WorldWideScience

Sample records for carrizo plain area

  1. San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The 1,200-kilometer (800-mile)San Andreas is the longest fault in California and one of the longest in North America. This perspective view of a portion of the fault was generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which flew on NASA's Space Shuttle last February, and an enhanced, true-color Landsat satellite image. The view shown looks southeast along the San Andreas where it cuts along the base of the mountains in the Temblor Range near Bakersfield. The fault is the distinctively linear feature to the right of the mountains. To the left of the range is a portion of the agriculturally rich San Joaquin Valley. In the background is the snow-capped peak of Mt. Pinos at an elevation of 2,692 meters (8,831 feet). The complex topography in the area is some of the most spectacular along the course of the fault. To the right of the fault is the famous Carrizo Plain. Dry conditions on the plain have helped preserve the surface trace of the fault, which is scrutinized by both amateur and professional geologists. In 1857, one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded in the United States occurred just north of the Carrizo Plain. With an estimated magnitude of 8.0, the quake severely shook buildings in Los Angeles, caused significant surface rupture along a 350-kilometer (220-mile) segment of the fault, and was felt as far away as Las Vegas, Nev. This portion of the San Andreas is an important area of study for seismologists. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times.The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60

  2. Evaluation of nine-frame enhanced multiband photography San Andreas fault zone, Carrizo Plain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Nine-frame multiband aerial photography of a sample area 4500 feet on a side was processed to enhance spectral contrasts. The area concerned is in the Carrizo Plain, 45 miles west of Bakersfield, California, in sec. 29, T 31 S., R. 21 E., as shown on the Panorama Hills quadrangle topographic map published by the U. S. Geological Survey. The accompany illustrations include an index map showing the location of the Carrizo Plain area; a geologic map of the area based on field studies and examination of black and white aerial photographs; an enhanced multiband aerial photograph; an Aero Ektachrome photograph; black and white aerial photographs; and infrared image in the 8-13 micron band.

  3. 77 FR 1082 - Call for Nominations for the Carrizo Plain National Monument Advisory Council, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... of FLPMA directs the Secretary to establish 10- to 15-member citizen-based advisory councils that... Nominations for the Carrizo Plain National Monument Advisory Council, California AGENCY: Bureau of Land... councils are found at 43 CFR subpart 1784. As required by FACA, MAC membership must be balanced and...

  4. Climate-modulated channel incision and rupture history of the San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant Ludwig, Lisa; Akçiz, Sinan O; Noriega, Gabriela R; Zielke, Olaf; Arrowsmith, J Ramón

    2010-02-26

    The spatial and temporal distribution of fault slip is a critical parameter in earthquake source models. Previous geomorphic and geologic studies of channel offset along the Carrizo section of the south central San Andreas Fault assumed that channels form more frequently than earthquakes occur and suggested that repeated large-slip earthquakes similar to the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake illustrate typical fault behavior. We found that offset channels in the Carrizo Plain incised less frequently than they were offset by earthquakes. Channels have been offset by successive earthquakes with variable slip since ~1400. This nonuniform slip history reveals a more complex rupture history than previously assumed for the structurally simplest section of the San Andreas Fault.

  5. Slip in the 1857 and earlier large earthquakes along the Carrizo Plain, San Andreas Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielke, Olaf; Arrowsmith, J Ramón; Grant Ludwig, Lisa; Akçiz, Sinan O

    2010-02-26

    The moment magnitude (Mw) 7.9 Fort Tejon earthquake of 1857, with a approximately 350-kilometer-long surface rupture, was the most recent major earthquake along the south-central San Andreas Fault, California. Based on previous measurements of its surface slip distribution, rupture along the approximately 60-kilometer-long Carrizo segment was thought to control the recurrence of 1857-like earthquakes. New high-resolution topographic data show that the average slip along the Carrizo segment during the 1857 event was 5.3 +/- 1.4 meters, eliminating the core assumption for a linkage between Carrizo segment rupture and recurrence of major earthquakes along the south-central San Andreas Fault. Earthquake slip along the Carrizo segment may recur in earthquake clusters with cumulative slip of approximately 5 meters.

  6. Three-Dimensional Investigation of a 5 m Deflected Swale along the San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain

    KAUST Repository

    Akciz, S. O.

    2014-10-21

    Topographic maps produced from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data are useful for paleoseismic and neotectonic research because they provide submeter representation of faulting-related surface features. Offset measurements of geomorphic features, made in the field or on a remotely sensed imagery, commonly assume a straight or smooth (i.e., undeflected) pre-earthquake geometry. Here, we present results from investigation of an ∼20 cm deep and >5 m wide swale with a sharp bend along the San Andreas fault (SAF) at the Bidart fan site in the Carrizo Plain, California. From analysis of LiDAR topography images and field measurements, the swale was initially interpreted as a channel tectonically offset ∼4:7 m. Our observations from exposures in four backhoe excavations and 25 hand-dug trenchettes show that even though a sharp bend in the swale coincides with the trace of the A.D. 1857 fault rupture, the swale formed after the 1857 earthquake and was not tectonically offset. Subtle fractures observed within a surficial gravel unit overlying the 1857 rupture trace are similar to fractures previously documented at the Phelan fan and LY4 paleoseismic sites 3 and 35 km northwest of Bidart fan, respectively. Collectively, the fractures suggest that a post-1857 moderate-magnitude earthquake caused ground cracking in the Carrizo and Cholame stretches of the SAF. Our observations emphasize the importance of excavation at key locations to validate remote and ground-based measurements, and we advocate more geomorphic characterization for each site if excavation is not possible.

  7. Hydrology of Area 62, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain Coal Provinces, New Mexico and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roybal, F.E.; Wells, J.G.; Gold, R.L.; Flager, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes available hydrologic data for Area 62 and will aid leasing decisions, and the preparation and appraisal of environmental impact studies and mine-permit applications. Area 62 is located at the southern end of the Rocky Mountain Coal Province in parts of New Mexico and Arizona and includes approximately 9,500 square miles. Surface mining alters, at least temporarily, the environment; if the areas are unreclaimed, there can be long-term environmental consequences. The land-ownership pattern in Area 62 is complicated. The checkerboard pattern created by several types of ownership makes effective management of these lands difficult. The climate generally is semiarid with average annual precipitation ranging from 10 to 20 inches. Pinons, junipers, and grasslands cover most of the area, and much of it is used for grazing by livestock. Soils vary with landscape, differing from flood plains and hillslopes to mountain slopes. The major structural features of this area were largely developed during middle Tertiary time. The main structural features are the southern San Juan Basin and the Mogollon slope. Coal-bearing rocks are present in four Cretaceous rock units of the Mesaverde Group: the Gallup Sandstone, the Dileo Coal Member, and the Gibson Coal Member of the Crevasse Canyon Formation, and the Cleary Coal Member of the Menefee Formation. Area 62 is drained by Black Creek, the Puerco River, the Zuni River, Carrizo Wash-Largo Creek, and the Rio San Jose. Only at the headwaters of the Zuni River is the flow perennial. The streamflow-gaging station network consists of 25 stations operated for a variety of needs. Streamflow changes throughout the year with variation related directly to rainfall and snowmelt. Base flow in Area 62 is zero indicating no significant ground-water discharge. Mountainous areas contribute the highest mean annual runoff of 1.0 inch. Very few water-quality data are available for the surface-water stations. Of the nine surface

  8. Research on Fish Consumer Profile Evaluation in Romanian Plain Area

    OpenAIRE

    Silvius STANCIU; Costel NISTOR; Loredana DUMITRASCU; Nicoleta STANCIUC; Isabelle METAXA

    2011-01-01

    Research aimed at shaping a fish consumer profile in the Romanian Plain area. 150 people were interviewed. Preferences evaluation was conducted by means of a questionnaire with 27 questions. Favorite fish species, purchasing place and manner, favorite preparation choices, consumption frequency and place have been identified.

  9. Research on Fish Consumer Profile Evaluation in Romanian Plain Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed at shaping a fish consumer profile in the Romanian Plain area. 150 people were interviewed. Preferences evaluation was conducted by means of a questionnaire with 27 questions. Favorite fish species, purchasing place and manner, favorite preparation choices, consumption frequency and place have been identified.

  10. 76 FR 5303 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carrizo Springs, Glass Ranch Airport, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...-0877; Airspace Docket No. 10-ASW-13] Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carrizo Springs, Glass... rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace for the Carrizo Springs, Glass... Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Faith Ranch Airport, Carrizo Springs, TX. The FAA is...

  11. A review on the establishment and research in hydrological experimental areas (catchments) in plain areas in China and abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai; Wang, Chuanhai; Hua, Wenjuan

    2017-04-01

    This paper reviewed some specific conceptions of hydrological experimental areas (catchments) while found that the traditional definition of 'catchment' may be difficult to meet in plain areas. According to the review of development history and current situation of hydrological experimental areas (catchments) in plain areas in China, 4 stages were shown besides the recent 10 years, i.e., 'golden stage(1952-1966)', 'backward stage(1966-1986)', 'short recovery stage(1986-1989)' and 'stagnant stage(1986-2006)'. It gets new impetus since 2006 with some investigation work promoted by the government. Furthermore, some historic problems during establishing experimental areas (catchments) in plain areas were revealed based on the document literature and a few meaningful lessons were drawn from the past. It was also the first time to collect and classify the details of both 11 representative experimental areas in China and abroad, after that a brief comparison about the measurement level and research directions was made between two regions. Additionally, we took the experimental research work in the plain of Taihu Lake Basin as example and introduced the particular research goals and the corresponding establishing process, including how to design the experimental area, eg, size, location, land use type, arranging the measurement instruments et al. We hope such case can provide a reference for newly-building, recovering and extending hydrological experimental areasin plain areas in the future. Finally, this paper prospected the future development in establishment and research in hydrological experimental areas (catchments) in plain areas. It may be more common to see the cooperation between model scientists and field experts. Because of the comprehensive goals in water problems, researchers from various fields would work together in the future experimental research work. Scale study and modelling in plain areas will be a promising branch after some typical experimental areas

  12. Evaluation of Groundwater Vulnerability to Contamination Based on DRASTIC Model and GIS in Tianjin Plain Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaofei; Ma, Shuai; Yu, Ping; Li, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to contamination is the basement approaches for preserving the quality of groundwater. Based on DRASTIC model containing seven hydrogeological parameters and GIS techniques, groundwater vulnerability assessment was carried out in the plain area of Tianjin City, China. The results indicate that the studied area can be divided into five zones: low, slightly lower, middle, slightly higher, and high groundwater vulnerability zones, with coverage area of 1.8%, 24.8%, 53%, 19.6% and 0.8%, respectively. Low vulnerability zone locates in downtown, where the ground is covered by impervious surface. High and slightly higher vulnerability zones mainly locate in the groundwater recharge areas and the suburban areas surrounding downtown. Medium vulnerability zone covers most parts of the plain areas in the south of Baodi fraction. The result is consistent with the actual situation.

  13. Preliminary geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Stone, Paul; Powell, Charles L.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Selting, Amy J.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new geologic digital map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map = 2,000 feet on the ground) and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. This preliminary map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Santa Barbara and Goleta 7.5' quadrangles. A planned second version will extend the mapping westward into the adjoining Dos Pueblos Canyon quadrangle and eastward into the Carpinteria quadrangle. The mapping presented here results from the collaborative efforts of geologists with the U.S. Geological Survey Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP) (Minor, Kellogg, Stanley, Stone, and Powell) and the tectonic geomorphology research group at the University of California at Santa Barbara (Gurrola and Selting). C.L. Powell, II, performed all new fossil identifications and interpretations reported herein. T.R. Brandt designed and edited the GIS database,performed GIS database integration and created the digital cartography for the map layout. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along a west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest of Los Angeles. The coastal plain region, which extends from the Santa Ynez Mountains on the north to the Santa Barbara Channel on the south, is underlain by numerous active and potentially active folds and partly buried thrust faults of the Santa Barbara fold and fault belt. Strong earthquakes that occurred in the region in 1925 (6.8 magnitude) and 1978 (5.1 magnitude) are evidence that such structures pose a significant earthquake hazard to the approximately 200,000 people living within the major coastal population centers of Santa Barbara and Goleta. Also, young landslide deposits along the steep lower flank of the Santa

  14. [Research on monitoring land subsidence in Beijing plain area using PS-InSAR technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhao-Qin; Gong, Hui-Li; Zhang, You-Quan; Lu, Xue-Hui; Wang, Sa; Wang, Rong; Liu, Huan-Huan

    2014-07-01

    In the present paper, the authors use permanent scatterers synthetic aperture radar interferometry (PS-InSAR) technique and 29 acquisitions by Envisat during 2003 to 2009 to monitor and analyze the spatial-temporal distribution and mechanism characterize of land subsidence in Beijing plain area. The results show that subsidence bowls have been bounded together in Beijing plain area, which covers Chaoyang, Changping, Shunyi and Tongzhou area, and the range of subsidence has an eastward trend. The most serious regional subsidence is mainly distributed by the quaternary depression in Beijing plain area. PS-Insar results also show a new subsidence bowl in Pinggu. What's more, the spatial and temporal distribution of deformation is controlled mainly by faults, such as Liangxiang-Shunyi fault, Huangzhuang-Gaoliying fault, and Nankou-Sunhe fault. The subsidence and level of groundwater in study area shows a good correlation, and the subsidence shows seasonal ups trend during November to March and seasonal downs trend during March to June along with changes in groundwater levels. The contribution of land subsidence is also influenced by stress-strain behavior of aquitards. The compaction of aquitards shows an elastic, plastic, viscoelastic pattern.

  15. Location of irrigated land classified from satellite imagery - High Plains Area, nominal date 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Sharon L.; Konduris, Alexandria; Litke, David W.; Dupree, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (nominal date 1992) was used to classify and map the location of irrigated land overlying the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a water-quality study of the High Plains aquifer as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. To help interpret data and select sites for the study, it is helpful to know the location of irrigated land within the study area. To date, the only information available for the entire area is 20 years old. To update the data on irrigated land, 40 summer and 40 spring images (nominal date 1992) were acquired from the National Land Cover Data set and processed using a band-ratio method (Landsat Thematic Mapper band 4 divided by band 3) to enhance the vegetation signatures. The study area was divided into nine subregions with similar environmental characteristics, and a band-ratio threshold was selected from imagery in each subregion that differentiated the cutoff between irrigated and nonirrigated land. The classified images for each subregion were mosaicked to produce an irrigated-land map for the study area. The total amount of irrigated land classified from the 1992 imagery was 13.1 million acres, or about 12 percent of the total land in the High Plains. This estimate is approximately 1.5 percent greater than the amount of irrigated land reported in the 1992 Census of Agriculture (12.8 millions acres).

  16. THE SNOW DRIFT POTENTIAL IN THE PLAIN AREA OF BUZĂU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulus COSTACHE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze and identify the most exposed areas to snowdrifts, in case of a blizzard phenomenon, in the plain area of Buzău County. Blizzard is the most frequently occurring climatic hazard in the study area, in the cold season, that causes the blocking of the roads and the massive snow accumulation in th built-up areas found in the open field or in negative relief forms. In order to identify areas with high potential snowdrifts, the Snow Drifts Potential Index (SDPI was defined, calculated and localized. This was achieved in the GIS by integrating three factors, namely: the use of land, river valleys and the surfaces exposure in the study area. Finally, the results showed that the most exposed areas to the the snow-drift phenomenon are the built areas found in the river beds, and also those on slopes sheltered from contact with the Carpathian. The importance of this study lies in the fact that once established and localized the areas with high potential for snow-drifts, measures can be taken in order to combat the disastrous effects generated by blizzards in the plains of Buzău County.

  17. Geology and ground-water resources of the Lake Dakota Plain area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William B.; Petri, Lester R.

    1963-01-01

    The Lake Dakota plain area is a nearly flat surface that includes parts of Spink, Brown, Marshall, and Day Counties in northeastern South Dakota. Agriculture is the principal occupation. Because precipitation often is insufficient for maximum crop production, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation has developed a plan for irrigation of the area. Most of the irrigation water would be conveyed by canal from a reservoir on the Missouri River, about 100 miles to the west, but some would be obtained locally from the James River.

  18. Propiedades acústicas de los paneles de carrizo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz, César

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reed is a plant species very similar to common cane which is widespread all over the Earth. It is an ecological and sustainable material which is low-cost, aesthetically attractive, easy to obtain and install, and can be used in different construction systems. This work analyses the acoustic properties of reed panels from the point of view of sound absorption and sound insulation against airborne noise, according to the corresponding EN ISO standards. The experimental results obtained point to the conclusion that reed panels are suitable construction systems for controlling reverberant sound within a space, and that the sound reduction index values for different thicknesses of reed panels, or reed panels used in combination with wood particle boards, demonstrate the possibility of using them in construction as an element on the facades and roofs of buildings and for interior partitions.

    El carrizo es una especie vegetal, parecida a la caña común, que se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en la superficie terrestre. Es un material ecológico y sostenible de bajo coste, estéticamente aceptable, fácil de obtener y colocar, que permite generar diferentes sistemas constructivos. En este trabajo se analizan las propiedades acústicas de los paneles de carrizo en lo referente a la absorción acústica y al aislamiento acústico a ruido aéreo, para ello se han aplicado los procedimientos de las normas EN ISO correspondientes. De los resultados experimentales obtenidos se concluye que los paneles de carrizo son unos sistemas constructivos adecuados para el control del sonido reverberante en un recinto y que los valores del índice de reducción acústica de paneles de diferentes espesores o en combinación con tableros de partículas de madera muestran la posibilidad de utilizarlos en la edificación como elemento de fachada, en cubiertas de edificios y particiones interiores.

  19. Oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of plain area of the Southern European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Natalia V; Poltavskaya, Marina P

    2013-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the fauna of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) mostly of a plain area of the Southern European Russia. The most updated taxonomic list of oribatid mite taxa compiled from the original authors' data collected after sam- pling soil, nests and plumage of birds, as well as published sources is presented. It includes 256 species of oribatid mites belonging to 72 families. Twenty species and one family of oribatid mites are recorded for the first time at the research territory. The abundance of mites in the soil is also provided for selected species.

  20. Irrigated Area Mapping in The Northern High Plains of Texas Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, C. M.; Gowda, P. H.; Hernandez, J. E.; Howell, T. A.; Marek, T. H.; Xiao, X.

    2009-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture in the Texas High Plains accounts for a major portion of the groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala aquifer, and groundwater levels are declining. Accurate information on irrigated acreage and its spatial distribution enhances local groundwater districts’ ability to manage limited water resources. In addition, irrigated land area is one of the important inputs in most surface and groundwater models to evaluate economic feasibility for various crop rotations systems and irrigation management practices. In this study, we used a novel approach to derive an irrigated area map covering a 4-county area (Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore Counties) in the northwest region of the Texas High Plains from a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image acquired on August 13, 2008. The spectral band ratios and vegetation indices were used to define threshold value for the irrigated pixels. The hierarchical rule-based decision tree classification algorithm was employed to delineate final irrigated class. Ground truth data collected for accuracy assessment included land cover type, irrigation practices and their geographic locations using a global positioning system. Accuracy assessment of the irrigated area map indicated that we achieved an overall mapping accuracy of 96% with omission and commission errors at 9% and 8%, respectively, which are mainly due to clouds and shadows of clouds. Irrigated acreages of summer crops derived from the TM image closely matched with that from agricultural statistical reports for the 4-county area. At present, a spring image is being processed to identify irrigated area planted with winter wheat in the study area. The combined irrigated area map will be used in the comprehensive regional analysis of groundwater depletion in the Ogallala Aquifer Region with the purpose of understanding short- and long-term effects of existing and alternative land use scenarios on groundwater changes.

  1. Spatial distribution of biomass consumption as energy in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saud, T.; Singh, D.P.; Gadi, Ranu; Mandal, T.K.; Saxena, M.; Sharma, S.K.; Gautam, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Bhatnagar, R.P.; Pathak, H.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass is widely used as energy source in rural households in India. Biomass samples and socio-economic data have been collected at district level in the rural areas of Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), India to determine the emissions of trace gases and aerosols from domestic fuels. Dung cake, fuelwood and crop residue are main sources of energy in rural areas of the IGP. Dung cake is the major domestic fuel (80-90%) in the rural areas of Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, whereas, 99% of rural households in Uttarakhand use wood as the main energy source. Using crop production data and usage of crop residues as energy, new consumption values have been estimated (21.13 Mt). Present information on the domestic fuel usage would be helpful in determining budgets estimates of trace gases and aerosols for India. (author)

  2. Geochemical modeling of groundwater in southern plain area of Pengyang County, Ningxia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-yue Li

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution mechanisms of a hydrochemical field and to promote its benefits to the living standards of local people and to the local economy in the southern plain area of Pengyang County, in Ningxia, China. Based on understanding of the hydrogeological conditions in Pengyang County, the chemical evolution characteristics of groundwater in the plain area were analyzed. PHREEQC geochemical modeling software was used to perform hydrochemical modeling of water-rock interaction and to quantitatively analyze the evolution processes and the formation mechanisms of the local groundwater. Geochemical modeling was performed for two groundwater paths. The results showed that, along path 1, Na+ adsorption played the leading role in the precipitation process and its amount was the largest, up to 6.08 mmol/L; cation exchange was significant along path 1, while along simulated path 2, albite accounted for the largest amount of dissolution, reaching 9.06 mmol/L, and the cation exchange was not significant. According to the modeling results, along the groundwater flow path, calcite and dolomite showed oversaturated status with a precipitation trend, while the fluorite and gypsum throughout the simulated path were not saturated and showed a dissolution trend. The total dissolved solids (TDS increased and water quality worsened along the flow path. The dissolution reactions of albite, CO2, and halite, the exchange adsorption reaction of Na+, and the precipitation of sodium montmorillonite and calcite were the primary hydrogeochemical reactions, resulting in changes of hydrochemical ingredients.

  3. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance... Management Regulations § 60.5 Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. The... flood-related erosion-prone areas shall be based. If the Federal Insurance Administrator has not...

  4. Application of Groundwater Vulnerability Overlay and Index Methods to the Jijel Plain Area (Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufekane, Abdelmadjid; Saighi, Omar

    2018-01-01

    Today, scientists are deeply concerned by the vulnerability of groundwater reservoirs to pollution. Relatively simple overlay and index methods can be used to produce groundwater vulnerability maps in geographic information system. In addition, this study deals with contamination from nonpoint sources. In this study, two such models, DRASTIC and GOD, were applied in the Jijel Plain area of northeast Algeria and compared with measured groundwater nitrate concentrations. This showed that results from DRASTIC were better than GOD, 69% correlation with nitrate compared to 56%. DRASTIC was better able to identify vulnerable zones along the river valleys. The DRASTIC model was then modified using the nitrate concentrations to optimize the rating score given within each parameter range and sensitivity analysis to change the weighting given for each parameter. These combined changes gave a final Pearson's correlation of 83% with nitrate. This showed that recharge, aquifer type, and topography were the key factors in controlling vulnerability to nitrate pollution. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  5. Micro-seismicity of the Whillans Ice Plain stick-slip cycle nucleation areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcheck, C. G.; Schwartz, S. Y.; Tulaczyk, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Whillans Ice Plain (WIP) is known for its distinctive stick-slip motion, in which steady, slow ice motion (~100m/yr equivalent) is punctuated once or twice daily by sudden slips of ~0.5 m over ~30 minutes (~5,000m/yr equivalent). These stick-slip events nucleate in one of two areas of the Ice Plain depending on Ross Ice Shelf tidal height: the Central Sticky Spot (CSS) or the Grounding Zone Sticky Spot (GZSS) (Pratt et al., 2014). Basal conditions beneath ice streams are in general poorly constrained, and the specific conditions allowing Ice-Plain-wide unstable sliding and stick-slip motion remain poorly understood. We present preliminary results from two small-aperture networks (cycle. We present new detections and locations of small basal micro-earthquakes at or near the ice/bed interface at both nucleation areas and demonstrate spatial heterogeneity in bed conditions. CSS basal seismicity occurs as hundreds of small amplitude repeating events, rupturing the same or nearly the same patches of the bed beneath the network many times during a stick-slip event, but changing between events. These events suggest that the 10's of km wide CSS is comprised of small stick-slip patches. Micro-seismicity is detected using waveform cross correlation of manually selected template events and located using hypoDD. Time- and space-varying basal seismicity demonstrates that bed conditions vary in space, beneath the network, and in time, between slip events and observation years. The GZSS network records similar basal micro-earthquakes during slip events, though far fewer. Larger events characterized by surface waves are much more common near the GZSS. This seismicity occurs preferentially during low tide, independent of the WIP stick-slip cycle. We use beamforming to show that these events occur outside the network, towards the grounding zone. These events may be basal earthquakes providing evidence of higher grounding zone strength during low tide, or surface or basal

  6. Eco-environment contribution of agroforestry to agriculture development in the plain area of China--Huai' an Prefecture, Jiangsu Province as the case study area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-chang; Lu, Yong-long; Liu, Can; Meng, Qing-hua; Shi, Ya-juan

    2005-01-01

    For improving the environmental quality and ensuring supply of wood and non-timber forest products, many forests have been planted in plain areas of China. Scientists have studied their benefits, almost all of the approaches were based on fixed-point data, and few was considered on the non-efficient factors and temporal scale effects. This paper studies the positive and negative benefits at a large temporal scale, and the effects of plain afforestation on stockbreeding and rural economy. The benefits of plain afforestation, correlation coefficiency of agroforestry and production factors are analyzed via stochastic frontier modeling in Huanghuaihai Plain Area of China; elastic coefficient of agroforestry, husbandry, farming, and total output of agricultural sector are calculated through adopting partial differential equation. Some conclusions can be drawn that, plain forests have an important effect on the development of plain agriculture. But shelterbelts and small-scale forests have different effect on the development of agricultural economy. Shelterbelts have negative effect on the industries, but small-scale forest has positive effect. On the whole, contribution of forest resource to value of animal husbandry and gross production value of agriculture is positive, and to the value of farming is negative.

  7. Wind and wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: identifying low-impact areas for wind development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Fargione

    Full Text Available Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW than most other forms of energy production and has known and predicted adverse effects on wildlife. The Northern Great Plains (NGP is home both to some of the world's best wind resources and to remaining temperate grasslands, the most converted and least protected ecological system on the planet. Thus, appropriate siting and mitigation of wind development is particularly important in this region. Steering energy development to disturbed lands with low wildlife value rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce impacts to wildlife. Goals for wind energy development in the NGP are roughly 30 GW of nameplate capacity by 2030. Our analyses demonstrate that there are large areas where wind development would likely have few additional impacts on wildlife. We estimate there are ∼1,056 GW of potential wind energy available across the NGP on areas likely to have low-impact for biodiversity, over 35 times development goals. New policies and approaches will be required to guide wind energy development to low-impact areas.

  8. Comparison of characteristics of chronic kidney diseases between Tibet plateau and plain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Deng, Yong-Ming; Li, Chuan; Gong, Yun-Bing; Mao, Zhi-Guo; Wu, Jun; Li, Su-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Tang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the pathological characteristics of chronic kidney diseases in the Tibet plateau and the plain. 77 cases from the Tibet plateau and 154 cases from the plain of renal biopsied patients with chronic kidney diseases were compared in a randomized, and parallel controlled manner. Pathological characteristics were defined according to the standards of WHO and associated classifications. The ration of sex was shown that most of patients in the plateau region were female, whereas those in the plain were male. The characteristics of pathological types were shown that the patients in the plateau region were primarily minimal change disease, but IgA nephropathy was rare; meanwhile, the proportional lupus nephritis (LN) ratio of the secondary glomerulonephritis in the plateau region was significantly lower than those in the plain region. The current data demonstrated that the most common kidney disease in the Tibet Plateau region is still the primary glomerulonephritis as the same as those in the plain region. However, the primary glomerular disease in the plateau region is minimal change disease, and the most common clinical manifestations are the nephrotic syndrome. The IgA nephropathy in the plain is the most frequent disease. In terms of the secondary renal diseases, Henoch-Schnolein purpura nephritis are dominated in the plateau region, whereas LN-based diseases are frequently found in the plain. There is a statistical significance existed between those two groups.

  9. Geogenic organic contaminants in the low-rank coal-bearing Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer of East Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Jayeeta; Varonka, Matthew S.; Orem, William H.; Finkelman, Robert B.; Manton, William

    2017-01-01

    The organic composition of groundwater along the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer in East Texas (USA), sampled from rural wells in May and September 2015, was examined as part of a larger study of the potential health and environmental effects of organic compounds derived from low-rank coals. The quality of water from the low-rank coal-bearing Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer is a potential environmental concern and no detailed studies of the organic compounds in this aquifer have been published. Organic compounds identified in the water samples included: aliphatics and their fatty acid derivatives, phenols, biphenyls, N-, O-, and S-containing heterocyclic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic amines, and phthalates. Many of the identified organic compounds (aliphatics, phenols, heterocyclic compounds, PAHs) are geogenic and originated from groundwater leaching of young and unmetamorphosed low-rank coals. Estimated concentrations of individual compounds ranged from about 3.9 to 0.01 μg/L. In many rural areas in East Texas, coal strata provide aquifers for drinking water wells. Organic compounds observed in groundwater are likely to be present in drinking water supplied from wells that penetrate the coal. Some of the organic compounds identified in the water samples are potentially toxic to humans, but at the estimated levels in these samples, the compounds are unlikely to cause acute health problems. The human health effects of low-level chronic exposure to coal-derived organic compounds in drinking water in East Texas are currently unknown, and continuing studies will evaluate possible toxicity.

  10. Land area change and fractional water maps in the Chenier Plain, Louisiana, following hurricane Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaseanu-Lovejoy, M.; Kranenburg, C.; Brock, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a fractional water map at 30-m resolution scale using QuickBird and/or IKONOS high-resolution imagery as dependent variable to investigate the impact of hurricane Rita in the Chenier Plain, Louisiana. Eleven different indices were tested to obtain a high-resolution land / water classification on QuickBird (acquired on 05/23/2003) and IKONOS (acquired on 03/25/2006) images. The percent area covered by water in the high resolution images varied from 22 to 26% depending on the index used , with the simple ratio index (red band / NIR band) accounting for the lowest percent and the blue ratio index (blue band / sum(all bands)) for the highest percent. Using the ERDAS NLCD (National Land Cover Data) Mapping tool module, 100, 000 stratified random sample points with minimum 1000 points per stratum were selected from the high resolution dependent variable as training information for the independent variable layers. The rules for the regression tree were created using the data mining software Rulequest Cubist v. 2.05. This information was used to generate a fractional water map for the entire Landsat scene. The increase in water areas of about 10 - 15% between 2003 to 2006, as well as temporary changes in the water - land configurations are attributed to remnant flooding and removal of aquatic vegetation caused by hurricane Rita, and water level variations caused by tidal and / or meteorological variations between the acquisition dates of the satellite images. This analysis can assist in monitoring post-hurricane wetland recovery and assess trends in land loss due to extreme storm events, although estimation of permanent land loss cannot be made until wetland areas have the opportunity to recover from hurricane impacts.

  11. Application of Microtremor Array Analysis to Estimate the Bedrock Depth in the Beijing Plain area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P.; Ling, S.; Liu, J.; Su, W.

    2013-12-01

    With the rapid expansion of large cities around the world, urban geological survey provides key information regarding resource development and urban construction. Among the major cities of the world, China's capital city Beijing is among the largest cities possessing complex geological structures. The urban geological survey and study in Beijing involves the following aspects: (1) estimating the thickness of the Cenozoic deposit; (2) mapping the three-dimensional structure of the underlying bedrock, as well as its relations to faults and tectonic settings; and (3) assessing the capacity of the city's geological resources in order to support its urban development and operation safety. The geological study of Beijing in general was also intended to provide basic data regarding the urban development and appraisal of engineering and environment geological conditions, as well as underground space resources. In this work, we utilized the microtremor exploration method to estimate the thickness of the bedrock depth, in order to delineate the geological interfaces and improve the accuracy of the bedrock depth map. The microtremor observation sites were located in the Beijing Plain area. Traditional geophysical or geological survey methods were not effective in these areas due to the heavy traffic and dense buildings in the highly-populated urban area. The microtremor exploration method is a Rayleigh-wave inversion technique which extracts its phase velocity dispersion curve from the vertical component of the microtremor array records using the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method, then inverts the shear-wave velocity structure. A triple-circular array was adopted for acquiring microtremor data, with the observation radius in ranging from 40 to 300 m, properly adjusted depending on the geological conditions (depth of the bedrock). The collected microtremor data are used to: (1) estimation of phase velocities of Rayleigh-wave from the vertical components of the microtremor

  12. Microbial community of high arsenic groundwater in agricultural irrigation area of Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities can play important role in arsenic release in groundwater aquifers. To investigate the microbial communities in high arsenic groundwater aquifers in agricultural irrigation area, 17 groundwater samples with different arsenic concentrations were collected along the agricultural drainage channels of Hangjinhouqi County, Inner Mongolia and examined by illumina Miseq sequencing approach targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering results indicated that these samples were divided into two groups (high and low arsenic groups according to the variation of geochemical characteristics. Arsenic concentrations showed strongly positive correlations with NH4+ and TOC. Sequencing results revealed that a total of 329-2823 OTUs were observed at the 97% OTU level. Microbial richness and diversity of high arsenic groundwater samples along the drainage channels were lower than those of low arsenic groundwater samples but higher than those of high arsenic groundwaters from strongly reducing areas. The microbial community structure in groundwater along the drainage channels was different from those in strongly reducing As-rich aquifers of Hetao Plain and other high As groundwater aquifers including Bangladesh, West Bengal and Vietnam. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas dominated with high percentages in both high and low arsenic groundwaters. Alishewanella, Psychrobacter, Methylotenera and Crenothrix showed relatively high abundances in high arsenic groundwater, while Rheinheimera and the unidentified OP3 were predominant populations in low arsenic groundwater. Archaeal populations displayed a low occurrence and mainly dominated by methanogens such as Methanocorpusculum and Methanospirillum. Microbial community compositions were different between high and low arsenic groundwater samples based on the results of principal coordinate analysis and co-inertia analysis. Other geochemical

  13. [Micro-scale soil characteristics in salinization area of Songnen plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jin-Ming; Wang, Yong-Jie; Deng, Wei; Ye, Ya-Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Ping

    2009-08-01

    The study by the methods of in situ observation and laboratory analysis showed that the micro-relief in salinization area of Songnen Plain area was composed of flat land, micro-slope land, depression margin, and depression. Isohumusols distributed in depression, while alkalic halosols distributed in depression margin, micro-slope land, and flat land. The exchangeable sodium percent (ESP) in alkalized layer (15-30 cm) of alkaline soil in flat land was 60%, and the maximal ESP in surface soil layer in micro-slope land could reach to 75%. The alkalized soil layer in depression margin was mainly at the depth of 10-30 cm, where the maximal ESP could reach to 30% -40%. Nearly no alkalized layer was found in the soil profile in depression. The soils developed on the four micro-relief units had obvious differences in their water retention curves. The maximal saturation moisture content in the soils of micro-slope land was only 25%, while that of 0-10 cm soil layer in depression reached to 45%. The freezing-thawing process in different micro-relief units differed markedly, with the maximal frozen depth in micro-slope land and depression being 157 and 136 cm, respectively. The surface soil moisture content in depression increased from 20% before freezing to 50% during freezing period. Among the four micro-relief units, micro-slope land had the most obvious variation of surface soil salt content during freezing-thawing, with the increment after thawing being as high as 80%.

  14. [Survey of infection situation of intestinal parasites of rural residents in plain area of Shandong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Feng; Zhang, Ben-guang; Wang, Yong-bin; Bu, Xiu-qin; Zhang, Dian-bo; Kong, Xiang-li; Zhao, Chang-lei; Chen, Xi-xin; Xu, Yan; Liu, Xin

    2015-08-01

    To understand the current situation of infections of intestinal parasites of rural residents in four cities namely Dongying, Weifang, Jining and Heze of Shandong Province. Twenty-four villages were randomly selected as study areas. The Kato-Katz technique was applied to test the stool samples of adult residents and the cellophane tape anus method was applied to test the infection of Enterobius vermicularis of children aged 12 years or below. Fifty families were randomly selected from each village and surveyed with questionnaires for the general situation of the family, and the knowledge of prevention and control of parasites, and healthy behaviors of the family members. Totally 8,227 adult residents and 1,313 children were investigated and the total infection rate of intestinal parasites was 0.55% (45 cases). The infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichura, E. vermicularis and Clonorchis sinensis were 0.15% (12 cases), 0.06% (5 cases), 0.09% (7 cases), 1.37% (18 cases) and 0.04% (3 cases), respectively. Totally 3,767 residents were surveyed with questionnaires, and the awareness rate of the knowledge of prevention and control of parasites was 28.72% (1,082 cases), the formation rates of washing hands before meal, washing hands after toilet, washing fruit and vegetables before eating, and never drinking unboiled water were 60.66% (2,285 cases), 50.17% (1,890 cases), 48.71% (1,835 cases), and 87.07% (3,280 cases), respectively. In the plain area of Shandong Province, the infection rates of A. lumbricoides, hookworm, T. trichura and C. sinensis are low but the infection rate of E. vermicularis of children is relatively high; the awareness rates of the knowledge of parasites as well as the formation rates of healthy behaviors are low. Therefore, the health education and promotion should be strengthened.

  15. 75 FR 25877 - Notice of Intent To Solicit Nominations, Carrizo Plain National Monument Advisory Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... their education, training, and experience and their knowledge of the geographical resource. The Obama..., [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The MAC provides representative citizen counsel and...

  16. 77 FR 75654 - Nomination Period Extension for the Carrizo Plain National Monument Advisory Council, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... BLM will evaluate nominees based on their education, training, experience, and their knowledge of the..., [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The MAC provides representative citizen counsel and advice to...

  17. 77 FR 54609 - Call for Nominations for the Carrizo Plain National Monument Advisory Council, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... jurisdiction. The BLM will evaluate nominees based on their education, training, experience, and their... MAC provides representative citizen counsel and advice to the Secretary of the Interior through the...

  18. Seismic hazard assessment and pattern recognition of earthquake prone areas in the Po Plain (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, Alexander; Peresan, Antonella; Soloviev, Alexander; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2014-05-01

    A systematic and quantitative assessment, capable of providing first-order consistent information about the sites where large earthquakes may occur, is crucial for the knowledgeable seismic hazard evaluation. The methodology for the pattern recognition of areas prone to large earthquakes is based on the morphostructural zoning method (MSZ), which employs topographic data and present-day tectonic structures for the mapping of earthquake-controlling structures (i.e. the nodes formed around lineaments intersections) and does not require the knowledge about past seismicity. The nodes are assumed to be characterized by a uniform set of topographic, geologic, and geophysical parameters; on the basis of such parameters the pattern recognition algorithm defines a classification rule to discriminate seismogenic and non-seismogenic nodes. This methodology has been successfully applied since the early 1970s in a number of regions worldwide, including California, where it permitted the identification of areas that have been subsequently struck by strong events and that previously were not considered prone to strong earthquakes. Recent studies on the Iberian Peninsula and the Rhone Valley, have demonstrated the applicability of MSZ to flat basins, with a relatively flat topography. In this study, the analysis is applied to the Po Plain (Northern Italy), an area characterized by a flat topography, to allow for the systematic identification of the nodes prone to earthquakes with magnitude larger or equal to M=5.0. The MSZ method differs from the standard morphostructural analysis where the term "lineament" is used to define the complex of alignments detectable on topographic maps or on satellite images. According to that definition the lineament is locally defined and the existence of the lineament does not depend on the surrounding areas. In MSZ, the primary element is the block - a relatively homogeneous area - while the lineament is a secondary element of the morphostructure

  19. Assessing aquifer storage and recovery feasibility in the Gulf Coastal Plains of Texas

    OpenAIRE

    W. Benjamin Smith; Gretchen R. Miller; Zhuping Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Study region: The Gulf Coast and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer systems in the Gulf Coastal Plains of Texas. Study focus: Aquifer storage and recovery is a water storage alternative that is underutilized in Texas, a state with both long periods of drought and high intensity storms. Future water storage plans in Texas almost exclusively rely on surface reservoirs, subject to high evaporative losses. This study seeks to identify sites where aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) may be successful, especial...

  20. Soil Moisture Estimation Using MODIS Images (Case Study: Mashhad Plain Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fashaee

    2016-09-01

    area is selected in the Mashhad plain in Khorasan Razavi province of I.R. Iran. Study area is about 1,200 square kilometers and is located around the Golmakan center of agricultural research. In this study, water deficit index (WDI was zoning by MODIS images in subset of Mashhad plain during water year of 2011-2012. Then, based on the close relationship between WDI and soil moisture parameter, a linear relationship between these two parameters were fitted. Soil moisture is measured by the TDR and every 7 days at 5 depths of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 cm from the surface. Remote Sensing (RS technology used as a tool for providing some of the data that is required. The moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS instrument is popular for monitoring soil moisture because of its high spectral (36 bands resolution, moderate spatial (250–1000 m resolution and various products for land surface properties. MODIS products used in the present study include: MOD09A1 land surface albedo data, MOD11A1 land surface temperature data, and MOD13A1 vegetation data. Using ArcMap 9.2 and ERDAS IMAGINE 2010 softwares, WDI was calculated pixel by pixel for 18 days (non-cloudy days and simultaneous with measurement of soil moisture at the station. Results and Discussion: The results showed that the northeastern region is predominantly rainfed and irrigated farmlands are under water stress. Conversely, the southwestern part of the area is mountainous with less water stress. Based on NDVI, there is also less crop cover in the southwestern part of the region during the year. The results showed that about 44% of the index values are in the range of 0.2-0.3. Then about 22% of the index values are in the range of 0.3-0.4. Thus it can be concluded that over 66% of the index values are in the range of 0.2-0.4. According to the maximum index value (WDI=0.59 on the 201th day of year and the minimum values (WDI=0.0004 on the 129th day of year during the time period of study, it seems that water

  1. Presettlement Pinus taeda in the Mississippi Valley Alluvial Plain of the Monroe County, Arkansas area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg

    2005-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) is the most dominant conifer in the southeastern United States (Baker and Langdon, 1990). However, loblolly pine was conspicuously absent from virtually the entire Mississippi Valley Alluvial Plain during presettlement times. A map (Fig. 1) of the native distribution of loblolly from Baker and Langdon (1990) identifies 2 exceptions to this...

  2. USE OF LANDSAT TM FOR MAPPING LAND USE IN THE ENDORHEIC AREA - CASE OF GADAINE PLAIN (EASTERN ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah BOUHATA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on land use is essential in environmental projects and ecosystem management, these data allow to approach the reality of lands and understand the challenges of development. The emergence of geospatial technology has provided an easy way to detect the use of land. This article presents the results of mapping land use based on remote sensing data (Landsat TM 2009 for the Gadaine plain region. The analysis of satellite image has identified six main types of land use (sebkha, chotts, bare soil, forest, agriculture, and cereal. The results allow the identification of each type of occupancy (spatial and area across the plain where interventions are needed for better management of this endorheic space and also to limit the processes of land degradation.

  3. Water quality in the surficial aquifer near agricultural areas in the Delaware Coastal Plain, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Mensch, Laura L.; Denver, Judith M.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-07-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, developed a network of wells to monitor groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain. Well-drained soils, a flat landscape, and accessible water in the Delaware Coastal Plain make for a productive agricultural setting. As such, agriculture is one of the largest industries in the State of Delaware. This setting enables the transport of chemicals from agriculture and other land uses to shallow groundwater. Efforts to mitigate nutrient transport to groundwater by the implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been ongoing for several decades. To measure the effectiveness of BMPs on a regional scale, a network of 48 wells was designed to measure shallow groundwater quality (particularly nitrate) over time near agricultural land in the Delaware Coastal Plain. Water characteristics, major ions, nutrients, and dissolved gases were measured in groundwater samples collected from network wells during fall 2014. Wells were organized into three groups based on their geochemical similarity and these groups were used to describe nitrate and chloride concentrations and factors that affect the variability among the groups. The results from this study are intended to establish waterquality conditions in 2014 to enable comparison of future conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs on a regional scale.

  4. LITHOLOGIC CONDITIONS OF THE WATER TABLE LOGGING IN THE AREA OF HAĆKI VILLAGE IN THE BIELSKA PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Micun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine lithological conditions of the water table in the area of Haćki village located in the Bielska Plain. The study involved the measurements of water level in dug wells, hand drill probing to a depth of 5 m, acquiring the samples of water-bearing deposits and analysing their granulation. The results of analyses allowed to calculate the permeability coefficient. The geological structure of the area is dominated by dusty deposits of various origins. Such deposits’ formation directly affects the conditions of filtration and depth of the water table. Groundwater logging near Haćki village in the Bielska Plain appears at a depth of several tens of centimeters to 2 meters in the depressions field and up a little over 5 meters in the case of higher ground surfaces. The presence of perched water was revealed on the hills, periodic leachates at the foot of the hills and scarps and one periodic spring. Water-bearing deposits are medium sands, fine sands and loamy fine sands or fine sands with silt. Consequently, the permeability coefficient is low or even very low. Its values range from 0,001 m·d-1 to 3,8 m·d-1 (d – 24 hours. The widespread presence of dusty deposits in the area affects the limited efficiency of the water table.

  5. Sensory Evaluation And Analysis Of Physico-Chemical Parameters Of Some Plain Set Yoghurt Brands Sold In Matara Municipal Area Of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K.G.U Hemamali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Production selling consumption and concern of plain set yoghurt show incitement in the last few time periods in Sri Lanka. New plain set yoghurt brands are coming to the Sri Lankan market very quickly too. The aim of this study was an attempt to do sensory evaluation and compare the physical and chemical parameters of some selected plain set yoghurt brands sold in Matara municipal area of Sri Lanka. Five different brands of plain set yoghurt samples were selected on the basis of preliminary survey done. Then all the selected plain set yoghurt samples were test for organoleptic characters such as color aroma appearance thickness taste sourness sweetness and over all acceptability. After that all the selected plain set yoghurt samples were analyzed with their physical and chemical parameters such as syneresis effect pH titratable acidity total protein content. By doing analysis of sensory evaluation the brand 12 was the least acceptable product while brand 15 was the most acceptable product by thirty untrained panelists. It also revealed that the thickness with appearance and taste had significant influence p0.05 on over all acceptability of the plain set yoghurt brand. According to the results obtained all physico-chemical parameters significantly differ p0.05 between the plain set yoghurt brands too. Hence plain set yoghurt manufacturers must give attention on improvement of thickness taste and appearance for better consumer acceptance and for better production. Overall plain set yoghurt quality assessment needs good care on quality control during processing.

  6. Inventory methods for trees in nonforest areas in the Great Plains States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Lister; Charles T. Scott; Steven. Rasmussen

    2012-01-01

    The US Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program collects information on trees in areas that meet its definition of forest. However, the inventory excludes trees in areas that do not meet this definition, such as those found in urban areas, in isolated patches, in areas with sparse or predominantly herbaceous vegetation, in narrow strips (e.g.,...

  7. Inventory of trees in nonforest areas in the Great Plains states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Lister; Chip Scott; Steve Rasmussen

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program collects information on trees in areas that meet its definition of forest. However, the inventory excludes trees in areas that do not meet this definition, such as those found in isolated patches, in areas with sparse or predominantly herbaceous vegetation, in narrow strips (e.g., shelterbelts...

  8. Groundwater vulnerability assessment: from overlay methods to statistical methods in the Lombardy Plain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Stevenazzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is among the most important freshwater resources. Worldwide, aquifers are experiencing an increasing threat of pollution from urbanization, industrial development, agricultural activities and mining enterprise. Thus, practical actions, strategies and solutions to protect groundwater from these anthropogenic sources are widely required. The most efficient tool, which helps supporting land use planning, while protecting groundwater from contamination, is represented by groundwater vulnerability assessment. Over the years, several methods assessing groundwater vulnerability have been developed: overlay and index methods, statistical and process-based methods. All methods are means to synthesize complex hydrogeological information into a unique document, which is a groundwater vulnerability map, useable by planners, decision and policy makers, geoscientists and the public. Although it is not possible to identify an approach which could be the best one for all situations, the final product should always be scientific defensible, meaningful and reliable. Nevertheless, various methods may produce very different results at any given site. Thus, reasons for similarities and differences need to be deeply investigated. This study demonstrates the reliability and flexibility of a spatial statistical method to assess groundwater vulnerability to contamination at a regional scale. The Lombardy Plain case study is particularly interesting for its long history of groundwater monitoring (quality and quantity, availability of hydrogeological data, and combined presence of various anthropogenic sources of contamination. Recent updates of the regional water protection plan have raised the necessity of realizing more flexible, reliable and accurate groundwater vulnerability maps. A comparison of groundwater vulnerability maps obtained through different approaches and developed in a time span of several years has demonstrated the relevance of the

  9. Mid-Holocene hydrology change in the south Taihu area of the Yangtze delta plain, China, and its relationship to the development of Neolithic cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Ryves, D.; Wang, Z.; Lewis, J.

