dorothea; Cormier, Guy; Jensen, Roderick; Simon, Philipp W; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2015-05-20

    Plants produce an excess of volatile organic compounds, which are important in determining the quality and nutraceutical properties of fruit and root crops, including the taste and aroma of carrots (Daucus carota L.). A combined chemical, biochemical, and molecular study was conducted to evaluate the differential accumulation of volatile terpenes in a diverse collection of fresh carrots (D. carota L.). Here, we report on a transcriptome-based identification and functional characterization of two carrot terpene synthases, the sesquiterpene synthase, DcTPS1, and the monoterpene synthase, DcTPS2. Recombinant DcTPS1 protein produces mainly (E)-β-caryophyllene, the predominant sesquiterpene in carrot roots, and α-humulene, while recombinant DcTPS2 functions as a monoterpene synthase with geraniol as the main product. Both genes are differentially transcribed in different cultivars and during carrot root development. Our results suggest a role for DcTPS genes in carrot aroma biosynthesis. PMID:25924989

  6. Encapsulation of black carrot juice using spray and freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, S; Kar, Abhijit; Mohapatra, Debabandya; Kalia, Pritam

    2015-12-01

    Black carrot juice extracted using pectinase enzyme was encapsulated in three different carrier materials (maltodextrin 20DE, gum arabic and tapioca starch) using spray drying at four inlet temperatures (150, 175, 200 and 225 ℃) and freeze drying at a constant temperature of - 53 ℃ and vacuum of 0.22-0.11 mbar with the constant feed mixture. The products were analyzed for total anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and total colour change. For both the drying methods followed in this study, maltodextrin 20DE as the carrier material has proven to be better in retaining maximum anthocyanin and antioxidant activity compared to gum arabic and tapioca starch. The best spray dried product, was obtained at 150 ℃. The most acceptable was the freeze dried product with maximum anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and colour change. PMID:25367889

  7. A two stage model describes radiation softening of carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of food continues to be a subject of considerable scientific interest even though its commercial use is still small. A limiting factor in irradiation of horticultural crops is the softening it causes in fruit or vegetable tissue. Doses above about 1 kGy (100 krad) render the product unacceptably soft. Vegetable tissue is also softened greatly during thermal processing. Thermal softening of vegetable occurs in two stages: a rapid first-order process, followed by a second slow first-order process. To better understand the softening problem we studied the kinetics of radiation softening of raw carrot tissue using modern texture measuring equipment and compared it with the kinetics of thermal softening. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. Herbicide contamination in carrot grown in punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food safety and security is a burning issue of the time whereas vegetable production is an important aspect of agriculture. Use of herbicides for vegetable production is very common in Pakistan but no proper procedure has been planned to keep optimal level of doses of herbicide under permissible limit. To estimate the pesticide residues, samples from the leading carrot producing sites were collected along with the samples from the market. The samples were processed using standard procedures and qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). It was concluded that all the samples were contaminated with S-metolachlor in the range of 0.45 to 0.73 mg kg-1 which was above the permissible limit (0.40 mg kg-1). (author)

  9. Carotenoid Accumulation by Carrot Storage Roots in Relation to Nitrogen Fertilization Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek GAJEWSKI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of carotenoid compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L. roots of five cultivars, in relation to different nitrogen fertilization levels was investigated. The experiment was carried out at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. Carrot cultivars ‘Karotan’ F1, ‘Trafford’ F1, ‘Krakow’ F1, ‘Komarno’ F1 and ‘HY 7842’ were used in the study. Nitrogen fertilization was applied as urea form, in doses ranging from 0 to 120 kg N ha–1, and on two terms: pre-sowing and in the middle of the growing season. The carrot seeds were sown at the beginning of May and the roots were harvested in mid-October at maturity. Total carotenoids and β-carotene contents in the carrot roots were determined after the harvest by means of the standard spectrophotometric method. CIE L*a*b* colour parameters of the roots and the juice, as well as dry matter in the roots were determined. Results of the experiment showed that carotenoid accumulation in the roots was significantly affected by carrot genotype. ‘HY7842’ carrot showed the highest accumulation of total carotenoids and β-carotene. Nitrogen in the rates applied, did not significantly influence carotenoid content in the roots. Moderate correlation between carotenoid content and colour a* parameter (redness intensity of the roots and the juice was found.

  10. Bioactive chemicals from carrot (Daucus carota) juice extracts for the treatment of leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Rana; Clench, Malcolm R; Le Maitre, Christine L

    2011-11-01

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that consumption of fruits and vegetables with antioxidant properties correlates with reduced risk for cancers, including leukemia. Carrots contain beneficial agents, such as β-carotene and polyacetylenes, which could be effective in the treatment of leukemia. This study investigated the effect of carrot juice extracts on myeloid and lymphoid leukemia cell lines together with normal hematopoietic stem cells. Leukemia cell lines and nontumor control cells were treated with carrot juice extracts for up to 72 hours in vitro. Induction of apoptosis was investigated by using annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis, and results were confirmed by using 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole morphology. Effects on cellular proliferation were investigated via cell cycle analysis and cell counts. Treatment of leukemia cell lines with carrot juice extract induced apoptosis and inhibited progression through the cell cycle. Lymphoid cell lines were affected to a greater extent than were myeloid cell lines, and normal hematopoietic stem cells were less sensitive than most cell lines. This study has shown that extracts from carrots can induce apoptosis and cause cell cycle arrest in leukemia cell lines. The findings suggest that carrots may be an excellent source of bioactive chemicals for the treatment of leukemia. PMID:21864090

  11. Production of Bioethanol from Carrot Pomace Using the Thermotolerant Yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi-Yang Yu; Bo-Hong Jiang; Kow-Jen Duan [Tatung University, Tapei, Taiwan (China). Department of Bioengineering

    2013-03-15

    Carrot pomace, a major agricultural waste from the juice industry, was used as a feedstock for bioethanol production by fermentation with the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. Treatment of the carrot pomace with Accellerase(TM) 1000 and pectinase at 50 °C for 84 h, resulted in conversion of 42% of its mass to fermentable sugars, mainly glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 42 °C was performed on 10% (w/v) carrot pomace; the concentration of ethanol reached 18 g/L and the yield of ethanol from carrot pomace was 0.18 g/g. The highest ethanol concentration of 37 g/L was observed with an additional charge of 10% supplemented to the original 10% of carrot pomace after 12 h; the corresponding yield was 0.185 g/g. Our results clearly demonstrated the potential of combining a SSF process with thermotolerant yeast for the production of bioethanol using carrot pomace as a feedstock.

  12. Drinking carrot juice increases total antioxidant status and decreases lipid peroxidation in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Bhimanagouda S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular disease is attributable to sedentary lifestyle and eating diets high in fat and refined carbohydrate while eating diets low in fruit and vegetables. Epidemiological studies have confirmed a strong association between eating diets rich in fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular health. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether drinking fresh carrot juice influences antioxidant status and cardiovascular risk markers in subjects not modifying their eating habits. Methods An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of consuming 16 fl oz of daily freshly squeezed carrot juice for three months on cardiovascular risk markers, C-reactive protein, insulin, leptin, interleukin-1α, body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, antioxidant status, and malondialdehyde production. Fasting blood samples were collected pre-test and 90 days afterward to conclude the study. Results Drinking carrot juice did not affect (P > 0.1 the plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo A, Apo B, LDL, HDL, body fat percentage, insulin, leptin, interleukin-1α, or C-reactive protein. Drinking carrot juice decreased (P = 0.06 systolic pressure, but did not influence diastolic pressure. Drinking carrot juice significantly (P Conclusion Drinking carrot juice may protect the cardiovascular system by increasing total antioxidant status and by decreasing lipid peroxidation independent of any of the cardiovascular risk markers measured in the study.

  13. Biochemical studies on weaning foods based legumes and carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attempts were made to utilize available food sources in formulation of weaning foods. Common legumes (chick pea and pigeon pea ) were used as protein source. While dehydrated carrots powder were used as a vitamin A source. Addition of 25% chick pea increased the protein content of the weaning foods to 16.7% and 14.4%,respectively ,while Cerelac and Riri gave protein content of 15.3% and 7.3%,respectively. In corporation of carrots at 10% level gave a vitamin A content of 564 RE/100 g material. Weaning food containing chick pea recorded higher preference among panelists and significantly better (p≤0.05)than samples containing pigeon pea. The bulk density of newly developed based formulae CP3, PP3 (0.7 g/ml, 0.8 g/ml, respectively ) was higher than the market weaning food Cerelac and Riri (0.6 g/ml and 0.5 g/ml,respectively )The formula CP3 recorded lower hot paste viscosity (3500 cp.) than both values obtained for Cerelac (4500 cp.) and Riri (extremely viscous). The lysine content of CP3 (3.9 g/100 g protein) was higher than respective values in market foods and for better when calculated per weaning material (0.65 g/100 g material) compared to the other products (0.57; 0.28 g/100 material of Cerelac and Riri, respectively). Chick pea-based formula (CP3) was also found to possess higher in vitro protein didestibility (95.2%) compared to Cerelac (94.2%) and Riri (88.5%). The calculated protein efficiency ratio (C-PER) of CP3 (1.7) was higher than that of Riri (1.6) and lower than that of cerelac (2.7). (Author)

  14. Influence of carrot pomace powder on the rheological characteristics of wheat flour dough and on wheat rolls quality

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatica Kohajdová; Jolana Karovičová; Michaela Jurasová

    2012-01-01

    Background.Vegetable by-products are considered as good sources of dietary fibre and other biologically important compounds. Moreover, they are inexpensive and are available in large quantities. The objective of this study was to determine chemical composition and hydration properties of dietary fibrerich carrot pomace powder. The impact supplementation of carrot pomace at different levels (replacing of fine wheat flour with 1, 3, 5 and 10% of carrot pomace) on farinographic properties of whe...

  15. An Evaluation of the Sensory Properties of Irish Grown Organic and Conventional Carrots (Daucus carota L.) and mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    OpenAIRE

    Gilsenan, Clare; Burke, Roisin; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; O'Sullivan, Grace; Pierce, Eoin

    2008-01-01

    There is a general belief among consumers that organically farmed foods are superior in sensory quality when compared to conventionally produced foods. The aim of this study was to establish whether perceptible sensory differences exist between Irish grown organic and conventional carrots and Irish grown organic and conventional mushrooms. Three batches of organically farmed carrots and mushrooms and three batches of conventionally produced carrots and mushrooms were tested. A semi-trained pa...

  16. Morphological Characteristics, Anatomical Structure, and Gene Expression: Novel Insights into Cytokinin Accumulation during Carrot Growth and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Guang-Long Wang; Sheng Sun; Guo-Ming Xing; Xue-Jun Wu; Feng Wang; Ai-Sheng Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins have been implicated in normal plant growth and development. These bioactive molecules are essential for cell production and expansion in higher plants. Carrot is an Apiaceae vegetable with great value and undergoes significant size changes over the process of plant growth. However, cytokinin accumulation and its potential roles in carrot growth have not been elucidated. To address this problem, carrot plants at five stages were collected, and morphological and anatomical character...

  17. Screening and Histopathological Characterization of Korean Carrot Lines for Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Yunhee; Park, Jiyeong; Kim, Yong Su; Park, Yong; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    In total, 170 carrot lines developed in Korea were screened for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 to select parental genetic resources useful for the development of nematode-resistant carrot cultivars. Using the gall index (GI), gall formation was examined on carrot roots inoculated with approximately 1,000 second-stage juveniles of the nematode 7 weeks after inoculation. Sixty-one carrot lines were resistant (GI ≤ 1.0), while the other 109 were susceptible (GI > 1.0) with coefficien...

  18. The CIOA (Carrot Improvement for Organic Agriculture) Project: Location, cropping system, and genetic background influence carrot performance including top height and flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. organic farmers surveyed listed improved seedling germination and Alternaria leaf blight resistance as top breeding priorities for field production of organic carrots. Nematode resistance is also very important for growers. Flavor was deemed the most important consumer trait to improve in carro...

  19. Location, cropping system, and genetic background influence carrot performance including top height and flavor in the CIOA (Carrot Improvement for Organic Agriculture) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. organic farmers surveyed listed improved seedling germination and Alternaria leaf blight resistance as top breeding priorities for field production of organic carrots. Nematode resistance is also very important for growers. Flavor was deemed the most important consumer trait to improve in carro...

  20. Molecular detection of aster yellows phytoplasma and 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrots affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: triozidae) in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster) causes considerable damage to carrot (Daucus carota L.) in many parts of Europe. It was recently established that the new bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” is associated with carrot psyllid and plants affected by this insect pest. No other path...

  1. Diversity, genetic mapping, and signatures of domestication in the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome, as revealed by Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot is one of the most economically important vegetables worldwide, however, genetic and genomic resources supporting carrot breeding remain limited. We developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for wild and cultivated carrot and used it to investigate genetic diversity and to devel...

  2. Regulation of ascorbic acid biosynthesis and recycling during root development in carrot (Daucus carota L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Long; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Wang, Feng; Li, Meng-Yao; Tan, Guo-Fei; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-09-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA), also known as vitamin C, is an essential nutrient in fruits and vegetables. The fleshy root of carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a good source of AsA for humans. However, the metabolic pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of AsA content during root development in carrot have not been elucidated. To gain insights into the regulation of AsA accumulation and to identify the key genes involved in the AsA metabolism, we cloned and analyzed the expression of 21 related genes during carrot root development. The results indicate that AsA accumulation in the carrot root is regulated by intricate pathways, of which the l-galactose pathway may be the major pathway for AsA biosynthesis. Transcript levels of the genes encoding l-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase and l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase were strongly correlated with AsA levels during root development. Data from this research may be used to assist breeding for improved nutrition, quality, and stress tolerance in carrots. PMID:25956452

  3. Development and sensory evaluation of yogurt added of “caviar” of carrot by children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richtier Gonçalves Cruz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed investigated to the preparation of yogurt with addition of “caviar” carrot and realize carried out sensory analysis of acceptance by children from elementary school. The “caviar” was prepared using the spherification technique with sodium alginate and added to the beaten-type yogurt without pulp addition at the ratio of one portion of the carrot for one portion of yogurt. Were conducted microbiological analyses and subsequently the sensory evaluation with children. The microbiological analyses showed that the product was fit for consumption. The average score in points obtained in the sensory analysis with 52 children was 6.7 (with 6.6 in males and 6.8 in females, it is that girls had higher scores (p < 0.05. The general index of acceptability to yogurt with “caviar” of carrot was 95.70%. It concludes that yogurt plus “caviar” carrot sensory was accepted because it presents high notes reflecting on their acceptability index, suggesting that this product is used as an alternative to increase the consumption of carrots by children.

  4. Effect of air velocity on kinetics of thin layer carrot pomace drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N; Sarkar, B C; Sharma, H K

    2011-10-01

    Carrot pomace is a by-product obtained during carrot juice processing. Thin layer carrot pomace drying was performed in a laboratory scale hot air forced convective dryer. The drying experiments were carried out at the air velocity of 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 m/s at air temperatures from 60 to 75 °C. It was observed that whole drying process of carrot pomace took place in a falling rate period except a very short accelerating period at the beginning. Mathematical models were tested to fit drying data of carrot pomace. The best fit model was observed on the basis of R², Chi-square and RMSE values. R² values for all the selected models were above 0.9783. The average values of effective diffusivity ranged from 2.61 × 10(-9) to 3.64 × 10(-9) m²/s. PMID:21954311

  5. A novel dehydration technique for carrot slices implementing ultrasound and vacuum drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Gang; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Tao

    2016-05-01

    A novel drying technique using a combination of ultrasound and vacuum dehydration was developed to shorten the drying time and improve the quality of carrot slices. Carrot slices were dried with ultrasonic vacuum (USV) drying and vacuum drying at 65 °C and 75 °C. The drying rate was significantly influenced by the drying techniques and temperatures. Compared with vacuum drying, USV drying resulted in a 41-53% decrease in the drying time. The drying time for the USV and vacuum drying techniques at 75 °C was determined to be 140 and 340 min for carrot slices, respectively. The rehydration potential, nutritional value (retention of β-carotene and ascorbic acid), color, and textural properties of USV-dried carrot slices are predominately better compared to vacuum-dried carrot slices. Moreover, lower energy consumption was used in the USV technique. The drying data (time versus moisture ratio) were successfully fitted to Wang and Singh model. PMID:26703199

  6. PCR based identification of Pythium spp. causing cavity spot in carrots and sensitive detection in soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavity spot is caused by several Pythium species and is one of the most economically important diseases of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Diagnosis of the pathogens in soil and in carrot tissue has been complicated. On the bases of ITS sequences PCR primers were designed for the identification of the fi...

  7. State of the art regarding carrot fly control in practice and possibilities in the future for Western and Northern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ester, A.; Rozen, van K.

    2009-01-01

    The carrot fly (Psila rosae) is a major pest of umbelliferous crops, particularly in carrot production. This pest is present in temperate regions of Northern and Western Europe and also in the warm and dry climate of Central and Southern Europe. Currently, control strategies are limited and there ma

  8. Effect of UV-B light and different cutting styles on antioxidant enhancement of commercial fresh-cut carrot products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrots are a rich source of antioxidants. Fresh-cut processing provides a convenient way to consume this nutritious root crop. Cutting operations induce wounding stress activation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase, and enhance the nutrient content of carrots by increasing t...

  9. MOLECULAR TAGGING AND SELECTION FOR SUGAR-TYPE IN CARROT ROOTS USING CO-DOMINANT, PCR-BASED MARKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrots storage roots accumulate free sugars. The type of sugar accumulated is conditioned by the Rs locus so that typical carrot roots (Rs/-) accumulate predominantly glucose and fructose while rs/rs plants accumulate predominantly sucrose. We recently have found rs/rs plants in one inbred line har...

  10. Transmission of different strains of Spiroplasma citri to carrot and citrus by Circulifer tenellus Baker (Hemiptera:Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot purple leaf disease (CPLD) was associated with the presence of Spiroplasma citri in 2006 in the state of Washington, USA (Lee et al. 2006). The objectives of this work were to (1) confirm S. citri as the causal agent of CPLD by fulfilling Koch’s postulates, (2) to determine whether carrot str...

  11. Compatibility Relations Between the Edible Carrot Daucus Carota and D. Pusillus, a Related Wild Species from the Argentinian Pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    To establish the feasibility of hybridization between the wild carrot species Daucus pusillus Michx. (2n = 2x = 22; 2n = 2x = 22 and 20), collected in the pampas grasslands of Argentina, and the edible carrot, Daucus carota L. (2n = 2x = 18), controlled pollinations were attempted on the plant. Due ...

  12. Genetic structure in cultivated and wild carrots (¤Daucus carota¤ L.) revealed by AFLP analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shim, S.I.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2000-01-01

    Genetic variation within and among five Danish populations of wild carrot and five cultivated varieties was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Ten AFLP primer combinations produced 116 polymorphic bands. Based on the marker data an UPGMA-cluster analysis and principal...... markers specific to the cultivated carrot makes it possible to detect introgression from cultivated to wild types....

  13. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices.

  14. Inositol trisphosphate metabolism in carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of exogenously added D-myo-[1-3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) has been examined in microsomal membrane and soluble fractions of carrot cells grown in suspension culture. When [3H]IP3 was added to a microsomal membrane fraction, [3H]IP2 was the primary metabolite consisting of approximately 83% of the total recovered [3H] by electrophoresis. [3H]IP was only 6% of the [3H] recovered, and 10% of the [3H]IP3 was not further metabolized. In contrast, when [3H]IP3 was added to the soluble fraction, approximately equal amounts of [3H]IP2 and [3H]IP were recovered. Ca2+ (100 micromolar) tended to enhance IP3 dephosphorylation but inhibited the IP2 dephosphorylation in the soluble fraction by about 20%. MoO42- (1 millimolar) inhibited the dephosphorylation of IP3 by the microsomal fraction and the dephosphorylation of IP2 by the soluble fraction. MoO42-, however, did not inhibit the dephosphorylation of IP3 by the soluble fraction. Li+ (10 and 50 millimolar) had no effect on IP3 metabolism in either the soluble or membrane fraction; however, Li+ (50 millimolar) inhibited IP2 dephosphorylation in the soluble fraction about 25%

  15. IP3 stimulates CA++ efflux from fusogenic carrot protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyphosphoinositide breakdown plays an important role in signal transduction in animal cells (Berridge and Irvine, 1984, Nature, 312:315). Upon stimulation, phospholipase C hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol both of which act as cellular second messengers. IP3 mobilizes Ca++ from internal stores, hence the cytosolic free Ca++ concentration increases and those physiological activities regulated by Ca++ are stimulated. To test if plant cells also responded to IP3, Ca++ efflux studies were done with fusogenic carrot protoplasts released in EGTA. The protoplasts were preloaded with 45Ca++ placed in a Ca++-free medium, and efflux determined as 45Ca++ loss from the protoplasts. IP3 (10-20μM) caused enhanced 45Ca++ efflux and the response was sustained for at least 15 min. In plants, as in animals, the observed IP3-enhanced 45Ca++ efflux suggested that IP3 released Ca++ from internal stores, and the increased free cytosolic Ca++ activated Ca++ pumping mechanisms which restored the Ca++ concentration in the cytosol to the normal level

  16. Calmodulin stimulation of calcium transport in carrot microsomal vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ATP-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake into microsomal vesicles isolated from cultured carrot cells (Daucus carota Danvers) was stimulated 2-3 fold by 5 ug/ml calmodulin (CaM). Microsomal vesicles separated with a linear sucrose gradient showed two peaks with CaM-stimulated Ca2+ uptake activities. One peak (at 1.12 g/cc) comigrated with the activity of the antimycin A-insensitive NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase. This transport activity was enhanced 10-20 fold by 10 mM oxalate and appeared to be associates with vesicles derived primarily from the ER. The other peak of CaM-stimulated Ca2+ uptake (at 1.17 g/cc) was not affected by oxalate. These vesicles are probably derived from the plasma membrane. Preliminary experiments with the low-density vesicles (ER) vesicles, indicate that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate caused a transient reduction in intravesicular Ca2+. These results are consistent with the ER being an important site of intracellular Ca2+ regulation

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF PRETREATMENT CONDITIONS OF CARROTS TO MAXIMIZE JUICE RECOVERY BY RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. SHARMA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Carrot juice was expressed in a hydraulic press using a wooden set up. Carrot samples pretreated at different designed combinations, using Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD, Response Surface Methodology (RSM, of pH, temperature and time were expressed and juice so obtained was characterized for various physico-chemical parameters which involved yield, TSS and water content, reducing sugars, total sugars and color (absorbance. The study indicated that carrots exposed to the different pretreatment conditions resulted in increased amount of yield than that of the control. The responses were optimized by numerical method and were found to be 78.23% yield, 0.93% color (abs, 3.41% reducing sugars, 5.53% total sugars, 6.69obrix, and 90.50% water content. All the derived mathematical models for the various responses were found to be fit significantly to predict the data.

  18. Transfer of resistance traits from carrot into tobacco by asymmetric somatic hybridization: Regeneration of fertile plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudits, Denes; Maroy, Eszter; Praznovszky, Tunde; Olah, Zoltan; Gyorgyey, Janos; Cella, Rino

    1987-01-01

    Transfer of methotrexate and 5-methyltryptophan resistance from carrot (Daucus carota) to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was achieved by fusion between leaf mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco and irradiated cell culture protoplasts of carrot. Some of the regenerated somatic hybrids exhibited normal tobacco morphology with coexpression and independent segregation of the transferred resistance markers. Chromosomal instability resulted in aneuploid somatic hybrids with significantly lower chromosome number than predicted by simple addition of parental chromosome number. The methotrexate resistance phenotype was correlated with the expression of carrot-specific dihydrofolate reductase as judged by isozyme and immunological characteristics of the enzyme. The genomic construct of these somatic hybrids made the transmission of the resistance character into the next sexual generation possible. Images PMID:16593902

  19. Carrot (Daucus carota L . ssp. sativus (Hoffm. Arcang. as source of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita BYSTRICKÁ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carrot (Daucus carota L. s sp. sativus (Hoffm. Arcang. is a significant source of vitamins (A, B, C and beta carotene. Further it contains vitamins B, C, E, H, folic acid and pantothenic acid. Carrot is an important source of trace elements (K, Na, Ca, Mg, P, S, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Consumption of carrot improves eyesight, lowers cholesterol and improves digestion. In this work we evaluated and compared content of total polyphenols, ß-caroteneand antioxidant activity in five varieties of carrot (’Jitka’, Kardila’, Katlen , Rubína’ and Koloseum Samples of carrot were collected at full maturity stages from area of Bardejov. Samples of fresh carrot were homogenized (25 g in 50 ml 80 % ethanol and analysed after sixteen hours. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. The content of ß-carotene was determined spectrophotometricaly at 450 nm. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 515.6 nm using spectrophotometer. Total polyphenols content in samples ranged from 81.25 ± 13.11 mg/kg to 113.69 ± 11.57 mg/kg and content of ß-carotenes ranged from 24.58 ± 2.38 mg/kg to 124.28 ± 3.54 mg/kg. We also evaluated and compared the antioxidant activity in selected varieties of ca rrot, which varied from 6.88 ± 0.92 % to 9.83 ± 0.62 %. Statistically si gnificant the highest value of total polyphenols was recorded in variety of Koloseum (113.69 ± 11.57 mg/kg. This variety is also character ized by the highest content of ß- carotene (124.28 ± 3.54 mg/kg as well as the highest value of antioxidant activity (9.83 ± 0.62 %.

  20. Functional gene polymorphism to reveal species history: the case of the CRTISO gene in cultivated carrots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Soufflet-Freslon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carrot is a vegetable cultivated worldwide for the consumption of its root. Historical data indicate that root colour has been differentially selected over time and according to geographical areas. Root pigmentation depends on the relative proportion of different carotenoids for the white, yellow, orange and red types but only internally for the purple one. The genetic control for root carotenoid content might be partially associated with carotenoid biosynthetic genes. Carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO has emerged as a regulatory step in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway and could be a good candidate to show how a metabolic pathway gene reflects a species genetic history. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, the nucleotide polymorphism and the linkage disequilibrium among the complete CRTISO sequence, and the deviation from neutral expectation were analysed by considering population subdivision revealed with 17 microsatellite markers. A sample of 39 accessions, which represented different geographical origins and root colours, was used. Cultivated carrot was divided into two genetic groups: one from Middle East and Asia (Eastern group, and another one mainly from Europe (Western group. The Western and Eastern genetic groups were suggested to be differentially affected by selection: a signature of balancing selection was detected within the first group whereas the second one showed no selection. A focus on orange-rooted carrots revealed that cultivars cultivated in Asia were mainly assigned to the Western group but showed CRTISO haplotypes common to Eastern carrots. CONCLUSION: The carotenoid pathway CRTISO gene data proved to be complementary to neutral markers in order to bring critical insight in the cultivated carrot history. We confirmed the occurrence of two migration events since domestication. Our results showed a European background in material from Japan and Central Asia. While confirming the introduction of European

  1. Effect of UV-C on phytoalexin accumulation and resistance to Botrytis cinerea in stored carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of UV-C (220-280 nm) on the accumulation of phytoalexin and resistance to Botrytis cinerea was studied in cold-stored carrots. Carrots were surface-wounded, treated with a range of UV doses and stored at 1 degree C for 25 days in lots of 22 roots. The level of the phytoalexin, 6-methoxymellein, in each lot was then assayed in the peel of eight roots. Twelve of the remaining roots were subsequently inoculated with mycelial plugs to evaluate their level of disease resistance. The elicitation of 6-methoxymellein by UV increased significantly the resistance of the roots to B. cinerea. The effect of UV in freshly harvested carrots was curvilinear, showing an optimum between 0.44 and 0.88 Merg/cm(2). However, only a linear relationship was observed with aged (stored for 4 months at 1 degree C) carrots for the same doses, suggesting a modification in the response to UV with age. Wounding was necessary for carrots kept at 1 degree C to respond to UV treatment. Neither UV nor wounding alone caused any elicitation at this temperature. Since unwounded roots could respond to UV at 20 degrees C, it is hypothesized that the level of physiological activity of the roots determines their response to UV. An increase in the physiological activity by higher temperatures or wounding would allow the elicitation process to take place. Since UV irradiation can increase the level of disease resistance in treated tissues, this treatment has potential as an alternative method for the control of post-harvest diseases in carrots

  2. Health biomarkers in a rat model after intake of organically grown carrots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melballe Jensen, Maja; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Halekoh, Ulrich;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Organic foodis perceived as beingofbetter quality andhealthier than conventional foods although the scientific research on organic foodstuffs is highly contradictory. The aim of the present study was to investigate if intake of carrots from four different cultivation systems grown in two......: This well-controlled field study demonstrated no clear influence of cultivation methods or harvest year on the nutritional quality of carrots or effect of cultivation methods on health-related biomarkers in a sensitive rat model. However, the experimental set-up and selected biomarkers could be used as...

  3. A Study for Extraction Kinetics of Β-Carotene from Oven Dried Carrot by Solvent Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Sudipta Das; Saikat Mazumder

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this work was to study the kinetics of the extraction of β-carotene by solvent (ethanol) extraction from carrots dried at 50ºC in an oven. The moisture content after drying was 11±1.5% (dry weight basis). Extraction time was 5 hours and extraction process was carried out at 30ºC. The ratio of Carrot (gm): ethanol (ml) of 1:60 was maintained throughout the extraction process. The experimental data of extracted β- Carotene yield during solvent extraction were mode...

  4. Draft genome sequence of Paenibacillus dauci sp. nov., a carrot-associated endophytic actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Zhu, Liying; Jiang, Ling; Xu, Xian; Xu, Qing; Zhang, Zhidong; Huang, He

    2015-09-01

    Paenibacillus dauci sp. nov., a new kind of endophytic actinobacteria, is separated from the inner tissues of carrot sample, which forms intimated associations with carrot acting as biological control agents. Here we report a 5.37-Mb assembly of its genome sequence and other useful information, including the coding sequences (CDSs) responsible for biological processes such as antibiotic metabolic process, antimicrobial metabolism, anaerobic regulation and the biosynthesis of vitamin B and polysaccharide. This novel strain can be a potential source of novel lead products for exploitation in the field of pharmaceutical, agriculture and industry. PMID:26484263

  5. INVESTIGATION OF ULTRASOUND WAVES ON PRETREATMENT OF OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF CARROT SLICES

    OpenAIRE

    Tahmasebi, Soheila; Mirzaee, Somaye; Kaviyani, Mehdi; Tabrizi, Mahsa; Shariati, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In this study, carrot slices were put in glucose osmotic 50% at 1, 2 and 3 hr. Ultrasound waves, frequency 40 kH power 30 w/l, passed through container of osmotic solution and carrot slices. The results revealed that significant increasing of dry matter of sample by using ultrasound waves.pre osmotic time had a significant on dry material by increasing from 1to 3 hr.sample treated by ultrasound waves lost water faster and their final dry solid was significantly more than control (without ultr...

  6. A comprehensive approach to evaluate the freshness of strawberries and carrots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peneau, S.; Brockhoff, Per B.; Escher, F.;

    2007-01-01

    of strawberries and carrots that varied in cultivar, as well as with time and conditions of storage. Product characteristics measured by descriptive sensory and physico-chemical analyses were related to consumer and expert panel (individual and consensus) ratings of freshness. Results showed that a...... large number of attributes contributed to the freshness of strawberries and carrots and that those were also indicators of the physiological ageing of these products. Our results suggest that consumer evaluation of fruit and vegetable freshness corresponds to an evaluation of this ageing process through...

  7. Different responses to UV-B enhanced solar radiation in radish and carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.), plants with underground storage organs grown in the field, were exposed to either ambient (UVA) or 20 % UV-B (UVE) enhanced solar radiation till their root yield stage. In radish, UVE produced a significant increase in shoot and root fresh mass (FM), increase in the contents of chlorophyll, carotenoids, flavonoids, and total proteins per unit FM, Hill reaction rate, and root yield. In contrast, carrot responded negatively to UVE showing a loss in the above parameters. (author)

  8. Morphogenetic responses of cultured totipotent cells of carrot /Daucus carota var. carota/ at zero gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, A. D.; Steward, F. C.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment designed to test whether embryos capable of developing from isolated somatic carrot cells could do so under conditions of weightlessness in space was performed aboard the unmanned Soviet biosatellite Kosmos 782 under the auspices of the joint United States-Soviet Biological Satellite Mission. Space flight and weightlessness seem to have had no adverse effects on the induction of embryoids or on the development of their organs. A portion of the crop of carrot plantlets originated in space and grown to maturity were not morphologically different from controls.

  9. Microsatellite isolation and marker development in carrot - genomic distribution, linkage mapping, genetic diversity analysis and marker transferability across Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiz Mehtap

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Apiaceae family includes several vegetable and spice crop species among which carrot is the most economically important member, with ~21 million tons produced yearly worldwide. Despite its importance, molecular resources in this species are relatively underdeveloped. The availability of informative, polymorphic, and robust PCR-based markers, such as microsatellites (or SSRs, will facilitate genetics and breeding of carrot and other Apiaceae, including integration of linkage maps, tagging of phenotypic traits and assisting positional gene cloning. Thus, with the purpose of isolating carrot microsatellites, two different strategies were used; a hybridization-based library enrichment for SSRs, and bioinformatic mining of SSRs in BAC-end sequence and EST sequence databases. This work reports on the development of 300 carrot SSR markers and their characterization at various levels. Results Evaluation of microsatellites isolated from both DNA sources in subsets of 7 carrot F2 mapping populations revealed that SSRs from the hybridization-based method were longer, had more repeat units and were more polymorphic than SSRs isolated by sequence search. Overall, 196 SSRs (65.1% were polymorphic in at least one mapping population, and the percentage of polymophic SSRs across F2 populations ranged from 17.8 to 24.7. Polymorphic markers in one family were evaluated in the entire F2, allowing the genetic mapping of 55 SSRs (38 codominant onto the carrot reference map. The SSR loci were distributed throughout all 9 carrot linkage groups (LGs, with 2 to 9 SSRs/LG. In addition, SSR evaluations in carrot-related taxa indicated that a significant fraction of the carrot SSRs transfer successfully across Apiaceae, with heterologous amplification success rate decreasing with the target-species evolutionary distance from carrot. SSR diversity evaluated in a collection of 65 D. carota accessions revealed a high level of polymorphism for these

  10. Effect of intercropping carrot (Daucus carota L. with two aromatic plants, coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. and summer savory (Satureja hortensis L., on the population density of select carrot pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska Beata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping, or the use of different aspects of the interaction between organisms in ecosystems, can be classified as an ecological method that limits harmful human interference in the environment, especially the consumption of chemicals. The impact of intercropping carrot with coriander Coriandrum sativum L. and summer savory Satureja hortensis L. on the occurrence of select carrot pests was estimated in the years 2010-2011. Intercropping had a significant effect on the decrease of the number of roots damaged by carrot rust fly Psila rosae. During harvest, the least number of damaged roots was observed in combination with summer savory S. hortensis L. The number of carrot psyllid Trioza viridula Zett. and aphids on carrot leaves and roots damaged by nematodes was significantly lower on plots where carrot was intercropped. Intercropping both herbs had a positive influence on the number of beneficial insects. In all of the years of the study, the highest number of Coccinellidae and Syrphidae were observed on plots where carrot was intercropped with coriander.

  11. Statistical Quality Assessment of Pre-fried Carrots Using Multispectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifzadeh, Sara; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Løje, Hanne;

    2013-01-01

    significant changes in features during the inspection days. Discrimination by the SVM classifier supported these results. Additionally, 2-sided t-tests on the predictions of the elastic-net regressions were carried out to compare our results with previous studies on fried carrots. The experimental results...

  12. Construction and characterization of a deep-coverage carrot (Daucus carota L.) BAC library

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first carrot (Daucus carota L.) BAC library was constructed using imbred line B8503, which is nematode-resistant and accumulates carotenes in its roots. The BAC library consists of 92,160 clones comprising 22.4 haploid genome equivalents based on a genome size of 473 Mb/1C. Upon the analysis of ...

  13. Genetic structure and domestication of carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus L.) (Apiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyses of genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships illuminate the origin and domestication of modern crops. Despite being an important world-wide vegetable, the genetic structure and domestication of carrot (Daucus carota L.) is poorly understood. We provide the first such study using a la...

  14. Design of Carrot Harvester%胡萝卜收获机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈亮; 杨华; 安红宇; 靳晓燕

    2015-01-01

    为了解决胡萝卜收获季节人工紧缺、费用昂贵的问题,结合国内胡萝卜的种植模式和农艺要求,研发设计了新型高效侧悬挂式胡萝卜收获机。该机一次完成挖掘松土、夹持输送、对齐切缨及集条放铺的工作过程,为夹持式胡萝卜收获机械的进一步研究和发展提供了借鉴。%In order to solve the carrot harvest season artificial shortage and expensive problems combined with domestic carrot planting pattern and agronomic requirements , R & D and design of a new type of high efficiency side suspension type carrot harvester .The machine to complete a dig , blessing the conveying , alignment cut tassel and set a laying process,further research and development for the clamping carrot harvest machinery and provides a reference .

  15. Diffusion of PAH in potato and carrot slices and application for a potato model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Cammarano, A.; Capri, E.;

    2007-01-01

    of water, potato tissue, and carrot tissue. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluoranthene served as model substances. Their transfer from source to sink disk was measured by HPLC to determine a velocity rate constant proportional to the diffusive conductivity. The diffusive flux through the plant...

  16. Comparison of prediction methods for the uptake of As, Cd and Pb in carrot and lettuce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legind, Charlotte Nielsen; Trapp, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    background scenario, the NMF and other models predicted the concentrations in carrot and lettuce within the range of measured values. Regressions considering soil pH, organic matter and clay content were not superior to simple transfer factors. The transfer from air to plant is significant, at least under...

  17. Cloning and expression of DnaJ homolog in carrot somatic embryo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    As the co-chaperone of DnaK/Hsp70 protein, DnaJ/Hsp40 protein influences the synthesis and assembly of the protein complex by regulating ATPase activity of DnaK/Hsp70 protein. By employing the modified method of cDNA representational difference analysis, a homologous fragment of DnaJ was isolated from the deregulated carrot somatic embryos, and it was further used as the probe to screen the cDNA library of carrot somatic embryo deregulated for 12 h. As the result, DcJ1 gene, the homologous gene of DnaJ, was isolated from carrot. Sequence analysis showed that its coding region is 1257 bp, which codes 418 amino acids and comprises 3 highly-conserved characteristic domains. Southern blot analysis suggested that the DcJ1 gene seems to be a single copy in the genome, while Northern blot result indicated that DcJ1 expresses only in roots and its degree of expression changes obviously with the regulation-deregulation process. These results suggest that DcJ1 is correlated with the early development of carrot somatic embryo radicle.

  18. Genome-wide association of the domestication syndrome in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrots (Daucus carota L.) were domesticated over 1,000 years ago in Central Asia. Two traits selected during domestication were increased carotenoid accumulation (white -> yellow -> orange root color) and decreased lateral root formation. While some preliminary research has been conducted on the un...

  19. Metabolite fingerprinting of exudates from carrot roots grown under phosphorus stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    To see if differences in the metabolite content of exudates obtained from cultured carrot roots grown in the presence and absence of phosphorus could be detected, crude samples were analyzed via Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Mass Spectrometry (FTMS). The highly accurate masses and elemental compo...

  20. Expression Analysis of Carotenoid Biosynthesis Genes in Carrot (Daucus Carota) Using Real Time Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is an important source of pro-vitamin A in the human diet, as well as other important antioxidant compounds. While essential to human health, very little is currently understood about the accumulation of carotenoids, the vitamin A precursors within the storage root that give ...

  1. Antioxidant characterization and sensory evaluation during storage of ultraviolet-B light exposed baby carrots (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby carrot processing induces wounding stress activation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), enhancing its nutrient content by increasing synthesis of secondary metabolites. Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure further promotes the formation of soluble phenolic compounds, significantly increasing antiox...

  2. Serum a- and b-carotene concentrations qualitatively respond to sustained carrot feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    b-Carotene is a predominant source of vitamin A in developing countries. Genetically selected ‘‘high carotene’’ carrots could have an impact on the vitamin A and antioxidant status of people if widely adopted. A 3 3 3 crossover study in humans (n = 10) evaluated the difference in uptake and clearanc...

  3. Effect of the gamma radiation of cobalt 60 on the beta carotids present in the carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work it was investigated the effect of the gamma radiation of cobalt 60 on the beta carotid's in the carrot (daucus carota), using for it three different radiation dose (100, 150 and 200 kilo-rad) and analyzing them by means of the liquid chromatography technique of high resolution (HPLC)

  4. Understanding the molecular mechanism of carotenoid accumulation in carrot (Daucus carota) using real time quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is an important source of pro-vitamin A in the human diet, as well as other important antioxidant compounds. While essential to human health, very little is currently understood about the accumulation of carotenoids, the vitamin A precursors within the storage root that give ...

  5. Bioavailability and speciation of arsenic in carrots grown in contaminated soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgesen, H.; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    1998-01-01

    Carrots were grown in seven experimental plots (A-G) containing mixtures of arsenic-contaminated and uncontaminated soil at concentrations ranging from 6.5 to 917 mu g g(-1) (dry mass). The carrots harvested from plots A-D (6.5-338 mu g g(-1) arsenic in the soil mixtures) showed a gradually...... increasing depression of growth with increasing level of contamination, At the experimental plots E-G with soil arsenic concentrations above 400 mu g g(-1) no carrots developed. Whether this effect was caused by arsenic or the concomitant copper content which ranged from 11 to 810 mu g g(-1) in the soil...... mixtures is unknown. The arsenic species extracted from the soils and carrots were separated and detected using anion-exchange HPLC coupled with ICP-MS, In the less contaminated soils from plots A and B arsenite (As-III) was more abundant than arsenate (As-V) in the soil using 1 mmole l(-1) calcium nitrate...

  6. Statistical Quality Assessment of Pre-fried Carrots Using Multispectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifzadeh, Sara; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Løje, Hanne; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    spectral images of visible and NIR bands. High dimensional feature vectors were formed from all possible ratios of spectral bands in 9 different percentiles per piece of carrot. We propose to use a multiple hypothesis testing technique based on the Benjamini-Hachberg (BH) method to distinguish possible...

  7. Inhibitory effect on foodborne pathogens by native microflora associated with fresh peeled baby carrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inhibitory effect of fresh peeled baby carrot and associated microflora on the viability and growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Pseudomonas marginalis in vitro and in situ was investigated. The population of viable L. mo...

  8. Quality parameters in convective dehydrated carrots blanched by ultrasound and conventional treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Soria, Ana Cristina; Villamiel, Mar; Montilla, Antonia

    2013-11-01

    The effect of previous ultrasound and conventional blanching treatments on drying and quality parameters (2-furoylmethyl-amino acids -as indicators of lysine and arginine participation in the Maillard reaction-, carbohydrates, total polyphenols, protein profile, rehydration ratio, microstructure changes) of convective dehydrated carrots has been assessed. The most striking feature was the influence of blanching on the subsequent 2-furoylmethyl-amino acid formation during drying, probably due to changes in the protein structure. The highest values of 2-furoylmethyl-amino acids were found in carrots conventionally blanched with water at 95°C for 5 min. However, samples previously treated by ultrasound presented intermediate values of 2-furoylmethyl-amino acids and carbohydrates as compared to the conventionally blanched samples. Dried carrots previously subjected to ultrasound blanching preserved their total polyphenol content and showed rehydration properties, which were even better than those of the freeze-dried control sample. The results obtained here underline the usefulness of 2-furoylmethyl-amino acids as indicators of the damage suffered by carrots during their blanching and subsequent drying. PMID:23768402

  9. Occurrence and molecular detection of Spiroplasma citri in carrots and Circulifer tenellus in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the fall of 2014, carrot plants in Zacatecas, Mexico, were found with yellow, brown (chlorotic), and/or purple-colored leaves, small and/or rolled leaves, and hairy, deformed, and/or small roots. Molecular diagnostics of these symptomatic plants failed to detect phytoplasmas in these samples, bu...

  10. COSII-Based Mapping and Diversity in Potato, Tomato, Sweet Potato and Carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    This poster presentation reports progress on a USDA NRI grant to enhance understanding of and access to the genetic diversity in wild and landrace relatives of tomato, potato, sweet potato, and carrot, and contribute to the same for other euasterid plant species. This is being done with Conserved Or...

  11. Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for genotyping and mapping in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot is one of the most important root vegetable crops grown worldwide on more than one million hectares. Its progenitor, wild Daucus carota, is a weed commonly occurring across continents in the temperate climatic zone. Diversity Array Technology (DArT) is a microarray-based molecular marker syst...