    2017-12-01

    During the middle Holocene, the hydrological environments in the Taihu Plain, Yangtze Delta, China, varied tremendously under the influence of sea-level and climate change. Simultaneously, several Neolithic cultures, such as, the Majiabang, Songze, and Liangzhu culture, developed in this region. Basing on AMS14C dating, diatom identification, measurements of C-N elements and their stable isotopes of sediments from core DTX4 and DTX10, obtained in the East Tiaoxi Plain, south Taihu plain, we discussed the influence of hydrology changes on the development of Neolithic cultures. The results revealed that the East Tiaoxi River plain was in an estuary (the Palaeo-Taihu Estuary) condition at 7500 cal. yr BP, undergoing elevated in-fill in response to rapid sea-level rise. After 7500 cal. yr BP, low salinity conditions occurred, likely influenced by the Yangtze freshwater evidenced by constant occurrence of Aulacoseira granulata, which implied Yangtze runoff discharged along the channel of Palaeo-incised Taihu valley into the Hangzhou Bay during the middle Holocene. Sea-water penetration interrupted after 7000 cal. yr BP caused by an abrupt sea-level rise. During 6500-5600 cal. yr BP, sea-water retreated gradually, corresponding to the infilling of Palaeo-Taihu Estuary. Combing records from previously studied cores in the Taihu plain, stable freshwater condition (or dry land) established in most area of the Taihu plain after 5600 cal. yr BP due to the closure of the Palaeo-Taihu Estuary. We speculate that the low-salinity marsh started at about 7500-7000 cal. yr BP probably attracted the early Majiabang people to live around the Palaeo-Taihu Estuary. The sea water penetration between 7000-6500 cal. yr BP matches the left of the late Majiabang and the early-middle Songze people lived in the east of the Palaeo-Taihu Estuary, to the north and east of the Taihu Plain. The context of stable freshwater condition (or dry land) in the East Tiaoxi River plain promoted the

  10. A GIS-based assessment of groundwater suitability for irrigation purposes in flat areas of the wet Pampa plain, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Asunción; Lima, María Lourdes; Quiroz Londoño, Orlando Mauricio; Martínez, Daniel Emilio; Massone, Héctor Enrique

    2012-09-01

    The Pampa in Argentina is a large plain with a quite obvious dependence on agriculture, water availability and its quality. It is a sensitive environment due to weather changes and slope variations. Supplementary irrigation is a useful practice for compensating the production in the zone. However, potential negative impacts of this type of irrigation in salinization and sodification of soils are evident. Most conventional methodologies for assessing water irrigation quality have difficulties in their application in the region because they do not adjust to the defined assumptions for them. Consequently, a new GIS-based methodology integrating multiparametric data was proposed for evaluating and delineating groundwater suitability zones for irrigation purposes in flat areas. Hydrogeological surveys including water level measurements, groundwater samples for chemical analysis and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements were performed. The combination of EC, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, slopes and hydraulic gradient parameters generated an irrigation water index (IWI). With the integration of the IWI 1 to 3 classes (categories of suitable waters for irrigation) and the aquifer thickness the restricted irrigation water index (RIWI) was obtained. The IWI's index application showed that 61.3 % of the area has "Very high" to "Moderate" potential for irrigation, while the 31.4 % of it has unsuitable waters. Approximately, 46 % of the tested area has high suitability for irrigation and moderate groundwater availability. This proposed methodology has advantages over traditional methods because it allows for better discrimination in homogeneous areas.

  11. Northern Plains Buried Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    22 December 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows three circular features on the martian northern plains near 70.7oN, 311.7oW. These circular features are the locations of meteor impact craters that have been buried beneath the plains. Much of the northern plains shares this story, in which thousands of old craters have been filled or partially filled and then thinly buried beneath textured plains. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  12. Grass assemblages and diversity of conservation areas on the coastal plain south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Siebert

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A floristic analysis of the grass species assemblages of the Licuati Forest and Maputo Elephant Reserves south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique, is presented. Sampling of grass data was undertaken in six previously described, major vegetation types. TWINSPAN divisions distinguished grass assemblages that are characteristic for these major vegetation types of the study area. The results were supported by an Indirect Gradient Analysis. Further TWINSPAN divisions of a larger Maputaland data set indicated a floristic relationship between grass assemblages of similar major vegetation types in the study area and South Africa. This relationship was supported by high similarity values (> 65%, obtained with Sorenson's Coefficient. The coefficient also indicated varying degrees of similarity between grass assemblages of different major vegetation types within the study area. A rich diversity of 115 grass species and infraspecific taxa was recorded for the study area. The Chloridoideae and Panicoideae dominate the grass diversity and the genera with the most species include Eragrostis, Panicum and Digitaria. Most grass species in the study area are perennials and have a tufted growth form, but this varies considerably between vegetation types.

  13. Hydrology of area 53, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, N.E.; Norris, J.M.; Kuhn, Gerhard; ,

    1984-01-01

    Hydrologic information and analysis are needed to aid in decisions to lease Federally owned coal and for the preparation of the necessary Environmental Assessments and Impact Study Reports. This need has become even more critical with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-87). This report, one in a series of nationwide coal province reports, presents information thematically by describing single hydrologic topics through the use of brief texts and accompanying maps, graphs, or other illustrations. The report broadly characterizes the hydrology of Area 53 in northwestern Colorado, south-central Wyoming, and northeastern Utah. The report area, located primarily in the Wyoming Basin and Colorado Plateau physiographic provinces, consists of 14,650 square miles of diverse geology, topography, and climate. This diversity results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics. The two major rivers, the Yampa and the White Rivers, originate in humid granitic and basaltic mountains, then flow over sedimentary rocks underlying semiarid basins to their respective confluences with the Green River. Altitudes range from 4,800 to greater than 12,000 feet above sea level. Annual precipitation in the mountains, as much as 60 inches, is generally in the form of snow. Snowmelt produces most streamflow. Precipitation in the lower altitude sedimentary basins, ranging from 8 to 16 inches, is generally insufficient to sustain streamflow; therefore, most streams originating in the basins (where most of the streams in coal-mining areas originate) are ephemeral. Streamflow quality is best in the mountains where dissolved-solids concentrations generally are small. As streams flow across the sedimentary basins, mineral dissolution from the sedimentary rocks and irrigation water with high mineral content increase the dissolved-solids concentrations in a downstream direction. Due to the semiarid climate of the basins, soils are not adequately leached

  14. Mixing effects on geothermometric calculations of the Newdale geothermal area in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanashayam Neupane; Earl D. Mattson; Travis L. McLing; Cody J. Cannon; Thomas R. Wood; Trevor A. Atkinson; Patrick F. Dobson; Mark E. Conrad

    2016-02-01

    The Newdale geothermal area in Madison and Fremont Counties in Idaho is a known geothermal resource area whose thermal anomaly is expressed by high thermal gradients and numerous wells producing warm water (up to 51 °C). Geologically, the Newdale geothermal area is located within the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) that has a time-transgressive history of sustained volcanic activities associated with the passage of Yellowstone Hotspot from the southwestern part of Idaho to its current position underneath Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Locally, the Newdale geothermal area is located within an area that was subjected to several overlapping and nested caldera complexes. The Tertiary caldera forming volcanic activities and associated rocks have been buried underneath Quaternary flood basalts and felsic volcanic rocks. Two southeast dipping young faults (Teton dam fault and an unnamed fault) in the area provide the structural control for this localized thermal anomaly zone. Geochemically, water samples from numerous wells in the area can be divided into two broad groups – Na-HCO3 and Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 type waters and are considered to be the product of water-rhyolite and water-basalt interactions, respectively. Each type of water can further be subdivided into two groups depending on their degree of mixing with other water types or interaction with other rocks. For example, some bivariate plots indicate that some Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 water samples have interacted only with basalts whereas some samples of this water type also show limited interaction with rhyolite or mixing with Na-HCO3 type water. Traditional geothermometers [e.g., silica variants, Na-K-Ca (Mg-corrected)] indicate lower temperatures for this area; however, a traditional silica-enthalpy mixing model results in higher reservoir temperatures. We applied a new multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry tool (e.g., Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that is based on inverse geochemical modeling which

  15. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the shallow groundwater quality in a typical irrigation area with reclaimed water, North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaomin; Xiao, Yong; Yin, Shiyang; Pan, Xingyao; Niu, Yong; Shao, Jingli; Cui, Yali; Zhang, Qiulan; Hao, Qichen

    2017-09-22

    In this study, the hydrochemical characteristics of shallow groundwater were analyzed to get insight into the factors affecting groundwater quality in a typical agricultural dominated area of the North China Plain. Forty-four shallow groundwater samples were collected for chemical analysis. The water type changes from Ca·Na-HCO 3 type in grass land to Ca·Na-Cl (+NO 3 ) type and Na (Ca)-Cl (+NO 3 +SO 4 ) type in construction and facility agricultural land, indicating the influence of human activities. The factor analysis and geostatistical analysis revealed that the two major factors contributing to the groundwater hydrochemical compositions were the water-rock interaction and contamination from sewage discharge and agricultural fertilizers. The major ions (F, HCO 3 ) and trace element (As) in the shallow groundwater represented the natural origin, while the nitrate and sulfate concentrations were related to the application of fertilizer and sewage discharge in the facility agricultural area, which was mainly affected by the human activities. The values of pH, total dissolved solids, electric conductivity, and conventional component (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Cl) in shallow groundwater increased from grass land and cultivated land, to construction land and to facility agriculture which were originated from the combination sources of natural processes (e.g., water-rock interaction) and human activities (e.g., domestic effluents). The study indicated that both natural processes and human activities had influences on the groundwater hydrochemical compositions in shallow groundwater, while anthropogenic processes had more contribution, especially in the reclaimed water irrigation area.

  16. Site Effects estimation in the Po Plain area (Northern Italy): correlation between passive geophysical surveys and stratigraphic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascandola, Claudia; Massa, Marco; Barani, Simone; Argnani, Andrea; Poggi, Valerio; Martelli, Luca; Albarello, Dario; Pergalani, Floriana; Compagnoni, Massimo; Lovati, Sara

    2017-04-01

    The recent case of the 2012, Mw 6.1, Emilia seismic sequence (Northern Italy) highlighted the importance of the site effects estimation in the Po Plain, the larger and deeper Italian sedimentary basin. This study, applied on extensive collection of geophysical and geological data in the entire area, allows a macrozonation of the site effects estimation, useful for scientific and applied purpose. In particular, site-response analysis can be performed in defined macrozones, where the geological-geotecnical and geophysical characteristics are homogeneous at macroscale. The collection of the available stratigraphic discontinuities and passive geophysical surveys (single station and array measurements) allowed defining a general macrozonation in terms of amplified frequencies and shear waves velocity (Vs) gradients. The correlation between the obtained geophysical evidence and the known geological information can then be crucial in order to define the most important stratigraphic discontinuities responsible for the local seismic amplification. In particular, ambient vibration data, recorded by all permanent and temporary seismic stations installed in the target region, were collected and then analyzed with the Nakamura technique, to determine the H/V spectral ratio. Moreover, all the available ambient vibration arrays where collected and analyzes to assess the local Vs profile, considering the Rayleigh waves fundamental mode. The Po Plain stratigraphy is defined by regional unconformities (aquifer limits) that have been extensively mapped throughout the basin and by regional geological and structural maps. In general, the H/V results show two ranges of amplified frequencies, both lower than 1 Hz: the former at frequencies lower than about 0.25 Hz and the latter between 0.4 and 1 Hz. The higher frequency range moves from about 0.4 Hz, in the eastern-Adriatic part of the plain, to about 0.8-1.0 Hz in the central and western part. Based on the available seismic array

  17. Carrizo citrange Plants Do Not Require the Presence of Roots to Modulate the Response to Osmotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Pérez-Clemente

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the effects of a specific stress condition on the performance of plants grown under field conditions is difficult due to interactions among multiple abiotic and biotic factors affecting the system. In vitro tissue-culture-based techniques allow the study of each adverse condition independently and also make possible to investigate the performance of genotypes of interest under stress conditions avoiding the effect of the root. In this paper, the response of Carrizo citrange, a commercial citrus rootstock, to osmotic stress was evaluated by culturing in vitro intact plants and micropropagated shoots. The osmotic stress was generated by adding two different concentrations of polyethyleneglycol to the culture media. Different parameters such as plant performance, organ length, antioxidant activities, and endogenous contents of proline, malondialdehyde, and hormones were determined. Differently to that observed under high salinity, when subjected to osmotic stress conditions, Carrizo citrange showed increased endogenous levels of MDA, proline, and ABA. These results evidence that the mechanisms of response of Carrizo citrange to saline or osmotic stress are different. The presence of roots was not necessary to activate any of the plant responses which indicates that the organs involved in the stress perception and signaling depends on the type of adverse condition to which plants are subjected.

  18. 77 FR 75649 - Establishment of Interim Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands Managed by the Carrizo Plain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ..., airsoft, or war game apparatus) is prohibited on the Monument. The use of these types of weapons leaves... Video Photography of Pictograph Images These interim final supplementary rules prohibit still and video..., including paintball guns, air-soft guns, and war game apparatuses. Street-legal vehicle means a vehicle...

  19. 78 FR 64973 - Call for Nominations for the Bureau of Land Management's Carrizo Plain National Monument Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... their education, training, and experience and their knowledge of the geographical resource. The... normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The MAC provides representative citizen counsel and...

  20. 75 FR 18547 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Carrizo Plain National Monument Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... RMP provides for the protection of the significant natural and cultural resources identified in the..., protection of sensitive natural and cultural resources, livestock grazing, energy and mineral development...., hang gliding, skydiving, hobby aircraft), provide for guided tours at Painted Rock, and define the...

  1. Aquifer geochemistry at potential aquifer storage and recovery sites in coastal plain aquifers in the New York city area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.J.; Misut, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of injecting oxic water from the New York city (NYC) drinking-water supply and distribution system into a nearby anoxic coastal plain aquifer for later recovery during periods of water shortage (aquifer storage and recovery, or ASR) were simulated by a 3-dimensional, reactive-solute transport model. The Cretaceous aquifer system in the NYC area of New York and New Jersey, USA contains pyrite, goethite, locally occurring siderite, lignite, and locally varying amounts of dissolved Fe and salinity. Sediment from cores drilled on Staten Island and western Long Island had high extractable concentrations of Fe, Mn, and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) plus chromium-reducible sulfides (CRS) and low concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U. Similarly, water samples from the Lloyd aquifer (Cretaceous) in western Long Island generally contained high concentrations of Fe and Mn and low concentrations of other trace elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U, all of which were below US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and NY maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In such aquifer settings, ASR operations can be complicated by the oxidative dissolution of pyrite, low pH, and high concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water.The simulated injection of buffered, oxic city water into a hypothetical ASR well increased the hydraulic head at the well, displaced the ambient groundwater, and formed a spheroid of injected water with lower concentrations of Fe, Mn and major ions in water surrounding the ASR well, than in ambient water. Both the dissolved O2 concentrations and the pH of water near the well generally increased in magnitude during the simulated 5-a injection phase. The resultant oxidation of Fe2+ and attendant precipitation of goethite during injection provided a substrate for sorption of dissolved Fe during the 8-a extraction phase. The baseline scenario with a low (0.001M) concentration of pyrite in aquifer sediments, indicated that nearly 190% more water

  2. Lepini Mountains Carbonatic Ridge: try of springs recharge areas verification and water exchange quantification with Pontina Plain by use of a numerical model (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Teoli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study area of this work is represented by the Lepini Mountains carbonatic ridge and by the Pontina Plain foothills area, on which in the past, within quantitative hydrogeological characterizations, models were developed for calculating the groundwater flow, but only referred to the ridge. The most recent studies (Teoli, 2012 have done their best, instead, to represent the underground water exchanges between the ridge and the Pontina Plain foothill area. The new model (developed using computer code MODFLOW 2005 has been implemented to simulate steady-state underground flow using equivalent porous media approach even for the ridge; attention has been particularly directed to the proper tectonic ridge schematic, which the authors had previously defined, together with others (Alimonti et al., 2010, on detailed structural-geological survey basis, integrated by hydrogeological analysis. So, it’s been possible to determine partitioning effects on groundwater flowpaths and on springs recharge areas extent, whose total average discharge is about 10m3/s. Model calibration main goal has been the recharge areas permeability definition, posing the correspondence of calculated flows with measured springs’ flows; as a consequence, it’s been possible to improve the model reliability (uncertainty reduction quantifying the flow residuals’ standard deviation offset.

  3. Source quantification of size and season resolved aerosols in a semi-urban area of Indo-Gangetic plain, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooda, R. K.; Hyvärinen, A.; Gilardoni, S.; Sharma, V.; Vestenius, M.; Kerminen, V.; Vignati, E.; Kulmala, M. T.; Lihavainen, H.

    2012-12-01

    This study describes a one year measurements of size-segregated aerosols at a semi-urban site in Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), India, South Asia with focus on source quantification applied to organic and inorganic chemical species data using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), trajectory analysis and conditional probability function (CPF) methods. The campaign was planned in the framework of the European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) project. In light of the above, Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) and Joint Research Centre (JRC) conducted aerosol mass measurements in Gual Pahari, India from April 2008 to March 2009. The average mass concentrations of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) aerosols are higher during the postmonsoon (October-November) and winter (December- February) compared to that during the summer season (March-May). Fine and coarse fraction concentrations observed are higher during the post-monsoon & winter months due to low and stable boundary layer. Concentrations decrease in March-June due to increasing temperatures and a higher boundary layer. The lowest concentrations are during the rainy months (June to August/Sept) due to wet removal. OC and EC fraction is higher in PM2.5. EC in in PM2.5 is 9%, and in PM2.5-10 size EC is 2%. OC contribution is about 36% of fine aerosol mass. High OC could be attributed to enhanced combustion sources and the meteorological conditions during winter period. High OC to EC ratio during postmonsoon and winter also supports higher secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in these seasons. Secondary organic carbon (SOC) calculated is 42% of the annual average of total OC in coarse fraction. SOC to total OC is highest in postmonsoon (53%), winter (34%) and followed by 29% in summer and monsoon seasons. 24-hr speciated fine and coarse aerosols annual data was used for source identification and quantification studies with

  4. Geohydrology and water resources of the Papago Farms--Great Plain area, Papago Indian Reservation, Arizona, and the upper Rio Sonoyta area, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollett, Kenneth J.

    1985-01-01

    The Papago Farms-Great Plain and upper Rio Sonoyta study area includes about 490 square miles in south-central Arizona and north-central Sonora, Mexico. The area is characterized by a broad, deep, sediment-filled basin bounded by low, jagged fault-block mountains. The climate is arid to semiarid. The climate and abundant ground water provide favorable conditions for irrigated agriculture. Annual precipitation averages 5 to 8 inches per year on the desert floor. Runoff, which occurs as intermittent streamflow and sheetflow, is too short lived and too laden with suspended sediment to be a reliable source for irrigation or public supply. Nearly all the water used to irrigate more than 5,000 cultivated acres in the study area is withdrawn from the unconsolidated to partly consolidated basin fill. The ground water occurs in the deposits under unconfined (water-table) conditions with a saturated thickness that ranges from zero along the mountain fronts to more than 8,000 feet in the center of the basin. The amount of recoverable ground water in storage to a depth of 400 feet below the 1978-80 water table is estimated to be about 10 million acre-feet. Depths to water range from about 500 feet near the southern boundary of the study area to about 150 feet in the center of the study area. Ground water enters the area principally as underflow beneath the San Simon and Chukut Kuk Washes and as recharge along the mountain fronts. On the basis of model results, annual inflow to the ground-water system is estimated to be about 4,390 acre-feet. Ground water moves through the study area along paths that encircle a virtually impermeable unit in the basin center, termed 'the lakebed-clay deposits,' and moves westward to an outflow point beneath the Rio Sonoyta south of Cerro La Nariz. Rates of water movement range from less than I foot per year in clays to about 160 feet per year in well-sorted, coarse stream-channel deposits. Transmissivities along the basin margins range from 10

  5. Geologic assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Lower Paleogene Midway and Wilcox Groups, and the Carrizo Sand of the Claiborne Group, of the Northern Gulf coast region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.

    2017-09-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently conducted an assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas potential of Tertiary strata underlying the onshore areas and State waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal region. The assessment was based on a number of geologic elements including an evaluation of hydrocarbon source rocks, suitable reservoir rocks, and hydrocarbon traps in an Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System defined for the region by the USGS. Five conventional assessment units (AUs) were defined for the Midway (Paleocene) and Wilcox (Paleocene-Eocene) Groups, and the Carrizo Sand of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) interval including: (1) the Wilcox Stable Shelf Oil and Gas AU; (2) the Wilcox Expanded Fault Zone Gas and Oil AU; (3) the Wilcox-Lobo Slide Block Gas AU; (4) the Wilcox Slope and Basin Floor Gas AU; and (5) the Wilcox Mississippi Embayment AU (not quantitatively assessed).The USGS assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the Midway-Wilcox-Carrizo interval resulted in estimated mean values of 110 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 36.9 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG), and 639 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) in the four assessed units. The undiscovered oil resources are almost evenly divided between fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs within the Wilcox Stable Shelf (54 MMBO) AU and deltaic sandstone reservoirs of the Wilcox Expanded Fault Zone (52 MMBO) AU. Greater than 70 percent of the undiscovered gas and 66 percent of the natural gas liquids (NGL) are estimated to be in deep (13,000 to 30,000 feet), untested distal deltaic and slope sandstone reservoirs within the Wilcox Slope and Basin Floor Gas AU.

  6. Tietkens Plain karst - Maralinga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, J.M.

    1988-09-01

    The Tietkens Plain karst is located to the north of Maralinga village which is on the crest of the Ooldea Range on the north and east margin of the Nullarbor Plain in western South Australia. The geology of the carbonate rocks in the Maralinga area is summarised. On Tietkens Plain from 1955 to 1963 nuclear weapons tests dispersed radioactive materials over the Maralinga area. Six nuclear devices were detonated in the air and one was exploded a few metres below the surface. The effect such explosions have on the karst and the possible rate of recovery of its surface are discussed. This report is the record of a visit to the Maralinga area from the 15th -21st November 1986 which involved an inspection of the karst surface together with collection of water, soil and rock samples. Results of the measurements made in order to assess water quality and water contamination by radioactive nuclides are presented. The implications arising from the presence of radioactive materials on the surface and the possibility of their entering and contaminating the groundwater in the area are discussed in the context of the chemistry of uranium and plutonium. The potential for transmission of contaminants through groundwater conduits and aquifers in the dolomite is discussed. Evidence is produced to show that the caves of the Nullabor Plain are not contaminated at present and are unlikely to be so in the future. 21 refs., 2 figs. 3 tabs., ills

  7. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of rice field banks and restored habitats in an agricultural area of the Po Plain (Lombardy, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilon, Nicola; Cardarelli, Elisa; Bogliani, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    An entomological investigation was carried out in an agricultural area, mainly rice fields, of the Po river plain, located in the municipalities of Lacchiarella (MI) and Giussago (PV) (Lombardy, Italy). In 2009 and 2010, ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were sampled along rice field banks and in restored habitats, by means of pitfall traps. The area appeared as species-rich, compared to other anthropogenic habitats in the Po river pain. Most of the collected Carabids were species with a wide distribution in the Paleartic region, eurytopic and common in European agroecosystems. The assemblages were dominated by small-medium, macropterous species, with summer larvae. No endemic species were found. Species with southern distribution, rarely found north of the Po river, were also sampled. Amaralittorea is recorded for the first time in Italy.

  8. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae of rice field banks and restored habitats in an agricultural area of the Po Plain (Lombardy, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Pilon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An entomological investigation was carried out in an agricultural area, mainly rice fields, of the Po river plain, located in the municipalities of Lacchiarella (MI and Giussago (PV (Lombardy, Italy. In 2009 and 2010, ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae were sampled along rice field banks and in restored habitats, by means of pitfall traps. The area appeared as species-rich, compared to other anthropogenic habitats in the Po river pain. Most of the collected Carabids were species with a wide distribution in the Paleartic region, eurytopic and common in European agroecosystems. The assemblages were dominated by small-medium, macropterous species, with summer larvae. No endemic species were found. Species with southern distribution, rarely found north of the Po river, were also sampled. Amara littorea is recorded for the first time in Italy.

  9. Northern Plains 'Crater'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    10 December 2004 The lower left (southwest) corner of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the location of a somewhat filled and buried meteor impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. The dark dots are boulders. A portion of a similar feature is seen in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image. This picture, showing landforms (including the odd mound north/northeast of the crater) that are typical of the martian northern lowland plains, was obtained as part of the MGS MOC effort to support the search for a landing site for the Phoenix Mars Scout lander. Phoenix will launch in 2007 and land on the northern plains in 2008. This image is located near 68.0oN, 227.4oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  10. Assessment of hyporheic zone, flood-plain, soil-gas, soil, and surface-water contamination at the Old Incinerator Area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, assessed the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, soil, and surface-water for contaminants at the Old Incinerator Area at Fort Gordon, from October 2009 to September 2010. The assessment included the detection of organic contaminants in the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, and surface water. In addition, the organic contaminant assessment included the analysis of explosives and chemical agents in selected areas. Inorganic contaminants were assessed in soil and surface-water samples. The assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to the U.S. Army at Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected above the method detection level in all 13 samplers deployed in the hyporheic zone and flood plain of an unnamed tributary to Spirit Creek. The combined concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylene were detected at 3 of the 13 samplers. Other organic compounds detected in one sampler included octane and trichloroethylene. In the passive soil-gas survey, 28 of the 60 samplers detected total petroleum hydrocarbons above the method detection level. Additionally, 11 of the 60 samplers detected the combined masses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylene above the method detection level. Other compounds detected above the method detection level in the passive soil-gas survey included octane, trimethylbenzene, perchlorethylene, and chloroform. Subsequent to the passive soil-gas survey, six areas determined to have relatively high contaminant mass were selected, and soil-gas samplers were deployed, collected, and analyzed for explosives and chemical agents. No explosives or chemical agents were detected above

  11. Geographical information systems as a tool in limnological studies An applied case study in a shallow .lake of a plain area, Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroz, Orlando; Romanelli, Asuncion; Martinez, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of the hydrological functioning and the interaction among the different water bodies in an area is essential when a sustainable use of the hydric resources is considered. The aim of the present paper is to assess both hydrological-limnological methods and GIS as an integrated methodology applied to the study of shallow lakes, and the hydrological behavior of shallow wetlands in plain areas. La Salada is an areic permanent shallow lake with an area of 5,78 km 2 located near La Dulce town (SE of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina). In this paper we applied methods and tools of the Geographical information Systems in order to assess both, the evolution and state of the wetland. Topographic profiles, showing the relationship among the lake and the other aquatic systems, and also a multi temporal assessment of the morphometric parameters were performed by using a Digital Terrain Model of the area. A sample grid was designed to obtain bathymetric, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data. The chemical water composition is homogeneous in area and depth. changes in the conductivity values along depth, the isotopic contents and the Gibbs diagram showed that the evaporation is the main process controlling the water chemistry. Physical-chemical parameters established water quality and uses of the lake.

  12. Utopia Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    5 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dark-toned, cratered plain in southwest Utopia Planitia. Large, light-toned, windblown ripples reside on the floors of many of the depressions in the scene, including a long, linear, trough. Location near: 30.3oN, 255.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  13. Monitoring recharge in areas of seasonally frozen ground in the Columbia Plateau and Snake River Plain, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark; Josberger, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Seasonally frozen ground occurs over approximately one‑third of the contiguous United States, causing increased winter runoff. Frozen ground generally rejects potential groundwater recharge. Nearly all recharge from precipitation in semi-arid regions such as the Columbia Plateau and the Snake River Plain in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, occurs between October and March, when precipitation is most abundant and seasonally frozen ground is commonplace. The temporal and spatial distribution of frozen ground is expected to change as the climate warms. It is difficult to predict the distribution of frozen ground, however, because of the complex ways ground freezes and the way that snow cover thermally insulates soil, by keeping it frozen longer than it would be if it was not snow covered or, more commonly, keeping the soil thawed during freezing weather. A combination of satellite remote sensing and ground truth measurements was used with some success to investigate seasonally frozen ground at local to regional scales. The frozen-ground/snow-cover algorithm from the National Snow and Ice Data Center, combined with the 21-year record of passive microwave observations from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager onboard a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellite, provided a unique time series of frozen ground. Periodically repeating this methodology and analyzing for trends can be a means to monitor possible regional changes to frozen ground that could occur with a warming climate. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System watershed model constructed for the upper Crab Creek Basin in the Columbia Plateau and Reynolds Creek basin on the eastern side of the Snake River Plain simulated recharge and frozen ground for several future climate scenarios. Frozen ground was simulated with the Continuous Frozen Ground Index, which is influenced by air temperature and snow cover. Model simulation results showed a decreased occurrence of frozen ground that coincided with

  14. Particulate matters emitted from maize straw burning for winter heating in rural areas in Guanzhong Plain, China: Current emission and future reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Shen, Zhenxing; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Leiming; Wu, Tingting; Zhang, Qian; Yin, Xiuli; Lei, Yali; Huang, Yu; Huang, R.-J.; Liu, Suixin; Han, Yongming; Xu, Hongmei; Zheng, Chunli; Liu, Pingping

    2017-02-01

    Maize straw smoldering in "Heated Kang" is the traditional way for heating in winter in rural areas of Guanzhong Plain. This smolder procedure produced large quantities of pollutants and got more and more concern from both public and researchers. In this study, on-site measurements of straw smoldering in a residence with a Chinese 'Heated Kang' (Scenario 1) were done to determine the emissions factors (EFs) for pollutants. Moreover, EFs of pollutants from an advanced stove fired with maize straw (Scenario 2) and maize-straw pellet (Scenario 3) had been conducted in a laboratory to find the new measure to reduce the pollution emissions. The results showed that the EFs of PM2.5 for three scenarios were 38.26 ± 13.94 g·kg- 1, 17.50 ± 8.29 g·kg- 1 and 2.95 ± 0.71 g·kg- 1, respectively. Comparing EFs of pollutants from 3 scenarios indicates that both briquetting of straw and advanced stove with air distribution system could efficiently reduce pollutants emission especially for Scenario 3. In detail, EFs of PM2.5, OC, EC and water soluble ions all have over 90% reduction between Scenarios 1 and 3. All particle-size distributions were unimodal, and all peaked in particle sizes size groups. Converting to pellets and advanced stoves for residential heating could reduce PM2.5 emission from 48.3 Gg to 3.59 Gg, OC from 19.0 Gg to 0.91 Gg, EC from 1.7 Gg to 0.17 Gg and over 90% reduction on total water soluble ions in the whole region. A box model simulation for the Guanzhong Plain indicated that this conversion would lead to a 7.7% reduction in PM2.5 (from 130 to 120 μg·m- 3) in normal conditions and a 14.2% reduction (from 350 to 300 μg·m- 3) in hazy conditions. The results highlighted that the straw pellets burning in advanced stove can effectively reduce pollutants emitted and improve the energy use efficiency in comparison with maize straw smoldering in "Heated Kang". The study supplies an effective measure to reduce the rural biomass burning emission, and this

  15. Subsurface stratigraphy and uranium--vanadium favorability of the Morrison Formation, Sage Plain Area, southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girdley, W.A.; Flook, J.E.; Harris, R.E.

    1975-08-01

    The four members of the Morrison Formation that are recognizable in the area studied are, in ascending order, the Salt Wash, Recapture, Westwater Canyon, and Brushy Basin. The Salt Wash member has the highest uranium favorability of all the Morrison strata in the area studied. An especially favorable area, in which the Salt Wash interval is thick and contains several thick sandstones, is situated on either side of the Utah-Colorado state line between Monticello, Utah, and Dove Creek, Colorado. The upper Morrison strata (Westwater Canyon and Brushy Basin members) have low uranium favorability. The Westwater Canyon member contains adequate sandstones but lacks known uranium deposits in the project area. The Brushy Basin member, although rated as having low potential, nevertheless does possess some attributes that make it worthy of further attention. The Recapture member does not contain sufficient well-developed sandstones or uranium deposits to merit its being classed as favorable for potential uranium-vanadium resources. (LK)

  16. On Offset Stream Measurements and Recent Coseismic Surface Rupture in the Carrizo Section of the San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, B. A.; Hudnut, K. W.; Akciz, S. O.; Delano, J.; Glennie, C. L.; Prentice, C. S.; DeLong, S.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies using airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) topographic data have provoked debate about whether the Mw 7.9 Fort Tejon 1857 earthquake produced ~5m or ~10m of surface strike-slip displacement in the Carrizo section of the south-central San Andreas fault. Resolution of this discrepancy is important not only for understanding the proposed role of the Carrizo section in controlling repeated south-central San Andreas rupture but also for understanding the general utility of stream offset measurements for earthquake process studies. To explore if higher-resolution topographic data of the offset features would help reconcile the different interpretations, we used a mobile laser scanning (MLS) backpack-mounted system to survey 11 ~5m offset streams given 'high' quality rankings by previous studies. In our surveys, point density was on the order of 1000s pts/m^2 in comparison to 1-4 pts/m^2 for the ALSM data, enabling us to faithfully make digital elevation models with grid spacing smaller than 10cm. We adapt a geometric method that relies on a small number of user-dependent decisions to produce an offset estimate from a set of geomorphic markers (thalweg, channel margins, channel shoulders) from upstream and downstream locations. We typically derive an ensemble of at least 10 offset measurements per stream channel and from these calculate a mean and standard deviation. We also explore using gradient changes in long profiles of the offset stream reaches to diagnose the possibility of a ~10m channel experiencing 2 ~5m slip events. Preliminary results suggest a tendency towards the higher value offset estimates, although this does not necessarily preclude the possibility of two or more events causing the cumulative offset.

  17. Land change in the Central Corn Belt Plains Ecoregion and hydrologic consequences in developed areas: 1939-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, Krista; Shaver, David; Alexander, Randal; Over, Thomas; Soong, David T.

    2013-01-01

    This report emphasizes the importance of a multi-disciplinary understanding of how land use and land cover can affect regional hydrology by collaboratively investigating how increases in developed land area may affect stream discharge by evaluating land-cover change from 1939 to 2000, urban housing density data from 1940 to 2010, and changes in annual peak streamflow from water years 1945 to 2009. The results and methods crosscut two mission areas of the U.S. Geological Survey (Climate and Land Use, Water) and can be used to better assess developed land change and hydrologic consequences, which can be used to better assess future management and mitigation strategies.

  18. Cracked Plain, Buried Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    4 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a cracked plain in western Utopia Planitia. The three circular crack patterns indicate the location of three buried meteor impact craters. These landforms are located near 41.9oN, 275.9oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  19. Mapping of groundwater prospective zones integrating remote sensing, geographic information systems and geophysical techniques in El-Qaà Plain area, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzied, Sara M.; Alrefaee, Hamed A.

    2017-11-01

    The geospatial mapping of groundwater prospective zones is essential to support the needs of local inhabitants and agricultural activities in arid regions such as El-Qaà area, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The study aims to locate new wells that can serve to cope with water scarcity. The integration of remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS) and geophysical techniques is a breakthrough for groundwater prospecting. Based on these techniques, several factors contributing to groundwater potential in El-Qaà Plain were determined. Geophysical data were supported by information derived from a digital elevation model, and from geologic, geomorphologic and hydrologic data, to reveal the promising sites. All the spatial data that represent the contributing factors were integrated and analyzed in a GIS framework to develop a groundwater prospective model. An appropriate weightage was specified to each factor based on its relative contribution towards groundwater potential, and the resulting map delineates the study area into five classes, from very poor to very good potential. The very good potential zones are located in the Quaternary deposits, with flat to gentle topography, dense lineaments and structurally controlled drainage channels. The groundwater potential map was tested against the distribution of groundwater wells and cultivated land. The integrated methodology provides a powerful tool to design a suitable groundwater management plan in arid regions.

  20. THE WIND DEFLATION FROM SAND AREAS AFFECTED BY ATMOSFERIC DRYNESS: LEU-ROTUNDA AND DĂBULENI FIELDS (OLTENIA PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROȘCA FLORINA CRISTINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Leu-Rotunda and Dăbuleni Fields are characterized by substantial extension of sandy soils. The sands on the left of Jiu are poli-stratificated fluvial deposits eolian shaped as dunes and interdunes. During the reported period 1980-2007, it was found that the most exposed time of the year to the wind was during the spring, the months of March, April and May as in speed and frequency. According to the analyzed data, the dominant wind direction during spring season on the sandy soils from Dăbuleni is the western, with negative effects on crops who then begin their vegetation cycle. The shelterbelts have decreased, although lately there have been numerous programs which aimed afforestation of affected areas.

  1. Demise of the northern Tethyan Urgonian carbonate platform and subsequent transition towards pelagic conditions: The sedimentary record of the Col de la Plaine Morte area, central Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föllmi, Karl B.; Gainon, François

    2008-04-01

    The sedimentary succession of the Col de la Plaine Morte area (Helvetic Alps, central Switzerland) documents the disappearance of the northern Tethyan Urgonian platform in unprecedented detail and suggests stepwise platform demise, with each drowning phase documented by erosion and phosphogenesis. The first identified drowning phase terminated Urgonian carbonate production in a predominantly photozoan mode. Using a correlation of the whole-rock δ13C record with the well-dated record from SE France, its age is inferred to as Middle Early Aptian (near the boundary between the weissi and deshayesi zones). A subsequent drowning phase is dated by ammonites and by a correlation of the whole-rock δ13C record as Late Early Aptian (late deshayesi to early furcata zone). A third drowning phase provides an ammonite-based age of Early Late Aptian ( subnodosocostatum and melchioris zones) and is part of a widely recognized phase of sediment condensation and phosphogenesis, which is dated as latest Early to Middle Late Aptian (late furcata zone to near the boundary of the melchioris and nolani zones). The fourth and final drowning phase started in the latest Aptian ( jacobi zone) as is also indicated by ammonite findings at the Col de la Plaine Morte. The phases of renewed platform-carbonate production intervening between the drowning phases were all in a heterozoan mode. During the ultimate drowning phase, phosphogenesis continued until the Early Middle Albian, whereas condensation processes lasted until the Middle Turonian. Coverage of the external margin of the drowned Urgonian platform by a drape of pelagic carbonates started only in the Late Turonian. During the Santonian, the external part of the drowned platform underwent normal faulting and saw the re-exposure of already lithified Urgonian carbonates at the seafloor. Based on the here-inferred ages, the first drowning phase just precedes oceanic anoxic episode 1a (OAE 1a or "selli event") in time, and the second

  2. Surface sediments in the marsh-sandy land transitional area: sandification in the western Songnen Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaofei; Grace, Michael; Zou, Yuanchun; Yu, Xuefeng; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    The development of sandification process was studied, by monitoring the changes of sediment characteristics, at marsh-sandy land intersections in China's Songnen region. A series of sediment collection plates were deployed in the region; after one year, sediments in these plates were analyzed for changes of mass and chemical characteristics. The sediment flux and the sand content of the sediments decreased with the increasing longitudinal distance between the sampling site and the centre line of a sand dune. The mean sediment flux was 29 ± 14 kg m(-2) yr(-1) and 0.6 ± 0.3 kg m(-2) yr(-1) in the sandy land and marsh, respectively. Strong, positive correlations were found between the concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr, all of which were also negatively correlated with the sand content. The concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr in the marsh sediment samples were all significantly greater than the corresponding concentrations of the sandy land (pmarsh could be divided into three distinct zones. Sand expansion extended about 88 m into the marsh. The mean sand content in the sediments of the sandy land was 91% and then 64% in the marsh, which in turn was higher than that of marshes outside the influence of sandification, suggesting that the marsh in the marsh-sandy land transitional area has already undergone extensive sandification in the past. The study results provide information on the wetland's function of indicating and buffering the sandification process.

  3. Surface sediments in the marsh-sandy land transitional area: sandification in the western Songnen Plain, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Yu

    Full Text Available The development of sandification process was studied, by monitoring the changes of sediment characteristics, at marsh-sandy land intersections in China's Songnen region. A series of sediment collection plates were deployed in the region; after one year, sediments in these plates were analyzed for changes of mass and chemical characteristics. The sediment flux and the sand content of the sediments decreased with the increasing longitudinal distance between the sampling site and the centre line of a sand dune. The mean sediment flux was 29 ± 14 kg m(-2 yr(-1 and 0.6 ± 0.3 kg m(-2 yr(-1 in the sandy land and marsh, respectively. Strong, positive correlations were found between the concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr, all of which were also negatively correlated with the sand content. The concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr in the marsh sediment samples were all significantly greater than the corresponding concentrations of the sandy land (p<0.001. Sand content and Ti, V and Zr concentrations all proved to be valid indicators of sandification intensity, and they showed that the marsh could be divided into three distinct zones. Sand expansion extended about 88 m into the marsh. The mean sand content in the sediments of the sandy land was 91% and then 64% in the marsh, which in turn was higher than that of marshes outside the influence of sandification, suggesting that the marsh in the marsh-sandy land transitional area has already undergone extensive sandification in the past. The study results provide information on the wetland's function of indicating and buffering the sandification process.

  4. Groundwater Pollution Characteristics and Hydrochemical Properties of Typical Plain River-net Area in Lower Yangtze River Delta, China: A Case Study in Suzhou City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Ruan, X.; Sun, H.; Pan, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Due to anthropogenic activities, tidal river water retention and other geological factors, groundwater quality in plain river-net area is vulnerable to pollution. Detailed chemical analysis results of 49 groundwater samples were carried out to identify groundwater pollution characteristics, hydrochemical properties and to assess groundwater quality and usability in Suzhou City, a typical plain area in Lower Yangtze River Delta, China. In order to protect, utilize and manage groundwater resources effectively, it is necessary to recognize the dominant processes responsible for hydrogeochemistry, groundwater pollution threats in study area. The results revealed ammonia concentration in confined and shallow groundwater ranges from 0.02 to 6.78 mg/L, 0.04 to 3.17 mg/L, respectively. Nitrite concentrations range from 0.004 to 1.01 mg/L, 0.004 to 3.66 mg/L, respectively. Iron concentrations range from 0.006 to 16.9 mg/L, 0.02 to 7.88 mg/L, respectively. Manganese concentrations range from 0.003 to 1.04 mg/L, 0.06 to 0.58 mg/L, respectively. On the basis of analytical results and water quality standards, majority of groundwater samples are not suitable for drinking, domestic as well as for industrial uses directly. Toxic metals and high levels ions should be removed if groundwater is supplied for different purposes. Salinity, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate and sodium percentage values revealed that most of groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation purposes except only a few. The salinity hazard of study area is regarded as low to medium, and special management for salinity control is required in scattered regions. Results of suitability for industrial purposes according to calculated Langeliar saturation index and Larson Ratio showed that majority of samples are calcium carbonate depositing, whereas a few are calcium carbonate dissolving in nature. Results show that sodium, calcium and bicarbonate are the dominant ions of groundwater. Na-HCO3

  5. Desenvolvimento Vegetativo e morfologia radicular de citrange carrizo afetado por ácido indolbutírico e micorrizas arbusculares Vegetative development and root morphology of carrizo citrange affected by indolebutyric acid and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vitor Dutra de Souza

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado na localidade de Alcanar (Tarragona, Espanha e objetivou avaliar o efeito de cinco concentrações do ácido indolbutírico (AIB (0,0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 g/L e da inoculação com micorrizas arbusculares (MA (Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith sobre o desenvolvimento vegetativo, conteúdo foliar de P e K e morfologia radicular de plântulas de citrange Carrizo (Citrus sinensis (L. X Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualisados em esquema fatorial, com 4 repetições e 10 plantas por parcela. A aplicação de AIB não alterou o desenvolvimento vegetativo das plântulas cultivadas em ausência de MA, apesar de haver incrementado a quantidade de P e K e a espessura dos feixes vasculares. As MA incrementaram o conteúdo de P foliar. Encontrou-se uma interação positiva entre o AIB e as MA, pois as plântulas micorrizadas apresentaram um incremento no desenvolvimento vegetativo, nos conteúdos foliares de P e K e na espessura dos feixes vasculares com o aumento das concentrações de AIB.This study was carried out in Alcanar (Tarragona - Spain to evaluate the effect of five indolebutyric acid (IBA concentrations (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 g/L and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF (Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith on Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis (L. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. vegetative development, P and K foliar contents and root morphology. The experimental design was in a Completly Randomized Block Design with 10 seedlings per plot and 4 replicates. The IBA concentrations had no effect on vegetative development of nonmycorrhizal seedlings, althougt it had increased P and K foliar contents and primary xylem tickness. AMF increased P foliar content. IBA x AMF interaction was observed, increasing IBA concentrations on mycorrhizal seedlings resulted in increased in vegetative development, P and K foliar contents and primary xylem thickness.

  6. A Vulnerability Evaluation of the Phreatic Water in the Plain Area of the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang Based on the VDEAL Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiliang Jia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A VDEAL (V is the lithology of the vadose zone, D is the groundwater depth, E is the degree of groundwater exploitation, A is the aquifer characteristics and L is the land use pattern. model, which is suitable for a vulnerability evaluation of the groundwater in arid inland areas, and that is based on the GOD (G is the groundwater status, O is overburden feature and D is groundwater depth method and DRASTIC (D is the depth of water-table, R is the net recharge, A is the aquifer media, S is the soil media, T is the topography, I is the impact of the vadose and C is the conductivity of the aquifer. model is proposed in this paper. Five indicators were selected by reference to the DRAV (D is the depth of water-table, R is the net recharge, A is the aquifer media and V is the impact of the vadose. and VLDA (V is the lithology of the vadose zone , L is the land use pattern, D is the groundwater depth and A is the aquifer characteristics and. models, namely, the lithology of the vadose zone (V, the groundwater depth (D, the degree of groundwater exploitation (E, the aquifer characteristics (A and the land use pattern (L. According to monitoring data from 2003 and 2011, the variations of phreatic water quality in the plain area of the Junggar Basin were divided into three types: the water quality may have deteriorated, be unchanged or improved. Four groups of indicator weights were configured to calculate the vulnerability index using the VDEAL model. The changes of phreatic water quality were then compared against the vulnerability index. The normalized weights of V, D, E, A, and L were respectively 0.15, 0.25, 0.10, 0.10, and 0.40; this is according to the principle that the sampling sites of deteriorated water quality are generally distributed in a high-vulnerability region, and the sites of unchanged and improved water quality are distributed in middle vulnerability, low vulnerability and invulnerable regions. The evaluation results of phreatic

  7. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shiqin [Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo-City 271-8510 (Japan); Tang, Changyuan, E-mail: cytang@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo-City 271-8510 (Japan); Song, Xianfang [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Wang, Qinxue [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Zhang, Yinghua [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Yuan, Ruiqiang [College of Environment and Resources, Shanxi University (China)

    2014-06-01

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths. - Highlights: • An unlined wastewater reservoir caused the deterioration of groundwater quality. • An evaporation fraction was estimated by Rayleigh distillation theory of isotopes. • 73.5% of wastewater recharge to groundwater by leakage and irrigation infiltration. • The region influenced by wastewater was divided into four subzones. • Mixing, ion exchange, and

  8. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 3. Appendices, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouradian, E. M.

    1983-12-31

    Thermal analyses for the preliminary design phase of the Receiver of the Carrizo Plains Solar Power Plant are presented. The sodium reference operating conditions (T/sub in/ = 610/sup 0/F, T/sub out/ = 1050/sup 0/F) have been considered. Included are: Nominal flux distribution on receiver panal, Energy input to tubes, Axial temperature distribution; sodium and tubes, Sodium flow distribution, Sodium pressure drop, orifice calculations, Temperature distribution in tube cut (R-0), Backface structure, and Nonuniform sodium outlet temperature. Transient conditions and panel front face heat losses are not considered. These are to be addressed in a subsequent design phase. Also to be considered later are the design conditions as variations from the nominal reference (operating) condition. An addendum, designated Appendix C, has been included describing panel heat losses, panel temperature distribution, and tube-manifold joint thermal model.

  9. Simulating the impacts of future land use and climate changes on surface water quality in the Des Plaines River watershed, Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Area, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Cyril O; Weng, Qihao

    2011-09-15

    Modeling the effects of past and current land use composition and climatic patterns on surface water quality provides valuable information for environmental and land planning. This study predicts the future impacts of urban land use and climate changes on surface water quality within Des Plaines River watershed, Illinois, between 2010 and 2030. Land Change Modeler (LCM) was used to characterize three future land use/planning scenarios. Each scenario encourages low density residential growth, normal urban growth, and commercial growth, respectively. Future climate patterns examined include the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenario (SRES) B1 and A1B groups. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was employed to estimate total suspended solids and phosphorus concentration generated at a 10 year interval. The predicted results indicate that for a large portion of the watershed, the concentration of total suspended solids (TSS) would be higher under B1 and A1B climate scenarios during late winter and early spring compared to the same period in 2010; while the summer period largely demonstrates a reverse trend. Model results further suggest that by 2020, phosphorus concentration would be higher during the summer under B1 climate scenario compared to 2010, and is expected to wane by 2030. The projected phosphorus concentrations during the late winter and early spring periods vary across climate and land use scenarios. The analysis also denotes that middle and high density residential development can reduce excess TSS concentration, while the establishment of dense commercial and industrial development might help ameliorate high phosphorus levels. The combined land use and climate change analysis revealed land use development schemes that can be adopted to mitigate potential future water quality impairment. This research provides important insights into possible adverse consequences on surface water quality and resources

  10. The Plains of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic plains units of various types comprise at least 80% of the surface of Venus. Though devoid of topographic splendor and, therefore often overlooked, these plains units house a spectacular array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact features. Here I propose that the plains hold the keys to understanding the resurfacing history of Venus and resolving the global stratigraphy debate. The quasi-random distribution of impact craters and the small number that have been conspicuously modified from the outside by plains-forming volcanism have led some to propose that Venus was catastrophically resurfaced around 725×375 Ma with little volcanism since. Challenges, however, hinge on interpretations of certain morphological characteristics of impact craters: For instance, Venusian impact craters exhibit either radar dark (smooth) floor deposits or bright, blocky floors. Bright floor craters (BFC) are typically 100-400 m deeper than dark floor craters (DFC). Furthermore, all 58 impact craters with ephemeral bright ejecta rays and/or distal parabolic ejecta patterns have bright floor deposits. This suggests that BFCs are younger, on average, than DFCs. These observations suggest that DFCs could be partially filled with lava during plains emplacement and, therefore, are not strictly younger than the plains units as widely held. Because the DFC group comprises ~80% of the total crater population on Venus the recalculated emplacement age of the plains would be ~145 Ma if DFCs are indeed volcanically modified during plains formation. Improved image and topographic data are required to measure stratigraphic and morphometric relationships and resolve this issue. Plains units are also home to an abundant and diverse set of volcanic features including steep-sided domes, shield fields, isolated volcanoes, collapse features and lava channels, some of which extend for 1000s of kilometers. The inferred viscosity range of plains-forming lavas, therefore, is immense, ranging from the

  11. Landscape history and man-induced landscape changes in the young morainic area of the North European Plain — a case study from the Bäke Valley, Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böse, Margot; Brande, Arthur

    2010-10-01

    The Bäke creek valley is part of the young morainic area in Berlin. Its origin is related to meltwater flow and dead-ice persistence resulting in a valley with a lake-creek system. During the Late Glacial, the slopes of the valley were affected by solifluction. A Holocene brown soil developed in this material, whereas parts of the lakes were filled with limnic-telmatic sediments. The excavation site at Goerzallee revealed Bronze Age and Iron Age burial places at the upper part of the slope, as well as a fireplace further downslope, but the slope itself remained stable. Only German settlements in the 12th and 13th centuries changed the processes in the creek-lake system: the construction of water mills created a retention system with higher ground water levels in the surrounding areas. On the other hand, deforestation on the till plain and on the slope triggered erosion. Therefore, in medieval time interfingering organic sediments and sand layers were deposited in the lower part of the slope on top of the Holocene soil. The new soil which formed on top of these sediments was transformed by ploughing until the 19th century. In 1905/06 the lower part of the slope was reshaped by the construction of the Teltow Canal, following the valley of the former Bäke creek. Finally, the whole area was levelled by infill after World War II.

  12. Future Irrigation Requirement of Rice Under Irrigated Area - Uncertainty through GCMs and Crop Models : A Case Study of Indo-Gangetic Plains of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, S. N.; Singh, H.; Ruane, A. C.; Boote, K. G.; Porter, C.; Rosenzweig, C.; Panwar, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), the food basket of South Asia, characterised by predominantly cereal-based farming systems where livestock is an integral part of farm economy. Climate change is projected to have significant effects on agriculture production and hence on food and livelihood security because more than 90 per cent farmers fall under small and marginal category. The rising temperatures and uncertainties in rainfall associated with global warming may have serious direct and indirect impacts on crop production. A loss of 10-40% crop production is predicted in different crops in India by the end of this century by different researchers. Cereal crops (mainly rice and wheat) are crucial to ensuring the food security in the region, but sustaining their productivity has become a major challenge due to climate variability and uncertainty. Under AgMIP Project, we have analysed the climate change impact on farm level productivity of rice at Meerut District, Uttar Pradesh using 29 GCMs under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 during mid-century period 2041-2070. Two crop simulation models DSSAT4.6 and APSIM7.7 were used for impact study. There is lot of uncertainty in yield level by different GCMs and crop models. Under RCP4.5, APSIM showed a declining yield up to 14.5 % while DSSAT showed a declining yield level of 6.5 % only compared to the baseline (1980-2010). However, out of 29 GCMs, 15 GCMs showed negative impact and 14 showed positive impact under APSIM while it showed 21 and 8 GCMs, respectively in the case of DSSAT. DSSAT and APSIM simulated irrigation water requirement in future of the order of 645±75 mm and 730±107 mm, respectively under RCP4.5. However, the same will be of the order of 626 ± 99 mm and 749 ± 147 mm, respectively under RCP8.5. Projected irrigation water productivity showed a range of 4.87-12.15 kg ha-1 mm-1 and 6.77-12.63 kg ha-1 mm-1 through APSIM and DSSAT, respectively under RCP4.5, which stands an average of 7.81 and 8.53 kg ha-1 mm-1 during the

  13. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of life...

  14. Simulated impacts of artificial groundwater recharge and discharge of the source area and source volume of an Atlantic Coastal Plain Stream, Delaware, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Joshua W.; Denver, Judish M.; McKenna, Thomas E.; Ullman, William J.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical groundwater-flow model was used to characterize the source area and volume of Phillips Branch, a baseflow-dominated stream incising a highly permeable unconfined aquifer on the low relief Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Particle-tracking analyses indicate that the source area (5.51 km2) is ~20% smaller than the topographically defined watershed (6.85 km2), and recharge entering ~37% of the surface watershed does not discharge to Phillips Branch. Groundwater residence time within the source volume ranges from a few days to almost 100 years, with 95% of the volume "flushing" within 50 years. Artificial discharge from groundwater pumping alters the shape of the source area and reduces baseflow due to the interception of stream flow paths, but has limited impacts on the residence time of groundwater discharged as baseflow. In contrast, artificial recharge from land-based wastewater disposal substantially reduces the source area, lowers the range in residence time due to the elimination of older flow paths to the stream, and leads to increased discharge to adjacent surface-water bodies. This research suggests that, in this and similar hydrogeologic settings, the "watershed" approach to water-resource management may be limited, particularly where anthropogenic stresses alter the transport of soluble contaminants through highly permeable unconfined aquifers.

  15. Land-use planning in the Chaco plain (Burruyacú, Argentina). Part 1: evaluating land-use options to support crop diversification in an agricultural frontier area using physical land evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recatalá Boix, Luis; Zinck, Joseph Alfred

    2008-12-01

    The Burruyacú district (Tucumán province, Argentina) is a farming frontier in the western Chaco plain, at the foothills of the sub-Andean mountain ranges, where agricultural land-uses are in conflict with the conservation and management of the Chaco forest. Over the last decades, large-scale farming rapidly expanded due to population pressure, attractive market prices, easy accessibility, favourable annual rainfall, fertile soils, and flexible land tenure. Cropland extension, mainly for heavily mechanized soybean production, has resulted in important reduction of the Chaco forest and also caused physical soil degradation, especially soil compaction, and soil erosion. Land suitability was assessed using the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) framework for a set of crops ecologically adapted to the area, including soybean, maize, wheat, sugarcane, citrus, and safflower. Only 16% of the study area has high suitability for most of the selected crops. Major limitations for cropping are low annual rainfall and flooding in the east of the study area, and topography (slope) and flooding in the west. As climate varies over relatively short periods of time, with recurrent cycles of dry and rainy years, land suitability for the selected crops was also assessed under extreme but realistic climatic conditions. Under rainy-year conditions, almost all the study area is unsuitable or marginally suitable for most of the crops. Under dry-year conditions, the study area is unsuitable for all crops, except safflower, which is more drought-resistant. This article proposes alternatives to the mono-cropping of soybean with the aim to help farmers make adequate decisions on land-use and management under deteriorating environmental conditions and for addressing the issue of competitive land uses in the context of land-use planning.

  16. Mountains and plains Denver's geologic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1967-01-01

    A slice of geologic history is exposed to view in the Denver, Colorado area. Denver is situated on the High Plains near the east front of the Rocky Mountains. As one travels westward from Denver toward the mountains, successively older rocks are crossed from the geologically young rocks of the High Plains and the South Platte River valley to the older rocks of the foothills and the ancient rocks of the mountains. Thus, within a few miles,the journey turns back the pages of time in a lifesized textbook that vividly illustrates the geologic events that shaped the landscape.

  17. Hydrogeological characteristics of the Paraíba do Sul river flood plains: a case study of a mining area in the Tremembé municipality, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo dos Santos Targa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The sand mining activity in the São Paulo part of the Paraíba do Sul River Valley started in the 1950s, in the area of Jacareí municipality, located in the Southwestern part of the basin. From there, it advanced by the neighboring municipalities, fostered by urbanization and industrialization processes, especially of São Paulo Metropolitan Region. The lack of detailed hydrogeological studies in this area motivated this study that had the objective of verifying the hypothesis that sand mining pits interfere on the quality and storage of the water in the quaternary sedimentary aquifer. This study focused specifically in the eastern part of the Tremembé Municipality, São Paulo State, in a mining place called “Mineração Paraíso”. The investigation involved infiltration and flow tests, laboratory analyses of soil physical parameters and estimation, water quality indices and infrastructure construction for equipment installation including piezometers, dynamic penetration tests – (SPT - Standard Penetration Test, wells opening and office analyses. The soil physical parameters analyses revealed high porosity (66% in the friable soils. This in addition to the high levels of transmissivity (15.5 m2/h measured in Well 1 and 33 m2/h in Well 3, obtained from the flow test, increases the speed of the transportation of solutes including bacteria, to the underground water. Results of the granulometric analyses showed that the sand mining technique is not only predatory, but also inefficient, since the sand at the bottom of the pit is left unexploited, as well as the bentonite clay found in the deeper layers. According to the penetration tests (SPT, the aquifer has an average thickness of 5.5 m and an upper layer of impermeable organic clays that confine the sand deposits. Furthermore, an aquiclude composed of green bentonitic clays was identified just below the confined layer. However, it is necessary to point out that the confinement condition

  18. Diagnosis of osteoporosis in rural Arctic Greenland: a clinical case using plain chest radiography for secondary prevention and consideration of tools for primary prevention in remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Inuuteq; Schæbel, Louise K; Albertsen, Nadja; Sørensen, Vibeke N; Andersen, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a frequent disease in many populations. The hallmark is fragility fractures, which are harbingers of future fractures, disability, mortality and cost on society. The occurrence increases with age, low vitamin D level and smoking. Smoking rates are high, vitamin D is low and life expectancy is rising steeply in Greenland, as is the need for focus on osteoporosis. We report a case that uses a simple and readily available tool to diagnose osteoporosis at the hospital in Sisimiut, a town of 5000 inhabitants on the west coast of Greenland. A 51-year-old Inuit woman was seen due to lower back pain. No trauma could be recalled. Laboratory results showed a low vitamin D level and normal S-calcium, S-phosphate, S-parathyroid hormone, S-thyrotropin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, S-creatinine and hemoglobin. The lateral chest radiograph demonstrated a reduction of anterior height of the seventh and ninth thoracic vertebral bodies of 50% and 40% respectively. Chest radiographs are frequently done in the towns along the vast coastline of Greenland, the world's largest island. They are transferred to the hospital in the capital city Nuuk using existing tele-technology, and specialist evaluations are given in electronic records available at the coastal hospitals. Effective therapies for osteoporosis are available and the identification of vertebral fractures that merit treatment may prevent future fractures, morbidity and mortality. Fragility fractures are frequent in old age and the steep rise in life expectancy and in the number of old people in Greenland emphasize the need for a focus on management of osteoporosis. Geography provides a diagnostic challenge to rural and remote areas that can be overcome by the use of lateral chest radiographs as it relies on facilities readily available. Clinical risk assessment tools with high specificity may support further osteoporosis risk prediction in remote Arctic societies.

  19. Ocean-Bottom Topography: The Divide between the Sohm and Hatteras Abyssal Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, R M

    1965-06-18

    A compilation of precision echo soundings has delineated the complex topography between the Sohm and Hatteras abyssal plains off the Atlantic coast of the United States. At present the divide between the two plains is a broad, flat area about 4950 meters deep; however, the configuration of channels and depressions suggests spillage of turbidity currents from the Sohm Plain into the Hatteras Plain and a shifting of the divide toward the northeast. Hudson Canyon terminates in the divide area and has probably fed sediment into both plains.

  20. Level IV Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions for the Mississippi Alluvial Plain were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in...

  1. Level III Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions for the Mississippi Alluvial Plain were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in...

  2. Assessment of Hyporheic Zone, Flood-Plain, Soil-Gas, Soil, and Surface-Water Contamination at the McCoys Creek Chemical Training Area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, assessed the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, soil, and surface water for contaminants at the McCoys Creek Chemical Training Area (MCTA) at Fort Gordon, from October 2009 to September 2010. The assessment included the detection of organic contaminants in the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, and surface water. In addition, the organic contaminant assessment included the analysis of organic compounds classified as explosives and chemical agents in selected areas. Inorganic contaminants were assessed in soil and surface-water samples. The assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to the U.S. Army at Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Ten passive samplers were deployed in the hyporheic zone and flood plain, and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and octane were detected above the method detection level in every sampler. Other organic compounds detected above the method detection level in the hyporheic zone and flood-plain samplers were trichloroethylene, and cis- and trans- 1, 2-dichloroethylene. One trip blank detected TPH below the method detection level but above the nondetection level. The concentrations of TPH in the samplers were many times greater than the concentrations detected in the blank; therefore, all other TPH concentrations detected are considered to represent environmental conditions. Seventy-one soil-gas samplers were deployed in a grid pattern across the MCTA. Three trip blanks and three method blanks were used and not deployed, and TPH was detected above the method detection level in two trip blanks and one method blank. Detection of TPH was observed at all 71 samplers, but because TPH was detected in the trip and method blanks, TPH was

  3. Types, harms and improvement of saline soil in Songnen Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengjun; Zhuang, Jingjing; Zhao, Anping; Li, Xinxin

    2018-03-01

    Saline soil is an extremely difficult and modified soil, widely distributed around the world. According to UN-UNESCO and FAO, the world’s saline soil area is about 9.54×108hm2, and there is a growing trend, every year in 1.0×106-1.5×106hm2 speed growth, the effective utilization of land resources to the world is the most serious threat. The total area of saline-alkali land in China is about 9.91×107hm2, including the Songnen Plain, which is called one of the three major saline soil concentrations in the world. The Songnen plain is an important grain producing area in China, and the saline soil occupies most of the Songnen plain, so it is of great significance to study the saline soil and improvement in Songnen plain.

  4. Porosity Prediction of Plain Weft Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Owais Raza Siddiqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wearing comfort of clothing is dependent on air permeability, moisture absorbency and wicking properties of fabric, which are related to the porosity of fabric. In this work, a plug-in is developed using Python script and incorporated in Abaqus/CAE for the prediction of porosity of plain weft knitted fabrics. The Plug-in is able to automatically generate 3D solid and multifilament weft knitted fabric models and accurately determine the porosity of fabrics in two steps. In this work, plain weft knitted fabrics made of monofilament, multifilament and spun yarn made of staple fibers were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed plug-in. In the case of staple fiber yarn, intra yarn porosity was considered in the calculation of porosity. The first step is to develop a 3D geometrical model of plain weft knitted fabric and the second step is to calculate the porosity of the fabric by using the geometrical parameter of 3D weft knitted fabric model generated in step one. The predicted porosity of plain weft knitted fabric is extracted in the second step and is displayed in the message area. The predicted results obtained from the plug-in have been compared with the experimental results obtained from previously developed models; they agreed well.

  5. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). An overview of the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment and the outlook for a satellite crop inventory. [Great Plains Corridor (North America), Canada, U.S.S.R., Brazil, China, India, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, R. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most important LACIE finding was that the technology worked very well in estimating wheat production in important geographic locations. Based on working through the many successes and shortcomings of LACIE, it can be stated with confidence that: (1) the current technology can successfully monitor what production in regions having similar characteristics to those of the U.S.S.R. wheat areas and the U.S. hard red winter wheat areas; (2) with additional applied research, significant improvements in capabilities to monitor wheat in these and other important production regions can be expected in the near future; (3) the remote sensing and weather effects modeling technology approached used by LACIE is generally applicable to other major crops and crop-producing regions of the world; and (4) with suitable effort, this technology can now advance rapidly and could be widespread use in the late 1980's.

  6. Recognition of Plain Objects Using Local Region Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Al; Sakata, Katsutoshi; Das, Dipankar; Kuno, Yoshinori

    Conventional interest point based matching requires computationally expensive patch preprocessing and is not appropriate for recognition of plain objects with negligible detail. This paper presents a method for extracting distinctive interest regions from images that can be used to perform reliable matching between different views of plain objects or scene. We formulate the correspondence problem in a Naive Bayesian classification framework and a simple correlation based matching, which makes our system fast, simple, efficient, and robust. To facilitate the matching using a very small number of interest regions, we also propose a method to reduce the search area inside a test scene. Using this method, it is possible to robustly identify objects among clutter and occlusion while achieving near real-time performance. Our system performs remarkably well on plain objects where some state-of-the art methods fail. Since our system is particularly suitable for the recognition of plain object, we refer to it as Simple Plane Object Recognizer (SPOR).

  7. Chemical weathering outputs from the flood plain of the Ganga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickle, Michael J.; Chapman, Hazel J.; Tipper, Edward; Galy, Albert; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Ahmad, Talat

    2018-03-01

    Transport of sediment across riverine flood plains contributes a significant but poorly constrained fraction of the total chemical weathering fluxes from rapidly eroding mountain belts which has important implications for chemical fluxes to the oceans and the impact of orogens on long term climate. We report water and bedload chemical analyses from the Ganges flood-plain, a major transit reservoir of sediment from the Himalayan orogen. Our data comprise six major southern tributaries to the Ganga, 31 additional analyses of major rivers from the Himalayan front in Nepal, 79 samples of the Ganga collected close to the mouth below the Farakka barrage every two weeks over three years and 67 water and 8 bedload samples from tributaries confined to the Ganga flood plain. The flood plain tributaries are characterised by a shallow δ18O - δD array, compared to the meteoric water line, with a low δDexcess from evaporative loss from the flood plain which is mirrored in the higher δDexcess of the mountain rivers in Nepal. The stable-isotope data confirms that the waters in the flood plain tributaries are dominantly derived from flood plain rainfall and not by redistribution of waters from the mountains. The flood plain tributaries are chemically distinct from the major Himalayan rivers. They can be divided into two groups. Tributaries from a small area around the Kosi river have 87Sr/86Sr ratios >0.75 and molar Na/Ca ratios as high as 6. Tributaries from the rest of the flood plain have 87Sr/86Sr ratios ≤0.74 and most have Na/Ca ratios caused by dissolution of Na carbonate salts. The compositions of the carbonate and silicate components of the sediments were determined from sequential leaches of floodplain bedloads and these were used to partition the dissolved cation load between silicate and carbonate sources. The 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ca ratios of the carbonate inputs were derived from the acetic-acid leach compositions and silicate Na/Ca and 87Sr/86Sr ratios derived from

  8. Eco-environmental quality evaluation of Huaibei Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M.; Zhu, Y.; Lü, H.; Li, Y.; Zhou, X.; Chen, Y.

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, the destruction of the ecological environment in Huaibei Plain has limited the development of the economy. Doing research on eco-environment quality evaluation methods may be helpful to the recovery of the eco-environment in Huaibei Plain and the construction of ecological civilization. A new assessment system was introduced in this paper on the basis of a traditional eco-environmental evaluation method; the NPP index was used to replace biological abundance index and vegetation coverage index. This new method was used to evaluate the eco-environment quality of Huaibei Plain. Results indicate that: (a) the eco-environment of Huaibei Plain has been getting worse since 1990, but has improved since 2000; (b) the water-network density index is the key factor which affects the eco-environment of Huaibei Plain; (c) If human activities, pollution control, land degradation and urban area development are not taken into consideration, the eco-environment of Huaibei Plain in dry years will be serious.

  9. Sustentabilidade de sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas em solos de várzea no Sul do Brasil Crop rotations sustainability and successions systems in tilled plain areas in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Jesus Vernetti Junior

    2009-09-01

    [nabo x soja x arroz (PD] apresentam, respectivamente, a maior e a menor sustentabilidade entre aqueles sistemas em que a cultura da soja participa; (c o sistema S5 [campo nativo x soja x arroz (SC] apresenta o menor índice de sustentabilidade; (d o sistema S8 [Consórcio x milho x arroz (PD] apresenta a melhor distribuição e o melhor equilíbrio entre as diversas perspectivas de sustentabilidade consideradas; (e o sistema S10 [campo nativo x milho x arroz (SC] tem pior desempenho, no que se refere à sustentabilidade entre os que incluem o milho; (f o sistema de PD confere maior sustentabilidade às sucessões de cultura.The quantitative analysis with different types of indicators is crucial in determining the sustainability of crop succession. This study aimed to appraise that in tilled plain areas. The research was carried out in Pelotas, RS, Brazil at Embrapa Clima Temperado research area. The treatments consisted of successions of winter and spring-summer crops species for five years, followed by two years of fallow and three years of rice cropping. The spring-summer crops were corn and soybean, besides rice; the winter crops were cereals, leguminous pastures, mixtures species, turnip and native grass species. Seeding was performed either by no-till (NT or conventional (CT. The experiment was planned in a split-plot randomized blocks design with three replications, where the summer crops occupied the plots, while the winter's species were allocated to the subplots. The parameters measured were transformed into index to standardize the variables, each one in relation to the better measurement behavior, and arranged in four categories of analysis: (a Agronomics indices (dry weight and grain yield; (b Environmental indicators (soil fertility; (c Energy Indicators (gain and energy efficiency; d Economic Indicators (profitability and gross value of production. Through harmonic average rates calculated for each indicator, comparisons to the crop succession were then

  10. A Decade of Inquiry: The Status of Female Superintendents and Secondary Principals in the High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosmire, Doreen; Morrison, Marcia; Van Osdel, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    This research provides insight into the status of female administrators from a particular geographical area in rural America. Findings reveal that some progress has been made across the United States but there is more effort needed especially in the High Plains states. The numbers of females in administrative positions in the High Plains states…

  11. Exploring geothermal structures in the Ilan Plain, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien-Ying; Shih, Ruey-Chan; Chung, Chen-Tung; Huang, Ming-Zi; Kuo, Hsuan-Yu

    2017-04-01

    The Ilan Plain in northeast Taiwan is located at the southwestern tip of the Okinawa Trough, which extends westward into the Taiwan orogeny. The Ilan Plain covered by thick sediments is clipped by the Hsuehshan Range in the northern side and the Central Range in the southern side. High geothermal gradients with plenteous hot springs of this area may result from igneous intrusion associated with the back-arc spreading of the Okinawa Trough. In this study, we use reflection seismic survey to explore underground structures in the whole Ilan Plain, especially in SanShin, Wujie, and Lize area. We aim to find the relationship between underground structures and geothermal forming mechanism. The research uses reflection seismic survey to investigate the high geothermal gradient area with two mini-vibrators and 240-channel system. The total length of seismic lines is more than 30 kilometers. The results show that alluvial sediments covering the area about 400 600 meters thick and then thin out to the west in SanShin area. In SanShin , the Taiyaqiao anticline in Hsuehshan Range has entered the plain area and is bounded by the Zhuoshui fault (south) and the Zailian fault (north). In Wujie and Lize , Zhuoshui fault cut through a strong reflector which is the top of the gravel layer near the bottom of the alluvial layer, while the SanShin fault seems to cut near very shallow strata. These two faults are a strike-slip fault with a bit of normal fault component distributing over a range of 600 meters. In Ilan Plain, the geothermal forming mechanism is controlled by anticlines and faults. The hydrothermal solution which migrates upward along these anticline or fault zones to the shallow part causing high geothermal gradients in these areas.

  12. Wintering Golden Eagles on the coastal plain of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovich, Mark [USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Turner, Kelsey L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Grazia, Tracy E. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States). Savannah River; Mims, Thiomas [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States). Savannah River; Beasley, James C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Kilgo, John C. [USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare winter residents in eastern North America, with most found along the Appalachian Mountains and few reported on the coastal plain of the Carolinas. We used remote cameras baited with wild pig (Sus scrofa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses to detect, age, and individually identify Golden Eagles on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site on the coastal plain of South Carolina. We identified eight individual Golden Eagles during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, with one detected during both winters. We detected eagles for 19 and 66 calendar days during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, respectively, with two adult eagles detected for 30 and 31 calendar days in 2014–2015. Eagles typically scavenged on carcasses for a few days, left, and then returned when cameras were baited with another carcass, suggesting they had remained in the area. These observations suggest that large tracts of forests on the coastal plain may be important wintering areas for some Golden Eagles and, further, that other areas in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States may also harbor wintering eagles. Identification of wintering areas of Golden Eagles in the east will be an important step in the conservation of this protected species, and camera traps baited with carcasses can be an effective tool for such work.

  13. Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers (presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2006-06-05

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Analyze wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites for diverse areas in the central plains (Texas to North Dakota)--Turbines hub heights are now 70-100 m above ground and Wind measurements at 70-100+ m have been rare. (2) Present conclusions about wind shear characteristics for prime wind energy development regions.

  14. Terrain And Laboratory Conductivity Studies Of Flood Plains Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A shallow electromagnetic study (electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements) and laboratory conductivity sampling of the flood plains of Oluwatuyi/Oshinle area of Akure have been undertaken. This is with the aim of correlating the terrain conductivity mapping with laboratory measurements to establish ...

  15. Vertisols in the Central Clay Plain of the Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Central Clay Plain is situated between latitudes 16° and 10° North and longitudes 32° and 37° East, in the Republic of the Sudan. The parent materials of the clay soils which cover almost this entire area belong to two broad groups: alluvial, deltaic and paludal sediments from rivers belonging

  16. Older Smooth Plains on Mercury Obscured by Impact Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, P. K.; Denevi, B. W.; Klimczak, C.; Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Whitten, J.; Head, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    On the basis of morphology and spectral reflectance, the surface of Mercury can be broadly divided into three major terrain types: low-reflectance material, intermediate terrain, and smooth plains. This last terrain type is distinguished morphologically by a comparatively smooth and gently rolling surface, has a lower density of impact craters and basins than other surface units on the planet, and typically occupies low-lying areas. Their smooth texture, embayment of other landforms, and distinctive partial to complete burial of older impact features suggests that most of these plains are probably volcanic in nature. Recent mapping work has shown that smooth plains younger than the end of the late heavy bombardment (LHB) occupy ~30% of Mercury's surface. An outstanding question concerns the distribution and nature of older plains units on the planet, especially those that underlie large impact features and may correspond morphologically to smooth plains but have not yet been mapped accordingly. A preliminary survey of such terrain yielded five exemplar sites: at the Amaral (26.5°S, 117.8°E; 101 km diameter), Mickiewicz (23.2°N, 256.7°E; 103 km), and Vivaldi (13.8°N, 274.1°E; 212 km) basins and at two unnamed features at 53.1°S, 38.6°E (83 km in diameter) and 7.1°N, 38.3°E (118 km). We expect that more thorough mapping will uncover additional candidate areas. In each of the example sites, an extensive continuous ejecta deposit and secondary impact field characterize the proximal and distal facies, respectively, of the impact feature; and in each case, the secondaries field (and impact-sculpted terrain in the case of Vivaldi) is superposed upon patches of plains that otherwise appear smooth and host numerous, flooded antecedent craters tens of kilometers in diameter. Moreover, these smooth patches occur at several ranges of azimuths surrounding each crater or basin, suggesting that they may have formed contiguous units prior to formation of the younger

  17. Risks associated with rainfall and floods in the Moldavian Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan BURUIANĂ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes, less effective land exploitation and insufficient security infrastructure against extreme phenomena induce vulnerabilities for the Moldavian Plain, where floods are relatively frequent. The middle and lower segments of the major streams dispose of improved hydro-technical infrastructure to prevent floods, still, the secondary streams and tributaries, with pronounced torrential characterremain vulnerable. The torrential character of the majority of rivers inthe Moldavian Plain results in management difficulties related with risksat maximum flow, especially on the first rank tributaries. Our studyanalyzes the main causes and consequences of floods in the MoldavianPlain and identifies potentially significant flood risks areas.

  18. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to the...

  19. Two depositional models for Pliocene coastal plain fluvial systems, Goliad Formation, south Texas Gulf Coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, H.D.; Galloway, W.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Goliad Formation consists of four depositional systems-the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems in the southwest and the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems in the northeast. Five facies are recognized in the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems: (1) primary channel-fill facies, (2) chaotic flood channel-fill facies, (3) complex splay facies, (4) flood plain facies, and (5) playa facies. A model for Realitos-Mathis depositional environments shows arid-climate braided stream complexes with extremely coarse sediment load, highly variable discharge, and marked channel instability. Broad, shallow, straight to slightly sinuous primary channels were flanked by wide flood channels. Flood channels passed laterally into broad, low-relief flood plains. Small playas occupied topographic lows near large channel axes. Three facies are recognized in the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems: (1) channel-fill facies, (2) crevasse splay facies, and (3) flood plain facies. A model for Cuero-Eagle Lake depositional environments shows coarse-grained meander belts in a semi-arid climate. Slightly to moderately sinuous meandering streams were flanked by low, poorly developed natural levees. Crevasse splays were common, but tended to be broad and ill-defined. Extensive, low-relief flood plains occupied interaxial areas. The model proposed for the Realitos and Mathis fluvial systems may aid in recognition of analogous ancient depositional systems. In addition, since facies characteristics exercise broad controls on Goliad uranium mineralization, the proposed depositional models aid in defining target zones for Goliad uranium exploration

  20. Geologic map of the northern plains of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Hare, Trent M.

    2005-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars cover nearly a third of the planet and constitute the planet's broadest region of lowlands. Apparently formed early in Mars' history, the northern lowlands served as a repository both for sediments shed from the adjacent ancient highlands and for volcanic flows and deposits from sources within and near the lowlands. Geomorphic evidence for extensive tectonic deformation and reworking of surface materials through release of volatiles occurs throughout the northern plains. In the polar region, Planum Boreum contains evidence for the accumulation of ice and dust, and surrounding dune fields suggest widespread aeolian transport and erosion. The most recent regional- and global-scale maps describing the geology of the northern plains are largely based on Viking Orbiter image data (Dial, 1984; Witbeck and Underwood, 1984; Scott and Tanaka, 1986; Greeley and Guest, 1987; Tanaka and Scott, 1987; Tanaka and others, 1992a; Rotto and Tanaka, 1995; Crumpler and others, 2001; McGill, 2002). These maps reveal highland, plains, volcanic, and polar units based on morphologic character, albedo, and relative ages using local stratigraphic relations and crater counts. This geologic map of the northern plains is the first published map that covers a significant part of Mars using topography and image data from both the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey missions. The new data provide a fresh perspective on the geology of the region that reveals many previously unrecognizable units, features, and temporal relations. In addition, we adapted and instituted terrestrial mapping methods and stratigraphic conventions that we think result in a clearer and more objective map. We focus on mapping with the intent of reconstructing the history of geologic activity within the northern plains, including deposition, volcanism, erosion, tectonism, impact cratering, and other processes with the aid of comprehensive crater-density determinations. Mapped areas include all

  1. Herbage productivity of the Winneba plains of Ghana | Fleischer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biomass productivity of the Winneba plains of Ghana was measured between January 1990 and February 1992. Ten sampling sites were chosen for the study. An area of 5.0 m W 5.0 m was demarcated and within it an area of 1.0 m W 1.0 m was harvested at monthly intervals, clipped by means of sickle at 5 cm above ...

  2. Plain Polynomial Arithmetic on GPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Sardar Anisul; Maza, Marc Moreno

    2012-01-01

    As for serial code on CPUs, parallel code on GPUs for dense polynomial arithmetic relies on a combination of asymptotically fast and plain algorithms. Those are employed for data of large and small size, respectively. Parallelizing both types of algorithms is required in order to achieve peak performances. In this paper, we show that the plain dense polynomial multiplication can be efficiently parallelized on GPUs. Remarkably, it outperforms (highly optimized) FFT-based multiplication up to degree 2 12 while on CPU the same threshold is usually at 2 6 . We also report on a GPU implementation of the Euclidean Algorithm which is both work-efficient and runs in linear time for input polynomials up to degree 2 18 thus showing the performance of the GCD algorithm based on systolic arrays.

  3. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  4. Applicability of 1994-1995 USRADS reg-sign surveys of Bear Creek Valley flood plain and Operable Unit 1 to the radiological characterization of Y-12 grassy/wooded areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogard, J.S.; Hamm, R.N.; Brown, K.S.

    1997-03-01

    This document, provided in support of the Y-12 Site Radiological Characterization Study, analyzes the utility of data from two reports by Chemrad Tennessee Corporation in identifying radiological contamination in excess of contamination control guidelines at the surface of soils in the Bear Creek Valley Flood Plain (BCVFP) and in Y-12 Operable Unit 1 (OU1). The Chemrad reports were developed under subcontract to Science Applications International Corporation for their remedial investigation of these sites for Martin Marietta Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Division. Surveys were performed by Chemrad using the UltraSonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS reg-sign), which utilizes ultrasonic triangulation to determine the location of a survey technician at the same time that radiological monitoring data are telemetered from his instruments to a remote receiving station. Floor monitor and Geiger-Mueller pancake meter results from the USRADS reg-sign surveys are shown to be sufficiently precise to reliably detect contamination in excess of the limiting radioactivity value of 1,000 dpm/100 cm 2 for removable uranium contamination specified in 10 CFR 835 Appendix D. MicroRem meter survey results, also included as part of the USRADS reg-sign surveys, indicate that the derived limiting value of 56.8 μrem/h for penetrating dose at 1 m (corresponding to 100 mrem/γ) was not exceeded. However, both the pancake meter and floor monitor results suggest that surface contamination exceeding 1,000 dpm/100 cm 2 is not uncommon. Sites in OU1 and BCVFP were visited, and independent surveys made with hand-held instruments, to confirm conclusions about the USRADS close-quote survey results and to verify that these results are from contamination uniformly distributed on the soil surface, and not from discrete sources which are not likely transferred to shoes, vehicles, or clothing

  5. Wind measurement on the Linth plain; Windmessung in der Linthebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langraf, B.

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of wind measurements made on the Linth plain, a flat alluvial plain in eastern Switzerland located between mountain ranges. The data, which were collected using temporary measurement masts at two locations are presented in the form of tables, diagrams and maps showing the wind-energy potential of various areas of the plain. The actual measurements are compared with prognoses from a geo-information system. The wind measurement equipment and installations are described, as are the software models for the calculation of wind direction, wind intensity and of a prognosis for energy production. Particular attention was also paid to the question of wind turbulence. Further factors investigated included the possibility of icing-up in winter and the choice of a meteorological station in the neighbourhood with similar characteristics that could be used as a reference station. The report also presents the results of the evaluation of various possible locations for wind turbines on the Linth plain. Visual, noise and shadow-casing factors are considered.

  6. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Wahid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the area according to various gradual ranges of suitability. According to this scenario, the area is classified into five classes of suitability. The percentage of suitability values are 51.16, 6.13, 22.32, 18.49 and 1.89% for unsuitable, least suitable, low suitable, suitable and high suitable, respectively. The second scenario is developed for a particular kind of land use planning; tourism and recreation projects. The suitability map of this scenario was classified into five values. Unsuitable areas represent 51.18% of the study area, least suitable 16.67%, low suitable 22.85%, suitable 8.61%, and high suitable 0.68%. The best area for locating development projects is the area surrounding El-Tor City and close to the coast. This area could be an urban extension of El-Tor City with more economical and environmental management.

  7. A Wear Geometry Model of Plain Woven Fabric Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Dapeng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper g describes a model meant for analysis of the wear geometry of plain woven fabric composites. The referred model consists of a mathematical description of plain woven fabric based on Peirce’s model coupled with a stratified method for the solution of the wear geometry. The evolutions of the wear area ratio of weft yarn, warp yarn and matrix resin on the worn surface are simulated by MatLab software in combination of warp and weft yarn diameters, warp and weft yarn-to-yarn distances, fabric structure phases (SPs. By comparing theoretical and experimental results from the PTFE/Kevlar fabric wear experiment, it can be concluded that the model can present a trend of the component area ratio variations along with the thickness of fabric, but has a inherently large error in quantitative analysis as an idealized model.

  8. Institutions of farmer participation and environmental sustainability: a multi-level analysis from irrigation management in Harran Plain, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özerol, Gül

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between farmer participation and environmental sustainability from an institutional perspective in the context of Harran Plain, one of the newest and largest irrigated areas in Turkey. Harran Plain undergoes social, economic and institutional change due to the

  9. Formation mechanism of land subsidence in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haipeng; Cheng, Guoming

    2014-05-01

    Land subsidence is a progressive and gradual geological disaster, whose development is irreversible. Due to rapid development of industrialization and urbanization, land subsidence occurs commonly in the North China Plain, and has become the main environmental factor impacting sustainable economic and social development. This study presents a brief review on the current situation of land subsidence in the North China Plain. Then the hydrologic, hydrogeologic and anthropogenic conditions favorable for the formation of land subsidence are analyzed, indicating that the formation of land subsidence is mainly determined by local geological condition and enabling conditions, e.g. long-term excessive exploitation of groundwater and engineering construction. A correlation analysis was conducted in both the North China Plain and Cangzhou region, a typical area where severe land subsidence occurs, of the quantitative relationship between deep groundwater yield and the land subsidence. The analysis results indicate that the land subsidence volume accounts for 40% to 44% of deep water yield in the North China Plain, indirectly showing the proportion of released water from compressibility of the aquifer and the aquitard in deep groundwater yield. In Cangzhou region, this proportion was calculated as 58%, far greater than that of the North China Plain. This is induced by the local lithologic structure and recharge condition of deep groundwater in Cangzhou region. The analysis of soil samples in Cangzhou region shows that strong relations exist among different physical parameters, and good change laws of compression with depth and pressure are found for soil samples. The hydraulic conductivities of clay are six orders of magnitude greater than those of the aquifer, implying the strong hypothesis of land subsidence. This analysis provides data and scientific basis for further study on formation mechanism of land subsidence in Cangzhou region and objective evaluation of its

  10. THE LAKES OF THE TRANSYLVANIAN PLAIN: GENESIS, EVOLUTION AND TERRITORIAL REPARTITION

    OpenAIRE

    Victor SOROCOVSCHI

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with the genesis of the Transylvanian Plain lakes’ basins and their evolution in time and space. Natural lakes in this area are reduced in point of their types of geneses (pseudokarst and lanslide lakes) and number. Their evolution in time is quite fast, especially of the pseudokarst lakes. Among the anthropic lakes, the ponds represent the most frequent genetic type, which gives a particular aspect to the landscape of the Transylvanian Plain. They used to be much mo...

  11. Map showing distribution of small-scale deformation structures in a part of the upper coastal plain of South Carolina and adjacent Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, R.C.; Houser, B.B.

    1983-01-01

    As a contribution to the assessment of neotectonics in the area of the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, field traverses were made between Columbia, S.C., and Augusta, Ga., in 1975 and early 1976 in order to locate and describe small-scale deformation structures within exposed Coastal Plain rocks. The study covered most of the area between the Fall Line (northwest margin of the Coastal Plain) and the Orangeburg (Citronelle) escarpment (fig. 1).

  12. Evaluating the Use of Plain Language in a Cancer Clinical Trial Website/App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Paula L; Carlisle, Regina; Cheatham, Chesley; O'Grady, Melissa

    2017-12-01

    Medically complex titles and descriptions found on clinical trial websites and online applications present a barrier to comprehension for users from the general public. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of plain language trial descriptions for user comprehension of basic trial details. Two hundred seventeen volunteers recruited from patient waiting areas completed 441 user tests of ten plain language trial descriptions. The majority of volunteers adequately comprehended the cancer type and basic inclusion/exclusion criteria from plain language trial descriptions. Difficulty comprehending the treatment being studied was seen in seven of ten descriptions tested. Revision and retesting of the seven trial descriptions showed continued user challenges in comprehending the treatment being studied. Plain language clinical trial descriptions integrated into a website/app allowed users to understand basic inclusion/exclusion criteria. Despite plain language used, discerning the treatment being studied may be difficult for some users. Integration of plain language descriptions into clinical trial online applications can help users understand trial basics. Further research regarding effective use of plain language to communicate the treatment being studied is needed.

  13. Climate variability and Great Plains agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Katz, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The ways in which inhabitants of the Great Plains, including Indians, early settlers, and 20th century farmers, have adapted to climate changes on the Great Plains are explored. The climate of the Great Plains, because of its variability and extremes, can be very stressful to plants, animals and people. It is suggested that agriculture and society on the Great Plains have, during the last century, become less vulnerable to the stresses imposed by climate. Opinions as to the sustainability of agriculture on the Great Plains vary substantially. Lockeretz (1981) suggests that large scale, high cost technologies have stressed farmers by creating surpluses and by requiring large investments. Opie (1989) sees irrigation as a climate substitute, however he stresses that the Ogallala aquifer must inevitably become depleted. Deborah and Frank Popper (1987) believe that farming on the Plains is unsustainable, and destruction of shelterbelts, out-migration of the rural population and environmental problems will lead to total collapse. With global warming, water in the Great Plains is expected to become scarcer, and although improvements in irrigation efficiency may slow depletion of the Ogallala aquifer, ultimately the acreage under irrigation must decrease to levels that can be sustained by natural recharge and reliable surface flows. 23 refs., 2 figs

  14. Survey of groundwater chemical pollution in the Borazjan plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Mozafarizadeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitrate due to its high water solubility, poor absorption and having stable composition in the water, has been studied as the best index to indicate groundwater contamination. Borazjan, located in the north of Bushehr province, is one of fertile plains which nitrate contamination of groundwater has occurred in the most parts of it. Detecting the source of pollution and the most vulnerable areas were the aims of this study. Material and Methods: In this study, hydrochemical quality, especially in terms of nitrate, sulfate, chloride sodium, spatial and temporal variations and the origin of them in the groundwater of Borazjan plain, are studied. Groundwater samples from 12 wells were collected in April and August 2012 and assessed to determine the parameters of hydrochemistry and pollution. Results: Based on these results, severe nitrate contamination of groundwater, especially in the southern part of the plain, by agricultural activities, cesspool wells, domestic sewage and livestock and poultry wastewater the influence of the effluent from the aviculture, were occurred. Also, the quality of groundwater resources showed that concentration of Cl- , Na+, SO42- , and NO3- are more than standard limit and only in some areas of plain, concentration of ions such as NO3- and Na+ is less than the standard limit. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, using chemical fertilizers in terms of time period and amount of consumption should be properly managed. Furthermore, domestic wastewater, livestock and poultry wastewater should be controlled and the monitoring system for measuring the exact quantity and quality of groundwater resources must be completed.

  15. Impact of Irrigated Agroecosystems on Groundwater Resources in the US High Plains and North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Longuevergne, L.; Cao, G.; Shen, Y.; Gates, J. B.; Reedy, R. W.; Zheng, C.

    2010-12-01

    Overabstraction of groundwater for irrigation in semiarid regions is depleting the worlds’ largest aquifers at much greater rates than these aquifers are being replenished by recharge. This study evaluates groundwater sustainability in the US High Plains (US HP) and North China Plain (NCP) where intensive irrigation has resulted in large water table declines. A variety of approaches were used to evaluate impacts of irrigation on groundwater resources, including GRACE satellite data, unsaturated zone profiling, and groundwater quantity and quality data. Cultivation (40% of area) and irrigation (12%) are less intensive in the US HP than in the NCP (80% cultivated, 50% irrigated). Irrigation is estimated to consume ~97% of groundwater resources in the US HP and ~70% in the NCP. Although only ~10% of groundwater resources has been consumed in the US HP (330 km3 out of 3,900 km3), the problem lies in the uneven spatial distribution. Groundwater depletion is greatest in the Central High Plains (CHP) where water table declines of up to 1.5 m/yr have been recorded in individual wells and regional declines of up to 30 m have been found over a 7,000 km2 area since irrigation began in the 1950s to 1960s. This depletion indicates an irrigation deficit of ~75 mm/yr over 60 yr (specific yield 15%). Recharge rates in the CHP are extremely low (median ~10 mm/yr) with reductions in groundwater storage exceeding recharge by ~10 times. High correlations between GRACE and measured water storage changes (R = 0.7 - 0.8) show that the satellite can accurately track regional changes in water storage. Groundwater in the NCP has declined from a depth of ~1 m in the 1960s to 20 to 40 m in the Piedmont region since expansion of irrigation beginning in the 1970s. Groundwater level declines in individual hydrographs range from 0.5 to 1.0 m/yr, indicating irrigation deficits ranging from 100 to 200 mm/yr (specific yield 20%). Lower groundwater storage changes from GRACE satellites relative to

  16. Some simple procedures for the calculation of the influence radius and well head protection areas (theoretical approach and a field case for a water table aquifer in an alluvial plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Fileccia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes some simple methodologies for the delineation of well-head protection areas, together with an overview of the main regulations published in Italy and Europe. Starting from a general explanation of the main parameters, like the radius of influence and the zone of capture in homogeneous isotropic aquifers, basic methodologies suggested in the literature are then illustrated. Different criteria are involved: from the simple 200 m radius, to more complex analytical and numerical simulations. Five different approaches are applied and compared, to a well field in a water table aquifer along a river. Results have shown that, while simpler methods can be satisfactory at a first stage of the study, they fail to account correctly, for local heterogeneities. On the other hand the more accurate description of the aquifer obtained with a full numerical model requires extensive time, expertise and amount of data, that are not always available in case of small water supply systems. As many Authors have underlined, one of the most effective outcome of the numerical tool, lays in the capability to increase our knowledge on the groundwater dynamics of the system and the amount of the sustainable yield.

  17. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  18. Targeting the Plains of Venus from Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, V. L.

    2014-05-01

    Lowland plains house a spectacular array of poorly understood volcanic, tectonic, and impact features that are key to settling the continuing global stratigraphy debate and resolving how the only other accessible Earth-sized planet has evolved.

  19. Plain Language: Getting Started or Brushing Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institutes at NIH » NIH Office of the Director » Office of Communications & Public Liaison » Clear Communication » Plain ... This website consists of five sections and a checklist you can print. In each section, you will ...

  20. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR...

  1. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa | Cornelius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defining the concept 'plain language' has been hugely problematic since the origins of the socalled Plain Language Movement in the 1970s in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Definitions of 'plain language' abound, yet James (2008: 6) warns, in relation to plain language practitioners, that “we can't yet call ...

  2. The grazing capacity of the plains in the Etosha National Park ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of elementary trials was conducted to study the grazing capacity of the major plains areas in the Etosha National Park. The yield data were compared with rainfall and game census data. The results suggest that the Chudop-Twee Palms area is severely overgrazed and that Gemsbokvlakte, Charitsaubvlakte and ...

  3. Quantifying production potential of winter wheat in the North China Plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, D.; Yu, Q.; Lu, C.; Hengsdijk, H.