  12. Potential impact of a hybrid leaf blight disease that infects both carrot and potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria dauci and Alternaria solani are two forms of necrotrophic fungi. A. dauci targets carrot crops, while A. solani mainly targets potato. Both species of Alternaria have been able to produce blight on their respective target plants. Recently, an A. dauci hybrid has appeared that is able to i...

  13. Characterization of chemical, biological and antiproliferative properties of fermented black carrot juice, shalgam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalgam juice is a dark red-colored and sour fermented beverage produced and consumed in Turkey. The main ingredient of shalgam juice is black carrot, which is rich in anthocyanins. In this study, commercially available shalgam juice was characterized by determining its chemical composition and anti...

  14. Uptake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by carrot and lettuce crops grown in compost-amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizkarguenaga, E; Iparraguirre, A; Oliva, E; Quintana, J B; Rodil, R; Fernández, L A; Zuloaga, O; Prieto, A

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by carrot and lettuce was investigated. Degradation of PBDEs in soil in the absence of the plants was discarded. Different carrot (Nantesa and Chantenay) and lettuce (Batavia Golden Spring and Summer Queen) varieties were grown in fortified or contaminated compost-amended soil mixtures under greenhouse conditions. After plant harvesting, roots (core and peel) and leaves were analyzed separately for carrot, while for lettuce, leaves and hearts were analyzed together. The corresponding bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were calculated. In carrots, a concentration gradient of 2,2',3,4,4',5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-138) became evident that decreased from the root peel via root core to the leaves. For decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) at the low concentration level (7 and 20 ng g(-1)), the leaves incorporated the highest concentration of the target substance. For lettuce, a decrease in the BCF value (from 0.24 to 0.02) was observed the higher the octanol-water partition coefficient, except in the case of BDE-183 (BCF = 0.51) and BDE-209 (BCF values from 0.41 to 0.74). Significant influence of the soils and crop varieties on the uptake could not be supported. Metabolic debromination, hydroxylation or methylation of the target PBDEs in the soil-plant system was not observed. PMID:26498966

  15. Replacement Value of Untreated or Fungal Treated Carrot Leaves for Corn in Broiler Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three hundred (21 days old) Arbor Acre chicks were used to evaluate the replacement value of untreated or Aspergillus niger treated carrot leaves for corn in broiler diets. Birds were fed a control diet or diets in which 10% untreated or treated carrot leaves was quantitatively substituted for corn in the control diet. Replacement of yellow corn with 10% untreated and treated carrot leaves caused insignificant (P 0.01) in both experimental groups compared to control. These results denoted that although there were negligible changes in body weight and mortality rate in broiler chicken fed untreated and treated carrot leaves the amino acid profile of carcasses lessen their nutritive value which is in consequence reflected negatively on human amino acids intake. Poultry production represents one of the quickest means of correcting the anomaly of protein inadequacy, yet the rising cost of feed which represents 70-80% of the cost of production among other costs, is a major setback (Opera. 1996). The price of most conventional feed ingredients such as yellow corn, soybean meal and fish meal is so high in recent time that it is becoming uneconomical to use them in poultry feeding (Esonu et al., 2001). Consequently poultry feed researchers have been forced to seek alternative and cheaper feed resources

  16. Effect of low doses of irradiation on the carotenoids in head to eat carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims was to evaluate the effect of low doses of g radiation on the total carotenoids, α and β-carotene content in minimally processed carrots, during the shelflife. Carrots are the mains vegetable source of carotenoids provitamin A (α and β-carotene). According to the Family Budget Survey (FBS) carried out in the Brazilian Southeast, within the roots and tubers group, carrots are widely consumed. The carotenoid stability varies largely during the stages of processing and storage, depending upon structure, temperature, oxygen availability, light exposure, humidity content, water activity and acid, metal anti-oxidant and pro-oxidant presence. The minimally processed carrots in this experiment were manually peeled, rinsed, cutted into diskis, packaged under 5% O2 / 10% CO2 and 21% O2 (sintetic air), g ionizing radiation treatments was carried out with a 137Cs source, of 0,25, 0,50, 0,75 and 1,0kGy doses, and shelf-stored at 5°C for 24 days. Total carotenoids quantification was by 449nm spectrophotometer. Determination of a and β-carotenes was made by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The different treatments and control group were, too, evaluated by analysing of colour and volatiles, by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy with solid phase microextration (CG-MS/SPME), for study the significant carotenoids losses during the process

  17. Water properties and structure of pork sausages as affected by high-pressure processing and addition of carrot fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Sandie Mejer; Grossi, Alberto Blak; Christensen, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    The effects of high-pressure processing (HPP) and addition of carrot fibre on pork sausages have been studied using NMR T(2) relaxometry and measurements of water-binding capacity (WBC) by centrifugation. Significant effects of temperature (raw, 40, 50, or 60°C), holding time (1s, 3, 6, or 9min......), and addition of carrot fibre on the distribution and mobility of water were found. However, the effect of carrot fibre could not be explained by structural changes in the sausages when examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Correlations between T(2) relaxation measurements and WBC...

  18. Optimization of Processing Parameters for Clarification of Blended Carrot-orange Juice and Improvement of its Carotene Content

    OpenAIRE

    Karangwa Eric; H. Khizar; L. Rao; D.S. Nshimiyimana; M.B.K. Foh; L. Li; S.Q. Xia and X.M. Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize the processing parameters for the clarification of blended carrot-orange juice using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and to improve the carotene content. The blended carrot-orange juice was treated with Pectinex Ultra SP-L enzyme at different concentrations (0.04- 0.12%), pH (2.5-5), reaction temperature (40-60ºC) and time (70-110 min). The effect of these independent variables on clarity, turbidity, and viscosity of the carrot-orange juice was evaluate...

  19. Effect of Antifreeze Peptide Pretreatment on Ice Crystal Size, Drip Loss, Texture, and Volatile Compounds of Frozen Carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Charles H Z; Hamid, Nazimah; Liu, Tingting; Sarojini, Vijayalekshmi

    2016-06-01

    Ice crystal formation is of primary concern to the frozen food industry. In this study, the effects of antifreeze peptides (AFPs) on ice crystal formation were assessed in carrot during freezing and thawing. Three synthetic analogues based on naturally occurring antifreeze peptides were used in this study. The AFPs exhibited modification of ice crystal morphology, confirming their antifreeze activity in vitro. The ability of the synthetic AFPs to minimize drip loss and preserve color, structure, texture, and volatiles of frozen carrot was evaluated using the techniques of SEM, GC-MS, and texture analysis. The results prove the potential of these AFPs to preserve the above characteristics in frozen carrot samples. PMID:27138051

  20. Influence of gamma irradiation on phenolic compounds of minimally processed baby carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables provide several health benefits including risk reduction of oxidative stress-related diseases. These benefits have been associated with bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic compounds. Minimally processed products are a growing segment in food retail establishments due its practicality and convenience without significantly altering fresh-like characteristics. To extend the shelf life of these products, an application of ionizing radiation is an alternative, based on a physical and non-thermal method of preservation. The effect of irradiation on phenolic compounds of minimally processed baby carrots have not been reported in literature yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of phenolic compounds in baby carrots after the irradiation process. Samples of minimally processed baby carrots were purchased at a local supermarket and irradiated with doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy. Phenolic compounds were extracted from shredded carrots with MeOH and analyzed spectrophotometrically by the Folin Ciocalteau method using a gallic acid standard curve. The results showed that the phenolic contents decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing radiation dose. In non-irradiated baby carrots (control), the levels of phenolic compounds were about 330 μg eq. gallic acid/g, while irradiated samples with 0.5 kGy, showed an approximately 10% reduction when compared with the control. An irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy caused a loss of 20%. Although the radiation has affected the phenolic content, the process seems to be interesting by maintaining their fresh-like characteristics. (author)

  1. Characterization of Centromeric Histone H3 (CENH3) Variants in Cultivated and Wild Carrots (Daucus sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunemann, Frank; Schrader, Otto; Budahn, Holger; Houben, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotes, centromeres are the assembly sites for the kinetochore, a multi-protein complex to which spindle microtubules are attached at mitosis and meiosis, thereby ensuring segregation of chromosomes during cell division. They are specified by incorporation of CENH3, a centromere specific histone H3 variant which replaces canonical histone H3 in the nucleosomes of functional centromeres. To lay a first foundation of a putative alternative haploidization strategy based on centromere-mediated genome elimination in cultivated carrots, in the presented research we aimed at the identification and cloning of functional CENH3 genes in Daucus carota and three distantly related wild species of genus Daucus varying in basic chromosome numbers. Based on mining the carrot transcriptome followed by a subsequent PCR-based cloning, homologous coding sequences for CENH3s of the four Daucus species were identified. The ORFs of the CENH3 variants were very similar, and an amino acid sequence length of 146 aa was found in three out of the four species. Comparison of Daucus CENH3 amino acid sequences with those of other plant CENH3s as well as their phylogenetic arrangement among other dicot CENH3s suggest that the identified genes are authentic CENH3 homologs. To verify the location of the CENH3 protein in the kinetochore regions of the Daucus chromosomes, a polyclonal antibody based on a peptide corresponding to the N-terminus of DcCENH3 was developed and used for anti-CENH3 immunostaining of mitotic root cells. The chromosomal location of CENH3 proteins in the centromere regions of the chromosomes could be confirmed. For genetic localization of the CENH3 gene in the carrot genome, a previously constructed linkage map for carrot was used for mapping a CENH3-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker, and the CENH3 locus was mapped on the carrot chromosome 9. PMID:24887084

  2. Influence of gamma irradiation on phenolic compounds of minimally processed baby carrots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Suzy F., E-mail: fmayumi@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Galvao, Natascha S.; Lanfer-Marquez, Ursula M., E-mail: lanferum@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCF/USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2013-07-01

    Consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables provide several health benefits including risk reduction of oxidative stress-related diseases. These benefits have been associated with bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic compounds. Minimally processed products are a growing segment in food retail establishments due its practicality and convenience without significantly altering fresh-like characteristics. To extend the shelf life of these products, an application of ionizing radiation is an alternative, based on a physical and non-thermal method of preservation. The effect of irradiation on phenolic compounds of minimally processed baby carrots have not been reported in literature yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of phenolic compounds in baby carrots after the irradiation process. Samples of minimally processed baby carrots were purchased at a local supermarket and irradiated with doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy. Phenolic compounds were extracted from shredded carrots with MeOH and analyzed spectrophotometrically by the Folin Ciocalteau method using a gallic acid standard curve. The results showed that the phenolic contents decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing radiation dose. In non-irradiated baby carrots (control), the levels of phenolic compounds were about 330 μg eq. gallic acid/g, while irradiated samples with 0.5 kGy, showed an approximately 10% reduction when compared with the control. An irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy caused a loss of 20%. Although the radiation has affected the phenolic content, the process seems to be interesting by maintaining their fresh-like characteristics. (author)

  3. Characterization of centromeric histone H3 (CENH3 variants in cultivated and wild carrots (Daucus sp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Dunemann

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, centromeres are the assembly sites for the kinetochore, a multi-protein complex to which spindle microtubules are attached at mitosis and meiosis, thereby ensuring segregation of chromosomes during cell division. They are specified by incorporation of CENH3, a centromere specific histone H3 variant which replaces canonical histone H3 in the nucleosomes of functional centromeres. To lay a first foundation of a putative alternative haploidization strategy based on centromere-mediated genome elimination in cultivated carrots, in the presented research we aimed at the identification and cloning of functional CENH3 genes in Daucus carota and three distantly related wild species of genus Daucus varying in basic chromosome numbers. Based on mining the carrot transcriptome followed by a subsequent PCR-based cloning, homologous coding sequences for CENH3s of the four Daucus species were identified. The ORFs of the CENH3 variants were very similar, and an amino acid sequence length of 146 aa was found in three out of the four species. Comparison of Daucus CENH3 amino acid sequences with those of other plant CENH3s as well as their phylogenetic arrangement among other dicot CENH3s suggest that the identified genes are authentic CENH3 homologs. To verify the location of the CENH3 protein in the kinetochore regions of the Daucus chromosomes, a polyclonal antibody based on a peptide corresponding to the N-terminus of DcCENH3 was developed and used for anti-CENH3 immunostaining of mitotic root cells. The chromosomal location of CENH3 proteins in the centromere regions of the chromosomes could be confirmed. For genetic localization of the CENH3 gene in the carrot genome, a previously constructed linkage map for carrot was used for mapping a CENH3-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR marker, and the CENH3 locus was mapped on the carrot chromosome 9.

  4. Influence of field attack by carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster) on sensory quality, antioxidant capacity and content of terpenes, falcarindiol and 6-methoxymellein of carrots (Daucus carota L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seljåsen, Randi; Vogt, Gjermund; Olsen, Elisabeth; Lea, Per; Høgetveit, Lars Arne; Tajet, Torgeir; Meadow, Richard; Bengtsson, Gunnar B

    2013-03-20

    The effect of different degrees of attack by carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis) on quality parameters of carrots was studied in field experiments for two years. Treatments were different degrees of physical insect protection by floating row cover. An increasing attack level of psyllids showed an enhancement effect on the antioxidant capacity (ORAC), content of falcarindiol, 6-methoxymellein, and terpenes, and scores for bitter taste, chemical flavor, terpene flavor, and toughness. Carrot psyllid attack decreased the yield, total sugar, fructose, glucose, and sensory attributes sweet taste, color hue, color strength, crispiness, and juiciness. Carrot plants at 8-10 weeks of age tolerated attack by psyllids at low levels (2% leaves with curling or discoloration). PMID:23414489

  5. Effect of intercropping carrot (Daucus carota L. with french marigold (Tagetes patula nana L. and pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. on the occurrence of some pests and quality of carrot yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Jankowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping combines different aspects of the interaction between organisms in ecosystems and may be classified as a pro-ecological method of plant cultivation limiting the harmful human interference in the environment, especially the use of chemicals. It also allows high yield, good quality, and economic productivity to be achieved. The aim of the present study, conducted in the years 2003–2004 in Mydlniki near Kraków, was to determine the effect of intercropping carrot Nardin F1 with French marigold (Tagetes patula nana L. 'Kolombina' and pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. 'Promyk' on carrot yield, its quality, and the occurrence of pests. On average in both years of the study, intercropping did not reduce total or marketable carrot yield. In 2003 intercropping contributed to a significant increase in marketable yield compared with yield from sole cropping. In 2004 the dry matter content was higher in the roots of carrots grown with pot marigold. The treatments intercropped with both French and pot marigold were characterized by an increased content of sugars in carrot roots and in 2004 year – of carotenoids. Intercropping had a significant effect on the number of roots damaged by the carrot rust fly, Psila rosae, (the best in this respect was the combination with Tagetes and by nematodes (the best in this respect was the combination with Calendula. The number of larvae of carrot psyllid, Trioza viridula, was significantly lower in the plots where carrot was intercropped. The study did not find intercropping to have a positive effect on reducing the occurrence of the root aphid.

  6. Eating Quality of Carrots (Daucus carota L.) Grown in One Conventional and Three Organic Cropping Systems over Three Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Vibe; Kidmose, Ulla; Kristensen, Hanne L; Edelenbos, Merete

    2015-11-11

    The eating quality of carrots (Daucus carota L.) was investigated to evaluate the impact of cropping systems (one conventional and three organic systems) and growing years (2007, 2008, and 2009) on root size, chemical composition, and sensory quality. The content of dry matter, sugars, polyacetylenes, and terpenes as well as the sensory quality and root size were related to the climate during the three growing years. A higher global radiation and a higher temperature sum in 2009 as compared to 2007 and 2008 resulted in larger roots, higher contents of dry matter, sucrose, total sugars, and total polyacetylenes, and lower contents of terpenes, fructose, and glucose. No differences were found between conventional and organic carrots with regard to the investigated parameters. This result shows that organically grown carrots have the same eating quality as conventionally grown carrots, while being produced in a more sustainable way. PMID:26513153

  7. Cloning of lea cDNA fragment of carrot (Daucus carota L.) and analysis of its expression features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Addition of concentrated sucrose to MS culture arrests the development of carrot somatic embryo at the stage of cotyledon embryo and, with the sucrose concentration restored to normal level, the embryo thus arrested is reactivated into post-embryonic development. Using the method of RT-PCR, the cDNA fragment of a new member of the Dc3 family of lea has been obtained from carrot somatic embryo under regulated state. As revealed by Northern blotting, strong expression has been observed in carrot somatic embryo under regulated state but the expression was much reduced 12 h after deregulation, and nearly disappeared 24 h after. Based on this finding as well as results of related studies, it is surmised that changing the sucrose concentration in culture enabled carrot somatic embryo under suspension culture to undergo a specific course of development which is comparable to the dormancy-germination process of seeds.

  8. Inhibitory effect of chitosan on growth of the fungal phytopathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and sclerotinia rot of carrot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing; ZUO Jin-hua; WANG Qian; NA Yang; GAO Li-pu

    2015-01-01

    The antifungal activity of chitosan on a common fungal phytopathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and the control effect on sclerotinia rot of carrot were investigated. Mycelial growth and fungal biomass were strongly inhibited by chitosan. Using propidium iodide stain combined with lfuorescent microscopy, the plasma membrane of chitosan-treated S. sclerotiorum mycelia was observed to be markedly damaged. Concomitantly, protein leakage and lipid peroxidation was also found to be signiifcantly higher in chitosan-treated mycelia compared to the control. Chitosan provided an effective control of sclerotinia rot of carrot, with induction of activity of defense-related enzymes including polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase. These data suggest that the effects of chitosan on sclerotinia rot of carrot may be associated with the direct damage to the plasma membrane and lipid peroxidation of S. sclerotiorum, and the elicitation of defense response in carrot.

  9. (1)H NMR-Based Metabolomics Reveals a Pedoclimatic Metabolic Imprinting in Ready-to-Drink Carrot Juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Alberta; Sciubba, Fabio; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Capuani, Giorgio; Delfini, Maurizio; Aureli, Walter; Miccheli, Alfredo

    2016-06-29

    Carrots are usually consumed in their native form or processed into many different products. Carrot juice is a popular beverage consumed throughout the world and is attracting increasing attention due to its nutritional value, being a natural source of bioactive compounds. Ready-to-drink carrot juices produced in the same factory were analyzed by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The juices were made from carrot roots of the same cultivar grown in three different geographical areas in Italy. More than 30 compounds have been identified and quantified, and the data was subjected to univariate ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Clear geographical-dependent clustering was observed, and the metabolic profiles were related to the different pedoclimatic conditions. The proposed phytoprofiling approach could be employed on an industrial scale to evaluate finished products involving different sites of supply of the raw material, thus improving both the quality and uniformity of the juices. PMID:27281439

  10. A high-quality carrot genome assembly provides new insights into carotenoid accumulation and asterid genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorizzo, Massimo; Ellison, Shelby; Senalik, Douglas; Zeng, Peng; Satapoomin, Pimchanok; Huang, Jiaying; Bowman, Megan; Iovene, Marina; Sanseverino, Walter; Cavagnaro, Pablo; Yildiz, Mehtap; Macko-Podgórni, Alicja; Moranska, Emilia; Grzebelus, Ewa; Grzebelus, Dariusz; Ashrafi, Hamid; Zheng, Zhijun; Cheng, Shifeng; Spooner, David; Van Deynze, Allen; Simon, Philipp

    2016-06-01

    We report a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly and analysis of the carrot (Daucus carota) genome, the first sequenced genome to include a comparative evolutionary analysis among members of the euasterid II clade. We characterized two new polyploidization events, both occurring after the divergence of carrot from members of the Asterales order, clarifying the evolutionary scenario before and after radiation of the two main asterid clades. Large- and small-scale lineage-specific duplications have contributed to the expansion of gene families, including those with roles in flowering time, defense response, flavor, and pigment accumulation. We identified a candidate gene, DCAR_032551, that conditions carotenoid accumulation (Y) in carrot taproot and is coexpressed with several isoprenoid biosynthetic genes. The primary mechanism regulating carotenoid accumulation in carrot taproot is not at the biosynthetic level. We hypothesize that DCAR_032551 regulates upstream photosystem development and functional processes, including photomorphogenesis and root de-etiolation. PMID:27158781

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions in the life-cycle of carrots and tomatoes. Methods, data and results from a study of the types and amounts of carrots and tomatoes consumed in Sweden. With arable land use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson Kanyama, Annika

    1997-03-01

    Methods, data and results from an assessment of the arable land use and some greenhouse gas emissions during part of the life-cycle of the consumed carrots and tomatoes in Sweden during 1992-1993 are presented in the report. The life-cycle was delineated to transportation, storage, farm production and production of fertilizers. Carrots from six countries and tomatoes from four countries were analyzed. The study is reported with full transparency. The results are presented as the use of arable land (in m{sup 2}) and as the amount of greenhouse gas emissions (in g CO{sub 2} equivalents) required to sustain current Swedish consumption patterns of carrots and tomatoes. Emissions per kg of consumed tomato were 10 times higher than for carrots. Emissions from carrots were lowest when they were produced within or close to Sweden, while the opposite was the case for tomatoes. The key issues in the life-cycle of the analyzed carrots and tomatoes are identified and discussed. The general conclusions are that storage may be a key issue for vegetables with a long durability and adapted to a northern European climate. For vegetables with short durability, the key issue may be transportation if they are not adapted to a northern European climate but still cultivated in the open. The key issue for vegetables with a short durability may be energy requirements during farm production if the vegetables are not adapted to a northern European climate and therefore cultivated under glass. 3 figs, 57 tabs

  12. 胡萝卜火腿肠生产工艺%Processing technology of carrot ham sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋昌喜; 董玲娟

    2012-01-01

    The processing technology of carrot ham sausage was introduced in this paper, and this new product could satisfy people with carrot nutrition and enrich the meat market.%介绍了胡萝l、火腿肠的加工工艺,产品满足人们对胡萝卜的营养需要,丰富了肉制品市场的种类。

  13. Carrot (Daucus sativus Röhl.) colonization by Alternaria spp. and effect of fungicide spray on their population

    OpenAIRE

    Survilienė, Elena; Valiuškaitė, Alma

    2006-01-01

    In 2003–2005, at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture research was carried out to establish Alternaria dauci incidence in carrots (Daucus sativus Röhl.) during vegetation, and root damage by Alternaria radicina during storage. Resistance of 21 carrot cultivars to alternaria leaf blight (A. dauci) was established in natural infection conditions. In stored roots black rot (A. radicina) made up to 12% of all identified rots. The biological efficiency of fungicides Amistar 250 SC (azoxystrobi...

  14. Identification and Characterization of DcUSAGT1, a UDP-Glucose: Sinapic Acid Glucosyltransferase from Purple Carrot Taproots

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi-Yun; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Purple carrots accumulate abundant cyanidin-based anthocyanins in taproots. UDP-glucose: sinapic acid glucosyltransferase (USAGT) can transfer the glucose moiety to the carboxyl group of sinapic acid thereby forming the ester bond between the carboxyl-C and the C1 of glucose (1-O-sinapoylglucose). 1-O-sinapoylglucose can serve as an acyl donor in acylation of anthocyanins and generate cyanidin 3-xylosyl (sinapoylglucosyl) galactoside in purple carrots. This final product helps stabilize the a...

  15. Involvement of a vitronectin-like protein in attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to carrot suspension culture cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, V T; Matthysse, A G

    1992-01-01

    Infections of dicotyledonous plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens result in the formation of crown gall tumors. Attachment of the bacteria to plant host cells is required for tumor formation. Human vitronectin and antivitronectin antibodies both inhibited the binding of A. tumefaciens to carrot cells. Wild-type bacteria are able to bind radioactive vitronectin; nonattaching mutants showed a reduction in the ability to bind vitronectin. The binding of biotype 1 A. tumefaciens to carrot cells or...

  16. Microsatellite isolation and marker development in carrot - genomic distribution, linkage mapping, genetic diversity analysis and marker transferability across Apiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Yildiz Mehtap; Manin Sylvie; Chung Sang-Min; Cavagnaro Pablo F; Ali Aamir; Alessandro Maria S; Iorizzo Massimo; Senalik Douglas A; Simon Philipp W

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Apiaceae family includes several vegetable and spice crop species among which carrot is the most economically important member, with ~21 million tons produced yearly worldwide. Despite its importance, molecular resources in this species are relatively underdeveloped. The availability of informative, polymorphic, and robust PCR-based markers, such as microsatellites (or SSRs), will facilitate genetics and breeding of carrot and other Apiaceae, including integration of l...

  17. Influence of carrot pomace powder on the rheological characteristics of wheat flour dough and on wheat rolls quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatica Kohajdová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background.Vegetable by-products are considered as good sources of dietary fibre and other biologically important compounds. Moreover, they are inexpensive and are available in large quantities. The objective of this study was to determine chemical composition and hydration properties of dietary fibrerich carrot pomace powder. The impact supplementation of carrot pomace at different levels (replacing of fine wheat flour with 1, 3, 5 and 10% of carrot pomace on farinographic properties of wheat dough and qualitative and sensory characteristics of wheat rolls were also evaluated. Material and methods. Chemical analyses included determination of moisture, ash, fat, proteins and total dietary fibre. Hydration properties such as water holding, water retention and swelling capacity were also de- termined. Rheological parameters of carrot pomace powder incorporated wheat doughs were determined by farinograph.Wheat rolls were evaluated for their qualitative (volume, cambering and sensory characteristics. Results.Carrot pomace powder was found as good source of total dietary fibre and showed high values of hydration properties. Incorporation of this by-product to wheat dough influences farinographic characteristics (increasing of water absorption, dough development time and dough stability, decreasing of mixing tolerance index of dough and qualitative parameters of final products (decreasing of loaf volume and cambering. From the sensory evaluation resulted that loaves incorporated with carrot pomace powder up to 3% were the most acceptable for assessors. Conclusions. Carrot pomace powder can be considered as suitable functional ingredient for wheat rolls. Enrichment wheat flour with low concentrations of carrot pomace powder (1 and 3% not only increases nutrition value of products but also did not have significantimpact on their quality and sensory acceptability.

  18. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats’ hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations. PMID:27043135

  19. Biofortification of Carrot (Daucus carota L.) with Iodine and Selenium in a Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Kopeć, Aneta; Piątkowska, Ewa; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Koronowicz, Aneta; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The low content of iodine (I) and selenium (Se) forms available to plants in soil is one of the main causes of their insufficient transfer in the soil-plant-consumer system. Their deficiency occurs in food in the majority of human and farm animal populations around the world. Both elements are classified as beneficial elements. However, plant response to simultaneous fertilization with I and Se has not been investigated in depth. The study (conducted in 2012–2014) included soil fertilization of carrot cv. “Kazan F1” in the following combinations: (1) Control; (2) KI; (3) KIO3; (4) Na2SeO4; (5) Na2SeO3; (6) KI+Na2SeO4; (7) KIO3+Na2SeO4; (8) KI+Na2SeO3; (9) KIO3+Na2SeO3. I and Se were applied twice: before sowing and as top-dressing in a total dose of 5 kg I⋅ha-1 and 1 kg Se⋅ha-1. No negative effects of I and Se fertilization were noted with respect to carrot yield. Higher accumulation and the uptake by leaves and storage roots of I and Se were obtained after the application of KI than KIO3, as well as of Na2SeO4 than Na2SeO3, respectively. Transfer factor values for leaves and roots were about a dozen times higher for Se than for I. Selenomethionine content in carrot was higher after fertilization with Na2SeO4 than with Na2SeO3. However, it was the application of Na2SeO3, KI+Na2SeO3 and KIO3+Na2SeO3 that resulted in greater evenness within the years and a higher share of Se from selenomethionine in total Se in carrot plants. Consumption of 100 g f.w. of carrots fertilized with KI+Na2SeO3 and KIO3+Na2SeO3 can supply approximately or slightly exceed 100% of the Recommended Daily Allowance for I and Se. Moreover, the molar ratio of I and Se content in carrot fertilized with KI+Na2SeO3 and KIO3+Na2SeO3 was the best among the research plots. PMID:27303423

  20. Genetic and phenological variation of tocochromanol (vitamin E) content in wild (Daucus carota L. var. carota) and domesticated carrot (D. carota L. var. sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Claire H Luby; Hiroshi A Maeda; Irwin L Goldman

    2014-01-01

    Carrot roots (Daucus carota L. var. sativa) produce tocochromanol compounds, collectively known as vitamin E. However, little is known about their types and amounts. Here we determined the range and variation in types and amounts of tocochromanols in a variety of cultivated carrot accessions throughout carrot postharvest storage and reproductive stages and in wild-type roots (Daucus carota L. var. carota). Of eight possible tocochromanol compounds, we detected and quantified α-, and the combi...

  1. Transgenic carrot expressing fusion protein comprising M. tuberculosis antigens induces immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permyakova, Natalia V; Zagorskaya, Alla A; Belavin, Pavel A; Uvarova, Elena A; Nosareva, Olesya V; Nesterov, Andrey E; Novikovskaya, Anna A; Zav'yalov, Evgeniy L; Moshkin, Mikhail P; Deineko, Elena V

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human γ-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This construct was transferred to the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates that the fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN is synthesized in the transgenic carrot storage roots. The protein is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals (mice) when administered either orally or by injection. It should be emphasized that M. tuberculosis antigens contained in the fusion protein have no cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:25949997

  2. Bioactive C₁₇-Polyacetylenes in Carrots (Daucus carota L.): Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Dunemann, Frank; Schwab, Wilfried; Nothnagel, Thomas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-10-28

    C17-polyacetylenes (PAs) are a prominent group of oxylipins and are primarily produced by plants of the families Apiaceae, Araliaceae, and Asteraceae, respectively. Recent studies on the biological activity of polyacetylenes have indicated their potential to improve human health due to anticancer, antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and serotogenic effects. These findings suggest targeting vegetables with elevated levels of bisacetylenic oxylipins, such as falcarinol, by breeding studies. Due to the abundant availability, high diversity of cultivars, worldwide experience, and high agricultural yields, in particular, carrot (Daucus carota L.) genotypes are a very promising target vegetable. This paper provides a review on falcarinol-type C17-polyacetylenes in carrots and a perspective on their potential as a future contributor to improving human health and well-being. PMID:26451696

  3. Polyacetylenes from the Apiaceae vegetables carrot, celery, fennel, parsley, and parsnip and their cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidorn, Christian; Jöhrer, Karin; Ganzera, Markus; Schubert, Birthe; Sigmund, Elisabeth Maria; Mader, Judith; Greil, Richard; Ellmerer, Ernst P; Stuppner, Hermann

    2005-04-01

    A dichloromethane extract of root celery yielded falcarinol, falcarindiol, panaxydiol, and the new polyacetylene 8-O-methylfalcarindiol. The structure of the new compound was established by one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) NMR, mass spectrometry, and optical rotation data. Nonpolar extracts of roots and bulbs of carrots, celery, fennel, parsley, and parsnip were investigated for their content of polyacetylenes by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). All five species contained polyacetylenes, although carrots and fennel only in minor amounts. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the four polyacetylenes against five different cell lines was evaluated by the annexin V-PI assay. Falcarinol proved to be the most active compound with a pronounced toxicity against acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line CEM-C7H2, with an IC(50) of 3.5 micromol/L. The possible chemopreventive impact of the presented findings is discussed briefly. PMID:15796588

  4. Hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots in natural populations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, L.S.; Hauser, Thure Pavlo

    2007-01-01

    -crops, pollen and seeds may flow from two different sources in the fields to the surrounding wild populations: from pure cultivar plants that occasionally flower, and from flowering 'bolters' that originate from hybridizations between wild (male) and cultivated carrots (female) in seed production fields in...... warmer regions of the world. To test whether hybrids are formed and survive in wild Danish populations, and whether prolonged hybridization has led to introgression of cultivar genes, we collected leaf material from adult individuals growing close to carrot fields and analysed their genotypic composition...... by AFLP. Four hybrids were identified among the 71 plants analysed, and these were most likely F(2) or backcross individuals, sired by pollen from hybrid bolters. Wild populations close to fields were genetically somewhat more similar to cultivars than wild populations far from fields, suggesting...

  5. Optimization of the carrot leaf dehydration aiming at the preservation of omega-3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Vivian de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The carrot leaf dehydration conditions in air circulation oven were optimized through response surface methodology (RSM for minimizing the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly alpha-linolenic (LNA, 18:3n-3. The optimized leaf drying time and temperature were 43 h and 70 ºC, respectively. The fatty acids (FA were investigated using gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector and fused silica capillary column; FA were identified with standards and based on equivalent-chain-length. LNA and other FA were quantified against C21:0 internal standard. After dehydration, the amount of LNA, quantified in mg/100 g dry matter of dehydrated carrot leaves, were 984 mg.

  6. Transgenic Carrot Expressing Fusion Protein Comprising M. tuberculosis Antigens Induces Immune Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Permyakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human γ-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This construct was transferred to the carrot (Daucus carota L. genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates that the fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN is synthesized in the transgenic carrot storage roots. The protein is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals (mice when administered either orally or by injection. It should be emphasized that M. tuberculosis antigens contained in the fusion protein have no cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  7. Polyphosphoinositides are present in plasma membranes isolated from fusogenic carrot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusogenic carrot cells grown in suspension culture were labeled 12 hours with myo-[2-3H]inositol. Plasma membranes were isolated from the prelabeled fusogenic carrot cells by both aqueous polymer two-phase partitioning and Renografin density gradients. With both methods, the plasma membrane-enriched fractions, as identified by marker enzymes, were enriched in [3H]inositol-labeled phosphatidylinositol monophosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2). An additional [3H]inositol-labeled lipid, lysophosphatidylinositol monophosphate, which migrated between PIP and PIP2 on thin layer plates, was found primarily in the plasma membrane-rich fraction of the fusogenic cells. This was in contrast to lysophosphatidylinositol which is found primarily in the lower phase, microsomal/mitchrondrial-rich fraction

  8. NUTRIENT DEMAND BY THE CARROT CROP IS INFLUENCED BY THE CULTIVAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane Filomena Batista Almeida Aquino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Farmers must carefully choose the cultivar to be grown for a successful carrot crop. The yield potential of the cultivar may influence nutrient demand and should be known to plan for fertilization application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cultivar effect on carrot yield and on the nutrient content and quantities allocated to leaves and roots. Three experiments were set up in two crop seasons in Rio Paranaíba, MG, Brazil. In the first season, typical summer, 10 summer cultivars were sown. In the second season, summer-winter (transition, two experiments were set up, one with summer cultivars and the other with winter cultivars. The treatments consisted of the carrot cultivars distributed in randomized blocks with four replications. Fresh and dry matter of the roots and leaves was quantified. Yield was calculated based on fresh matter of the roots. The nutrient content in leaves and roots was determined at the time of harvest. These contents and the dry matter production of roots and leaves were used to calculate nutrient uptake and export. The greatest average for total and commercial yield occurred in the crop under summer conditions. Extraction of N and K for most of the cultivars in the three experiments went beyond the amounts applied through fertilizers. Thus, there was contribution of nutrients from the soil to obtain the yields observed. However, the amount of P taken up was considerably less than that applied. This implies that soil P fertility will increase after cropping. The crop season and the cultivars influenced yield, nutrient content in the leaves and roots, and extraction and export of nutrients by the carrot crop.

  9. Enantioselective reduction of acetophenone analogues using carrot and celeriac enzymes system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The enantioselective reduction of acetophenone analogues catalyzed by carrot and celeriac was performed in moderate conversions and excellent enantiomeric excesses.The steric factors and electronic effects of the substituents at the aromatic ring were found to significantly affect the efficiency of the enantioselective reduction of acetophenone analogues,while they had a little effect on the enantioselectivity of acetophenone analogues reduction.It was also found that the conversions of acetophenone anal...

  10. Investigating the role of pectin in carrot cell wall changes during thermal processing: A microscopic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas, Albert; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Palmero, Paola; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Changes in cell wall integrity upon thermal treatment were assessed in carrot cells using novel microscopic approaches using Congo red and different cell wall polysaccharide specific probes (JIM7, LM10, LM11, LM15, LM21, LM22 and CBM3a). Strong thermal processing induced an increased accessibility of cellulose and hemicelluloses by Congo red and the specific probes, except galactomannan, which detection was not affected by the thermal processing. Detection of pectin by JIM7 disappeared upon t...

  11. Root growth and soil nitrogen depletion by onion, lettuce, early cabbage and carrot

    OpenAIRE

    Thorup-Kristensen, K

    2001-01-01

    Experiments examining root growth, the utilization of N and the effect of green manures were carried out on four vegetable crops. Large differences were observed both in rooting depth penetration rates, and in final rooting depth and distribution. Onion had a very low depth penetration rate, carrot an intermediate rate, and lettuce and cabbage showed high rates. A combination of depth penetration rates and duration of growth determined rooting depth at harvest. Therefore, lettuce, which had a...

  12. DcSto: carrot Stowaway-like elements are abundant, diverse, and polymorphic

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated nine families of Stowaway-like MITEs in the carrot genome, named DcSto1 to DcSto9. All of them were AT-rich and shared a highly conserved 6 bp-long TIR typical for Stowaways. The copy number of DcSto1 elements was estimated as ca. 5,000 per diploid genome. We observed preference for ...

  13. Drinking carrot juice increases total antioxidant status and decreases lipid peroxidation in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Patil Bhimanagouda S; Stamatikos Alexis; Foroudi Shahrzad; Potter Andrew S; Deyhim Farzad

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background High prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular disease is attributable to sedentary lifestyle and eating diets high in fat and refined carbohydrate while eating diets low in fruit and vegetables. Epidemiological studies have confirmed a strong association between eating diets rich in fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular health. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether drinking fresh carrot juice influences antioxidant status and cardiovascular risk markers i...

  14. Predictive value of the sulfidoleukotriene release assay in oral allergy syndrome to celery, hazelnut, and carrot

    OpenAIRE

    Ballmer-Weber, B K; Weber, J M; Vieths, S; Wüthrich, B

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients sensitized to birch pollen frequently suffer from a food allergy to plant foods such as celery, carrots, or hazelnut. One of the main manifestations of birch pollen-related food allergy is the oral allergy syndrome. Skin tests and allergen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E determinations are poor predictors of such reactions when assessed by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a cellular test based on leukotriene release...

  15. Mechanism of Column and Carrot Sprites Derived from Optical and Radio Observations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, J.; Celestin, S. J.; Pasko, V. P.; Cummer, S. A.; McHarg, M. G.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.

    2013-12-01

    The lightning current moment waveforms observed simultaneously with high-speed video records of a column and a carrot sprite event are incorporated in a plasma fluid model to provide quantitative explanation of these two distinct morphological classes of transient luminous events. We first modeled the spatial and temporal variations of the large-scale lightning quasi-static electric field at sprite altitudes. The ability of this field to produce carrot or column sprites is then evaluated using a time integral of the reduced electric field dependent ionization frequency ∫vi(E/N)dt, with exp(∫vi(E/N)dt) representing the total number of free electrons produced by a single seed electron through ionization. For the studied two events, modeling results indicate that in the upper atmosphere these integral values never exceed 18, which is the minimum value required for the initiation of sprite streamers from single seed electrons according to the Raether-Meek criterion. It is therefore suggested that the presence of electron inhomogeneities in the lower ionosphere is a necessary condition for the initiation of sprite streamers. Moreover, the initiation of upward negative streamers is a necessary morphological attribute of carrot sprites. Streamer simulations using a two-step simulation technique demonstrated that upward negative streamers can be initiated in the carrot sprite event at altitudes where the strength of the lightning electric field is large, represented by a minimum value ~10 of the integral. By contrast, in the column sprite event, the integral values in the entire upper atmosphere are smaller than ~10 and the streamer simulations indicate that only downward positive streamers can be produced.

  16. Comparison of carrot (Daucus carota drying in microwave and in vacuum microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Béttega

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying is a single operation employed to prolong the life of a large quantity of vegetables. Carrot (Daucus carota drying has been the subject of many studies. This plant has been highlighted in the human diet for having high nutritional value, mainly due to the high content of β-carotene. In this work, carrot drying behavior was studied in a regular microwave dryer and a vacuum microwave dryer. A vacuum of 450 mmHg was applied for drying of carrot in different geometrical shapes (cubes, discs and sticks. The samples were dried at power ratings of 1.0 W/g, 1.5 W/g and 2.0 W/g for both methods of drying. The evolution of physical properties such as density, volume and porosity was monitored and related to the moisture content of the sample and to the method of drying and power rating used. The geometric shape of the sample influenced the drying kinetics and it was verified that the cubic form was responsible for a slower drying. The application of vacuum showed no major changes in the drying kinetics in microwave but influenced the physical properties of the material. The influence of power ratings on the content of β-carotene was also evaluated and discussed. The main difference observed was the lower shrinkage of the samples dried in the vacuum microwave compared to those dried only in microwave.

  17. Evaluation of Carrot Pomace (Daucus carota L. as Hypocholesterolemic and Hypolipidemic Agent on Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Moneim M.R. AFIFY

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the attenuating influence of dietary carrot pomace powder (CaPP on hypercholesterolemia and various oxidative stress-associated with biochemical parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty two male albino rats weighing 110±10 g were divided into four groups, the first group received the basal diet only and served as (negative control, the second group received the hypercholesterolemic diet and served as positive control, the other groups received hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 10%, 20% CaPP for six weeks. The obtained results revealed that groups supplemented with 10% and 20% CaPP significantly decrease total lipid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, liver enzymes: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase compared to positive and negative groups. Organs weight, body weight gain significantly decreased compared with positive control. Moreover dietary carrot pomace powder can used to reduce the body weight and reducing hypercholesterolemic complications. In addition, dietary carrot pomace powder serves to improve the blood picture and to reduce the blood glucose level in hypercholesterolemic rats and could use in obese people for body loss. Data of kidney function (Urea record an increase in CaPP 20% level (26.9±2.96 but this increase was non significant with the negative control group (26.6±3.1.

  18. Sensory Quality of Orange, Purple and Yellow Carrots Stored under Controlled Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek GAJEWSKI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of long-term storage of carrot (Daucus carota L. roots under normal and controlled atmosphere (CA on their sensory quality and soluble solids content was investigated. Carrot cultivars of orange (‘Nebula’, purple-orange (‘Purple Haze’ and yellow (‘Mello Yello’ colour of the roots were stored for 6 months at 0-1oC, under controlled atmosphere (CA of gas composition 5% CO2+10% O2, 2% CO2+5% O2, 5% CO2+5% O2 and at normal atmosphere. Sensory quality was evaluated with quantitative descriptive analysis method. Roots of ‘Nebula’ showed the best overall quality under normal atmosphere, although CA resulted in higher firmness and crunchiness. Roots of ‘Purple Haze’ showed the best quality under 5% CO2+5% O2 or 5% CO2+10% O2. Storage in these CA variants resulted in higher sweetness, juiciness, crunchiness and firmness. Roots of ‘Mello Yello’ showed the smallest differences in quality under CA variants. Storage of carrots in CA did not result in off-flavour or off-odour. CA-stored roots showed higher soluble solids content.

  19. Effects of coatings on storability of carrot under evaporative coolant system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji Charles Oluwaseun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Four different coatings were developed from the mucilage of Cactus and their effects were investigated on the quality and storability of carrot fruits. The four experimental coatings were: Pure mucilage extracts (ME, Mucilage extract mixed with 5ml glycerol (MEG, Mucilage extract mixed 5ml soy oil ( MESO, Mucilage extract mixed with 5ml olive oil(MEOO the addition of oil served as plasticizer. The following parameters were measured: weight loss, ascorbic acid content, pH, firmness and microbial qualities. Four hundred and eighty (480 carrot were arranged randomly into five treatments, the control (untreated and four coating treatments were stored for seven weeks under Evaporative Coolant System (ECS. Prior to storage, the carrot samples were surface sterilized using 100mg/L sodium hypochlorite. Results showed that Cactus mucilage was effective in extending the shelf-life of carrotwhen compared to untreated control in the following order: MESO>MEOO>MEG>ME>Control. Results revealed that coatings hindered the growth of microorganisms significantly

  20. The research project KLIMAT. Report of carrot case study; Forskningsprosjektet KLIMAT. Rapport fra gulrot case studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svanes, Erik

    2012-07-01

    The research project 'KLIMAT' was 1.1.2009 to 31.8.2012. The main goal of this project was to develop a 'best practice' methodology for quantifying the carbon footprint of products with a focus on fruits, vegetables, dairy and meat products. The methodology was tested on six selected case products. One of these products was the carrot. The product was selected because it is a product with high sales volume, a large part of the production takes place in Norway, and it may be assumed to represent the root vegetables which are a very important group of vegetable products. Oestfold Research, in conjunction with BAMA and Gartnerhallen, collected the necessary data to conduct the study. Data came from a group of 13 producers with ties to Laagendalen that all products supplied to the Laagen Gulrot for processing and packing. The producers were voluntarily affiliated with an online reporting system for a variety of information, including information about resource use that were used in this study. Climate track of carrot packed in the cup was, according to the methodology that was developed 0.39 kg Co2-ekv/kg product delivered to the consumer, 0.44 kg Co2-ekv/kg consumed carrot. (Author)

  1. Transplacental inhibitory effect of carrot juice on the clastogenicity of cyclophosphamide in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimmler-Luz Maria Clara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic damage during the prenatal period can provoke important neoplastic alterations and other diseases in postnatal life. Beta-carotene (ßC is considered to be one of the most important anticarcinogens in the diet and can protect mammalian cells against genotoxic events. As carrots are important dietary source of ßC, we decided to test the effect of fresh carrot juice (CaJ on cyclophosphamide (CP-induced genotoxicity in maternal and fetal erythropoietic tissues. The treatment with CaJ started on the 7th day of the pregnancy of BALB/c female mice. We observed, on the 16th gestational day, that this treatment did not modify the spontaneous frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (mPCE in the bone marrow of the females nor in the livers of their fetuses. The mPCE frequency observed 24 h after an intraperitoneal injection of CP (40 mg/kg on the 15th day was significantly lower in CaJ-pretreated pregnant female bone marrow and in the liver of their fetuses than those observed in the group treated with CP only. These results demonstrate the presence of natural anticlastogens in carrots.

  2. Study on combined effects of blanching and sonication on different quality parameters of carrot juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Saqib; Abid, Muhammad; Wu, Tao; Hashim, Malik Muhammad; Hu, Bing; Lei, Shicheng; Zhu, Xiuling; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effects of blanching and sonication on carrot juice quality. Carrots were blanched at 100 °C for 4 min in normal and acidified water. Juice was extracted and sonicated at 15 °C for 2 min keeping pulse duration 5 s on and 5 s off (70% amplitude level and 20 kHz frequency). No significant effect of blanching and sonication was observed on Brix, pH and titratable acidity except acidified blanching that decreased pH and increased acidity significantly. Peroxidase was inactivated after blanching that also significantly decreased total phenol, flavonoids, tannins, free radical scavenging activity, antioxidant capacity and ascorbic acid and increased cloud and color values. Sonication could improve all these parameters significantly. The present results suggest that combination of blanching and sonication may be employed in food industry to produce high-quality carrot juice with reduced enzyme activity and improved nutrition. PMID:24112293

  3. Differential Pigment Accumulation in Carrot Leaves and Roots during Two Growing Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Florent; Brahem, Marwa; Dubois-Laurent, Cécile; Huet, Sébastien; Jourdan, Matthieu; Geoffriau, Emmanuel; Peltier, Didier; Gagné, Séverine

    2016-02-01

    Carotenoids are important secondary metabolites involved in plant growth and nutritional quality of vegetable crops. These pigments are highly accumulated in carrot root, but knowledge about the impact of environmental factors on their accumulation is limited. The purpose of this work was to investigate the impact of environmental variations on carotenoid accumulation in carrot leaves and roots. In this work, carrots were grown during two contrasting periods to maximize bioclimatic differences. In leaves, carotenoid and chlorophyll contents were lower in the less favorable growing conditions, whereas relative contents were well conserved for all genotypes, suggesting a common regulatory mechanism. The down-regulation of all genes under environmental constraints demonstrates that carotenoid accumulation is regulated at the transcriptional level. In roots, the decrease in α-carotene and lutein contents was accompanied by an increase of β-carotene relative content. At the transcriptional level, LCYB and ZEP expression increased, whereas LCYE expression decreased, in the less favorable conditions, suggesting that carotenoid biosynthesis is switched toward the β-branch. PMID:26752004

  4. Drying kinetics, rehydration and colour characteristics of convective hot-air drying of carrot slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymaz, İbrahim

    2016-03-01

    The effects of air drying temperature, slice thickness and pre-treatment application on the drying kinetics of carrot slices during convective drying in the range 50-70 °C were investigated. Results indicated that drying time, rehydration ratio and colour characteristics of carrot slices were more affected by drying air temperature, followed by pre-treatment applications. Five thin-layer drying models were applied to describe the drying kinetics. Midilli et al. model was the best model to characterize the drying kinetics of carrot slices. The moisture effective diffusivity calculated from the second Fick's law of diffusion ranged from 3.46 × 10-10 to 1.02 × 10-9 m2/s. The values of activation energy determined from the slope of the Arrhenius plot, ln(D eff ) versus 1/(T + 273.15), were 35.53, 43.42, and 37.75 kJ/mol for blanch, potas and control samples, respectively.

  5. Inhibitory effect and enzymatic analysis of E-cinnamaldehyde against sclerotinia carrot rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaghian, Mohammad Reza; Wang, Qi; Li, Xiaolin; Sun, Xiaoting; Xie, Guan-Lin; Zhang, Jingze; Hai-Wei, Fan; Wang, Li

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the inhibitory effect of E-cinnamaldehyde (EC) against causal agent of storage carrot rot, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Based on the results, EC was able to completely inhibit mycelial growth of three isolates (P>0.05) in both volatile and contact phases after 6days at the concentrations 200μl and 1μl/ml, respectively. In addition, EC at concentrations 1 and 10μl/ml completely inhibited carpogenic germination of three isolates. The results of in vivo trials showed that EC at the concentration of 10μl/ml was able to control the disease caused by isolates 1 and 3. However the disease caused by isolate 2 was inhibited with the concentration of 20μl/ml. In enzyme analyses, the activity of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase did not change in the inoculated carrots after application of EC. Furthermore, the level of phenylalanine ammonia lyase decreased. These results indicated that EC does not have any potential to be considered as resistance inducers against sclerotinia carrot rot. PMID:26821652

  6. CHANGES IN THE BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF CARROT ROOTS DUE TO BACTERIAL SOFT ROT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Parthiban

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carrot is a rich source of nutrients. The carrot contains carotene and lycopene, which gives bright color to the roots. The quality of the carrots was assessed based on the carotene, lycopene and other biochemical constituents like sugars, starch and protein. To study the effect of various isolates of the Erwinia carotovora var. carotovora on the above biochemical constituents, the pathogens were inoculated and the contents were analyzed separately at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 days after inoculation. The contents of β-carotene increased significantly due to all the three isolates of the pathogen and the Coimbatore isolate recorded highest of 36.03 per cent. A same trend was also observed in the lycopene content with 93.55 per cent increase over control. The contents of total and reducing sugars were found to significantly increase due to inoculation with the pathogen. The starch content showed a decreasing trend in all the isolates tested. The maximum reduction of 62.98 per cent was observed in the roots inoculated with Coimbatore isolate.

  7. A Study for Extraction Kinetics of Β-Carotene from Oven Dried Carrot by Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Das

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work was to study the kinetics of the extraction of β-carotene by solvent (ethanol extraction from carrots dried at 50ºC in an oven. The moisture content after drying was 11±1.5% (dry weight basis. Extraction time was 5 hours and extraction process was carried out at 30ºC. The ratio of Carrot (gm: ethanol (ml of 1:60 was maintained throughout the extraction process. The experimental data of extracted β- Carotene yield during solvent extraction were modeled with seven different mathematical models, including Power law, Peleg, Weinbull’s equation, Pseudo 2nd order, Intraparticle diffusion, Logarithmic, Weinbull’s distribution and one RSM model developed in this study. Pseudo 2nd order model was best fitted model (R2 - 0.99, χ 2 - 0.0091, RMSE- 0.1566, MAE- 0.0115 to describe extraction kinetics of β-carotene from carrot. The extraction time has significant effect on extraction process at p<0.05 level.

  8. Evaluation of sensory acceptability and storage stability of frozen carrot based dessert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Tanushree Maity; Raju, P S; Bawa, A S

    2014-06-01

    In the present study a recipe for frozen carrot based dessert (carrot halwa) was standardized on the basis of sensory characteristics such as appearance, odor, texture, taste and overall acceptability (OAA). The product was developed without addition of pure ghee to improve the storage stability under frozen conditions (-20 °C). Sensory properties of the developed product (OAA score = 8.60) were found to be equally good as compared to the conventional carrot halwa (OAA score = 8.75) which was prepared using pure ghee. From the physico-chemical analysis the developed product was found to have lower amount of fat (ca. 12%) than the conventional one. During the frozen storage, microbial growth in the product was found to be non-significant (P > 0.05). The free fatty acid content, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid content increased during frozen storage of 15 months. But the increase was insignificant. Loss in total carotenoids content of the product was found to be 60.5% from initial value at the end of 15 months frozen storage. PMID:24876657

  9. Carotenoid crystal formation in Arabidopsis and carrot roots caused by increased phytoene synthase protein levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Maass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As the first pathway-specific enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis, phytoene synthase (PSY is a prime regulatory target. This includes a number of biotechnological approaches that have successfully increased the carotenoid content in agronomically relevant non-green plant tissues through tissue-specific PSY overexpression. We investigated the differential effects of constitutive AtPSY overexpression in green and non-green cells of transgenic Arabidopsis lines. This revealed striking similarities to the situation found in orange carrot roots with respect to carotenoid amounts and sequestration mechanism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Arabidopsis seedlings, carotenoid content remained unaffected by increased AtPSY levels although the protein was almost quantitatively imported into plastids, as shown by western blot analyses. In contrast, non-photosynthetic calli and roots overexpressing AtPSY accumulated carotenoids 10 and 100-fold above the corresponding wild-type tissues and contained 1800 and 500 microg carotenoids per g dry weight, respectively. This increase coincided with a change of the pattern of accumulated carotenoids, as xanthophylls decreased relative to beta-carotene and carotene intermediates accumulated. As shown by polarization microscopy, carotenoids were found deposited in crystals, similar to crystalline-type chromoplasts of non-green tissues present in several other taxa. In fact, orange-colored carrots showed a similar situation with increased PSY protein as well as carotenoid levels and accumulation patterns whereas wild white-rooted carrots were similar to Arabidopsis wild type roots in this respect. Initiation of carotenoid crystal formation by increased PSY protein amounts was further confirmed by overexpressing crtB, a bacterial PSY gene, in white carrots, resulting in increased carotenoid amounts deposited in crystals. CONCLUSIONS: The sequestration of carotenoids into crystals can be driven by the

  10. Development and in-house validation of allergen-specific ELISA tests for the quantification of Dau c 1.01, Dau c 1.02 and Dau c 4 in carrot extracts (Daucus carota)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Foetisch; L. Dahl; B. Jansen; W.M. Becker; J. Lidholm; R. van Ree; H. Broll; S. Kaul; S. Vieths; T. Holzhauser

    2011-01-01

    Even though carrot allergy is common in Europe, the amount of different allergens in carrots is still unknown due to a lack of methods for quantitative allergen measurements. The current study aimed at the development of quantitative ELISA tests for the known carrot allergens, namely Dau c 1.01, Dau

  11. Influence of Cultivar and UGmax on Antioxidative Properties of Carrot Roots (Daucus Carota L. and their Stability During Freezing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keutgen Anna J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present experiment, the significance of cultivar (convention-al and coloured and of the application of the soil fertility enhancer UGmax on health-promoting properties of carrot roots subjected to the freezing process of carrot cubes after water blanching was investigated. The selection of cultivar turned out to be highly signif-icant with respect to the development of health-promoting properties of carrot roots. The highest antioxidant properties were found in the purple cultivar ‘Deep Purple’. Its mean antioxidant capacity accounted for 5.31 mmol Fe+2 · kg–1 f.m. Essential for health-promoting properties were the contents of anthocyanins (R2 = 0.83, chlorogenic acid (R2 = 0.81 and total polyphenolics (R2 = 0.71. The application of the biological agent UGmax improved the qual-ity of carrot significantly, increasing the content of total carotenoids and reducing the losses of ascorbic acid during processing. The freezing process negatively influenced the antioxidative properties of carrot irrespective of cultivar and applied agro-technique (use of UGmax, especially in the case of water-soluble antioxidants such as anthocyanins and ascorbic acid.

  12. Research Progress and Prospect of Carrot Breeding%胡萝卜育种研究进程与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    In recent years ,because of the carrot special nutrition and health care function ,it has been one of the most important vegetable crops in the world ,breeders are paying more and more attention to breeding carrot . The major achievements of carrot breeding all over the world were reviewed ,and the main breeding methods were summarized ,the future breeding objectives of carrot ,and the future development of China's carrot industry were prospected .%  近年来,因胡萝卜特殊的营养成分和保健作用,已被列为全球十大重要蔬菜作物之一,胡萝卜的育种工作也越来越受到育种学家的重视。通过综述世界各国胡萝卜育种工作所取得的重大成就,并对胡萝卜育种研究的主要育种方法进行了归纳总结,明确了未来胡萝卜的育种目标,并对今后我国胡萝卜产业的发展进行了展望。

  13. Genomic identification of WRKY transcription factors in carrot (Daucus carota) and analysis of evolution and homologous groups for plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Yao; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Tian, Chang; Huang, Ying; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors belong to one of the largest transcription factor families. These factors possess functions in plant growth and development, signal transduction, and stress response. Here, we identified 95 DcWRKY genes in carrot based on the carrot genomic and transcriptomic data, and divided them into three groups. Phylogenetic analysis of WRKY proteins from carrot and Arabidopsis divided these proteins into seven subgroups. To elucidate the evolution and distribution of WRKY transcription factors in different species, we constructed a schematic of the phylogenetic tree and compared the WRKY family factors among 22 species, which including plants, slime mold and protozoan. An in-depth study was performed to clarify the homologous factor groups of nine divergent taxa in lower and higher plants. Based on the orthologous factors between carrot and Arabidopsis, 38 DcWRKY proteins were calculated to interact with other proteins in the carrot genome. Yeast two-hybrid assay showed that DcWRKY20 can interact with DcMAPK1 and DcMAPK4. The expression patterns of the selected DcWRKY genes based on transcriptome data and qRT-PCR suggested that those selected DcWRKY genes are involved in root development, biotic and abiotic stress response. This comprehensive analysis provides a basis for investigating the evolution and function of WRKY genes. PMID:26975939

  14. Study on combined effects of acidification and sonication on selected quality attributes of carrot juice during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the combined effects of acid blanching and sonication treatments on selected quality parameters of carrot juice stored at 4 degree C for 18 days. Carrots were blanched in acidified water (40g/L citric acid) at 100 degree C for 4 min and the juice was then extracted. Sonication of the juice was done at an amplitude level of 70% and a frequency of 20 kHz for 2 min at 15 degree C, keeping the pulse duration of 5 Sec on and 5 Sec off. As results, the combined treatment of acidification and sonication of carrot juice showed a significant decrease in pH and increase (P < 0.05) in acidity which remained stable during storage period. No significant changes were observed in Brix. Color values (L, a, b) and non enzymatic browning (NEB) influenced significantly in acidified and sonicated carrot juice during storage period. Maximum stability of total phenol, total antioxidant capacity, cloud value and ascorbic acid were also observed in the combined treatment of acidification and sonication. The findings of this study indicated that the combined treatments of acidification and sonication may successfully be utilized for the production of high quality carrot juice with improved stability of total phenol, total antioxidant capacity, cloud value and ascorbic acid during 18 days of storage. (author)

  15. Development and Characterization of Novel SSR Markers in Carrot (Daucus Carota L.) and Their Application for Mapping and Diversity Analysis in Apiaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic resources in carrot and other Apiaceae are relatively underdeveloped. The availability of a large set of pcr-based codominant markers, such as simple sequence repeats (SSR), would allow integration of the different carrot genetic maps constructed to date (mainly using anonymous dominant mark...

  16. Plants as biofactories: glyphosate-induced production of shikimic acid and phenolic antioxidants in wounded carrot tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Moreno, Alejandro; Benavides, Jorge; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A

    2012-11-14

    The use of plants to produce chemical compounds with pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications has intensified in recent years. In this regard, genetic engineering is the most commonly used tool to generate crop lines with enhanced concentrations of desirable chemicals. However, growing genetically modified plants is still limited because they are perceived as potential biological hazards that can create an ecological imbalance. The application of postharvest abiotic stresses on plants induces the accumulation of secondary metabolites and thus can be used as an alternative to genetic modification. The present project evaluated the feasibility of producing shikimic acid (SA) and phenolic compounds (PC) in wounded carrots ( Daucus carota ) treated with glyphosate. The spray application of a concentrated glyphosate solution on wounded carrot tissue increased the concentrations of SA and chlorogenic acid by ∼1735 and ∼5700%, respectively. The results presented herein demonstrate the potential of stressed carrot tissue as a biofactory of SA and PC. PMID:23101679

  17. Processing and prospect of the carrot products%胡萝卜产品的加工及前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘均洪; 刘颖; 张媛媛

    2012-01-01

    There are rich active substances in carrots,such as carotenoids and dietary fiber,which were widely used in pharmaceutical and food industries. The text analyses the status and problem of the domestic and foreign carrot product,it proposes the using of modern technology and craft. Developing new health-carrot products and opening new research directions.%胡萝卜富含活性物质,如类胡萝卜素和膳食纤维,广泛应用于药物和食品工业。本文分析了国内外胡萝卜产品的现状及存在问题,提出采用现代技术及工艺,开发新型保健性胡萝卜产品,开辟新研究方向。

  18. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL CAUSED SOFT ROT DISEASE ON CARROT (Daucus carota L. LOCAL VARIETY IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Desi Bintari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot bacteria infection in carrot tuber (D. carota L. causes severe economic losses. Soft rot disease can be caused by various bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae. This study aimed to isolate and identify bacteria as causal agent of soft rot disease in local carrot variety in Bali. Samples were collected at Badung Tradisional Market, Denpasar, Bali. Isolation was carried out by serial dilution method (Platting Method. Eight bacteria (BL1, BL2, BL3, BL4, BL5, BL6, BL7 and BL8 were isolated from soft rot tuber. BL6 isolate showed positive result in Postulat Koch test that caused soft rot on carrot tuber. The result of identification by Microgen™ GnA+B-ID System and identification book Bergeys’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology Ninth Edition (Holt et al., 1994, BL6 was identified as Citrobacter.

  19. 秋播胡萝卜品种比较试验%Comparison of Introduced Carrot Cultivars in Autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈焕丽; 郑军伟; 吴焕章; 郭赵娟; 卢钦灿

    2015-01-01

    In order to screen out suitable carrot cultivars and rich carrot germplasm resources for Zhengzhou, we compared the comprehensive characters of seven new autumn-sown carrot cultivars in Zhengzhou. The results showed that, the two cultivars Nantes and South Korea Wucunsen had best comprehensive characters, such as good root shape and high yield, so they were suitable for cultivation in Zhengzhou.%为筛选出适合郑州当地种植的胡萝卜品种,丰富胡萝卜种质资源,对7个胡萝卜新品种在河南郑州地区秋播的表现进行比较分析。试验结果表明,南特胡萝卜和韩国五寸参根形、产量等综合性状好,适宜本地区推广种植。

  20. Nonfumigant Nematicides for Control of Root-knot Nematode to Protect Carrot Root Growth in Organic Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrain, T C; Belair, G; Martel, P

    1979-10-01

    Greenhouse tests were conducted to determine the effects of two kinds of Meloidogyne hapla inoculum on the growth and quality of carrot roots, and the protection afforded in each case by nonfumigant nematicides in organic soils. For all treatments the percentage of carrots damaged was greater with larvae alone as inoculum than with larvae and eggs, indicating that most of the damage occurs early during formation of the taproot. Fosthietan, aldicarb, and oxamyl at 4 and 6 kg ai/ha protected the roots during formation and gave a lasting control of root-knot nematode. There was some nematode damage to the roots with phenamiphos and carbofuran at 4 and 6 kg ai/ha. Isazophos, diflubenzuron, and fenvalerate gave little protection to carrot roots and did not control root-knot nematode effectively. PMID:19300652

  1. Carrot oil as an Antioxidant on some Biochemical and Haematological disorders in Male rats post exposure to γ Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims to investigate the biological effects of carrot oil as an antioxidant, our results recorded that blood glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity, total white blood cells count (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), haematocrit value (Hct%), platelets count (PLT) and serum testosterone were significantly decreased on the 1st and 7th day post-exposure to 7 Gy gamma irradiation, while serum total cholesterol level, triglycerides level and malondialdehyde (MDA) revealed a significant increase on the 1st and 7th days post-irradiation. Oral administration of carrot oil (200 mg/Kg b.w.) for consecutive 3 weeks before exposure to 7 Gy gamma irradiation in male albino rats, the data revealed significant amelioration in the previous parameters, it could be concluded that carrot oil capable of reducing the biological hazards induced by gamma irradiation

  2. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by cinnamon extracts in carrot-kinnow mandarin blends

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Moushumi; Kaur, Sarvnarinder; Ganguli, Abhijit

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial efficacy of cinnamon extracts in laboratory prepared Kinnow-mandarin carrot blends challenged with Escerichia coli O157:H7. Freshly squeezed carrot and kinnow-mandarin juices were mixed to obtain a typical blend, inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 cultures at 102 CFU/mL with and without cinnamon extracts (0.3%) and stored at 4, 8 and 28°C for up to 10 hours. Counts on tryptic soy agar (TSA) selective medium (Mac conkey sorbitol agar) and thin agar layer (TAL) we...

  3. Combined effect of water loss and wounding stress on gene activation of metabolic pathways associated with phenolic biosynthesis in carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Moreno, Alejandro; Redondo-Gil, Mónica; Benavides, Jorge; Nair, Vimal; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The application of postharvest abiotic stresses is an effective strategy to activate the primary and secondary metabolism of plants inducing the accumulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds. In the present study, the effect of water stress applied alone and in combination with wounding stress on the activation of primary (shikimic acid) and secondary (phenylpropanoid) metabolic pathways related with the accumulation of phenolic compound in plants was evaluated. Carrot (Daucus carota) was used as model system for this study, and the effect of abiotic stresses was evaluated at the gene expression level and on the accumulation of metabolites. As control of the study, whole carrots were stored under the same conditions. Results demonstrated that water stress activated the primary and secondary metabolism of carrots, favoring the lignification process. Likewise, wounding stress induced higher activation of the primary and secondary metabolism of carrots as compared to water stress alone, leading to higher accumulation of shikimic acid, phenolic compounds, and lignin. Additional water stress applied on wounded carrots exerted a synergistic effect on the wound-response at the gene expression level. For instance, when wounded carrots were treated with water stress, the tissue showed 20- and 14-fold increases in the relative expression of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosanate synthase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes, respectively. However, since lignification was increased, lower accumulation of phenolic compounds was detected. Indicatively, at 48 h of storage, wounded carrots treated with water stress showed ~31% lower levels of phenolic compounds and ~23% higher lignin content as compared with wounded controls. In the present study, it was demonstrated that water stress is one of the pivotal mechanism of the wound-response in carrot. Results allowed the elucidation of strategies to induce the accumulation of specific primary or secondary metabolites when plants are

  4. Combined effect of water loss and wounding stress on gene activation of metabolic pathways associated with phenolic biosynthesis in carrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Moreno, Alejandro; Redondo-Gil, Mónica; Benavides, Jorge; Nair, Vimal; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    The application of postharvest abiotic stresses is an effective strategy to activate the primary and secondary metabolism of plants inducing the accumulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds. In the present study, the effect of water stress applied alone and in combination with wounding stress on the activation of primary (shikimic acid) and secondary (phenylpropanoid) metabolic pathways related with the accumulation of phenolic compound in plants was evaluated. Carrot (Daucus carota) was used as model system for this study, and the effect of abiotic stresses was evaluated at the gene expression level and on the accumulation of metabolites. As control of the study, whole carrots were stored under the same conditions. Results demonstrated that water stress activated the primary and secondary metabolism of carrots, favoring the lignification process. Likewise, wounding stress induced higher activation of the primary and secondary metabolism of carrots as compared to water stress alone, leading to higher accumulation of shikimic acid, phenolic compounds, and lignin. Additional water stress applied on wounded carrots exerted a synergistic effect on the wound-response at the gene expression level. For instance, when wounded carrots were treated with water stress, the tissue showed 20- and 14-fold increases in the relative expression of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosanate synthase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes, respectively. However, since lignification was increased, lower accumulation of phenolic compounds was detected. Indicatively, at 48 h of storage, wounded carrots treated with water stress showed ~31% lower levels of phenolic compounds and ~23% higher lignin content as compared with wounded controls. In the present study, it was demonstrated that water stress is one of the pivotal mechanism of the wound-response in carrot. Results allowed the elucidation of strategies to induce the accumulation of specific primary or secondary metabolites when plants are

  5. Root growth and nitrogen uptake of carrot, early cabbage, onion and lettuce following a range of green manures

    OpenAIRE

    Thorup-Kristensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was performed to study the significance of rooting depth of four vegetable crops on their utilization of green manure nitrogen (N). Rates of rooting depth development were estimated as approximately 0.2, 0.7, 1.2 and 1.2 mm day C)1 for onion, carrot, lettuce and cabbage, respectively. At harvest, onion and lettuce were found to be shallow-rooted with final rooting depths of only 0.3 and 0.6 m, respectively, whereas carrot and cabbage reached rooting depths of at least 1.1 m. The...

  6. Combined effect of water loss and wounding stress on gene activation of metabolic pathways associated with phenolic biosynthesis in carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro eBecerra-Moreno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The application of postharvest abiotic stresses is an effective strategy to activate the primary and secondary metabolism of plants inducing the accumulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds. In the present study, the effect of water stress applied alone and in combination with wounding stress on the activation of primary (shikimic acid and secondary (phenylpropanoid metabolic pathways related with the accumulation of phenolic compound in plants was evaluated. Carrot (Daucus carota was used as model system for this study, and the effect of abiotic stresses was evaluated at the gene expression level and on the accumulation of metabolites. As control of the study, whole carrots were stored under the same conditions. Results demonstrated that water stress activated the primary and secondary metabolism of carrots, favoring the lignification process. Likewise, wounding stress induced higher activation of the primary and secondary metabolism of carrots as compared to water stress alone, leading to higher accumulation of shikimic acid, phenolic compounds and lignin. Additional water stress applied on wounded carrots exerted a synergistic effect on the wound-response at the gene expression level. For instance, when wounded carrots were treated with water stress, the tissue showed 20- and 14-fold increases in the relative expression of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosanate synthase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes, respectively. However, since lignification was increased, lower accumulation of phenolic compounds was detected. Indicatively, at 48 h of storage, wounded carrots treated with water stress showed ~31% lower levels of phenolic compounds and ~23% higher lignin content as compared with wounded controls. In the present study, it was demonstrated that water stress is one of the pivotal mechanism of the wound-response in carrot. Results allowed the elucidation of strategies to induce the accumulation of specific primary or secondary

  7. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL CAUSED SOFT ROT DISEASE ON CARROT (Daucus carota L.) LOCAL VARIETY IN BALI

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Wayan Desi Bintari; Retno Kawuri; Meitini Wahyuni Proborini

    2015-01-01

    Soft rot bacteria infection in carrot tuber (D. carota L.) causes severe economic losses. Soft rot disease can be caused by various bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae. This study aimed to isolate and identify bacteria as causal agent of soft rot disease in local carrot variety in Bali. Samples were collected at Badung Tradisional Market, Denpasar, Bali. Isolation was carried out by serial dilution method (Platting Method). Eight bacteria (BL1, BL2, BL3, BL4, BL5, BL6, BL7 and BL8) were ...

  8. Effect of Irradiation on the Hygienic, Chemical and Sensory Quality of Minimally Processed Fresh-Cut Carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Average total bacteria count (TAPC) in the collected 15 samples of fresh-cut carrot ranged from 1.4 x 104 to 2.4x106 cfu/ g; lactic acid bacteria (LAB) between 5.0xl02 and 2.4xl05 cfu/ g; total mould and yeast (TM and Y) ranged from 2 cfu/ g indicating high level of microbial load and most of these samples were unacceptable from the view point of microbial load. All examined fresh-cut carrot samples had coliforms at value ranged from 43 to 1100 MPN/g and contained Escherichia coli in the range of 9 to 460 MPN/ g indicating that most of these samples were unsatisfactory due to the presence of E. coli at level higher than 100 MPN/ g. Enterococcus faecalis count was below the detectable level (100 cfu/ g). Staphylococcus aureus was detected in the majority (80 %) of the tested fresh-cut carrot samples, and were present at 1.0x102 to 2.3x103 cfu/g. Aeromonas hydrophila was detected in only 5 (33.3) samples with average counts 1.0x102 to 4.5xl02 cfu/g. The presence of E. coli, Staph. aureus and A. hydrophila in some samples of fresh-cut carrots is to be viewed as a health hazard. On the other hand, no Listeria monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. was detected in any of the fifteen fresh-cut carrot samples. Irradiation dose of 2 kGy extended the refrigeration shelf life of fresh-cut carrots to almost 12 days. The shelf-life for unirradiated samples was about 6 days. Irradiation dose of 4 kGy was identified to be the optimum irradiation dose for irradiating fresh-cut carrots. This irradiation dose greatly reduced the T APC (by 99.95 %) and decreased LAB and TM and Y to below the detectable level (<10 cfu/ g). Fresh-cut carrot samples receiving 4 kGy irradiation doses were free from studied indicator microorganisms and from pathogens via

  9. Mobilizing cities towards a low-carbon future: Tambourines, carrots and sticks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the transition towards a low-carbon future in Europe, cities' actions are of major importance due to the prominence of urbanization, both in terms of population and in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As a result, we need city authorities to act, by using their competences as policy makers as well as energy users. However, cities are still not moving as fast as one might expect, indicating the need for additional incentives to prompt local action. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present an overview of external incentives that might prompt cities to act and to highlight good practices that could be used in future initiatives. This paper first discusses how to evaluate the climate and energy performance of a city and how local authorities can contribute to its improvements. Moreover, it analyses the disincentives that local governments are confronted with, categorizing them as simple market failures, institutional failures and multi-agent failures. The paper then presents a survey of initiatives at national and EU levels to promote local action towards a low-carbon future; grouping them into tambourines, carrots and sticks. We focus on Austria, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden because they are pioneering countries regarding energy policies for cities. - Highlights: • CO2 and energy consumption could be used to evaluate the performance of cities. • Simple market, institutional and multi-agent failures are hampering local action. • National and EU actions use mainly tambourines and carrots, rather than sticks. • Covenant of Mayors is one of the most noteworthy tambourine type of instruments. • Carrots notable features are: use of competition and involvement of third-parties

  10. Cadmium and zinc toxicity effects on growth and mineral nutrients of carrot (Daucus Carota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was carried out in two successive seasons of 2006 and 2007 on carrot (Daucus carota L. var. Nantesa superior) at the Ministry of Local Government (Al Zahra Municipality), Gaza Strip, Palestine. It aimed to study the effect of (Cd and Zn) at different rates (10, 20 and 40 mu g g-1 Cd) and (75, 150 and 225 mu g g-1 Zn) on carrot plants. All of the studied growth characters (fresh and dry weights of shoot and root) and some of growth analysis (leaf weight ratio (LWR), relative growth rate (RGR mg g/sup -1d-1/), the rate of production of one sub-cellular component per unit of Cd and Zn (mg/g Cd or Zn per day) and specific utilization rate (SUR mg dw mg Cd/sup -1/ or Zn/sup -1/ d/sup -1/) decreased with increasing Cd either alone or combined with Zn soil addition at all levels, but it increased when Zn (at all levels) was added, with some exception. Moreover attempts were carried out to reduce the toxic effect of Cd on the plants by using different rates of Zn soil addition. The effect of Cd and Zn either alone or their combination on minerals (N, P and K) in plant (shoot and root) were studied. Increase in K, P and N concentrations was recorded by the carrot shoots and roots supplied with the all levels of Zn soil addition either alone or combined with Cd soil addition. Adding Zn alone was found to insignificantly affect growth characters, but if it was combined with Cd in different levels, it overcome to some extent the toxicity of Cd on growth characters as well as minerals concentrations. (author)

  11. Antimicrobial Activity Studies of Bactoriocin Produced by Lactobacilli Isolates from Carrot Kanji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshada M. Sowani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In the present study, Staphylococcus aureus a causative agent of food poisoning is selected as a test organism to study the antimicrobial effect of bacteriocin. S. aureus produces number of exotoxins and enterotoxins which enters the body via contaminated food causing illness. Approach: In this case the use of antibiotics is one of the ways of treatment, but in addition to this if we advise such patients to consume the carrot kanji then it will cause better effect because carrot kanji is the naturally fermented food beverage consisting of microflora mainly the Lactobacilli. Results: The Lactobacilli have ability to produce antimicrobial compounds called bacteriocin. Isolation of bacteriocin was carried out from the naturally fermented carrot kanji. The bacteriocin produced by Lactobacilli was dialysed and used for the further studies. The well diffusion method is used to study the antimicrobial activity, effect of temperature, pH, enzymes on bacteriocin. From the diameter of zone of inhibition the activity of bacteriocin was determined. The sensitivity of bacteriocin at different pH range showed that at neutral pH the diameter of inhibition zone was greater than that at alkaline as well as acidic pH. Upto 100°C the bacteriocin activity was 80% but as temperature range increased upto 121°C it reduced sharply to 28%. Conclusion/Recommendations: In addition to this the effect of alpha amylase, trypsin, catalase enzyme on bacteriocin activity was also studied which shows positive results with alpha amylase, reduced activity with trypsin and catalase remained unaffected.

  12. End of life environmental assessment of micro technologies: the need for the carrot or the stick?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Gentil, Emmanuel; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2010-01-01

    of waste is subject to a number of directives and regulations (in Europe) or a “stick” forcing the industry to minimise the environmental impacts of micro waste. In contrast, there are strong drivers, the “carrot” that can stimulate the industry to design micro technology following EcoDesign principle....... On one hand the industry is faced with legal sticks to minimise the impacts of waste, on the other hand the industry is offered a number of carrots that could present strong financial and environmental advantages compared to other products providing the same service....

  13. Bio-Friendly Alternatives for Xylene – Carrot oil, Olive oil, Pine oil, Rose oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandan, Surapaneni Rateesh Kumar; Kulkarni, Pavan G.; Rao, Thokala Madhusudan; Palakurthy, Pavan

    2015-01-01

    Background Xylene is a flammable liquid with characteristic petroleum or aromatic odours, it is miscible with most of the organic solvents and paraffin wax. Xylene clears tissues rapidly and renders transparency, facilitating clearing endpoint determination, this made it to be used as a clearing agent in routine histopathological techniques. Even though it is a good clearing agent, it causes damage to the tissues by its hardening effect particularly those fixed in non-protein coagulant fixatives. Apart from these tissue effects, it has severe, long lasting ill effects on health of technicians and pathologists when exposed to longer duration. Hence in order to overcome these effects and replace xylene with a safe alternative agent, the present study was carried out to assess the clearing ability and bio-friendly nature of four different natural oils i.e., Carrot oil, Olive oil, Pine oil and Rose oil in comparison with that of Xylene. According to Bernoulli’s principle of fluid dynamics, to decrease viscosity of these oils and increase penetration into tissues for rapid clearing hot-air oven technique was used. Aims To assess:1) Clearing ability and bio-friendly nature of four different oils i.e., Carrot oil, Olive oil, Pine oil, Rose oil in comparison with that of xylene, 2) Application of Bernoulli’s principle of fluid dynamics in rapid clearing of tissues by using hot-air oven. Materials and Methods Forty different formalin fixed tissue samples were taken. Each sample of tissue was cut into 5 bits (40x5=200 total bits) which were subjected for dehydration in differential alcohol gradients. Later, each bit is kept in 4 different oils such as Carrot oil, Olive oil, Pine oil, Rose oil and xylene and transferred into hot-air oven. Further routine steps of processing, sectioning and staining were done. Individual sections cleared in four different oils were assessed for cellular architecture, staining quality and a comparison was done between them. Results Results

  14. Soil pollution in Mitrovica town surroundings and absorption of heavy metals by carrot plant

    OpenAIRE

    Afete Musliu; Seit Shallari

    2013-01-01

    In this paper is studied a heavy meal presence in soil in industrial zone surroundings in Mitrovica town and its impact on the vegetable species, referring on this paper to a carrot. The town of Mitrovica, has the largest complex metallurgy and mining in Europe known as "Trepca", known for exploitation of lead, zinc and cadmium, which town is one of the most polluted cities in Kosovo as in air, soil and water, in particular neighbourhood of industrial zone. The purpose of this work is to make...

  15. The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program: Case study of a Golden Carrot program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, J B

    1995-07-01

    The work in this report was conducted by the Analytic Studies Division (ASD) of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technologies. This case study describes the development and implementation of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP), which awarded $30 million to the refrigerator manufacturer that developed and commercialized a refrigerator that exceeded 1993 federal efficiency standards by at least 25%. The program was funded by 24 public and private utilities. As the first Golden Carrot program to be implemented in the United States, SERP was studied as an example for future `market-pull` efforts.

  16. Effect of different doses of gamma rays and fast neutrons on growth of carrot cellus tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callus tissue lines of four carrot cultivars, grown on three nutrient media, were irradiated with doses of gamma rays from 260 to 44700 R and fast neutrons from 180 - 21000 rad. Effects similar to those of gamma rays were obtained at lower doses of fast neutrons. The response of callus tissues to irradiation was influenced both by genetic factors and the nutrient medium. Two of the irradiated lines exhibited growth stimulation at low doses and a lower sensitivity to irradiation than did the two other ones. Tissues grown on a medium without kinetin showed the highest stimulation at low doses and the lowest growth depression at higher doses of irradiation. (author)

  17. Early Identification of Stable Transformation Events by Combined Use of Antibiotic Selection and Vital Detection of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Callus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Yeu Yau; Seth J Davis; Ahmet Ipek; Philipp W Simon

    2008-01-01

    Genetic transformation is a useful technique to complement conventional breeding in crop improvement. Although carrot has been a model organism for in vitro embryogenesis study, genetic transformation of carrot is still lengthy and labor intensive. An efficient transformation and detection system is desirable. Direct infection of Agrobacterium to carrot calli has provided an easy way for carrot genetic transformation. To improve the efficiency of antibiotic selection in this method, we report the combined use of an improved green-fluorescent protein, referred to as smGFP, to establish a versatile selection method for carrot callus transformation system. By combining antibiotic selection with the bright fluorescence observed in the callus tissue, we were able to easily identify stable transformants in early stage of the transformation process. In addition to the GFP expression of the callus cells, the transgenic nature of callus cells was confirmed with Southern and Western analysis. We found we can link the simplicity of carrot-callus-cell transformation, early detection of stable transformants with antibiotic selection, visualization of GFP fluorescence, and molecular analysis (Southern and Western) of callus tissue (non-photosynthetic tissue) to provide a more efficient way in identifying stable transformants at early stage of carrot transformation.

  18. Construction of 2D transparent micromodels in polyester resin with porosity similar to carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Emilio Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic visualization, especially in transparent micromodels, can provide valuable information to understand the transport phenomena at pore scale in different process occurring in porous materials (food, timber, soils, etc.. Micromodels studies focus mainly on the observation of multi-phase flow, which presents a greater proximity to reality. The aim of this study was to study the process of flexography and its application in the manufacture of polyester resin transparent micromodels and its application to carrots. Materials used to implement a flexo station for micromodels construction were thermoregulated water bath, exposure chamber to UV light, photosensitive substance (photopolymer, RTV silicone polyester resin, and glass plates. In this paper, data on size distribution of a particular kind of carrot we used, and a transparent micromodel with square cross-section as well as a Log-normal pore size distribution with pore radii ranging from 10 to 110 µm (average of 22 µm and micromodel size of 10 × 10 cm were built. Finally, it stresses that it has successfully implemented the protocol processing 2D polyester resin transparent micromodels.

  19. Pervasive Mitochondrial Sequence Heteroplasmy in Natural Populations of Wild Carrot, Daucus carota spp. carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Mandel

    Full Text Available Exceptions to the generally accepted rules that plant mitochondrial genomes are strictly maternally inherited and that within-individual sequence diversity in those genomes, i.e., heteroplasmy, should be minimal are becoming increasingly apparent especially with regard to sequence-level heteroplasmy. These findings raise questions about the potential significance of such heteroplasmy for plant mitochondrial genome evolution. Still studies quantifying the amount and consequences of sequence heteroplasmy in natural populations are rare. In this study, we report pervasive sequence heteroplasmy in natural populations of wild carrot, a close relative of the cultivated crop. In order to assay directly for this heteroplasmy, we implemented a quantitative PCR assay that can detect and quantify intra-individual SNP variation in two mitochondrial genes (Cox1 and Atp9. We found heteroplasmy in > 60% of all wild carrot populations surveyed and in > 30% of the 140 component individuals that were genotyped. Heteroplasmy ranged from a very small proportion of the total genotype (e.g., 0.995:0.005 to near even mixtures (e.g., 0.590:0.410 in some individuals. These results have important implications for the role of intra-genomic recombination in the generation of plant mitochondrial genome genotypic novelty. The consequences of such recombination are evident in the results of this study through analysis of the degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD between the SNP sites at the two genes studied.

  20. Pressurized Hot Ethanol Extraction of Carotenoids from Carrot By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotta Turner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are known for their antioxidant activity and health promoting effects. One of the richest sources of carotenoids are carrots. However, about 25% of the annual production is regarded as by-products due to strict market policies. The aim of this study was to extract carotenoids from those by-products. Conventional carotenoid extraction methods require the use of organic solvents, which are costly, environmentally hazardous, and require expensive disposal procedures. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE utilizes conventional solvents at elevated temperatures and pressure, and it requires less solvent and shorter extraction times. The extraction solvent of choice in this study was ethanol, which is a solvent generally recognized as safe (GRAS. The extraction procedure was optimized by varying the extraction time (2–10 min and the temperature (60–180 °C. β-Carotene was used as an indicator for carotenoids content in the carrots. The results showed that time and temperatures of extraction have significant effect on the yield of carotenoids. Increasing the flush volume during extraction did not improve the extractability of carotenoids, indicating that the extraction method was mainly desorption/diffusion controlled. Use of a dispersing agent that absorbs the moisture content was important for the efficiency of extraction. Analysing the content of β-carotene at the different length of extraction cycles showed that about 80% was recovered after around 20 min of extraction.

  1. Microbiological nutritional and sensorial changes in fresh carrot juice preserved by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh carroll juice have perishable nature and very limited shelf-life, and may poses a microbiological hazard. Gamma irradiation (1.5, 3.0 and 4.0 kGy ) as non-thermal proceeding was performed to improve microbial quality, ensure safety and extending the refrigerated shelf-life of fresh carrot juice. Although irradiation dose of 1.5 kGy had no significant effect on total carotenoids, physicochemical and sensory properties of the juice, it significantly reduced ascorbic acid content and was not enough for reducing microbial content to great extend and for eliminating enterococcus fecal it.However, there was no significant difference in total carotene content between all irradiated samples and non-irradiated control. It was found that immediately after irradiation the sensory scores of irradiated (1.5 and 3.0 kGy) and non-irradiation samples were not significantly different. Irradiation dose of 4.0 kGy significantly reduced the nutrition content and the sensory quality attributes of the juice. Thus, irradiation dose of 3.0 kGy can be successfully used to improve the microbial quality and extend the refrigerated shelf-life of fresh carrot juice, where it extended the shelf-life to 8 days against only 2 day for non-irradiated control. (Author)

  2. Relationship Between Meloidogyne hapla Density and Damage to Carrots in Organic Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrain, T C

    1982-01-01

    Field and growth chamber experiments were conducted to determine the effect of five initial densities (Pi - 20 - 240/100 cm(3) soil) of Meloidogyne hapla on carrot development and yield of storage roots at maturity. Carrots growing in infested and noninfested organic soil were harvested after 15, 29, 44, 59, and 106 days of growth in controlled environment chambers and after l l 0 days in field plots. Nematodes affected weight of roots and foliage, weight and length of the storage portion of tap roots, and induced malformations (forking), galling, and hairiness of tap roots. In most cases the data could not be represented satisfactorily by the exponential model of Seinhorst: y = m + (l-m) Z(P-t). In growth chambers the weight of mature storage roots was not correlated to initial nematode density, but there was a significant negative correlation between weight of storage roots and initial nematode density in field plots. Tolerance levels were calculated as points where the regression lines reached the growth level on noninoculated plants. The tolerance levels of foliage were higher than those of roots, and increased with age of plants. The tolerance level of marketable weight in field plots, average crop value, and a hypothetical control cost function are used to discuss the possibility of optimizing chemical control of root-knot nematode in organic soils. PMID:19295674

  3. Relationship between moisture content and electrical impedance of carrot slices during drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertész, Ákos; Hlaváčová, Zuzana; Vozáry, Eszter; Staroňová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Electrical properties of food materials can give information about the inner structure and physiological state of biological tissues. Generally, the process of drying of fruits and vegetables is followed by weight loss. The aim of this study was to measure the impedance spectra of carrot slices during drying and to correlate impedance parameters to moisture content in different drying periods. Cylindrical slices were cut out from the carrot root along the axis. The slices were dried in a Venticell 111 air oven at 50°C. The weight of the slices was measured with a Denver SI-603 electronic analytical and precision balance. The weighing of the samples was performed every 30 min at the beginning of drying and every 60 min after the process. The moisture content of the samples was calculated on wet basis. The magnitude and phase angle of electrical impedance of the slices were measured with HP 4284A and 4285A precision LCR meters in the frequency range from 30 Hz to 1 MHz and from 75 kHz to 30 MHz, respectively, at voltage 1 V. The impedance measurement was performed after weighting. The change in the magnitude of impedance during drying showed a good correlation with the change in the moisture content.