    2006-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the major winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) producing areas in China. Current wheat yields in the NCP stabilize around 5 Mg ha¿1 while the demand for wheat in China is growing due to the increase in population and the change in diet. Since options for area

  4. A New Boundary for the High Plains - Ogallala Aquifer Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker, E. M.; Nozari, S.; Kendall, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    In the semi-arid Great Plains, water is the key ingredient for crop growth: the difference between meager yields for many crops and an agricultural bonanza. The High Plains-Ogallala Aquifer complex (HPA) underlies 452,000 square kilometers of the region, and over 95% of water withdrawn from the aquifer is used for irrigation. Much of the HPA is being pumped unsustainably, and since the region is heavily reliant on this resource for its social and economic health, the High Plains has been a leader in groundwater management planning. However, the geographic boundary of the High Plains region fails to reflect the hydrogeological realities of the aquifer. The current boundary, recognizable from countless textbooks and news articles, is only slightly modified from a version from the 1980's, and largely follows the physiographic borders of the High Plains - defined by surface features such as escarpments and rivers - rather than the edges of water-bearing sediment sufficient for high-volume pumping. This is supported by three lines of evidence: hydrogeological observations from the original aquifer boundary determination; the extent of irrigated land, as estimated by MODIS-MIrAD data; and statistical estimates of saturated thickness, incorporating improved maps of the aquifer base and an additional 35 years of water table measurements. In this project, new maps of saturated thickness are used to create an updated aquifer boundary, which conforms with the standard definition of an aquifer as a package of sediment that yields enough water to be economically pumped. This has major implications for social and physical models, as well as water planning and estimates of sustainability for the HPA. Much of the area of the HPA that has been labeled `sustainable' based upon estimates of recharge relative to pumping estimates falls outside the updated aquifer boundary. In reality, the sustainably-pumped area of this updated aquifer boundary is far smaller—a fact that if more

  5. Topographic Rise in the Northern Smooth Plains of Mercury: Characteristics from Messenger Image and Altimetry Data and Candidate Modes of Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, James L.; Head, James W.; Whitten, Jennifer L.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.

    2012-01-01

    MESSENGER observations from orbit around Mercury have revealed that a large contiguous area of smooth plains occupies much of the high northern latitudes and covers an area in excess of approx.6% of the surface of the planet [1] (Fig. 1). Smooth surface morphology, embayment relationships, color data, candidate flow fronts, and a population of partly to wholly buried craters provide evidence for the volcanic origin of these plains and their emplacement in a flood lava mode to depths at least locally in excess of 1 km. The age of these plains is similar to that of plains associated with and postdating the Caloris impact basin, confirming that volcanism was a globally extensive process in the post-heavy bombardment history of Mercury [1]. No specific effusive vent structures, constructional volcanic edifices, or lava distributary features (leveed flow fronts or sinuous rilles) have been identified in the contiguous plains, although vent structures and evidence of high-effusion-rate flood eruptions are seen in adjacent areas [1]. Subsequent to the identification and mapping of the extensive north polar smooth plains, data from the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on MESSENGER revealed the presence of a broad topographic rise in the northern smooth plains that is 1,000 km across and rises more than 1.5 km above the surrounding smooth plains [2] (Fig. 2). The purpose of this contribution is to characterize the northern plains rise and to outline a range of hypotheses for its origin.

  6. Hiding video in plain sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiene, Carolyn P.; Rosiene, Joel A.

    2000-05-01

    With the increasing number of digital transmissions, there is an opportunity to utilize existing broadcast channels to send hidden video transmissions. This presentation outlines and demonstrates a technique to insert a hidden video channel within a larger standard video feed, or 'hide in plain sight.' The approach outlined consists of three parts: data (or video) insertion, data security, and data recovery. These three components are essential to complete a secured digital transmission. To insert the data, knowledge of the standard (for example, MPEG 1, 2, or 4) is used to place the information to be hidden into the compressed data stream post quantization. Since the encoder has perfect knowledge of the receiver's model, it is possible to place the data in the compressed data in a manner that is visually un-intrusive. The technique to hide the data will be presented and an example given. Since, the data (or video) to be inserted may be of a sensitive nature, it is necessary to provide a level of security, which will render the video stream useless if its presence is detected. Both, spatial and temporal dispersion are used to reduce the likelihood of detection with the addition of a modulation of the signal to reduce the image to noise unless the key is known. The intended viewer of the embedded data (or video stream), with knowledge of the key recovers the data by encoding the incoming video stream with the appropriate standard, and extracting the data prior to quantization. While the work in this paper focuses on the insertion of hidden video into a broadcast signal, the same technique serves to prevent tampering to the broadcast signal, since modification of the image data will corrupt the hidden signal. In this way, this provides a level of tamper protection/detection for video, which may be used in legal proceedings.

  7. Similarity of Cross-Sectional Characteristics of Costal Plain Streams of the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesely, W. S.; Parola, A. C.

    2005-05-01

    The Coastal Plain physiographic region of the southeastern United States encompasses over 1.2 million km2. Analysis of data from six separate geomorphic studies conducted in five of the 19 states having a Coastal Plain region suggests that streams of the Coastal Plain region have very similar correlations betweein bankfull cross section area (R2 = 0.92, n = 123) and discharge (R2 = 0.85, n = 77) with drainage basin area, despite geographic and hydrologic differences. Analysis of these data also shows that bankfull cross section area for southeastern Coastal Plain streams is 47% less than that indicated for other eastern US rivers by Dunne and Leopold (1978). Furthermore, estimates of bankfull discharge have an average return period of 1.14 years on the annual series. These bankfull flows range from 6.2-90% of the 1.5-year flow, often considered to represent the bankfull flow condition, and 4.4-75% of the 2-year flow, which some have suggested for restoration design. The strong correlation of these data supports the concept of using regional morphologic data for initiating assessments and should be considered as an important component of restoration design for streams of the southeastern Coastal Plain.

  8. Application of flood index in monitoring Flood-plain ecosystems (by the example of the Middle Ob flood-plain)

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotnov, V. P.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of regional hydroecological monitoring has been developed for the flood-plain of the Middle Ob. Its object is to control the state of flood-plain ecosystem productivity for organization of scientific, regional-adopted and ecologically regulated nature management. For this purpose hydroecological zoning of flood-plain territory performed, the most representative stations of water-gauge observations for each flood-plain zone organized, the scheme of flood-plain flooding was prepared...

  9. Landscape scale ecology at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, H.; Morris, K. J.; Bett, B. J.; Jones, D.; Huvenne, V. A. I.; Robert, K.; Gooday, A. J.; Durden, J. M.; Laguionie-Marchais, C.; Stefanoudis, P. V.; Benoist, N. M.; Paterson, G. L.; Wolff, G. A.; Milligan, R. J.; Bailey, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The distribution and abundance of life on the seafloor is set to some extent by the supply of sinking particulate organic matter from overlying surface water. However, the habitat landscape of the seafloor can also exert important ecological influences at local scales. Community differences on the scales of centimeters upwards can arise from drivers including changes in seafloor sediments, slope, and lateral movement of particulate organic matter. Here we use photographic survey data covering an extent on the order of 100 km2 to examine relationships between megafauna density, biomass, diversity, and community composition, as well as food availability and habitat type across landscape scales. The surveyed area at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain has a maximum water depth of about 4850 m and includes a range of topographic features from slight undulations of the seafloor to exposed bedrock scarps on an abyssal hill rising more than 200 m above the surrounding plain. We first examine community descriptors across the entire area and then sequentially break the analytical units into smaller units including variants based on habitat types and spatial extent. We repeat the examination of seafloor community descriptors with finer and finer analytical unit scales, as well as for different habitat types, and changing levels of phytodetritus coverage. We then examine the scales at which diversity and community composition go from statistically indistinguishable between analytical units to significantly different and which factors best explain these observations. Lastly, we relate the results from this megafauna study to other recent spatial studies at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain, from foraminifera to fishes, to build a landscape view of the ecology of the area.

  10. 50 CFR 37.32 - Special areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Brown bear and polar bear denning special areas. Whenever he deems it necessary or appropriate to ensure... shall designate within the coastal plain brown bear and polar bear denning sites within 1/2 mile of... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC...

  11. Managing flood prone ecosystem for rice production in Bihar plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.

    2002-06-01

    A large area of the eastern region especially Bihar (0.5 million hectare) faces flood submergence and/or drought every year which creates an unfavorable environment for crop production. In this ecosystem only flood prone rice is grown whose cultivation is entirely different than normal rice crop. Managing the flood prone ecosystem for rice production needs to evaluate the reasons and a comprehensive appropriate technology through research efforts for better rice production under such harsh ecology. An attempt was made to develop a suitable agronomic package for rice cultivation during and after flooding in flood prone plains of Bihar. (author)

  12. Geochemistry of shallow ground water in coastal plain environments in the southeastern United States: implications for aquifer susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Spruill, Timothy B.; Eimers, Jo L.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water chemistry data from coastal plain environments have been examined to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur in these areas and assess their implications for aquifer susceptibility. Two distinct geochemical environments were studied to represent a range of conditions: an inner coastal plain setting having more well-drained soils and lower organic carbon (C) content and an outer coastal plain environment that has more poorly drained soils and high organic C content. Higher concentrations of most major ions and dissolved inorganic and organic C in the outer coastal plain setting indicate a greater degree of mineral dissolution and organic matter oxidation. Accordingly, outer coastal plain waters are more reducing than inner coastal plain waters. Low dissolved oxygen (O 2 ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentrations and high iron (Fe) concentrations indicate that ferric iron (Fe (III)) is an important electron acceptor in this setting, while dissolved O 2 is the most common terminal electron acceptor in the inner coastal plain setting. The presence of a wide range of redox conditions in the shallow aquifer system examined here underscores the importance of providing a detailed geochemical characterization of ground water when assessing the intrinsic susceptibility of coastal plain settings. The greater prevalence of aerobic conditions in the inner coastal plain setting makes this region more susceptible to contamination by constituents that are more stable under these conditions and is consistent with the significantly (p 3 - found in this setting. Herbicides and their transformation products were frequently detected (36% of wells sampled), however concentrations were typically low (<0.1 μg/L). Shallow water table depths often found in coastal plain settings may result in an increased risk of the detection of pesticides (e.g., alachlor) that degrade rapidly in the unsaturated zone

  13. Geochemistry of shallow ground water in coastal plain environments in the southeastern United States: Implications for aquifer susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriero, A.J.; Spruill, T.B.; Eimers, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water chemistry data from coastal plain environments have been examined to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur in these areas and assess their implications for aquifer susceptibility. Two distinct geochemical environments were studied to represent a range of conditions: an inner coastal plain setting having more well-drained soils and lower organic carbon (C) content and an outer coastal plain environment that has more poorly drained soils and high organic C content. Higher concentrations of most major ions and dissolved inorganic and organic C in the outer coastal plain setting indicate a greater degree of mineral dissolution and organic matter oxidation. Accordingly, outer coastal plain waters are more reducing than inner coastal plain waters. Low dissolved oxygen (O2) and nitrate (NO 3-) concentrations and high iron (Fe) concentrations indicate that ferric iron (Fe (III)) is an important electron acceptor in this setting, while dissolved O2 is the most common terminal electron acceptor in the inner coastal plain setting. The presence of a wide range of redox conditions in the shallow aquifer system examined here underscores the importance of providing a detailed geochemical characterization of ground water when assessing the intrinsic susceptibility of coastal plain settings. The greater prevalence of aerobic conditions in the inner coastal plain setting makes this region more susceptible to contamination by constituents that are more stable under these conditions and is consistent with the significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of NO3- found in this setting. Herbicides and their transformation products were frequently detected (36% of wells sampled), however concentrations were typically low (<0.1 ??g/L). Shallow water table depths often found in coastal plain settings may result in an increased risk of the detection of pesticides (e.g., alachlor) that degrade rapidly in the unsaturated zone.

  14. WRF model sensitivity to land surface model and cumulus parameterization under short-term climate extremes over the southern Great Plains of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi Pei; Nathan Moore; Shiyuan Zhong; Lifeng Luo; David W. Hyndman; Warren E. Heilman; Zhiqiu. Gao

    2014-01-01

    Extreme weather and climate events, especially short-term excessive drought and wet periods over agricultural areas, have received increased attention. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) is one of the largest agricultural regions in North America and features the underlying Ogallala-High Plains Aquifer system worth great economic value in large part due to production...

  15. Braid-plain dynamics and bank erosion along the Matanuska River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    Braid-plain activity and geomorphic features in the Matanuska River in southcentral Alaska between 1949 and 2006 were examined to support a bank erosion hazard assessment. The glacial Matanuska River drains 6,500 km2 and is braided for 85 percent of its 150 km course, which parallels a major highway and flows through the towns of Sutton and Palmer, Alaska. The historical braid plain was defined as the envelope of areas with active channels, unvegetated bars, or vegetated bars with evidence of channels since 1949 and delineated in a GIS from 1949, 1962, and 2006 aerial orthoimagery. We created a strip map of bank height and composition (primarily bedrock and unconsolidated sediment) at braid-plain margins and outlined valley bottom features (terraces and tributary fans) adjacent to the braid plain to assess erodibility. Braid-plain dynamism has created a mosaic of extensive lightly vegetated bars interspersed with forested bars in strips along the banks and in small mid-channel positions. Abandoned channels filled with groundwater or tributary streamflow have created clearwater side channels within these bars that serve as the primary spawning location for chum, sockeye, and coho salmon in the Matanuska River basin. Erosion magnitudes for the periods 1949-1962 and 1962-2006 were computed as braid-plain expansion at transects across the historical braid-plain boundaries. Episodic, spatially distributed erosion and the antiquity of some eroded surfaces suggests that average annual erosion rates at a location are not adequate for assessing future erosion at that location in a braid plain. Lateral expansion caused bank erosion of 100 -275 m at 20 locations over the full period, about half at tributary fans and most occurring in a single time period. Minor growth of tributary fans constricted the braid plain, and emerging terraces have the potential to shrink the braid plain. Eroded banks included undated but pre-historic fluvial terraces and tributary fans. Where

  16. Plain packaging policy: Preventing industry innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdani, Mohammed

    2017-04-20

    The pack is a marketing tool for the tobacco industry - its shape, colour, fonts, descriptors and logos attract and mislead smokers. Health warnings on cigarette packs serve as a knowledge reminder for smokers to quit smoking. Plain packaging eliminates brand imagery elements from cigarette packs and has many benefits, including the reduction of intention to smoke and the denormalization of smoking behaviour. The tobacco industry has devised pack and product marketing innovations that thwart the effectiveness of health warnings. Plain packaging policy needs to address these innovations by restricting their use and preventing them from undermining health warnings.

  17. Managed aquifer recharge experiences with shallow wells: first analysis of the experimental activities in the high Vicenza plain (Northern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Altissimo; Silvia Bertoldo; Francesca Campagnolo; Giancarlo Gusmaroli; Teresa Muraro; Andrea Sottani

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, groundwater resources of the high Vicenza plain were subjected to an increasing extraction rate and, at the same time, to a lower quantity of groundwater recharge. The result is a decreasing flow from the plain springs and a high reduction in piezometric levels of the middle and lower Venetian aquifers. In order to restore the balance of groundwater resources in the Vicenza area, the Vicenza Province has promoted experimental activities aimed to increase the recharge of the...

  18. research notes and comments: Regional density functions and growth patterns in major plains of China, 1982-1990

    OpenAIRE

    Fahui Wang

    2001-01-01

    This research analyzes the spatial patterns of regional development in China through the change of population density functions from 1982 to 1990, using several online digital data sets. To minimize the influence of physical environment on population densities, the study areas are limited to four major plains of China: the Northeast (Dongbei), North China (Huabei) and Hubei-Hunan (Lianghu) Plains, and the Sichuan Basin. A gravity-based delineation approach is used to delineate the influen ce ...

  19. Regional stratigraphy and subsurface geology of Cenozoic deposits, Gulf Coastal Plain, south-central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosman, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis includes all major aquifer systems in Cenozoic deposits in the Gulf Coastal Plain in the States of Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, Texas, and small areas in Alabama and Florida (western panhandle area), an area of about 290,000 square miles. The Gulf Coast geosyncline and the Mississippi embayment were the major depocenters for the Tertiary and Quaternary deposits that form the framework for the aquifer systems.

  20. Occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the Spring River flood plain and tributary flood plains, Cherokee County, Kansas, 2009--11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2013-01-01

    Historical mining activity in the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD), located in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma, has resulted in a substantial ongoing input of cadmium, lead, and zinc to the environment. To provide some of the information needed to support remediation efforts in the Cherokee County, Kansas, superfund site, a 4-year study was begun in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey that was requested and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A combination of surficial-soil sampling and coring was used to investigate the occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the flood plains of the Spring River and several tributaries within the superfund site. Lead- and zinc-contaminated flood plains are a concern, in part, because they represent a long-term source of contamination to the fluvial environment. Lead and zinc contamination was assessed with reference to probable-effect concentrations (PECs), which represent the concentrations above which adverse aquatic biological effects are likely to occur. The general PECs for lead and zinc were 128 and 459 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. The TSMD-specific PECs for lead and zinc were 150 and 2,083 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. Typically, surficial soils in the Spring River flood plain had lead and zinc concentrations that were less than the general PECs. Lead and zinc concentrations in the surficial-soil samples were variable with distance downstream and with distance from the Spring River channel, and the largest lead and zinc concentrations usually were located near the channel. Lead and zinc concentrations larger than the general or TSMD-specific PECs, or both, were infrequent at depth in the Spring River flood plain. When present, such contamination typically was confined to the upper 2 feet of the core and frequently was confined to the upper 6 inches. Tributaries with few or no lead- and zinc-mined areas in the basin—Brush Creek

  1. Application of MEDALUS Method for Desertification Mapping in SEJZI plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshandehmehr, L.; Soltani, S.; Sepehr, A.

    2009-04-01

    According to the UNCCD definition, "Desertification" is land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry subhumid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities. According to this definition, natural and anthropogenic processes have main roles in desertification severity. The MEDALUS methodology is a practical approach to assess the status of desertification and evaluating of desertification risk. In this study, have been developed a regional model for desertification assessment and mapping in SEJZI plain (Eastern Isfahan) based on MEDALUS methodology. At first step, main factors and indicators affecting on desertification process were identified. According to the local condition, seven factors include: climate, soil, vegetation cover, ground water, water erosion, wind erosion and policy and management were recognized. Each factor included several indicators accounting as factor quality determination. These indicators quantified based on their influences on desertification process. For each indicator a score ranging from 100 to 200 have been assigned and desertification weighting was extracting. Ultimately, desertification severity was classified in four level including low, moderate, severe and high severe. Results showed that 1.69% of study area classified as moderate class, 34.86% classified as severe and 63.45% involved high severe class. The climate and management and policy were the most important factors affecting on desertification process. Keywords: Desertification, MEDALUS, SEJZI Plain, Desertification Mapping

  2. Whooping crane stopover site use intensity within the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Brandt, David A.; Harrell, Wade C.; Metzger, Kristine L.; Baasch, David M.; Hefley, Trevor J.

    2015-09-23

    Whooping cranes (Grus americana) of the Aransas-Wood Buffalo population migrate twice each year through the Great Plains in North America. Recovery activities for this endangered species include providing adequate places to stop and rest during migration, which are generally referred to as stopover sites. To assist in recovery efforts, initial estimates of stopover site use intensity are presented, which provide opportunity to identify areas across the migration range used more intensively by whooping cranes. We used location data acquired from 58 unique individuals fitted with platform transmitting terminals that collected global position system locations. Radio-tagged birds provided 2,158 stopover sites over 10 migrations and 5 years (2010–14). Using a grid-based approach, we identified 1,095 20-square-kilometer grid cells that contained stopover sites. We categorized occupied grid cells based on density of stopover sites and the amount of time cranes spent in the area. This assessment resulted in four categories of stopover site use: unoccupied, low intensity, core intensity, and extended-use core intensity. Although provisional, this evaluation of stopover site use intensity offers the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and partners a tool to identify landscapes that may be of greater conservation significance to migrating whooping cranes. Initially, the tool will be used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other interested parties in evaluating the Great Plains Wind Energy Habitat Conservation Plan.

  3. A Surficial Hydrogeologic Framework for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.; Krantz, David E.; Newell, Wayne L.; Martucci, Sarah K.

    2005-01-01

    A surficial hydrogeologic framework was developed for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, from New Jersey through North Carolina. The framework includes seven distinct hydrogeologic subregions within which the primary natural physical factors affecting the flow and chemistry of shallow ground water and small streams are relatively consistent. Within most subregions, the transport of chemicals from the land surface to ground water and streams can be described by a fairly uniform set of natural processes; some subregions include mixed hydrogeologic settings that are indistinguishable at the regional scale. The hydrogeologic framework and accompanying physiographic and geologic delineations are presented in digital and printed format. The seven hydrogeologic subregions that constitute the framework were delineated primarily on the basis of physiography and the predominant texture (typical grain size) of surficial and (where surficial sediments are particularly thin) subcropping sediments. Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was constructed by standardizing and extrapolating previously published interpretations for the Coastal Plain of South Carolina and New Jersey, based on similar work in the other States. Surficial and subcropping geology were similarly compiled from previous publications by resolving inconsistencies in nomenclature, interpretation, and scale, and interpolating across unmapped areas. A bulk sediment texture was determined for each mapped geologic unit on the basis of published descriptions. Fundamental differences among the seven hydrogeologic subregions are described on the basis of hypotheses about surficial and shallow subsurface hydrology and water chemistry in each, as well as variable land use, soils, and topography. On the regional scale, the Coastal Lowlands (Subregion 1), the Middle Coastal Plain Fine Sediments (Subregion 3), the Middle Coastal Plain Sands with Overlying Gravels (Subregion 4), and the Inner Coastal Plain Upland

  4. Static correction parameters in the lower flood plain of the central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Downhole seismic survey was conducted over the lower flood plain of the Central Niger Delta within the Kaiama prospect (OML 28) in an attempt to compute and determine the static correction parameters for the area. Analysis and interpretation of data from 14 downhole locations using NESURVELANA software shows that ...

  5. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF WHEAT LEAF AND STEM RUST IN THE CENTRAL GREAT PLAINS OF THE USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversmeyer, M. G.; Kramer, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) is grown throughout the grasslands from southern Mexico into the prairie provinces of Canada, a distance of nearly 4200 km. The total area seeded to wheat varies considerably each year; however, from 28 to 32 million ha are planted in the Great Plains of the United States alone. Generally in the central Great Plains, an area from central Texas through central Nebraska, 15 million ha are seeded to winter wheat each year. A wide range of environmental conditions exist throughout this area that may affect the development and final severity of wheat leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina L), stripe rust (caused by P. striiformis), and stem rust (caused by P. graminis Pers. f. sp tritici) epidemics and the subsequent reduction in wheat yields. Variation in severity of rust epidemics in this area depends on differences in crop maturity at the time of infection by primary inoculum, host resistance used, and environmental conditions. The interrelationships among time, host, pathogen and environment are complex, and studying the interactions is very difficult. Historically, cultivars with new or different leaf rust resistance genes become ineffective after several years of large-scale production within the Great Plains, and then cultivars carrying new or different resistance genes must be developed and released into production. This is the typical "boom and bust" cycle of the cereal rust resistance genes in the central Great Plains.

  6. Effect of habitat and foraging height on bat activity in the coastal plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer, M.; Menzel, Michael A.; Kilgo, John C.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.; McCracken, Gary F.

    2005-07-01

    A comparison of bat activity levels in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina among 5 habitat types: forested riparian areas, clearcuts, young pine plantations, mature pine plantations and pine savannas, using time expansion radio-microphones and integrated detectors to simultaneously monitor bat activity at three heights in each habitat type.

  7. Effects of land use changes on winter-active Collembola in Sanjiang Plain of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing Zhang; Liang Chang; Zhen Ni; Mac A. Callaham; Xin Sun; Donghui Wu

    2014-01-01

    Sanjiang Plain is the largest concentrated area of freshwater wetlands in China, however nearly 80% of these freshwater wetlands were drained or reclaimed in the past 50 years. It is important to know whether wetlands reclamation would affect soil invertebrates, especially the winter-active invertebrates. During November 2011 to April 2012, we used pitfall traps and in...

  8. Biomass of first and second rotation loblolly pine plantations in the South Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles A. Gresham

    2006-01-01

    In the South Carolina Coastal Plain, intensive loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation management, without fertilization, was sustainable through two rotations as measured by biomass accumulation. Fixed plot tree inventories and destructive tree sampling of first and second rotation sections of the same plantations were used to produce area based...

  9. Outlook for coastal plain forests: a subregional report from the Southern Forest Futures Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier Klepzig; Richard Shelfer; Zanethia Choice

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Coastal Plain consists of seven sections: the Northern Atlantic, Eastern Atlantic, Peninsular Florida, Southern Gulf, Middle Gulf-East, Middle Gulf-West, and Western Gulf. It covers a large area, consists of a diverse array of habitats, and supports a diverse array of uses. This report presents forecasts from the Southern Forest Futures Project that are...

  10. Geodatabase compilation of hydrogeologic, remote sensing, and water-budget-component data for the High Plains aquifer, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Natalie A.; Gonzales-Bradford, Sophia L.; Flynn, Amanda T.; Qi, Sharon L.; Peterson, Steven M.; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Ryter, Derek W.; Sohl, Terry L.; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2013-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies almost 112 million acres in the central United States. It is one of the largest aquifers in the Nation in terms of annual groundwater withdrawals and provides drinking water for 2.3 million people. The High Plains aquifer has gained national and international attention as a highly stressed groundwater supply primarily because it has been appreciably depleted in some areas. The U.S. Geological Survey has an active program to monitor the changes in groundwater levels for the High Plains aquifer and has documented substantial water-level changes since predevelopment: the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study is part of a series of regional groundwater availability studies conducted to evaluate the availability and sustainability of major aquifers across the Nation. The goals of the regional groundwater studies are to quantify current groundwater resources in an aquifer system, evaluate how these resources have changed over time, and provide tools to better understand a systems response to future demands and environmental stresses. The purpose of this report is to present selected data developed and synthesized for the High Plains aquifer as part of the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study. The High Plains Groundwater Availability Study includes the development of a water-budget-component analysis for the High Plains completed in 2011 and development of a groundwater-flow model for the northern High Plains aquifer. Both of these tasks require large amounts of data about the High Plains aquifer. Data pertaining to the High Plains aquifer were collected, synthesized, and then organized into digital data containers called geodatabases. There are 8 geodatabases, 1 file geodatabase and 7 personal geodatabases, that have been grouped in three categories: hydrogeologic data, remote sensing data, and water-budget-component data. The hydrogeologic data pertaining to the northern High Plains aquifer is included in three separate

  11. The groundwater intrinsic vulnerability map of S. Eufemia Lamezia Plain (Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Cuiuli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study area is the plain of S. Eufemia Lamezia (Calabria located in correspondence of the homonymous gulf, along the Tyrrhenian coast. The method used for the construction of the vulnerability map of the superficial acquifer of S. Eufemia Lamezia plain is the SINTACS. This method provides an estimate of vulnerability through the calculation of the Vulnerability Index, for each cell, with which it has been discretized the zone of study. The territory has been divided into areas characterized by vulnerability degree from medium to very high, passing through the intermediate terms. In the southern sector of the plain, where the depth of groundwater is variable, between 4,00 m and 0,50 m from the ground level, are located: the industrial/ handcrafted area of Lamezia Terme, the areas with the greatest agricultural and zootechnical yields, tourist facilities and private houses along the coast. They represent a potential pollution risk for the superficial aquifer. In the northern sector, where the depth of groundwater is variable between 38,00 m from ground level (inland areas to 1,00 m from ground level (along the coast, the practiced agricultural activities, are different from those of the southern sector of the plain (olive trees, citrus groves, arable land, etc., but here there are too tourist facilities and private houses along the coast. These various activities contribute, even in this area to outline a potential risk of pollution to the superficial aquifer of S. Eufemia Lamezia plain which, however, is slightly less worrying than in the south sector.

  12. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness.

  13. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness

  14. Quantifying local-scale dust emission from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    KAUST Repository

    Anisimov, Anatolii

    2017-01-23

    Dust plumes emitted from the narrow Arabian Red Sea coastal plain are often observed on satellite images and felt in local population centers. Despite its relatively small area, the coastal plain could be a significant dust source; however, its effect is not well quantified as it is not well approximated in global or even regional models. In addition, because of close proximity to the Red Sea, a significant amount of dust from the coastal areas could be deposited into the Red Sea and serve as a vital component of the nutrient balance of marine ecosystems. In the current study, we apply the offline Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) to better quantify dust emission from the coastal plain during the period of 2009-2011. We verify the spatial and temporal variability in model results using independent weather station reports. We also compare the results with the MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). We show that the best results are obtained with 1 km model spatial resolution and dust source function based on Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) measurements. We present the dust emission spatial pattern, as well as estimates of seasonal and diurnal variability in dust event frequency and intensity, and discuss the emission regime in the major dust generation hot spot areas. We demonstrate the contrasting seasonal dust cycles in the northern and southern parts of the coastal plain and discuss the physical mechanisms responsible for dust generation. This study provides the first estimates of the fine-scale spatial and temporal distribution of dust emissions from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain constrained by MERRAero and short-term WRF-Chem simulations. The estimate of total dust emission from the coastal plain, tuned to fit emissions in MERRAero, is 7.5 ± 0.5 Mt a. Small interannual variability indicates that the study area is a stable dust source. The mineralogical composition analysis shows that the coastal plain

  15. Cardiac Arrest Following Spinal Anaesthesia With Plain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year old woman who was admitted for an elective caesarean section. After preoperative evaluation and premedication she received a spinal anaesthesia in the L3-4 interspace with plain bupivacaine 0.5%. After being replaced in the supine ...

  16. Plain language as alternative textualisation | Cornelius | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plain language is a form of intra-lingual translation, a process during which particular interventions are brought to bear on a complex text, such as an act, in order to fit the linguistic competence of a particular target audience (Bhatia, 1983; 1993). In this way, complicated content is unlocked and meaning mediated. The aim is ...

  17. Radiocesium in wheat of the Po plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.; Malvicini, A.

    1988-01-01

    The Cs-137 measurements of many wheat samples, which was cultivated in Po plain during 1986 and 1987, are reported. A relationship is also shown between the quantity of Cs-137, which is contained in total fall-out, and that in the wheat by direct deposition

  18. Hydrogeochemical analysis for Tasuj plain aquifer, Iran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Therefore, groundwater quality monitoring and protection are essential to sustain the Tasuj plain aquifer. For this purpose, a fundamental understanding of hydrogeochemi- cal processes and hydrogeological conditions for an aquifer system is important (Adams et al. 2001;. Keywords. Graphical method; hydrogeochemistry ...

  19. Necrotizing fasciitis : plain radiographic and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Dae; Park, Jeong Hee; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Lim, Jong Nam; Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Dong Rib [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate the plain radiographic and CT findings of the necrotizing fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic findings of 4 cases with necrotizing fasciitis. Three cases were proven pathologically. We evaluated pattern and extent of the gas shadows in plain films. CT findings were analysed, with emphasis on : (a) gas pattern, (b) extent, (c) location and involved site, (d) associated focal abscess, and (e) swelling of the adjacent muscles. On plain radiographs, four cases showed streaky or mottled gas densities in the pelvis, three cases in the perineum, one case in the abdomen, and two cases in the thigh. On CT images, gas pattern was mottled and streaky appearance with swelling of the adjacent muscles. Gas shadows located in the extraperitoneal space in four cases, fascial layer in four cases, and subcutaneous layer in four cases. There were gas shadows in pelvic wall, perineum, abdominal wall, buttock, thigh, and scrotum. Focal low density lesion suggestive of focal abscess was not visualized. Plain radiography is useful for early diagnosis of the necrotizing fasciitis and CT is very useful for detection of precise location and extent of the disease. CT is also useful for differentiation of necrotizing fasciitis from focal abscess and cellulitis.

  20. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    a problem, as Kimble (1992: 14-15) argues in the following quote: […] It is no criticism that Plain .... Formulas do not consider the motivation, interests, purpose, and social and cultural background and context of .... way that gives a cooperative, motivated person a good chance of understanding the document at first reading, ...

  1. Unusual plain film appearance of extrapleural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranner, G.; Kullnig, P.; Dirnhofer, R.; Sigrist, T.

    1986-01-01

    Two cases of extrapleural hematoma, proven during autopsy, are presented. Plain chest films did not demonstrate the typical signs of an extrapleural mass lesion. The roentgenologic differential diagnosis of a free or partially encapsulated pleural effusion, as well as the pathogenesis of extrapleural hematoma is discussed. (orig.) [de

  2. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  3. FLEXURAL IMPROVEMENT OF PLAIN CONCRETE BEAMS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result, this study carryout experimental, numerical and analytical investigation to study the behaviour of plain concrete (PC) beams strengthened with High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) layer using three different jacketing configurations and tested in flexure. Results show significant improvement in ...

  4. Quantitative analysis of bowel gas by plain abdominal radiograph combined with computer image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yan; Peng Kewen; Zhang Houde; Shen Bixian; Xiao Hanxin; Cai Juan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method for quantitative analysis of bowel gas by plain abdominal radiograph and computer graphics. Methods: Plain abdominal radiographs in supine position from 25 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 20 health controls were studied. A gastroenterologist and a radiologist independently conducted the following procedure on each radiograph. After the outline of bowel gas was traced by axe pen, the radiograph was digitized by a digital camera and transmitted to the computer with Histogram software. The total gas area was determined as the pixel value on images. The ratio of the bowel gas quantity to the pixel value in the region surrounded by a horizontal line tangential to the superior pubic symphysis margin, a horizontal line tangential to the tenth dorsal vertebra inferior margin, and the lateral line tangential to the right and left anteriosuperior iliac crest, was defined as the gas volume score (GVS). To examine the sequential reproducibility, a second plain abdominal radiograph was performed in 5 normal controls 1 week later, and the GVS were compared. Results: Bowel gas was easily identified on the plain abdominal radiograph. Both large and small intestine located in the selected region. Both observers could finish one radiographic measurement in less than 10 mins. The correlation coefficient between the two observers was 0.986. There was no statistical difference on GVS between the two sequential radiographs in 5 health controls. Conclusion: Quantification of bowel gas based on plain abdominal radiograph and computer is simple, rapid, and reliable

  5. Stratigraphy of Venusian Plains: Comparison of Price [1995] and Basilevsky and Head [1995] Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Burba, G. A.; Kryuchkov, V. P.

    1996-03-01

    A comparison of the Price map, in which plains units were identified based on the prominence of lava flow morphology, with the Kryuchkov map, based on Basilevsky and Head model of Venus stratigraphy, revealed that at least in the area under study (40-80 degrees N, 140-260 degrees E) the plains units of Price are mixtures of formations of different ages. Her approach provides evidently the generally correct ranging of large regions of the planet according to their average age but it misses the key events of the geologic history of Venus such as an emplacement of distinctive stratigraphic members of the venusian plains. This should be taken into account when the determined crater densities and corresponding ages are interpreted.

  6. Geomorphology and flood-plain vegetation of the Sprague and lower Sycan Rivers, Klamath Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, James E.; McDowell, Patricia F.; Lind, Pollyanna; Rasmussen, Christine G.; Keith, Mackenzie K.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides information on channel and flood-plain processes and historical trends to guide effective restoration and monitoring strategies for the Sprague River Basin, a primary tributary (via the lower Williamson River) of Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. The study area covered the lower, alluvial segments of the Sprague River system, including the lower parts of the Sycan River, North Fork Sprague River, South Fork Sprague River, and the entire main-stem Sprague River between the confluence of the North Fork Sprague and the South Fork Sprague Rivers and its confluence with the Williamson River at Chiloquin, Oregon. The study included mapping and stratigraphic analysis of flood-plain deposits and flanking features; evaluation of historical records, maps and photographs; mapping and analysis of flood-plain and channel characteristics (including morphologic and vegetation conditions); and a 2006 survey of depositional features left by high flows during the winter and spring of 2005–06.

  7. Writing Government Policies and Procedures in Plain Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Don

    2008-01-01

    Plain language involves more than just a few simple techniques, such as using everyday words, short sentences, and active voice. Although there is no single definition, "plain language" basically stands for several dozen well-established principles of clear communication. In this article, the author discusses the significance of plain language…

  8. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing. 215.111 Section 215.111... § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has a plain bearing— (a) That is missing, cracked, or broken; (b) On which the bearing liner— (1) Is...

  9. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing...

  10. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... delineates the base flood plain by using detailed HUD flood insurance maps and other available data, as... practicable alternatives to the proposed project that would not cause adverse effects on the base flood plain... beneficial values in base (100-year) flood plains as part of technical and financial assistance in the...

  11. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not located...

  12. Plains Energy Services Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Plains Energy Services Ltd. (Plains) is a two year old public company in the oil and gas service industry. It provides an integrated pool of services, concentrating on the life cycle of oil and gas wells as the driver for its expansion. Although the industry saw a marked decrease in well drilling activity for 1998, Plains was able to sustain a consistent income and cash flow because of its focus on ensuring access to the well during drilling, completion, production and abandonment. For 1998, revenue reached a record $93.3 million, an 85 per cent increase over 1997. This report presented Plain's major achievements for 1998. These included the completed construction of a technical, machining and manufacturing facility to enhance the development and implementation of technology and equipment among all business units. The company also introduced coiled tubing drilling services in the North American marketplace, as well as the first commercial version of a casing inspection tool. Plain's also introduced production logging through their wireline services business and applied for four new patents in relation to downhole tool development. In 1998, the company consolidated their operations into four divisions including consolidation of administration, benefits, banking and related overhead services. This report also described the company's efforts in addressing the year 2000 challenge. The company's consolidated financial statements were presented for the benefit of shareholders. These included statements of earnings and deficit, balance sheets, as well as statements of changes in financial position. Notes to the consolidated financial statements included highlights of significant accounting policies, changes in accounting policies, acquisitions, discontinued operations, and capital assets. tabs., figs

  13. Radio monitoring of the Sozh-river flood plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, V.A.; Generalova, V.A.; Kol'nenkov, V.P.; Glaz, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Periodic radiation monitoring supervision is the important parameter of the radioactivity level time control with reference to concrete landscapes, estimation and their ecological radiochemistry conditions forecast in order to accept practical measures for the risk radiation danger reduction. The early monitoring supervision was carried out in the area of radioactive anomalies in Sozh-river flood plain. The new data received in 1998 and 2000 are cited below. The radiation situation of the last landscape appropriating to conditions in central and near terrace Sozh-river flood plain, more than in 10 years, is nowadays characterized by the data of the structure of Veprin one. In coastal flood plain the maximal radioactivity is dated to meadow vegetable layer in downturn of relief or to humus horizon of actual soil on coastal shaft. In central flood plain it remains rather high with the tendency of accumulation in meliorative channels, which are nowadays strongly overgrown, in 1,6-1,9 times exceeding earlier supervision. Down the Sozh near the village Gronovo in 1988 the level of gamma activity meadow vegetable layer changed. Radioactive situation is low here nowadays: on meadow vegetable layer almost in 5 times lower than former one. It is explained by the active hydro mode snow melt flood streams at the abrupt bend of Sozh channel, resulting in meadows washing and silt material washout. The deepening of Cs-137 reaches 0,20 m and connects with the accumulation of isotope in the top part of humus horizon where it is fixed in the fixed form. Monitoring supervision on radio strontium in the section of Sozh-river flood plain near the village Gronovo shows, that in 1995 its maximal concentration is observed in humusided loamy sand under meadow vegetable layer; the main mass of isotope - up to 80 % - was concentrated in the top 30-sm layer. It is remarkable, that with depth, reducing the contents almost twice and not being marked in underlaying sands, this isotope

  14. Multitemporal burnt area mapping using Landsat 8: merging multiple burnt area indices to highlight burnt areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vhengani, L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Vhengani_2015_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1055 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Vhengani_2015_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 2015... IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), Milan, Italy, 26-31 July 2015 Multitemporal burnt area mapping using Landsat 8: Merging multiple burnt area indices to highlight burnt areas Lufuno Vhengani, Philip Frost...

  15. The Pliocene Citronelle Formation of the Gulf Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, George Charlton

    1916-01-01

    In the spring of 1910 the writer, working under the direction of T. Wayland Vaughan, geologist in charge of Coastal Plain investigations, undertook a study of the later Tertiary formations of the Gulf Coastal Plain. According to the plans outlined before the work was begun, the beds that had formerly been grouped under the names Lafayette formation and Grand Gulf formation were to be studied with a view to their possible separation into more satisfactory stratigraphic units that might be correlated with other formations which, on the basis of their fossils, had been assigned to their proper positions in the geologic time scale. The original plan included a study of the post-Vicksburgian Tertiary deposits from western Florida to Mississippi River and correlations with formations previously recognized in Florida, southern Alabama, and Louisiana. This plan was subsequently modified to extend the investigation as far west as Sabine River. The field work was interrupted and the office work was delayed by calls for geologic work in other areas, so that the preparation of the reports could not be begun until the spring of 1914.

  16. Estimating canopy fuel parameters for Atlantic Coastal Plain forest types.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2007-01-15

    Abstract It is necessary to quantify forest canopy characteristics to assess crown fire hazard, prioritize treatment areas, and design treatments to reduce crown fire potential. A number of fire behavior models such as FARSITE, FIRETEC, and NEXUS require as input four particular canopy fuel parameters: 1) canopy cover, 2) stand height, 3) crown base height, and 4) canopy bulk density. These canopy characteristics must be mapped across the landscape at high spatial resolution to accurately simulate crown fire. Currently no models exist to forecast these four canopy parameters for forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a region that supports millions of acres of loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine forests as well as pine-broadleaf forests and mixed species broadleaf forests. Many forest cover types are recognized, too many to efficiently model. For expediency, forests of the Savannah River Site are categorized as belonging to 1 of 7 broad forest type groups, based on composition: 1) loblolly pine, 2) longleaf pine, 3) slash pine, 4) pine-hardwood, 5) hardwood-pine, 6) hardwoods, and 7) cypress-tupelo. These 7 broad forest types typify forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain region, from Maryland to Florida.

  17. Genetics, medicine, and the Plain people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kevin A; Puffenberger, Erik G

    2009-01-01

    The Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonite populations of Pennsylvania are descended from Swiss Anabaptist immigrants who came to the New World in the early eighteenth century. Today they live in many small endogamous demes across North America. Genetically, these demes have dissimilar allele frequencies and disease spectra owing to unique founders. Biological and social aspects of Old Order communities make them ideal for studies in population genetics and genomic medicine, and over the last 40 years, advances in genomic science coincided with investigational studies in Plain populations. Newer molecular genetic technologies are sufficiently informative, rapid, and flexible to use in a clinical setting, and we have successfully integrated these tools into a rural pediatric practice. Our studies with the Pennsylvania Plain communities show that population-specific genetic knowledge provides a powerful framework in which to prevent disease, reduce medical costs, and create new insights into human biology.

  18. Does 'Plain Packaging' of Tobacco matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Clancy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The incremental tightening of the tobacco industry’s advertising capabilities led to the investment of billions of dollars into increasingly creative packaging. Today, packing remains one of the industry’s sole methods of promotion and marketing. The size, shape, colour, and font on cigarette packs serve to differentiate brands and promote a certain image associated with the given cigarette package Many studies in recent years have tested the association between pack standardisation and peoples’ attitudes, behaviours, and perceptions of tobacco packaging. The results show that plain packs are thought to be less attractive and associated with less positive characteristics, the health warnings are more salient, and smokers report feelings of wanting to smoke less when using standardised packs. Now we have the real life results from Australia, which show the tobacco control advances that are possible with standardised packaging. This must increase the pressure to have 'plain packaging' introduced throughout the EU.

  19. Effects of controlled agricultural practices on water quality in the Minnesota sand-plain aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H.W.; Stoner, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies of Minnesota's sand plains indicate that ground-water chemistry is related to agricultural practices. Surficial sand-plain aquifers cover 8,000,000 acres of Minnesota and are a major source of water for domestic use, irrigation, and some municipal systems. The sand-plain aquifers consist of sand and gravel deposits that are from 20 to greater than 100 feet thick and are covered by a thin sandy loam that generally is less than 2 feet thick. Sand-plain aquifers are recharged by the downward percolation of precipitation through the soil root zone and the unsaturated zone in the sand to the water table. The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation and forms the top of the sand-plain aquifer. Sand-plain aquifers are susceptible to contamination by agricultural chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides), if downward-percolating recharge water contains these chemicals. The concentrations of nitrate, pesticides, and some other chemical constituents fluctuate seasonally and differ with depth below the water table (Anderson, 1989). Despite the availability of water-quality data for about 260 wells that were collected during previous studies in three U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project areas in Minnesota, it is not known how concentrations of agricultural chemicals in ground water relate to the rate and timing of fertilizer and pesticide application or to the tillage practices used. Field-scale research is needed to determine the effects of different farming practices on the concentrations of nitrate, pesticides, and other agricultural chemicals in ground water in the unsaturated and saturated zones.

  20. Ages of plains volcanism on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Ernst; Jagert, Felix; Broz, Petr

    2010-05-01

    Plain-style volcanism [1] is widespread in the Tharsis and Elysium volcanic provinces on Mars, [2,3]. Detailed images and topographic data reveal the morphology and topography of clusters of low shields and associated lava flows. The landforms of plains volcanism on Mars have all well-known terrestrial analogues in basaltic volcanic regions, such as Hawaii, Iceland, and in particular the Snake River Plains [4]. The very gentle flank slopes (J. (1981) Icarus, 45, 586-601. [3] Hodges C.A. and Moore H.J. (1994) Atlas of volcanic features on Mars: USGS Prof. Paper 1534, 194 p. [4] Hauber E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 69-95. [5] Wilson L. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 28-46. [6] Vaucher, J. et al. (2009) Icarus 204, 418-442. [7] Baratoux D. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 47-68. [8] Bleacher J.E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 96-102. [9] Ivanov B.A. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 87-104. [10] Hartmann W.H. and Neukum G. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 165-194 [11] Kneissl T. et al. (2010) LPS XVI, submitted. [12] Michael, G.G. and Neukum G. (2010) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., in press. . [13] Malin M.C. et al. (2007) JGR 112, E05S04, doi: 10.1029/2006JE002808.

  1. Investigation on Vulnerability of Tabriz-plain Unconfined Aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabarmayeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is more expensive to remove pollution from groundwater than to prevent it. Delineation areas that arevulnerable to surface pollutants is one of methods to prevent pollution of groundwater resources. Focusing on this issue, DRASTIC model was used for evaluation of vulnerability of Tabriz-plain aquifer to pollution and the aquifer vulnerability map was prepared. The study shows that main zone of the aquifer’s groundwater is low to modrate vulnerability to pollution (DRASTIC Index of 120-40 that consist of about 55.84% and areas with low, moderate to high, and high risk zones comprise 21.81,22.08.% and 0.26% of the studied area, respectively Two tests of sensitivity analyses were carried out: the map removal and the single-parameter sensitivity analyses. Based on the characteristics of the studied area, the results from both map removal and single-parameter sensitivity analyses showed that the depth to water table has the most significant impact on the vulnerability risk zone. By overlaying of the vulnerability and landuse maps the areas where are subjected to potential release of pollutants from the agricultural activities were determined .Nitrate ion concentration and SINTACS model confirms the results of the vulnerability assessment.

  2. Chemical and Isotopic Study of the Groundwater of Jeffara Plain of Medenine and Tataouine (Southern Tunisia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabelsi, R.; Kalled, M; Zouari, K.; Abidi, B.; Yahyaoui, H.

    2007-01-01

    The study area constitutes the major part of the plain of Jeffara, located at the south-east of Tunisia. This plain is characterized by an arid climate with rare and irregular pluviometry. The hydrochemical approach is used to define the chemical characteristics of the water in these aquifer systems. Indeed, the water salinity varies between 0.6g/? and 9g/?, and increases from the Daher mountains in the west to the Mediterranean Sea. The groundwaters are homogeneous and characterized by a Cl-(SO 4 ) and Na-(Ca-Mg) water type. The isotopic approach shows that the carbone-14 activities, measured in groundwater, evolve in the same direction of groundwater flow. These activities suggest a recent recharge area in eastern piedmont of the Dahar mountains, as well as the zone of the Sahel Abebsa and Zeuss-Koutine. The isotopic values confirm, also, the communication between the various major levels through the existing faults and discontinuities in this area

  3. Radiocarbon dating of sediment cores from Hachinohe, the Kamikita Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitoki, Eri; Nakamura, Toshio; Matsumoto, Yui; Tsuji, Sei-ichiro; Fujine, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated stratigraphy and chronology by analyses of Holocene sediments and radiocarbon dating of sediment cores from the Kamikita Plain. On the Kamikita Plain, which faces the Pacific coast of Northeast Japan, marine and fluvial terraces covered with tephras derived from Towada and Hakkoda volcanoes are well developed. We clarified that Towada Chuseri tephra and fluvial deposits consisted of volcanic sediments influenced an alluvial depositional system in the Kamikita Plain after a maximum of the Jomon Transgression. (author)

  4. Assessment of Wild Ungulates in the Karnali Flood Plain of Bardia National Park, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daya Nidhi GAUTAM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The population of ungulates depends on the habitat factors and prey-predator interaction. This study aims to explore the habitat preference of ungulates and their relation with associated predators in the Bardia National Park, Nepal. The study was based on the transect survey and indirect observation of ungulates. Spotted deer recorded the highest density and blue bull recorded the lowest. Hog deer preferred mostly flood plains habitat and barking deer preferring mixed hardwood forest and tall grass flood plains. However, barking deer completely avoided the riverine forest and flood plain habitats. Swamp deer preferred Phata (grassland and blue bull was recorded only in flood plains. The higher concentration of ungulates’ pellet groups were found in areas close to water sources. The study concluded that different habitat features influence the distribution and abundance of ungulates. The higher density of spotted deer and hog deer suggests these species as the major prey base to maintain viable populations of tigers in the park.