  4. Metabolism of pharmaceutical and personal care products by carrot cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoqin; Fu, Qiuguo; Gan, Jay

    2016-04-01

    With the increasing use of treated wastewater and biosolids in agriculture, residues of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in these reused resources may contaminate food produce via plant uptake, constituting a route for human exposure. Although various PPCPs have been reported to be taken up by plants in laboratories or under field conditions, at present little information is available on their metabolism in plants. In this study, we applied carrot cell cultures to investigate the plant metabolism of PPCPs. Five phase I metabolites of carbamazepine were identified and the potential metabolism pathways of carbamazepine were proposed. We also used the carrot cell cultures as a rapid screening tool to initially assess the metabolism potentials of 18 PPCPs. Eleven PPCPs, including acetaminophen, caffeine, meprobamate, primidone, atenolol, trimethoprim, DEET, carbamazepine, dilantin, diazepam, and triclocarban, were found to be recalcitrant to metabolism. The other 7 PPCPs, including triclosan, naproxen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, sulfamethoxazole, and atorvastatin, displayed rapid metabolism, with 0.4-47.3% remaining in the culture at the end of the experiment. Further investigation using glycosidase hydrolysis showed that 1.3-20.6% of initially spiked naproxen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and gemfibrozil were transformed into glycoside conjugates. Results from this study showed that plant cell cultures may be a useful tool for initially exploring the potential metabolites of PPCPs in plants as well as for rapidly screening the metabolism potentials of a variety of PPCPs or other emerging contaminants, and therefore may be used for prioritizing compounds for further comprehensive evaluations. PMID:26745399

  5. Computer image analysis in the quality in procedure for selected carrot varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszela, K.; Weres, J.; Boniecki, P.; Zaborowicz, M.; Przybył, J.; Dach, J.; Pilarski, K.; Janczak, D.

    2013-07-01

    In our daily lives we often assess our surroundings to classify the situations we encounter. We do so based on the observations we make of our surroundings and information we obtain from other sources, using our knowledge and abilities. While this process is natural to us, if we want to give a similar task to a computer system then we have to take various steps in order to enable our computers to partially emulate the human capacity for observation, learning and making final decisions based on knowledge. As information complexity increases, there is an increasing demand for systems which can recognize and classify the objects presented to them. Recently there has been an increase in interest in application of computer image analysis in various research areas. One of these applications is food quality assessment, which aims to replace traditional instrumental methods. A computer visual system was developed to assess carrot quality, based on a single variety. Characteristic qualities of the variety were chosen to describe a suitable root. In the course of the study, digital photographs of carrot roots were taken, which were used as input data for the assessment performed by a dedicated computer program created as a part of the study.

  6. Only the carrot, not the stick: incorporating trust into the enforcement of regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P Mendoza

    Full Text Available New enforcement strategies allow agents to gain the regulator's trust and consequently face a lower audit probability. Prior research suggests that, in order to prevent lower compliance, a reduction in the audit probability (the "carrot" must be compensated with the introduction of a higher penalty for non-compliance (the "stick". However, such carrot-and-stick strategies reflect neither the concept of trust nor the strategies observed in practice. In response to this, we define trust-based regulation as a strategy that incorporates rules that allow trust to develop, and using a generic (non-cooperative game of tax compliance, we examine whether trust-based regulation is feasible (i.e., whether, in equilibrium, a reduction in the audit probability, without ever increasing the penalty for non-compliance, does not lead to reduced compliance. The model shows that trust-based regulation is feasible when the agent sufficiently values the future. In line with the concept of trust, this strategy is feasible when the regulator is uncertain about the agent's intentions. Moreover, the model shows that (i introducing higher penalties makes trust-based regulation less feasible, and (ii combining trust and forgiveness can lead to a lower audit probability for both trusted and distrusted agents. Policy recommendations often point toward increasing deterrence. This model shows that the opposite can be optimal.

  7. Effect of zinc on the uptake of various elements into carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ZnCl2 on the uptake of Be, Na, Mn, Co, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, Rh, Cs and lanthanoids (Ce, Pm, Gd and Lu) by carrot (Daucas carota cv. U.S. harumakigosun) was investigated. Uptake was measured using a multitracer technique which enables to acquire information about various elements under identical conditions. The amount of uptake of Rb, Cs, Sr, Mn and Co, into roots decreased with increasing concentration of ZnCl2. On the other hand, little effect was observed for the uptake of Be, Se, Rh and lanthanoids. These results suggest that Rb, Cs, Sr, Mn and Co competed antagonistically with Zn for the binding sites of carriers in the roots, while there was no influence on the uptake of the other elements. Uptake of Se was not influenced by Cl added as ZnCl2. It is concluded, therefore, that carrot can distinguish Se from Cl based on the physicochemical differences between these two anion species. (author)

  8. Influence of copper ions on growth, lipid peroxidation, and proline and polyamines content in carrot rosettes obtained from anther culture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szafrańska, K.; Cvikrová, Milena; Kowalska, U.; Górecka, K.; Górecky, R.; Martincová, Olga; Janas, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2011), s. 851-859. ISSN 0137-5881 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC08013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Copper ions * Carrot culture * Lipid peroxidation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.639, year: 2011

  9. Transfer model of lead in soil-carrot (Daucus carota L.) system and food safety thresholds in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-09-01

    Reliable empirical models describing lead (Pb) transfer in soil-plant systems are needed to improve soil environmental quality standards. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to develop soil-plant transfer models to predict Pb concentrations in carrot (Daucus carota L.). Soil thresholds for food safety were then derived inversely using the prediction model in view of the maximum allowable limit for Pb in food. The 2 most important soil properties that influenced carrot Pb uptake factor (ratio of Pb concentration in carrot to that in soil) were soil pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC), as revealed by path analysis. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were based on soil properties and the pseudo total (aqua regia) or extractable (0.01 M CaCl2 and 0.005 M diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid) soil Pb concentrations. Carrot Pb contents were best explained by the pseudo total soil Pb concentrations in combination with soil pH and CEC, with the percentage of variation explained being up to 93%. The derived soil thresholds based on added Pb (total soil Pb with the geogenic background part subtracted) have the advantage of better applicability to soils with high natural background Pb levels. Validation of the thresholds against data from field trials and literature studies indicated that the proposed thresholds are reasonable and reliable. PMID:25904232

  10. Path analysis suggests phytoene accumulation is the key step limiting the carotenoid pathway in white carrot roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two F2 carrot (Daucus carota L. populations (orange rooted Brasilia x very dark orange rooted High Carotene Mass - HCM cross and the dark orange rooted cultivated variety B493 x white rooted wild carrot Queen Anne's Lace - QAL cross with very unrelated genetic backgrounds were used to investigate intrinsic factors limiting carotenoid accumulation in carrots by applying phenotypic correlation and path analysis to study the relationships between major root carotenes, root color and several other morphological traits. Most of the correlations between traits were close and agreed in sign between the two populations. Root weight had a moderate to highly significant positive correlation with leaf length, root length and top and middle root diameter. Although phenotypic correlations failed to identify the order of the substrates and products in the carotenoid pathway the correct order of substrates and products (phytoene -> zeta-carotene -> lycopene was identified in the causal diagram of beta-carotene for the Brasilia x HCM population. Path analysis of beta-carotene synthesis in the B493 x QAL population suggested that selection for root carotenes had little effect on plant morphological traits. Causal model of beta-carotene and lycopene in the B493 x QAL population suggested that phytoene synthesis is the key step limiting the carotenoid pathway in white carrots. Path analysis, first presented by Sewall Wright to study quantitative traits, appears to be a powerful statistical approach for the identification of key compounds in complex pathways.

  11. Microsatellite isolation and marker development in carrot - genomic distribution, linkage mapping, genetic diversity analysis and marker transferability across Apiaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Apiaceae family includes several vegetable and spice crop species among which carrot is the most economically important member, with ~21 million tons produced yearly worldwide. Despite its importance, molecular resources in this species are relatively underdeveloped. The availability of informat...

  12. Development of a high-throughput SNP resource to advance genomic, genetic and breeding research in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid advancement in high-throughput SNP genotyping technologies along with next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms has decreased the cost, improved the quality of large-scale genome surveys, and allowed specialty crops with limited genomic resources such as carrot (Daucus carota) to access t...

  13. Comparison of Polyacetylene Content in Organically and Conventionally Grown Carrots Using a Fast Ultrasonic Liquid Extraction Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Malene; Eriksen, Morten Rosbjørn; Träger, Anne Wibe Brændholt;

    2010-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive analytical method for quantification of polyacetylenes in carrot roots was developed. The traditional extraction method (stirring) was compared to a new ultrasonic liquid processor (ULP)-based methodology using high-performance liquid chromatography−ultraviolet (HPLC−UV) and...

  14. The DcMaster Transposon Display maps polymorphic insertion sites in the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    DcMaster is a family of PIF/Harbinger-like class II transposable elements identified in carrot. We present a modified Transposon Display molecular marker system allowing amplification of genomic regions containing DcMaster elements. We scored 77 DcMaster Transposon Display (DcMTD) amplicons, of whic...

  15. Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot ("Daucus carota") Bits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravia, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David

    2006-01-01

    The use of biocatalysis and biotransformations are important tools in green chemistry. The enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot ("Daucus carota") as the reducing agent is presented. The experiment introduces an example of a green chemistry procedure that can be tailored to fit in a regular laboratory session.…

  16. Fast, cross cultivar determination of total carotenoids in intact carrot tissue by Raman spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawaetz, Anders J; Christensen, Signe M U; Clausen, Sabine K; Jørnsgaard, Bjarne; Rasmussen, Søren K; Andersen, Svend B; Rinnan, Åsmund

    2016-08-01

    In order to speed up the breeding of orange carrots for high carotenoid content it is imperative to develop a fast and non-destructive technique. 332 roots from 86 carrot varieties grown in 2014 at the experimental farm in Høje Taastrup (DK) form the basis of this study. All roots were measured by Raman spectroscopy. The carotenoid content of the very same roots was estimated through a wet chemistry method coupled with UV-VIS at 447nm and 540nm. For the Raman spectroscopy, measurements were made on a cross section disk approximately 10cm from the root top at three different positions in the phloem. Since the top of the carrot is intact, it may still be used for growing. The final calibration model shows an uncertainty (RMSECV) of 20.5ppm, and a R(2)=0.86. It has thus proven to be well suited for prediction of carotenoids in orange carrots, and especially for ranking them according to the content. PMID:26988469

  17. Elimination of Listeria inoculated in ready-to-eat carrots by combination of antimicrobial coating and γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined treatment of an edible coating composed of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCN; 0.5% p/p) with γ-irradiation was investigated against Listeria inoculated in peeled mini-carrots. First, the D10 value (γ-irradiation dose required to eliminate 90% of the bacterial population) of TCN was evaluated under air. This treatment resulted in a 3.66-fold increase in relative bacterial radiosensitivity (RBR) as compared to the control without antimicrobial coating. Secondly, the shelf life of mini-carrots during 21 day of storage at 4 °C was studied. Antimicrobial coating containing TCN was assayed in combination with two irradiation doses (0.25 and 0.5 kGy). Results suggested that the inactive coating did not have any antimicrobial effect against Listeria while the coating containing TCN resulted in a 1.29 log reduction in carrots packed under air after 21 days of storage. Hence, these observations indicated that the combination of irradiation with antimicrobial coating played an important role in enhancing the radiosensitization of Listeria to γ-irradiation. - Highlights: ► Synergistic effect of essential oils and γ-radiation against food pathogens. ► Reducing any undesirable organoleptic impact due to high concentration of EOs. ► Potential in controlling food pathogens and food spoilage bacteria in food. ► Elimination of Listeria monocytogenes in the carrots during the storage.

  18. Enzymatic reduction of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde with carrot bits (Daucus carota): a simple experiment for understanding biocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes a simple, low-costly and environmentally friendly procedure for reduction of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde using carrot bits in water. This interdisciplinary experiment can be used to introduce the concepts of biocatalysis and green chemistry to undergraduate students. (author)

  19. Effect of the gamma ionizing irradiation on after crop quality of cv. Nantes carrots (Daucus carota L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the post harvest physical and chemical characteristics of cv. Nantes carrots. According to the Family Budget Survey (FBS, 1991) carried out in the Brazilian Southeast, within the roots and tubers group, carrots are widely consumed. It is also well known that the carrot is one of the best sources of provitamin A (a and b-carotene). Doses of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 kGy of gamma ionizing irradiation, from a cesium source, in accordance with the maximum dose allowed by the FDA (1995), were used on the carrots. The different treatments and the control group were evaluated by analysing for pH, total soluble solids (TSS), total titratable acidity (TTA), TSS/TTA ratio, weight loss, hardness, colour, total carotenoid content, ascorbic acid concentration and volatiles. The variance analysis (F of the Fisher treatment) of the results showed no significant difference at the 5% level between the irradiated samples and the control group for most of the tests, except for the colour intensity, which faded with increase in the irradiation dose, total acidity and TSS/TTA ratio, which decreased due to the decrease in the organic acid concentration after harvest. The results show that the low dose irradiation process is very promising to maintain the quality of the product, being a good alternative to avoid post harvest losses. (author)

  20. Steam Cooking Significantly Improves in Vitro Bile Acid Binding of Beets, Eggplant, Asparagus, Carrots, Green Beans and Cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative healthful potential of cooked beets, okra, eggplant, asparagus, carrots, green beans, cauliflower and turnips was evaluated by determining their in vitro bile acid binding using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile at a duodenal physiological pH of 6.3. Six treatments and two...

  1. Isolation of carrot plant lines with altered carotene contents from gamma irradiated explants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary vitamin A is mainly obtained from carotenes of vegetables and fruits. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is one of the major sources of carotene. Carrot cultivars have been obtained mainly through classical breeding, and genetic selection has permitted the creation of new varieties with high carotene contents. The fact that in several crops agronomically important mutants/variants have been generated by in vitro culture techniques prompted us to combine gamma irradiation and in vitro somatic embryogenesis to obtain regenerants with variations in carotene content in carrot. To test the effect of gamma rays on somatic embryogenesis and on the carotene level, aseptically germinated seedlings of 8 carrot varieties were exposed to 5; 10 and 500 Gy before culturing petiole segments on LN1 medium. Non-irradiated petioles produced calli with somatic embryos, while irradiated explants reacted differently according to radiation dose. After 4 weeks of culture on LN1 medium, petiole segments of different varieties irradiated with 5 and 10 Gy gave more callus with embryos than those with non-irradiated segments. However, after the subculture on LN medium, the development of embryos into plantlets was rare. It was also noted that after irradiation with 5 Gy, the petiole segments gave voluminous calli. Further, in variety 'Chantenay', the irradiated calli were deep orange while non-irradiated calli were green. However, embryo formation was not observed in these calli. This orange coloration suggests an appreciable synthesis of carotene in the calli. Gamma rays, probably produced cell lines with different colors and carotene content. Of the 8 cultivars tested, normal plantlets of 3 varieties were regenerated from somatic embryos irradiated with 10 Gy, and were transferred to greenhouse to develop roots. For each assay, the carotene analysis was carried out on 2 roots, and compared with plants produced from non-irradiated somatic embryos. Carotene level in the plants, derived from

  2. Effect of cover crops on emergence and growth of carrot (Daucus carota L. in no-plow and traditional tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażewicz-Woźniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to determine the influence of cover crop biomass incorporated into the soil at different times and using different treatments on carrot emergence and growth. 7 species of cover crops were included in the study: Secale cereale, Avena sativa, Vicia sativa, Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Fagopyrum esculentum, and Helianthus annuus.  Number of emerged carrot plants significantly depended on the cover crop used and on the method of pre-winter and spring pre-sowing tillage. Carrot emerged best after a rye or oats cover crop. Regardless of the cover crop species used, the largest number of carrots emerged in cultivation on ridges. In other variants of no-plow tillage, number of seedlings was significantly lower and did not differ from that under traditional plow tillage. The highest leaf rosettes were formed by carrot growing after a rye or oats cover crop. The highest rosettes were produced by carrots in the treatments where tillage was limited to the use of a tillage implement in spring and the lowest ones after pre-winter plowing. The effect of tillage on the emergence and height of carrot leaves largely depended on weather conditions in the successive years of the study. The largest number of leaves was found in carrots grown after a buckwheat cover crop and in cultivation without cover crop, while the smallest one after phacelia and white mustard. Carrots produced the largest number of leaves after a sunflower cover crop and the use of a tillage implement in spring, while the number of leaves was lowest when the mustard biomass was incorporated into the soil in spring. The use of cover crops significantly increased the mass of leaves produced by carrot as compared to the cultivation without cover crop. The largest mass of leaves was produced by carrots grown after the phacelia and mustard cover crops. Conventional plow tillage and pre-winter tillage using a stubble cultivator promoted an increase in the mass

  3. 胡萝卜菠萝酸奶的研制%Development of Yoghurt with Carrot and Pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继成

    2012-01-01

    以鲜牛乳和胡萝卜、菠萝为主要原料,以保加利亚乳杆菌、嗜热链球菌和双歧杆菌作为发酵剂,采用感官品质评价和正交试验方法,研究胡萝卜菠萝酸奶的加工工艺.结果表明,胡萝卜菠萝酸奶加工制作的最佳配方及工艺条件为:在鲜牛乳中添加10%的胡萝卜和菠萝汁(胡萝卜汁∶菠萝汁=1∶2),8%的白砂糖,菌种添加量为4%(保加利亚乳杆菌∶嗜热链球菌∶双歧杆菌=1∶2∶1),在42 ℃下发酵4h,经冷却后熟后,制得的胡萝卜菠萝酸奶具有均匀的橙红色和独特的胡萝卜菠萝风味,其凝块均匀一致,表面细腻光滑,硬度、黏度适中,酸甜可口,清爽润喉,无异味,无或有少量的乳清析出,符合酸奶标准.%Using fresh milk, carrots and pineapples as the main raw materials, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bacillus bifidus as the starter, the processing technology of carrot pineapple yoghurt was studied, through sensory evaluation and orthogonal test method. The results showed that, the optimum formula and processing technology of carrot pineapple yoghurt were as follows: added 10% carrot and pineapple juice (carrot juice :pineapple juice = 1 -2) to fresh milk, 8% white sugar and 4% bacteria (Lactobacillus bulgaricus 'Streptococcus thermophilus: Bacillus bifidus = 1:2:1), fermented for 4 hours at 42 ℃ and then cooled down. The obtained carrot pineapple yoghurt had a uniform orange red color and clot, unique flavor of carrot and pineapple, smooth appearance, moderate hardness and viscosity, suitable acid and sweet flavor, no off-flavor, and no or a little of whey separtion, and was in line with the yogurt standard.

  4. Antioxidant Activity of Cabbage and/or Carrot Against Oxidative Stress Induced by Gamma Irradiation in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies indicated that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against diseases, and populations that consume such diets have higher plasma antioxidants and exhibit lower risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Vegetable is considered major dietary source of fibers and antioxidants such as polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids that can protect against different dietary disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of cabbage and/or carrot against oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in male albino rats. Chemical composition and phenolic contents in cabbage and carrot were determined. Male albino rats were exposed to 5 Gy (single dose with rate 0.46 Gy/min) of whole body gamma irradiation. Thirty five rats were randomly divided into five groups as follow: group 1: control (rats fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks), group 2: irradiated (rats were exposed to whole gamma irradiation and fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks) and groups 3, 4 and 5: irradiated rats fed on balanced diet and received cabbage 15%, carrot 15% and a combination of cabbage and carrot, respectively. The results obtained revealed that the administration of cabbage and/or carrot diet significantly reduced the changes induced by gamma irradiation in the serum level of glucose and liver function parameters; serum aminotransferases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein and albumin. In addition, significant improvements were observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Significant enhancement in hepatic antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), was observed. The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) associated with remarkable decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were observed. Accordingly, it could be concluded that consumption of cabbage and/or carrot

  5. Heat shock factors in carrot: genome-wide identification, classification, and expression profiles response to abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Li, Meng-Yao; Wang, Feng; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Huang, Wei; Wang, Guang-Long; Ma, Jing; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Heat shock factors (HSFs) play key roles in the response to abiotic stress in eukaryotes. In this study, 35 DcHSFs were identified from carrot (Daucus carota L.) based on the carrot genome database. All 35 DcHSFs were divided into three classes (A, B, and C) according to the structure and phylogenetic relationships of four different plants, namely, Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Brassica rapa, and Oryza sativa. Comparative analysis of algae, gymnosperms, and angiosperms indicated that the numbers of HSF transcription factors were related to the plant's evolution. The expression profiles of five DcHsf genes (DcHsf 01, DcHsf 02, DcHsf 09, DcHsf 10, and DcHsf 16), which selected from each subfamily (A, B, and C), were detected by quantitative real-time PCR under abiotic stresses (cold, heat, high salinity, and drought) in two carrot cultivars, D. carota L. cvs. Kurodagosun and Junchuanhong. The expression levels of DcHsfs were markedly increased by heat stress, except that of DcHsf 10, which was down regulated. The expression profiles of different DcHsfs in the same class also differed under various stress treatments. The expression profiles of these DcHsfs were also different in tissues of two carrot cultivars. This study is the first to identify and characterize the DcHSF family transcription factors in plants of Apiaceae using whole-genome analysis. The results of this study provide an in-depth understanding of the DcHSF family transcription factors' structure, function, and evolution in carrot. PMID:25403331

  6. Development and preservation of a cocktail beverage produced from Carrot (Daucus carrota), Pineapple (Ananas comosus) and Mango (Mangifera indoca L,)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrot is known to have the potential of providing vital nutrition as well as health and well-being to consumers. In this study, carrot juice was envisaged as a good vehicle for spreading its nutraceutical benefits. The study was then designed in two parts: (a) Survey to establish the beverage consumption pattern in the Anyaa-Sowutuom District in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana and (b) Carrot juice formulation and optimisation. The survey was conducted by administering a questionnaire to volunteer adult consumers. To develop an acceptable carrot juice beverage, pineapple juice and mango juice were included as components to improve taste and flavour respectively. A constrained, simplex centroid mixture design for three components was employed to optimise the proportions of the components in the final product based on sensory attributes. Chemical analyses as well as shelf stability studies were conducted for the optimised beverage preserved by chemicals and gamma radiation. Data obtained from the survey revealed that juices were very popular among consumers. The choice of a particular beverage was dependent on nutrition, taste and colour. Contour plots generated from sensory data of the products were overlaid to determine the optimum ratios of the components of the cocktail beverage. The optimised product consisted of 50-52% Carrot, 18-20% Pineapple and 28-30% Mango. Analysis of the beverage revealed 223 mg/100ml Potassium, 3.92 mg/100ml Pro-vitamin A (Beta carotene) and 43 mg/100ml vitamin C. After 8 weeks of storage 71% Pro-vitamin A was retained even under relatively higher doses (2.5kGy) of gamma radiation. The microbial quality of the beverage was good under all conditions. (au)

  7. Aspectos da fisiologia de cenoura minimamente processada Physiological aspects of minimally processed carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milza M. Lana

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available O processamento mínimo de hortaliças compreende as operações que eliminam as partes não comestíveis, seguidas pelo corte em tamanhos menores, tornando-as prontas para consumo imediato e mantendo a condição de produto in natura. A oferta e o interesse do consumidor por esses produtos têm sido crescentes, tanto para o mercado institucional (restaurantes e cozinhas industriais, como para o consumidor final. A cenoura é, dentre as hortaliças, uma das principais espécies comercializadas nessa forma, ou seja, ralada, picada em cubos ou rodelas ou na forma de mini-cenoura (`baby-carrot'. As operações de processamento causam uma série de estresses e alterações metabólicas indesejáveis que reduzem a vida útil da hortaliça processada em relação ao produto inteiro. Dentre as principais, incluem-se o aumento da taxa respiratória e da transpiração, a deterioração microbiana, a produção de metabólitos secundários e a degradação de membranas lipídicas. São apresentados os efeitos de diversos fatores como cultivares, formas de corte, tratamentos químicos, uso de revestimentos, irradiação, atmosfera modificada e refrigeração sobre a magnitude das alterações fisiológicas resultantes do processamento.Minimal processing of vegetables involves the elimination of non-edible parts followed by cutting into smaller pieces, so that the product obtained is ready-to-eat and fresh-like. The demand for minimally processed vegetables by consumers and by food service industry has increased. Carrot is among the most popular vegetables marketed this way, that is shredded, cut as slices or cubes and as baby-carrot. Minimal processing operations induce stress and undesirable metabolic changes that reduce the product shelf life in relation to the intact organs from which they were obtained. These metabolic changes include increase in respiration and transpiration rate, pathological breakdown, synthesis of secondary compounds and membrane

  8. Bioaccessibility and arsenic speciation in carrots, beets and quinoa from a contaminated area of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Isabel; Gómez-Gómez, Milagros; León, Jennifer; Román, Domingo; Palacios, M Antonia

    2016-09-15

    Consumption of vegetables grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soils is an important exposure route to the element for humans. The present study is focused on locally-grown, frequently-consumed vegetables, such as carrots (Daucus carota), beets (Beta vulgaris) and quinoa (Chenopodium) from the As-polluted Chiu Chiu area in Northern Chile. The latter region is affected both by As discharge from copper mining activity and natural As contamination, leading to a high As content in local food and water. For the selected vegetables, the following aspects were investigated: i) Their total As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn content; ii) Arsenic speciation in the edible part of the vegetables by liquid chromatography inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS) analysis; iii) Arsenic bioaccessibility in the vegetables during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; iv) Arsenic species present in the extracts obtained from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; and v) Arsenic dietary exposure estimates for the assessment of the risk posed by the vegetables consumption. A significant degree of As contamination was found in the vegetables under study, their metal content having been compared with that of similar Spanish uncontaminated products. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the studied vegetables led to quantitative extraction of As from carrots and beets, whereas efficiency was about 40% for quinoa. For carrots, only As(III) and As(V) species were found, being their concentration levels similar. In the case of quinoa, around 85% of the element was present as As(V). For beets, inorganic As(V) and unknown overlapped As species (probably arsenosugars) were found. No significant transformation of the original As species was observed during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Arsenic dietary exposure values obtained for the three vegetables (0.017-0.021μg As person(-1)day(-1)) were much lower than the JFCFA's safety limit of 50μg As person(-1)day(-1). Therefore, no

  9. Comparison of the efficacy of gamma and UV irradiation in sanitization of fresh carrot juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As there is no pasteurization procedure for the manufacture of fresh vegetable juice, both industry and consumers have sought a method for improving the storage stability and shelf-life of this category of products. In this study, the effects of commercially available, non-thermal pasteurization processes, such as gamma and UV irradiation, were compared for their efficacy in sanitizing fresh carrot juice (FCJ). FCJ was manufactured, packaged, and gamma irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 3, and 5 kGy. The manufactured FCJ was also passed through 4 UV light lamps at doses of 3.67, 4.69, and 6.50 kGy. The total aerobic bacterial count of the FCJ approached the legal limit (105 CFU/mL) after manufacturing. Both treatments were effective in reducing the number of total aerobic bacteria, and the reduced number was maintained during storage for 7 days. Gamma irradiation was more effective in suppressing microbial growth during storage. When the doses for UV treatment and gamma irradiation were higher, the inactivation effects were higher. The reduction of ascorbic acid content was greater upon gamma irradiation than UV treatment. No difference was found in the contents of flavonoids and polyphenols in FCJ after either treatment. After 3 days of refrigerated storage, the sensory scores of gamma- or UV-irradiated FCJ were superior to those of the control. The results indicate that both non-thermal treatments were effective in improving storage stability and extending shelf-life, but gamma irradiation was slightly better in suppressing microbial growth after treatment. - Highlights: ► Gamma irradiation and UV treatment were compared for their efficacy in sanitizing fresh carrot juice. ► Both treatments were effective in reducing the number of total aerobic bacteria but gamma irradiation was more effective. ► Reduction of ascorbic acid content was greater by gamma irradiation than by UV treatment. ► Sensory scores of gamma irradiated or UV-treated carrot juice were

  10. A gene-derived SNP-based high resolution linkage map of carrot including the location of QTL conditioning root and leaf anthocyanin pigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Purple carrots accumulate large quantities of anthocyanins in their roots and leaves. These flavonoid pigments possess antioxidant activity and are implicated in providing health benefits. The lack of informative and saturated linkage maps associated with well characterized populations s...

  11. The influence of the fungal pathogen Mycocentrospora acerina on the proteome and polyacetylenes and 6-methoxymellein in organic and conventionally cultivated carrots (Daucus carota) during post harvest storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louarn, Sébastien; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz; Edelenbos, Merete;

    2012-01-01

    Many carrots are discarded during post harvest cold storage due to development of fungal infections, caused by, e.g., Mycocentrospora acerina (liquorice rot). We compared the susceptibility of carrots grown under conventional and organic agricultural practices. In one year, organically cultivated...... metabolism. This combined metabolic and proteomic study indicates that roots respond to fungal infection through altered metabolism: simultaneous induction of 6-methoxymellein and synthesis of defence related proteins....... carrots showed 3× to 7× more symptoms than conventionally cultivated, when studying naturally occurring disease at 4 and 6 months, respectively. On the other hand, we have developed a bioassay for infection studies of M. acerina on carrots and observed that organic roots were more susceptible after one...

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF SULFUR CONTAINING ANALOGS OF MONOMETHYLARSONIC ACID IN AQUEOUS PHASE STANDARDS AND CARROT EXTRACTS BY IC-ICP-MS AND IC-ESI-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, sulfur analogs of well known arsenicals have been identified, generating a need for stable species-specific standards. This presentation will focus on the identification and characterization of a novel species, monomethylthioarsonic acid (MMTA), in carrots. A standard...

  13. Deposition of carotenoids in egg yolk by short-term supplement of coloured carrot (Daucus carota) varieties as forage material for egg-laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Hammershoj, Marianne; Kidmose, Ulla; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supplying egg-laying hens with different forage materials may influence egg production and quality. The aim of this study was to examine the short-term effects of standard feed plus 70 g day−1 per hen of three coloured carrot varieties (orange, yellow and purple) as forage material in comparison with a standard feed control on egg production, egg yolk colour and deposition of carotenoids in the yolk. RESULTS: Carrot supplementation reduced feed intakes significantly, but not...

  14. Evaluating the potential of high pressure high temperature and thermal processing on volatile compounds, nutritional and structural properties of orange and yellow carrots

    OpenAIRE

    Grauwet, Tara; Kebede, Biniam Tamiru; Delgado, Rosa M.; Lemmens, Lien; Manzoni, Filipa; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Hendrickx, Marc; Elmore, J. Stephen; Van Loey, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The present study compares the impact of thermal and high pressure high temperature(HPHT) processing on volatile profile (via a non-targeted headspace fingerprinting) and structural and nutritional quality parameter (via targeted approaches) of orange and yellow carrot purees. The effect of oil enrichment was also considered. Since oil enrichment affects compounds volatility, the effect of oil was not studied when comparing the volatile fraction. For the targeted part, as yellow carrot purees...

  15. Combined effects of coating, modified atmosphere packaging, and gamma irradiation on quality maintenance of ready-to-use carrots (Daucus carota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortune, R; Caillet, S; Lacroix, M

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an edible coating combined with modified atmosphere (MA; 60% O2, 30% CO2, and 10% N2) packaging and gamma irradiation on the microbiological stability and physicochemical quality of minimally processed carrots. A coating based on calcium caseinate and whey protein isolates was used. Coated and uncoated peeled minicarrots were packed under the MA or air (78.1% N2, 20.9% O2, and 0.036% CO2), irradiated at 0.5 or 1 kGy, and stored at 4 +/- 1 degrees C for 21 days. Samples were evaluated periodically for aerobic plates counts (APCs) and physicochemical properties (firmness, white discoloration, and whiteness index). Gamma irradiation did not significantly affect the physicochemical properties of the carrots (P > 0.05). Microbiological analysis revealed that for uncoated carrots irradiation at 0.5 and 1 kGy under air and MA reduced the APCs by 3.5 and 4 log CFU/g and by 4 and 4.5 log CFU/g, respectively. For coated carrots, irradiation at 0.5 and 1 kGy under air and MA reduced the APCs by 4 and 4.5 log CFU/g and by 3 and 4.25 log CFU/g, respectively. The coating was able to protect carrots against dehydration during storage under air. Coating and irradiation at 1 kGy were also able to protect carrot firmness during storage under air. MA packaging retarded whitening of uncoated carrots but had a detrimental effect on firmness. The edible coating used in this study did not significantly inhibit (P > 0.05) microbial growth on carrots. PMID:15726981

  16. The effect of carrot juice, β-carotene supplementation on lymphocyte DNA damage, erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes and plasma lipid profiles in Korean smoker

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hye-Jin; Park, Yoo Kyoung; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2011-01-01

    High consumption of fruits and vegetables has been suggested to provide some protection to smokers who are exposed to an increased risk of numerous cancers and other degenerative diseases. Carrot is the most important source of dietary β-carotene. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether carrot juice supplementation to smokers can protect against lymphocyte DNA damage and to compare the effect of supplementation of capsules containing purified β-carotene or a placebo ...

  17. Provitamin a activity of Brazilian carrots: leaves and roots, raw and cooked and their chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Bicudo Almeida-Muradian

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine through carotenoid analysis, the provitamin A value of two carrots (Daucus carota L. cultivars (Brasilia and Beta3, leaves and roots, raw and submitted to two ways of cooking: boiling and microwave. Proximate analysis results are also presented for a better characterization of these vegetables (moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, fiber and total carbohydrates. The main carotenoids sources of provitamin A in this vegetable, both in leaves or roots was β-carotene and α-carotene. α-carotene shows half of the provitamin A value of β-carotene. Samples of the Brasilia cultivar presented the better provitamin A value both for leaves and roots. The results for raw samples of the Brasilia cultivar were 464.48 RE/100g for leaves and 606.42 RE/100g for roots. There were no significant losses of provitamin A with the boiling or microwave cooking methods used.

  18. Study of the tolerance of ten accessions of carrot (Daucus carota L. to salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basma Kahouli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work has focused on the assessment of the tolerance of ten accessions of carrot (L1, L2, L3, F4, E5, R7, R8, L10, G11 and S12 to salt stress, grown in the region of Sidi Bouzid. The tests were carried out under plastic greenhouse (during 5 months. The results obtained show that the salt stress reduced the parameters of growth and production. However, a difference in the response to salt stress was recorded between the accessions studied. A reduction in yield of up to 70 % with the concentration 3 g / l of NaCl, for different accessions studied is recorded. However, the accession L1 who has given the longer roots and dry matter yield and the largest root shows the most tolerant accessions unlike L10, G11 and S12 which are the most sensitive.

  19. Evolution of antioxidant capacity of blend juice made from beetroot, carrot and celery during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina G. PROFIR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable juice is a valuable source of antioxidants because it contains a significant amount of bioactive compounds and it can be a convenient way of consumption. The antioxidant capacity of vegetables depends on a wide range of compounds like flavonoids, phenolic acids, aminoacids, ascorbic acid, tocopherols and pigments. The levels of individual antioxidants in food do not reflect their total antioxidant capacity, which could also depend on their synergism. The aim of this study is to compare the changes occurred on antioxidant capacity of vegetables juice during refrigerated storage after two different preservation processes: pasteurization and fermentation. A blend of juice obtained from beetroot, carrot and celery has been stored at temperature of 4ºC for two weeks. During this period of time antioxidant activity, total flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds have been quantified. Our results have shown that fermented juice is an important source of antioxidant compounds with a good stability during storage.

  20. Induction by carrot allelochemicals of insecticide-metabolising enzymes in the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattsten, L B; Evans, C K; Bonetti, S; Zalkow, L H

    1984-01-01

    Carrot foliage monoterpenes induce cytochrome P-450 up to 2.9-fold, NADPH cytochrome c (P-450) reductase up to 1.6-fold, NADPH-oxidation up to 3.8-fold, aldrin epoxidation up to 1.5-fold in southern armyworm larval midgut tissues when incorporated in their diet at 0.2% for 3 days. Stigmasterol and ergosterol did not substantially induce microsomal oxidase activities and significantly inhibited GSH S-aryltransferase activity and sulfotransferase activity. Coumarin did not substantially affect microsomal oxidase and sulfotransferase activity but is the most potent inducer of GSH S-aryltransferase activity, increasing this activity 7-fold. None of the chemicals is acutely toxic to the sixth instar larvae or affect the larval weight gain except coumarin which significantly depressed the maximal body weight attained. PMID:6141878

  1. Effect of weightlessness conditions on the somatic embryogenesis in the culture of carrot cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butenko, R. G.; Dmitriyeva, N. N.; Ongko, V.; Basyrova, L. V.

    1977-01-01

    A carrot cell culture seeded in Petri dishes in the United States and transported to the USSR was subjected to weightlessness for 20 days during the flight of Kosmos 782. The controls were cultures placed on a centrifuge (1 g) inside the satellite and cultures left on ground in the U.S.S.R. and the United States. A count of structures in the dishes after the flight showed that the number of developing embryonic structures and the extent of their differentiation in weightlessness did not reliably differ from the number and extent of differentiation in structures developed on the ground. Structures with long roots developed in weightlessness. Analysis of the root zones showed that these roots differed by the increased size of the zone of differentiated cells. The increased size of the zones of differentiated cells can indicate earlier development of embryonic structures.

  2. Genes of resistance to carrot soft rot in Daucus carota germplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erwinia carotovora is a casual agent of soft rot in the carrot. This disease causes severe root losses in the crop, mainly during post-harvest storage but also in the field in the late growing season. Of the many cultivars screened in our department between 1988 and 1990, we found none that was resistant. Consequently, we started to look for sources of resistance genes among wild Daucus carota subspecies. Resistant plants were used for callus production, which will constitute the material for in vitro selection. Resistance to Erwinia carotovora is rather rare. Proof of this is research on the potato, which has been conducted for many years and where the only source of resistance that has been found is the wild species Solanumb brevidens. 3 refs

  3. Myo-Inositol trisphosphate mobilizes calcium from fusogenic carrot (Daucus carota L.) protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether or not inositol trisphosphate (IP3) mobilizes calcium in higher plant cells; they investigated the effect of IP3 on Ca2+ fluxes in fusogenic carrot (Daucus carota L.) protoplasts. The protoplasts were incubated in 45Ca2+-containing medium and the 45Ca2+ associated with the protoplasts was monitored with time. Addition of IP3 (20 micromolar) caused a 17% net loss of the accumulated 45Ca2+ within 4 minutes. There was a reuptake of 45Ca2+ and the protoplasts recovered to their initial value by 10 minutes. Phytic acid (IP6), also stimulated 45Ca2+ efflux from the protoplasts. Both the IP3- and the IP6-induced 45Ca2+ efflux were inhibited by the calmodulin antagonist, trifluoperazine

  4. Radiosensitivity of different tissues from carrot root at different phases of growth in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work compares the effect of γ-radiation dose and time in culture on the growth of cambium and phloem carrot (Daucus carota) root explants. It was found that the phloem is more radiosensitive than the cambium and that both tissues were more radiosensitive when irradiated on excision at the G1 phase rather than at the end of the lag phase on the ninth day of growth in culture when cells were predominantly at the G2 phase. The nuclear volumes of cells from both tissues were similar but were larger at the end of the more radioresistant lag phase than those of the G1 phase on excision. However, nuclear volume could not account for the differences in radiosensitivity between either the tissues or irradiation times in culture

  5. Influence of drying by convective air dryer or power ultrasound on the vitamin C and β-carotene content of carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Juana; Peñas, Elena; Ullate, Mónica; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2010-10-13

    Convective air drying and power ultrasound effects on vitamin C and β-carotene contents in carrots were studied. For convective air drying, a central composite face-centered design fitting temperature between 40 and 65 °C and air flow rate between 2 and 6 × 10(-1) m/s were used; previously, carrots were blanched. Likewise, ultrasound drying was performed on both unblanched and blanched carrots at 20, 40, and 60 °C for 120, 90, and 75 min, respectively. Blanching had a sharp effect on vitamin C and β-carotene degradation (80-92% retentions, respectively), and convective air drying led to further losses (32-50% and 73-90% retentions, respectively). According to the response surface model, a combination of 40 °C and 6 × 10(-1) m/s will maximize vitamin C retention in dried carrots, whereas 40 °C and 3.3 × 10(-1) m/s will ensure the highest β-carotene content. Ultrasound drying caused higher vitamin C and β-carotene retention (82-92% and 96-98%, respectively) than convective air drying. Blanched carrots dehydrated by ultrasound showed retentions of 55% and 88% of vitamin C and β-carotene, respectively. Ultrasound drying at 20 °C for 120 min caused the maximum vitamin C and β-carotene contents. Therefore, power ultrasound may be considered a valuable tool to obtain high nutritive dehydrated carrots. PMID:20843024

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial quality of minimally processed carrot and lettuce: A case study in Greater Accra region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ionizing radiation on the microbiological quality on minimally processed carrot and lettuce was studied. The aim was to investigate the effect of irradiation as a sanitizing agent on the bacteriological quality of some raw eaten salad vegetables obtained from retailers in Accra, Ghana. Minimally processed carrot and lettuce were analysed for total viable count, total coliform count and pathogenic organisms. The samples collected were treated and analysed for a 15 day period. The total viable count for carrot ranged from 1.49 to 14.01 log10 cfu/10 g while that of lettuce was 0.70 to 8.5 7 log10 cfu/10 g. It was also observed that total coliform count for carrot was 1.46–7.53 log10 cfu/10 g and 0.14–7.35 log10 cfu/10 g for lettuce. The predominant pathogenic organisms identified were Bacillus cereus, Cronobacter sakazakii, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella spp. It was concluded that 2 kGy was most effective for medium dose treatment of minimally processed carrot and lettuce. - Highlights: • The microbial load on the cut-vegetables was beyond acceptable level for consumption. • The microbial contamination of carrot was found to be higher than that of lettuce. • 2 kGy was most appropriate in treating cut-vegetables for microbial safety

  7. 胡萝卜火腿肠的研制%Study on the Formula of Carrot Flavor Sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹阳; 张丽芳

    2011-01-01

    [Objective ] To search for the optimum formula of carrot flavor sausages. [ Method ] With pork and carrots as the main raw materi als and soybean albumen and glutinous rice starch as adjunct, the single factor test was adopted to determine the optimum addition range of carrot juice, and then the orthogonal experiment was carried out to determine the best addition amount of carrot juice, glutinous rice starch, soybean albumen, carrageenin, salt, spice, monosodium glutamate and white sugar. [ Result] The optimal formula was 60% pork (fat/mus cle ratio 1 'A), 13% carrot juice, 8% glutinous rice starch, 4% soybean albumen, 0.3% carrageenin, 3% salt,0.8% spice,0.3% mono sodium glutamate and 1.2% white sugar. [ Conclusion ] The study not only richened the varieties of sausages and added more nutrients to the sausage products, but also paved a new path and broad marketing prospect for the deep processing of carrots.%[目的]寻求胡萝卜风味火腿肠的最佳配方.[方法]以猪肉和胡萝卜为主要原料,以大豆蛋白和糯米淀粉为辅料,采用单因素试验确定了胡萝卜汁的最佳添加范围.再通过正交试验确定胡萝卜汁、糯米淀粉、大豆蛋白、卡拉胶、食盐、香辛料、味素、白糖的最佳添加量.[结果]最佳配方为猪肉60%(肥瘦比1∶4)、胡萝卜汁13%、糯米淀粉8%、大豆蛋白4%、卡拉胶0.3%、食盐3%、香辛料0.8%、味素0.3%、白糖1.2%.[结论]该研究不仅丰富了火腿肠的种类,增添了肠制品的营养,也为胡萝卜的深加工开辟了一条新道路,具有良好的市场前景.