  5. Age determinations and Earth-based multispectral observations of lunar light plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    1993-01-01

    The history of light plains still remains doubtful, but there are good arguments - mainly obtained by age determinations and supported by multispectral observations - for an endogenic (magmatic) instead of an (exclusively) impact related origin. Light plains are characterized by smooth areas with an albedo lower than the surrounding highlands (12 - 13 percent), but significantly higher than maria (5 - 6 percent). Before Apollo 16 a volcanic source has been supposed, but analysis of returned samples (highly brecciated and metamorphosed rocks) favored an impact ejecta related origin. Among the currently discussed models are formation by ejecta sedimentation from multi-ringed basins, formation by secondary and tertiary cratering action of ballistically ejected material during the formation of multi-ringed basins, in situ formation by impact melt of large events, and premare (crypto-) volcanism basalts covered by a thin ejecta cover; younger impacts penetrated the ejecta surface to create the dark haloed craters. To find arguments in favor or against these ideas the chronology of light plains is of major importance. Obviously a genetic relationship between the evolution of light plains and the basin forming impacts can be possible only if the events of emplacement features happened simultaneously.

  6. Plain Language Summary: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Neil; Hollingsworth, Deena B; Mahoney, Kathryn; O'Connor, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    This plain language summary serves as an overview in explaining benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, abbreviated BPPV. This summary applies to patients ≥18 years old with a suspected or potential diagnosis of BPPV and is based on the 2017 "Clinical Practice Guideline: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (Update)." The evidence-based guideline includes research to support more effective diagnosis and treatment of BPPV. The guideline was developed as a quality improvement opportunity for managing BPPV by creating clear recommendations to use in medical practice.

  7. Drought variability over Thessaly plain, Greece. Present and future changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Kapsomenakis, John; Dalezios, Nicolas R.; Kotsopoulos, Spyridon; Poulos, Serafim

    2015-04-01

    The diachronic variability of precipitation is of major scientific concern, because it is linked to water availability or deficiency on regional scale. The latter, resulted from a prolonged period of abnormally low precipitation or permanent absence of precipitation, is associated with dryness, having on one hand, a substantial impact on agricultural production and thus the society itself, and on the other hand, the redistribution of flora and fauna. In some cases, dryness drive climate refugees, and this is a great challenge - threat - that must be faced - mitigated - by stake holders in international organizations and fora. The Aridity Index (AI) measures the degree of dryness of the climate at a given region, and according to the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) it is defined as the ratio of precipitation to the potential evapotranspiration. In this study, we investigate the climate change impacts on AI over Thessaly plain, Greece. Thessaly, the largest plain and granary of Greece, includes a total area of 14,036 km2, which represents almost 11% of the Greek territory. Regarding the geomorphology, the ground is 50% mountainous-hilly and 50% flat, irrigated by Peneus, the third largest river in the country, which flows through the axis east-west. The assessment of AI was conducted utilizing daily evapotranspiration losses, based on the modified FAO-56 Penman-Monteith formula, and daily precipitation totals from a number of Regional Climate Models (RCMs), within the ENSEMBLE European Project. Further, the projected changes of AI between the period 1961-1990 (reference period) and the periods 2021-2050 (near future) and 2071-2100 (far future) along with the inter-model standard deviations are presented, under SRES A1B. The findings of the analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal changes of AI over Thessaly plain, focusing on their societal aspects. Acknowlegdements. This work is supported by the project AGROCLIMA (11SYN_3_1913), which is funded by

  8. THE LAKES OF THE TRANSYLVANIAN PLAIN: GENESIS, EVOLUTION AND TERRITORIAL REPARTITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor SOROCOVSCHI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the genesis of the Transylvanian Plain lakes’ basins and their evolution in time and space. Natural lakes in this area are reduced in point of their types of geneses (pseudokarst and lanslide lakes and number. Their evolution in time is quite fast, especially of the pseudokarst lakes. Among the anthropic lakes, the ponds represent the most frequent genetic type, which gives a particular aspect to the landscape of the Transylvanian Plain. They used to be much more numerous in the past than at present. Those whose dimensions are not significant, situated on the tributaries of the main rivers, have a rapid evolution. The anthropic salt lakes formed following the exploitation of salt in the western area of the country had a fast evolution and they are not numerous today

  9. Airflow over part of the Southern High Plains interpreted from LANDSAT imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, J. W.; Marrs, R. W.

    1978-07-01

    An interpretation of eolian features, using remote sensing techniques, for part of the Southern High Plains demonstrates the use of remote sensing as an inexpensive and easily applicable tool to assess wind-energy potential. The most useful eolian features in such an interpretation are sand dunes, blowouts, dust plumes, clay dunes, playa plumes, and playa orientation. Although the relief is low to moderate in this area, topographic channeling is the most important factor in determining high wind-energy areas. Interpretation of eolian features detectable on LANDSAT imagery provided information for a regional assessment of wind-energy potential in the Southern High Plains. A map was compiled summarizing the interpretation and the wind-energy information.

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE PROCESSES AND TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE DENUNDATION VALLEYS IN THE BIELSK PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Micun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to recognise natural and anthropogenic transformations taking place in small denudation valleys in the old glacial landscape of the Bielsk Plain. The changes are registered in sediments of the valleys. The Bielsk Plain area situated in the north of Bielsk Podlaski is characterized by the presence of latitudinal running denudation valleys, that end with concave broadenings in their headwaters. The geological structure is dominated by silt deposits of various origins. Tills are present in the hilltops while organic and organo-mineral deposits in the depressions. The thickness of the deluvial deposits in the valleys reaches 2 m though usually it does not exceed 1 m. The deposits are mostly silts that developed lithologically as sandy dust and loam dust. Colluvium sedimentation in the valleys clearly correlates with the development of agriculture, deforestation and farming in the area. The abandonment of the cultivation causes significant slowdown in the pace of accumulation of colluvium sediments.

  11. Groundwater availability in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce G.; Coes, Alissa L.

    2010-01-01

    The Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers and confining units of North and South Carolina are composed of crystalline carbonate rocks, sand, clay, silt, and gravel and contain large volumes of high-quality groundwater. The aquifers have a long history of use dating back to the earliest days of European settlement in the late 1600s. Although extensive areas of some of the aquifers have or currently (2009) are areas of groundwater level declines from large-scale, concentrated pumping centers, large areas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain contain substantial quantities of high-quality groundwater that currently (2009) are unused. Groundwater use from the Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers in North Carolina and South Carolina has increased during the past 60 years as the population has increased along with demands for municipal, industrial, and agricultural water needs. While North Carolina and South Carolina work to increase development of water supplies in response to the rapid growth in these coastal populations, both States recognize that they are facing a number of unanswered questions regarding availability of groundwater supplies and the best methods to manage these important supplies. An in-depth assessment of groundwater availability of the Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers of North and South Carolina has been completed by the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program. This assessment includes (1) a determination of the present status of the Atlantic Coastal Plain groundwater resources; (2) an explanation for how these resources have changed over time; and (3) development of tools to assess the system's response to stresses from potential future climate variability. Results from numerous previous investigations of the Atlantic Coastal Plain by Federal and State agencies have been incorporated into this effort. The primary products of this effort are (1) comprehensive hydrologic datasets such as groundwater levels, groundwater use, and aquifer properties; (2) a

  12. A summary of the occurrence and development of ground water in the southern High Plains of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, J.G.; Myers, B.N.

    1964-01-01

    The Southern High Plains of Texas occupies an area of about 22,000 square miles in n'Orthwest Texas, extending fr'Om the Canadian River southward. about 250 miles and fr'Om the New Mexico line eastward an average distance of about 120 miles. The economy of the area is dependent largely upon irrigated agriculture, and in 1958 about 44,000 irrigation wells were in operation. The economy of the area is also dependent upon the oil industry either in the f'Orm of oil and gas production or in the form of industries based on the producti'On of petroleum. The Southern High Plains of Tems is characterized. 'by a nearly flat land surface sloping gently toward. the southeast at an average of 8 to 10 feet per mile. Shallow undrained depressions or playas are characteristic of the plains surface, and during periods of heavy rainfall, runoff collects in the depressions to form temporary ponds or lakes. Stream drainage 'On the plains surface is poorly developed; water discharges over the eastern escarpment off the plains only during periods of excessive rainfall. The climate of the area is semiarid; the average annual precipitation is about 20 inches. About 70 percent of the precipitation falls during the growing season from April to September. Rocks of Permian age underlie the entire area and consist chiefly of red sandstone and shale containing nUmerous beds of gypsum and dolomite. The Permian rocks are not a source of water in the Southern High Plains, and any water in these rocks would probably be saline. The Triassic rocks underlying the 'S'Outhern Hi'gh Plains consist of three formations of the Dockum group: the Tecovas formation, the Santa Rosa sandstone. and the Chinle formation equivalent. The Tecovas and Chinle formation equivalent both consist chiefly of shale and sandy shale; however, the Santa Rosa sandstone consists mainly of medium to coarse conglomeratic sandstone containing some shale. Tbe formations of the Dockum group are capable of yielding small to moderate

  13. Plain chest radiographic findings of smoke inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Shin Ho; Lee, Eil Weong; Kim, Hyun Suk; Park, Ju Youn; Kim, Soo Hyun; Hong, Sung Hwan; Park, Hong Suk; Lee, Kwan Seop; Kang Ik Won

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the plain chest radiographic findings of smoke inhalation. Our study included 72 burn patients who had suffered smoke inhalation. On admission, all underwent serial portable chest AP radiography. We retrospectively reviewed the plain chest radiographs taken between admission and pootburn day five, evaluating the pattern, distribution, and time onset of direct injury to the respiratory system by smoke inhalation. The lesions were also assessed for change. In 16 of 72 patients (22%), abnormal findings of direct injury to the respiratory system by smoke inhalation were revealed by the radiographs. Abnormal findings were 15 pulmonary lesions and one subglottic tracheal narrowing. Findings of pulmonary lesions were multiple small patchy consolidations (10/15), peribronchial cuffing (8/15), and perivascular fuzziness (6/15). Patterns of pulmonary lesions were mixed alveolar and interstitial lesion (n=3D9), interstitial lesion (n=3D5), and alveolar lesion (n=3D1). No interlobular septal thickening was observed. Pulmonary edema was distributed predominantly in the upper lung zone and perihilar region, with asymmetricity. Its time of onset was within 24 hours in 13 cases, 24-48 hours in two cases, and 48-72 hours in one. Five of 16 patients progressed to ARDS. Chest radiographs showed that pulmonary lesions caused by inhalation injury were due to pulmonary edema, which the pattern of which was commonly mixed alveolar and interstitial. (author)

  14. Distribution and Ecology of Campylobacters in Coastal Plain Streams (Georgia, United States of America)▿

    OpenAIRE

    Vereen, Ethell; Lowrance, R. Richard; Cole, Dana J.; Lipp, Erin K.

    2006-01-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterium-associated diarrhea in the United States and most developed countries. While this disease is considered a food-borne disease, many clinical cases cannot be linked to a food source. In rural and agrarian areas environmental transmission may be an important factor contributing to case loads. Here we investigated the waterborne prevalence of campylobacters in a mixed-use rural watershed in the coastal plain of southern Georgia (United States). Six ...

  15. Correlation of spacecraft passive microwave system data with soil moisture indices (API). [great plains corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, B. J.; Mcfarland, M. J.; Theis, S.; Richter, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    Electrical scanning microwave radiometer brightness temperature, meteorological data, climatological data, and winter wheat crop information were used to estimate that soil moisture content in the Great Plains region. Results over the predominant winter wheat areas indicate that the best potential to infer soil moisture occurs during fall and spring. These periods encompass the growth stages when soil moisture is most important to winter wheat yield. Other significant results are reported.

  16. Forest statistics for the Northern Coastal Plain of North Carolina, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Thompson

    1990-01-01

    Since 1984, area of timberland in the Northern Coastal Plain of North Carolina has remained stable at 3.8 million acres. Nonindustrial private owners control two-thirds of the region's timberland. Volume of softwood growing stock increased by 6 percent to 3.1 billion cubic feet, while hardwood growing-stock volume dropped 2 percent to 3.7 billion cubic feet. Net...

  17. Production and Decomposition Rates of a Coastal Plain Forest Following the Impact of Hurrican Hugo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Fail

    1999-01-01

    Recovery of a coastal plain mixed hardwood-pine forest following the impact of Hurricane Hugo in 1989 was monitored for four years, 1991-1995. Eight 400 m2 plots were set in each of two treatment areas-an Unsalvaged and a Salvaged site. Wind-downed trees were kept on the site in the Unsalvaged Site and removed in the Salvaged Site. It was...

  18. Plateaus and sinuous ridges as the fingerprints of lava flow inflation in the Eastern Tharsis Plains of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Orr, Tim R.; de Wet, Andrew P.; Zimbelman, James R.; Hamilton, Christopher W.; Brent Garry, W.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Williams, David A.

    2017-08-01

    The Tharsis Montes rift aprons are composed of outpourings of lava from chaotic terrains to the northeast and southwest flank of each volcano. Sinuous and branching channel networks that are present on the rift aprons suggest the possibility of fluvial processes in their development, or erosion by rapidly emplaced lavas, but the style of lava flow emplacement throughout rift apron development is not clearly understood. To better characterize the style of lava emplacement and role of fluvial processes in rift apron development, we conducted morphological mapping of the Pavonis Mons southwest rift apron and the eastern Tharsis plains using images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), Context Camera (CTX), Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) along with the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Precision Experiment Data Records (PEDRs) and gridded data. Our approach was to: (1) search for depositional fans at the slope break between the rift apron and adjacent low slope plains; (2) determine if there is evidence that previously formed deposits might have been buried by plains units; (3) characterize the Tharsis plains morphologies east of Pavonis Mons; and (4) assess their relationship to the rift apron units. We have not identified topographically significant depositional fans, nor did we observe evidence to suggest that plains units have buried older rift apron units. Flow features associated with the rift apron are observed to continue across the slope break onto the plains. In this area, the plains are composed of a variety of small fissures and low shield vents around which broad channel-fed and tube-fed flows have been identified. We also find broad, flat-topped plateaus and sinuous ridges mixed among the channels, tubes and vents. Flat-topped plateaus and sinuous ridges are morphologies that are analogous to those observed on the coastal plain of Hawai'i, where lava

  19. Surface motion in the Western Coastal Plain of Taiwan after removal of groundwater withdrawal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K.; Ching, K.

    2011-12-01

    The widespread groundwater pumping was proposed to obscure the tectonic signals expected from the blind thrust faults in the metropolitan Los Angeles. In Taiwan, the tip of westward propagated frontal blind thrust has been suggested to be located beneath the Western Coastal Plain by analyses of the horizontal GPS velocities and the geological uplift rates due to the convergence between the Philippine Sea and the Eurasian plates. However, the serious land subsidence has been consistently occurred in the Western Coastal Plain because of the artificial groundwater pumping for the development of agriculture in western Taiwan. The most significant subsidence rate is observed up to 109.4 mm/yr. The effect of groundwater pumping may disturb the pattern of the horizontal velocities caused by the movement of blind thrust. As a result, ignoring the groundwater withdrawal effects will make misunderstandings on the assessment of location and kinematic characteristics of the blind thrust in western Taiwan by analysis of horizontal velocities only. In this study, to obtain a reasonable horizontal velocity field for evaluating the fault behavior in western Taiwan, we therefore used more than 704 precise leveling measurements and 20 continuous GPS observations between 2000 and 2008 in the Western Coastal Plain of Taiwan to estimate and correct the effects of groundwater pumping. The contour of land subsidence rates in the Western Coastal Plain show a concentric-circle-like pattern with the peak subsidence rates of over 800 and 900 mm/yr at the northeastern and center area of the plain. Next, we will invert the vertical velocities for the land subsidence rate resulted from the groundwater withdrawal, using a dislocation model in an elastic half-space material. The accuracy of this dislocation model will also be assessed in this study. Then the corrections of horizontal velocities will be provided from this model to help us understand the reliable tectonic signals.

  20. Geology of the Gusec cratered plains from the Spirit rover transverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Crumpler, L. S.; Grant, J. A.; Greely, R.; Cabrol, N. A.; Parker, T. J.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Ward, J. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Moersch, J. E.; hide

    2006-01-01

    The cratered plains of Gusev traversed by Spirit are generally low-relief rocky plains dominated by impact and eolian processes. Ubiquitous shallow, soil-filled, circular depressions, called hollows, are modified impact craters. Rocks are dark, fine-grained basalts, and the upper 10 m of the cratered plains appears to be an impact-generated regolith developed over intact basalt flows. Systematic field observations across the cratered plains identified vesicular clasts and rare scoria similar to original lava flow tops, consistent with an upper inflated surface of lava flows with adjacent collapse depressions. Crater and hollow morphometry are consistent with most being secondaries. The size frequency distribution of rocks >0.1 m diameter generally follows exponential functions similar to other landing sites for total rock abundances of 5-35%. Systematic clast counts show that areas with higher rock abundance and more large rocks have higher thermal inertia. Plains with lower thermal inertia have fewer rocks and substantially more pebbles that are well sorted and evenly spaced, similar to a desert pavement or lag. Eolian bed forms (ripples and wind tails) have coarse surface lags, and many are dust covered and thus likely inactive. Deflation of the surface _5-25 cm likely exposed two-toned rocks and elevated ventifacts and transported fines into craters creating the hollows. This observed redistribution yields extremely slow average erosion rates of _0.03 nm/yr and argues for very little long-term net change of the surface and a dry and desiccating environment similar to today's since the Hesperian (or _3 Ga).

  1. Lithosphere stress changes due to groundwater unloading in North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yajin; Zhang, Huai; Shi, Yaolin

    2015-04-01

    During the past 50 years, excessive groundwater pumping has led to the continuous decline of groundwater table in North China Plain, which becomes one of the global hotspots of groundwater depletion. Over most of the rural areas of the plain, the shallow aquifer has experienced a water-table decline of more than 15m, with greater declines up to 50m in most urban centres, such as Beijing, Tangshan, Shijiangzhuang and so forth in 1960-2000. The entire groundwater depletion area covers a total area of approximately 56,273 km2 , more than 40% of the North China Plain. The vast area of enormous groundwater exploitation in North China Plain will definitely unload the lithosphere and create stress perturbations, the problem is if the stresses change large enough to affect tectonic activities. In this essay, we set up a 3 dimensional numerical visco-elastic model to discuss the effect of groundwater over-pumping on the lithosphere deformation and stress state in North China Plain. Based on the records of total groundwater-table decline during 1960-2010 in North China Plain, we estimate the accumulated deformation and lithosphere stress due to unloading of human-induced groundwater depletion. The area in the model ranges from 34° To 42°N, and 112° To 119°E, including the major groundwater depression cones in North China Plain. According to the simulating result, the maximum surface vertical uplift caused by groundwater unloading is 8cm. Meanwhile cumulative horizontal crustal stress changes near the surface goes up to 100kPa, and up to 40kPa at 15km depth where most earthquakes occurred in this area. The tectonic compressive stress rate is about 0.25kPa per year. Therefore, the stress changes due to groundwater pumping is significant compared with the tectonic driven stress changes. As China developed rapidly since 1978, the groundwater table mainly declined after 1978. Taking the earthquake catalog in the vicinity of groundwater depression zone into consideration, we

  2. Dermatology nursing in the community: The Mitchell's Plain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    250 CME July 2013 Vol. 31 No. 7. Dermatology nursing in the community: The Mitchell's Plain experience. Dermatology is an important element of community nursing. J Stevens, RN, RM, CPN, PG Dip Derm Nursing. Clinical and Dermatology Nurse Practitioner, Mitchell's Plain Community Health Centre, Cape Town, South ...

  3. Analyzing the Various Approaches of Plain Language Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Betsy A., And Others

    1986-01-01

    Proposes a two-phase evaluation of the plain language laws that are designed to ensure that consumers can understand and use the personal business contracts they sign so that the best model for plain language legislation can be identified. (DF)

  4. Clinical and Plain Radiograph Pattern of Joint Dislocations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plain radiograph is an integral part of early assessment of patients' evaluation, though newer imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ... Conclusion: The shoulder joint is the most frequently dislocated and a conventional plain radiograph is still valuable as a first line investigative modality in ...

  5. Titanium mineral resources in heavy-mineral sands in the Atlantic coastal plain of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2018-04-16

    This study examined titanium distribution in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States; the titanium is found in heavy-mineral sands that include the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), or leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Deposits of heavy-mineral sands in ancient and modern coastal plains are a significant feedstock source for the titanium dioxide pigments industry. Currently, two heavy-mineral sands mining and processing operations are active in the southeast United States producing concentrates of ilmenite-leucoxene, rutile, and zircon. The results of this study indicate the potential for similar deposits in many areas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.This study used the titanium analyses of 3,457 stream sediment samples that were analyzed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Geochemical Survey program. This data set was analyzed by an integrated spatial modeling technique known as Bayesian hierarchical modeling to map the regional-scale, spatial distribution of titanium concentrations. In particular, clusters of anomalous concentrations of titanium occur: (1) along the Fall Zone, from Virginia to Alabama, where metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Piedmont region contact younger sediments of the Coastal Plain; (2) a paleovalley near the South Carolina and North Carolina border; (3) the upper and middle Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina; (4) the majority of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of Virginia; and (5) barrier islands and stretches of the modern shoreline from South Carolina to northeast Florida. The areas mapped by this study could help mining companies delimit areas for exploration.

  6. Winter Activity of Coastal Plain Populations of Bat Species Affected by White-Nose Syndrome and Wind Energy Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grider, John F; Larsen, Angela L; Homyack, Jessica A; Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina C

    2016-01-01

    Across the entire distribution of a species, populations may have variable responses to environmental perturbations. Many bat species experience mortality in large portions of their range during hibernation and along migratory paths to and from wintering grounds, from White-nose syndrome (WNS) and wind energy development, respectively. In some areas, warm temperatures may allow bats to remain active through winter, thus decreasing their susceptibility to WNS and/or mortality associated with migration to wintering grounds. These areas could act as a refugia and be important for the persistence of local populations. To determine if warmer temperatures affect bat activity, we compared year-round activity of bat populations in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina, USA, two regions that differ in winter temperature. We established six recording stations, four along a 295-kilometer north-south transect in the Coastal Plain, and two in the Piedmont of North Carolina. We recorded bat activity over two years. We supplemented our recordings with mist-net data. Although bat activity was lower during winter at all sites, the odds of recording a bat during winter were higher at Coastal Plain sites when compared with Piedmont sites. Further, bats in the Piedmont had a lower level of winter activity compared to summer activity than bats in the Coastal Plain that had more similar levels of activity in the winter and summer. We found high bat species richness on the Coastal Plain in winter, with winter-active species including those known to hibernate throughout most of their range and others known to be long distance migrants. In particular, two species impacted by WNS, the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) and tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus), were present year round in the Coastal Plain. The tricolored bat was also present year-round in the Piedmont. In the Coastal Plain, the long distance migratory hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) was active in the

  7. Winter Activity of Coastal Plain Populations of Bat Species Affected by White-Nose Syndrome and Wind Energy Facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Grider

    Full Text Available Across the entire distribution of a species, populations may have variable responses to environmental perturbations. Many bat species experience mortality in large portions of their range during hibernation and along migratory paths to and from wintering grounds, from White-nose syndrome (WNS and wind energy development, respectively. In some areas, warm temperatures may allow bats to remain active through winter, thus decreasing their susceptibility to WNS and/or mortality associated with migration to wintering grounds. These areas could act as a refugia and be important for the persistence of local populations. To determine if warmer temperatures affect bat activity, we compared year-round activity of bat populations in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina, USA, two regions that differ in winter temperature. We established six recording stations, four along a 295-kilometer north-south transect in the Coastal Plain, and two in the Piedmont of North Carolina. We recorded bat activity over two years. We supplemented our recordings with mist-net data. Although bat activity was lower during winter at all sites, the odds of recording a bat during winter were higher at Coastal Plain sites when compared with Piedmont sites. Further, bats in the Piedmont had a lower level of winter activity compared to summer activity than bats in the Coastal Plain that had more similar levels of activity in the winter and summer. We found high bat species richness on the Coastal Plain in winter, with winter-active species including those known to hibernate throughout most of their range and others known to be long distance migrants. In particular, two species impacted by WNS, the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis and tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus, were present year round in the Coastal Plain. The tricolored bat was also present year-round in the Piedmont. In the Coastal Plain, the long distance migratory hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus

  8. Drought tolerant (DT) and non-DT corn production under center pivot irrigation in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) for feed is an important crop in the Texas High Plains region. However, it requires more water than the other major crops grown in the area to maximize grain yields. Pumping water for agriculture from the declining Ogallala Aquifer is of concern and improving irrigation water use ...

  9. Vulnerability of crops and native grasses to summer drying in the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Southern Great Plains are characterized by a fine-scale mixture of different land cover types, predominantly winter-wheat and pasture lands, with relatively small areas of other crops, native prairie, and switchgrass. Recent droughts and predictions of increased drought (especially during the s...

  10. Vulnerability of grazing and confined livestock in the Northern Great Plains to projected mid- and late- 21st century climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Northern Great Plains (NGP) region – Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota and Nebraska – is a largely rural area that provides important agricultural and ecological services, including biological diversity. The NGP is projected to experience rising atmospheric CO2, warming and ...

  11. Potential hydrothermal resource temperatures in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanashayam Neupane; Earl D. Mattson; Cody J. Cannon; Trevor A. Atkinson; Travis L. McLing; Thomas R. Wood; Patrick F. Dobson; Mark E. Conrad

    2016-02-01

    The Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) in southern Idaho is a region of high heat flow. Sustained volcanic activities in the wake of the passage of the Yellowstone Hotspot have turned this region into an area with great potential for geothermal resources as evidenced by numerous hot springs scattered along the margins of the plain and several hot-water producing wells and hot springs within the plain. Despite these thermal expressions, it is hypothesized that the pervasive presence of an overlying groundwater aquifer in the region effectively masks thermal signatures of deep-seated geothermal resources. The dilution of deeper thermal water and re-equilibration at lower temperature are significant challenges for the evaluation of potential resource areas in the ESRP. Over the past several years, we collected approximately 100 water samples from springs/wells for chemical analysis as well as assembled existing water chemistry data from literature. We applied several geothermometric and geochemical modeling tools to these chemical compositions of ESRP water samples. Geothermometric calculations based on principles of multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry with inverse geochemical modeling capability (e.g., Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) have been useful for the evaluation of reservoir temperatures. RTEst geothermometric calculations of ESRP thermal water samples indicated numerous potential geothermal areas with elevated reservoir temperatures. Specifically, areas around southern/southwestern side of the Bennett Hills and within the Camas Prairies in the western-northwestern regions of the ESRP and its margins suggest temperatures in the range of 140-200°C. In the northeastern portions of the ESRP, Lidy Hot Springs, Ashton, Newdale, and areas east of Idaho Falls have expected reservoir temperature =140 °C. In the southern ERSP, areas near Buhl and Twin Falls are found to have elevated temperatures as high as 160 °C. These areas are likely to host

  12. Coastal inundation risk assessment due to subsidence and sea level rise in a Mediterranean alluvial plain (Volturno coastal plain - southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciro Aucelli, Pietro Patrizio; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Incontri, Pietro; Rizzo, Angela; Vilardo, Giuseppe; Benassai, Guido; Buonocore, Berardino; Pappone, Gerardo

    2017-11-01

    Interdisciplinary studies of the last years highlight that the Italian coasts are significantly subject to retreat and to inundation by sea ingression due to natural and anthropic causes. In this study, the effects of future relative sea level have been evaluated for the Volturno River Plain, one of the widest coastal plain in southern Italy. The plain is characterized by high economical and ecological value, for the presence of farm activities, tourist structures and wetland protected zones. The study area is potentially prone to coastal flooding due to its very low topography and because it is affected by a severe subsidence, which emphasize the local effect of sea level rise due to the ongoing climate changes. In accordance with the guidelines of the MEDFLOOD project, the areas prone to inundation in the years 2065 and 2100 have been evaluated by comparing the future topographical information and expected relative sea level scenarios. The local Vertical Ground Displacements have been derived by PS-InSAR processing data whilst the mean values of the scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 provided by the IPCC (2014) have been used as future sea level projections in 2065 and 2100. The PS-InSar data elaboration shows that the area affected by subsidence corresponds to 35% of the Volturno plain and that the annual rate of the phenomenon ranges between -1 and -25 mm/yr. The inundation analysis, based on the classification of the areas in four hazard classes, indicates that in 2065 the zones located below the sea level will increase approximately of 50% respect to the present conditions, while between 2065 and 2100 the increase can be at least of 60% (IPCC, RCP 8.5 scenarios). Considering the socio-economical and ecological exposure, evaluated following the EUROSION project guidelines, the coastal flooding risk maps have been produced. Almost 8.2 km2 and 14.4 km2 of the investigated area has to be considered subject to very high marine inundation risk in 2065 and 2100

  13. Spatial analysis of health risk assessment with arsenic intake of drinking water in the LanYang plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. F.; Liang, C. P.; Jang, C. S.; Chen, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is one of the most component water resources in Lanyang plain. The groundwater of the Lanyang Plain contains arsenic levels that exceed the current Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (Taiwan EPA) limit of 10 μg/L. The arsenic of groundwater in some areas of the Lanyang Plain pose great menace for the safe use of groundwater resources. Therefore, poor water quality can adversely impact drinking water uses, leading to human health risks. This study analyzed the potential health risk associated with the ingestion of arsenic-affected groundwater in the arseniasis-endemic Lanyang plain. Geostatistical approach is widely used in spatial variability analysis and distributions of field data with uncertainty. The estimation of spatial distribution of the arsenic contaminant in groundwater is very important in the health risk assessment. This study used indicator kriging (IK) and ordinary kriging (OK) methods to explore the spatial variability of arsenic-polluted parameters. The estimated difference between IK and OK estimates was compared. The extent of arsenic pollution was spatially determined and the Target cancer risk (TR) and dose response were explored when the ingestion of arsenic in groundwater. Thus, a zonal management plan based on safe groundwater use is formulated. The research findings can provide a plan reference of regional water resources supplies for local government administrators and developing groundwater resources in the Lanyang Plain.

  14. Retention of riverine sediment and nutrient loads by coastal plain floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, G.B.; Hupp, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the frequent citation of wetlands as effective regulators of water quality, few quantitative estimates exist for their cumulative retention of the annual river loads of nutrients or sediments. Here we report measurements of sediment accretion and associated carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation as sedimentation over feldspar marker horizons placed on floodplains of the non-tidal, freshwater Coastal Plain reaches of seven rivers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, USA. We then scale these accumulation rates to the entire extent of non-tidal floodplain in the Coastal Plain of each river, defined as riparian area extending from the Fall Line to the upper limit of tidal influence, and compare them to annual river loads. Floodplains accumulated a very large amount of material compared to their annual river loads of sediment (median among rivers = 119%), nitrogen (24%), and phosphorus (59%). Systems with larger floodplain areas and longer floodplain inundation retained greater proportions of riverine loads of nitrogen and phosphorus, but systems with larger riverine loads retained a smaller proportion of that load on floodplains. Although the source and long-term fate of deposited sediment and associated nutrients are uncertain, these fluxes represent the interception of large amounts of material that otherwise could have been exported downstream. Coastal Plain floodplain ecosystems are important regulators of sediment, carbon, and nutrient transport in watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay.

  15. The foraging behaviour of herons and egrets on the Magela Creek flood plain, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recher, H.F.; Holmes, R.T.

    1982-03-01

    Five species of diurnal herons are common on the Magela Creek flood plain and forage along the edges of natural and artifical waterbodies both inside and outside the Ranger Uranium Project Area. The species of heron differ in the kinds and sizes of prey they take, their foraging location, degree of sociality and foraging behaviour. Because it takes relatively large fish, the Great Egret, E. alba, is most likely to be affected by any contamination of the aquatic environment by heavy metals or radionuclides. The Nankeen Night Heron, Nycticorax caledonicus is also abundant on the flood plain and probably feeds on large fish and frogs. The other herons take smaller or immature prey or hunt mostly in terrestrial habitats and are therefore less likely to be affected by contamination of the aquatic environment

  16. Electrical structure of Plaine des Sables caldera, Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Reunion Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Schnegg

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available An Audio Magnetotelluric (AMT profile has been carried out across the Plaine des Sables, a former caldera of the active Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island. Located in the Western Indian Ocean, between the Mascarene and Madagascar basins, this basaltic shield volcano originates from the activity of a hot spot. Our aim was to determine the internal structure of the volcano, in particular the shallow electrical properties of an area extending between the old and the new caldera rims. Although several teams had already conducted AMT work in this region a few years ago, there was a need for more a detailed, in depth survey. Our final model displays a noticeable slope of the Plaine des Sables basement oriented toward the present Fournaise summit. This slope is interpreted as resulting from successive landslides toward the ocean. We conclude that this dipping, electrically good conducting layer, probably belongs to the flat layering of an older caldera.

  17. How to distinguish between bleeding and coagulated extradural hematomas on the plain CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, O.F.; Espersen, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    Four types of extradural hematoma could be separated at examination of the plain CT scan in 54 extradural hematomas. Two major groups appear: the still bleeding hematoma showing either generally low attenuation values of ''holes'', and a coagulated homogenous type with generally high attenuation values. The attenuation values of the bleeding-liquid part of hematoma - were correlated to hemoglobin concentration in blood, to which clots were not related. Seven extradural hematomas grew and coagulated on repeated preoperative CT scans. In two cases intravenous contrast was given to the bleeding type of hematoma, and the contrast media appeared in ''holes'', but not in areas of high attenuation value. It is easy to distinguish between the different types of hematoma on the plain CT scan, and the separation by eye between the still bleeding and the coagulated extradural hematoma seems reliable. (orig.)

  18. A New Strategy to Land Precisely on the Northern Plains of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yang; Huertas, Andres

    2010-01-01

    During the Phoenix mission landing site selection process, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images revealed widely spread and dense rock fields in the northern plains. Automatic rock mapping and subsequent statistical analyses showed 30-90% CFA (cumulative fractional area) covered by rocks larger than 1 meter in dense rock fields around craters. Less dense rock fields had 5-30% rock coverage in terrain away from craters. Detectable meter-scale boulders were found nearly everywhere. These rocks present a risk to spacecraft safety during landing. However, they are the most salient topographic features in this region, and can be good landmarks for spacecraft localization during landing. In this paper we present a novel strategy that uses abundance of rocks in northern plains for spacecraft localization. The paper discusses this approach in three sections: a rock-based landmark terrain relative navigation (TRN) algorithm; the TRN algorithm feasibility; and conclusions.

  19. Evaluating the Potential of Groundwater Pollution in Kherran and Zoweircherry Plains through GIS-based DRASTIC Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Chitsazan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Zoweircherry and Kherran plains are located in the northeast ofAhwazin Khuzestan province. The water supply of these plains is a crucial issue and the quality of groundwater is also under the threat as a result of an increase in the use of agrochemicals. For this reason, assessing the vulnerability is an important factor in any policy-making decision for these plains. Focusing on this issue, this paper attempts to produce a groundwater vulnerability map for Zoweircherry and Kherran plains. The map is designed to show areas of highest potential for groundwater pollution on the basis of hydro-geological conditions and human impacts. Seven major hydro-geological factors (depth to water table, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, impact of vadose zone and hydraulic conductivity were incorporated into DRASTIC model and Geographical Information System (GIS was used to create a groundwater vulnerability map by overlaying the available hydro-geological data. The results of model exhibit that the west and southwest of the aquifer are dominated by medium vulnerability while small areas on northwest and east of the study area have no risk of pollution. Other parts of aquifer have low vulnerability. The nitrate analysis of groundwater samples shows that the existing nitrate on the west and southwest parts of aquifer is more than the existing nitrate on its other parts which, therefore, confirms the results of the vulnerability assessment.

  20. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Collin N; Kraemer, John D; Johnson, Andrea C; Mays, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized "plain" cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers' interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts.

  1. Tobacco plain packaging: Evidence based policy or public health advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, Neil; Russell, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In December 2012, Australia became the first country to require all tobacco products be sold solely in standardised or 'plain' packaging, bereft of the manufacturers' trademarked branding and colours, although retaining large graphic and text health warnings. Following the publication of Sir Cyril Chantler's review of the evidence on the effects of plain tobacco packaging, the Ministers of the United Kingdom Parliament voted in March 2015 to implement similar legislation. Support for plain packaging derives from the belief that tobacco products sold in plain packs have reduced appeal and so are more likely to deter young people and non-smokers from starting tobacco use, and more likely to motivate smokers to quit and stay quit. This article considers why support for the plain packaging policy has grown among tobacco control researchers, public health advocates and government ministers, and reviews Australian survey data that speak to the possible introductory effect of plain packaging on smoking prevalence within Australia. The article concludes by emphasising the need for more detailed research to be undertaken before judging the capacity of the plain packaging policy to deliver the multitude of positive effects that have been claimed by its most ardent supporters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Distribution, typology and assessment of degraded soils Piedmont Plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Kussainova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Identification of land degradation is essential to check the problem and to implement the remedial measures needed. The study area falls under parts of foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, that is an arid region in climate. Recent data on the status of study area refer to the 80s of the last century, and the intensive use of them led to a significant anthropogenic transformation. This study was carried out in 2015-2016 as part of a project aimed to study features and causes of land degradation in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan. Under the conditions of rainfed soil degradation manifests itself in the development of erosion processes, agro depletion of soils, reducing the productivity of agriculture. The use of land for irrigation often accompanied by secondary salinization. In this regard, at present there is need to assess current state of the soil, with the identification of changes in their properties as a result of the impact of various anthropogenic factors and creation of new electronic soil maps and applied the powerful capabilities of advanced remote sensing (RS and geographic information system (GIS techniques to identify the geomorphological units and degradation risk assessment. Satellite imagery in addition to the field and laboratory studies to identify salinity-induced soil degradation was adopted in this study. Morphological, chemical and physical characteristics of soils in degraded sites in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, were depicted. The main results of a thorough evaluation of soil degradation in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, are presented. The data revealed that extent of salinity-induced degradation was generally related to some physical properties of soil, uncontrolled livestock grazing and previous soil management practices. These results are useful as the basis for designing soil conservation and restoration programs, as a base line for evaluating the performance of conservation

  3. Surface deformation in the Western Coastal Plain of Taiwan after removal of groundwater withdrawal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K.; Ching, K.

    2012-12-01

    The effect of widespread groundwater pumping has been proposed to be able to obscure the tectonic signals resulted from the movement of blind thrust faults, such as the metropolitan Los Angeles. In Taiwan, the tip of westward-propagating frontal blind thrust has been suggested to be located beneath the Western Coastal Plain by analyses of the horizontal GPS velocities and the geological uplift rates due to the convergence between the Philippine Sea and the Eurasian plates. However, the serious land subsidence has been consistently occurred in the Western Coastal Plain because of the artificial groundwater pumping for the development of agriculture. The most significant subsidence rate is observed up to 109.4 mm/yr. This effect may disturb the pattern of the surface horizontal velocities caused by the movement of blind thrust. As a result, ignoring the groundwater withdrawal effects will make misunderstandings on the assessment of location and kinematic characteristics of the blind thrust in western Taiwan by analysis of horizontal velocities only. In this study, to obtain a reasonable horizontal velocity field for evaluating the fault behavior in western Taiwan, we therefore used more than 704 precise leveling measurements and 20 continuous GPS observations between 2000 and 2008 in the Western Coastal Plain of Taiwan to estimate and correct the effects of groundwater pumping from horizontal velocities. The distribution of subsidence rates in this area shows a concentric-circle-like pattern with the peak subsidence rates of over 80 and 90 mm/yr at the northeastern and center area of the plain. Next, we will invert the vertical velocities for the land subsidence rate resulted from the groundwater withdrawal, using a dislocation model and a tentative mogi-source model in an elastic half-space material. The accuracy of these tentative models will also be assessed in this study. Then the corrections of horizontal velocities will be provided from this model to help us

  4. Risk Modelling of Late Spring Frost Damage on Fruit Trees, Case Study; Apple Tree, Mashhad Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rahimi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mashhad plain is one of the most important regions of Apple cultivated areas. Occurring spring late frost creates a lot of damages on bud and decreasing the yield of Apple in this region. Assessment and risk modeling of frost damage would be useful to manage and decrease the damage. The study area is a part of Khorasan Razavi province which is located in Mashhad plain. This region is located in Northeast Iran (36º to 37 º N, 58 º 30' to 60 º E. The area of this region is about 13000 square km which is about one tenth of Khorasan province area. In order to modeling frost damage risk 12 affective parameters including climatological(Minimum temperature, temperature decreasing rate, temperature Increasing rate, Julian days of frost, cumulative degree days, Area under zero line, and frost duration and geographical parameters (Elevation, Longitude, Latitude, Aspect, and slope were selected. 3 damage full radiative frosts were selected in the period of Apple flowering time which was dated 20 April 2003, 8 April 2005, and 28 March 2005. Required meteorological data were collected from 9 meteorological standard stations inside and outside of study area. Linear multiple regression were used to modeling the relationship. The map for each parameter was plotted by using suitable interpolation method including IDW; Spline; Kriging. A grid map was defined with 5 by 5 kilometers to extract enough data for entering to the model. The regression equation was significant at the level of 99% significance. By using this equation the predicted amounts of frost risk damage were calculated for each point of grid and also the map was plotted. The regression equation of observed and predicted frost damage risk was provided by correlation of 0.93 and the error map also was prepared. According to this study in frost of 31 Farvardin 1388 South West parts of the plain estimated as the most frost risk areas by %53.19 and the southeast parts were estimated as the least

  5. Sustainable Authorship in Plain Text using Pandoc and Markdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Tenen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this tutorial, you will first learn the basics of Markdown—an easy to read and write markup syntax for plain text—as well as Pandoc, a command line tool that converts plain text into a number of beautifully formatted file types: PDF, .docx, HTML, LaTeX, slide decks, and more.1 With Pandoc as your digital typesetting tool, you can use Markdown syntax to add figures, a bibliography, formatting, and easily change citation styles from Chicago to MLA (for instance, all using plain text.

  6. Summary of the Snake River plain Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in Idaho and eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    smallest, about 50 milligrams per liter, in streams such as the Boise River that drain areas of granitic rocks; concentrations are greatest, about 400 milligrams per liter, in streams such as the Owyhee and Raft Rivers that drain area of sedimentary rocks. Water chemistry reflects the interaction of surface water and ground water. The chemical composition of ground water in the plain is essentially the same as that in streamflow and groundwater discharge from tributary drainage basins. Tributary drainage basins supplied 85 percent of the ground-water recharge in the eastern plain during 1980 and a nearly equivalent percentage of the solute load in ground water; human activities and dissolution of minerals supplied the other solutes. Dissolved-solids concentrations in ground water were generally less than 400 milligrams per liter. Water from the lower geothermal system is chemically different from water from the upper cold-water system. Geothermal water typically has greater concentrations of sodium, bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, silica, arsenic, boron, and lithium and smaller concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and hydrogen. Difference are attributed to ion exchange as geothermal moves through the rock framework. Irrigation, mostly on the Snake River Plain, accounted for about 96 percent of consumptive water use in Idaho during 1980. The use of surface water for irrigation for more than 100 years has caused major changes in the hydrologic system on the plain. Construction of dams, reservoirs, and diversifications effected planned changes in the surface-water system but resulted in largely unplanned changes in the ground-water system. During those years of irrigation, annual recharge in the main part of the eastern plain increased to about 6.7 million acre-feet in 1980, or by about 70 percent. Most of the increase was from percolation of surface water diverted for irrigation. From preirrigation to 1952, groundwater storage increased about 24 million acre

  7. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters. Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about 31

  8. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task

  9. Hydrology, vegetation, and soils of four north Florida River flood plains with an evaluation of state and federal wetland determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, H.M.; Darst, M.R.; MacLaughlin, M.T.; Sprecher, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    A study of hydrologic conditions, vegetation, and soils was made in wetland forests of four north Florida streams from 1987 to 1990. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation to support State and Federal efforts to improve wetland delineation methodology in flood plains. Plant communities and soils were described and related to topographic position and long-term hydrologic conditions at 10 study plots located on 4 streams. Detailed appendixes give average duration, frequency, and depth of flooding; canopy, subcanopy, and ground-cover vegetation; and taxonomic classification, series, and profile descriptions of soils for each plot. Topographic relief, range in stage, and depth of flooding were greatest on the alluvial flood plain of the Ochlockonee River, the largest of the four streams. Soils were silty in the lower elevations of the flood plain, and tree communities were distinctly different in each topographic zone. The Aucilla River flood plain was dominated by levees and terraces with very few depressions or low backwater areas. Oaks dominated the canopy of both lower and upper terraces of the Aucilla flood plain. Telogia Creek is a blackwater stream that is a major tributary of the Ochlockonee River. Its low, wet flood plain was dominated by Wyssa ogeche (Ogeechee tupelo) trees, had soils with mucky horizons, and was inundated by frequent floods of very short duration. The St. Marks River, a spring-fed stream with high base flow, had the least topographic relief and lowest range in stage of the four streams. St. Marks soils had a higher clay content than the other streams, and limestone bedrock was relatively close to the surface. Wetland determinations of the study plots based on State and Federal regulatory criteria were evaluated. Most State and Federal wetland determinations are based primarily on vegetation and soil characteristics because hydrologic records are usually not

  10. Trends in Playa Inundation and Water Storage in the Ogallala Aquifer on the Texas High Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Gitz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ogallala Aquifer is an important source of irrigation water on the Texas High plains; however, significant decreases in saturated thickness threaten its future use for irrigation. A better understanding of the roles of playas, ephemeral surface ponds, in aquifer recharge is needed to establish levels of withdrawals that will meet either established desired future conditions or sustainability. In this study, data regarding playa inundation, depth to groundwater, precipitation and land cover from 2001 to 2011 were collected and analyzed to ascertain associations between these characteristics for four study areas on the Texas High plains. Each area covered 40,000–70,000 ha. Three of the study areas in Hockley, Floyd and Swisher counties were chosen because their center contained a playa instrumented to measure weather and depth of inundation. There were 20 distinct inundation events at the three instrumented playas between 2006 and 2010. For each of these inundations, water loss exceeded rates of potential evapotranspiration (ET by a factor of 1.6–15.7 times, implying that infiltration was occurring. Playa inundation in all four study areas was also assessed by analyzing images from the National Agricultural Imaginary program. Data on depth to groundwater were analyzed from 2000 to 2010 to determine annual changes of stored water. Annual changes in groundwater were weakly associated with surface area of inundated playas in late summer, but was strongly associated with annual rainfall. Rates of infiltration based on playa water loss versus potential ET, and volume of water in playas was more than sufficient to account for annual changes in groundwater. Land use adjoining the playas had less of influence on playa inundation than annual rainfall. These results strengthen the argument that water storage in playas on the Texas High Plains is an important source of water for aquifer recharge.