  8. Improving microbiological safety and maintaining sensory and nutritional quality of pre-cut tomato and carrot by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pre-cut tomato and carrot were irradiated with doses of 1.0, 1.5 and 2 kGy. Unirradiated control and irradiated samples were compared organoleptically by a sensory panel. Microbiological analyses were performed directly after irradiation and during post-irradiation storage for 8 days at 5 °C. Ascorbic acid contents, composition of carotenoids and tocopherols were determined. Statistically significant differences of sensory scores between unirradiated and irradiated samples were observed only in the texture of sliced carrots. Total aerobic viable cell counts have been reduced by about two log cycles with 1.5 kGy dose. Total coliforms and moulds were below the detection limit of 15 CFU/g in the irradiated samples during the refrigerated storage. Yeasts were relatively resistant part of the microbiota of pre-cut tomatoes, but 2 kGy dose reduced them below the detection limit. In pre-cut tomatoes, alpha-tocopherol and some carotenoids seemed to be the most radio-sensitive losing approximately one-third of their original concentrations at the dose of 2 kGy. At this dose tocopherols and the level of ascorbic acid decreased also one-third of the initial level in sliced carrots. Additional experiments were conducted to study the effect of irradiation and storage on the population of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua artificially inoculated on cut tomato and carrot. Cell numbers of both test organisms decreased by at least two log-cycles as an effect of 1 kGy dose. Our studies confirmed earlier findings on a temporary antilisterial effect of freshly cut carrot tissue. No re-growth of Listeria was observed during the studied storage period. The results of these studies suggest that irradiation with 1 kGy gamma rays could improve sufficiently the microbiological safety of the investigated pre-cut produce to satisfy the requirement of low microbial raw diets with acceptable nutritional quality and without diminishing significantly the organoleptic parameters of the

  9. Effect of intercropping carrot (Daucus carota L.) with french marigold (Tagetes patula nana L.) and pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) on the occurrence of some pests and quality of carrot yield

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Jankowska; Elżbieta Jędrszczyk; Małgorzata Poniedziałek

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping combines different aspects of the interaction between organisms in ecosystems and may be classified as a pro-ecological method of plant cultivation limiting the harmful human interference in the environment, especially the use of chemicals. It also allows high yield, good quality, and economic productivity to be achieved. The aim of the present study, conducted in the years 2003–2004 in Mydlniki near Kraków, was to determine the effect of intercropping carrot Nardin F1 with Fren...

  10. Projected Dietary Intake of Zinc, Copper, and Cerium from Consumption of Carrot (Daucus carota) Exposed to Metal Oxide Nanoparticles or Metal Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Stephen D; Bradfield, Scott J; Kumar, Pawan; White, Jason C; Ma, Xingmao

    2016-01-01

    The expanding production and use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have raised concerns about the potential risk of those materials to food safety and human health. In a prior study, the accumulation of Zn, Cu, and Ce from ZnO, CuO, or CeO2, respectively, was examined in carrot (Daucus carota L.) grown in sand culture in comparison to accumulation from exposure to equivalent concentrations of ionic Zn(2+), Cu(2+), or Ce(4+). The fresh weight concentration data for peeled and unpeeled carrots were used to project dietary intake of each metal by seven age-mass classes from child to adult based on consumption of a single serving of carrot. Dietary intake was compared to the oral reference dose (oral RfD) for chronic toxicity for Zn or Cu and estimated mean and median oral RfD values for Ce based on nine other rare earth elements. Reverse dietary intake calculations were also conducted to estimate the number of servings of carrot, the mass of carrot consumed, or the tissue concentration of Zn, Cu, or Ce that would cause the oral RfD to be exceeded upon consumption. The projections indicated for Zn and Cu, the oral RfD would be exceeded in only a few highly unrealistic scenarios of exceedingly high Zn or Cu concentrations in the substrate from ZnO or CuO or consumption of excessive amounts of unpeeled carrot. The implications associated with the presence of Ce in the carrot tissues depended upon whether the mean or median oral RfD value from the rare earth elements was used as a basis for comparison. The calculations further indicated that peeling carrots reduced the projected dietary intake by one to two orders of magnitude for both ENM- and ionic-treated carrots. Overall in terms of total metal concentration, the results suggested no specific impact of the ENM form on dietary intake. The effort here provided a conservative view of the potential dietary intake of these three metals that might result from consumption of carrots exposed to nanomaterials (NMs) and how

  11. Projected Dietary Intake of Zinc, Copper, and Cerium from Consumption of Carrot (Daucus carota) Exposed to Metal Oxide Nanoparticles or Metal Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Stephen D.; Bradfield, Scott J.; Kumar, Pawan; White, Jason C.; Ma, Xingmao

    2016-01-01

    The expanding production and use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have raised concerns about the potential risk of those materials to food safety and human health. In a prior study, the accumulation of Zn, Cu, and Ce from ZnO, CuO, or CeO2, respectively, was examined in carrot (Daucus carota L.) grown in sand culture in comparison to accumulation from exposure to equivalent concentrations of ionic Zn2+, Cu2+, or Ce4+. The fresh weight concentration data for peeled and unpeeled carrots were used to project dietary intake of each metal by seven age-mass classes from child to adult based on consumption of a single serving of carrot. Dietary intake was compared to the oral reference dose (oral RfD) for chronic toxicity for Zn or Cu and estimated mean and median oral RfD values for Ce based on nine other rare earth elements. Reverse dietary intake calculations were also conducted to estimate the number of servings of carrot, the mass of carrot consumed, or the tissue concentration of Zn, Cu, or Ce that would cause the oral RfD to be exceeded upon consumption. The projections indicated for Zn and Cu, the oral RfD would be exceeded in only a few highly unrealistic scenarios of exceedingly high Zn or Cu concentrations in the substrate from ZnO or CuO or consumption of excessive amounts of unpeeled carrot. The implications associated with the presence of Ce in the carrot tissues depended upon whether the mean or median oral RfD value from the rare earth elements was used as a basis for comparison. The calculations further indicated that peeling carrots reduced the projected dietary intake by one to two orders of magnitude for both ENM- and ionic-treated carrots. Overall in terms of total metal concentration, the results suggested no specific impact of the ENM form on dietary intake. The effort here provided a conservative view of the potential dietary intake of these three metals that might result from consumption of carrots exposed to nanomaterials (NMs) and how peeling

  12. Modeling the transfer of arsenic from soil to carrot (Daucus carota L.)--a greenhouse and field-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changfeng; Zhou, Fen; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-07-01

    Reliable empirical models describing arsenic (As) transfer in soil-plant systems are needed to estimate the human As burden from dietary intake. A greenhouse experiment was conducted in parallel with a field trial located at three sites through China to develop and validate soil-plant transfer models to predict As concentrations in carrot (Daucus carota L.). Stepwise multiple linear regression relationships were based on soil properties and the pseudo total (aqua regia) or available (0.5 M NaHCO3) soil As fractions. Carrot As contents were best predicted by the pseudo total soil As concentrations in combination with soil pH and Fe oxide, with the percentage of variation explained being up to 70 %. The constructed prediction model was further validated and improved to avoid overprotection using data from the field trial. The final obtained model is of great practical relevance to the prediction of As uptake under field conditions. PMID:25750050

  13. Medical care as the carrot: the Red Cross in Indonesia during the war of decolonization, 1945-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, L

    2013-01-01

    During the war of decolonisation in Indonesia 1945-1950, the Dutch Red Cross and the Dutch East Indies Red Cross delivered aid to sick and wounded soldiers and civilians. This was supposed to happen in cooperation with organisations including the Indonesian Red Cross, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the military health service and civilian health services. Due to lack of resources, doctors and nurses, and due to differing interests, cooperation went anything but smoothly, severely undermining medical aid. On top of that, the aid that was given turned out be a tool of propaganda for the Dutch cause. Aid was deliberately--and with Red Cross consent--used as a political-military tool in the service of Dutch national interests. In a military strategy of carrot and stick, medical care served as the carrot. PMID:24133931

  14. Shelf-life extension and improving micro-biological quality of mixed peas with diced carrot by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed peas with diced carrot were collected and examined for their microbiological quality. All the examined samples had high level of microbial load. All examined samples contained Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus faecalis (Ent. faecalis). Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was detected in only 4 of samples (26.3%). The tested samples were free from Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila), Listeria monocytogenes (L monocytogenes) and Salmonella species. Gamma irradiation caused a great reduction in all microbial loads. During refrigerated storage, the counts of all microorganisms increased, but the rate of increase was slower as the irradiation dose increased. Irradiation dose of 3 kGy was the optimum dose for preservation of mixed peas with diced carrot which extended the refrigeration shelf-life up to 21 days and it was sufficient in eliminating pathogenic bacteria without affecting their sensory quality and with negligible effect on chemical quality.

  15. De novo assembly and characterization of the carrot transcriptome reveals novel genes, new markers, and genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matvienko Marta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among next generation sequence technologies, platforms such as Illumina and SOLiD produce short reads but with higher coverage and lower cost per sequenced nucleotide than 454 or Sanger. A challenge now is to develop efficient strategies to use short-read length platforms for de novo assembly and marker development. The scope of this study was to develop a de novo assembly of carrot ESTs from multiple genotypes using the Illumina platform, and to identify polymorphisms. Results A de novo assembly of transcriptome sequence from four genetic backgrounds produced 58,751 contigs and singletons. Over 50% of these assembled sequences were annotated allowing detection of transposable elements and new carrot anthocyanin genes. Presence of multiple genetic backgrounds in our assembly allowed the identification of 114 computationally polymorphic SSRs, and 20,058 SNPs at a depth of coverage of 20× or more. Polymorphisms were predominantly between inbred lines except for the cultivated x wild RIL pool which had high intra-sample polymorphism. About 90% and 88% of tested SSR and SNP primers amplified a product, of which 70% and 46%, respectively, were of the expected size. Out of verified SSR and SNP markers 84% and 82% were polymorphic. About 25% of SNPs genotyped were polymorphic in two diverse mapping populations. Conclusions This study confirmed the potential of short read platforms for de novo EST assembly and identification of genetic polymorphisms in carrot. In addition we produced the first large-scale transcriptome of carrot, a species lacking genomic resources.

  16. Asymmetric reduction of α-hydroxy aromatic ketones to chiral aryl vicinal diols using carrot enzymes system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Liu; Yi Wang; Hai Yan Gao; Jian He Xu

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric reduction of α-hydroxy aromatic ketones was carried out by using carrot enzymes system,yielding corresponding chiral vicinal diols with special functional groups.The optimum reaction conditions were obtained after investigation of various influencing factors.Chiral aryl vicinal diols were produced with good yields and excellent enantiomeric excesses under appropriate conditions,Meanwhile,the steric factors and electronic effects of the substituents on the aromatic ring were shown to have an interesting influence on both yield and enantioselectivity.

  17. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for the control of Alternaria dauci and A. radicina on carrot seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, E.; Schmitt, A.; Stephan, D; Kromphardt, C.; Jahn, M; Krauthausen, H.J.; G Forsberg; Werner, S.; Amein, T.; Wright, S.A.I.; TINIVELLA, F; Gullino, M.L.; Roberts, S. J.; Wolf, de, H.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The current study was initiated to evaluate the efficacy of physical methods (hot water, aerated steam, electron treatment) and agents of natural origin (resistance inducers, plant derived products, micro-organisms) as seed treatments of carrots for control of Alternaria dauci and A. radicina. Control of both Alternaria species by seed treatment with the resistance inducers was generally poor. Results were also not satisfactory with most of the formulated commercial micro-organism preparation...

  18. Combined effect of water loss and wounding stress on gene activation of metabolic pathways associated with phenolic biosynthesis in carrot

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra-Moreno, Alejandro; Redondo-Gil, Mónica; Benavides, Jorge; Nair, Vimal; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Daniel A. Jacobo-Velázquez

    2015-01-01

    The application of postharvest abiotic stresses is an effective strategy to activate the primary and secondary metabolism of plants inducing the accumulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds. In the present study, the effect of water stress applied alone and in combination with wounding stress on the activation of primary (shikimic acid) and secondary (phenylpropanoid) metabolic pathways related with the accumulation of phenolic compound in plants was evaluated. Carrot (Daucus carota) was us...

  19. Shelf life of minimally processed carrot and green pepper Vida útil de cenoura e pimentão minimamente processados

    OpenAIRE

    Lucimeire Pilon; Marília Oetterer; Cláudio R. Gallo; Marta H. F. Spoto

    2006-01-01

    The postharvest losses of horticultural products justify the use of preservation techniques. The processing not only adds value to the products, but also makes the products more convenient to the consumers. The objective of this research was to define the methodologies for the minimal processing of carrot and green pepper as to the type and intensity of the adoption of conservation techniques, and to monitor the products after processing through microbiological, physicochemical and nutritiona...

  20. Impact of processing on carrot baby food nutritional quality and safety Potential of fluorescence as in real time monitoring tool

    OpenAIRE

    Birlouez, I.; Acharid, A.; Rizkallah, J.; Ait-Aimeur, L.; Neugnot, B.; Särkkä-Tirkkonen, M.; Seidel, K.; Kahl, J

    2011-01-01

    Background: In the frame of the QACCP (Quality Assessment of Critical Control Points)project of the Core Organic platform, the potential of front face fluorescence for assessment of carrot quality and critical points in processing was demonstrated. The impact of processing on quality loss of organic baby food puree manufacturing was analyzed, including the different steps of the process. The impact of the raw material preprocessing was also studied. Attention was especially paid on potential ...

  1. Production of edible coating based on fruit and vegetable residues: application on minimally processed carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Elizabeth Cavalcante Fai; Mariana Rangel Alves de Souza; Natalia Vinhosa Bruno; Édira Castello Branco de Andrade Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    The application of edible coatings obtainable from alternative biodegradable materials has gained attention as a promising treatment to prolong the shelf-life of fresh-cut vegetables. Thus, this work aimed to develop a biodegradable coating based on fruit and vegetable residues flour. Immersion coating strategy was studied on the quality of minimally fresh-cut carrots during refrigeration storage by means of weight loss, color variation, pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids content. Bett...

  2. Continued Selenium Biofortification of Carrots and Broccoli Grown in Soils Once Amended with Se-enriched S. pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos, Gary S; Arroyo, Irvin S; Dangi, Sadikshya R; Zambrano, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) biofortification has been practiced in Se-deficient regions throughout the world primarily by adding inorganic sources of Se to the soil. Considering the use of adding organic sources of Se could be useful as an alternative Se amendment for the production of Se-biofortified food crops. In this multi-year micro-plot study, we investigate growing carrots and broccoli in soils that had been previously amended with Se-enriched Stanleya pinnata Pursh (Britton) three and 4 years prior to planting one and two, respectively. Results showed that total and extractable Se concentrations in soils (0-30 cm) were 1.65 mg kg(-1) and 88 μg L(-1), and 0.92 mg kg(-1) and 48.6 μg L(-1) at the beginning of the growing season for planting one and two, respectively. After each respective growing season, total Se concentrations in the broccoli florets and carrots ranged from 6.99 to 7.83 mg kg(-1) and 3.15 to 6.25 mg kg(-1) in planting one and two, respectively. In broccoli and carrot plant tissues, SeMet (selenomethionine) was the predominant selenoamino acid identified in Se aqueous extracts. In postharvest soils from planting one, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses showed that amending the soil with S. pinnata exerted no effect on the microbial biomass, AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi), actinomycetes and Gram-positive and bacterial PLFA at both 0-5 and 0-30 cm, respectively, 3 years later. Successfully producing Se-enriched broccoli and carrots 3 and 4 years later after amending soil with Se-enriched S. pinnata clearly demonstrates its potential source as an organic Se enriched fertilizer for Se-deficient regions. PMID:27602038

  3. Chemical characterization of leaves of organically grown carrot Dacus carota L. in various stages of development for use as food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Wihby Leite

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, street markets and vegetable distributors discard vegetable leaves and stems, including those of carrot (Dacus carota L.. Seeking to reduce the waste of vegetable parts, this study characterized chemically the leaves of organically grown carrot in three stages of development to determine the best time for their removal and consumption as food. The leaves were dehydrated in an oven at 70 °C for 43 hours and analyzed for chemical composition, antioxidant activity, chlorophyll content, fatty acid composition, and also calcium (Ca, sodium (Na, potassium (K, magnesium (Mg, manganese (Mn, iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, and copper (Cu contents. The analyses indicated 100 days of development as the ideal stage for the removal and consumption of carrot leaves with good antioxidant activity requiring only 63.78 ± 0.5 mg.L-1 methanol leaf extract to inhibit 50% of the concentration of the free radical DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1picrilidrazil, and total protein and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3/LNA contents of 18.23% ± 2.8 and 876.55 ± 20.62 mg.100 g-1 of dry matter, respectively.

  4. Production of edible coating based on fruit and vegetable residues: application on minimally processed carrot (Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elizabeth Cavalcante Fai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of edible coatings obtainable from alternative biodegradable materials has gained attention as a promising treatment to prolong the shelf-life of fresh-cut vegetables. Thus, this work aimed to develop a biodegradable coating based on fruit and vegetable residues flour. Immersion coating strategy was studied on the quality of minimally fresh-cut carrots during refrigeration storage by means of weight loss, color variation, pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids content. Better performance was obtained for coated carrots, which exhibited a tendency to have lower whiteness index than uncoated counterparts and enhanced overall quality. Despite a drop in color saturation expressed by chroma values (varying from 59 to 46 was observed, color index presented a positive value for all samples (varying from 13 to 15 indicating orange color preservation throughout storage. Although color parameter was influenced by coating treatment, minor modifications occur over storage concerning weight loss, pH, titratable acidity and soluble content. Results obtained demonstrated the potential of the fruit and vegetable residues flour for edible coatings formulation. Practical application on minimally processed carrots supported its suitability to be used as an alternative coating material and constitute a motivating route to evaluate and optimize this alternative preservation technique.

  5. The effects of gamma irradiation on the growth and cytology of carrot (Dacus Carota L.) tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrot (Dacus Carota L.) tissue suspension cultures were subjected to 0.5-40 krad of gamma irradiation. Callus fresh weight was significantly increased and dry weight slightly increased by low doses (0.5 and 1 krad). Cells size increased at all doses. Cell number and colony-forming ability decreased. There was a negative correlation between radiation dose and mitotic index, and a positive correlation between dose and mitotic abnormalities (multipolar separations, lagging chromosomes, and bridges). Frequency of prophase was increased, and ana phase and telophase were reduced. Tissue culture conditions increased the incidence of aneuploidy and polyploidy in comparison to carrot root tips. Aneuploidy in tissue cultures was decreased and polyploidy was increased by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation stimulated shoot formation at 1 krad, and inhibited shoot formation at high doses (20-40 krads). The frequency of abnormal plants (albinos, and plants with no roots or deformation of leaves) regenerated from carrot cell cultures was increased by gamma irradiation. (authors). 30 refs., 3 figs

  6. Use of botanical extracts, cassava wastewater and nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode on carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of several plant species have shown promising in controlling root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, one of the most limiting agents for carrot cultivation. The current study evaluated the effect of aqueous extracts from seven botanical species applied to 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 days after sowing 'Nantes' carrots in soil infested with root-knot nematode. Three other treatments included cassava wastewater, distilled water (control, which were applied in the same periods of the extracts application, in addition to carbofuran 50G (80Kg/ha, which was applied once at 60 days after carrot sowing. Evaluations were performed at 90 days after inoculation to determine shoot and root fresh weight, as well as the diameter and the length of principal roots and the number of galls on primary and secondary roots. Plants treated with cassava wastewater, extracts of Ricinus communis L. seeds, Crotalaria juncea L. seeds, R. communis leaves + branches + fruits, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves + branches + inflorescences and Azadirachta indica A. Juss. seeds showed the highest rates of total weight (root + shoot and shoot weight. The extract of R. communis leaves + branches + fruits provides the highest total root weight and principal root diameter. Cassava wastewater and extracts of R. communis seeds provided the highest principal root weight. The extract of R. communis seeds and cassava wastewater can be considered promising for the alternative control of M. incognita.

  7. Produção e renda bruta de mandioquinha-salsa, solteira e consorciada com cenoura e coentro = Yield and gross income of Peruvian carrot in monocrop system and intercropped with carrot and coriander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Antonio Heredia Zárate

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas a mandioquinha-salsa ‘Amarela de Carandaí’- M, a cenoura ‘Brasília - Ce o coentro ‘Tipo Português’- Co em cultivos solteiros e os consórcios MCe e MCo. Os cinco tratamentos foram arranjados no campo, no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. A colheita da cenoura foi aos 95 dias após a semeadura; a do coentro, aos 112 dias e a da mandioquinha-salsa, aos 247 dias após o plantio. A altura das plantas (42,3 cm e as massas frescas de raízes total (9,07 t ha-1 e comercial (6,55 t ha-1 da cenoura no consórcio MCe tiveram aumentos significativos de 4,4 cm; 2,34 e 1,73 t ha-1, respectivamente, em relação às plantas cultivadas solteiras. No coentro, a altura (24,0 cm e a massa fresca de folhas (2,98 t ha-1 das plantas solteiras foram significativamente maiores que as consorciadas. Na mandioquinha-salsa, houve influência significativa da forma de cultivo e os maiores valores de massas frescas, em t ha-1, de folhas(17,84, rebentos (4,07, coroas (3,99 e de raízes totais (14,04, comerciais (10,46 e nãocomerciais (3,58 foram obtidos no cultivo solteiro. O consórcio MCe foi considerado efetivo (RAE = 1,47 e o MCo foi inefetivo (RAE = 0,76. A renda bruta indicou que osdois consórcios não devem ser recomendados para o produtor de mandioquinha-salsa porque induziriam perdas de R$ 8.650,00 e R$ 7.011,25, respectivamente.‘Amarela de Carandaí’ Peruvian carrot (M, ‘Brasília’ carrot (Ce and ‘Tipo Português’ coriander (Co were studied in monocrop system and intercropped with carrot and coriander. Five treatments were arranged at field in a completely randomized block design with five replications. Harvest of carrot occurred 95 days after sowing; coriander harvest occurred 112 days after sowing; and the Peruvian carrot harvest, 247 days after planting. Plant height (42.3 cm and fresh masses of total (9.07 t ha-1 and commercial (6.55 t ha-1 roots of carrot in the MCe intercrop

  8. Improving microbiological safety and maintaining sensory and nutritional quality of pre-cut tomato and carrot by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohácsi-Farkas, Cs.; Nyirő-Fekete, B.; Daood, H.; Dalmadi, I.; Kiskó, G.

    2014-06-01

    Pre-cut tomato and carrot were irradiated with doses of 1.0, 1.5 and 2 kGy. Unirradiated control and irradiated samples were compared organoleptically by a sensory panel. Microbiological analyses were performed directly after irradiation and during post-irradiation storage for 8 days at 5 °C. Ascorbic acid contents, composition of carotenoids and tocopherols were determined. Statistically significant differences of sensory scores between unirradiated and irradiated samples were observed only in the texture of sliced carrots. Total aerobic viable cell counts have been reduced by about two log cycles with 1.5 kGy dose. Total coliforms and moulds were below the detection limit of 15 CFU/g in the irradiated samples during the refrigerated storage. Yeasts were relatively resistant part of the microbiota of pre-cut tomatoes, but 2 kGy dose reduced them below the detection limit. In pre-cut tomatoes, alpha-tocopherol and some carotenoids seemed to be the most radio-sensitive losing approximately one-third of their original concentrations at the dose of 2 kGy. At this dose tocopherols and the level of ascorbic acid decreased also one-third of the initial level in sliced carrots. Additional experiments were conducted to study the effect of irradiation and storage on the population of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua artificially inoculated on cut tomato and carrot. Cell numbers of both test organisms decreased by at least two log-cycles as an effect of 1 kGy dose. Our studies confirmed earlier findings on a temporary antilisterial effect of freshly cut carrot tissue. No re-growth of Listeria was observed during the studied storage period. The results of these studies suggest that irradiation with 1 kGy gamma rays could improve sufficiently the microbiological safety of the investigated pre-cut produce to satisfy the requirement of low microbial raw diets with acceptable nutritional quality and without diminishing significantly the organoleptic parameters of the

  9. Plants as biofactories: physiological role of reactive oxygen species on the accumulation of phenolic antioxidants in carrot tissue under wounding and hyperoxia stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A; Martínez-Hernández, Ginés B; Del C Rodríguez, Silvia; Cao, Cong-Mei; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2011-06-22

    Plants subjected to postharvest abiotic stresses synthesize secondary metabolites with health-promoting properties. Here, we report the potential use of carrots (Daucus carota) as biofactories of caffeoylquinic acids when subjected to wounding and hyperoxia stresses. Wounding stress induced an increase of ∼287% in total phenolic content (PC) in carrots stored for 48 h at 20 °C. This increase was higher (∼349%) in the wounded tissue treated with hyperoxia stress. To further understand the physiological role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a signaling molecule for the stress-induced accumulation of phenolics in carrots, the respiration rate as well as the enzymatic activities of NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase were evaluated. Likewise, shredded carrots were treated with diphenyleneiodonium chloride solution to block NADPH oxidase ROS productions, and the phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity and total PC were evaluated. Results demonstrated that ROS play a key role as a signaling molecule for the stress-induced accumulation of PC in carrots. PMID:21553806

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial quality of minimally processed carrot and lettuce: A case study in Greater Accra region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong, G. K.; Kottoh, I. D.; Ofosu, D. O.; Larbi, D.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on the microbiological quality on minimally processed carrot and lettuce was studied. The aim was to investigate the effect of irradiation as a sanitizing agent on the bacteriological quality of some raw eaten salad vegetables obtained from retailers in Accra, Ghana. Minimally processed carrot and lettuce were analysed for total viable count, total coliform count and pathogenic organisms. The samples collected were treated and analysed for a 15 day period. The total viable count for carrot ranged from 1.49 to 14.01 log10 cfu/10 g while that of lettuce was 0.70 to 8.5 7 log10 cfu/10 g. It was also observed that total coliform count for carrot was 1.46-7.53 log10 cfu/10 g and 0.14-7.35 log10 cfu/10 g for lettuce. The predominant pathogenic organisms identified were Bacillus cereus, Cronobacter sakazakii, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella spp. It was concluded that 2 kGy was most effective for medium dose treatment of minimally processed carrot and lettuce.

  11. Polyacetylenes from carrots (Daucus carota) improve glucose uptake in vitro in adipocytes and myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Houri, Rime B; Kotowska, Dorota; Christensen, Kathrine B; Bhattacharya, Sumangala; Oksbjerg, Niels; Wolber, Gerhard; Kristiansen, Karsten; Christensen, Lars P

    2015-07-01

    A dichloromethane (DCM) extract of carrot roots was found to stimulate insulin-dependent glucose uptake (GU) in adipocytes in a dose dependent manner. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the DCM extract resulted in the isolation of the polyacetylenes falcarinol and falcarindiol. Both polyacetylenes were able to significantly stimulate basal and/or insulin-dependent GU in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and porcine myotube cell cultures in a dose-dependent manner. Falcarindiol increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ-mediated transactivation significantly at concentrations of 3, 10 and 30 μM, while PPARγ-mediated transactivation by falcarinol was only observed at 10 μM. Docking studies accordingly indicated that falcarindiol binds to the ligand binding domain of PPARγ with higher affinity than falcarinol and that both polyacetylenes exhibit characteristics of PPARγ partial agonists. Falcarinol was shown to inhibit adipocyte differentiation as evident by gene expression studies and Oil Red O staining, whereas falcarindiol did not inhibit adipocyte differentiation, which indicates that these polyacetylenes have distinct modes of action. The results of the present study suggest that falcarinol and falcarindiol may represent scaffolds for novel partial PPARγ agonists with possible antidiabetic properties. PMID:25970571

  12. Carrot fiber (CF) composite films for antioxidant preservation: Particle size effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo Encalada, Alondra M; Basanta, Maria F; Fissore, Eliana N; De'Nobili, Maria D; Rojas, Ana M

    2016-01-20

    The effect of particle size (53, 105 and 210 μm) of carrot fiber (CF) on their hydration properties and antioxidant capacity as well as on the performance of the CF-composite films developed with commercial low methoxyl pectin (LMP) was studied. It was determined that CF contained carotenoids and phenolics co-extracted with polysaccharides (80%), rich in pectins (15%). CF showed antioxidant activity and produced homogeneous calcium-LMP-based composites. The 53-μm-CF showed the lowest hydration capability and produced the least elastic and deformable composite film due probably to CF bridged by calcium-crosslinked LMP chains. Antioxidant activity associated to the loaded CF was found in composites. When L-(+)-ascorbic acid (AA) was also loaded, its hydrolytic stability increased with the decrease in CF-particle size, showing the lowest stability in the 0%-CF- and 210 μm-CF-LMP films. Below ≈ 250 μm, the particle size determined the hydration properties of pectin-containing CF, affecting the microstructure and water mobility in composites. PMID:26572445

  13. Mechanism of column and carrot sprites derived from optical and radio observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianqi; Celestin, Sebastien; Pasko, Victor P.; Cummer, Steven A.; McHarg, Matthew G.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, Hans C.

    2013-09-01

    The lightning current waveforms observed simultaneously with high-speed video records of a column and a carrot sprite event are incorporated in a plasma fluid model to provide quantitative explanation of these two distinct morphological classes of transient luminous events. We calculate the strength of the lightning-induced electric field at sprite altitudes using a time integral of the ionization frequency ∫0tνi(E/N)dt. For the studied two events, modeling results indicate that these integral values never exceed 18 in the lower ionosphere, which is the minimum value required for the initiation of streamers from single seed electrons according to the Raether-Meek criterion. It is therefore suggested that the presence of electron inhomogeneities is a necessary condition for the initiation of sprite streamers. It is further demonstrated using streamer modeling that a minimum value of the integral ˜10 is necessary to initiate upward negative streamers from inhomogeneities, corresponding to a minimum charge moment change of ˜500 C km under typical nighttime conditions. If the integral values in the entire upper atmosphere are smaller than ˜10, only column sprites can be produced, dominated by downward positive streamers.

  14. Effect of the applied drying method on the physical properties of purple carrot pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewska, E.; Witrowa-Rajchert, D.; Kidoń, M.; Czapski, J.

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different drying methods on selected physical properties of pomace obtained from purple carrot cv. Deep Purple. Drying was performed using four methods: convective, microwave-convective, infrared-convective and freeze-drying. The freeze-dried material had the lowest apparent density (422 kg m-3), which was caused by slight shrinkage, and indicated high porosity. Apparent density was almost three times greater in dried materials produced using the other drying methods as compared to the freeze-dried variants. Freeze-dried pomace adsorbed vapour more quickly than the other dried variants, which was caused by its high porosity and relatively low degree of structural damage. Rehydration characteristicswere significantly affected by the dryingmethod. The highest mass increase and losses of soluble substance were recorded for the freeze-dried samples. Conversely, the traditional convective drying method resulted in the lowest mass increase and soluble substance leaching. A positive linear correlation was found between the loss of soluble dry substance components and the absorbance of liquid obtained during rehydration.

  15. Influence of aluminum on the uptake of various cations from a solution into carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of Al on the absorption of various elements by a carrot (U.S. harumakigosun) was investigated using a multitracer technique. An uptake experiment was conducted within the range of 0.0-2.0 ppm AlCl3 in culture solution. By the addition of AlCl3, uptake of elements such as Be, V, Zn and rare earth elements (REE) into roots was increased. For Be and V an approximately three-fold increase was observed. The degree of uptake enhancement of nonessential elements by AlCl3 was generally very high, whereas some of the essential or beneficial elements exhibited a decrease in uptake with the increase of AlCl3 concentration. This suggests that the uptake of nonessential elements might be increased through transporters with decreased selectivity due to Al. From the viewpoint of the acid rain problem, it is suggested that one of the detrimental effects of Al on plants is the imbalanced elemental absorption. (author)

  16. Impact of atmospheric deposition of As, Cd and Pb on their concentration in carrot and celeriac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root crops, carrot and celeriac, were exposed to atmospheric deposition in a polluted versus reference area. An effect was observed on the As, Cd and Pb concentrations of the leaves and the storage organs. The concentrations in the whole storage organs correlated well with atmospheric deposition, which shows that they even could be used for biomonitoring. Nevertheless, leaves remain much more appropriate. The results revealed also a significant increase of the As and Cd concentration in the consumable part of the storage organs as a function of their atmospheric deposition. As such the experiments allowed deriving regression equations, useful for modeling the atmospheric impact of trace elements on the edible parts of root crops. For Pb, however, there was hardly any significant impact on the inner parts of the storage organs and as such the transfer of Pb in the food chain through root crops can be considered to be negligible. - Highlights: ► This paper is exploring new ideas on biomonitoring. ► Some airborne trace elements are transported to unexposed plant parts. ► Storage organs accumulate also airborne trace elements. ► Biomonitoring is useful to study the transfer of trace elements in the food chain. - Biomonitoring as a tool to study the impact of atmospherically deposited trace elements on the food chain.

  17. A high affinity binding site for cytokinin to a particulate fraction in carrot suspension cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrot suspension cells contain one class of high affinity binding sites for cytokinin in an 80,000 X g particulate fraction. Binding of [8-14C] - benzylaminopurine (BA) to this fraction assayed by a sedimentation method was found to be optimal at ph 6.0 and thermolabile. Specific binding was proved in competition experiments in which labelled BA was displaced by increasing concentrations of unlabelled BA. Scatchard plots of these results displayed a dissociation constant (Ksub(d)) of 33+- 6 n.M. The number of binding sites found was 1,100+-120 fmol g-1 fresh weight which is equivalent to a frequency of 23,000 binding sites per cell. The specificity of the binding sites to cytokinins and their analogues followed the sequence BA with highest affinity, kinetin, zeatin, iP and adenine. The cytokinin ribosides generally had a lower affinity than their cytokinin bases, and the affinity decreased in the order [9 R] BA, [9 R] iP, [i R]Z, [9 R] A. (author)

  18. Changes in inositol phosphates in wild carrot cells upon initiation of cell wall digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that inositol trisphosphate (IP3) stimulated 45Ca+2 efflux from fusogenic carrot protoplasts and it was suggested that IP3 may serve as a second messenger for the mobilization of intracellular Ca+2 in higher plant cells. To determine whether or not inositol phosphate metabolism changes in response to external stimuli, the cells were labeled with myo-[2-3H] inositol for 18 h and exposed to cell wall digestion enzymes, Driselase. The inositol phosphates were extracted with ice cold 10% TCA and separated by anion exchange chromatography. The radioactivity of the fraction that contained IP3 increased 2-3.8 fold and that which contained inositol bisphosphate increased 1.9-2.6 fold within 1.5 min of exposure to Driselase. After 6 min, the radioactivity of both fractions increased 6-7.7 fold and an increase in inositol monophosphate was observed. These data indicate that inositol phosphate metabolism is stimulated by Driselase and suggest polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis occurs upon initiation of cell wall digestion

  19. Multi-method comparison of carrot quality from a conventional and three organic cropping systems with increasing levels of nutrient recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paoletti, Flavio; Raffo´, Antonio; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg;

    2012-01-01

    for the quality characteristics of the products. In this study the quality characteristics of carrot grown under different farming practices (conventional and three organic cropping systems) over a two-year period were analysed with the aim of discriminating between organic and conventional and investigating...... the effect of different organic farming practices concerning nutrient recycling and use of external nutrient input. RESULTS: All quality characteristics measured did not give a clear differentiation between the carrots from the different growing systems, even when multivariate statistical evaluation...... used. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that it was not possible to discriminate over the years between carrots from conventional and different organic cropping systems even though controlled conditions and a multi-method approach of analysis were adopted. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry...

  20. 一种咸味胡萝卜汁饮料的研制%Optimization of The Formula of A Salty Carrot Juice Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐正弦; 刘千根; 朱庭照

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, carrot was used as the main material and a salty carrot juice beverage was developed with peanuts, sugar, and white pepper acted as the auxiliary materials. Orthogonal experiments were conducted in this study, and the best formula was determined as follows: carrot 30%, sugar 3.5%, peanut 2%, salt 0.2% and white pepper powder 0.04%.%本文以胡萝卜为主要原料,辅以花生、白砂糖、食盐、白胡椒粉研制出一种成味胡萝卜汁饮料.正交实验确定的最佳配方为:胡萝卜30%,白砂糖3.5%,花生2%,食盐0.2%,白胡椒粉0.04%.

  1. Effects of Organic and Conventional Growth Systems on the Content of Flavonoids in Onions and Phenolic Acids in Carrots and Potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltoft, M.; Nielsen, J.; Lauren, K.H.;

    2010-01-01

    affected by, for example, plant nutrient availability, climate, pathogen infection, and pest attack. In the current study, onions, carrots, and potatoes were cultivated in two-year field trials in three different geographical locations, comprising one conventional and two organic agricultural systems. The...... contents of flavonoids and phenolic acids in plants were analyzed by pressurized liquid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet quantification. In onions and carrots, no statistically significant differences between growth systems were found for any of the analyzed polyphenols. On...... the basis of the present study carried out under well-controlled conditions, it cannot be concluded that organically grown onions, carrots, and potatoes generally have higher contents of health-promoting secondary metabolites in comparison with the conventionally cultivated ones....

  2. Genome-wide analysis of AP2/ERF transcription factors in carrot (Daucus carota L.) reveals evolution and expression profiles under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Yao; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Huang, Ying; Tian, Chang; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    AP2/ERF is a large transcription factor family that regulates plant physiological processes, such as plant development and stress response. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is an important economical crop with a genome size of 480 Mb; the draft genome sequencing of this crop has been completed by our group. However, little is known about the AP2/ERF factors in carrot. In this study, a total of 267 putative AP2/ERF factors were identified from the whole-genome sequence of carrot. These AP2/ERF proteins were phylogenetically clustered into five subfamilies based on their similarity to the amino acid sequences from Arabidopsis. The distribution and comparative genome analysis of the AP2/ERF factors among plants showed the AP2/ERF factors had expansion during the evolutionary process, and the AP2 domain was highly conserved during evolution. The number of AP2/ERF factors in land plants expanded during their evolution. A total of 60 orthologous and 145 coorthologous AP2/ERF gene pairs between carrot and Arabidopsis were identified, and the interaction network of orthologous genes was constructed. The expression patterns of eight AP2/ERF family genes from each subfamily (DREB, ERF, AP2, and RAV) were related to abiotic stresses. Yeast one-hybrid and β-galactosidase activity assays confirmed the DRE and GCC box-binding activities of DREB subfamily genes. This study is the first to identify and characterize the AP2/ERF transcription factors in carrot using whole-genome analysis, and the findings may serve as references for future functional research on the transcription factors in carrot. PMID:25971861

  3. nfluences of ammonium-nitrate, food waste compost and bacterial fertilizer on soluble soil nitrogen forms and on the growth of carrot (Daucus Carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Balla Kovács

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a greenhouse study to compare the effects of food waste compost, bacterial fertilizer and their combination with the effect of mineral fertilizer on yield of carrot and the available nutrient content of soils. The study was conducted on calcareous chernozem and acidic sandy soils and consisted of 8 treatments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The NH4NO3 resulted in reduced growing of carrot plant in sandy soil, and the treatment effect of mineral fertilizer was not observed significantly in chernozem soil. Sandy soil showed higher response of growth of carrot to food waste compost fertilization than chernozem soil. Sole application of EM-1 bacterial fertilizer did not have marked effect on yield parameters and sizes of roots. When EM-1 bacterial fertilizer was applied together with ammonium-nitrate or with compost in chernozem soil, the weights of roots and the sizes of roots in some cases became higher compared to the values of appropriate treatments without inoculation. In sandy soil the diameter of roots slightly increased when EM-1 bacterial fertilizer was applied with ammonium-nitrate and with ammonium-nitrate+compost combination compared to appropriate treatment without inoculation. In chernozem soil the maximum weights and sizes of roots were achieved with the combined treatment of ammonium-nitrate+compost+EM-1 bacterial fertilizer and in sandy soil with compost treatment. Our results of soluble nitrogen content of soils are in good agreement with yield parameters of carrot. Results suggest that food waste compost could be a good substitute for mineral fertilizer application in carrot production mainly in sandy soil. EM-1 bacterial fertilizer did not cause marked effect on yield and yield parameters of carrot plant, but its combination with other fertilizers promises a little bit higher yield or plant available nutrient in the soil. These effects do not clear exactly, so further studies are

  4. Calagem em cultivos sucessivos de cenoura e alface Liming on crop rotation system of carrot and lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo E Trani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A quantidade de calcário indicada de forma rotineira para hortaliças tem pouca experimentação de campo para dar suporte a níveis de aplicação. Neste trabalho procurou-se estabelecer valores para a saturação por bases (V e pH (CaCl2 para melhor produtividade e qualidade de cenoura (de inverno e alface (de verão, cultivadas sucessivamente por três anos agrícolas em um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo em Monte Alegre do Sul (SP. Avaliou-se a calagem aplicada no ano, bem como o efeito residual da calagem no segundo e terceiro anos subseqüentes. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: 0; 2; 4; 6 e 8 t ha-1 de calcário no primeiro ano, e 4 e 8 t ha-1 de calcário no segundo e terceiro anos. Constatou-se efeito positivo da calagem sobre a produção e qualidade comercial da cenoura e da alface nos três anos agrícolas e efeito residual da calagem aplicada no primeiro ano do experimento sobre as produções de cenoura e alface nos anos seguintes. No primeiro ano, a produtividade de cenoura comercial foi de 24% a 39% maior do que a testemunha sem calcário, enquanto o peso médio da cabeça de alface aumentou de 79% a 199%. As maiores produtividades de cenoura foram de 46 t ha-1 obtidas com V=73% e pH (CaCl2= 5,7. As melhores produções de alface foram atingidas com V entre 72% e 80% e o pH (CaCl2 entre 5,5 e 5,6. A omissão de B, Cu, Mn e Zn em um dos tratamentos com calagem acarretou na queda de produtividade e qualidade da cenoura nos três anos agrícolas.Amounts of lime recommended for carrots and lettuce have little experimental support for the amounts indicated. This research was developed to determine the adequate value of soil bases saturation (V and pH (CaCl2 to obtain the best yield and commercial quality of carrot (winter and lettuce (summer cultivated on crop rotation system during three years. The experiment was carried out in Monte Alegre do Sul, São Paulo State, Brazil, on a Typic Kandaudult soil. The residual effect of liming, at the

  5. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for chlorantraniliprole in carrots, parsnips, parsley root and celeriac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, herewith referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from the Horticultural Development Company to modify the existing MRL for chlorantraniliprole in carrots, parsnips, celeriac and parsley root. In order to accommodate the intended use in the NEU, the EMS proposed to set the MRL for chlorantraniliprole in the crops under consideration at 0.04 mg/kg. The existing MRL for carrots is set at the level of 0.08 mg/kg. This MRL will expire on 1 January 2013 and after that date a MRL of 0.02 mg/kg will be applicable unless modified by a Regulation. The EMS drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA, the data are sufficient to extrapolate residue data from carrots to parsnips, parsley root and celeriac and to derive MRL proposals for all these crops in support of the NEU use. Member States granting authorisations of the use of chlorantraniliprole should implement necessary risk mitigation measures to ensure that residues do not occur in rotational/succeeding crops. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the intended use of chlorantraniliprole on the crops under consideration will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a public health concern. Since the peer review is not yet finalised, the conclusions reached in this reasoned opinion should be taken as provisional and might need to be reconsidered in the light of the outcome of the peer review.

  6. Fast determination of phenoxy acid herbicides in carrots and apples using liquid chromatography coupled triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santilio, Angela; Stefanelli, Patrizia; Dommarco, Roberto

    2009-08-01

    A fast, simple and inexpensive method has been developed for the analysis of phenoxy acid herbicides: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), 2-(4-chloro-o-tolyloxy)propionic acid (MCPP), 2-(4-aryloxyphenoxy)propionic acid (Fluazifop) and 2-(4-aryloxyphenoxy)propionic acid (Haloxyfop) in carrots and apples by liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The compounds were analyzed by QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) methodology without cleanup. The recoveries were performed at two spiked levels (0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg) for both matrices with six replicates for each level. The mean recoveries ranged from 70-92% for both apples and carrots. The precision of the method expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD%) was found to be in the range 3-15%. For all compounds, good linearity (r(2) > 0.99) was obtained over the range of concentration from 0.05 micro g/mL to 0.5 micro g/mL, corresponding to the pesticide concentrations of 0.05 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively. The determination limits (LOQs) ranged from 0.01 ng/mL to 1.3 ng/mL in solvent, whereas, the LOQs calculated in matrix ranged from 0.05 ng/g to 21.0 ng/g for apples and from 0.06 ng/g to 10.2 ng/g for carrots. The developed methodology combines the advantages of both QuEChERS and LC/MS/MS producing a very rapid, sensitive and cheap method useful for the routine analytical laboratories. PMID:20183066

  7. Private Health Insurance Incentives in Australia: The Effects of Recent Changes to Price Carrots and Income Sticks

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Robson; Francesco Paolucci

    2012-01-01

    Three major policy tools govern the demand for private health insurance (PHI) in Australia: premium-related subsidies (i.e. PHI-rebate); income tax surcharges (i.e. the Medicare Levy Surcharge (MLS)); and lifetime community-rating (i.e. Lifetime Health Cover). The first two provide a system of “carrots and sticks” to create incentives for increasing the demand for PHI. The third creates incentives for consumers to purchase PHI earlier than they otherwise would have, and to maintain this cover...

  8. Color evolution of aqueous solutions obtained by thermal processing of carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots: influence of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This, H; Cazor, A; Trinh, D

    2008-05-01

    The color of aqueous solutions obtained by heating carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots in water ("stocks") is different when the thermal treatment is applied with or without exposure to light. CIE L*, a*, and b* scale values of stocks processed for different times were recorded and 4 patterns were initially observed. To explain the 1st part of this evolution (patterns 1 and 2), pectin extraction and beta-elimination in stocks were studied. Light dependence was investigated to explain patterns 3 and 4. A model with 2 compounds is proposed to explain all the color variations. PMID:18460127

  9. Use of combined treatments involving gamma irradiation for the sterilization of a carrot puree intended to immunocompromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we were interested to the application of a series of combined physical treatments (blanching, vacuum packaging and irradiation) on carrot puree. The results showed that with sub-lethal dose of 3 kGy in combination with moderate heat treatment and moderate pressure vacuum we can achieve an undetectable level of bacteria while preserving the antioxidant activity and the phenolic content. The combination of mild irradiation doses with other physical or biological preservation methods can be used to provide more dietary variety for immunocompromised patients and other groups since it ensures stable sterile foods.

  10. Study on processing technology of hawthorn and carrot fruitcake%山楂胡萝卜果糕的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭鹏成; 梁瑛; 常霞

    2012-01-01

    Hawthorn and Carrot fruitcake was prepared by using hawthorn and carrot as raw material and glucose-fructose syrup, compound glue and citric acid as additives, and key factors of the process were investigated. The color protection for hawthorn and carrot syrup was achieved by adding vitamin C (0.3℃ , w/w)and stayed for 15 rain. The complex gum was composed of konjac gum 0.8% ,carrageenan gum 0.6% ,and xanthan gum 0.4% .The weight proportion of hawthorn and carrot fruit syrup to glucose-fructose syrups was 11 : 9. Heating temperature was 95 to 100℃. Keeping time was 15 min and then cooling to form jelly. It has not only improved the nutritional value of the products but also lowered the cost. This fruit jelly is dark red, semi-transparent, sweet-sour. It has delicate tissue and perfect toughness. This product will have broad prospects for exploiting.%以山楂、胡萝卜为原料,添加果葡糖浆、复合胶、柠檬酸加工成山楂胡萝卜果糕,对加工过程中的关键工艺进行了探讨。结果表明,山楂胡萝卜果浆用质量分数为0.3%Vc护色15min效果良好;产品配方为魔芋胶质量分数0.8%、卡拉胶质量分数0.6%、黄原胶质量分数0.2%,山楂胡萝卜果浆与果葡糖浆质量比为11:9。产品主要工艺条件为熬煮温度95℃-100℃,保持15min。然后进行成型冷却。制成的产品既提高了产品的营养价值又降低了成本,产品深红半透明,组织细腻,酸甜适口,韧性、弹性和咬劲俱佳,有很好的推广价值。

  11. Effects of coating on the acceptability of baby-carrots / Efeito do revestimento na aceitabilidade de mini-cenouras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Yamashita

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The consumer’s opinion of a product is influenced by its appearance. This, in turn, will influence the decision to purchase and eat the product. Equally, the shelf life and acceptability of carrots subjected to minimal processing is influenced by the fading or superficial blanching that develops in the product. The aim of this work was to evaluate the sensorial acceptability of mini-carrots in relation to the colour. colour. Carrots of the variety Indiana-F1 were processed in the premises of ‘ Mr. Rabbit Farm Ltd ‘ and divided in two lots, where one followed the normal flow of processing for the industry and to the other a coating stage was added, using an aqueous 2% solution of polypeptides. The two lots were stored in upright racks, using two temperatures, 5ºC and 10ºC, for subsequent sensorial evaluation. The acceptability tests of the 4 samples of baby-carrots were conducted after 1, 5, 9, 13, 17, 21 and 25 days of storage. Each time, from 100 to 125 consumers evaluated the baby-carrots using a 9 point hedonic scale. The evaluations were accomplished in three existing supermarkets in Viçosa. After one day of storage, the spacial separation of the samples suggested the existence of three groups, one formed by samples of baby-carrots without coating at 5º C and coated at 10º C, and the other two comprised baby-carrots coated at 5º C and not coated at 10 ºC. The consumers’ distribution demonstrated that the acceptance was quite homogeneous, indicating there was no definite preference of the consumers for any specific sample. On the 5th to the 25th day, the spacial separation of the samples suggested there were two different groups with relation to their acceptability, one for samples of coated baby-carrots and the other for non-coated, independently of storage temperature. The group formed by samples of coated babycarrots showed better acceptance to a larger number of consumers. The results indicated the efficiency of the coating

  12. Somatic embryogenesis of carrot in hormone-free medium: external pH control over morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Cultures of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs) were initiated from mechanically wounded mature zygotic embryos of carrot, Daucus carota, on a hormone-free, semisolid medium. These PGSPs have been maintained and multiplied for extended periods without their progression into later embryo stages on the same hormone-free medium containing 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. Sustained maintenance of cultures comprised exclusively of PGSPs was dependent on medium pH throughout the culture period. Best growth and multiplication of PGSP cultures occurred when the pH of unbuffered, hormone-free medium fell from 4.5 to 4 over a 2-week period or when buffered medium was titrated to pH 4. If the hormone-free medium was buffered to sustain a pH at or above 4.5, PGSPs developed into later embryo stages. Maintenance with continuous multiplication of PGSPs occurred equally well on medium containing NH4+ or NH4+ and NO3-, but growth was poor with NO3- alone. Additional observations on the effects of medium components such as various nitrogen sources and levels, sucrose concentration, semisolid supports, type of buffer, borate concentration, activated charcoal, and initial pH that permit optimum maintenance of the PGSPs or foster their continued developmental progression into mature embryos and plantlets are reported. The influence of the pH of the hormone-free medium as a determinant in maintaining cultures as PGSPs or allowing their continued embryonic development are unequivocally demonstrated by gross morphology, scanning electron microscopy, and histological preparations.

  13. Comparison of the efficacy of gamma and UV irradiation in sanitization of fresh carrot juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Kyung Haeng

    2012-08-01

    As there is no pasteurization procedure for the manufacture of fresh vegetable juice, both industry and consumers have sought a method for improving the storage stability and shelf-life of this category of products. In this study, the effects of commercially available, non-thermal pasteurization processes, such as gamma and UV irradiation, were compared for their efficacy in sanitizing fresh carrot juice (FCJ). FCJ was manufactured, packaged, and gamma irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 3, and 5 kGy. The manufactured FCJ was also passed through 4 UV light lamps at doses of 3.67, 4.69, and 6.50 kGy. The total aerobic bacterial count of the FCJ approached the legal limit (105 CFU/mL) after manufacturing. Both treatments were effective in reducing the number of total aerobic bacteria, and the reduced number was maintained during storage for 7 days. Gamma irradiation was more effective in suppressing microbial growth during storage. When the doses for UV treatment and gamma irradiation were higher, the inactivation effects were higher. The reduction of ascorbic acid content was greater upon gamma irradiation than UV treatment. No difference was found in the contents of flavonoids and polyphenols in FCJ after either treatment. After 3 days of refrigerated storage, the sensory scores of gamma- or UV-irradiated FCJ were superior to those of the control. The results indicate that both non-thermal treatments were effective in improving storage stability and extending shelf-life, but gamma irradiation was slightly better in suppressing microbial growth after treatment.

  14. Conservation studies of peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft.): effects of packaging, gamma radiation and storage temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft.) is a tuber root that presents a short post-harvest period of conservation, 3 to 5 days, due to a phyto pathology known as soft rot or mela, caused by bacteria of the genus Erwinia. This bacteria release enzymes that decay the cellular wall, causing the lost of the characteristic rigidity. At present, many conservation methods have been studied in the attempt of prolonging the post harvest conservation, but the combination of processes seems to be the best alternative. The aim of this work was to study the interaction between the conservation processes (refrigeration, vacuum packaging and irradiation) to extend the post-harvest period of the roots. It was studied the combination of two temperatures (25 deg C e 4 deg C), with two packages (boxes and vacuum) and three gamma irradiation doses (1, 2 e 3kGy), obtaining a total of 16 sample groups. The samples were daily analyzed, for a 30 day period, using texture parameters (penetration energy), microbiology and pectinolitic enzymes activities (pectate lyase, polygalactunoronase and pectin methyl esterase). The samples irradiated in doses of 2 and 3kGy, vacuum packed and conserved at 4 deg C extend the post-harvest period of 5 to 28 days, with a decrease of the microbiologic population, but with decreased in the rigidity of the roots (p<0.05). The treatments affected the pectinolitic enzymes profile, however the amplitude of the results and the low number of analysed samples per day, besides the complexity of factors affecting the enzyme activity and the multiple possible sources(endogenous, bacterial or fungous), limits the carefully discussion of the results. (author)

  15. Expression of a Carrot 36 kD Antifreeze Protein Gene Improves Cold Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) enable organisms to survive under cold conditions, and have great potential in improving cold tolerance of cold-sensitive plants. In order to determine whether expression of the carrot 36 kD antifreeze protein gene confers improved cold-resistant properties to plant tissues, we tried to obtain transgenic tobacco plants which expressed the antifreeze protein. Cold, salt, and drought induced promoter Prd29A was cloned using PCR from Arabidopsis. Two plant expression vectors based on pBI121 were constructed with CaMV35S:AFP and Prd29A:AFP. Tobacco plantlets were transformed by Agrobacterium-medicated transformation. PCR and Southern blotting demonstrated that the carrot 36 kD afp gene was successfully integrated into the genomes of transformed plantlets. The expression of the afp gene in transgenic plants led to improved tolerance to cold stress.However, the use of the strong constitutive 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter to drive expression of afp also resulted in growth retardation under normal growing conditions. In contrast, the expression of afp driven by the stress-inducible Prd29A promoter from Arabidopsis gave rise to minimal effects on plant growth while providing an increased tolerance to cold stress condition (2℃). The results demonstrated the prospect of using Prd29A-AFP transgenic plants in cold-stressed conditions that will in turn benefit agriculture.

  16. "微型"胡萝卜(Baby carrot)概念来源及市场发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄飞云; 胡鸿; 方智远

    2007-01-01

    @@ "Baby carrot"对于许多从美回国人员是非常熟悉的,有人称其为小胡萝卜、婴儿胡萝卜、娃娃胡萝卜、迷你胡萝卜、袖珍胡萝卜等,也有人称其为水果胡萝卜.在此,本文称之为"微型"胡萝卜.可以说,在美国大多数超市、餐馆都可以买到,也是美国大人、小孩十分喜爱的一种蔬菜."微型"胡萝卜是否真正由小胡萝卜做成的?对于大多数美国人也不是十分清楚.本文将详细阐述"微型"胡萝卜(Baby carrot)基本概念来源以及我国未来市场发展需求.

  17. Preparation on compound juice with carrot and corn%玉米胡萝卜复合汁的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙于庆; 曾维丽

    2012-01-01

    This article, taking carrot and fresh sweet corn as the main raw material, studied the processing technique for the mixed juice and its stability. According to sense assessment, the best prescription for the mixed juice was determined. The best product formula is as below: the ratio of the corn juice and the carrot juice is 2:1, the amount of sugar added is 10%, the amount of citric acid is 0.15%, the amount of compound stabilizer is 0.6%. The product is a kind of beverage, which has stable, smooth taste and the flavor is coordinated for the aged and children.%以胡萝卜、新鲜甜玉米为主要原料,通过感官评价,确定了玉米胡萝卜复合汁的最佳产品配方为:玉米汁与胡萝卜汁的比例为2:1、蔗糖添加量10%、柠檬酸添加量0.15%、复合稳定剂添加量0.6%。产品均匀稳定,酸甜适口,口感细腻柔和,风味协调,是一种营养丰富老少皆益的饮品。

  18. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose extraction in aqueous carrot root extracts prepared at different temperatures by means of direct NMR measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazor, Anne; Deborde, Catherine; Moing, Annick; Rolin, Dominique; This, Hervé

    2006-06-28

    Solutions obtained by heating carrot roots in water (stocks) are widely used in the food industry, but little information is available regarding the metabolites (intermediates and products of metabolism) found in the stock. The effect of treatment temperature and duration on the sugar composition of stocks was investigated directly by quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy, to understand the extraction mechanism when processing at 100 degrees C. Stocks prepared at three different temperatures (50, 75, and 100 degrees C) were investigated for up to 36 h. Three sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) were detected and quantified. The concentrations of these three sugars reached a maximum after 9 h when the temperature of treatment was 50 or 75 degrees C. At 100 degrees C, the sucrose concentration reached a maximum after 3 h, whereas the concentration of glucose and fructose was still increasing at that time. Comparison of the kinetic composition of these carrot stocks with that of model sugar solutions leads to the proposal that the changes in stock composition result from sugar diffusion, sucrose hydrolysis, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation. PMID:16787015

  19. Proficiency test PLANTS 8 - determination of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se and Zn in dry carrot root powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proficiency test PLANTS 8: determination of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se and Zn in dry carrot root powder has been described. The proficiency test has been provided by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology with cooperation with POLLAB-CHEM/EURACHEM-PL and REFMAT Society according to ISO/IEC Guide 43-1:1997 and IUPAC International Harmonized Protocol (2006). Testing material was prepared from home-grown carrots which were air dried, milled and sieved. Particle fraction below 0.5 mm was collected and bottled in 20 g portions. Homogeneity testing shown that the material was homogenized for sample mass at least 250 mg. Assigned (reference) values and their uncertainties were established on the basis of the results of analysis provided by 3 reference laboratories. The testing samples were send to 25 laboratories participating in the proficiency test. 24 laboratories had send results. The results supplied by the participants were statistically evaluated. Values of z-score, zeta-score and En numbers were used for the evaluation of the participating laboratory performance. (authors)

  20. Disappearance and distribution of 14C-chlorfenvinphos and some of its metabolities in the carrot plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pot experiments in glasshouse on residues of chlorfenvinphos in carrot plants have been carried out. A granular preparation containing 10% 14C-chlorfenvinphos was used at the seed time of the variety Lenka. The radioactivity was determined separately in the leaves, in the scraped roots and in the exodermis being scraped off. In the early consumption stage the residues of chlorfenvinphos were still fairly high, in the roots prepared for consumption being 0.21-0.67 mg/kg depending on the dose applied. In the stage of full ripeness no residues of chlorfenvinphos have been detected in the scraped roots. Some amounts of 2 metabolities, 2,4-dichlorophenacyl chloride and 2,4-dichloroacetophenone, have been found mainly in the leaves and in root exodermis. Considering, however, the amount of chlorfenvinphos residues determined in the early consumption stage as well as the rate of their disappearance, also in field investigations, the application of this compound for carrot plant protection seems to be non-advisable. (author)

  1. The impact of fermentation with exopolysaccharide producing lactic acid bacteria on rheological, chemical and sensory properties of pureed carrots (Daucus carota L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Riikka; Honkapää, Kaisu; Maina, Ndegwa H; Shi, Qiao; Viljanen, Kaarina; Maaheimo, Hannu; Virkki, Liisa; Tenkanen, Maija; Lantto, Raija

    2015-08-17

    Fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) offers a natural means to modify technological and nutritional properties of foods and food ingredients. This study explored the impact of fermentation with different exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing LAB on rheological, chemical and sensory properties of puréed carrots in water, as a vegetable model, with the focus on texture formation. The screening of 37 LAB strains for starter selection revealed 16 Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Weissella strains capable of EPS (dextran, levan, and/or β-glucan) production in the carrot raw material. Fermentations with five out of six selected EPS producers modified perceived texture of the liquid carrot model (p<0.05). The formation of low-branched dextran correlated with perceived thickness, whereas the production of β-glucan correlated with perceived elasticity. Low-branched dextran producing Weissella confusa and Leuconostoc lactis strains produced thick texture accompanied by pleasant odour and flavour. The fermentation with the selected EPS-producing LAB strains is a promising clean label approach to replace hydrocolloid additives as texturizers in vegetable containing products, not only carrot. PMID:26001525

  2. Beetroot-Carrot Juice Intake either Alone or in Combination with Antileukemic Drug 'Chlorambucil' As A Potential Treatment for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakib, Marie-Christine R; Gabrial, Shreef G N; Gabrial, Gamal N

    2015-06-15

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is one of the chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (lymphoid neoplasms). It is characterized by a progressive accumulation of functionally incompetent lymphocytes. Patients with leukemia often seek unconventional treatments not prescribed by hematologist in order to improve their cancer treatment outcome or to manage symptoms. In the present report, a 76-year-old patient was diagnosed with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Beetroot-carrot juice is used as a complementary and or/alternative therapy used in conjunction with conventional leukemic treatment (chlorambucil) that has been a standard first-line chemotherapeutic agent for patients with CLL and known to have serious and undesirable side-effects. After one month and 15 days of administration of beetroot-carrot juice therapy, the patient had improved appetite, a sense of general well-being and increased vigor daily activities. Furthermore, beetroot-carrot juice was used as an adjuvant to chlorambucil resulted in a substantial reduction in leukocytes and lymphocytes count in peripheral blood and improvement in the relevant biochemical parameters. Beetroot-carrot juice can be used as an effective treatment for CLL alone or in combination with chlorambucil when taken orally with regular diet on daily basis. PMID:27275246

  3. Beetroot-Carrot Juice Intake either Alone or in Combination with Antileukemic Drug ‘Chlorambucil’ As A Potential Treatment for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakib, Marie-Christine R.; Gabrial, Shreef G. N.; Gabrial, Gamal N.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is one of the chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (lymphoid neoplasms). It is characterized by a progressive accumulation of functionally incompetent lymphocytes. Patients with leukemia often seek unconventional treatments not prescribed by hematologist in order to improve their cancer treatment outcome or to manage symptoms. In the present report, a 76-year-old patient was diagnosed with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Beetroot-carrot juice is used as a complementary and or/alternative therapy used in conjunction with conventional leukemic treatment (chlorambucil) that has been a standard first-line chemotherapeutic agent for patients with CLL and known to have serious and undesirable side-effects. After one month and 15 days of administration of beetroot-carrot juice therapy, the patient had improved appetite, a sense of general well-being and increased vigor daily activities. Furthermore, beetroot-carrot juice was used as an adjuvant to chlorambucil resulted in a substantial reduction in leukocytes and lymphocytes count in peripheral blood and improvement in the relevant biochemical parameters. Beetroot-carrot juice can be used as an effective treatment for CLL alone or in combination with chlorambucil when taken orally with regular diet on daily basis. PMID:27275246

  4. Beetroot-Carrot Juice Intake either Alone or in Combination with Antileukemic Drug 'Chlorambucil' As A Potential Treatment for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine R. Shakib

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is one of the chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (lymphoid neoplasms. It is characterized by a progressive accumulation of functionally incompetent lymphocytes. Patients with leukemia often seek unconventional treatments not prescribed by hematologist in order to improve their cancer treatment outcome or to manage symptoms. In the present report, a 76-year-old patient was diagnosed with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL. Beetroot-carrot juice is used as a complementary and or/ alternative therapy used in conjunction with conventional leukemic treatment (chlorambucil that has been a standard first-line chemotherapeutic agent for patients with CLL and known to have serious and undesirable side-effects. After one month and 15 days of administration of beetroot-carrot juice therapy, the patient had improved appetite, a sense of general well-being and increased vigor daily activities. Furthermore, beetroot-carrot juice was used as an adjuvant to chlorambucil resulted in a substantial reduction in leukocytes and lymphocytes count in peripheral blood and improvement in the relevant biochemical parameters.  Beetroot-carrot juice can be used as an effective treatment for CLL alone or in combination with chlorambucil when taken orally with regular diet on daily basis.

  5. A gene-derived SNP-based high resolution linkage map of carrot including the location of QTL conditioning root and leaf anthocyanin pigmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Cavagnaro, Pablo F; Iorizzo, Massimo; Yildiz, Mehtap; Senalik, Douglas; Parsons, Joshua; Ellison, Shelby; Simon, Philipp W

    2014-01-01

    Background Purple carrots accumulate large quantities of anthocyanins in their roots and leaves. These flavonoid pigments possess antioxidant activity and are implicated in providing health benefits. Informative, saturated linkage maps associated with well characterized populations segregating for anthocyanin pigmentation have not been developed. To investigate the genetic architecture conditioning anthocyanin pigmentation we scored root color visually, quantified root anthocyanin pigments by...

  6. 辽宁地区胡萝卜种植贮藏技术%Technique of Carrot Cultivation and Storage in Liaoning Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雅; 韩艳秋; 陈玉成

    2015-01-01

    In the article, it combined production practices of many years to summarize key points of carrot cultivation technique from the aspects of variety selection, soil tillage, seeding, field management, harvest and other aspects in Liaoning area. Aiming at the fea-tures of no physiological dormancy period for carrot, it introduced suitable carrot storage technique in Liaoning area, in order to provide a technical reference for promoting the development of carrot industry.%结合多年的生产实践,从品种选择、土地整理、播种、田间管理、收获等方面,总结辽宁地区胡萝卜种植技术的要点。针对胡萝卜没有生理休眠期的特点,介绍适合辽宁地区的胡萝卜贮藏技术,为促进胡萝卜产业发展提供技术参考。

  7. 不同热烫条件对胡萝卜加工品质的影响%EFFECT OF DIFFERENT BLANCHING CONDITIONS ON PROCESSING QUALITY OF CARROT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海涛; 张海容; 淡瑞芳

    2011-01-01

    The paper studied the effects of different blanching conditions on the POD, the contents and the preservation rate of vitamin C and β -carotene, and the browning degree of carrot by selecting the blanching conditions of the processing technology of dehydrated carrot. The results showed that the POD was completely deactivated, the preservation rates of vitamin C and β -carotene were respectively 62.73% and 87.10%, and the processed carrot product had the minimum browning degree when the carrot was blanched at 90 ℃ for 6 minutes.%通过对脱水胡萝卜加工工艺流程中的热烫条件进行设计筛选,研究不同热烫条件对过氧化物酶( POD)、维生素C、β-胡萝卜素含量、保存率及褐变度的影响.结果表明:于90℃热烫6 min,胡萝卜中的POD完全失活,维生素C保存率为62.73%,β-胡萝卜素保存率为87.10%,所产生的褐变度最小.

  8. Differential selection on carotenoid biosynthesis genes as a function of gene position in the metabolic pathway: a study on the carrot and dicots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Clotault

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selection of genes involved in metabolic pathways could target them differently depending on the position of genes in the pathway and on their role in controlling metabolic fluxes. This hypothesis was tested in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway using population genetics and phylogenetics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Evolutionary rates of seven genes distributed along the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, IPI, PDS, CRTISO, LCYB, LCYE, CHXE and ZEP, were compared in seven dicot taxa. A survey of deviations from neutrality expectations at these genes was also undertaken in cultivated carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus, a species that has been intensely bred for carotenoid pattern diversification in its root during its cultivation history. Parts of sequences of these genes were obtained from 46 individuals representing a wide diversity of cultivated carrots. Downstream genes exhibited higher deviations from neutral expectations than upstream genes. Comparisons of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates between genes among dicots revealed greater constraints on upstream genes than on downstream genes. An excess of intermediate frequency polymorphisms, high nucleotide diversity and/or high differentiation of CRTISO, LCYB1 and LCYE in cultivated carrot suggest that balancing selection may have targeted genes acting centrally in the pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are consistent with relaxed constraints on downstream genes and selection targeting the central enzymes of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway during carrot breeding history.

  9. Status and Development Countermeasures of Carrot Industry in Fujian Province%福建省胡萝卜产业现状与发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪生疆

    2012-01-01

      福建省是我国胡萝卜主要出口省份之一,但随着各国对胡萝卜贸易出口要求越来越高,品种、加工、质量安全等问题愈益凸显。为促进我省胡萝卜产业继续快速发展,分析了福建省胡萝卜生产优势和产业现状,指出存在的问题,提出发展对策和建议。%  Fujian is one of the major carrot export provinces in China, but with the increasing export requirements on carrot, the problems in cultivar, processing, quality and safety are increasingly highlighted. To promote the sustainable development of carrot industry in Fujian, this paper analyzes the advantages and industrial status of carrot production in Fujian province, and points out existing problems, furthermore, the paper puts forward the related development countermeasures and suggestions.

  10. Effect of ozonated water and chlorine water wash on the quality and microbial de-contamination of fresh-cut carrot shreds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little information exists regarding how wash operations affect water quality and the efficacy of sanitizers on quality and microbial reduction of fresh-cut carrot shreds. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine and ozone on reducing microbial loads and maintaining quality of ca...

  11. Quantification of the relative abundance of plastome to nuclear genome in leaf and root tissues of carrot (Daucus carota L.) using quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.), is an important horticultural crop with significant health benefits, providing pro-vitamin A carotenoids in the human diet. Carotenoids primarily serve as photoprotectants in leaves during photosynthesis where they accumulate in chloroplasts. Carotenoids can also accumulat...

  12. Apple, carrot, and hibiscus edible films containing the plant antimicrobials carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde inactivate Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens in sealed plastic bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde incorporated into apple, carrot and hibiscus based edible films against Salmonella Newport in contaminated organic leafy greens. The leafy greens tested included romaine and iceberg lettuce, and ...

  13. Assessment of sodium hypochlorite and acidified sodium chlorite as antimicrobial agents to inhibit growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and natural microflora on shredded carrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of cold tap water, sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm) and acidified sodium chlorite (100, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm) washes on survival and growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated onto shredded carrots was determined after treatment and 7 and 14 days of storage. Growth of total mesophilic...

  14. Quantification of the Ratio of Plastid to Chromosomal Genome in Leaf and Root Tissue of Carrot (Daucus Carota) Using Real Time Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota), is an important horticultural crop with significant health benefits associated with providing pro-vitamin A carotenoids in the human diet. These carotenoid pigments primarily serve as photoprotectants during photosynthesis, but also provide pigment to attract pollinators and ...

  15. Formation of norisoprenoid flavor compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots: characterization of a cyclic-specific carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are isoprenoid pigments that upon oxidative cleavage lead to the production of norisoprenoids that have profound effect on flavor and aromas of agricultural produce. The biosynthetic pathway to norisoprenoids in carrots (Daucus carota L.) is still widely unknown. We found that geranial i...

  16. Identification and characterization of DcUCGalT1, a galactosyltransferase responsible for anthocyanin galactosylation in purple carrot (Daucus carota L.) taproots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Ma, Jing; Wang, Feng; Ma, Hong-Yu; Wang, Qiu-Xia; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Purple carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) accumulate large amounts of cyanidin-based anthocyanins in their taproots. Cyanidin can be glycosylated with galactose, xylose, and glucose in sequence by glycosyltransferases resulting in cyanidin 3-xylosyl (glucosyl) galactosides in purple carrots. The first step in the glycosylation of cyanidin is catalysis by UDP-galactose: cyanidin galactosyltransferase (UCGalT) transferring the galactosyl moiety from UDP-galactose to cyanidin. In the present study, a gene from 'Deep purple' carrot, DcUCGalT1, was cloned and heterologously expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant DcUCGalT1 galactosylated cyanidin to produce cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and showed optimal activity for cyanidin at 30 °C and pH 8.6. It showed lower galactosylation activity for peonidin, pelargonidin, kaempferol and quercetin. It accepted only UDP-galactose as a glycosyl donor when cyanidin was used as an aglycone. The expression level of DcUCGalT1 was positively correlated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in carrots. The enzyme extractions from 'Deep purple' exhibited galactosylation activity for cyanidin, peonidin and pelargonidin, while those from 'Kuroda' (a non-purple cultivar) did not. PMID:27264613

  17. Development of 304 new microsatellite markers for carrot. Analysis of their potential for linkage mapping, assessment of genetic diversity and cross-taxa utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two different approaches were used to isolate carrot SSRs: 1) Construction and analysis of a genomic DNA library enriched for SSR loci (GSSRs) and 2) Bioinformatic mining for SSR motifs in a 1.7 Mb BAC-end sequence database (BSSR). The SSR-enriched library yielded microsatellites with more repeats b...

  18. Advances in transforming kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides and carrot (Daucus carota var. Danvers 126 roots with different Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains for increasing MA fungi growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Medina Sierra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Kudzú (P. phaseoloides and carrot (D. carota roots were transformed in this survey into different kinds of culture medium by using five different A. rhizogenes strains. These presented different behaviour both in carrot transformation by A. rhizogenes 15834, A.r.8196 and A.r.2659 strains as well as kudzu transformation by A.r.15834 and A.r.1724 strains. Transformed carrot root growth was increased in WM culture medium, whilst transformed kudzu root growth did not increase in either the same medium or in modified MS medium. Transformed carrot roots were used for G. intrarradices increase and sporulation; however, wild AMF strains, isolated from a mining area (the lower Cauca area of Antioquia, did not grow either in roots from this specie or those from kudzu, in spite of this plant having great affinity for wild AMF strains. The results represent an advance in the procedure for DNA isolation and keeping AMF collections, required for other research.

  19. Caracterização e dissimilaridade entre populações de cenoura Characterization and dissimilarity among carrot populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani O da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a efetividade de caracteres fenotípicos na caracterização e dissimilaridade, bem como a distância genética entre populações melhoradas e cultivares de cenoura. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Embrapa Hortaliças, Distrito Federal. Seis genótipos de cenoura, sendo três populações melhoradas (712467, 712473 e 712464, e três cultivares (Brasília, BRS Esplanada e BRS Planalto pertencentes ao grupo Brasília, foram avaliadas nas safras de verão de 2007/2008, 2008/2009, 2009/2010. Os experimentos foram instalados em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com duas repetições e parcelas de 1 m² de área útil. Aos 100 dias após semeio, foram colhidas 25 raízes por parcela e avaliadas individualmente para diâmetro do xilema da raiz, e para caracteres que fazem parte dos descritores mínimos para registro e proteção de cultivares de cenoura. Foram realizadas estimativas de repetibilidade e número de avaliações necessárias para caracterizar as populações, a dissimilaridade fenotípica e genotípica entre as populações, e os coeficientes de determinação (R² de acordo com diferente número de avaliações. Verificou-se que, com exceção do caractere formato de ponta da raiz, os demais caracteres estudados, que fazem parte dos descritores mínimos de cenoura, não são eficientes para ambos os processos de caracterização e discriminação de populações de cenoura pertencentes ao grupo Brasília. Não são esperados grandes efeitos heteróticos ao serem cruzados os genótipos de processamento BRS Esplanada e 712464. Para as populações de mesa avaliadas, é possível obter efeitos heteróticos apenas quando utilizada a cultivar Brasília nos cruzamentos.The effectiveness of phenotypic characters for characterization and evaluation of dissimilarity, and the genetic distance among improved carrot populations and cultivars were observed. The essays were carried out in Brasília, Brazil. Three improved carrot

  20. Thought and Countermeasures on Accelerating Carrot Industry in Xiangan District%加快翔安区胡萝卜产业发展的思路及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖显超

    2011-01-01

    Carrot was a primary agricultural product at Xiangan District,Xianmen City.This paper analyzed the current situation and existing problems of carrot cultivation,and put forward the development thought and countermeasures of carrot industry.%通过对厦门市翔安区大宗农产品———胡萝卜的种植现状与存在问题进行分析,提出该产业发展的思路及对策。

  1. Study on Common and Trace Elements in Carrot by ICP-AES%ICP-AES法测定胡萝卜中常微量元素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐娟; 郑志锋; 李云仙; 雷然

    2015-01-01

    The contents of 16 elements such as Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Na, K, Ca, Mg and P were studied by ICP-AES with wet digestion method and the microwave digestion in carrots. Results indicated that contents of Fe , Na, K, Ca, Mg and P were higher in both red and yellow carrots. Contents of K, Mg and Ca in red carrots were higher than that in yellow carrots;whereas contents of Fe, Na and P in yellow carrots were higher than that in red carrots. Sr was detected in red carrots and the content was 26.22μg/g. The relative standard deviations and recoveries of all elements determined with ICP-AES were between 0.08%-4.92%and 92.18%-106.39%, respectively. Combination of microwave digestion and wet digestion with the ICP-AES showed that both have better precision and accuracy.%分别采用微波消解法、湿法处理样品,以电感耦合等离子体发射光谱仪(ICP-AES)检测胡萝卜中Cu、Fe、Zn、Mn、Na、K、Ca、Mg、P等16种元素的含量,结果表明:红黄胡萝卜中Fe、Na、K、Ca、Mg、P等元素的含量较高,且K、Mg和Ca表现红胡萝卜>黄胡萝卜,Fe、Na和P表现为黄胡萝卜>红胡萝卜;Sr仅红胡萝卜中含有,含量为26.22μg/g;ICP-AES检测各元素的相对标准偏差(RSD)在0.08%~4.92%之间,各元素回收率在92.18%~106.39%之间。表明湿法消解和微波消解均具有较好的精密度和准确度。

  2. Taxa de respiração de cenouras minimamente processadas e armazenadas em diferentes temperaturas Respiration rate of storage processed carrots at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wigberto Antonio Spagnol

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre as hortaliças minimamente processadas, a cenoura é uma das mais populares, sendo comercializada de várias maneiras: raladas, cortadas em fatias, palitos, e ainda apresentadas na forma de mini-cenoura (baby carrot. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as taxas respiratórias de cenouras (Daucus carota da cultivar Nantes minimamente processadas. O armazenamento foi realizado nas temperaturas de 1 °C, 5 °C e 11 °C, e 90% UR. A taxa respiratória foi determinada usando um fluxo contínuo de ar. O teor de CO2 e etileno foi medido por um cromatógrafo a gás. A taxa de respiração para as cenouras fatiadas foi mais alta do que para os produtos inteiros. Os valores da energia de ativação obtidos para as cenouras fatiadas e inteiras foi de 69,82 kJmol-1 e 54,60 kJmol-1, respectivamente. A produção de etileno foi insignificante para as cenouras durante os 14 dias de armazenamento.The carrot is one of the most popular vegetables from minimally processed vegetables. It is commercialized in many different ways: shreds, slices, sticks and baby carrots. The aim of this work is to determine the respiration rate of minimally processed carrots. They were in storage at temperatures of 1 °C, 5 °C and 11 °C, and 90% RH. The respiration rate was determined using continuous humidification airflow and measuring the CO2 concentration using a gas chromatograph connected to a microcomputer. The respiration rates of the minimally processed carrots showed a higher respiration rate than for the whole products. The activation energy values calculated for the minimally processed carrots corresponded to 69.82 kJmol-1 for the whole products. The ethylene production for the carrots remained insignificant throughout the 14 days of storage.

  3. Esplanada: cultivar de cenoura de verão para fins de processamento Esplanada: a new tropical carrot variety suitable for minimum processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo V. Vieira

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A cenoura é uma das hortaliças tradicionais mais consumidas no Brasil. Entretanto, o consumo de mini cenouras tipo "cenourete" obtidas via processamento mínimo ainda é muito pequeno no país. Isto se deve possivelmente ao restrito conhecimento da tecnologia de produção deste produto e da dificuldade em se obter matéria prima de qualidade e com regularidade, especialmente no período de verão. As raízes das principais cultivares utilizadas no Brasil não apresentam características de qualidade como coloração, formato e tamanho adequados para possibilitar máximo rendimento industrial. Neste contexto, foi desenvolvida a cultivar de polinização aberta "Esplanada", que apresenta boa adaptação às condições edafoclimáticas brasileiras, possui alta resistência à queima-das-folhas, baixa incidência de florescimento precoce no verão e resistência moderada a nematóides formadores de galhas. Estas características viabilizam seu cultivo em qualquer época do ano, nas principais regiões de produção. As raízes são compridas, finas e apresentam coloração uniforme, características estas adequadas para o processamento mínimo visando a produção de cenourete. Esta cultivar poderá ocupar posição estratégica na cadeia produtiva de cenoura, uma vez que vai possibilitar a produção de mini cenouras durante todo o ano em qualquer região do país.Carrot is one of the most consumed vegetables in Brazil. However, the consumption of "baby carrots", obtained by minimally processed roots, is still very low in the country, due to lack of processing technology knowledge and the low amount of minimally processed carrots produced in Brazil as a consequence of the low industrial productivity. The carrot varieties currently employed in minimum processing have as major disadvantages a series of low quality attributes including inadequate root shape and size which precludes reaching the maximum industrial yield. In this context, Embrapa

  4. 胡萝卜及其制品中棒曲霉素测定方法的研究%Determination ofpatulin in carrot and its derived products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董娟; 罗小玲; 王庆玲; 颜海燕

    2011-01-01

    The analytic method of patulin in carrot and its derived products were investigated in this paper. An approach was established in which liquid-liquid extraction was applied to determine patulin in carrot and its derived products by HPLC. The factors including the times of ethyl acetate extract and purification, water content and drying time were optimized. The results showed that this method has a high patulin recovery and can be used in the determination of both carrot samples and carror pulp (or juice). The recoveries of carrot sample and carrot juice sample were 86.6%~98.3% and 86.8%~99.1%, respectively, and the relative standard deviation was lower than 4.2%.%该文对胡萝卜制品中棒曲霉素的分析检测方法进行了研究,建立了以液-液萃取为前处理方法,采用高效液相色谱(HPLC)分析了胡萝卜制品中棒曲霉素.主要研究结果如下:通过对乙酸乙酯提取次数、净化次数、水分含量、干燥时间的研究,优化了传统的液-液萃取测定棒曲霉素的方法.该方法处理和测定棒曲霉素回收率好,而且对胡萝卜样品和胡萝卜浆(或汁)均适用.胡萝卜样品的回收率为86.6%~98.3%;胡萝卜汁样品的回收率为86.8%~99.1%,相对标准偏差≤4.2%.

  5. Uptake of 8:2 perfluoroalkyl phosphate diester and its degradation products by carrot and lettuce from compost-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizkarguenaga, E; Zabaleta, I; Prieto, A; Fernández, L A; Zuloaga, O

    2016-06-01

    The present work studied the uptake of 8:2 perfluoroalkyl phosphate diester (diPAP) by two different crops (lettuce and carrot) and two different amended soils. Firstly, the possible degradation of 8:2 diPAP in the absence of crop was studied and 8:2 monoPAP (monophosphate), 8:2 FTCA (saturated fluorotelomer carboxylate), 8:2 FTUCA (unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylate), 7:3 FTCA (saturated fluorotelomer carboxylate), PFHpA (perfluoroheptanoic acid), PFHxA (perfluorohexanoic acid) and PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid) were detected. In the presence of crops, different degradation products were detected in the soil and, while PFNA (perfluorononanoic acid), PFHpA, PFHxA, PFPeA (perfluoropentacoic acid), PFBA (perfluorobutanoic acid), 7:3 FTCA and PFOA were determined in the cultivation media when carrot was grown, PFOA was the only degradation product detected in the case of lettuce experiments. Regarding the uptake in carrot, all the degradation products except 7:3 FTCA were translocated from the soil to the carrot. Carrot core, peel and leaves bioconcentration factors, BCFs, were determined for 8:2 diPAP and its degradation products. Values lower than method detection limits for core and low BCFs in peel (0.025-0.042) and leaves (0.028-0.049) were achieved for 8:2 diPAP. Regarding to the degradation products, the higher their water solubility, the higher the plant translocation. In this sense, the lower the carbon chain length of PFCAs, the higher the BCFs determined (PFBA > PFHxA > PFHpA > PFOA > PFNA). In general, lower total BCFs were achieved when the total organic carbon of the soils increased. For lettuce experiments, 8:2 diPAP (0.04-0.18) and PFOA (0.28-1.57) were only determined in lettuce heart. PMID:26991379

  6. Is the Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) taken up by plants from soils previously planted with Bt corn and by carrot from hydroponic culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icoz, I; Andow, D; Zwahlen, C; Stotzky, G

    2009-07-01

    The uptake of the insecticidal Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) by various crops from soils on which Bt corn had previously grown was determined. In 2005, the Cry1Ab protein was detected by Western blot in tissues (leaves plus stems) of basil, carrot, kale, lettuce, okra, parsnip, radish, snap bean, and soybean but not in tissues of beet and spinach and was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to be 0.05 +/- 0.003 ng g(-1) of fresh plant tissue in basil, 0.02 +/- 0.014 ng g(-1) in okra, and 0.34 +/- 0.176 ng g(-1) in snap bean. However, the protein was not detected by ELISA in carrot, kale, lettuce, parsnip, radish, and soybean or in the soils by Western blot. In 2006, the Cry1Ab protein was detected by Western blot in tissues of basil, carrot, kale, radish, snap bean, and soybean from soils on which Bt corn had been grown the previous year and was estimated by ELISA to be 0.02 +/- 0.014 ng g(-1) of fresh plant tissue in basil, 0.19 +/- 0.060 ng g(-1) in carrot, 0.05 +/- 0.018 ng g(-1) in kale, 0.04 +/- 0.022 ng g(-1) in radish, 0.53 +/- 0.170 ng g(-1) in snap bean, and 0.15 +/- 0.071 ng g(-1) in soybean. The Cry1Ab protein was also detected by Western blot in tissues of basil, carrot, kale, radish, and snap bean but not of soybean grown in soil on which Bt corn had not been grown since 2002; the concentration was estimated by ELISA to be 0.03 +/- 0.021 ng g(-1) in basil, 0.02 +/- 0.008 ng g(-1) in carrot, 0.04 +/- 0.017 ng g(-1) in kale, 0.02 +/- 0.012 ng g(-1) in radish, 0.05 +/- 0.004 ng g(-1) in snap bean, and 0.09 +/- 0.015 ng g(-1) in soybean. The protein was detected by Western blot in 2006 in most soils on which Bt corn had or had not been grown since 2002. The Cry1Ab protein was detected by Western blot in leaves plus stems and in roots of carrot after 56 days of growth in sterile hydroponic culture to which purified Cry1Ab protein had been added and was estimated by ELISA to be 0.08 +/- 0.021 and 0.60 +/- 0.148 ng g(-1) of

  7. Water-saving and high-efficient cultivation techniques of carrot variety Bantianqicun%坂田七寸胡萝卜节水高效栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖苑腾; 黄美香; 陈伙顺

    2012-01-01

    介绍坂田七寸胡萝卜的栽培技术要点,并结合泉州的实际,提出胡萝卜节水灌溉技术。%This paper introduced the key techniques to culture carrot variety Bantianqicun,and combined with Quanzhou practice,put forward water-saving irrigation technology of carrot,analyzed the innovation and characteristic of water-saving and high-efficient cultivation technique.

  8. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella Yersinia, Shigella and Norovirus in bulb and stem vegetables, and carrots)

    OpenAIRE

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2014-01-01

    Bulb and stem vegetables as well as carrots may be minimally processed to obtain ready-to-eat products, and these steps include selection, washing, cleaning, cutting, packaging and storage. Risk factors for the contamination of bulb and stem vegetables as well as carrots with Salmonella, Yersinia, Shigella and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain. Available estimates of their occurrence in these vegetables were evaluated together with mitigation options relating to...