  11. Mapping the northern plains of Mars: origins, evolution and response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balme, Matthew; Conway, Susan; Costard, François; Gallagher, Colman; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hauber, Ernst; Johnsson, Andreas; Kereszturi, Akos; Platz, Thomas; Ramsdale, Jason; Reiss, Dennis; Séjourné, Antoine; Skinner, James; Swirad, Zuzanna

    2014-05-01

    An ISSI (International Space Science Institute) international team has been convened to study the Northern Plain of Mars. The northern plains are extensive, geologically young, low-lying areas that contrast in age and relief to Mars' older, heavily cratered, southern highlands. Mars' northern plains are characterised by a wealth of landforms and landscapes that have been inferred to be related to the presence of ice or ice-rich material near, beneath, or at the surface. Such landforms include 'scalloped' pits and depressions, polygonally-patterned grounds, and viscous flow features similar in form to terrestrial glacial or ice-sheet landforms. Furthermore, new (within the last few years) impact craters have exposed ice in the northern plains, and spectral data from orbiting instruments have revealed the presence of tens of percent by weight of water within the upper most ~50 cm of the martian surface at high latitudes. The northern plains comprise three linked zones: Acidalia Planitia, Utopia Planitia and Arcadia Planitia. Each region consists of a shallow basin, with the three areas are separated by low topographic divides. Our aim is to study the ice-related geomorphology of each region in order to understand the origins, evolution and response to climate change of ice on Mars. In particular, by comparing and contrasting the three separate basins we hope to determine if the processes that created the ice-related terrains are regional (perhaps basin limited) or global in scope, and whether the differing geology of each basin has an effect on the ice-related features observed there. The ISSI team is using planetary geomorphological mapping to meet this aim. Three long strips, each about 250 km wide and spanning the ~30N to ~80N latitude range have been defined and sub-teams are each mapping a single area. The group contains experts in mapping, GIS and crater counting (details in the size-frequency distribution of impact craters on a planetary surface can reveal

  12. Placentation in the plains zebra (Equus quagga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W R Twink; Stansfield, Fiona; Wilsher, Sandra

    2017-10-01

    The placenta and fetal gonads of 12 pregnant plains zebra (Equus quagga), estimated to be between 81 and 239 days of gestation, were examined. The diffuse, microcotyledonary zebra placenta appeared, developmentally, to be 3-4 weeks behind its counterpart in horse pregnancy and this, together with the presence of small and long-lived endometrial cups, low levels of zebra chorionic gonadotrophin in maternal serum and few accessory corpora lutea in the maternal ovaries during the first half of gestation, made zebra pregnancy more similar to donkey than horse pregnancy. Zebra fetal gonads enlarged after 80 days of gestation and their interstitial cells stained positively for 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17,20 lyase steroid enzymes while the trophoblast stained for aromatase. This confirmed that zebra fetal gonads, like those of the horse and donkey, can synthesise C19 androgens, which can then be aromatised by the placenta to C18 oestrogens. It is remarkable that such unusual feto-placental mechanisms of production of gonadotrophic and steroid hormones has persisted unchanged within the genus Equus despite the many physical adaptations and the considerable loss of chromosomes that have occurred during the evolution of its member species.

  13. Nonlinear Dynamical Analysis for a Plain Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Belhamra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the nonlinear dynamic behavior for a plain classic bearing (fluid bearing lubricated by a non-Newtonian fluid of a turbo machine rotating with high speed; this type of fluid contains additives viscosity (couple-stress fluid film. The solution of the nonlinear dynamic problem of this type of bearing is determined with a spatial discretisation of the modified Reynolds' equation written in dynamic mode by using the optimized short bearing theory and a temporal discretisation for equations of rotor motion by the help of Euler's explicit diagram. This study analyzes the dynamic behavior of a rotor supported by two couple-stress fluid film journal lubricant enhances the dynamic stability of the rotor-bearing system considerably compared to that obtained when using a traditional Newtonian lubricant. The analysis shows that the dynamic behavior of a shaft which turns with high velocities is strongly nonlinear even for poor eccentricities of unbalance; the presence of parameters of couple stress allows strongly attenuating the will synchrony (unbalance and asynchrony (whipping amplitudes of vibrations of the shaft which supports more severe conditions (large unbalances.

  14. Moessbauer studies on ancient Jizhon plain Temmoku porcelains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhengfang; Zheng Yufang; Lin Yongqiang

    1994-01-01

    Three kinds of ancient Jizhou plain Temmoku wares and their several ware-making raw materials were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The firing technique of ancient Jizhou Temmoku porcelains is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Study on ecological regulation of coastal plain sluice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wengong; Geng, Bing; Yu, Huanfei; Yu, Hongbo

    2018-02-01

    Coastal plains are densely populated and economically developed, therefore their importance is self-evident. However, there are some problems related with water in coastal plains, such as low flood control capacity and severe water pollution. Due to complicated river network hydrodynamic force, changeable flow direction and uncertain flood concentration and propagation mechanism, it is rather difficult to use sluice scheduling to realize flood control and tackle water pollution. On the base of the measured hydrological data during once-in-a-century Fitow typhoon in 2013 in Yuyao city, by typical analysis, theoretical analysis and process simulation, some key technologies were researched systematically including plain river network sluice ecological scheduling, “one tide” flood control and drainage scheduling and ecological running water scheduling. In the end, single factor health diagnostic evaluation, unit hydrograph of plain water level and evening tide scheduling were put forward.

  16. Intracavitary pulmonary aspergilloma: comparison of CT with plain chest radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chun Hwan; Im, Jung Gi; Yu, Eun Ju; Han, Man Chung

    1991-01-01

    Saprophytic intracavitary fungus ball is the most common form of pulmonary involvement of aspergillosis. Crescent-shaped air shadow surrounded by a creativity wall is known to be a characteristic of pulmonary aspergilloma on plain chest radiograph. However, in case of early lesion in which intracavitary aspergilloma is overlapped with adjacent destroyed lung or mediastinal and hilar density, the air meniscus can not be demonstrated on plain radiograph. In such a case, CT scan might provide additional information that suggests fungus ball. The aim of this study is to describe the variable CT appearances of pulmonary aspergilloma in addition to air meniscus sign and to correlate the findings on CT with those of plain radiograph and pathology. The diagnosis of intracavitary aspergilloma was suggested on both CT and plain radiograph in case that air-meniscus sign was visible. CT scans could add more diagnostic information over chest radiographs such as small peripheral air density or sponge-like air shadow

  17. Analysis of High Plains Resource Risk and Economic Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dealy, Bern Caudill [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaneyfelt, Calvin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Braeton James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moreland, Barbara Denise [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the High Plains Aquifer is broadly recognized as is its vulnerability to continued overuse. T his study e xplore s how continued depletions of the High Plains Aquifer might impact both critical infrastructure and the economy at the local, r egional , and national scale. This analysis is conducted at the county level over a broad geographic region within the states of Kansas and Nebraska. In total , 140 counties that overlie the High Plains Aquifer in these two states are analyzed. The analysis utilizes future climate projections to estimate crop production. Current water use and management practices are projected into the future to explore their related impact on the High Plains Aquifer , barring any changes in water management practices, regulat ion, or policy. Finally, the impact of declining water levels and even exhaustion of groundwater resources are projected for specific sectors of the economy as well as particular elements of the region's critical infrastructure.

  18. The innovation of nuclear science and technology supporting for the central plains economic zone construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the nuclear agronomy support for the central plains economic zone construction, radiation chemical new material support for the central plains economic zone construction, nuclear medical support for the central plains economic zone construction, nuclear instrument and meter industry support for the central plains economic zone construction and the development trend of related disciplines. (author)

  19. The Great Plains IDEA Gerontology Program: An Online, Interinstitutional Graduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gregory F.

    2011-01-01

    The Great-Plains IDEA Gerontology Program is a graduate program developed and implemented by the Great Plains Interactive Distance Education Alliance (Great Plains IDEA). The Great Plains IDEA (Alliance) originated as a consortium of Colleges of Human Sciences ranging across the central United States. This Alliance's accomplishments have included…

  20. Pharmacokinetic study of a new oral buffered acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) formulation in comparison with plain ASA in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, G; Garagiola, U; Gaspari, F

    1991-01-01

    A single-blind, randomized, crossover pharmacokinetic study was carried out to investigate the bioavailability of a new oral buffered 325 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) formulation (ASPIRINA 03) in comparison with a 325 mg plain tablet. Twelve healthy volunteers of both sexes, aged between 20 and 37 years, received buffered or plain ASA on two separate occasions with a wash-out interval of at least two weeks. ASA and salicylic acid (SA) plasma levels were determined by a chromatographic method. The results showed no difference between the area under concentration time curve (AUC0-infinity) ASA values of both formulations (p = 0.19), and buffered ASA relative bioavailability was 102.49% (= bioequivalence). A significant difference was found between the AUC0-30 min ASA values: 90.5 micrograms. min/ml with buffered and 67.7 micrograms. min/ml with the plain tablet (p less than 0.05). The buffered ASA time of maximum concentration was shorter (28 +/- 8 min) than the plain one (38 +/- 19 min, p less than 0.05). The plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters of SA were not significantly different after the administration of the two ASA formulations. The plain ASA tablet had a significantly lower (p less than 0.05) dissolution rate than buffered ASA tablet. Moreover, the buffered ASA tablet significantly (p less than 0.01) increased the pH by 0.5 units. In conclusion, the bioavailability of the new oral buffered ASA was equivalent to that of plain ASA, but the plasma concentration peak was reached in a shorter time.

  1. Estimating occurrence and detection probabilities for stream-breeding salamanders in the Gulf Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Jennifer Y.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Qualls, Carl P.

    2017-01-01

    Large gaps exist in our knowledge of the ecology of stream-breeding plethodontid salamanders in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Data describing where these salamanders are likely to occur along environmental gradients, as well as their likelihood of detection, are important for the prevention and management of amphibian declines. We used presence/absence data from leaf litter bag surveys and a hierarchical Bayesian multispecies single-season occupancy model to estimate the occurrence of five species of plethodontids across reaches in headwater streams in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Average detection probabilities were high (range = 0.432–0.942) and unaffected by sampling covariates specific to the use of litter bags (i.e., bag submergence, sampling season, in-stream cover). Estimates of occurrence probabilities differed substantially between species (range = 0.092–0.703) and were influenced by the size of the upstream drainage area and by the maximum proportion of the reach that dried. The effects of these two factors were not equivalent across species. Our results demonstrate that hierarchical multispecies models successfully estimate occurrence parameters for both rare and common stream-breeding plethodontids. The resulting models clarify how species are distributed within stream networks, and they provide baseline values that will be useful in evaluating the conservation statuses of plethodontid species within lotic systems in the Gulf Coastal Plain.

  2. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities.

  3. Assessment of the Effect of Fruit (Apple and Plain Yoghurt Consumption on Plaque pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyvand Moeiny

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, thanks to improvements in fruit yoghurt tastes, more tendencies are seen in their consumption especially among children. Therefore, their cariogenicity evaluation as healthy snacks is important. The goal of this study was the assessment of the consumption effect of two kinds of Iranian fruit (apple and plain yoghurts on dental plaque PH. Methods: In this experimental study, 10 healthy dentistry students were selected upon inclusion criteria. Plaque pH in the certain areas of the mouth was measured by microelectrode and digital pH meter. PH was measured at the baseline and intervals of 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes after eating test products: fruit yoghurt (apple and plain Yoghurt. For positive control group, just the baseline PH and at intervals of 2 and 5 min after swishing with 10% sucrose solutions were recorded. The results were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Lowest pH was obtained after fruit yoghurt consumption followed by plain yoghurt and %10 sucrose solution and the plaque PH difference was significant (P=0.05. Furthermore, time duration which remained below the critical pH was longer after consuming fruit yoghurt. Conclusion: Both kinds of yoghurts were considered cariogenic since plaque pH drop below critical points. Average of plaque pH after consuming fruit yoghurt was significantly lower in almost all the time intervals

  4. Moored current meter data from the Madeira Abyssal Plain (GME). 1. deployment (1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    Near bottom current have been measured at three closely spaced sites in the N.E. Atlantic for 13 months. Locations were selected in the Great Meteor East study site area, near 31 0 30'N 25 0 W, one on the abyssal plain, one on top of a small abyssal hill about 400 m high and one on its flank just above the plain. Current meters were moored 10, 100, and 1000 m above the local bottom (5438 m, 5398 m and 4999 m) in January 1984 and recovered in February 1985. This report displays the characteristics of the currents in numerous tables and figures. In the mean they ar found to be very weak and though adjacent moorings are separated by only 12 km and 27 km the year-long current directions differ radically. Current variations are principally due to semi-diurnal tides, inertial oscillations and eddies the latter of which migrate over the moorings. The tidal energy meets expectations as does the eddy energy with magnitude 2-3 cm 2 s -2 . Horizontal (isopycnal) diffusivity is estimated as about 2x10 2 m 2 s -1 . Currents 10 m above the bottom exceed 10 cm/s least frequently on the plain and most frequently at the hill-foot. The influence of the hill is surprisingly large. At all three sites the strongest currents are found near the sea bed. Speeds also show a Weibull distribution and rough 50 year return currents are inferred. (author)

  5. Land change variability and human-environment dynamics in the United States Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Mark A.; Auch, Roger F.; Karstensen, Krista A.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Taylor, Janis L.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes have complex linkages to climate variability and change, biophysical resources, and socioeconomic driving forces. To assess these land change dynamics and their causes in the Great Plains, we compare and contrast contemporary changes across 16 ecoregions using Landsat satellite data and statistical analysis. Large-area change analysis of agricultural regions is often hampered by change detection error and the tendency for land conversions to occur at the local-scale. To facilitate a regional-scale analysis, a statistical sampling design of randomly selected 10 km × 10 km blocks is used to efficiently identify the types and rates of land conversions for four time intervals between 1973 and 2000, stratified by relatively homogenous ecoregions. Nearly 8% of the overall Great Plains region underwent land-use and land-cover change during the study period, with a substantial amount of ecoregion variability that ranged from less than 2% to greater than 13%. Agricultural land cover declined by more than 2% overall, with variability contingent on the differential characteristics of regional human–environment systems. A large part of the Great Plains is in relatively stable land cover. However, other land systems with significant biophysical and climate limitations for agriculture have high rates of land change when pushed by economic, policy, technology, or climate forcing factors. The results indicate the regionally based potential for land cover to persist or fluctuate as land uses are adapted to spatially and temporally variable forcing factors.

  6. Evaluation of a method of assessing faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, S.C.; Sullivan, P.B.; McHugh, K.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Childhood constipation is common and assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and commonly used to assess constipation. The role of radiography with the use of a simple scoring system has not been fully evaluated. Objective. To assess the reliability of scoring faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children with intractable constipation. Materials and methods. Plain abdominal radiographs from 33 constipated and 67 control children were independently assessed by three observers on two separate occasions. A scoring system was devised with scores from 0 (no stool) to 5 (gross faecal loading with bowel dilatation) in three areas of the colon, giving a total score of 0-15. Results. There were significant differences between the scores of the constipated and control radiographs for each observer (P = 0.05). There was no intra-observer variation (P = 0.12-0.69), but significant inter-observer variation was demonstrated (P = 0.00). Conclusions. We have found this scoring system to be a clinically useful and a reproducible tool in assessing childhood constipation. Assessment of faecal loading is subjective and varies between observers, although one observer will consistently score faecal loading on the same radiograph on successive occasions. To limit exposure to ionising radiation, we recommend that radiography be reserved for the investigation of intractable constipation, and its accuracy is improved if all radiographs are scored by the same observer. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of a method of assessing faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leech, S.C.; Sullivan, P.B. [Dept. of Paediatrics, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); McHugh, K. [Department of Radiology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1999-04-01

    Background. Childhood constipation is common and assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and commonly used to assess constipation. The role of radiography with the use of a simple scoring system has not been fully evaluated. Objective. To assess the reliability of scoring faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children with intractable constipation. Materials and methods. Plain abdominal radiographs from 33 constipated and 67 control children were independently assessed by three observers on two separate occasions. A scoring system was devised with scores from 0 (no stool) to 5 (gross faecal loading with bowel dilatation) in three areas of the colon, giving a total score of 0-15. Results. There were significant differences between the scores of the constipated and control radiographs for each observer (P = 0.05). There was no intra-observer variation (P = 0.12-0.69), but significant inter-observer variation was demonstrated (P = 0.00). Conclusions. We have found this scoring system to be a clinically useful and a reproducible tool in assessing childhood constipation. Assessment of faecal loading is subjective and varies between observers, although one observer will consistently score faecal loading on the same radiograph on successive occasions. To limit exposure to ionising radiation, we recommend that radiography be reserved for the investigation of intractable constipation, and its accuracy is improved if all radiographs are scored by the same observer. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs.

  8. Achieving conservation goals in managed forests of the southeastern coastal plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehle, Craig; Wigley, T Bently; Schilling, Erik; Tatum, Vickie; Beebe, John; Vance, Eric; Van Deusen, Paul; Weatherford, Philip

    2009-12-01

    Managed forests are a primary land use within the Coastal Plain of the southern United States. These forests are generally managed under standards, guidelines, or regulations to conserve ecosystem functions and services. Economic value of commercial forests provides incentives for landowners to maintain forests rather than convert them to other uses that have substantially reduced environmental benefits. In this review, we describe the historical context of commercial forest management in the southern United States Coastal Plain, describe how working forests are managed today, and examine relationships between commercial forest management and maintenance of functional aquatic and wetland systems and conservation of biological diversity. Significant challenges for the region include increasing human population and urbanization and concomitant changes in forest area and structure, invasive species, and increased interest in forest biomass as an energy feedstock. Research needs include better information about management of rare species and communities and quantification of relationships between ecosystem attributes and forest management, including biomass production and harvest. Incentives and better information may help commercial forest managers in the Coastal Plain more efficiently contribute to landscape-scale conservation goals.

  9. No (more) logo: plain packaging and communicative agency

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Pottage

    2013-01-01

    The tobacco industry’s archives suggest that the global campaign for the plain packaging of tobacco products originated in 1986, when the Canadian Medical Association passed a resolution calling for cigarettes to be sold in packages bearing only a brand name and the health message ‘this product is injurious to your health’. In most jurisdictions, regulations requiring the apposition of health warnings to cigarette packs have been in force for decades. Proposals for plain packaging aim to go f...

  10. Classification of irrigated land using satellite imagery, the High Plains aquifer, nominal date 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Sharon L.; Konduris, Alexandria; Litke, David W.; Dupree, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (nominal date 1992) was used to classify and map the location of irrigated land across the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a waterquality study of the High Plains aquifer as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. To help interpret data and select sites for the study, it is helpful to know the location of irrigated land within the study area. To date, the only information available for the entire area is 20 years old. To update the data on irrigated land, 40 summer and 40 spring images (nominal date 1992) were acquired from the National Land Cover Data set and processed using a band-ratio method (Landsat Thematic Mapper band 4 divided by band 3) to enhance the vegetation signatures. The study area was divided into nine subregions with similar environmental characteristics, and a band-ratio threshold was selected from imagery in each subregion that differentiated the cutoff between irrigated and nonirrigated land. The classified images for each subregion were mosaicked to produce an irrigated land map for the study area. The total amount of irrigated land classified from the 1992 imagery was 13.1 million acres, or about 12 percent of the total land in the High Plains. This estimate is approximately 1.5 percent greater than the amount of irrigated land reported in the 1992 Census of Agriculture (12.8 millions acres). This information was also compared to a similar data set based on 1980 imagery. The 1980 data classified 13.7 million acres as irrigated. Although the change in the amount of irrigated land between the two times was not substantial, the location of the irrigated land did shift from areas where there were large ground-water-level declines to other areas where ground-water levels were static or rising.

  11. Paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain, Northern coast of Santa Catarina, SC, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Maria Cristina de; Angulo, Rodolfo Jose; angulo@geologia.ufpr.br; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to characterize the paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain during the Quaternary and to compare this evolution with other proposed models. To reach the objectives the area was mapped in scale 1:50.000, sub-surface information were obtained from geotechnical drillings and paleosea-levels were inferred by radiocarbon dating performed on vermetids tubes, wood fragments and shells of Anomalocardia brasiliana samples. The paleosea-level reconstructions are consistent with the sea level curve proposed in previous works. The evolution model for the Itapoa coastal plain proposed in this work is similar to the model proposed for the coastal plain of Paranagua. The paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain can be summarized as: formation of fans during Lower Miocene, with sea level similar or lower than the present one; island-barrier formation during the Upper Pleistocene transgression maximum; formation of extensive regressive barriers and later dissection by a rectangular pattern drainage system, during sea level low stand; island barrier formation during the Holocene transgression maximum, with inlets associated to the present mouth of Sai-Mirim and Sai-Guacu rivers; formation of extensive regressive barriers during falling sea level period. During the Holocene regression, spits grew northward, moving northward the estuarine inlets as well. This drift direction is the same that was suggested for Parana and Santa Catarina north coast. During regression until present the Sai-Mirim River has eroded the Holocene barrier inland portion, that probably caused the erosion of most of the Holocene transgressive barrier-islands. (author)

  12. Land subsidence in the Friuli Venezia Giulia coastal plain, Italy: 1992-2010 results from SAR-based interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Lio, Cristina; Tosi, Luigi

    2018-03-27

    Land subsidence is a concern in many coastal plains worldwide, particularly in the low-lying areas already facing sea level rise due to climate change, and much still needs to be done, with respect to both mapping land subsidence and gaining a comprehensive understanding of the relevant cause-effect relationships. Land subsidence of the northern coastal plain encompassing the Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG) region in Italy, remains, to the authors' knowledge, poorly investigated. This coastland includes low-lying agricultural and urban areas and highly valuable lagoon environments, archaeological and touristic sites, and industrial zones. Here, we resolve land subsidence in the coastal plain between the Tagliamento River delta and the Isonzo River mouth over the period 1992-2010 using Envisat ASAR and ERS1/2 interferometric datasets. We identify a large variability of the land subsidence and a spatial gradient that ranges from less than 1mm/year in the high southwestern plain toward the littoral to more than 5mm/year close to the Tagliamento River delta. A comparison between the 2003-2010 and 1992-2000 sinking rates depicts quite similar behaviors of the process over the two time spans. The analysis indicates unclear correlations between ground movements and the typical driving mechanisms acting in the north Adriatic coastal plains, such as the variability of the morphological setting, the subsoil characteristics and the land use. We reason that multi-component mechanisms contribute to the observed image of the subsidence in the FVG coastland. Specifically, anthropogenic activities, e.g., groundwater exploitations, hydraulic reclamations and the development of newly built-up areas, are superposed to natural mechanisms related to the spatial variability of the subsoil characteristics, typical of transitional coastal environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among Mexican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Seema; Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L; White, Christine M; Thrasher, James F

    2017-08-01

    Plain cigarette packaging, which seeks to remove all brand imagery and standardize the shape and size of cigarette packs, represents a novel policy measure to reduce the appeal of cigarettes. Plain packaging has been studied primarily in high-income countries like Australia and the UK. It is unknown whether the effects of plain packaging may differ in low-and-middle income countries with a shorter history of tobacco regulation, such as Mexico. An experimental study was conducted in Mexico City to examine perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among smoking and non-smoking Mexican adolescents (n = 359). Respondents were randomly assigned to a branded or plain pack condition and rated 12 cigarette packages for appeal, taste, harm to health and smoker-image traits. As a behavioral measure of appeal, respondents were offered (although not given) four cigarette packs (either branded or plain) and asked to select one to keep. The findings indicated that branded packs were perceived to be more appealing (β = 3.40, p packaging may reduce brand appeal among Mexican youth, consistent with findings in high-income countries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Collin N; Kraemer, John D; Johnson, Andrea C; Mays, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. PMID:25897269

  15. Genetic diversity affects testicular morphology in free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) of the Serengeti Plains and Ngorongoro Crater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, L; Brown, J L; Bush, M; Packer, C; Janssen, D; Reiziss, S M; Wildt, D E

    1996-09-01

    Reduced genetic variability is known to adversely affect ejaculate quality in inbred lions (Panthera leo) physically isolated in the Ngorongoro Crater compared with outbred lions inhabiting the adjacent Serengeti Plains in East Africa. This study compared the histomorphology of testicular biopsies from these two lion populations. Ngorongoro Crater lions had fewer (P 0.05) between populations. Interstitial areas were greater (P < 0.05) in Crater than in Plains lions, but no qualitative differences were evident, suggesting that proportionately less testicular area was occupied by seminiferous tubules in Crater lions. None of the lions in either population had evidence of testicular degeneration. Overall results suggest that inbred Crater lions have reduced spermiogenesis and less total seminiferous tubular area per testis. These data further support the premise that genetic homogeneity compromises reproductive traits in free-living, male African lions.

  16. Analysis and Development in Method of Permissible Working Hours of Agricultural Wells in the Khorasan-e-Razavi Province- Case study: Neyshabour Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Haghayeghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Permissible working hours of agricultural wells in the Neyshabour plain was determined equal 4120 hours by regional water authority of Khorasan-e-Razavi. This research was conducted to introduce method of working hours of agricultural wells in the Khorasan-e-Razavi province (case study of Neyshabour plain and analyse effective parameters on working time of wells. For this purpose, the area of agronomy and horticulture crops was obtained for the years of 2001 to 2010. Water requirement of these crops was extracted from the water national document. Working hours of wells for every months would be calculated by deviding gross irrigation requirement to average hydromodul of three maximum months. The calculations to assess the effect of sowing pattern was done separately in two phases, for all crops pattern and for major crops pattern. In the thirth and forth phases, the effect of annual variation of water requirement and irrigation hydromodul were assessed on the working hours of Neyshabour plain wells. The results showed that instead of using all crops pattern, it is possible to use just major crops in calculating of working hours of wells. Annual variation of sowing pattern and water requirement in the Neyshabour plain have significant effect (95% confidence on working hours of wells. By suppose the constant area under crops in the Neyshabour plain, adjust in calculating of working hours of wells was done using measured hydromodul in the region. In adjusted method, the annual working hours showed increase averagely 440 (11% hours in compare to permissible working hours of Neyshabour plain (4120 hours. This variety in working hours of wells cause to be near to existence and realy conditions of the Neyshabour plain. In an agronomy year, it is possible to have an acceptable forcasting for working hours of regional wells by determining the sowing area of wheat and barley.

  17. Spatial variability of the shallow groundwater level and its chemistry characteristics in the low plain around the Bohai Sea, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zaiming; Zhang, Guanghui; Yan, Mingjiang; Wang, Jinzhe

    2012-06-01

    To characterize the spatial distribution of groundwater level (GWL) and its chemistry characteristics in the low plain around the Bohai Sea, shallow groundwater depth of 130 wells were determined. Water soluble ions composition, total dissolved solid (TDS), electric conductivity (EC), total hardness (TH), total alkalinity (TA), and total salt content (TS) of 128 representative groundwater samples were also measured. Classical statistics, geostatistical method combined with GIS technique were then used to analyze the spatial variability and distribution of GWL and groundwater chemical properties. Results show that GWL, TDS, EC, TH, TA, and TS all presented a lognormal distribution and could be fitted by different semivariogram models (spherical, exponential, and Gaussian). Spatial structure of GWL, TDS, EC, TH, TA, and TS changed obviously. GWL decreased from west inland plain to the east coastal plain, however, TDS, EC, and TS increased from west to east, TH and TA were higher in the middle and coastal plain area. Groundwater chemical type in the coastal plain was SO (4) (2-) ·Cl(-)-Na(+) while chemical types in the inland plain were SO (4) (2-) ·Cl(-)-Ca(2+)·Mg(2+) and HCO (3) (-) -Ca(2+)·Mg(2+).

  18. Geo-archaeological aspects of the Modena plain (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriano Castaldini

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the various stages of geomorphological evolution of the plain area around Modena from the VIth millennium B.C.E. (Neolithic to the Present, through a reconstruction of the ancient landscape and human settlements.By means of a GIS platform, geomorphological investigations led to the implementation of a Microrelief Map, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM, a Map of Surface Deposits and a Geomorphological Map.The most striking altimetric features in the study area are the morphological changes of the Rivers Secchia and Panaro: south of Modena they run deep in the alluvial plain whereas north of the town they flow elevated over the plain. The surface lithology consists mainly of silt, with bands of sand and clay; mainly gravel deposits crop out only near southern tracks of the main Apennine watercourses. The geomorphological landscape is mainly characterised by alluvial fans, fluvial ridges paleo-riverbeds fluvial scarps, natural springs and some depressed areas; worth of note are also forms connected with human activity.There have been several attempts to cross–date geological and geomorphological evidence with archaeological data, on both detailed and wide territorial scales. A further advancement can now be attempted by comparing data obtained from systematic research on fluvial forms with data contained in the archives.In the area studied, some 800 archaeological sites were identified and catalogued. Such a high number of archaeological sites can give a great deal more information than is found in any other place in northern Italy.The research took into account the overlapping of archaeological and geomorphological data, with the implementation into a GIS (ArcGis 8.3 of geoarchaeological maps divided in main periods and here represented from the Neolithic to the to Iron Age and from Roman period to the Early Middle Ages. The dating thus obtained for fluvial forms was mainly based on the relationship between these forms and

  19. A study of soil organic carbon distribution and storage in the Northeast Plain of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Xi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Employing the Unit Soil Carbon Amount (USCA approach, soil carbon storage was calculated across the Northeast Plain of China based on the Multi-purpose Regional Geochemical Survey conducted in 2004–2006 (MRGS. The results indicated that the soil organic carbon (SOC storage in topsoil (0–0.2 m, subsoil (0–1 m and deep soil (0–1.8 m was 768.1 Mt, 2978.4 Mt and 3729.2 Mt with densities of 3327.8 t/km2, 12,904.7 t/km2 and 16,157.5 t/km2, respectively. These values were consistent with national averages, whereas the soil carbon densities showed a clear increasing trend from the southern area of the Northeast Plain (Liaoning, to the middle (Jilin and the northern Plain (Heilongjiang — particularly in terms of topsoil carbon density, which increased from 2284.2, to 3436.7 and 3861.5 t/km2, respectively. In comparison to carbon data obtained from the Second National Soil Survey in 1984–1986 (SNSS, the topsoil SOC storage values from the MRGS were found to have decreased by 320.59 Mt (29.4%, with an average annual decline of 16.0 Mt (l.73% over the 20 years. In the southern, middle and northern areas of the plain, soil carbon densities decreased by 1060.6 t/km2, 1646.4 t/km2 and 1300.2 t/km2, respectively, with an average value of 1389.0 t/km2 for the whole plain. These findings indicate that the decrease in soil carbon density varied according to the different ecosystems and land-use types. Therefore, ratios of soil carbon density were calculated in order to study the carbon dynamic balance between ecosystems, and to further explore distribution characteristics, as well as the sequestration potential of SOC.

  20. Appendix 1—California plant community types represented in Forest Service research natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheauchi Cheng

    2004-01-01

    Community types and codes (Holland 1986) are in boldface; research natural area names (with ecological survey names in parentheses, if different from the research natural area names) are in plain type.

  1. Prescribed burning guidelines in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Kenneth F.; Piehl, James L.; Kruse, Arnold D.

    1989-01-01

    The use of fire to manage grasslands for wildlife is a relatively new management option for resource managers in the Northern Great Plains (NGP). Nearly all of the burning during the past 20-25 years has been conducted without the aid of specific guidelines for the region. This state-of-the-art set of recommendations was compiled because of this void.Records of 902 grassland fires (primarily on U.S. Fish and Wildlife lands), personal experiences, and synopses of other published fire research were used in developing the guidelines in this manual.Fifty-two percent of the 902 fires were in native prairie grasslands with lesser amounts in tame and native grass plantings, wetlands, and woodlands.Prescription grassland fires averaged 31 ha (77 acres) per burn. The personnel needed to safely conduct a grassland fire depended on the size of the burn the kind of firebreaks, available equipment, and weather conditions. Costs and hours of effort to conduct fires were inversely related to burn area size. Cost ratios are extremely high for fires of less than 4 ha (10 acres). They are essentially the same for burns of 16 to 113 ha (40 to 280 acres).The two primary reasons for burning grasslands are wildlife habitat improvement and native prairie restoration. Fire use steadily increased between 1965 and 1984, but the greatest increase occurred following workshop instruction in 1978.These guidelines present a set of reasons, criteria, techniques, and examples of simple prescriptions which aid in the planning and execution of a safe and effective prescribed burning program for wildlife enhancement in grassland areas of the NGP.

  2. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O' Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  3. Wetland hydrology and tree distribution of the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitman, Helen M.; Sohm, James E.; Franklin, Marvin A.

    1984-01-01

    The Apalachicola River in northwest Florida is part of a three-State drainage basin encompassing 50,800 km 2 in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. The river is formed by the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers at Jim Woodruff Dam from which it flows 171 km to Apalachicola Bay in the Gulf of Mexico. Its average annual discharge at Chattahoochee, Fla., is 690 m3/s (1958-80) with annual high flows averaging nearly 3,000 m3/s. Its flood plain supports 450 km 2 of bottom-land hardwood and tupelo-cypress forests. The Apalachicola River Quality Assessment focuses on the hydrology and productivity of the flood-plain forest. The purpose of this part of the assessment is to address river and flood-plain hydrology, flood-plain tree species and forest types, and water and tree relations. Seasonal stage fluctuations in the upper river are three times greater than in the lower river. Analysis of long-term streamflow record revealed that 1958-79 average annual and monthly flows and flow durations were significantly greater than those of 1929-57, probably because of climatic changes. However, stage durations for the later period were equal to or less than those of the earlier period. Height of natural riverbank levees and the size and distribution of breaks in the levees have a major controlling effect on flood-plain hydrology. Thirty-two kilometers upstream of the bay, a flood-plain stream called the Brothers River was commonly under tidal influence during times of low flow in the 1980 water year. At the same distance upstream of the bay, the Apalachicola River was not under tidal influence during the 1980 water year. Of the 47 species of trees sampled, the five most common were wet-site species constituting 62 percent of the total basal area. In order of abundance, they were water tupelo, Ogeechee tupelo, baldcypress, Carolina ash, and swamp tupelo. Other common species were sweetgum, overcup oak, planertree, green ash, water hickory, sugarberry, and diamond-leaf oak

  4. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith CN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Collin N Smith,1 John D Kraemer,2 Andrea C Johnson,1 Darren Mays1 1Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC, USA; 2Department of Health Systems Administration, School of Nursing and Health Studies, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. Keywords: cigarette smoking, tobacco, plain packaging, regulation, policy

  5. Late Quarternary evolution of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, S.M.; Laine, E.P.

    1986-05-01

    The sedimentary history and seismic structure of a deep-water turbidite basin in the Western North Atlantic Ocean has been investigated to understand further the evolution of abyssal plains. This study integrates analyses of sedimentary and seismic facies in order to examine the temporal and spatial patterns of sedimentation on the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain during the Late Quaternary. Forty deep-sea sediment cores and 6000 km of high resolution (3.5 kHz) seismic reflection profiles from within 31-34 0 N and 69-74 0 W include portions of the Hatteras Outer Ridge, Lower Continental Rise and Bermuda Rise as well as the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain. Seismic profiles (within 32-33 0 N, 70-71.5 0 W) define two acoustically-transparent seismic units beneath the Plain. The composition of these seismic units has been investigated with sediment cores. This study has found two notable features in the sedimentary framework of the Plain that appear to have resulted from temporal changes in sediment supply. The most recent change, a postglacial decline in turbidity current activity, produced a diagenetic iron enrichment at the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. The stratigraphic thickness affected by diagenesis is related spatially to patterns of turbidite sedimentation. An earlier change, discovered in this research, occurred during the Wisconsinian glaciation and brought coarser-grained turbidity currents to the northern Plain. Deposition of sands from these flows appears to have been locally controlled by a broad topographic feature with less than ten meters relief. As a result of the topographic influence, there are abrupt boundaries, both verically and laterally, between an older mud facies and a younger sandy turbidite facies of the Plain

  6. Coastal Plain Soil Fertility Degradation And Natural Forest Ecosystem Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Sato, C. A.; Reis-Duarte, R. M.; Soares, M. R.; Galvão Bueno, M. S.

    2009-04-01

    The sand coastal plain vegetation (Restinga Forest) has been described as an ecosystem associated with the Atlantic Forest, constituted of mosaics, which occur in areas of great ecological diversity, particularly the features of the soil which mostly influence the forest, therefore assigned as edaphic community. The Restinga forest is one of the most fragile, showing low resilience to human damage This work was carried out in several points (14) of Restinga Forest (six low - trees from 3 to 10 m high - and eight high forest - trees from 10 to 15 m high) in the litoral coast of the state of São Paulo. Each sample was made of 15 subsamples of each area collected in each depth (one in 0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 15, 15 - 20, and another in 0 - 20, 20 - 40, 40 and 60 cm). Soil characteristics analyzed were pH, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, H + Al, Al, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn contents and base saturation, cation exchange capacity and aluminum saturation. The vegetation physiognomies of Restinga forest (low and high) were associated with soil results and with the history of human occupation. The soils are sandy (2 to 4% of clay), resulting in a low capacity of nutrient retention. Soil fertility analysis to low and high Restinga forest were similar and showed very low contents of phosphorous, calcium and magnesium in all areas investigated. The base saturation was low due to low amounts of Na, K, Ca and Mg. Base saturation presents low level in all cases, less than 10, indicating low nutritional reserve in the soil. The aluminum saturation values varied from 58 to 69%. The level of calcium and magnesium were low in the subsurface soil layer mainly, associate with high aluminum saturation, representing an limiting factor for the root system development in depth. If soil fertility parameters do not show any significant difference between low and high Restinga physiognomy, what make distinction is the recuperation time. In the areas of high Forest can be note a too long time of recuperation

  7. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV influence on the behavior of Tahiti lime (Citrus latifoliaTanaka grafted on six rootstocks in the plain piedmont of Colombia (1997-2008

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    Hans Nicolás Chaparro Zambrano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tahiti lime, Citrus latifolia Tanaka (Rutaceae, is susceptible to Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV, and if affected, decreases the profitability of the crop. In the well-drained high terrace of the Meta piedmont, the influence of the virus attack was evaluated on the performance of Tahiti lime grafted on six rootstocks (Carrizo; Sunki × English; Sunki × Jacobson; Pomeroy; Rubidoux, y Kryder 15-3 on a completely randomized experiment design taking each tree as an experimental unit. A comparison of means and inferential statistic were used for: plant height, height and canopy diameter; canopy volume, yield and severity of CTV. All rootstocks showed homogenous height. Carrizo was the exception with less size and canopy volume. The highest accumulated fruit yield (Kg/tree wasobtained by Sunki x English, followed by Rubidoux and the lowest yield was obtained by Carrizo. The highest yield efficiency of average canopy volume was obtained with Sunki x Jacobson. The Tahiti lime yield and morphological development fell in the seventh year (2007 in all rootstocks, due to an infection caused by a mix of isolates of CTV type Madeira and type B128, isolates which cause stem channeling : type B31 which causes moderate stem channeling and B7 and VT isolate,

  8. Summary of wildlife-related research on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 2002–17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John M.; Flint, Paul L.; Atwood, Todd C.; Douglas, David C.; Adams, Layne G.; Johnson, Heather E.; Arthur, Stephen M.; Latty, Christopher J.

    2018-01-23

    We summarize recent (2002–17) publicly available information from studies within the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge as well as terrestrial and coastal ecosystems elsewhere on the Arctic Coastal Plain that are relevant to the 1002 Area. This report provides an update on earlier research summaries on caribou (Rangifer tarandus), forage quality and quantity, polar bears (Ursus maritimus), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), and snow geese (Chen caerulescens). We also provide information on new research related to climate, migratory birds, permafrost, coastal erosion, coastal lagoons, fish, water resources, and potential effects of industrial disturbance on wildlife. From this literature review, we noted evidence for change in the status of some wildlife and their habitats, and the lack of change for others. In the 1002 Area, muskox numbers have decreased and the Porcupine Caribou Herd has exhibited variation in use of the area during the calving season. Polar bears are now more common on shore in summer and fall because of declines in sea ice in the Beaufort Sea. In a study spanning 25 years, there were no significant changes in vegetation quality and quantity, soil conditions, or permafrost thaw in the coastal plain of the 1002 Area. Based on studies from the central Arctic Coastal Plain, there are persistent and emerging uncertainties about the long-term effects of energy development for caribou. In contrast, recent studies that examined direct and indirect effects of industrial activities and infrastructure on birds in the central Arctic Coastal Plain found little effect for the species and disturbances examined, except for the possibility of increased predator activity near human developments.

  9. A hydrogeological investigation of the Yeşilyurt (Isparta-Sütçüler plain

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    Suat Taşdelen

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation area is almost 10 km in the north-west of Sütçüler country of Isparta and covers 60 km2 area. Firstly, detailed geological and hydrological investigation of Yeşilyurt Plain surface drainage area has been performed. Long term monitoring and analyses have been done for direction of hydrological investigation. An isohiyetal map was prepared for the investigation area. Water table maps were drawn by means of deep and shallow boreholes in the plain and flow direction was determined (October 2000. Water which was collected at boreholes was chemically analyzed to determine the characteristic of water for domestic use, irrigation and industrial purposes. In order to achieve this, the anion and cation concentrations, ionization abilities ionic activity, calcite dolomite sulphate saturation indexes and the partial pressures of dissolved CO2 were calculated and the results were interpreted. In addition, water has been classified according to chemical contend and use purpose by means of Wilcox, USA Salinity Laboratory, Piper and Schoeller diagrams and similarities in the origins of waters were investigated. During the study, a groundwater budget of Yeşilyurt Plain was prepared in the light of obtained data and optimum output of groundwater has been calculated.

  10. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeast United States: Southeastern Coastal Plain Subregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    A literature review was made of the geological characteristics of the Southeastern Coastal Plain physiograhic province in the states of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate exploration areas for the possible location of a mined repository for the storage of radioactive waste in the argillaceous sedimentary rocks of the Coastal Plain. Candidate areas were selected on the basis of geological characteristics, available subsurface data, and generally accepted requirements for waste isolation developed by previous studies. Factors considered in the evaluation include the stratigraphy and lithology, geologic history, structure, seismicity, hydrogeology, and natural resources of the candidate area. Unlike other potential regions, the Southeastern Coastal Plain is not composed of competent rock, but consists primarily of unconsolidated and water-saturated sediments overlying a basement of crystalline and metavolcanic rocks. Thus, construction of both shafts and tunnels to depths of approx. 1000 meters may encounter difficulties. Socio-economic and construction considerations have not been addressed in the evaluation. Based on the applied criteria, four areas were selected as being most favorable for future field investigation. These include one in Maryland, one in North Carolina, and two in Georgia

  11. Thermal Inertia, Albedo, and MOLA-derived Roughness for Terrains in the Terra Meridiani Area, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Deal, K.; Hynek, B. M.; Seelos, F. P., IV; Snider, N. O.; Mellon, M. T.; Garvin, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    Surface properties of layered deposits draped on dissected, cratered terrain in the Terra Meridiani area are analyzed using remote sensing data. The etched plains are cemented and differentially eroded, and the hematite plains are loose and drifting. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Estimating the Change of Groundwater Salinization in the Central North China Plain for Sustainable Groundwater Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Y.; He, X.; Zheng, C.; Guo, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the growing demand of food supplies and limited freshwater resources, North China Plain (NCP) is highly dependent on the groundwater resources. Groundwater overdraft has made NCP a closed hydrologic basin, where the connection between surface and groundwater has been cut off, which can lead to salt accumulation in the groundwater system. Thus it is imperative to investigate the overall salt balance in the region for sustainable utilization of groundwater resources, as well as to better understand the salt accumulating processes caused by groundwater pumping and return flow. The central plain of NCP (excluding the piedmont plain and coastal plain) is selected in the present study, where the groundwater salt content is mainly controlled by precipitation, irrigation, groundwater pumping and rock-water interaction in vertical direction; therefore, a conceptual 1-D mixing model is developed for salt balance calculation, where the salt content is expressed by the concentration of Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) in groundwater. Geological structures and regional water balance data are obtained from numerical groundwater models previously developed in the area. The simulation starts in year 1900 with a 50-year time step and groundwater vertical flow velocity starting with 2 m/y. TDS concentration is then calculated through salt input and output in each layer, with consideration of soil salt accumulation, change of precipitation, rock-water interaction etc. The results suggest that in a closed hydrologic basin, groundwater pumping and return flow will gradually increase salt content in the groundwater body from upper layers to lower layers resulting from the flushing of salt accumulated in the top soil layer. After two time steps, the model is able to reproduce the observed TDS concentration in present time with reasonable accuracy; and after six time steps, which correspond to 300 years, the whole central plain of NCP will be under the influence of high salinity, which

  13. Investigating the limping child: The role of plain radiographs and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Amanda Jane

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective study was carried out on children between the ages of 1 and 6 years who had radiological investigations for an acute atraumatic limp. The study focused on children who had a whole leg X-ray but also included those having specific radiographic projections with a hip ultrasound scan. Children under the age of 1 year were excluded from the study as the possibility of non-accidental injury may warrant a whole leg X-ray in the absence of trauma. The study aimed to determine if there is a relationship between pain and radiological findings and to establish whether the absence of pain is predictive of a normal radiological investigation. The study also sought to compare the value of plain radiographs and ultrasound in the investigation of these children. Methods: Records and radiographs of children presenting to a Paediatric Accident and Emergency department were reviewed in order to identify those meeting the eligibility criteria. Results: A total of 107 limping children were included in the study. Forty-five (42%) were pain free, and 87 (85%) had normal radiological investigations. Five (5%) had unexpected findings; two (2%) on plain radiographs and three (3%) on ultrasound. Seventy children (65%) had complete resolution of symptoms within 1 week and four (4%) had positive findings on follow-up investigations. Conclusions: The findings in this study suggested that the association between pain and radiological findings was highly significant (P < 0.05). Plain radiographs and possibly ultrasound scan of the hips in a limping child who is not experiencing any pain, can be deferred until review, and it is not likely to be detrimental to the management of that child. Furthermore, plain radiographs for those children who are experiencing pain on physical examination can be limited to the affected area. If the pain is in the hip joint, an ultrasound scan is more sensitive than plain radiographs (in %, 100:26.6) and would be the better investigation to

  14. Buried paleoindian-age landscapes in stream valleys of the central plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study of late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Central Plains documented widespread, deeply buried paleosols that represent Paleoindian-age landscapes in terrace fills of large streams (> 5th order), in alluvial fans, and in draws in areas of western Kansas with a thick loess mantle. Alluvial stratigraphic sections were investigated along a steep bio-climatic gradient extending from the moist-subhumid forest-prairie border of the east-central Plains to the dry-subhumid and semi-arid shortgrass prairie of the west-central Plains. Radiocarbon ages indicate that most large streams were characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by cumulic soil development from ca. 11,500 to 10,000??14C yr B.P. In the valleys of some large streams, such as the Ninnescah and Saline rivers, these processes continued into the early Holocene. The soil-stratigraphic record in the draws of western Kansas indicates slow aggradation punctuated by episodes of landscape stability and pedogenesis beginning as early as ca. 13,300??14C yr B.P. and spanning the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. The development record of alluvial fans in western Kansas is similar to the record in the draws; slow aggradation was punctuated by multiple episodes of soil development between ca. 13,000 and 9000??14C yr B.P. In eastern Kansas and Nebraska, development of alluvial fans was common during the early and middle Holocene, but evidence shows fan development as early as ca. 11,300??14C yr B.P. Buried soils dating between ca. 12,600 and 9000??14C yr B.P. were documented in fans throughout the region. In stream valleys across the Central Plains, rapid alluviation after ca. 9000??14C yr B.P. resulted in deeply buried soils that may harbor Paleoindian cultural deposits. Hence, the paucity of recorded stratified Paleoindian sites in the Central Plains is probably related to poor visibility (i.e., deep burial in alluvial deposits) instead of limited human occupation in the region during the terminal

  15. Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) Experiment Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Parsons, D [NCAR; Geerts, B [Department of Atmospheric Science, University of Wyoming

    2015-03-01

    The Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) experiment is a large field campaign that is being supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) with contributions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Atmospheric and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The overarching goal of the PECAN experiment is to improve the understanding and simulation of the processes that initiate and maintain convection and convective precipitation at night over the central portion of the Great Plains region of the United States (Parsons et al. 2013). These goals are important because (1) a large fraction of the yearly precipitation in the Great Plains comes from nocturnal convection, (2) nocturnal convection in the Great Plains is most often decoupled from the ground and, thus, is forced by other phenomena aloft (e.g., propagating bores, frontal boundaries, low-level jets [LLJ], etc.), (3) there is a relative lack of understanding how these disturbances initiate and maintain nocturnal convection, and (4) this lack of understanding greatly hampers the ability of numerical weather and climate models to simulate nocturnal convection well. This leads to significant uncertainties in predicting the onset, location, frequency, and intensity of convective cloud systems and associated weather hazards over the Great Plains.

  16. General practitioners' willingness to request plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryynaenen, Olli-Pekka; Lehtovirta, Jukka; Soimakallio, Seppo; Takala, Jorma

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To examine general practitioners' attitudes to plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations. Design: A postal questionnaire consisting of questions on background data and doctors' opinions about plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, as well as eight vignettes (imaginary patient cases) presenting indications for lumbar radiography, and five vignettes focusing on the doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiography on the basis of patients' age and duration of symptoms. The data were analysed according to the doctor's age, sex, workplace and the medical school of graduation. Setting: Finland. Subjects: Six hundred and fifteen randomly selected physicians working in primary health care (64% of original target group). Results: The vignettes revealed that the use of plain lumbar radiographic examination varied between 26 and 88%. Patient's age and radiation protection were the most prominent factors influencing doctors' decisions to request lumbar radiographies. Only slight differences were observed between the attitudes of male and female doctors, as well as between young and older doctors. Doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiographies increased with the patient's age in most vignettes. The duration of patients' symptoms had a dramatic effect on the doctor's decision: in all vignettes, doctors were more likely to request lumbar radiography when patient's symptoms had exceeded 4 weeks. Conclusions: General practitioners commonly use plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, despite its limited value in the diagnosis of low back pain. Further consensus and medical education is needed to clarify the indications for plain lumbar radiographic examination

  17. Health Needs Assessment of Plain Populations in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kirk; Yost, Berwood; Abbott, Christina; Thompson, Scottie; Dlugi, Emily; Adams, Zachary; Schulman, Meryl; Strauss, Nicole

    2017-02-01

    We performed a health needs assessment for three Plain communities in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania from a random sample of households. Compared with the general population of adults, Plain respondents were more likely to be married, to have children, and they had large families; they were more likely to drink well water, to eat fruit and vegetables, to drink raw milk, and to live on a farm. Plain respondents had better physical and mental health and were less likely to have been diagnosed with various medical conditions compared with the general population of adults in Lancaster County but Old Order Mennonite respondents were more likely to have been diagnosed compared with Old Order Amish respondents. Plain respondents usually have a regular doctor and often receive preventive care but Old Order Mennonite respondents were more likely to have a regular doctor, to receive preventive care, to have had their children vaccinated, and to receive routine dental care compared with Old Order Amish respondents. Despite their relative geographic and genetic isolation, and despite the small, relative differences noted, the health of Plain communities in Lancaster County is similar to that of other adults in the County.

  18. Quaternary evolution of the Southern Apennines coastal plains: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santangelo Nicoletta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary evolution of the main coastal basins located along the southwestern margin of the Southern Apennines has been reconstructed by integrating the huge amount of existing stratigraphical and geomorphological data. The information produced in the last twenty years has shed new light on the recent (late Middle Pleistocene to Present history of the Campanian and Sele plains or basins. During the early Quaternary, the analysed coastal basins originated as half-grabens in response to opening processes active since the late Tortonian in the southern Tyrrhenian back-arc basin. In some of these basins (e.g. the Campanian Plain, volcanism has also played an important role. In the inner sectors of the coastal basins, the complex interplay between block faulting, sedimentary inputs and glacioeustatic fluctuations gave rise to relative sea-level change and related coastline migrations, leading to the formation of the present-day coastal plains. In the Sele Plain basin, the construction of the present-day landscape mainly resulted from the substantial ceasing of subsidence in the final part of the Middle Pleistocene. Conversely, a strong contribution to the recent evolution of the Campanian Plain has been provided by abundant volcaniclastic aggradation, able to hinder the effect of the vertical motions that occurred in the last 100 ka.

  19. Vegetation change, erosion risk and land management on the Nullarbor Plain, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillieson, D.; Wallbrink, P.; Cochrane, A.

    1996-10-01

    Arid karst landscapes that have been degraded by human activities provide a challenge for rehabilitation and an opportunity to test ideas about the stability and resilience of limestone ecosystems. The Nullarbor Plain is the largest arid karst area in Australia (220 000 km2) and is divided into extensive closed karstic depressions separated by low rocky ridges, while the dominant vegetation is chenopod shrubland. Since European settlement there has been considerable change in the vegetation, with significant reduction in shrub and grass cover over large areas of the plain. These changes are related to a state and transition model of vegetation dynamics which incorporates climatic variability, fire history and grazing pressure from sheep, kangaroos and rabbits. A partial sediment budget using 137Cs inventories reveals local and regional patterns of soil redistribution within this arid karst landscape. Rehabilitation of eroded soil in pastoral lands has been accomplished at several sites but is labour intensive and vulnerable to climatic fluctuations. Given the low stock numbers, limited number of people involved, and poor economic returns, it would be sensible to make pastoral activities on the Nullarbor secondary to conservation priorities. This would necessitate a change in land ethic to stewardship, with emphasis on rehabilitation and control of feral animals. Management of increased numbers of visitors to the caves and karst also requires that resource inventories and management plans for each area be drawn up and used.

  20. Estimating contributions of nitrate and herbicides from groundwater to headwater streams, northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ator, Scott; Denver, Judith M.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater transport often complicates understanding of surface-water contamination. We estimated the regional flux of nitrate and selected herbicides from groundwater to nontidal headwater streams of the Atlantic Coastal Plain (New Jersey through North Carolina) based on late-winter or spring base-flow samples from 174 streams. Sampled streams were selected randomly, and flux estimates are based on resulting population estimates rather than on empirical models, which have been used previously for similar estimates. Base-flow flux in the estimated 8,834 headwater streams of the study area are an estimated 21,200 kg/day of nitrate (as N) and 5.83, 0.565, and 20.7 kg/day of alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor (and selected degradates), respectively. Base-flow flux of alachlor and metolachlor is herbicides as a percentage of applications is typically highest in well-drained areas and lowest in areas with abundant poor drainage and anoxic conditions. In Coastal Plain watersheds of Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, <2% of applied nitrogen reaches headwater streams as base flow. On the Delmarva Peninsula part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, however, more than 10% of such applications are transported through groundwater to streams, and base-flow nitrate flux represents 70% of total nitrogen flux in headwater streams.

  1. Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment: pre-assessment report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Carr, Natasha B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the Pre-Assessment Report for the Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to document the selection process for and final list of Conservation Elements, Change Agents, and Management Questions developed during Phase I. The overall goal of the REAs being conducted for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change, and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks. The REA also may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing the cumulative effects of a variety of land uses. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and partners for the ecoregion, identify the information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant terrestrial and aquatic species and communities that are to be conserved and (or) restored. For each Conservation Element, key ecological attributes will be evaluated to determine the status of each species and community. The REA also will evaluate major drivers of ecosystem change, or Change Agents, currently affecting or likely to affect the status of Conservation Elements in the future. The relationships between Change Agents and key ecological attributes will be summarized using conceptual models. The REA process is a two-phase process. Phase I (pre-assessment) includes developing and finalizing the lists of priority Management Questions, Conservation Elements, and Change Agents, culminating in the REA Pre-Assessment Report.

  2. Freqüência ao ambiente humano e dispersão de mosquitos Culicidae em área adjacente à mata atlântica primitiva da planície Frequency of occurrence in the human environment dispersal of Culicidae mosquitoes in an area adjacent to a primitive Atlantic plain forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1990-04-01

    shelters was recorded for this species. Peridomiciliar human bait catches showed regular occurrence of Ae. scapularis, Anopheles bellator, An. cruzii and Culex sacchettae, but anophelines abandoned the human environment for the surrounding forest. Feeding index showed clearly a preference on the part of Ae. scapularis for bovine hosts. The peridomiciliar frequency of Cx. sacchettae suggests a domiciliary tendency. The influence of large domestic animals in the human environment surrounded by primitive Atlantic plain forests, on the domiciliation of the sylvatic mosquitoes, is emphasized.

  3. GIS BASED AQUIFER VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT IN HANGZHOU-JIAXINGHUZHOU PLAIN, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean de Dieu Bazimenyera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou plain is among the regions which faces the shortage of water due to its increasing population, industrialization, agriculture and domestic use; hence the high dependence on groundwater. In China, the exploitation of aquifers has been historically undertaken without proper concern for environmental impacts or even the concept of sustainable yield. In order to maintain basin aquifer as a source of water for the area, it is necessary to find out whether certain locations in this groundwater basin are susceptible to receive and transmit pollution, this is why the main objective of this research is to find out the groundwater vulnerable zones using Geographical Information System (GIS model in Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou plain. GIS was used to create groundwater vulnerability map by overlaying hydro-geological data. The input of the model was provided by the following seven data layers: Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone and hydraulic Conductivity. This study showed that Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou area is grouped into three categories: High vulnerable zone with 27.4% of the total area, moderate vulnerable zone which occupy the great part of that area 60.5% and low vulnerable zone with 12.1%. This research suggests first the prioritization of high vulnerable areas in order to prevent the further pollution to already polluted areas; next the frequent monitoring of vulnerable zones to monitor the changing level of pollutants; and finally suggests that this model can be an effective tool for local authorities who are responsible for managing groundwater resources in that area.

  4. Using Land Surface Phenology to Detect Land Use Change in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L. H.; Henebry, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Northern Great Plains of the US have been undergoing many types of land cover / land use change over the past two decades, including expansion of irrigation, conversion of grassland to cropland, biofuels production, urbanization, and fossil fuel mining. Much of the literature on these changes has relied on post-classification change detection based on a limited number of observations per year. Here we demonstrate an approach to characterize land dynamics through land surface phenology (LSP) by synergistic use of image time series at two scales. Our study areas include regions of interest (ROIs) across the Northern Great Plains located within Landsat path overlap zones to boost the number of valid observations (free of clouds or snow) each year. We first compute accumulated growing degree-days (AGDD) from MODIS 8-day composites of land surface temperature (MOD11A2 and MYD11A2). Using Landsat Collection 1 surface reflectance-derived vegetation indices (NDVI, EVI), we then fit at each pixel a downward convex quadratic model linking the vegetation index to each year's progression of AGDD. This quadratic equation exhibits linearity in a mathematical sense; thus, the fitted models can be linearly mixed and unmixed using a set of LSP endmembers (defined by the fitted parameter coefficients of the quadratic model) that represent "pure" land cover types with distinct seasonal patterns found within the region, such as winter wheat, spring wheat, maize, soybean, sunflower, hay/pasture/grassland, developed/built-up, among others. Information about land cover corresponding to each endmember are provided by the NLCD (National Land Cover Dataset) and CDL (Cropland Data Layer). We use linear unmixing to estimate the likely proportion of each LSP endmember within particular areas stratified by latitude. By tracking the proportions over the 2001-2011 period, we can quantify various types of land transitions in the Northern Great Plains.

  5. Identifying and Studying the Factors Effective on Greenhouses Profitability in the Varamin Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Rajabi Tehrani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was economic evaluation of green houses and the factors that affect their profitability in the Varamin plain. The type of this research is descriptive-correlation research that was conducted by using a survey method. The statistical population of the research consisted of the beneficiary farmers of established and cultivated green houses in the Varamin plain. The sample size was 108 farmers. The sampling method was simple random sampling method. The main tool of this research study is a questionnaire that whose validity was verified by using a panel of experts and professors in the field of agriculture. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed through a pre-test for which the Cronbach alpha was between 0.78 and 0.85 which is considered to be acceptable. The results of this research study show that the mean of the profitability index of cost benefit  was 2.286 and thus there is a significant positive correlation between agricultural experience, the level of famer education, agricultural income, the total area of the green house, technical knowledge, using of information resources with the cost benefit  profitability index. The results of regression analysis also indicated that the five variables of agricultural experience, agricultural income, the total area of the green house, technical knowledge, using of information resources well explain for 51.5 % of the changes in the cost benefit profitability index of the green houses located in the Varamin plain. Finally, it is recommended to improve the cost benefit profitability index by actions such as increasing the level of technical knowledge and farmers' access to and use of information resources.

  6. Geostatistical analysis of soil gas data in a high seismic intermontane basin: Fucino Plain, central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotoli, G.; Lombardi, S.; Annunziatellis, A.

    2007-05-01

    Numerous soil gas measurements of four gaseous species with very different geochemical behaviors were performed in the Fucino Basin, an area characterized by known and inferred structural discontinuities. A comprehensive statistical and geostatistical treatment of these data followed in order to provide insight into the spatial influence of tectonic discontinuities and geology on deep-seated gas migration toward the surface. The results yielded anomalies with different features, reflecting the different gas-bearing properties of the eastern seismogenic faults related to the 1915 earthquake (Mb = 7.0) and the hidden structural features occurring in the western side of the plain. In particular, this approach demonstrates that soil gas concentration (i.e., Rn and CO2) can identify the simpler normal faults of the eastern sector of the plain. In contrast, the more pervasive fracturing and faulting, as well as the occurrence of coarser deposits, on the western side of the area, make the location of faults less clear. The results show that gases migrate preferentially through zones of brittle deformation by advective processes, as suggested by the relatively high rate of migration needed to obtain anomalies of short-lived 222Rn in the soil pores. Furthermore, a geostatistical study of soil gas data was conducted to quantify the spatial domain of correlation and the gas-bearing properties of faults on the basis of shallow soil gas distribution (i.e., anisotropic behavior). The results provide a clear correlation between the shape and orientation of the anomalies and the different geometry of the faults recognized in the plain.

  7. Attack on Australia: tobacco industry challenges to plain packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Holly

    2013-08-01

    In 2011, the Australian Government passed landmark legislation requiring tobacco manufacturers to adopt 'plain packaging', a government-mandated design standardized across all brands of tobacco products. In response, plain packaging policy in Australia has faced multiple, simultaneous challenges from a global, well-resourced industry able to use all available fora to seek redress. Generalizing from the Australian experience, we analyze four types of challenges to plain packaging from the tobacco industry. We characterize three ways in which industry questions public health policies through international trade and investment law, on: (i) the intent or purpose of the policy; (ii) the economic consequences of it; and (iii) the regulatory authority behind it. We make recommendations and suggest that public health policymakers can know with some precision what attacks will be launched on tobacco control policies, and prepare their strategies and legislation accordingly.

  8. Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2012-05-01

    We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure.

  9. The reevaluation of plain roentgenological study in isolated splenic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong Ihn; Ko, Seung Sook; Kim, Kil Jeong; Oh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young Chul

    1986-01-01

    The spleen is the most common intraabdominal organ injured in blunt trauma. Although physical signs and symptoms, coupled with abdominal paracentesis and peritoneal lavage confirm intraabdominal injury, but isolated splenic injury especially delayed rupture, the diagnosis and clinical course is variable. We are reevaluation of plain roentgenologic findings for the light of early diagnosis of isolated splenic injury. 24 patients of the autopsy and surgically proven isolated splenic injury at Chosun University Hospital in the period from 1980 January to 1986 June were analyzed plain roentgenogram retrospectively. The results were as follows: 1. Male patients predominate, constitution 87.5%. Incidence has been greatest in second to fourth decade. 2. Mode of trauma causing isolated splenic injury is most common in motor vehicle accident and others are fall down, struck by fist, blow to object, uncertain blunt trauma. 3. Delayed rupture of spleen occurred in 2 cases (8.3%). 4. Common patterns of splenic injury is simple laceration that involves both the capsule and the parenchyma and a laceration that involves the splenic pedicle. 5. Plain chest roentgenographic findings were abnormal in 4 cases (16.7%). The most common plain abdominal roentgenographic findings was the evidence of intaabdominal fluid in 21 cases (87.5%). The others are included in order of frequency; gastric dilatation, prominent mucosal folds on greater curvature of the stomach, evidence of pelvic fluid, displacement of stomach to the right or downward, mass density in the region of spleen. 6. No relationship can be shown between patterns of injury, time lapse after trauma and plain roentgenological findings. But the evidence of intraabdominal fluid is most important in the light of early diagnosis. 7. Diagnosis of splenic injury may be most helpful that in combination with clinical history, clinical symptoms and signs and plain film findings. In delayed rupture, diagnostic value of serial examination

  10. Geology of Pine and Crater Buttes: two basaltic constructs on the far eastern Snake River Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazierski, P.F.; King, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    The emplacement history and petrochemical evolution of the volcanics associated with Pine Butte, Crater Butte, and other nearby vents are developed and described. Four major vents were identified in the study area and their associated eruptive products were mapped. All of the vents show a marked physical elongation or linear orientation coincident with the observed rift set. Planetary exploration has revealed the importance of volcanic processes in the genesis and modification of extraterrestrial surfaces. Interpretation of surface features has identified plains-type basaltic volcanism in various mare regions of the Moon and the volcanic provinces of Mars. Identification of these areas with features that appear analogous to those observed in the Pine Butte area suggests similar styles of eruption and mode of emplacement. Such terrestrial analogies serve as a method to interpret the evolution of volcanic planetary surfaces on the inner planets

  11. Plain and Rolled Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIST Plain and Rolled Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards (Web, free access)   NIST Special Database 29 is being distributed for use in development and testing fingerprint matching systems. The data consist of 216 ten-print fingerprint card pairs with both the rolled and plains (from a bottom of the fingerprint card) scanned at 19.7 pixels per mm. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  12. Environmental isotope study related to groundwater age, flow system and saline water origin in Quaternary aquifers of North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhigan; Payne, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    An isotopic hydrology section across the North China Plain has been studied to investigate problems of groundwater age, flow system and saline water origin in a semi-arid pre-mountain artesian basin. Two local and one regional flow system along the section have been recognized. Turnover time of water for alluvial fan, shallow and regional systems are estimated to be the order of 10 2 , 10 3 , and 10 4 years respectively. Specific flow rates for the three systems have been calculated. Only less than 5 percent of flow from alluvial fan is drained by the regional flow system and the rest, in natural conditions, discharges at surface in the front edge of an alluvial fan and forms a groundwater discharge belt at a good distance away from the mountain foot. Developed in the alluvial plain and coastal plain areas the shallow flow system embraces a series of small local systems. Groundwater in these systems appears to be the salt carrier during continental salinization. It washes salt out of the recharge area and deep-occurred strata by circulating and carries it up to the surface in lowland areas. Consequently, in parallel with salinization at surface a desalinization process occurs at depth, which provides an additional explanation for the existing thick deep fresh water zone in most arid and semi-arid regions, where continental salting process is in progress. (author). 6 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Great Meteor East (distal Madeira Abyssal Plain): geological studies of its suitability for disposal of heat-emitting radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, R.C.; Schultheiss, P.J.; Weaver, P.P.E.; Noel, M.; Kidd, R.B.; Jacobs, C.L.; Huggett, Q.J.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarises geological and geophysical studies carried out by the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences up to December 1983 in an area of the Madeira Abyssal Plain in order to assess its suitability for the disposal of heat-emitting radioactive waste. The results of work carried out in the same area by the Rijks Geologische Dienst of the Netherlands are also reviewed in the report. Other oceanographic studies in the area in the fields of geochemistry, biology and oceanography are briefly touched upon. (author)

  14. Evaluation of plain radiograph in mitral stenosis related to hemodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Ku Ok; Suh, Jung Ho; Park, Chang Yun; Choi, Byung So [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-04-15

    Mitral stenosis, the most frequent heart disease in adult, showed relatively characteristic pulmonary findings in plain chest X-ray. In recent years the knowledge of the altered physiology of hemodynamics could offer considerable amount of hemodynamic barrier in plain chest. But the value of several parameters was still controversial. In this study a variety of roentgen signs were related to physiologic data and those were acquired by the cardiac catheterization in total of 67 cases of mitral stenosis. 1. Correlation of DPA/DHT ratio (Diameter of pulmonary arterial segment/ Diameter of hemithorax X 100) to hemodynamic data; The pulmonary arterial segments was dilated by two factors, the one was pulmonary blood flow and the other the blood pressure within it. In mitral stenosis, the cardiac output was decreased to quite uniform level, hence measurement of pulmonary arterial segment might be valuable. The correlation coefficient of DPA/ DHT ratio to hemodynamic data were as follows: 0.54 to mean pulmonary artery pressure, 0.32 to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, -0.37 to mitral valvular area and 0.07 to pulmonary vascular resistance. No significant difference was noted in between pure mitral stenosis and mitral stenosis associated with other valvular disease. 2. Correlation of diameter of right descending pulmonary artery to hemodynamic data: The measurement was made near the first bifurcation of right descending pulmonary artery at its widest point. Pulmonary vascular pattern was best correlated (r=0.71). Another had rough correlation: 0.05 to mean pulmonary artery pressure, 0.31 to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, -0.44 to mitral valvular area in correlation coefficient. No pulmonary arterial hypertension was observed in the cases diameter of less than 12 mm, but all except two cases had pulmonary hypertension in which diameter exceeded 16 mm. According to increase of the mean pulmonary arterial pressure, the same increment in pressure increased change

  15. Characterization of geomorphic units in the alluvial valleys and channels of Gulf Coastal Plain rivers in Texas, with examples from the Brazos, Sabine, and Trinity Rivers, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, David K.; Malstaff, Greg; Heitmuller, Franklin T.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, described and characterized examples of geomorphic units within the channels and alluvial valleys of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers using a geomorphic unit classification scale that differentiates geomorphic units on the basis of their location either outside or inside the river channel. The geomorphic properties of a river system determine the distribution and type of potential habitat both within and adjacent to the channel. This report characterizes the geomorphic units contained in the river channels and alluvial valleys of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers in the context of the River Styles framework. This report is intended to help Texas Instream Flow Program practitioners, river managers, ecologists and biologists, and others interested in the geomorphology and the physical processes of the rivers of the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain (1) gain insights into how geomorphic units develop and adjust spatially and temporally, and (2) be able to recognize common geomorphic units from the examples cataloged in this report. Recent aerial imagery (high-resolution digital orthoimagery) collected in 2008 and 2009 were inspected by using geographic information system software to identify representative examples of the types of geomorphic units that occurred in the study area. Geomorphic units outside the channels of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers are called \\"valley geomorphic units\\" in this report. Valley geomorphic units for the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers described in this report are terraces, flood plains, crevasses and crevasse splays, flood-plain depressions, tie channels, tributaries, paleochannels, anabranches, distributaries, natural levees, neck cutoffs, oxbow lakes, and constructed channels. Channel geomorphic units occur in the river channel and are subject to frequent stresses associated with flowing water and sediment transport; they adjust (change) relatively quickly in

  16. The influence of plain bar on bond strength of geopolymer concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Evrianti Syntia; Ekaputri, Januarti Jaya

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents some results of experimental study of bond strength of plain bar embedded in geopolymer concrete. Fly ash class F was used as a raw material activated with alkali solutions. The combination of 8 Molar of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) as alkali activators was examined in the mixture with ratio of 2.5 by weight. Nine cubical specimens with a size of 150 × 150 × 150 mm were prepared to measure bond strength and slip between reinforcement and concrete. The influential factors studied for the experimental investigation were the diameter of reinforcement bar, bond area, and concrete cover to diameter (c/d) of reinforcement. The result showed that the average bond strength decreased as the diameter of plain bar and bonded length were increased from 16 mm to 19 mm. However, the 12 mm showed the different result allegedly caused by the effect of bond area and the passive confined provided by the concrete. Based on several equations used to compare the bond strength, it is clear that deformed bar of 12 mm in diameter is potential to increase the bond strength.

  17. Assessing satellite-based start-of-season trends in the US High Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X; Sassenrath, G F; Hubbard, K G; Mahmood, R

    2014-01-01

    To adequately assess the effects of global warming it is necessary to address trends and impacts at the local level. This study examines phenological changes in the start-of-season (SOS) derived from satellite observations from 1982–2008 in the US High Plains region. The surface climate-based SOS was also evaluated. The averaged profiles of SOS from 37° to 49°N latitude by satellite- and climate-based methods were in reasonable agreement, especially for areas where croplands were masked out and an additional frost date threshold was adopted. The statistically significant trends of satellite-based SOS show a later spring arrival ranging from 0.1 to 4.9 days decade −1 over nine Level III ecoregions. We found the croplands generally exhibited larger trends (later arrival) than the non-croplands. The area-averaged satellite-based SOS for non-croplands (i.e. mostly grasslands) showed no significant trends. We examined the trends of temperatures, precipitation, and standardized precipitation index (SPI), as well as the strength of correlation between the satellite-based SOS and these climatic drivers. Our results indicate that satellite-based SOS trends are spatially and primarily related to annual maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, mostly in summertime) and/or annual minimum NDVI (mostly in wintertime) and these trends showed the best correlation with six-month SPI over the period 1982–2008 in the US High Plains region. (letter)

  18. Hydrogeochemical features of groundwater resources in Tabriz plain, northwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Rahim; Asghari Moghaddam, Asghar; Tziritis, Evangelos

    2017-11-01

    The present study seeks to evaluate the hydrogeochemistry of Tabriz plain in NW Iran, through major ion chemistry and their spatial variations. In order to accomplish these, groundwater sampling from 30 shallow and deep wells in the plain were carried out in July 2012. The water samples were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters such as pH, EC, Na+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Cl-, CO3 2-, HCO3 -, SO4 2- and NO3 -. Chadha's diagram demonstrates that most of the groundwaters belonged to the Na-Cl and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl hydrochemical facies. The concentrations of some major ions in groundwater are above the permissible limit for drinking and domestic purposes except for a few locations. The results of saturation index computation show that dissolution of gypsum, anhydrite, halite and silicate minerals occurs frequently across the study area, whereas the groundwater is supersaturated with regard to calcite and dolomite. Cross-plots show that weathering and dissolution of different rocks and minerals, ion exchange, reverse ion exchange and anthropogenic activities, especially agricultural activities, are effective in hydrogeochemistry of the study area.

  19. Effects of Urbanization-Induced Cultivated Land Loss on Ecosystem Services in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the implementation of market oriented economic reform in 1978, China has been on the track of rapid urbanization. The unprecedented urbanization in China has resulted in substantial cultivated land loss and rapid expansion of urban areas. The cultivated land loss due to urbanization not only threatens food security in China, but has also led to ecological system degradation to which close attention should be paid. Therefore, we examined the effects of the conversion from cultivated to urban areas on the ecosystem service in the North China Plain on the basis of a net primary productivity based ecosystem service model (NESM and a buffer comparison method. Cultivated land loss due to urbanization in the North China Plain led to a total loss of ecosystem service value of 34.66% during the period 1988–2008. Urban expansion significantly decreased the ecosystem service function of water conservation (–124.03%, nutrient cycling (–31.91%, gas regulation (−7.18%, and organic production (–7.18%, while it improved the soil conservation function (2.40%. Land use change accounted for 57.40% of the changes in ecosystem service and had a major influence on the changes in nutrient cycling and water conservation. However, climate change mainly determined the changes in gas regulation, organic production, and soil conservation.

  20. [Quality evaluation of soil fluorine on Hangjiahu Plain based on GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zheng-miao; Li, Jing; Xu, Jian-ming; Wu, Wei-hong

    2006-05-01

    Contents of fluorine in the plough layer (0-20 cm) of paddy soils from Hangjiahu Plain were investigated to evaluate quality of fluorine using total fluorine index method. Kriging method was applied to study the spatial variability of soil total fluorine in relation to their influential factors and their distribution maps were obtained based on GIS. The results showed that the range of total fluorine (TF) contents in the soils from central and eastern parts of Hangjiahu Plain was higher than that from the western part. The concentrations of TF in soil had a close relationship with parent material, pH value, organic matter, cation exchange capacity content and soil texture. The main range of TF was 200-300 mg/kg, while TF contents accounting for 23.7% of the area were less than 200 mg/kg in the studied area. In which TF contents in soil in Yuhang County were the lowest, less than 100 mg/kg.

  1. Analytical data of holocene sediments in the Miyazaki Plain, Southern Kyushu, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Masafumi; Niwa, Masakazu; Takatori, Ryoichi; Kamataki, Takanobu; Kurosawa, Hideki

    2014-06-01

    Since the devastated tsunami induced by the Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011, a lot of geologists have started to focus on the study of subduction-zone giant earthquakes using tsunami deposits. After the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, a lot of geologists studying tsunami deposits suggest the importance of the study concerning the tsunamis in the eastern coastal side of Kyushu. On the other hand, the Miyazaki Plain, facing the Hyuga-nada, had been attacked repeatedly by historical tsunami events induced by the giant earthquakes whose hypocenters were located in the Hyuga-nada or Nankai Trough. However, scientific studies concerning the tsunami events are still poor in this area. We are studying paleo-tsunami deposits in the Miyazaki Plain to develop investigation methods of tsunami deposits and elucidate the process of uplift and erosion for several thousand years in regional area. This data set shows the result of this study. A DVD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  2. Comparison of optimal irrigation scheduling and groundwater recharge at representative sites in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying

    2014-05-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is an important food production area in China, facing an increasing water shortage and overexploitation of groundwater. It is critical to optimize the irrigation scheduling and accurately estimate groundwater recharge for saving water and increasing crop water use efficiency. However, the water cycle and crop responses to irrigation are quite various in different areas, because of the spatial variation of climatic, soil, water table and other management practices in the NCP. In this study, three representative sites (LC site in the piedmont plain, TZ site in the northern alluvial and lacustrine plain, YC site in the southern alluvial and lacustrine plain) were selected to compare the optimal irrigation scheduling and corresponding groundwater recharge under different hydrological years for winter wheat-summer maize double cropping system. At each site, a physically based agro-hydrological model (SWAP) was calibrated using field data of soil moisture. Then, scenarios under different irrigation time and amount were simulated. Results showed that the optimal irrigation scheduling and corresponding groundwater recharge were significant different between the three representative sites. The mean water table depth at the LC (33.0 m), YC (10.3 m), and TZ site (2.5 m) caused great different time lags of infiltrated water and groundwater contribution to evapotranspiration. Then, the most irrigation amount was required for the TZ site but the least requirement for the YC site at each hydrologic year. As most clay contents in the deep soils at the LC site increased tortuosity and limited water movement, which resulted in lower rates of recharge compared to more sandy soils at the other two sites. Averagely, using the optimal irrigation scheduling could save 2.04×109 m3 irrigation water and reduce about 84.3% groundwater over-exploitation in winter wheat growth period in the NCP. Therefore, comparison of the simulation results among the three

  3. Modeling Spatial and Temporal Changes in Groundwater Quality in Arid Zones Using Geostatistical Methods(Case Study: Koohpaye– Segzi Plain in Esfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Abbasi Jondani

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: The resultsshow thatwaterquality inKoohpaye– SegziPlainhavedramaticallyreduced in 1389than in1374.Most ofthechangeshave been occurrednearzayanderood river, as critical points have been appeared in Southern area of this plain. This show the effective role of zayanderood river in groundwater aquifer.

  4. Vulnerability of grazing and confined livestock in the Northern Great Plains to projected mid- and late-twenty-first century climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Northern Great Plains (NGP) region of the United States – which comprises Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota and Nebraska – is a largely rural area that provides important agricultural and ecological services, including biological diversity. The region contains 25% of the Nat...

  5. prediction of characteristics of coastal plain soils using terrain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clay, electrical and hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, pH, exchangeable calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and acidity ... significantly correlated with clay and pH (H2O), while SPI and CTI correlated significantly with clay, pH, organic carbon and ... Key words: coastal plain sands, DEM, soil characteristics, modelling.

  6. Removal of nanoparticles from plain and patterned surfaces using nanobubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, S.; Duisterwinkel, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    It is the aim of this paper to quantitatively characterize the capability of surface nanobubbles for surface cleaning, i.e., removal of nanodimensioned polystyrene particles from the surface. We adopt two types of substrates: plain and nanopatterned (trench/ridge) silicon wafer. The method used to

  7. Long-term Agroecosystem Research in the Northern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmer, M.; Sanderson, M.; Liebig, M. A.; Wienhold, B.; Awada, T.; Papiernik, S.; Osborne, S.; Kemp, W.; Okalebo, J. A.; Riedall, W.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern Great Plains is the bread basket of the United States, accounting for a substantial portion of U.S. agricultural production. This region faces critical challenges regarding balancing food needs, resource conservation (e.g Ogallala aquifer), environmental concerns, and rural economy development. Developing transformative, multifunctional systems will require equally imaginative and efficient tools to help farmers manage complex agroecosystems in a rapidly changing climate. The Northern Plains long-term agroecosystem research (LTAR) site at Mandan, ND and the Platte River High Plains LTAR (ARS/University of Nebraska-Lincoln) at Lincoln, NE in collaboration with USDA-ARS research units in Brookings, SD and Fargo, ND are collaborating to address the grand challenge of providing and sustaining multiple service provisions from Northern Great Plains agroecosystems. We propose to attain these goals through sustainable intensification based on the adoption of conservation agriculture principles including reduced soil disturbance, livestock integration, and greater complexity and diversity in the cropping system. Here, we summarize new concepts these locations have pioneered in dynamic cropping systems, resource use efficiency, and agricultural management technologies. As part of the LTAR network, we will conduct long-term cross-site research to design and assess new agricultural practices and systems aimed at improving our understanding of decision making processes and outcomes across an array of agricultural systems.

  8. Aerodynamic force coefficients of plain bridge cables in wet conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoni, Giulia; Georgakis, Christos T.

    In this paper, the aerodynamic forces and force coefficients from preliminary static wind tunnel tests on a plain cable in wet conditions are presented. The presented results are for several different relative cable wind-angles. A comparison is made with tests in dry conditions. In dry conditions...

  9. Diagnostic value of plain abdominal radiographs in acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The plain film of the abdomen (PAX) is still utilised in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis (Aap). Aim of this study was to evaluate the value of PAX in the diagnosis of Aap in children, since it continues to be a controversial subject. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gazi ...

  10. Visualizing Gender Variability in Plains Indian Pictographic Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocci, Max

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the few published references to gender variation among Plains Indians in order to contribute to a growing corpus of literature concerned with building a more complete picture of the social and cultural lives of individuals accustomed to these practices. In recent years these people have been known among Native Americans under…

  11. Traditional Plains Indian Art and the Contemporary Indian Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakes, Fraser

    1987-01-01

    Examines underlying concepts in traditional Plains Indian arts and encourages incorporation of traditional concepts into contemporary art education. Discusses spiritual foundations, holism, art for art's sake, portability, body art, conservation, tribal identity, aesthetic features, age/sex differentiation in art production, white society's…

  12. Inclusivity, Gestalt principles, and plain language in document design.

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Blog post introducing Turner & Schomberg's (2016) paper on inclusive practices in document design, using Gestalt components to illustrate the process of writing and designing material, in order to foster online discussion in the Information Literacy Journal Club. Turner, J. and Schomberg, J. (2016) ‘Inclusivity, Gestalt principles, and plain language in document design’, In the Library with the Lead Pipe.

  13. Wintering Golden Eagles on the coastal plain of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Vukovich; K.L. Turner; T.E. Grazia; T. Mims; J.C. Beasley; John Kilgo

    2015-01-01

    Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare winter residents in eastern North America, with most found along the Appalachian Mountains and few reported on the coastal plain of the Carolinas. We used remote cameras baited with wild pig (Sus scrofa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses to detect, age, and individually identify Golden Eagles on the U.S...

  14. Introducing Plain Language Principles to Business Communication Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Rachelle R.

    2012-01-01

    In response to current federal mandates requiring selected businesses and government agencies to use plain language (PL) when reporting information to the public, this article advocates the introduction of PL principles into current business communication curricula. Despite recent PL mandates and advances, many current business textbooks and…

  15. Fatigue crack growth due to overloads in plain concrete using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The proposed model is able to capture size effect appropriately which is an important aspect in fracture mechanics study of concrete structures. Further, in another study by the same authors, Ray & Chandra Kishen (2010), they have employed the population growth model to study the fatigue crack propagation in plain ...

  16. Acanthosis Nigricans among Northern Plains American Indian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Blakely; Noonan, Curtis; Bentley, Bonnie; Conway, Kathrene; Corcoran, Mary; FourStar, Kris; Gress, Shannon; Wagner, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present cross-sectional and prospective data on acanthosis nigricans (AN) prevalence in the context of other risk factors for diabetes including high body mass index (BMI), abnormal blood pressure (BP), physical inactivity and family history of diabetes among Northern Plains American Indian (AI) children.…

  17. Guesstimation of posterior malleolar fractures on lateral plain radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, D. T.; Doornberg, J. N.; Sierevelt, I. N.; Mallee, W. H.; van Dijk, C. N.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Stufkens, S. A.; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; van Sterkenburg, Maayke; Engvall, Andreas; Arroyo, Ernesto; Golovakha, Maksym; Pereira, Ernesto; Josep Torrent, Eugene Toh; Haverkamp, Daniel; Bojanic, Ivan; Sousa, Manuel; Aragon, Oscar Castro; Russo, Alessandro; Cortes, Carlos; Pánics, Gergely; Vide, João; Spanos, Loannis; Carvalho, Manuel Santos; Maggi, Pablo; Thomas, Zach; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Dinato, Mauro; Fay, Jakob; Kimtys, Vytautas; Correia Moreira, António José; Hatziemmanuil, Dimitrios; Low, Tze-Choong; van der Plaat, Laurens Wessel; Mora, Allan David; van Rensen, Inge; del Vecchio, Javier; Ramos, James; Azevedo, Jorge; Bustamante, Carlos; Oliveira, Alexandre; Zaw, Htwe; Kurup, Harish; Yli-Kyyny, Tero; Baca, Emre; Haapasalo, Heidi; Bakhtamyan, Gurgen; Zbikowski, Piotr; Kalb, Juan; Hemmingsson, Peter; Pinheiro, Miguel; Davenport, James; Guidi, Pier Luigi; Simoes da Silva, Ana Paula; Martinho, Goncalo; Spennacchio, Pietro; Postnov, Yury; Dreiangel, Niv; Junior, Nelson Gomes; Frangez, Igor; Bissell, Iain; Khan, Yasir; Toom, Alar; Bergen, Christiaan van; Liszka, Henryk; Moreno, Nestor; Patczai, Balázs; van den Bogaert, Max; Marquis, Christopher; Hussein, Amro Kamal; Andersen, Mette; Botezatu, Lozefina; Santos, Francisco Flores; Nery, Caio; Becirbegovc, Semin; Stoffel, Cristhopher Lucca; Ferrao, Paulo; Rakovac, Ivan; Darabos, Nikica; Sicchiero, Paolo; Tengiz, Kostava; Keiserman, Luciano; Yeap, Ewe Juan; Rocha de Souza, Andrè Luiz; Abdulsalam, Samir; Ramos, Acacio; Martinelli, Nicolú; Verfaillie, Stefaan; Silva, Carmen; Stufkens, Sjoerd; Chouliaras, Vasileios; da Costa, Daniel; Freihaut, Richard; Bulstra, Gythe; Burg, Alon; Rudge, Ben; Abdelwahab, Ali; Sirio, Adrian; Watson, Troy; Gaspar, Ana Rita; Sharp, Ian; Hossain, Munier; van Deurzen, Derek; van den Bekerom, Michel; Wiegerinck, Jan-Joost; van Eekeren, Inge; de Muinck Keizer, Robert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of articular involvement of the posterior malleolar fracture fragments in ankle fractures is essential, as this is the leading argument for internal fixation. The purpose of this study is to assess diagnostic accuracy of measurements on plain lateral radiographs. Quantification

  18. Flour Flame Thrower: The "Flaming Potential" of Plain Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Plain flour has a lot of chemical energy packed into it. When the flour is in a clump or pile it does not ignite although it may blacken. This is because there is not enough flour exposed to the oxygen in the air. Aerosolising the flour exposes it to much more oxygen allowing a self sustaining combustion reaction to occur when an ignition source…

  19. Radiopaque intrahepatic duct stones in plain radiograph: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young; Suh, Chang Hae; Park, Chan Sup; Chung, Won Kyun

    1994-01-01

    We experienced 3 cases of intrahepatic duct stones detected on plain radiographs. The patients had history of multiple episodes of recurrent cholangitis. Radiographic characteristics of these stones included multiple, round or rectangular radiopaque densities surrounded by calcified rim; these densities showed a branching pattern along the intrahepatic ducts

  20. Destruction of the arid plains by tubing in Kalmykia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Chichagov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The expedition researches results of natural state after functioning of the water and oil extraction tubes on the territory of Kalmykia republic. It’s shown that any linear destroyment of the North-West Caspian plain makes complex activity of exogenic processes, main of which are: erosion, suffusion and deflation.

  1. Computations Of Critical Depth In Rivers With Flood Plains | Okoli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical flows may occur at more than one depth in rivers with flood plains. The possibility of multiple critical depths affects the water-surface profile calculations. Presently available algorithms determine only one of the critical depths which may lead to large errors. It is the purpose of this paper to present an analytical ...

  2. A Plain English Map of the Human Glycolysis Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Presents a plain English map of the gene coding for the glycolysis enzymes in humans to be used as a teaching tool. The map can be used to illustrate that every reaction in a cell requires an enzyme, and that every enzyme is a protein coded for by a gene somewhere on the chromosomes. (WRM)

  3. Plain strain problem of poroelasticity using eigenvalue approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A plain strain problem of an isotropic elastic liquid-saturated porous medium in poroelasticity has been studied. The eigenvalue approach using the Laplace and Fourier transforms has been employed and these transforms have been inverted by using a numerical technique. An application of infinite space with ...

  4. Forest statistics for the Coastal Plain of Virginia, 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel D. Cost

    1976-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the fourth inventory of the timber resource in the coastal Plain of Virginia. The inventory was started in February 1975 and completed in November 1975. Three previous inventories, completed in 1940, 1956, and 1966, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 36 years. In this report, the primary...

  5. Forest statistics for the Coastal Plain of Virginia, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Thompson

    1991-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the sixth forest survey of the Coastal Plain of Virginia. Field work began in October 1990 and was completed in March 1991. Five previous surveys, completed in 1940, 1956, 1966, 1976, and 1985, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 51 years. The primary emphasis in this report is on the...

  6. Forest statistics for the Coastal Plain of Virginia, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown; Gerald C. Craver

    1985-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the fifth forest survey in the Coastal Plain of Virginia. Fieldwork began in September 1984 and was completed in February 1985. Four previous surveys, completed in 1940, 1956, 1966, and 1976, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 45 years. The primary emphasis in this report is on the changes...

  7. PLAINS GERBILS (GERBILLISCUS ROBUSTA) AS FOOD OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Skull and other bone contents were mostly (about 90%) of Gerbilliscus robusta, suggesting this rodent to still be an important food item of the barn owl in the ... Their biology and ecology on the plains have received but few studies (Senzota 1990, Reed 2011). Gerbils are ground dwelling rodents that have also been tamed ...

  8. Array measurements of long-period microtremors in southwestern Kanto plain, Japan; Kanto heiya nanseibu ni okeru yaya choshuki bido no array kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, H.; Sato, H.; Kurita, K.; Seo, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Array measurements of long-period microtremors were carried out in the southwestern part of Kanto Plain, Japan, to obtain S-wave velocity structures in sedimentary beds as fundamental data for estimating long-term strong ground motion in Kanto Plain. The major component in a long-term seismic motion observed in Kanto Plain is the surface wave. According to the result of observations on Love wave by Kinoshita et al, the wavelengths of the surface waves of a long-term cycle are 10 to 20 km. Therefore, if an array observation is to be performed at intervals of about two wavelengths, about 40 points will be required to cover the entire Kanto plain. The final phase velocity is decided by averaging phase velocities of each cycle obtained for each data set. The acquired phase velocities are analyzed inversely by using a genetic algorithm to derive the S-wave velocities at each observation point. The present microtremor array observation has used 13 points in the southwestern part of Kanto Plain to acquire S-wave velocity (Vs) distribution in sedimentary beds. It was made clear that beds with Vs of 1.0 km/s and Vs of 1.5 km/s exist in this area between the surface bed and the seismic foundation with Vs of about 3 km/s. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Backcasting the decline of a vulnerable Great Plains reproductive ecotype: identifying threats and conservation priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Mueller, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Conservation efforts for threatened or endangered species are challenging because the multi-scale factors that relate to their decline or inhibit their recovery are often unknown. To further exacerbate matters, the perceptions associated with the mechanisms of species decline are often viewed myopically rather than across the entire species range. We used over 80 years of fish presence data collected from the Great Plains and associated ecoregions of the United States, to investigate the relative influence of changing environmental factors on the historic and current truncated distributions of the Arkansas River shiner Notropis girardi. Arkansas River shiner represent a threatened reproductive ecotype considered especially well adapted to the harsh environmental extremes of the Great Plains. Historic (n = 163 records) and current (n = 47 records) species distribution models were constructed using a vector-based approach in MaxEnt by splitting the available data at a time when Arkansas River shiner dramatically declined. Discharge and stream order were significant predictors in both models; however, the shape of the relationship between the predictors and species presence varied between time periods. Drift distance (river fragment length available for ichthyoplankton downstream drift before meeting a barrier) was a more important predictor in the current model and indicated river segments 375–780 km had the highest probability of species presence. Performance for the historic and current models was high (area under the curve; AUC > 0.95); however, forecasting and backcasting to alternative time periods suggested less predictive power. Our results identify fragments that could be considered refuges for endemic plains fish species and we highlight significant environmental factors (e.g., discharge) that could be manipulated to aid recovery.

  10. Wind-Eroded Crater Floors and Intercrater Plains, Terra Sabaea, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Rossman P.; Wray, James J.; Mest, Scott C.; Maxwell, Ted A.

    2018-02-01

    Ancient impact craters with wind-eroded layering on their floors provide a record of resurfacing materials and processes on early Mars. In a 54 km Noachian crater in Terra Sabaea (20.2°S, 42.6°E), eolian deflation of a friable, dark-toned layer up to tens of meters thick has exposed more resistant, underlying light-toned material. These layers differ significantly from strata of similar tone described in other regions of Mars. The light-toned material has no apparent internal stratification, and visible/near-infrared spectral analysis suggests that it is rich in feldspar. Its origin is ambiguous, as we cannot confidently reject igneous, pyroclastic, or clastic alternatives. The overlying dark-toned layer is probably a basaltic siltstone or sandstone that was emplaced mostly by wind, although its weak cementation and inverted fluvial paleochannels indicate some modification by water. Negative-relief channels are not found on the crater floor, and fluvial erosion is otherwise weakly expressed in the study area. Small impacts onto this crater's floor have exposed deeper friable materials that appear to contain goethite. Bedrock outcrops on the crater walls are phyllosilicate bearing. The intercrater plains contain remnants of a post-Noachian thin, widespread, likely eolian mantle with an indurated surface. Plains near Hellas-concentric escarpments to the north are more consistent with volcanic resurfacing. A 48 km crater nearby contains similar dark-over-light outcrops but no paleochannels. Our findings indicate that dark-over-light stratigraphy has diverse origins across Mars and that some dark-toned plains with mafic mineralogy are not of igneous origin.

  11. 78 FR 17653 - Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0408)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Wildlife Service Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS... Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Draft [[Page 17654

  12. Mercury and methylmercury dynamics in a coastal plain watershed, New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, J.L.; Riskin, M.L.; Szabo, Z.; Reilly, P.A.; Rosman, R.; Bonin, J.L.; Fischer, J.M.; Heckathorn, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    The upper Great Egg Harbor River watershed in New Jersey's Coastal Plain is urbanized but extensive freshwater wetlands are present downstream. In 2006-2007, studies to assess levels of total mercury (THg) found concentrations in unfiltered streamwater to range as high as 187 ng/L in urbanized areas. THg concentrations were areas where both THg and dissolved organic carbon concentrations tended to increase while pH and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and nitrate decreased with flushing of soils after rain. Most of the river's flow comes from groundwater seepage; unfiltered groundwater samples contained up to 177 ng/L of THg in urban areas where there is a history of well water with THg that exceeds the drinking water standard (2,000 ng/L). THg concentrations were lower (areas. In addition to higher THg concentrations (mostly particulate), concentrations of chloride were higher in streamwater and groundwater from urban areas than in those from downstream wetland areas. Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in unfiltered streamwater ranged from 0.17 ng/L at a forest/wetlands site to 2.94 ng/L at an urban site. The percentage of THg present as MeHg increased as the percentage of forest + wetlands increased, but also was high in some urban areas. MeHg was detected only in groundwater urban areas are hypothesized to mobilize Hg deposited to soils. ?? 2010 US Government.

  13. Multi-modeling assessment of recent changes in groundwater resource: application to the semi-arid Haouz plain (Central Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakir, Younes; Brahim, Berjamy; Page Michel, Le; Fathallah, Sghrer; Houda, Nassah; Lionel, Jarlan; Raki Salah, Er; Vincent, Simonneaux; Said, Khabba

    2015-04-01

    The Haouz plain (6000 km2) is a part of the Tensift basin located in the Central Morocco. The plain has a semi-arid climate (250 mm/y of rainfall) and is bordered in the south by the High-Atlas mountains. Because the plain is highly anthropized, the water resources face heavy demands from various competing sectors, including agriculture (over than 273000 ha of irrigated areas), water supply for more than 2 million inhabitants and about 2 millions of tourists annually. Consequently the groundwater is being depleted on a large area of the plain, with problems of water scarcity which pose serious threats to water supplies and to sustainable development. The groundwater in the Haouz plain was modeled previously by MODFLOW (USGS groundwater numerical modeling) with annual time steps. In the present study a multi-modeling approach is applied. The aim is to enhance the evaluation of the groundwater pumping for irrigation, one of the most difficult data to estimate, and to improve the water balance assessment. In this purpose, two other models were added: SAMIR (Satellite Estimation of Agricultural Water Demand) and WEAP (integrated water resources planning). The three models are implemented at a monthly time step and calibrated over the 2001-2011 period, corresponding to 120 time steps. This multi-modeling allows assessing the evolution of water resources both in time and space. The results show deep changes during the last years which affect generally the water resources and groundwater particularly. These changes are induced by a remarkable urbanism development, succession of droughts, intensive agriculture activities and weak management of irrigation and water resources. Some indicators of these changes are as follow: (i) the groundwater table decrease varies between 1 to 3m/year, (ii) the groundwater depletion during the last ten year is equivalent to 50% of the lost reserves during 40 years, (iii) the annual groundwater deficit is about 100 hm3, (iv) the renewable

  14. 41 CFR 102-2.140 - What elements of plain language appear in the FMR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What elements of plain language appear in the FMR? 102-2.140 Section 102-2.140 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... MANAGEMENT REGULATION SYSTEM Plain Language Regulatory Style § 102-2.140 What elements of plain language...