  9. Associação de densidades populacionais de cenoura e alface no desempenho agronômico da cenoura em cultivo consorciado em faixa Association of carrot and lettuce planting densities on carrot agronomic performance in strip-intercropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bezerra Neto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado de junho a setembro de 2003, em área experimental da ESAM, para avaliar associações de densidades populacionais de cenoura e alface no desempenho agronômico da cenoura em sistema consorciado em faixa. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos completos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 com cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram resultantes da combinação de quatro populações de cenoura [100%; 80%; 60% e 40% população recomendada no cultivo solteiro (PRCS] com quatro populações de alface (100%; 80%; 60% e 40% da PRCS. A PRCS da cenoura na região é de 500.000 plantas/ha e no cultivo da alface é de 250.000 plantas/ha. As cultivares de cenoura e alface plantadas, pertencentes aos grupos Brasília e Americana, foram, respectivamente, 'Brasília' e 'Tainá'. Na cenoura avaliou-se altura de plantas, massa seca da parte aérea e das raízes, produtividades total e comercial, e classificação de raízes. Não houve interação significativa entre as densidades populacionais da cenoura e de alface em qualquer uma das características avaliadas na cenoura. Não houve também efeito significativo do aumento dos níveis populacionais da alface em qualquer característica avaliada na cenoura. O aumento na densidade populacional da cenoura aumentou a altura de plantas da cenoura e diminui a massa seca da parte aérea e de raízes, e a percentagem de raízes classes longa e média, e refugo. O aumento na associação das densidades populacionais de cenoura e de alface aumentou a produtividade total e comercial da cenoura, além do aumento na percentagem de raízes classe curta.An experiment was carried out from June to September 2003, in the field, in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. Associations of carrot (cv. Brasília and lettuce (cv. Tainá planting densities on carrot agronomic performance in strip-intercropping system were evaluated. The experimental design was of randomized complete

  10. Chemical composition of carrot seeds (Daucus carota L. cultivated in Turkey: characterization of the seed oil and essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalchat, Jean Claude

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and physical properties were established in carrot (Daucus carota L. seeds from Konya, Turkey to investigate their potential uses. Mature seeds were evaluated for moisture, crude protein, crude oil, crude fiber, ash, HCl-insoluble ash, total carbohydrate, essential oil yield and weight of 1000 seeds. Also, relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter were determined in the seed oil. The main fatty acids identified by gas chromatography were petroselinic (59.35%, linoleic (11,82%, palmitic (10.01% and stearic (2.41% acids. Mineral contents (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Se, Sr, V and Zn of seeds were also determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. The seeds were found to be rich in protein, fiber and ash. The essential oil and edible oil compositions of carrot seeds from Konya were investigated by GC and GC-MS. The oil yields of essential and edible oil from carrot seeds were established as 0.83% and 7.84%, respectively. The major constituents of seed essential oil were carotol (66.78%, daucene (8.74%, (Z,Z--farnesene (5.86%, germacrene D (2.34%, trans--bergamotene (2.41% and -selinene (2.20%. Whereas, carotol (30.55%, daucol (12.60% and copaenol (0.62% were the important components of edible carrot seed oil. However, the dominant component of both oils was carotol.Se determinó la composición química y las propiedades físicas de las semillas de zanahoria (Daucus carota L. obtenidas en Konya, Turquía, con objeto de investigar usos potenciales de las mismas. Se determinó la humedad, el peso, el contenido proteico, en aceite, en fibra, en ceniza, en ceniza insoluble en ácido clorhídrico, los carbohidratos totales, y el rendimiento de la obtención de aceite esencial a partir de 1000 semillas maduras. Asimismo se determinó la densidad relativa, el índice de refracci

  11. Effects of oregano oil, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and citral on antimicrobial, mechanical and barrier properties of carrot puree films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinwei; Liu, Huan; Wei, Jing; Ma, Zhongsu

    2011-02-01

    The effects against staphfloccus aureus and escherichia coli of oregano oil, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and citral in chitosan-corn starch-gelatin-carrot puree films at 0.5% to 3% (w/w) concentrations were investigated along with the mechanical and barrier properties of the films. The presence of oregano oil, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and citral did not change the good oxygen barrier of the films, but did significantly modify tensile properties and water vapor permeability, and made films darker. The data also show that the antimicrobial activities were in the following order: cinnamaldehyde > carvacrol > oregano oil > citral. Moreover, the antimicrobial films were more effective against staphfloccus aureus than against the escherichia coli. This study showed that oregano oil, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and citral, especially the first three, could be used to prepare antimicrobial edible films for food applications.

  12. 杀菌方式对即食胡萝卜片挥发性风味物质的影响%Effect of sterilization methods on volatile flavor compounds of instant carrot slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米瑞芳; 刘俊梅; 胡小松; 吴继红

    2016-01-01

    为研究不同杀菌方式对即食胡萝卜片挥发性风味物质的影响,运用固相微萃取和气相色谱-质谱联用技术,分别对新鲜胡萝卜片和经巴氏杀菌、超高压杀菌、热辅助超高压杀菌处理的即食胡萝卜片及其贮藏期间(4℃,60 d)的挥发性组分进行对比分析。试验结果表明:新鲜胡萝卜片的主要芳香成分为萜烯类物质。与未杀菌组相比,经不同杀菌处理后,即食胡萝卜片的萜烯类物质含量均有所降低,其中巴氏杀菌组降低的最多。在贮藏前期(20~30 d),超高压处理即食胡萝卜片的萜烯类物质的含量最高,超高压杀菌在短期内较好地保持了胡萝卜特有的香气,即食胡萝卜片品质较好;其次是热辅助压力杀菌组,热辅助压力杀菌组即食胡萝卜片的β-蒎烯、β-石竹烯的含量较其他处理组较高,较好地保持了胡萝卜的松树树脂香气以及辛香气味;而巴氏杀菌组即食胡萝卜片的萜烯类物质含量最低,即食胡萝卜片的品质相对较差。研究结果可为新型杀菌技术在即食产品领域的应用提供参考。%The purpose of this paper was to study the effect of 3 different sterilization methods on the flavor of prepared carrot slices from raw materials during cold storage at 4℃. The samples were pretreated by pasteurization (90℃, 30 min), high hydrostatic pressure sterilization (550 MPa, 25℃, 10 min), pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (550 MPa, 50℃, 10 min) and stored at 4℃ for 60 d. The solide-phase micro-extraction (SPME)/chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology was used to detect and analyze the volatile flavor compounds in fresh carrot and sterilized carrot slices during storage. Results showed that carrots had a complex volatile characteristic. Fresh carrot sample’s volatiles mainly consisted of terpenes, esters, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and alkanes. Among these, terpenes were

  13. Influence of different pre - treatments on the extracting ratio, the contents of soluble solids and carotene of carrot juice%不同前处理对胡萝卜汁榨出率等参数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志民; 王文振; 李诚志

    2001-01-01

    Experiment results indicated that the extracting ratio of carrot juice was the highest after carrots were treated by the freezing and thawing method. The contents of soluble solids and carotene in extracted carrot juice were the highest when carrots were blanched for 21 min by steam. The weights of soluble solids and carotene drawn from per unit weight of carrots were the heaviest when carrots were blanched for 30 min by steam.%研究表明,胡萝卜经过冻融处理后,胡萝卜汁的榨出率最高;经过蒸汽热烫21 min处理后,榨汁中的可溶性固形物和胡萝卜素的含量均最高;经过蒸汽热烫30min处理后,单位重量的胡萝卜的可溶性固形物和胡萝卜素的榨出率最高.

  14. Action spectrum for induction of promoter activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene by UV in carrot suspension cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Junko [Kyoto Univ., Agricultural Chemistry Dept., Kyoto (Japan); Ozeki, Yoshihiro [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Biotechnology Dept., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, Kazuichi [Kyoto Univ., Botany Dept., Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The full-length promoter (-2335) of the carrot (Daucus carota) phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene (gDcPALLI) fused to the luciferase reporter gene was transiently transformed to carrot protoplasts by electroporation, and the promoter activity induced by monochromatic UV light of various wavelengths was examined. The action spectrum constructed from the fluence-response curves showed a single peak at around 280 nm, suggesting that the activation of the gDcPALI promoter is categorizable as one of the UVB light responses. The same assay system was applied to variously truncated gDcPALI promoters and to CaMV35S promoter fusion with various parts 5` - upstream of the gDcPALI promoter. The region from -396 to -190 (relative to the transcription start site) fused to the CaMV35S core (-90) promoter showed a 280 nm-dominant responses. However, gDCPALI promoters truncated above -570 and -396, although they contain the region between -396 and -190, did not show such a typical UVB response, i.e. they responded to 260 nm light as much as to 280 nm light. The promoter truncated to below -190 also responded to 260 nm light as much as to 280 nm light. Therefore we assumed that the gDcPALI promoter is composed of three functionally different parts: the upstream above -570 (modulator), the region from -396 to -190 (UVB responsive) and the downstream below -190 (UVB and C responsive). The overall UVB response of the gDcPALI full-length promoter is explained as the result of interaction of these three components. (Author).

  15. The Protective Effects of Carrot Seed Extract on Spermatogenesis and Cauda Epididymal Sperm Reserves in Gentamicin Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nouri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Carrot (Daucus carota L. is known to possess antifertility properties in female.However, according to Iranian traditional medicine, it can increase the potency in men. Theaim of this study was to investigate the influence of carrot seed extract (CSE on spermatogenesis,number and motility of sperms in cauda epididyme in male rats.Materials and Methods: Forty adult male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: controlgroup, groups receiving low- and high doses of CSE, animals that received high-dose of CSEwith gentamicin, and a gentamicin only group. After 4 weeks treatment, fasting serum sampleswere obtained for the sex hormone analysis. Under anesthesia, testis, cauda epididymidesand sperm ducts were dissected and sperm count, motility and cauda epididymis spermreserves (CESR were determined. Histopathological changes of testis were also studied toassess spermatogenesis. Data analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed byTukey HSD tests.Results: Administration of CSE caused a significant increase in CESR compared with thecontrol (28.2 ± 1.8 vs. 45.1 ± 2.0, ×106. The extract could also protect testis from the gentamicin-induced necrosis. The CSE administration caused about 3.5-times increase in theLH levels even in spite of receiving 5 mg/kg/day gentamicin with no significant effect on FSHlevels. The testosterone concentrations in the group received 400 mg/kg CSE were 30% and83% higher than its levels in the control and the gentamicin treated group, respectively.Conclusion: CSE can overcome reproductive toxicity of gentamicin and induces spermatogenesisprobably mainly through the elevation of testosterone levels.

  16. Action spectrum for induction of promoter activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene by UV in carrot suspension cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full-length promoter (-2335) of the carrot (Daucus carota) phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene (gDcPALLI) fused to the luciferase reporter gene was transiently transformed to carrot protoplasts by electroporation, and the promoter activity induced by monochromatic UV light of various wavelengths was examined. The action spectrum constructed from the fluence-response curves showed a single peak at around 280 nm, suggesting that the activation of the gDcPALI promoter is categorizable as one of the UVB light responses. The same assay system was applied to variously truncated gDcPALI promoters and to CaMV35S promoter fusion with various parts 5' - upstream of the gDcPALI promoter. The region from -396 to -190 (relative to the transcription start site) fused to the CaMV35S core (-90) promoter showed a 280 nm-dominant responses. However, gDCPALI promoters truncated above -570 and -396, although they contain the region between -396 and -190, did not show such a typical UVB response, i.e. they responded to 260 nm light as much as to 280 nm light. The promoter truncated to below -190 also responded to 260 nm light as much as to 280 nm light. Therefore we assumed that the gDcPALI promoter is composed of three functionally different parts: the upstream above -570 (modulator), the region from -396 to -190 (UVB responsive) and the downstream below -190 (UVB and C responsive). The overall UVB response of the gDcPALI full-length promoter is explained as the result of interaction of these three components. (Author)

  17. Influence of temperature on the respiration rate of minimally processed organic carrots (Daucus Carota L. cv. Brasília

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane das Neves Barbosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the influence of temperature on the respiration rate of minimally processed organic carrots (Daucus Carota L. cv. Brasília with and without the application of a gelatin film. The samples were packed in flexible bags and stored at 1, 5 and 10 °C. During the five days of storage, the CO2 and O2 concentrations in the headspace of the package were monitored by gas chromatography, and the mathematical model based on enzymatic kinetics was used to estimate the respiration rate of minimally processed organic carrots. The effect of temperature on the respiration rate was evaluated by the Arrhenius equation. The results showed that the O2 concentration decreased during the storage period and the CO2 concentration increased. The lowest O2 concentrations of 2.59 and 2.66% were found for the samples stored at 10 °C with and without the film, respectively. For the CO2 concentration, the highest concentrations of 16.25 and 16.32% were again found for the temperature of 10 °C with and without the application of the film, respectively. At the temperature of 1 °C, the maximum respiratory rates for the samples without and with the film were 10.82 and 10.44 mL CO2.kg-1/hour, respectively, after 72 hours of storage. The greatest respiratory rate was obtained at 10 °C, the maximum peak being reached after 50 hours. Activation energy values were of 50.59 kJ.mol-1, for the samples with the film, and 51.88 kJ.mol-1 for the samples without the film.

  18. Study on the Solidified Medlar and Carrot Juice Yoghurt%凝固型枸杞胡萝卜汁酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘崑; 任亚楠; 闫微; 申思瑶

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The research aimed to study the processing technics of solidified medlar and carrot juice yoghurt. [ Method ] The medlar, carrot, milk were the main materials, and the white crystal sugar, stabilizer were the auxiliary materinls. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were the fermentation agents. The orthogonal test was used to determine the optimum formulation of solidified medlar and carrot juice yoghurt. [ Result ] The optimum clarification condition of medlar juice was: pectase 0.05%, temperature 45 ℃, time 80 min and pH 3.5. The optimum clarification condition of carrot juice was:pectase 0.06%, temperature 45 ℃, time 180 rain and pH 3.5. The optimum formulation of solidified medlar and carrot juice yoghurt was:medlar 5%, carrot 7 %, white crystal sugar 6%, inoculum size 4%, multiple stabilizer ( CMC:isinglass was 1∶1 ) 0.2%, fermentation lime 3.5 h. [ Conclusion ] The product is sweet, sour and delicious. The flavor is unique, and the nutrition is rich. Moreover, it has the health effect.%[目的]研究凝固型枸杞胡萝卜汁酸奶的加工工艺.[方法]以枸杞、胡萝卜、牛奶为主要原料,白砂糖、稳定剂为辅料,保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌为发酵剂,采用正交试验确定凝固型枸杞胡萝卜汁酸奶的最佳配方.[结果]枸杞汁的最佳澄清奈件是:果胶酶为0.05%,温度为45℃,时间为80 min,pH为3.5;胡萝卜汁的最佳澄清条件是:果胶酶为0.06%,温度为45℃,时间为180 min,pH为3.5;枸杞胡萝卜汁凝固型酸奶的最佳配方是:枸杞5%,胡萝卜7%,白砂糖6%,接种量4%,复合稳定剂(CMC:明胶为1:1)0.2%,发酵时间为3.5 h.[结论]产品酸甜适口,风味独特,营养丰富,具有保健作用.

  19. 胡萝卜自动分级机机械装置的研制%Study on Mechanical Device of Carrot Intelligent Grading Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宏伟; 邓立苗; 韩仲志; 何远

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical devices combined with computer vision techniques can be used for automatic grading for carrots and other fruits and vegetables slim line .This paper designs the mechanical device of carrot intelligent grading machine , mainly composed of three parts: two-stage spacer device , chain roller conveyor and linear motors hit fruit devices . Spacer device with staggered grid via conveyor belt for carrots and differential for primary and secondary uniform fruit , and achieve precise single transport .The roller conveyor promotes single carrot rotating into a computer vision system CCD camera field , earn carrot shape comprehensive features that make precise classification .The linear motor , receiving the grading signal , puts carrots at different levels through the U-shaped catheter into the boxes , which pushes fruit smooth, fast, with low fruit injury .%机械装置结合计算机视觉技术可以对胡萝卜等细长型蔬果进行自动分级。为此,设计了胡萝卜自动分级机的机械装置部分,主要由双级匀果装置、链条辊轮输送装置和直线电机打果装置3部分组成。匀果装置通过带有隔板的交错格输送带和差速带对胡萝卜进行初次和二次匀果,实现精确单果输送;辊轮输送装置推动单个胡萝卜自转进入计算机视觉系统的CCD 相机视场,可获得胡萝卜全面的形状特性,使其分级精确;直线电机打果装置接收到胡萝卜等级决策信号后将胡萝卜按不同等级经U型导管推入包装箱,推果平稳、快捷,伤果率低。

  20. The examination of parameters for lactic acid fermentation and nutritive value of fermented juice of beetroot, carrot and brewer’s yeast autolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN MAKSIMOVIC

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for lactic acid fermentation based on a mixture of beetoot juice (Beta vulgaris L. and carrot juice (Daucus carota L. and different content of brewer’s yeast autolysate with Lactobacillus plantarum A112 and with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDO 1748 has been studied. Both cultures showed good biochemical activity in these mixtures. The production of lactic acid has been stimulated using a higher content of brewer’s yeast autolysate. In these mixtures, L. plantarum A112 showed better growth and lactic acid production than L. acidophilus NCDO 1748. From the data obtained through chemical analyses of the fermented products, it can be seen that the mixture of beetroot and carrot juice and brewer’s yeast autolysate is richer in minerals (Ca, P, Fe and b-carotene than fermented beetroot juice with the same content of brewer’s yeast autolysate.

  1. Investigation and Assessment of 40K Accumulation in the Segments of an Ordinary Carrot (Daucus carota L. and Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mikalauskienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an alteration in specific activity and transfer factor of naturally occurring radionuclide 40K from soil with a loamy structure to the segments of root vegetables – an ordinary carrot (Daucus carota L. and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.. The paper establishes the specific activity of 40K in soil and vegetable segments and evaluates transfer factors (TF. The obtained data show that the transfer factor of naturally occurring radionuclide 40K from soil to the segments of the ordinary carrot (Daucus carota L. varied from 0,28 to 0,99 while that of the red beet (Beta vulgaris L. – from 0,53 to 0,96. The results of the study could be used for estimating 40K transfer in the system “soil-plant” and accumulation of radionuclide in composting garden waste.Artilce in Lithuanian

  2. Combined effect of starch/montmorillonite coating and passive MAP in antioxidant activity, total phenolics, organic acids and volatile of fresh-cut carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Isabela Costa; Dos Reis, Kelen Cristina; Menezes, Evandro Galvão Tavares; Borges, Paulo Rogério Siriano; Rodrigues, Ariel Costa; Leal, Renato; Hernandes, Thais; de Carvalho, Elisângela Helena Nunes; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros

    2016-03-01

    This work evaluates fresh-cut carrots (FCC) coated with montmorillonite (MMT) subjected to passive modified atmosphere packaging. Carrots were sanitized, cooled, peeled and sliced. Half of the FCC were coated with MMT nanoparticle film and the other half were not. All FCCs were packed in a polypropylene rigid tray, covered with a polypropylene rigid lid or sealed with polyethylene + propylene film, in four treatments (RL, rigid lid; RLC, rigid lid + coating; ST, sealed tray; STC, sealed tray + coating). FCCs were stored at 4 °C and were analyzed weekly for 4 weeks (total antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl method and the β-carotene/linoleic acid, phenolic compounds, organic acids and volatile compounds). The use of coating film with starch nanoparticles and a modified atmosphere leads to the preservation of the total antioxidant activity, the volatile and organic acids of FCC. PMID:26857136

  3. Comparison of DNA extraction methods and development of duplex PCR and real-time PCR to detect tomato, carrot, and celery in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pafundo, Simona; Gullì, Mariolina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2011-10-12

    Traceability is of particular importance for those persons who suffer allergy or intolerance to some food component(s) and need a strict avoidance of the allergenic food. In this paper, methodologies are described to fingerprint the presence of allergenic species such as carrot, tomato, and celery by DNA detection. Three DNA extraction methods were applied on vegetables and foods containing or not containing the allergens, and the results were compared and discussed. Fast SYBR Green DNA melting curve temperature analyses and duplex PCR assays with internal control have been developed for detection of these allergenic vegetables and have been tested on commercial foods. Spiking food experiments were also performed, assessing that limits of detection (LOD) of 1 mg/kg for carrot and tomato DNA and 10 mg/kg for celery DNA have been reached. PMID:21894887

  4. Effects of organic and conventional growth systems on the content of carotenoids in carrot roots, and on intake and plasma status of carotenoids in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Malene; Bysted, Anette; Madsen, K. H.;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The demand for organic food products has increased during the last decades due to their probable health effects, among others. A higher content of secondary metabolites such as carotenoids in organic food products has been claimed, though not documented, to contribute to increased...... health effects of organic foods. The aim was to study the impact of organic and conventional agricultural systems on the content of carotenoids in carrots and human diets. In addition, a human cross-over study was performed, measuring the plasma status of carotenoids in humans consuming diets made from...... crops from these agricultural systems. RESULTS: The content of carotenoids in carrot roots and human diets was not significantly affected by the agricultural production system or year, despite differences in fertilisation strategy and levels. The plasma status of carotenoids increased significantly...

  5. Modificações sensoriais em cenoura minimamente processada e armazenada sob refrigeração Sensory modifications of fresh cut carrots stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josane Maria Resende

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as modificações sensoriais em cenoura minimamente processada em dois tipos de cortes durante o armazenamento sob refrigeração. Semanalmente avaliou-se a aparência, a cor, o aroma, o sabor e a textura de cenouras cv. Nantes, minimamente processadas, acondicionadas em potes de polietileno tereftalato (PET e armazenadas a 7ºC, por 14 dias. Para definir a freqüência de consumo e preferência pelo tipo de corte, amostras do produto foram apresentadas ao público e os resultados foram anotados em porcentagem em relação ao número total de pessoas consultadas. Com o decorrer do armazenamento houve redução nos escores para a aparência e a cor, enquanto que o sabor e a textura melhoraram em ambos os cortes. Cenouras raladas apresentaram melhor cor e aparência em relação à cenoura cortada em rodelas, entretanto o sabor e a textura foram melhores para cenouras em rodelas. As cenouras raladas são as mais indicadas para o consumo uma vez que a aparência é o atributo que mais causa impacto na escolha pelo consumidor e dentro desta a cor é a característica mais relevante. A freqüência de consumo deste tipo de produto esta aumentando gradativamente e em relação à preferência pelo tipo de corte, o consumidor optou pela cenoura ralada pela sua maior praticidade e versatilidade de uso.Sensory modifications were evaluated in carrots cv Nantes lightly processed in two kinds of cut (grated and sliced during the storage under refrigeration. Fresh cut carrots were packed in polyethylene tereftalato (PET boxes and stored at 7ºC for 14 days. The carrot's appearance, color, aroma, flavor and texture were evaluated weekly. To obtain the frequency of consumption and preference of kind of cut, samples were offered to people to try. During the storage of both kinds of cut, a reduction in scores for appearance and color occurred, while flavor and texture scores were improved. Fresh cut carrots in the grated form presented better

  6. The Protein synthesis spectrum during the induction phase of somatic embryogenesis in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) cultures and the role of Nitrogen forms for embryo development

    OpenAIRE

    Mashayekhi-Nezamabadi, Kaveh

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the investigation was to broaden our knowledge about the pattern of protein synthesis during the induction phase of somatic embryogenesis in Daucus cultures using petioles as the source material implementing histological, bio-chemical, molecular and bio-informatics methods to achieve this aim for a better understanding of the somatic embryo-genesis in the model system carrot. During the induction phase, histological examination of cross sections of petiole ex-plants of Da...

  7. Molecularly Imprinted Nanomicrospheres as Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersant Combined with Gas Chromatography for Determination of Four Phosphorothioate Pesticides in Carrot and Yacon

    OpenAIRE

    Mengchun Zhou; Nana Hu; Shaohua Shu; Mo Wang

    2015-01-01

    An efficient, rapid, and selective method for sample pretreatment, namely, molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MI-MSPD) coupled with gas chromatography (GC), was developed for the rapid isolation of four phosphorothioate organophosphorus pesticides (tolclofos-methyl, phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and parathion-methyl) from carrot and yacon samples. New molecularly imprinted polymer nanomicrospheres were synthesized by using typical structural analogue tolclofos-methyl as a dummy temp...

  8. The impact of Cu treatment on phenolic and polyamine levels in plant material regenerated from embryos obtained in anther culture of carrot

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Górecka, K.; Cvikrová, Milena; Kowalska, U.; Eder, Josef; Szafrańska, K.; Górecki, R.; Janas, K. M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2007), s. 54-61. ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : carrot culture * copper ions * embryo regeneration Subject RIV: GE - Plant Breeding Impact factor: 1.669, year: 2007

  9. The examination of parameters for lactic acid fermentation and nutritive value of fermented juice of beetroot, carrot and brewers yeast autolysate

    OpenAIRE

    MILAN MAKSIMOVIC; MAJA VUKASINOVIC; JOSIP BARAS; MARICA RAKIN

    2004-01-01

    The conditions for lactic acid fermentation based on a mixture of beetoot juice (Beta vulgaris L.) and carrot juice (Daucus carota L.) and different content of brewers yeast autolysate with Lactobacillus plantarum A112 and with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDO 1748 has been studied. Both cultures showed good biochemical activity in these mixtures. The production of lactic acid has been stimulated using a higher content of brewers yeast autolysate. In these mixtures, L. plantarum A112 showed bet...

  10. Beetroot-Carrot Juice Intake either Alone or in Combination with Antileukemic Drug 'Chlorambucil' As A Potential Treatment for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Christine R. Shakib; Shreef G. N. Gabrial; Gamal N. Gabrial

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is one of the chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (lymphoid neoplasms). It is characterized by a progressive accumulation of functionally incompetent lymphocytes. Patients with leukemia often seek unconventional treatments not prescribed by hematologist in order to improve their cancer treatment outcome or to manage symptoms. In the present report, a 76-year-old patient was diagnosed with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Beetroot-carrot juice i...

  11. Production technology of pumpkin-carrot fermented milk beverage%南瓜胡萝卜发酵乳饮料的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婕; 尹国友; 杜佩佩; 史亚杰; 赵卫涛; 陈合兴

    2011-01-01

    The pumpkin-carrot fermented milk beverage was produced using pumpkin and carrot as main raw materials by a series of treatments (pretreatment, softening, mashing, etc) and with the addition of different minor ingredients. The optimal formula and production conditions of pumpkin-carrot fermented milk beverage were determined by single factor test and response surface design. The results showed that the optimal formula of the beverage were pumpkin juice 70%, carrot juice 30%, skimmed milk powder 2.5%, acesulfame 0.025% and composite stabilizer 0.18%. The optimal production conditions of the beverage was inoculum 3%, fermentation temperature 42T and fermentation time 4h.%以南瓜、胡萝卜为主要原料,经预处理、软化、打浆等工序,添加各种辅料,采用单因素试验和响应面设计,确定南瓜胡萝卜发酵乳饮料生产的最佳配方和工艺条件.结果表明,饮料的最佳配方为南瓜汁70%,胡萝卜汁30%,脱脂乳粉2.5%,安赛蜜0.025%,复合稳定剂0.18%.饮料的最佳工艺条件为接种量3%,发酵温度42℃,发酵时间4h.

  12. Chemical composition of carrot seeds (Daucus carota L.) cultivated in Turkey: characterization of the seed oil and essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Chalchat, Jean Claude; Musa Özcan, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    Chemical composition and physical properties were established in carrot (Daucus carota L.) seeds from Konya, Turkey to investigate their potential uses. Mature seeds were evaluated for moisture, crude protein, crude oil, crude fiber, ash, HCl-insoluble ash, total carbohydrate, essential oil yield and weight of 1000 seeds. Also, relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter were determined in the seed oil. Th...

  13. Plant extracts and essential oils on the control of Alternaria alternata , Alternaria dauci and on the germination and emergence of carrot seeds ( Daucus carota L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Batista Lima; Luana Lopes Assumpção Rentschler; João Tavares Bueno; Ana Cláudia Boaventura

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study aims to investigate garlic, pepper and coriander plant extract as well as neem and orange peel essential oil effective ness to control Alternaria alternata and Alternaria dauci and their efficiency during carrot seeds germination and emergence. A completely randomized design was used in three different experiments. The first experiment evaluated the effect of plant extracts and essential oils on the incidence of A. alternata and A. dauci . It was done by means of...

  14. Molecularly imprinted nanomicrospheres as matrix solid-phase dispersant combined with gas chromatography for determination of four phosphorothioate pesticides in carrot and yacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mengchun; Hu, Nana; Shu, Shaohua; Wang, Mo

    2015-01-01

    An efficient, rapid, and selective method for sample pretreatment, namely, molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MI-MSPD) coupled with gas chromatography (GC), was developed for the rapid isolation of four phosphorothioate organophosphorus pesticides (tolclofos-methyl, phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and parathion-methyl) from carrot and yacon samples. New molecularly imprinted polymer nanomicrospheres were synthesized by using typical structural analogue tolclofos-methyl as a dummy template via surface grafting polymerization on nanosilica. Then, these four pesticides in carrot and yacon were extracted and adsorbed using the imprinted nanomicrospheres and further determined by gas chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, a good linearity of four pesticides was obtained in a range of 0.05-17.0 ng·g(-1) with R varying from 0.9971 to 0.9996, and the detection limit of the method was 0.012~0.026 ng·g(-1) in carrot and yacon samples. The recovery rates at two spiked levels were in the range of 85.4-105.6% with RSD ≤9.6%. The presented MI-MSPD method combined the advantages of MSPD for allowing the extraction, dispersion, and homogenization in two steps and the advantages of MIPs for high affinity and selectivity towards four phosphorothioate pesticides, which could be applied to the determination of pesticide residues in complicated vegetal samples. PMID:25954569

  15. Effects of different doses of gamma radiation in the conservation and in the physiochemical characteristics of carrot (Daucus carota L.) processed minimally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perecin, Thalita Neme; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia Cristina Aparecida S.; Leite, Daniela Terenzi Stuchi; Wyler, Patricia [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia]. E- mail: tperecin@cena.usp.br; arthur@cena.usp.br; lcasilva@cena.usp.br; dtstuchi@ig.com.br; patwyler@esalq.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the characteristics physic-chemical of carrot (Daucus carota L.) processed minimally, seeking the increase of shelf life and decrease of the microbial load. The carrots were acquired in the commerce of Piracicaba city and taken to the laboratory of Foods Irradiation of CENA/USP, where they were washed in running water, peeled and cut in form of slices. The carrot slices were putted in solution of chlorinated water 15ml/L by 4 minutes, droughts and package in a plastic box of polypropylene. After they were conditioned in plastic containers . After they were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 (dose rate of 0.725 kGy/hour) with the doses of: 0 (control), 1,0 and 2,0 kGy and stored in temperature of 5 deg C. They were analyzed: loss of fresh mass, the color (factors L, the, b), the pH, Brix and tetrable acidity, 4,10,16 and 22 days after the irradiation. The delineation experimental used was entirely at random with 10 repetitions for each treatment. By analyze of the obtained results concluded that the irradiation there was not difference significant statistics between the treatments with irradiation and the control. (author)

  16. Utilization of Solid Waste of Tofu and Out of Grade Carrot as a Source of Vegetable Protein and Fibre in Nugget Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evawati Evawati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tofu residue production is a solid by-product of the tofu industry, which contains high protein and can be processed for food consumption. It has a good taste and is safe to consume as a chicken meat substitute in the form of nuggets they are called de-soya nuggets. One of the methods to decrease bad health effects from fast food is to use tofu nuggets made from the Tofu waste by fortification with local food ingredients that are rich in fiber and antioxidants, similar with out-of-grade carrot. From the research it can be concluded that the substitution of tofu waste and carrot fortifications as de-soya nuggets can increase the nutritional value and fiber of food. Nuggets known as fast foods have high amounts of fat and cholesterols because they are made from animal fat and have low amount fiber. The number of nutritional values that fulfill the standard for a de-soya nugget is, with the largest substitute being of 30% tofu waste with carrot fortifications of 15% that contains 12.53% protein, 30.1% carbohydrate,  11,83% fat, 42.8% water, 1,8700% ash, 8,05% dietary fiber , and  less than 3.0 x 103 (1.8 x 103 colonies/gr total microbial.

  17. Molecularly Imprinted Nanomicrospheres as Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersant Combined with Gas Chromatography for Determination of Four Phosphorothioate Pesticides in Carrot and Yacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengchun Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient, rapid, and selective method for sample pretreatment, namely, molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MI-MSPD coupled with gas chromatography (GC, was developed for the rapid isolation of four phosphorothioate organophosphorus pesticides (tolclofos-methyl, phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and parathion-methyl from carrot and yacon samples. New molecularly imprinted polymer nanomicrospheres were synthesized by using typical structural analogue tolclofos-methyl as a dummy template via surface grafting polymerization on nanosilica. Then, these four pesticides in carrot and yacon were extracted and adsorbed using the imprinted nanomicrospheres and further determined by gas chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, a good linearity of four pesticides was obtained in a range of 0.05–17.0 ng·g−1 with R varying from 0.9971 to 0.9996, and the detection limit of the method was 0.012~0.026 ng·g−1 in carrot and yacon samples. The recovery rates at two spiked levels were in the range of 85.4–105.6% with RSD ≤9.6%. The presented MI-MSPD method combined the advantages of MSPD for allowing the extraction, dispersion, and homogenization in two steps and the advantages of MIPs for high affinity and selectivity towards four phosphorothioate pesticides, which could be applied to the determination of pesticide residues in complicated vegetal samples.

  18. Some AFLP amplicons are highly conserved DNA sequences mapping to the same linkage groups in two F2 populations of carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Carlos A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP is a fast and reliable tool to generate a large number of DNA markers. In two unrelated F2 populations of carrot (Daucus carota L., Brasilia x HCM and B493 x QAL (wild carrot, it was hypothesized that DNA 1 digested with the same restriction endonuclease enzymes and amplified with the same primer combination and 2 sharing the same position in polyacrylamide gels should be conserved sequences. To test this hypothesis AFLP fragments from polyacrylamide gels were eluted, reamplified, separated in agarose gels, purified, cloned and sequenced. Among thirty-one paired fragments from each F2 population, twenty-six had identity greater than 91% and five presented identity of 24% to 44%. Among the twenty-six conserved AFLPs only one mapped to different linkage groups in the two populations while four of the five less-conserved bands mapped to different linkage groups. Of eight SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions primers tested, one conserved AFLP resulted in co-dominant markers in both populations. Screening among 14 carrot inbreds or cultivars with three AFLP-SCAR primers revealed clear and polymorphic PCR products, with similar molecular sizes on agarose gels. The development of co-dominant markers based on conserved AFLP fragments will be useful to detect seed mixtures among hybrids, to improve and to merge linkage maps and to study diversity and phylogenetic relationships.

  19. Fractionation of Plant Bioactives from Black Carrots (Daucus carota subspecies sativus varietas atrorubens Alef.) by Adsorptive Membrane Chromatography and Analysis of Their Potential Anti-Diabetic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Rodríguez-Werner, Miriam; Schlösser, Anke; Liehr, Martin; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-07-27

    Black and purple carrots have attracted interest as colored extracts for coloring food due to their high content of anthocyanins. This study aimed to investigate the polyphenol composition of black carrots. Particularly, the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds of the variety Deep Purple carrot (DPC), which presents a very dark color, was performed by HPLC-PDA and HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analyses. The separation of polyphenols from a DPC XAD-7 extract into an anthocyanin fraction (AF) and co-pigment fraction (CF; primarily phenolic acids) was carried out by membrane chromatography. Furthermore, possible anti-diabetic effects of the DPC XAD-7 extract and its AF and CF were determined. DPC samples (XAD-7, CF, and AF) inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, DPC XAD-7 and chlorogenic acid, but not DPC CF and DPC AF, caused a moderate inhibition of intestinal glucose uptake in Caco-2 cells. However, DPC samples did not affect glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) activity. Overall, DPC exhibits an inhibitory effect on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity and on cellular glucose uptake indicating potential anti-diabetic properties. PMID:27362825

  20. Heat and mass transfer during drying of a bed of shrinking particles - Simulation for carrot cubes dried in a spout-fluidized-bed drier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialobrzewski, Ireneusz; Zielinska, Magdalena; Markowski, Marek [Department of Agri-Food Process Engineering, University of Warmia and Mazury, Heweliusza 14, 10-718 Olsztyn (Poland); Mujumdar, Arun S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science Program, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a model to describe the heat and mass transfer during the drying of carrot cubes in a spout-fluidized-bed drier. The model took into account the non-homogeneous shrinkage of the material. The Arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE) formulation was applied to enter the problem with moving boundaries. Three phases of drying were distinguished according to the behavior of changes in percent local error of estimation: an initial phase of warming up the material - characterized by a low level of error of moisture content prediction, a second phase - characterized by an increase in the error of moisture content prediction and a phase of decreasing error. A simple test of the sensitivity of the model to the changes in heat transfer coefficient was performed in order to improve the ability of the model to predict the changes in moisture content and temperature of dried carrots. The predicted changes in both the moisture content and the temperature of carrot cubes during drying in a spout-fluidized-bed drier indicate that the model can be successfully applied to describe moisture content, temperature and deformation of dried particles in cases when the very high accuracy of moisture content and temperature prediction is not a crucial element of investigation of the drying process. (author)

  1. Potential of multispectral imaging for real-time determination of colour change and moisture distribution in carrot slices during hot air dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhong; Liu, Wei; Lu, Xuzhong; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2016-03-15

    Colour and moisture content are important indices in quality monitoring of dehydrating carrot slices during dehydration process. This study investigated the potential of using multispectral imaging for real-time and non-destructive determination of colour change and moisture distribution during the hot air dehydration of carrot slices. Multispectral reflectance images, ranging from 405 to 970 nm, were acquired and then calibrated based on three chemometrics models of partial least squares (PLS), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM), and back propagation neural network (BPNN), respectively. Compared with PLS and LS-SVM, BPNN considerably improved the prediction performance with coefficient of determination in prediction (RP(2))=0.991, root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP)=1.482% and residual predictive deviation (RPD)=11.378 for moisture content. It was concluded that multispectral imaging has an excellent potential for rapid, non-destructive and simultaneous determination of colour change and moisture distribution of carrot slices during dehydration. PMID:26575720

  2. Use of low doses of cobalt 60 gamma radiation on beet (Beta vulgaris L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed to stimulate increase yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research had the aim of evaluating the effects of low doses of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultiva Champion, cultivars Nantes Forto (european origin) and Brasilia (Rio Grande do Sul origin) carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativus (Hoffm.) Thell), and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar Tall Top Early Wonder before sowing, its effects on plant growth, on the yield and roots storage of two tillages: with sowing in the same day of radiation and six days after radiation seeds. The data showed that the seeds radiation did not interfered negatively on plants growth, and the species presented differences as roots production and doses on both plantation: radish with 5,0 Gy and 2,5 Gy doses respectively to the first and the second sowings, Brasilia carrot with 2,5 Gy dose to both sowings. Nantes carrot with 2,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second sowings, and beet with 7,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second plantations. There is not statistics difference by Tukey test (5% and 1%) and none relation between seeds radiation and loss weight on roots storage. (author)

  3. Effects of different doses of gamma radiation in the conservation and in the physiochemical characteristics of carrot (Daucus carota L.) processed minimally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the characteristics physic-chemical of carrot (Daucus carota L.) processed minimally, seeking the increase of shelf life and decrease of the microbial load. The carrots were acquired in the commerce of Piracicaba city and taken to the laboratory of Foods Irradiation of CENA/USP, where they were washed in running water, peeled and cut in form of slices. The carrot slices were putted in solution of chlorinated water 15ml/L by 4 minutes, droughts and package in a plastic box of polypropylene. After they were conditioned in plastic containers . After they were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 (dose rate of 0.725 kGy/hour) with the doses of: 0 (control), 1,0 and 2,0 kGy and stored in temperature of 5 deg C. They were analyzed: loss of fresh mass, the color (factors L, the, b), the pH, Brix and tetrable acidity, 4,10,16 and 22 days after the irradiation. The delineation experimental used was entirely at random with 10 repetitions for each treatment. By analyze of the obtained results concluded that the irradiation there was not difference significant statistics between the treatments with irradiation and the control. (author)

  4. Estimation of minor components in caraway, fennel and carrots by nirs comparison of results from dispersive and fourier-transform instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krüger H.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to compare the prediction accuracy of some secondary metabolites occurring in caraway, fennel and carrot, recorded with two different NIR spectrometers. Based on the recorded spectra and the chemically determined reference values, chemometrical analyses were performed using a partial least squares (PLS or a modified PLS algorithm. Very good calibration statistics (SECV, R2 were obtained for the prediction of the essential oil content in caraway both with the dispersive spectrometer system (0.20, 0.93 and with the FT-IR instrument (0.19, 0.92. The results received for the essential oil content in two harvests of fennel (1996+1997 gave nearly the same accuracy: (0.47, 0.92 and (0.58, 0.91. Satisfactory calibration results were received for the NIRS determination of total carotenoids in two harvests of carrots (1997: 3.54, 0.82 /1998: 3.45, 0.91 by using a FT-IR spectrometer. Applicable calibration results were received for total sugars in carrots (1997: 1.61, 0.67/1998: 1.14, 0.73.

  5. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de cenoura classificadas por tamanho Physiological quality of carrot seeds classified by size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdecir José dos Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A obtenção de sementes de cenoura (Daucus carota L. com alta qualidade está restrita à elevada heterogeneidade na maturação fisiológica, pois produz sementes em épocas diferentes e de tamanhos variados. A classificação de sementes de cenoura por tamanho pode ser uma boa alternativa para a melhoria da qualidade fisiológica. Para discriminar lotes de sementes por qualidade fisiológica, bem como identificar testes que forneçam uma estimativa do desempenho de sementes classificadas por tamanho, desenvolveu-se um experimento com três lotes de sementes de cenoura das cultivares 'Brasília' e 'Alvorada', sendo obtidos seis tratamentos distintos, dados pela combinação das duas cultivares com os lotes de tamanhos: médio, grande e extragrande. Nas cultivares 'Alvorada' e 'Brasília', apesar de não haver influência do tamanho das sementes na percentagem de germinação e no comprimento de parte aérea e total de plântulas, houve diferença significativa, além da massa seca de plântulas e do peso das sementes, para o comprimento de raiz, mostrando que essa variável foi a mais sensível para diferenciar lotes pelo vigor. Assim, os lotes de sementes menores mostraram inferioridade na qualidade fisiológica em relação às sementes maiores, justificando a classificação de sementes por tamanho.The acquisition of carrot (Daucus carota L. seeds with high quality is restricted to the high heterogeneity at physiological maturity, because it produces seeds at different times and sizes. The classification of carrot seed by size can be a good alternative for improving the physiological quality. To differentiate seed lots by physiological quality, and identify tests that provide an estimate the performance of seed classified by size, it was developed an experiment with three seed lots of carrot cultivars 'Alvorada' and 'Brasília'. It was obtained six different treatments, given by combination of the two cultivars, which had medium, large and

  6. Controle pós-emergente de plantas daninhas em cenoura Post-emergence weed control in carrot crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Zagonel

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em Piraí do Sul-PR no ano de 1995 em solo de textura argilo arenosa, tendo como objetivo avaliar a eficiência e a seletividade do herbicida propaquizafop no controle pós-emergente de plantas daninhas na cultura da cenoura. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições, quais sejam: propaquizafop (100, 125 e 150 g i.a./ha; fluazifop-p-butil (188 g i.a./ha; testemunha capinada e testemunha sem capina. A cultivar de cenoura utilizada foi Nantes Tim Tom semeada em 15 de junho, com espaçamento de 0,25 x 0,05 m, em parcelas com área útil de 5,00 x 1,00 m. As plantas daninhas predominantes foram Brachiaria plantaginea (capim-papuã, Digitaria horizontalis (capim-milhã e Eleusine indica (capim pé-de-galinha. As avaliações foram efetuadas aos 15, 30 e 45 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Observou-se que o herbicida propaquizafop, nas doses de 100, 125 e 150 g i.a./ha foi eficiente no controle sobre capim-papuã, capim-milhã e capim pé-de-galinha. O controle de plantas daninhas realizado através de herbicidas proporcionou a mesma produção obtida com o controle manual. A perda na produção ocasionada pela presença de plantas daninhas foi da ordem de 76,4%. Não foram observados efeitos fitotóxicos nas plantas de cenoura que pudessem ser atribuídos aos produtos utilizados.The presented field trial was conducted in 1995 in Piraí do Sul, Paraná State, Brazil, on a sand-clay texture soil, to evaluate the efficiency and selectivity of propaquizafop on carrot crop weed control. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications, and 5.00 x 1.00 m plots. The treatmens were: propaquizafop (100, 125 and 150 g a.i/ha; fluazifop-p-butil (188 g a.i/ha; control with weeding and control without weeding. The carrot cultivar Nantes Tim Tom was sown on June 15 with plants spaced 0.25 x 0.05 m. The prevalent weeds

  7. Influence of chicken manure and NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer on growth and yield of carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvestre Habimana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of chicken manure and NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer on growth and yield of carrot (Daucus carota L. in a volcanic soil of Musanze District in the Northern Province of Rwanda. This was geared upon by many unattended biotic and agronomic factors pertaining to low yields of carrot crop in this area. The treatments were: the control (T0, 10 t ha-1 of chicken manure (T1, 300 kg ha-1 of NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer (T2, and 5 t ha-1 chicken manure + 150 kg ha-1 of NPK fertilizer (T3 and each treatment was in three repetitions. The soil was tested for some of its physical and chemical properties and the soil reaction was moderately acid (pH 5.97 and the quantities of N, P, K were moderate. The growth and yield parameters were studied along with the effect of treatments and the economic contribution of the intervention was determined by Benefit-Cost-Ratio (BGR approach. Results revealed that the significantly (p < 0.05 highest plant height (45.59 cm and leaf length (45.29 cm were obtained in the combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer and the lowest were 34.12 and 34.69 cm, respectively, in the absolute control. The sole application of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer recorded plant heights of 43.70 and 39.89 cm and leaf lengths of 43.46 and 39.61 cm, respectively. Results also indicated that marketable root yield was statistically similar between control (5.6 t ha-1 and chicken manure alone (5.7 t ha-1 and between NPK fertilizer alone (8.55 t ha-1 and combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer (10.55 t ha-1. The best BCR was obtained in the combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer (2.09 compared with the absolute control (1.12, chicken manure alone (1.75 and NPK fertilizer alone (1.62.

  8. Desempenho agroeconômico do bicultivo de alface em sistema solteiro e consorciado com cenoura Agrieconomic performance of lettuce under bicropping, sole crop and intercropped with carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Q. de Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    ções', tiveram os melhores indicadores agroeconômicos, com índices de uso eficiente da terra de 2,16 e 2,15, taxas de retorno de 2,05 e 2,33, e índices de lucratividade de 53,92% e 59,83%, respectivamente.Two experiments were carried out from September to May 2002, in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, to evaluate the agrieconomic performance of two lettuce groups under bicropping, sole crop and intercropping system with two carrot cultivars (Alvorada and Brasília in a strip-intercropping arrangement. The experimental design was of group balanced blocks with four replications. The evaluated lettuce cvs. were from the crispleaf group (Lucy Brown, Tainá, Laurel and Verônica and looseleaf group (Babá de Verão, Maravilha das Quatro Estações, Elisa and Carolina. In the intercropping experiment, the split-plot scheme was used. In the plots the carrot cvs. were assigned and in the subplots the lettuce cvs. of both groups. From the lettuce cvs. were obtained data of leaf yield and, for the carrot cvs. were obtained total and commercial yield, besides the root classes. Agrieconomic indices such as land equivalent ratio, gross and net income, monetary advantage, rate of return and profit margin were used to measure the efficiency of intercropping systems. No significant interaction was obtained between carrot and lettuce cvs. in yield of both crops. Carrot cvs. did not influence crop yield and lettuce cvs. had no influence on carrot yield. In the bicropping of lettuce with carrot, the cvs. Lucy Brown and Tainá (crispleaf group and Babá de Verão and Maravilha das Quatro Estações (looseleaf group had presented the best yield performance in the first planting. In the second planting, only cv. Maravilha das Quatro Estações of looseleaf lettuce group had presented the best performance under intercropping. Lettuce cvs. of crispleaf group intercropped with carrot had presented the best yield performance when compared to those of the looseleaf group. The intercropping

  9. Produtividade de cenoura e alface em sistema de consorciação Production of lettuce and carrot in an intercropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos S. Caetano

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar as culturas de cenoura e alface no sistema de consórcio, foram conduzidos dois experimentos na estação experimental da Pesagro-Rio em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, em cultivo de inverno nos anos de 1995 e 1996. As alfaces foram cultivadas em monocultivo e em consórcio com a cultura de cenoura. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Para cenoura foram analisados seis tratamentos (cenoura em monocultivo e em consórcio com cinco cultivares de alface. Para a alface foi utilizado esquema fatorial com dois sistemas de cultivo e cinco cultivares. As parcelas experimentais possuíam dimensões de 1 m x 1,5 m. No primeiro experimento, foram utilizadas as cultivares de alface Babá-de-verão, Regina-71, Vitória, Brasil-303 e Carolina e no segundo experimento, as cultivares Carolina, Elisa, Regina-71, Vitória e Marisa. A cultivar de cenoura utilizada foi a Brasília. A eficiência do consórcio foi avaliada pelo cálculo da Razão de Área Equivalente (RAE. Em ambos experimentos, tanto para monocultivo quanto para consórcio, as culturas apresentaram produção adequada para comercialização. Apenas houve prejuízo à cenoura no sistema de consórcio quando esta foi cultivada com a alface cv. Marisa. Os valores da RAE, 1,74 e 1,76, evidenciaram que a utilização do consórcio foi vantajosa nos dois ensaios, ou seja, para obter-se a mesma produção de alface ou cenoura em monocultivo seria necessário um acréscimo em área de 74% e 76%, considerando o primeiro e segundo ano de experimentação, respectivamente.Two experiments were conducted at the Campos Experiment Station - Pesagro-Rio, during the winter season of 1995 and 1996, to evaluate the performance of carrot and lettuce in an intercropping system. For the first experiment the lettuce cultivars comprised Babá-de Verão, Regina-71, Vitória, Brasil-303 and Carolina, whilst for the second experiment comprised Carolina, Elisa

  10. Carotenoid content and root color of cultivated carrot: a candidate-gene association study using an original broad unstructured population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Jourdan

    Full Text Available Accumulated in large amounts in carrot, carotenoids are an important product quality attribute and therefore a major breeding trait. However, the knowledge of carotenoid accumulation genetic control in this root vegetable is still limited. In order to identify the genetic variants linked to this character, we performed an association mapping study with a candidate gene approach. We developed an original unstructured population with a broad genetic basis to avoid the pitfall of false positive detection due to population stratification. We genotyped 109 SNPs located in 17 candidate genes – mostly carotenoid biosynthesis genes – on 380 individuals, and tested the association with carotenoid contents and color components. Total carotenoids and β-carotene contents were significantly associated with genes zeaxanthin epoxydase (ZEP, phytoene desaturase (PDS and carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO while α-carotene was associated with CRTISO and plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX genes. Color components were associated most significantly with ZEP. Our results suggest the involvement of the couple PDS/PTOX and ZEP in carotenoid accumulation, as the result of the metabolic and catabolic activities respectively. This study brings new insights in the understanding of the carotenoid pathway in non-photosynthetic organs.

  11. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging on bacterial resistance in grated carrots (Daucus carota)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca; Lafortune, R

    2004-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of gamma irradiation combined with modified atmosphere packaging as an alternative treatment to ensure the innocuity and the shelf life extension of pre-cured vegetables. Grated carrots were inoculated with Escherichia coli (10{sup 6} CFU/g) and packed under air or under MAP condition (60% O{sub 2}, 30% CO{sub 2} and 10% N{sub 2}). The packages were then, gamma irradiated at doses from 0.15 to 0.9 kGy and stored at 4{+-}1 deg. C. E. coli counts were periodically evaluated during 50 days of storage. Results showed that at day 1, an irradiation treatment at a dose of 0.15 kGy reduced by 3 and 4 log the microbial level representing a level of 3 and 2 log CFU/g when samples were irradiated under air and under MAP respectively. However, a level of 3 log CFU/g was detected in both treated samples after 7 days of storage. When samples were irradiated at doses {>=}0.3 kGy no E.coli were detected during the whole storage in samples treated under MAP. However, when samples were treated under air, a level of 1-2 log CFU/g of E.coli was detected after 5 days of storage.

  12. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging on bacterial resistance in grated carrots ( Daucus carota)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M.; Lafortune, R.

    2004-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of gamma irradiation combined with modified atmosphere packaging as an alternative treatment to ensure the innocuity and the shelf life extension of pre-cured vegetables. Grated carrots were inoculated with Escherichia coli (10 6 CFU/g) and packed under air or under MAP condition (60% O 2, 30% CO 2 and 10% N 2). The packages were then, gamma irradiated at doses from 0.15 to 0.9 kGy and stored at 4±1°C. E. coli counts were periodically evaluated during 50 days of storage. Results showed that at day 1, an irradiation treatment at a dose of 0.15 kGy reduced by 3 and 4 log the microbial level representing a level of 3 and 2 log CFU/g when samples were irradiated under air and under MAP respectively. However, a level of 3 log CFU/g was detected in both treated samples after 7 days of storage. When samples were irradiated at doses ⩾0.3 kGy no E.coli were detected during the whole storage in samples treated under MAP. However, when samples were treated under air, a level of 1-2 log CFU/g of E.coli was detected after 5 days of storage.

  13. From optimization of synbiotic microparticles prepared by spray-drying to development of new functional carrot juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petreska-Ivanovska Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus casei loaded chitosan-Ca-alginate microparticles enriched with the prebiotic fructooligosaccharide were prepared using spray-drying method associated with the polymers complexation and cross-linking with calcium. The concentrations of the formulation factors of alginate, chitosan and CaCl2 were optimized using 23 full factorial design. Experiments showed that microparticles with favorable physicochemical properties and high probiotic viability during preparation and storage could be obtained when 40 mg/g sodium alginate, 5 mg/g chitosan and 50 mg/g CaCl2 is used. Stability of L. casei during microencapsulation was identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The viability of the probiotic in the optimal formulation of synbiotic microparticles remained above the therapeutic minimum during incubation of 24 hours in simulated gastrointestinal conditions (7.67±0.4 log cfu/g as well as after 3 months of cold storage (8.1±0.6 log cfu/g. High viability of L. casei was maintained during 6 weeks of cold storage when carrot juice was enriched with encapsulated cells. The effective preservation of L. casei into synbiotic microparticles provided production of new non-dairy functional food as an alternative of the population who is at risk of lactose intolerance.

  14. Observations Regarding the Duration of Feeding Behaviour when Intensively Farmed Coypus (Nutrias are Fed with Barley and Carrots

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    Ioan Bănăţean-Dunea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The studies on coypu behaviour are applied in the development of knowledge regarding ethology, in the coypubreedingtechnology, animal welfare and, at the moment, they present great importance for animal protection. Thebiological material studied was consisted of health adult coypus, belonging to the variety Golden Standard with asimilar body mass. The indices supervised were: feeding behaviour duration if coypus are fed with barley and carrotsaccording to gender and time slot, the duration of one feeding sequence according to forage consumed and genderand the number of feeding sequences according to forage consumed and gender. For realising the purposed aim, eachcoypu was monitorized (video, individually, 24 hours a day. The duration of feeding behaviour when coypus are fedwith barley and carrots was 4507.88±38.99 seconds for males (5.21% of the behavioural manifestations, and forcoypu females, the duration of feeding behaviour was 4576.63±26.01 seconds (5.29% of the behaviouralmanifestations. The most intense manifestations of the feeding behaviour took place in the time slots 08:00-14:00and 14:00-20:00, and the lowest intensity of the feeding behaviour manifestations took place in the time slot 02:00-08:00.

  15. Development of eggless gluten-free rice muffins utilizing black carrot dietary fibre concentrate and xanthan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jatinder Pal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder

    2016-02-01

    Gluten-free muffins are generally made from purified flours and starches (from non-gluten sources) which are deficient in dietary fibre and have poor quality attributes. In this regard, the present work was undertaken to explore application of black carrot pomace dietary fibre concentrate (BCF) and xanthan gum (XG) in gluten-free rice muffins. Physicochemical properties of BCF and rice flour were studied. BCF was incorporated at three levels (3, 6 and 9 %) in rice flour, while XG was added at 0.5 % level to study their effect on muffin batters and physicochemical properties of muffins. BCF showed higher water absorption and oil absorption capacities than rice flour. Incorporation of BCF and XG increased flour paste viscosities and batter viscoelasticity. Incorporation of BCF increased total dietary fibre content (TDF) and decreased the L* and b* values, water activity (aw), specific volume and firmness. On the other hand, XG improved appearance and specific volume of the rice muffins prepared with and without BCF. Muffins prepared with 6 % BCF incorporation and XG were the most acceptable. This study demonstrated that BCF and XG can be used as viable functional ingredients in the preparation of gluten-free muffins. PMID:27162407

  16. Shelf life of minimally processed carrot and green pepper Vida útil de cenoura e pimentão minimamente processados

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    Lucimeire Pilon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The postharvest losses of horticultural products justify the use of preservation techniques. The processing not only adds value to the products, but also makes the products more convenient to the consumers. The objective of this research was to define the methodologies for the minimal processing of carrot and green pepper as to the type and intensity of the adoption of conservation techniques, and to monitor the products after processing through microbiological, physicochemical and nutritional analysis. The vegetables were washed and they were immersed in cold (7ºC water with 100 mg L-1 free chlorine for sanitation, followed by centrifugation for 5 min. The product was put into BOPP/LDPE (biaxially orientated polypropylene/low-density polyethylene plastic bags, which were sealed under atmospheric air, vacuum and modified atmosphere (2% O2, 10% CO2, 88% N2 and stored at 1ºC±1ºC. The approximate composition of the vegetables stayed stable during the storage period, in the three tested treatments. The contents of vitamin C for the samples of minimally processed carrot and green pepper did not present differences among treatments. The contents of beta-carotene decreased slightly during the storage period for the minimally processed carrot and green pepper. After processing, carrot and green pepper had psychrotrophic counts of 10²-10(5 and 10³-10(6 CFU g-1, respectively. Anaerobic mesophiles and total coliforms were found in green peppers, representing 1.6x10³ - 7.4x10(5 and As perdas pós-colheita de alimentos hortícolas justificam a adoção de técnicas de conservação. Uma vez beneficiados, esses produtos permitem agregar valor à produção primária e se tornam de conveniência ao consumidor. Este trabalho teve como objetivo definir as metodologias do processamento mínimo de cenoura e pimentão quanto ao tipo e intensidade de adoção das técnicas de barreiras e monitorar os produtos após o processamento, através de an

  17. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging on bacterial resistance in grated carrots (Daucus carota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of gamma irradiation combined with modified atmosphere packaging as an alternative treatment to ensure the innocuity and the shelf life extension of pre-cured vegetables. Grated carrots were inoculated with Escherichia coli (106 CFU/g) and packed under air or under MAP condition (60% O2, 30% CO2 and 10% N2). The packages were then, gamma irradiated at doses from 0.15 to 0.9 kGy and stored at 4±1 deg. C. E. coli counts were periodically evaluated during 50 days of storage. Results showed that at day 1, an irradiation treatment at a dose of 0.15 kGy reduced by 3 and 4 log the microbial level representing a level of 3 and 2 log CFU/g when samples were irradiated under air and under MAP respectively. However, a level of 3 log CFU/g was detected in both treated samples after 7 days of storage. When samples were irradiated at doses ≥0.3 kGy no E.coli were detected during the whole storage in samples treated under MAP. However, when samples were treated under air, a level of 1-2 log CFU/g of E.coli was detected after 5 days of storage

  18. Metabolic changes in carrot cells in response to simultaneous treatment with ultraviolet light and a fungal elicitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet light induces anthocyanin biosynthesis in cell cultures of an Afghan cultivar of Daucus carota (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus). Simultaneous treatment with a fungal elicitor from Pythium aphanidermatum results in an inhibition of the catalytic activity of chalcone synthase (CHS), which in turn correlates with an inhibition of anthocyanin biosynthesis. On immunoblots, one isoenzyme (40 kDa) of CHS disappears upon elicitor treatment. On an mRNA level, only the mRNA for the 40-kDa-CHS is active after treatment with ultraviolet light. After inhibition of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the elicitor the enzyme protein disappears and the CHS mRNA is strongly diminished. This inhibition depends on the concentration of the elicitor. In addition, elicitor treatment leads to an induction of the general phenylpropanoid pathway as well as to the accumulation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid which is covalently bound to wall polysaccharides of the carrot cells. The possible function of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in providing precursors for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid is discussed

  19. Formation of Bound Residues of 14C-Carbofuran in Carrot Roots and Their Bioavailability to Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrot roots were allowed to absorb radiolabelled carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-[ring-3-14C]2,2-dimethyl benzofuran-7-gamma l methyl carbamate) for 7 days. After Soxhlet extraction with methanol, the amounts of residues bound to plant tissues were determined. The data indicate the rate of binding increased with time reaching 7% of the applied dose (about 25% of the total amount taken up in one week. When rats were fed the extracted tissues, the bound residues were found to be considerably bioavailable. From the 14C-activity in the feed, 10.7% 14C-carbon dioxide and 29.03% urinary 14C-metabolites could be recovered. In feces, 30.16% of the given dose was methanol-extractable while 18.43% was determined as non-extractable. Various tissues including fat, liver, kidney, muscle, blood, heart, spleen and lungs contained 2.08%. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of rat urine indicated the presence of two main metabolites identified as carbofuran phenol and 3-hydroxy carbofuran

  20. The effect of low doses of gamma-rays and fast neutrons on the growth of carrot callus tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the effect of low doses of gamma- and X-rays on plants have been conducted in numerous laboratories. A so-called stimulation effect, i.e. weight or size increase of various parts of mature plants following the irradation of initial material/seeds or vegetative parts/with low doses of gamma- or X-rays, has attracted a keen interest. This effect has been observed in various species at a dose range ca 10 - 100 times lower than doses producing distinct somatic injuries in plants. Reports related to the irradiation effect on plant tissues cultured in vitro are scarce up to the present. The purpose of the reported research was to determine the effect of low doses of gamma-rays and fast neutrons on the growth of carrot callus tissue. The effects of both irradiation sources at a wide range of doses were compared and determinations of the level of injuries and lethal doses were attempted. The influence of genotype and nutrient medium on the response of the tissue was also tested. (orig.)

  1. Characterization of carrot cell lines resistant to 5-methyltryptophan obtained by irradiating suspension cultures with UV-light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mutagenic procedure of carrot cell suspension by means of UV-light has been established. The application of this procedure to the selection of cell lines resistant to 5-methyltryptophan (5MT) increased 11 times the spontaneous mutation rate. Eighteen colonies selected in the course of one experiment have been analyzed for quantitative resistance to the analogue. Four of the most 5MT-resistant lines selected (one spontaneous and three induced) were also tested for their resistance to azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (A2C) to which all of them proved to be resistant even though this was an unselected trait. The four lines were tested for the intracellular content of some free amino acids. Results of such determination showed that the content of tryptophan and proline was roughly proportional to the degree of resistance of the lines to the two analogues. The fact that all the lines resistant to 5MT over-produced proline suggests that the latter feature may be a direct consequence of the increased pool of free tryptophan. The four cell lines tested showed a rate of tryptophan uptake similar to that of the parental line. On the contrary the rate of proline and A2C by the 5MT-11 cell line was reduced to 23% and 10% of that of the parental line, respectively. (author)

  2. Role of cellular antioxidants (glutathione and ascorbic acid) in the growth and development of wild carrot suspension cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determinations of endogenous glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) in proliferating and developing wild carrot cultures showed that lower levels of GSH and AA were associated with developing cultures. The GSSG and DHA levels did not account for the changes in the levels of antioxidants between proliferating and developing cultures. Studies were designed to test an observed auxin (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-D)-antioxidant association. Two fractions (embryo and less developed) were obtained by screening developed cultures which were previously grown in the presence of 14C-2, 4-D. The embryo fraction had a lower concentration of 14C than the less developed fraction, supporting the association, since the two fractions showed this relationship with respect to GSH and AA concentrations. Determinations of GSH and AA levels of cells grown in various concentrations of 2,4-D showed the association, decreases in the 2,4-D concentration correlated with decreases in the GSH and AA concentrations. The existence of a respiratory pathway involving GSSG reductase, DHA reductase, and AA oxidase was investigated to test whether inhibition of AA oxidase by 2,4-D could explain the auxin-antioxidant association; however, AA oxidase activity was not detected

  3. Analysis of ambient air quality trends at selected West Central Airshed Society stations : Tomahawk and Carrot Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air trends were evaluated using data collected over a 10 year period from two West Central Airshed Society monitoring stations in rural Alberta. The pollutants studied included ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM2.5). Two approaches were used to evaluate the trends. The first approach used various percentiles of hourly concentration distributions from each year, while the second approach used frequencies of the number of hours in which various benchmark concentrations were exceeded each year. These statistics were assumed to be linear over the period of study. Hypothesis tests were conducted on the best-fit lines to check whether slope of the lines was zero in order to indicate change. Results from both approaches were found to be in good agreement. At the Tomahawk Station, no statistically dominant change was detected in air quality with respect to O3 and PM2.5. However, SO2 and NO2 showed statistically significant decreasing trends. At the Carrot Creek Station, a pronounced decreasing trend in SO2 was observed, but there was no change in O3 and NO2. The decreasing trends observed with SO2 at both stations is consistent with the province's efforts to reduced natural gas flaring and venting. It was cautioned that since the period of study over which trends were examined was short, the changes or lack of changes observed do not necessarily indicate long term trends

  4. Quantifying biochemical quality parameters in carrots (Daucus carota L.) - FT-Raman spectroscopy as efficient tool for rapid metabolite profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krähmer, Andrea; Böttcher, Christoph; Rode, Andrea; Nothnagel, Thomas; Schulz, Hartwig

    2016-12-01

    Application of FT-Raman spectroscopy for simultaneous quantification of carotenoids, carbohydrates, polyacetylenes and phenylpropanoids with high bioactive potential was investigated in storage roots of Daucus carota. Within single FT-Raman experiment carbohydrates, carotenoids, and polyacetylenes could be reliably quantified with high coefficients of determination of R(2)>0.91. The most abundant individual representatives of each compound class could be quantified with comparably high quality resulting in R(2)=0.97 and 0.96 for α-carotene and β-carotene, in R(2)=0.90 for falcarindiol (FaDOH), R(2)=0.99, 0.98 and 0.96 for fructose, glucose and sucrose. In contrast, application of FT-Raman spectroscopy for quantification of two laserine-type phenylpropanoids was investigated but failed due to low concentration and Raman response. Furthermore, evaluation of metabolic profiles by principle component analysis (PCA) revealed metabolic variety of carrot root composition depending on root color and botanical relationship. PMID:27374560

  5. Activity of indolyl-3-acetic acid oxidase and peroxidase in roots of carrot infested with Meloidogyne hapla Chiuu.

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    Krystyna M. Janas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available IAA-oxidase and peroxidase activity was measured in storage and side roots of healthy and M. hapla infested carrots of two sultivars. Cultivar 'Perfekcja' is sensitive whereas cv. 'Slendero' is tolerant to the northern root-knot ne-matode. 3-, 4-, and 5-month-old plants were subjected to analyses. In M. hapla infested plants of both cultivars IAA-oxidase inhibitors accumulated. Kinetics of IAA oxidation in vivo were the same in healthy and infested plants. IAA-oxidase activity in vitro was inhibited in crude extracts of the infested tissues, the inhibition being prevented by PVP. Peroxidase activity increased in secondary phloem and decreased in galled side roots of both cultivars when compared with healthy controls. In galled side roots of the youngest 3-month-old plants peroxidase activity was not decreased. IAA-oxidase inhibitors accumulated in the infested roots.It is concluded that M. hapla has no direct effect on IAA-oxidase. Degree of tolerance to nematodes is correlated with the ratio of IAA-oxidase inhibitors to IAA-oxidase rather than with the absolute activity of IAA-oxidase.

  6. 胡萝卜内源激素含量分布与畸裂肉质根形成的关系%Distributions of endogenous hormones relative to formation of cracked and malformed fleshy roots of carrots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永岗; 张化生; 李亚莉; 曲亚英

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous hormones (an important internal factor) promote fleshy root thickening in carrot by controlling root sink activity,however,it is not entirely clear whether the distribution of endogenous hormones is related with the formation of cracks and deformities in fleshy root of carrots.The distributions of endogenous hormones across transverse section and along longitudinal section of normal,cracked and deformed fleshy root of carrot ("Qishantouxinhong") were investigated using the ELISA method.The relationship between the endogenous hormones contents and formation of cracked and malformed flesh roots of carrots was discussed.The results showed that GA3,GA4,ZR,DHZR and IAA contents in the outer and mid-outer transverse sections of cracked fleshy roots of carrots were lower than those in the other parts of the plant during the fast metaphase stage of root thickening.Alsothe contents of GA3,GA4,ABA and IAA in outer and mid-outer transverse sections of cracked fleshy root of carrots were lower than those in the other parts of the plant during the fast telophase stage of root thickening.Compared with outer-dominance in normal fleshy roots,endogenous hormone distribution was dominant in the inner and middle vertical cross-sections of cracked fleshy root carrots.This could have led to the formation of cracks in fleshy root carrots.Also compared with top/end-dominance in normal fleshy root carrots,the distributions of GA4,ZR and DHZR contents exhibited an end-dominance along the longitudinal cross-sections of cracked fleshy root of carrots.In fact,GA3,ABA and IAA exhibited even distributions in malformed fleshy root of carrots during the fast root thickening stage.The analyses showed that variations in the distributions of endogenous hormones resulted in deformities fleshy root of carrots.%为深入揭示内源激素对高原夏季胡萝卜肉质根发育的调控作用,以“岐山透心红”的开裂和畸形肉质根为材料,采用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA),研

  7. Influence Factors on Physical Properties and Nutrient Component for Carrot Micro-powder%胡萝卜微粉物理特性和营养成分的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫元娟; 曾程; 王强; 秦军伟

    2009-01-01

    胡萝卜微粉制备中,影响微粉物理特性及营养成分的试验分析表明:热风和微波干燥获得的胡萝卜微粉容积密度大,冷冻干燥的胡萝卜微粉容积密度小.微波干燥获得的胡萝卜微粉溶水性好,其次是冷冻干燥;胡萝卜生粉比熟粉溶水性好.胡萝卜生粉的氨基酸质量比高于熟粉和冻融粉;真空冷冻干燥生胡萝卜,粉碎粒径小于240目时,氨基酸质量比高.经过冻融处理的胡萝卜微粉V_c质量比高于其生粉和熟粉;冷冻干燥的胡萝卜微粉V_c质量比高.类胡萝卜素质量比随着粒径减小而减小;冷冻干燥冻融处理的胡萝卜,在粉碎粒径为80~120目时,类胡萝卜素和V_c质量比高.%Analysis of physical properties and nutrient components of the carrot micro-powder showed that the carrot micro powder gained by the hot air drying and the microwave drying had the larger bulk density than by the freeze drying. Water solubility of the carrot micro-powder gained by the microwave drying was higher than gained by the freeze drying; water solubility of the raw carrot micro-powder was higher carrot than the cooked. The amino acid mass ratio of the raw carrot powder was higher than the cooked carrot powder, the freezing and thawing powder. Treated with the freeze-drying, the amino acid mass ratio of the raw carrot powder was the highest, and the powder granularity was smaller than 240 mesh. The vitamin C mass ratio of the carrot micro-powder processed by the freezing and thawing was higher than the raw and the cooked carrot powder. The vitamin C mass ratio of the carrot micro-powder processed by the freeze drying was the highest, and then the vacuum drying. The smaller the granularity was, the less the carotenoids mass ratio was; the carotenoids mass ratio and the vitamin C mass ratio ware the highest when the freeze-thaw carrot was processed by the freeze drying, and the granularity was 80 to 120 meshes.

  8. Desempenho agronômico da cenoura adubada com jitirana antes de sua semeadura Agronomic performance of carrot fertilized with scarlet starglory before sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mychelle Karla Teixeira de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A jitirana é uma planta herbácea nativa que se apresenta como uma fonte potencial para adubação verde no nordeste semi-árido do Brasil e gera inúmeros benefícios, com destaque para o aumento da disponibilidade de nutrientes para as culturas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho agronômico da cenoura adubada com jitirana antes de sua semeadura. Um experimento foi conduzido na horta didática do Departamento de Ciências Vegetais da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, Mossoró-RN, no período de setembro a dezembro de 2008. O delineamento experimental usado foi em blocos completos casualizados com os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 + 1, com três repetições. O primeiro fator foi constituído pelas quantidades de jitirana incorporadas ao solo (5,4; 8,8; 12,2 e 15,6 t ha-1 em base seca e o segundo fator pelos tempos de incorporação da jitirana (0; 10; 20 e 30 dias antes da semeadura da cenoura - DAS. O tratamento adicional (testemunha foi de 80 t ha-1 de esterco bovino. As características avaliadas na cenoura foram: altura das plantas, número de folhas por planta, massa seca da parte aérea, produtividade comercial, produtividade refugo e produtividade classificada. Não houve interação significativa entre os fatores quantidades de jitirana incorporadas ao solo e seus tempos de incorporação antes da semeadura da cenoura em nenhuma das características avaliadas. O melhor desempenho produtivo da cenoura foi obtido na quantidade de 15,6 t ha-1 de jitirana incorporada ao solo e no tempo de 20 dias antes de sua semeadura.The scarlet starglory is an herbaceous plant native that is presented as a potential source for green manure in the semi-arid northeast of Brazil, and generates many benefits, especially the increased availability of nutrients for crops. The objective of this present study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of carrot fertilized with scarlet starglory before

  9. Responses of Carrot under Zn-Ni Combined Pollution in Arid Oasis Soil%干旱区绿洲土壤中胡萝卜对Zn-Ni复合污染的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧振峰; 南忠仁; 王胜利

    2011-01-01

    Growth responses of carrot and its accumulation characteristics of Zn and Ni were analyzed under Zn-Ni combined pollution through pot experiment. The results showed that when the amendments were lower than TS5 (Zn 450 mg/kg and Ni 350 mg/kg), the growth of carrot was promoted under Zn-Ni combined pollution, once over TS5, that was inhibited to different extent, especially, the biomass of carrot decreased significantly at TS8 (Zn 1 000 mg/kg and Ni 1 100 mg/kg) . The accumulation ability of tuber and stem leaf of carrot was Zn > Ni, I. E. Zn was easier to be accumulated from soil to issues of carrot than Ni. The translocation ability of Zn and Ni in carrot was Zn > Ni, which indicated that Zn was easier to transport from tuber to stem leaf. Being illustrated by the translocation factors of Zn and Ni, it can be concluded that Zn mainly accumulate in the stem leaf of carrot, but Ni mainly in the tuber of carrot, so Ni may be easier to pose health threats to humans.%通过盆栽试验,分析Zn-Ni复合污染对胡萝卜生长及其Zn、Ni吸收累积特征的影响.结果表明,Zn-Ni复合污染下,低于TS5(Zn 450 mg/kg、Ni350 mg/kg)处理水平促进胡萝卜生长,超过这个处理水平,胡萝卜生长受到不同程度抑制,其生物量在TS8 (Zn 1 000 mg/kg、Ni 1 100 mg/kg)处理水平显著下降(P<0.05).胡萝卜块茎、茎叶对Zn、Ni的富集能力为Zn>Ni,即Zn更容易由土壤进入胡萝卜体内.Zn、Ni在胡萝卜体内由地下部分向地上部分的迁移能力为Zn>Ni,表明Zn更容易由胡萝卜地下部分向地上部分迁移.由Zn、Ni的转移系数可知,Zn主要累积在胡萝卜的茎叶中,而Ni主要累积于胡萝卜的块茎中,所以Ni可能更容易对人类健康造成威胁.

  10. 外源抗坏血酸处理对胡萝卜贮藏期间品质的影响%Effects of Exogenous Ascorbic Acid on Quality of Carrot During Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜; 王清; 郭李维; 高丽朴

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to study the effects of exogenous ascorbic acid (AsA) treatment on the quality of carrot during. Using 100 mg/L AsA to deal with 'Beijing five inch' and 'whip red' varieties of carrot with 0℃ storage, the quality indexes of carrot were determined. The results showed that: using 100 mg/L AsA deal with carrot could maintain the carrot protein content and ascorbic acid content, delayed the hollowing index and the increase of free amino acid content. ExAsA improved the activity of CAT and POD, inhibited the increase of H2O2 content, and effectively kept the edible quality of carrot. ExAsA treatment could effectively delay the aging process of carrot during storage, and extend the storage time of carrot.%研究外源抗坏血酸(AsA)处理对胡萝卜贮藏过程中品质的影响,采用100 mg/L AsA处理‘京红五 寸’与‘鞭杆红’品种的胡萝卜,于0℃条件下贮藏,测定贮藏期间胡萝卜的品质指标.通过测定 100 mg/L AsA处理后的2种胡萝卜指标发现,外源AsA处理能够保持胡萝卜蛋白质含量及抗坏血酸含 量,延缓胡萝卜糠心现象的发生、并能延缓胡萝卜游离氨基酸含量的升高,外源AsA处理提高了胡萝卜 过氧化氢酶(CAT)和过氧化物酶(POD)的活生,抑制了胡萝卜贮藏过程中H2O2含量的增加,有效保持了 胡萝卜的食用品质.外源抗坏血酸处理能有效延缓胡萝卜在贮藏过程中的衰老进程,有利于延长胡萝 卜的贮藏时间.

  11. Comparison of Carrot Broth- and Selective Todd-Hewitt Broth-Enhanced PCR Protocols for Real-Time Detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in Prenatal Vaginal/Anorectal Specimens ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Timothy; Munson, Erik; Culver, Anne; Vaughan, Katharine; Hryciuk, Jeanne E.

    2008-01-01

    The reporting of accurate Streptococcus agalactiae screening results in a short time frame is of tremendous clinical benefit. A total of 203 consecutive primary vaginal/anorectal specimens were cultured in selective Todd-Hewitt broth (LIM broth) and with the StrepB carrot broth kit (carrot broth). One-day broth cultures were subjected to both centrifugation and clarification of a 500-μl aliquot prior to sample lysis (protocol A) and direct lysis of a 50-μl aliquot (protocol B). The lysates we...

  12. De novo assembly of the carrot mitochondrial genome using next generation sequencing of whole genomic DNA provides first evidence of DNA transfer into an angiosperm plastid genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iorizzo Massimo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence analysis of organelle genomes has revealed important aspects of plant cell evolution. The scope of this study was to develop an approach for de novo assembly of the carrot mitochondrial genome using next generation sequence data from total genomic DNA. Results Sequencing data from a carrot 454 whole genome library were used to develop a de novo assembly of the mitochondrial genome. Development of a new bioinformatic tool allowed visualizing contig connections and elucidation of the de novo assembly. Southern hybridization demonstrated recombination across two large repeats. Genome annotation allowed identification of 44 protein coding genes, three rRNA and 17 tRNA. Identification of the plastid genome sequence allowed organelle genome comparison. Mitochondrial intergenic sequence analysis allowed detection of a fragment of DNA specific to the carrot plastid genome. PCR amplification and sequence analysis across different Apiaceae species revealed consistent conservation of this fragment in the mitochondrial genomes and an insertion in Daucus plastid genomes, giving evidence of a mitochondrial to plastid transfer of DNA. Sequence similarity with a retrotransposon element suggests a possibility that a transposon-like event transferred this sequence into the plastid genome. Conclusions This study confirmed that whole genome sequencing is a practical approach for de novo assembly of higher plant mitochondrial genomes. In addition, a new aspect of intercompartmental genome interaction was reported providing the first evidence for DNA transfer into an angiosperm plastid genome. The approach used here could be used more broadly to sequence and assemble mitochondrial genomes of diverse species. This information will allow us to better understand intercompartmental interactions and cell evolution.

  13. Periods of constant and falling-rate for infrared drying of carrot slices Períodos de secagem constante e decrescente de fatias de cenoura por infravermelho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M. Botelho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the infrared drying process of carrot slices and to determine coefficients related to the heat and mass transfer of the process. Fresh carrots were used, dried until constant weight in a dryer with infrared heating source. Different models were utilized to fit the experimental data of constant and falling drying rate periods. It was verified that the coefficients of heat and mass transfer, during the constant drying rate, significantly increased with temperature on rise. The Diffusion Approximation, Two Terms, Midili and Verna models satisfactory represented the falling period of drying rate of carrot slices. The effective diffusion coefficient increased with temperature and this relationship can be represented by the Arrhenius equation, obtaining activation energy to the drying process of 29.092 kJ mol-1.Com este trabalho objetivou-se estudar o processo de secagem por infravermelho das fatias de cenoura e determinar alguns coeficientes referentes à transferência de calor e massa do processo. Utilizaram-se cenouras frescas, secadas até massa constante em um secador com fonte de aquecimento por infravermelho. Aos dados experimentais se ajustaram diferentes modelos para os períodos de taxa de secagem constante e decrescentes. Verificou-se que os coeficientes transferência de calor e massa, referentes ao período de secagem constante, aumentaram significativamente com o aumento da temperatura e que os modelos Aproximação da Difusão, Dois Termos, Midili e Verna representaram satisfatoriamente o período de secagem decrescente das fatias de cenoura. O coeficiente de difusão efetivo aumentou com a temperatura e esta relação pode ser representada pela Equação de Arrhenius, obtendo-se uma energia de ativação para o processo de secagem de 29,092 kJ mol-1.

  14. 胡萝卜蜂蜜营养保健果冻的研制%Preparation of a Health Jelly Using Carrot and Honey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾娟

    2013-01-01

    以胡萝卜汁为主要原料,卡拉胶,CMC-Na和琼脂为主要的胶凝剂,并配以蜂蜜和柠檬酸等其他辅料,通过单因素试验、正交试验和感官评定方法,对胡萝卜蜂蜜营养保健果冻工艺进行研究,为保健果冻的开发提供参考依据,研究结果表明:胡萝卜汁汁添加量为30%,蜂蜜添加量为12%,柠檬酸添加量为0.28%,卡拉胶0.7%,CMC-Na 0.6%,琼脂添加量为0.28%时的工艺参数,其产品具有胡萝卜和蜂蜜风味、口感滑爽、色泽均匀、酸甜适度,有一定的保健功能,具有开发前途.%The paper study production and process of carrot and honey health jelly,for the development to provide the reference by means of single factor,orthogonal experiment and the sensory quality as evaluation targets.The jelly made up of carrot juice as the main raw material,currageenan,CMC-Na and agar gel as main colloid,and healthy and citric acid as accessories.The results showed that,carrot juice 30%,honey 12%,citric acid 0.28%,carrageen 0.7%,CMC-Na 0.6% and agar gel 0.28%.The natural products of carrot and honey is taste smoothness,uniform color,sweet and sour moderate,have certain health care function,with the development of the future.

  15. 胡萝卜栽培技术及其食用推广%Carrot Cultivation Techniques and Its Edible Promotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍小松; 李军民; 吴家全; 肖健

    2010-01-01

    @@ 胡萝卜(carrot)为伞形花科(Umbelliferae),胡萝卜属、野胡萝卜种(胡萝卜变种)、能形成肥大肉质根的二年生草本植物.学名Daucus carota L.var.sativaDC,别名红萝卜、黄萝卜、番萝卜、丁香萝卜,胡芦菔金,赤珊瑚、黄根等.染色体数2n=2x=18.

  16. 复合樱桃-胡萝卜汁运动饮料的研制%Research on the Production of Mixed Cherry-Carrot Juice Sports Drink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓成; 房磊

    2014-01-01

    开发新型的天然运动饮料是目前运动饮料发展的一个重要方向,本试验以樱桃、胡萝卜为主要原料,采用正交试验设计、感官评价等方法,对樱桃-胡萝卜汁复合运动饮料生产工艺进行研究。结果表明:樱桃-胡萝卜汁复合运动饮料的最佳配方为樱桃原汁与胡萝卜原汁配比为1.5∶1,糖含量10%,酸含量0.20%。复合饮料加入0.05%黄原胶+0.10%耐酸CMC复合增稠剂,经均质微粒化处理,其产品的稳定效果最佳,研制的运动饮料口感佳、色泽优、风味独特,综合品质最优。%Developing new natural sports drink is an important direction for the development of sports drinks.The test took cherry and carrot as materials,used orthogonal experimental design,sensory evaluation and so on methods to research the production of mixed cherry-carrot juice sports drink. The results showed that the best formula of cherry-carrot composite beverage was that the ratio of cherry juice and carrot juice was 1.5∶1, the sugar content 10 % and acid content 0.20 %.Adding 0.05 % xanthan gum and 0.10 % CMC acid compound thickener, composite beverage had the best stability via homogeneous particulates processing, with good stability, good taste, excellent color, unique flavor, and the best integrated quality.

  17. Commonalities of the Mondragon Corproacion Cooperativa Spain, the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh, the Evangeline Cooperatives, and the Big Carrot cooperative social ventures of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouf, Kazi Abdur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this is paper to compare and contrast the Evangeline Cooperatives in Canada, the Big Carrot in Toronto, the Mondragon in Spain, and the group based microcredit Grameen Bank in Bangladesh through the lens of the cooperative movement in Canada, Spain, and Bangladesh. Results show that the idea of corporate responsibility can be shifted by a cooperative movement and become the heart of its value system. While, new social stock markets with social enterprise cooperatives can accelerate investment in social enterprise cooperatives to promote employment, sustainable development and to reduce poverty.

  18. Preparation of Yacon and Carrot Compounding Jam%雪莲果、胡萝卜复合果酱的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄慧福; 王本堂; 李金桥

    2012-01-01

    以雪莲果、胡萝卜为主要原料,对雪莲果、胡萝卜复合果酱的配方,雪莲果原浆的护色,增稠剂的使用进行了研究。结果表明:100℃条件下热烫1 min,并添加抗坏血酸0.1%、柠檬酸0.3%调整雪莲果原浆pH值为4.0,可以有效的阻止褐变的发生;复合果酱的最佳配方为:雪莲果和胡萝卜比为1.0∶0.5,白砂糖40%,pH值3.0,浓缩时间20 min,琼脂0.2%,魔芋胶0.2%。得到一种可溶性固形物含量约45%、营养强化、风味独特的新型果酱。%With yacon,carrots as the main raw material,studied the jam recipe of yacon and carrot,the color protection of yacon puree and the use of thickeners.Adapted the method of L9(34) orthogonal experiment analysis in the research of the ratio of yacon and carrots,the quantity of added sugar,pH and the cooking time of sugar.The results showed that the browning can effectively prevented browning at 100 ℃ for 1 min.The addition of 0.1% ascorbic acid,and 0.3% citric acid to adjust the pH value of yacon puree to 4.0.The best formula of compounding jam is: Yacon and carrots atio of 1.0:0.5,40% sugar,pH 3.0,concentrated for about 20 min.0.2% agar,0.2% konjac gum and the 45% quantity of soluble solids,a nourishing new jam which has a unique flavor will be created in this way.

  19. Bio-fortification and isotopic labelling of Se metabolites in onions and carrots following foliar application of Se and 77Se

    OpenAIRE

    Kapolna, Emese; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Husted, Søren; Larsen, Erik H

    2011-01-01

    The aims were to bio-fortify onions by foliar application of selenium (Se) and to intrinsically label bioactive Se-metabolites in onion and carrot by enriched, stable77Se for use in human physiological studies. Onion bulbs and leaves were enriched in Se by repeated foliar spraying of 10 or 100 μg Se mL-1 solutions of sodium selenite (Se(IV)) or sodium selenate (Se(VI)). ICP-MS analysis of onion leaves and bulbs showed that the Se concentration was enhanced by up to a factor of approximately 5...

  20. Study on physical and mechanical properties of the carrot in north%北方胡萝卜的物理力学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩凤; 陈海涛; 任珂珂; 顿国强

    2012-01-01

    Based on the field and lab measurement on the carrot in harvest time in north area, China, the mathematic statistics and image analytical method were employed to analyze the main geometric properties. The variation rang and distribution frequencies of the carrot's main geometric properties indexes were found. The tensile test was carried out to test the mechanical properties using the Design-Expert Version 6.0.10 software, the tensile strength of junction between the stem and the root was in the range of (11.77±6.92) 105 Pa, the maximum anti-pull force was less than 60 N, the maximum pulling force for the carrot in condition of natural growth in harvest was in the range of (160±87) N, and the better parameters combination of location of the soil loosened was that the depth was 15-19 cm, and the distance was 8-13 cm. All of these provided the scientific basis for the harvester and the development of processing machine system of the carrot.%通过北方收获期胡萝卜的田间和实验室测定,采用图像解析和数理统计方法对收获期胡萝卜的几何特性进行分析,得出胡萝卜主要几何特性指标值的变化区间和分布频率;应用软件Design-Expert Version 6.0.10,通过拉伸试验法对收获期胡萝卜根茎结合部抗拉强度、拔取力等力学特性进行测试与分析,得出胡萝卜根茎结合部抗拉强度为( 11.77±6.92)105 Pa、最小抗拉力小于60N,土壤自然状态下最大拔取力为(160±87)N,采用拔取收获方式时的松土位置优化参数组合为:松土深度15→19 cm,松土距离8→13 cm.试验为胡萝卜收获和加工机器系统的开发提供科学依据.