  15. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR...

  16. 44 CFR 60.2 - Minimum compliance with flood plain management criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assure that its comprehensive plan is consistent with the flood plain management objectives of this part. (h) The community shall adopt and enforce flood plain management regulations based on data provided..., the community shall not adopt and enforce flood plain management regulations based upon modified data...

  17. Hydrology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M Amatya; Callahan Timothy J.; Carl C. Trettin; Hakkila Jon

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  18. Hyrdology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M. Amatya; Timothy J. Callahan; Carl C. Trettin; Jon Hakkila

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  19. Acute paediatric ankle trauma: MRI versus plain radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohman, M. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Radiological Dept., Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Kivisaari, A.; Kivisaari, L. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Kallio, P.; Puntila, J. [Dept. of Paediatric Surgery, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Vehmas, T. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland)

    2001-09-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnosis of acute physeal ankle fractures on plain radiographs using MRI as the gold standard. Methods: Sixty consecutive children, 29 with a clinical diagnosis of lateral ligament injury and 31 with physeal ankle fractures, were examined using both radiographs and MRI in the acute period. The imaging data were reviewed by three ''masked'' radiologists. The fracture diagnosis and Slater-Harris classification of radiographs were compared with findings on MRI. Results: Plain radiography produced five of 28 (18%) false negative and 12 of 92 (13%) false positive fracture diagnoses compared with MRI. Six of the 12 false positive fractures were due to a misclassification of lateral ligament disruption as SH1 fractures. Altogether a difference was found in 21% of cases in either the diagnosis or the classification of the fractures according to Salter- Harris. All bone bruises in the distal tibia and fibula and 64% of bone bruises in the talus were seen in association with lateral ligament injuries. Talar bone bruises in association with fractures occurred on the same side as the malleolar fracture; talar bone bruises in association with lateral ligament disruption were seen in different locations. The errors identified on radiographs by MRI did not affect the management of the injury. Conclusions: The incidence of false negative ankle fractures in plain radiographs was small and no complex ankle fractures were missed on radiographs. The total extent of complex fractures was, however, not always obvious on radiographs. In an unselected series of relatively mild ankle injuries, we were unable to show a single case where the treatment or prognosis based on plain radiography should have been significantly altered after having done a routine MRI examination. Plain radiography is still the diagnostic cornerstone of paediatric ankle injuries. (orig.)

  20. Plain abdominal film and abdominal ultrasound in intestine occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amodio, C.; Antico, E.; Montesi, A.; Zaccarelli, A.

    1991-01-01

    Plain film of the abdomen is widely used in the diagnostic evaluation of intestinal occlusion. Even though this technique can yield a panoramic and high-resolution view of gas-filled intestinal loops, several factors, such as type and duration of occlusion, neurovascular status of the intestine and general patient condition, may reduce the diagnostic specificy of the plain film relative to the organic or functional nature of the occlusion. From 1987 to 1989, fifty-four patients with intestinal occlusion were studied combining plain abdominal film with abdominal ultrasound (US). This was done in order to evaluate whether the additional information obtained from US could be of value in better determining the nature of the ileus. US evaluation was guided by the information already obtained from plain film which better demonstrates gas-filled loops. The results show that in all 27 cases of dynamic ileus (intestinal ischemia, acute appendicitis, acute cholecistis, acute pancreatitis or blunt abdominal trauma) US demonstrates: intestinal loops slightly increased in caliber, with liquid content, or loops containing rare hyperechoic particles, intestinal wall thickening and no peristalsis. In 27 cases of acute, chronic or complicated mechanical ileus (adhesions, internal hernia, intestinal neoplasm, peritoneal seedings) US shows: 1) in acute occlusion: hyperperistaltic intestinal loops containing inhomogeneous liquid; 2) in chronic occlusion: liquid content with a solid echigenic component; 3) in complicated occlusion: liquid stasis, frequent increase in wall thickness, moderate peritoneal effusion and inefficient peristalsis. In conclusion, based on the obtained data, the authors feel that the combination of plain abdominal film and abdominal US can be useful in the work-up of patient with intestinal occlusion. The information provided by US allows a better definition of the nature of the ileus

  1. Acute paediatric ankle trauma: MRI versus plain radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohman, M.; Kivisaari, A.; Kivisaari, L.; Vehmas, T.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnosis of acute physeal ankle fractures on plain radiographs using MRI as the gold standard. Methods: Sixty consecutive children, 29 with a clinical diagnosis of lateral ligament injury and 31 with physeal ankle fractures, were examined using both radiographs and MRI in the acute period. The imaging data were reviewed by three ''masked'' radiologists. The fracture diagnosis and Slater-Harris classification of radiographs were compared with findings on MRI. Results: Plain radiography produced five of 28 (18%) false negative and 12 of 92 (13%) false positive fracture diagnoses compared with MRI. Six of the 12 false positive fractures were due to a misclassification of lateral ligament disruption as SH1 fractures. Altogether a difference was found in 21% of cases in either the diagnosis or the classification of the fractures according to Salter- Harris. All bone bruises in the distal tibia and fibula and 64% of bone bruises in the talus were seen in association with lateral ligament injuries. Talar bone bruises in association with fractures occurred on the same side as the malleolar fracture; talar bone bruises in association with lateral ligament disruption were seen in different locations. The errors identified on radiographs by MRI did not affect the management of the injury. Conclusions: The incidence of false negative ankle fractures in plain radiographs was small and no complex ankle fractures were missed on radiographs. The total extent of complex fractures was, however, not always obvious on radiographs. In an unselected series of relatively mild ankle injuries, we were unable to show a single case where the treatment or prognosis based on plain radiography should have been significantly altered after having done a routine MRI examination. Plain radiography is still the diagnostic cornerstone of paediatric ankle injuries. (orig.)

  2. Managed aquifer recharge experiences with shallow wells: first analysis of the experimental activities in the high Vicenza plain (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Altissimo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, groundwater resources of the high Vicenza plain were subjected to an increasing extraction rate and, at the same time, to a lower quantity of groundwater recharge. The result is a decreasing flow from the plain springs and a high reduction in piezometric levels of the middle and lower Venetian aquifers. In order to restore the balance of groundwater resources in the Vicenza area, the Vicenza Province has promoted experimental activities aimed to increase the recharge of the aquifer in the high Vicenza plain and in the River Agno valley, using infiltration wells, forested infiltration areas, infiltration trenches, subsurface fields and infiltration canals. All recharge plants are fed by irrigation water, managed by agricultural consortia only during periods of water surplus. Construction works were preceded by specific geological and hydrogeological investigations to verify the suitability for recharge, with the purpose of optimizing the available economic resources. For the protection of the aquifer system, a chemical background of infiltration water was assessed with periodical chemical-physical and microbiological surveys. After the activation date, a monthly monitoring program started to verify the quality of both surface and groundwater, collecting samples in monitoring wells downstream the infiltration structures. The input flow rate entering the various systems, monitored by automatic instruments either in the superficial structure and in groundwater, have provided interesting information about the volumes and the quality of water. These scientific experiences appear to be very helpful in case of future applications for other sites, especially during critical hydrologic period.

  3. Institutions of farmer participation and environmental sustainability: a multi-level analysis from irrigation management in Harran Plain, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Özerol

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between farmer participation and environmental sustainability from an institutional perspective in the context of Harran Plain, one of the newest and largest irrigated areas in Turkey. Harran Plain undergoes social, economic and institutional change due to the expansion of large-scale irrigation and the establishment of irrigation associations. These changes, however, trigger an environmental change in the form of waterlogging and soil salinisation. The concepts of ‘institutional scale’ and ‘institutional alignment’ are applied to critically analyse the narratives regarding the causes of excessive water use, which is a collective action problem playing a significant role in increased waterlogging and soil salinity in Harran Plain. Empirical findings demonstrate that a low degree of institutional alignment among the rules at different levels constitutes an obstacle against taking actions to prevent excessive water use. Major issues are identified as the lack of water rights at plot and district levels; the exclusion of farmers from the planning of irrigation seasons; the inefficient monitoring of irrigation frequencies and fee collections, and the lack of mechanisms to monitor the operations of irrigation associations. The application of institutional scale and institutional alignment also contribute to the understanding of social-ecological systems by facilitating the systematic analysis of institutions and the identification of areas for institutional change.

  4. Fallow land mapping for better crop monitoring in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain using HJ-1 CCD data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Miao; Wu, Bingfang; Meng, Jihua; Dong, Taifeng; You, Xingzhi

    2014-01-01

    The prediction of grain production is essential for socio-economic development planning, guidance and control of macro cropping structure adjustment. Fallow areas should be identified each growing season which is critical for grain production prediction. This paper focuses on fallow arable land monitoring during summer grain season in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain using China Environment Satellite HJ-1 CCD data. With the two satellites HJ-1A and HJ-1B, high temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can be obtained. HJ-1 CCD data were acquired from early March to early June in 2010 over the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. Multi-temporal HJ-1 CCD data were pre-processed and time series of NDVI were derived. An algorithm for separating cropped and fallow areas was developed based on three key periods of NDVI in early-March, mid-April and mid-May, 2010. The influence of fallow arable lands to yield estimation and crop condition monitoring over the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain were also investigated and analyzed. Preliminary results in this paper showed that HJ-1 CCD data are capable for fallow land monitoring. Information of fallow arable lands is an essential part of crop monitoring and it should be incorporated into crop monitoring systems. In the future, the fallow lands over autumn grain season should also be identified and information of fallow arable lands should be generated yearly in order to get more reliable production prediction

  5. Saline systems of the Great Plains of western Canada: an overview of the limnogeology and paleolimnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, William M; Ginn, Fawn M

    2005-01-01

    In much of the northern Great Plains, saline and hypersaline lacustrine brines are the only surface waters present. As a group, the lakes of this region are unique: there is no other area in the world that can match the concentration and diversity of saline lake environments exhibited in the prairie region of Canada and northern United States. The immense number of individual salt lakes and saline wetlands in this region of North America is staggering. Estimates vary from about one million to greater than 10 million, with densities in some areas being as high as 120 lakes/km2. Despite over a century of scientific investigation of these salt lakes, we have only in the last twenty years advanced far enough to appreciate the wide spectrum of lake types, water chemistries, and limnological processes that are operating in the modern settings. Hydrochemical data are available for about 800 of the lake brines in the region. Composition, textural, and geochemical information on the modern bottom sediments has been collected for just over 150 of these lakes. Characterization of the biological and ecological features of these lakes is based on even fewer investigations, and the stratigraphic records of only twenty basins have been examined. The lake waters show a considerable range in ionic composition and concentration. Early investigators, concentrating on the most saline brines, emphasized a strong predominance of Na+ and SO4-2 in the lakes. It is now realized, however, that not only is there a complete spectrum of salinities from less than 1 ppt TDS to nearly 400 ppt, but also virtually every water chemistry type is represented in lakes of the region. With such a vast array of compositions, it is difficult to generalize. Nonetheless, the paucity of Cl-rich lakes makes the northern Great Plains basins somewhat unusual compared with salt lakes in many other areas of the world (e.g., Australia, western United States). Compilations of the lake water chemistries show distinct

  6. Landscape Character of Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoarto, A.; Gunawan, A.; Machfud; Hikmat, A.

    2017-10-01

    Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area has a diverse landscape character as a potential landscape resources for the development of ecotourism destination. This area is part of the Mount of Botol Resort, Halimun Salak National Park (HSNP). This area also has a fairly high biodiversity. This study aims to identify and analysis the category of landscape character in the Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area for the development of ecotourism destination. This study used a descriptive approach through field surveys and interviews, was carried out through two steps : 1) identify the landscape character, and 2) analysis of the landscape character. The results showed that in areas set aside for ecotourism destination in Pongkor Mining, landscape character category scattered forests, tailing ponds, river, plain, and the built environment. The Category of landscape character most dominant scattered in the area is forest, here is the river, plain, tailing ponds, the built environment, and plain. The landscape character in a natural environment most preferred for ecotourism activities. The landscape character that spread in the natural environment and the built environment is a potential that must be protected and modified such as elimination of incongruous element, accentuation of natural form, alteration of the natural form, intensification and enhanced visual quality intensively to be developed as a ecotourism destination area.

  7. Associations and communities of cereal crops of the Łuków Plain. Part III. Intermediate and impoverished communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Rzymowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the third and final part of a study attempting to analyse associations and communities in cereal crops of the Łuków Plain. It contains a description of intermediate and impoverished communities established in cereal crops of the Łuków Plain. Patches with phytocenoses without the combination of species characteristic of cereal associations were frequently observed. Impoverished communities of the alliance Aperion spicae-venti established in winter cereal crops. In turn, in spring cereal crops phytocenoses including species characteristic of tuber and root crops were found; they represented either a community with species characteristic of Panico-Setarion or an intermediate community with species characteristic of Aperion spicae-venti and Polygono-Chenopodion. Such communities are established, among others, because of production intensification which changes habitat conditions. Some patches found in the study area were intermediate between the two most frequently observed associations Arnoserido-Scleranthetum and Vicietum tetraspermae.

  8. Element and mineral characterization of dust emission from the saline land at Songnen Plain, Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Hu, Ke; Jie, Dongmei; Yang, Junpeng; Li, Jingmin

    2009-01-01

    Recent observations of Asian dust storms show an eastern expansion of the source area to degraded lands, where dust emissions have been little studied. The dust concentrations over the saline land of the western Songnen Plain (SSL), Northeastern China, are circumstantially higher than those from the northwestern Chinese deserts. These concentrations are sensitive to the surface soil conditions and wind velocity on the ground. The dust samples collected during dust storm events on the SSL contain abundant Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Fe and Ti, as well as toxic elements such as Cu, V, Zn and Ba. Individual particle analysis reveals that fine saline particles (fine saline particles uplifted from the SSL are likely transported eastward by the winter monsoon circulation and westerlies. Recent degradation of saline lands in Northeastern China would not only increase the frequency of dust storm events in the downwind area, but also might change the chemical composition of the Asian dust emissions.

  9. Principal Locations of Metal Loading from Flood-Plain Tailings, Lower Silver Creek, Utah, April 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Briant A.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    Because of the historical deposition of mill tailings in flood plains, the process of determining total maximum daily loads for streams in an area like the Park City mining district of Utah is complicated. Understanding the locations of metal loading to Silver Creek and the relative importance of these locations is necessary to make science-based decisions. Application of tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling techniques provided a means to quantify and rank the many possible source areas. A mass-loading study was conducted along a 10,000-meter reach of Silver Creek, Utah, in April 2004. Mass-loading profiles based on spatially detailed discharge and chemical data indicated five principal locations of metal loading. These five locations contributed more than 60 percent of the cadmium and zinc loads to Silver Creek along the study reach and can be considered locations where remediation efforts could have the greatest effect upon improvement of water quality in Silver Creek.

  10. Snow and albedo climate change impacts across the United States Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassnacht, S. R.; Cherry, M. L.; Venable, N. B. H.; Saavedra, F.

    2016-02-01

    In areas with a seasonal snowpack, a warmer climate could cause less snowfall, a shallower snowpack, and a change in the timing of snowmelt, all which could reduce the winter albedo and yield an increase in net short-wave radiation. Trends in temperature, precipitation (total and as snow), days with precipitation and snow, and winter albedo were investigated over the 60-year period from 1951 to 2010 for 20 meteorological stations across the Northern Great Plains. This is an area where snow accumulation is shallow but persistent for most of the winter (November to March). The most consistent trends were minimum temperature and days with precipitation, both of which increased at a majority of the stations. Among the stations included, a decrease in the modelled winter albedo was more prevalent than an increase. There was substantial spatial variability in the climate trends. For most variables, the period of record used influenced the magnitude and sign of the significant trends.

  11. Mercury and methylmercury dynamics in a coastal plain watershed, New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, J.L.; Riskin, M.L.; Szabo, Z.; Reilly, P.A.; Rosman, R.; Bonin, J.L.; Fischer, J.M.; Heckathorn, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    The upper Great Egg Harbor River watershed in New Jersey's Coastal Plain is urbanized but extensive freshwater wetlands are present downstream. In 2006-2007, studies to assess levels of total mercury (THg) found concentrations in unfiltered streamwater to range as high as 187 ng/L in urbanized areas. THg concentrations were water with THg that exceeds the drinking water standard (2,000 ng/L). THg concentrations were lower (water/sediment interface. Atmospheric deposition is presumed to be the main source of Hg to the wetlands and also may be a source to groundwater, where wastewater inputs in urban areas are hypothesized to mobilize Hg deposited to soils. ?? 2010 US Government.

  12. The impact of anthropogenic activities on components of the natural environment of the Titu Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BOGAN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The anthropogenic activities on the environment cause topographic changes that have strong repercussions, some positive (afforestation, embankments but other negative (deforestation, soil erosion, inning. The present study aims to analyze the current situation of the main anthropogenic activities in the area of Titu Plain, to highlight the negative impacts on the quality of the environment, and at the same time it proposes ways of reducing their adverse effect. Thus, there were studied the three essential components: water, air and soil, and were established the main problems that they currently acts as a result of the work carried out in this geographical area. It is also highlighted the human concern for the conservation and improvement of the quality of the environment, because the man begins to become more aware of the negative impacts of his activities on the environment

  13. Has land subsidence changed the flood hazard potential? A case example from the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas are subject to flood hazards because of their topographic features, social development and related human activities. The Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, is located nearby the Tokyo metropolitan area and it faces to the Pacific Ocean. In the Kujukuri Plain, widespread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by exploitation of groundwater, extraction of natural gas dissolved in brine, and natural consolidation of the Holocene and landfill deposits. The locations of land subsidence include areas near the coast, and it may increase the flood hazard potential. Hence, it is very important to evaluate flood hazard potential by taking into account the temporal change of land elevation caused by land subsidence, and to prepare hazard maps for protecting the surface environment and for developing an appropriate land-use plan. In this study, flood hazard assessments at three different times, i.e., 1970, 2004, and 2013 are implemented by using a flood hazard model based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis with Geographical Information System techniques. The model incorporates six factors: elevation, depression area, river system, ratio of impermeable area, detention ponds, and precipitation. Main data sources used are 10 m resolution topography data, airborne laser scanning data, leveling data, Landsat-TM data, two 1:30 000 scale river watershed maps, and precipitation data from observation stations around the study area and Radar data. The hazard assessment maps for each time are obtained by using an algorithm that combines factors with weighted linear combinations. The assignment of the weight/rank values and their analysis are realized by the application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. This study is a preliminary work to investigate flood hazards on the Kujukuri Plain. A flood model will be developed to simulate more detailed change of the flood hazard influenced by land subsidence.

  14. Evaluation of Four Water Management Policies for Ogallala Aquifer Sustainability in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, J. E.; Gowda, P. H.; Howell, T. A.; Marek, T. H.; Ha, W.; Almas, L. K.

    2010-12-01

    Diminishing groundwater supply in the Ogallala Aquifer will severely reduce regional crop and animal production in the absence of a sustainable water management policy. It is essential to mitigate adverse impacts on the regional economy due to future withdrawals of the limited groundwater resource. Currently, approximately ten alternative water management policies are being debated by policy makers in the Central and Southern High Plains of the Ogallala Aquifer region. Before implementing any new policy or modifying current policies, newer alternative policies should be evaluated for their impact on groundwater levels with eventual extension to regional economic impacts. The main objective of this study was to evaluate four water management policies, from the debated ones, on future groundwater levels in the Ogallala Aquifer beneath four heavily irrigated counties (Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore) located in the northwest corner of the Texas High Plains using a calibrated ModFlow model. The four water management policies were (1) voluntary permanent conversion to dry land production up to 10% of the total irrigated area, (2) adoption of advances in biotechnology that allow water use reductions at a rate of 1% per year up to 10% of current use, (3) mandatory water use reduction to decrease the total water pumped by 10% (volume per unit land area per year), and (4) voluntary temporary conversion to dry land production during 15 years for a maximum area of 10% of the total irrigated area. The water management policies were converted into water demand rates for ModFlow model inputs. Simulations were conducted for a 50-year (2010-2060) period. Preliminary results indicate that a combination of more than one policy will be required to produce a significant reduction in the current groundwater depletion rates.

  15. Predicting nitrate contamination in recently recharged groundwater: High Plains regional aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdak, J. J.; Qi, S. L.

    2004-12-01

    The High Plains regional aquifer, a nationally important groundwater resource, has widespread elevated nitrate concentrations in recently recharged groundwater. This condition has created a potential health concern for nearly 2 million people who rely on the aquifer for drinking water. Concentrations and spatial distribution of nitrate are influenced by anthropogenic activity, particularly from non-point source contamination. A novel groundwater vulnerability assessment encompassing the entire High Plains aquifer is presented that predicts areas of the aquifer where nitrate concentrations are expected to exceed a background value of 4 mg/L as N in recently recharged groundwater, defined as less than 50-years old. This model couples particle-tracking simulations and multivariate logistic regression analysis within a GIS framework, thereby incorporating site-specific hydrogeologic parameters and the groundwater flow regime. Contributing areas, delineated by a 90-degree sector, represented the capture zone up gradient from the well location and defined the area for GIS-based extraction of explanatory variables for statistical modeling. Particle-tracking simulations identified the appropriate radial length for the sector and well screen depths corresponding to recently recharged groundwater. Horizontal and vertical particle movements were most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and estimates of recharge, respectively. The final multivariate logistic regression model demonstrated statistical significance (p fertilizer on irrigated agricultural land (p = 0.050), and percent clay in the unsaturated zone (p = 0.040). Predicted groundwater vulnerability corroborated our conceptual model that nitrate concentrations are directly related to nitrogen loading at land surface and infiltration in the soil zone, and inversely related to impedances to downward advective chemical movement through the unsaturated zone. The nitrate vulnerability model and map offer a predictive tool

  16. Hydrochemical study of an arsenic-contaminated plain in Guandu, north Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Hsiang

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic pollution in Guandu Plain, north Taiwan is a critical issue due to highly developed anthropogenic activities. It was considered that arsenic was carried in by surface water system. Two major rivers, Huanggang Creek and South Huang Greek, flow through Guandu Plain. Both creeks originate from Tatung Volcano Group, which is extensively active in post-volcanic activities. In this study, the hydrochemistry along the two major rivers was studied for tracing the source of arsenic pollution in Guandu Plain. The pH values in the upstream water are in the range from 6 to 8 but dramatically decrease down to 2-4.5 in the downstream area. It can be concluded that the creeks are recharged with very low pH geothermal water. In addition, arsenic shows a different spatial distribution. In Huanggang Creek, arsenic concentration is much higher, about 200 ppb to 500 ppb, in the downstream than in the upstream while arsenic concentration is extremely low, below 1 ppb, in the downstream of South Huang Greek. The geochemical results show that rare earth elements (REEs) are depleted in the upstream both in Huanggang creek and South Huang creek, and the NASC-normalized ratios of heavy to light REE (Lu/La) in the upstream are very close to 1. This demonstrates that the upstream water is geochemically dominated by the interaction between water and sedimentary rock. In the downstream, the NASC-normalized REE pattern shows a quit different type which is depleted in light REEs (much higher Lu/La ratio). It is well known that igneous rock is depleted in light REEs; therefore, arsenic is possibly volcanic origin. In this study, PHREEQC, a thermodynamic modeling program, was also utilized to calculate the saturation index (SI) of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO), which can effectively scavenge arsenic in water. The results demonstrate that SI of HFO is mainly controlled by pH in this study. When pH is greater than 3.5, HFO start to precipitate and remove arsenic from water. Therefore, it is

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of plain radiographs and cineradiography in diagnosing traumatic scapholunate dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pliefke, Jenny; Eisenschenk, Andreas; Stengel, Dirk; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Rademacher, Grit; Mutze, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Missed tears of the scapholunate ligament (SLL) and scapholunate dissociation (SLD) after wrist injuries pose a high risk of post-traumatic osteoarthritis of the carpus. Plain X-rays and dynamic radiographic studies are frequently used for initial diagnostic work-up. Given the limited evidence of their accuracy, we retrospectively compared the radiographic findings of patients with suspected traumatic SLD with wrist arthroscopy as the accepted reference standard. During a 6-year period, plain radiographs and DSA cineradiography scans were obtained from 198 patients who had sustained a hyperextension injury to their hand. Of those, 102 (72 men, 30 women, mean age of 42 ± 12 years) subsequently underwent diagnostic arthroscopy. Digital images were reevaluated by experienced radiologists unaware of the arthroscopic findings for the presence or absence of SLD. We calculated the sensitivity (SN) and specificity (SP) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and computed areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC/ROC). Arthroscopy revealed 42 SLL ruptures, 13, 10, and 19 of which were classified as grade I (partial), II (complete with dynamic instability), or III (complete with static instability) respectively. Plain radiographs correctly identified 24 injuries (SN 57.1%, 95% CI 41.0-72.3%), and produced 1 false-positive result (SP 98.3%, 95% CI 91.1-100.0%). The scapholunate distance and the SL angle contributed independently to the diagnostic variance, with an AUC/ROC of 85.7% (95% CI 76.8-92.2%). Cineradiography had a sensitivity of 36 out of 42 (85.7%, 95% CI 71.5-94.6%), and a specificity of 57 out of 60 (95.0%, 95% CI 86.1-99.0%). Pathological results on plain radiographs and cineradiography reliably indicate the presence of SLD after wrist trauma. Although non-conclusive, a negative dynamic study markedly reduces the pre-test probability of disease. Both methods remain key elements of primary diagnostic strategies for suspected traumatic SLD, and may

  18. Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional assessment—Volume I. Ecological communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Gordon C.; Burris, Lucy; Carr, Natasha B.; Leinwand, Ian I.F.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2017-10-19

    The Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative. The overall goal of the Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) is to compile and synthesize regional datasets to facilitate evaluation of the cumulative effects of change agents on priority ecological communities and species. In particular, the REAs identify and map the distribution of communities and wildlife habitats at broad spatial extents and provide assessments of ecological conditions. The REAs also identify where and to what degree ecological resources are currently at risk from change agents, such as development, fire, invasive species, and climate change. The REAs can help managers identify and prioritize potential areas for conservation or restoration, assess cumulative effects as required by the National Environmental Policy Act, and inform landscape-level planning and management decisions for multiple uses of public lands.Management questions form the basis for the REA framework and were developed in conjunction with the BLM and other stakeholders. Conservation elements are communities and species that are of regional management concern. Core management questions relate to the key ecological attributes and change agents associated with each conservation element. Integrated management questions synthesize the results of the primary core management questions into overall landscape-level ranks for each conservation element.The ecological communities evaluated as conservation elements are shortgrass, mixed-grass, and sand prairies; all grasslands; riparian and nonplaya wetlands; playa wetlands and saline lakes; and prairie streams and rivers. Species and species assemblages evaluated are the freshwater mussel assemblage, Arkansas River shiner (Notropis girardi), ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis), lesser prairie chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), snowy plover (Charadrius

  19. USGS Historical, Current, and Projected Future Land Cover Mapping for the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, T. L.; Gallant, A.; Sayler, K. L.

    2008-12-01

    Land cover in the Northern Great Plains has changed considerably in the last several decades. While a significant proportion of the landscape has been cultivated for over one hundred years, the intensity of cultivation, crop type, and management practices have changed in response to shifts in government policy, commodity prices, access to water, and technological advances. Changes in land cover impact a wide variety of ecosystem processes and services, including carbon balances, climate, hydrology and water quality, and biodiversity. A consistent record of historical land cover is required to understand relations between land- cover change and these ecological processes, while projections of future land cover are needed for planning and potential mitigation efforts. Several U.S. Geological Survey efforts have been completed or are ongoing in the Northern Great Plains, resulting in the compilation of an unmatched record of historical, current, and future land-cover information for the region. The USGS Land Cover Trends project is using the historical record of Landsat imagery and a robust sampling approach to examine the rates, causes, and consequences of contemporary (1973-2000) land-cover change on an ecoregional basis for the conterminous United States. Results from completed Trends analyses for Great Plains ecoregions revealed changes in the proportion and distribution of grassland/shrubland and agricultural uses during the study period; Some areas exhibited considerable loss in cultivated land after initiation of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in the mid 1980s. In recent years (post-2000), agricultural commodity prices have skyrocketed as food and energy compete for use of agricultural products, which in conjunction with the expiration of many CRP contracts, has led to expansion of cultivated land. In the coming decades, calls for U.S. energy independence and the development of biofuels from cellulosic stock could result in a transformation of the Great

  20. Some properties of saline-alkaline soils of Aydin-Söke plain and activity of gypsum as amelioration material

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Gönül; Atatanır, Levent; Yorulmaz, Alper

    2008-01-01

    The study has been carried out in two different areas; a farmer area in Söke Plain and in experimental station of Adnan Menderes University. The aims of study, are to determine of some physical and chemical properties of the soils and to search of activity of gypsum (CaSO4) used in alkaline soils having high sodium. For this purpose, 50,100 and 150 kg/da gypsum were applied to the experimental soils besides control. These applications were made in autumn after harvest period and b...

  1. Host social rank and parasites: plains zebra (Equus quagga) and intestinal helminths in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazzola, M C; Stancampiano, L

    2012-08-13

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the social hierarchy of plain zebra, Equus quagga, and the level of parasitism. For the study 141 fecal samples from the same number of animals were collected within the two major populations of E. quagga of Uganda (Lake Mburo Conservation Area and Kidepo Valley National Park). Quantitative (eggs per gram of feces) and qualitative parasite assessment were performed with standard methods. The relationship between parasite burden and individual host features was analyzed using Generalized Linear Models. Strongyles, cestodes, Strongyloides sp. and oxiurids where present in the examined samples. Social rank and age class significantly affect all parasites' abundance with dominant individuals being less parasitized than subordinate individuals, regardless of the parasite groups excluding oxiurids. Sex could not been shown to be related with any of the found parasites. Age was positively related with strongyles and oxiurids abundance and negatively related with cestodes and Strongyloides sp. The main result of the present study was the evidence that social status influences parasite level with dominant zebras shedding less parasite eggs than subordinate ones. Social rank appears, therefore, as an important factor giving rise to parasite aggregation in plain zebras. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Simulating the dynamics of linear forests in Great Plains agroecosystems under changing climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Q.; Brandle, J.R.; Schoeneberger, M.M.; Buettner, D.

    2004-01-01

    Most forest growth models are not suitable for the highly fragmented, linear (or linearly shaped) forests in the Great Plains agroecosystems (e.g., windbreaks, riparian forest buffers) where such forests are a minor but ecologically important component of the land mosaics. This study used SEEDSCAPE, a recently modified gap model designed for cultivated land mosaics in the Great Plains, to simulate the effects of climate change on the dynamics of such linear forests. We simulated the dynamics of windbreaks with different initial planting species richness and widths (light changes as the selected resulting factor) using current climate data and nested regional circulation models (RegCMs). Results indicated that (1) it took 70-80 simulation years for the linear forests to reach a steady state under both normal (present-day) and warming climates; (2) warming climates would reduce total aboveground tree biomass and the spatial variation in biomass but increase dominance in the linear forests, especially in the upland forests; (3) linear forests with higher planting species richness and smaller width produced higher aboveground tree biomass per unit area; and (4) same species performed very differently with different climate scenarios, initial planting diversity, and forest widths. Although the model still needs further improvements (e.g., the effects of understory species should be included), the model can serve as a useful tool in modeling the succession of linear forests in human-dominated land mosaics under changing climates and may also have significant practical implications in other systems.

  3. Geochemistry of the near surface sediments of the Nares Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, M.S.N.; Colley, S.; Elderfield, H.; Kennedy, H.A.; Thomson, J.; Wilson, T.R.S.

    1983-01-01

    The geochemistry of a suite of box and 2m gravity cores from the Nares Abyssal Plain has been characterised by means of pore water analyses, XRF determination of major and trace element concentrations, mineralogy and 230 Thsub(excess) dating. The interstitial fluid environment of those deep-sea clays is mildly reducing, although one site exhibits manganese remobilisation and precipitation. Despite their marked colour differences, there is a similarity in clay mineralogy between the grey silt/clay turbidites and the brown clays found in the area. Sediment accumulation rates of pelagic brown clays range between 0.5 and 1.0 cm/10 3 yr. These pelagic brown clays are metal-rich relative to the grey clays, and a model is used to estimate the hydrogenous metal fluxes on the assumption that they are constant over the Plain. This model gives values of approx. 1300 μg/cm 2 /10 3 yr for Mn, approx. 2600 μg/cm 2 /10 3 yr for Fe and Co, Ni, Cu, V and Zn in the range 6 to 26 μg/cm 2 /10 3 yr. An associated model-derived estimate of the detrital contents of the same elements agrees well with the mean values of the grey clays and of average shale. Metal-poor brown clays and assorted minor lithologies are intermediate in composition between these two end-members. (author)

  4. Study on long-term aerosol distribution over central plains economic region using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhangluo; Xushu; Lianhong, Bai; Caikun

    2017-03-01

    The long-term (2000-2013) Moderate Resolution Imaging (MODIS) level 2 aerosol products were used to study the spatial and temporal distributions of both aerosol optical depths (AOD) over Central Plains Economic Region (CPER), which is critical for a thorough understanding of its formation, transport and accumulation in the atmosphere. The results indicate that the spatial distribution of AOD with higher values locate in Xinxiang city, Kaifeng city, Zhengzhou city and Jiaozuo city. The lower ones locate in the south of Shanxi province and the west of Henan province, which are all mountainous regions. Spring and summer are the two seasons with the lowest AOD in a year. The minimum AOD in CPER occurred in winter. In the Central Plains Urban Agglomeration (CPUA), Kaifeng city, Xinxiang city and Zhengzhou city are the areas with the worst air pollution of particulate matter. The AOD over CPER significantly reduce during the period from 2011 to 2013. In the long term, however, the condition of particulate matter pollution has not been improved.

  5. Effects of Biochar Blends on Microbial Community Composition in Two Coastal Plain Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Ducey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The amendment of soil with biochar has been demonstrated to have an effect not only on the soil physicochemical properties, but also on soil microbial community composition and activity. Previous reports have demonstrated significant impacts on soil microbial community structure. These impacts are modulated not only by the biochar composition, but also on the soil’s physicochemical characteristics. This indicates that soil characteristics must be considered prior to biochar amendment. A significant portion of the soils of the southeastern coastal plain are severely degraded and, therefore, candidates for biochar amendment to strengthen soil fertility. In this study we focused on two common soil series in the southeastern coastal plain, utilizing feedstocks endemic to the area. We chose feedstocks in four ratios (100% pine chip; 80:20 mixture of pine chip to poultry litter; 50:50 mixture of pine chip to poultry litter; 100% poultry litter prior to pyrolysis and soil amendment as a biochar product. Soil was analyzed for bioavailable nutrients via Mehlich-1 extractions, as well as microbial community composition using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA. Our results demonstrated significant shifts in microbial community composition in response to biochar amendment, the effects of which were greatest with 100% poultry litter biochar. Strong relationships between PLFAs and several Mehlich-1 extractable nutrients (Al, Cu, Fe, and P were observed.

  6. Lithostratigraphic, borehole-geophysical, hydrogeologic, and hydrochemical data from the East Bay Plain, Alameda County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Michelle; Orlando, Patricia v.P.; Borchers, James W.; Everett, Rhett; Solt, Michael; McGann, Mary; Lowers, Heather; Mahan, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the East Bay Municipal Utility District, carried out an investigation of aquifer-system deformation associated with groundwater-level changes at the Bayside Groundwater Project near the modern San Francisco Bay shore in San Lorenzo, California. As a part of the Bayside Groundwater Project, East Bay Municipal Utility District proposed an aquifer storage and recovery program for 1 million gallons of water per day. The potential for aquifer-system compaction and expansion, and related subsidence, uplift, or both, resulting from aquifer storage and recovery activities were investigated and monitored in the Bayside Groundwater Project. In addition, baseline analysis of groundwater and substrata properties were performed to assess the potential effect of such activities. Chemical and physical data, obtained from the subsurface at four sites on the east side of San Francisco Bay in the San Lorenzo and San Leandro areas of the East Bay Plain, Alameda County, California, were collected during the study. The results of the study were provided to the East Bay Municipal Utility District and other agencies to evaluate the chemical and mechanical responses of aquifers underlying the East Bay Plain to the future injection and recovery of imported water from the Sierra Nevada of California.

  7. Artificial urethral sphincters: Value of plain film radiography in evaluation of prosthesis malfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, S.C.; Hansen, M.E.; Webster, G.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    Case records were reviewed to determine the diagnostic efficacy of plain radiographs in the evaluation of inflatable artificial urethral sphincters. Of 84 patients with prostheses, 21 (25%) developed complications. Fluid leaks were found in 16 patients who presented with recurrent incontinence; plain radiographs demonstrated an interval decrease in balloon reservoir diameter. Kinked tubing, which was evident on plain films, caused acute urinary retention in three patients. However, plain radiographs failed to detect evidence of prosthesis erosion into the urethra in either of two patients with this complication. Although urethroscopy is needed to detect urethral erosion, plain radiographs are inexpensive and reliable in the initial evaluation of artifical sphincter malfunction

  8. Influence of climate and land use changes on recent trend of soil erosion within the Russian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golosov, Valentin; Yermolaev, Oleg; Rysin, Ivan; Litvin, Leonid; Kiryukhina, Zoya; Safina, Guzel

    2016-04-01

    The Russian Plain is one of the largest plains with an area of 460 × 106 ha. Soil erosion during snow-melting and rainstorms occurs mostly on arable lands at the Russian Plain. The relative contribution of different types of soil erosion changes from the central part of the Russian Plain to the south. Sheet and rill soil erosion during snow-melting and rainfall are practically equal in the forest zone, while rainfall erosion prevails in the forest-steppe zone and the northern part of the steppe zone. Mostly rainfall erosion is observed in the southern part of the steppe zone. Mean annual soil losses from cultivated lands change in the range from 1 to 3 t ha-1 within lowlands to 6 to 8 t ha-1 at uplands with the maximum (10 t ha-1) observed near the Caucasus Mountains in the Stavropolskiy Krai. The intensity of gully erosion is relatively low during the last two decades. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a serious crisis in the agriculture because of financial problems and structural reorganization. As a result, the area of arable lands decreased in the southern half of the Russian Plain in 1991 - 2003. To a greater extent it was observed in the south of the forest zone because of the low productivity of its soils compared with chernozem. More than one third of the arable lands were abandoned in the dry steppe - semi-desert zones because these lands were irrigated during the Soviet period. The reduction of the arable land occurred in the forest-steppe and steppe zones mostly because of funding limitations during the 1990s. Recently the area of arable lands in the steppe zone was practically restored to its pre-1991 size. Simultaneously the last 25 years are characterized by unusual warm winters - in particular, in the southern half of the Russian Plain because of the global warming. As a result, the coefficient of surface snow-melting runoff considerably decreased for both cultivated fields and compacted fields after harvesting. Accordingly, spring

  9. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic signature of surface and groundwater in a highly industrialized sector of the Rio de la Plata coastal plain (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, L; Carol, E; Borzi, G; García, M G

    2017-07-15

    The coastal plain of the middle estuary of the Río de la Plata is a highly industrialized area and is densely populated by sectors. The main human activity in the sector encompassed between the cities of Ensenada and Berisso is associated with the petrochemical industry. In this work, hydrogeochemical and isotopic characteristics of surface and groundwater in the impacted area are analyzed and the results are contrasted with those obtained in an undisturbed protected area. Major and trace elements were determined using standardized methods while the stable isotopes δ 18 O y δ 2 H were analyzed by mass spectroscopy. Human impact is evidenced by the occurrence of large variations in the major chemical composition of water, and also by the elevated concentrations of some trace elements that are not contributed from natural sources. These results may contribute to the understanding of chemical processes and pollutants distribution in highly industrialized coastal plain areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary data describing the distribution of fluoride and silica in the water in the Ogallala Aquifer on the High Plains of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, R.L.; Perkins, S.G.; Waddell, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    The Ogallala aquifer of Texas historically has been known for elevated fluoride concentration, with many areas in excess of 4 milligrams per liter. In addition, on a regional scale, silica concentrations are also somewhat elevated, with concentrations averaging in the 40 to 50 milligrams per liter range. This aquifer provides a unique geochemical and epidemiological study area because it is completely contained within the High Plains physiographic province. (USGS)

  11. Sand Drift Potential by Wind in Shileh Plain of Sistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Poormand

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Wind erosion is one of the most important factors in desert environments. Prevailing winds can shift sand dunes and affect their accumulation and morphology. Also, wind regime determines the direction of sand dune mobility in different ways. Therefore, the wind regime, frequency, direction and velocity are supposed to be the most important factors to form the morphology of sand dunes. Wind energy and changes in different directions (wind regime have large impacts on the morphology, maintenance and transformation of wind features. Having a global knowledge of the magnitude of aeolian processes, we can assess the powerful impact of sand dune mobility on residential areas and infrastructures. The most important factors including the frequency, magnitude and directional mobility of aeolian processes have a very important effect on the entrainment and form of sand dunes. Materials and Methods: To understand and identify the wind erosion regions, wind regime is a useful way since there is a strong correlation between wind regimes and sand dune morphology and structure. Sand rose and wind rose are assumed to be easy, fast and most accurate methods for the identification of wind erosion. Wind regimes processes have been studied by many researchers who believed that investigating wind regimes and sand dune mobility gives a measure of drift potential. Drift potential is a measure of the sand-moving capability by wind; derived from reduction of surface-wind data through a weighting equation. To predict drift potential, wind velocity and direction data from meteorological synoptic stations were used. Regarding the estimation of sand transport rate by wind, many formulas exist such as Bagnold, Kawamura, and Lattau. Also, many software applications have been suggested. However, among these formulas, Fryberger’s is the best and has been widely used since 1979. Results and Discussion: The aim of this study was to analyze wind velocities and

  12. What does the Southern Brazilian Coastal Plain tell about its diversity? Syrphidae (Diptera) as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, F D; Marinoni, L; Krüger, R F

    2017-10-01

    The natural areas of the Coastal Plain of Rio Grande do Sul (CPRS) have suffered fragmentation due to anthropic action. The faunal surveys offer a low-cost method to quickly evaluate environmental alterations, and Syrphidae flies are often used as models in this kind of study. We aimed to ascertain the diversity of Syrphidae in the South region of Brazil by estimating its species' richness, and to use this data to identify new areas for conservation. In this survey Malaise traps were installed for 8 days in the CPRS, which was divided into five regions. Each region was subdivided into seven collecting areas and each of those areas received four traps, totaling 140 traps. A total of 456 Syrphidae individuals from 18 genera and 49 species were collected. In Region 1, there were nine exclusive species; in Region 2, there were three; in Region 3, there were 13, ten of which came from Estação Ecológica do Taim (ESEC Taim). In the Individual-based rarefaction analysis, Region 1 possessed the largest number of expected species out of the regions in the CPRS; we found 97% of these species. This insect collection effort, as one of the first in the CPRS, has broadened the known geographic distributions of 11 species of Syrphidae, and also indicated areas to be conserved. Additionally, it gave support for expanding ESEC Taim and creating new areas of conservation in Region 1, in Arroio Pelotas and Arroio Corrientes.

  13. Socioeconomic factors, attitudes and practices associated with malaria prevention in the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Ruiz, Merit; Penilla, R Patricia; Ordóñez, José G; López, Alma D; Solis, Francisco; Torres-Estrada, José Luis; Rodríguez, Américo D

    2014-04-23

    Mexico is in the malaria pre-elimination phase; therefore, continuous assessment and understanding of the social and behavioural risk factors related to exposure to malaria are necessary to achieve the overall goal. The aim of this research was to investigate socio-economic backgrounds, attitudes and practices related with malaria in rural locations from the coastal plain of Chiapas. In January 2012, 542 interviews were conducted to householders from 20 villages across the coastal plain of Chiapas. Questions were about housing conditions, protection from mosquito bites and general information of householders. Chi2 analyses were performed to see whether there was a dependence of those reported having malaria with their house conditions and their malaria preventive practices. Results were discussed and also compared statistically against those obtained 17 years ago from the same area. Most households had 2-5 people (73.6%), 91.6% of houses had 1-3 bedrooms. The physical structure of the houses consisted of walls mainly made of block or brick 72.3%, the floor made of cement 90.0%, while the roof made of zinc sheet 43.9%, and straw or palm 42.2%. A 23.1% of the interviewed completed elementary school and 16.6% was illiterate. A 9.9% of the residents reported at least one family member having had malaria. A 98.1% of families used some method to prevent mosquito bites; those using bed nets were 94.3%. Almost 72% of families bought products for mosquito protection. A total of 537 out of 542 families agreed with the indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide and a frequency of application as often as every two months was preferred. Housing conditions and malaria preventive practices have improved in these rural areas in 17 years, which could be in favor of malaria elimination in this area. Information generated by this study could help in the decision making about whether to use insecticide as indoor residual spraying or to implement massive distribution of long

  14. Tear Gas, Expanding Bullets and Plain-Clothed Personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesener, Cornelius Rust

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the interplay between human rights law and humanitarian law in relation to riot control agents (such as tear gas), expanding bullets and plain-clothed forces. While outlawed under humanitarian law, they are widely used by police in peace time and not subject to similar bans...... under human rights law. Surprisingly, the legal challenges arising from their potential use in modern military operations have so far received only limited scholarly attention. This article tries to fill that gap and endeavours to contribute to the broader debate on the interplay between human rights...... and humanitarian law in (international) military operations. Drawing on the relevant preparatory works as well as subsequent practice and recent jurisprudence, this article shows that the humanitarian law rules on the use of riot control agents, expanding bullets and plain-clothed personnel provide...

  15. Three-dimensional stress analysis of plain weave composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, John D.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques were developed and described for performing three-dimensional finite element analysis of plain weave composites. Emphasized here are aspects of the analysis which are different from analysis of traditional laminated composites, such as the mesh generation and representative unit cells. The analysis was used to study several different variations of plain weaves which illustrate the effects of tow waviness on composite moduli, Poisson's ratios, and internal strain distributions. In-plane moduli decreased almost linearly with increasing tow waviness. The tow waviness was shown to cause large normal and shear strain concentrations in composites subjected to uniaxial load. These strain concentrations may lead to earlier damage initiation than occurs in traditional cross-ply laminates.

  16. The measurement of plain weft-knitted fabric stiffness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, Ayhan Haji; Cassidy, Thomas; Brydon, Alan; Halley, Dave

    2012-01-01

    A new instrument and a test method are presented in this paper that can evaluate the stiffness of plain weft-knitted fabrics. The WIRA Instrumentation Tester can measure torsion data for various flexible fibre assemblies whilst they are being twisted. The torsional properties of two types of fabrics, namely nonwoven and knitted fabrics, were analyzed. Then, comparisons between bending rigidity and torsional rigidity have been conducted using FAST-2, Shirley, Heart Loop and the new WIRA method for the assessment of fabric stiffness. The results show high correlation between bending rigidity and torsional rigidity in assessment of nonwoven fabric stiffness; they also reveal that the WIRA tester and torsional rigidity are more suitable for characterizing the stiffness of plain weft-knitted fabrics than the other test methods. (paper)

  17. Changes of land use and of ecosystem service values in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongming; Zhang, Bai; Zhang, Shuqing; Li, Xiaoyan; Liu, Dianwei; Song, Kaishan; Li, Jianping; Li, Fang; Duan, Hongtao

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural activities, especially reclamation, are considered major threats to the wetland ecosystems in Sanjiang Plain, the largest concentrated area of the freshwater wetlands in China. In the past decades, the area of the cultivated land and its grain production have been increased at the cost of wetlands shrinkage. The large-scale land reclamation severely affected the ecosystems in this region. However, such effects at the regional scale are seldom evaluated quantitatively. We used three datasets of LANDSAT MSS and/or TM imagery to estimate the area changes and the transition of land use types from 1980 to 2000. We also valued changes in ecosystem services delivered by each land category using value coefficients published by Costanza et al. Sensitivity analysis suggested that these estimates were relatively robust. Finally, the contribution of various ecosystem functions was ranked to the overall value of the ecosystem services in this study. According to our estimates, the total annual ecosystem service values in Sanjiang Plain have declined by about 40% between 1980 and 2000 (156284-182572.18 million US dollars in total over 20 years). This substantial decline is largely attributed to the 53.4% loss of wetlands. For individual ecosystem functions, waste treatment, water supply and disturbance regulation account for more than 60% to the total ecological values. During those two decades, the contribution of disturbance regulation, cultural and recreation decreased, while the contribution of water regulation, nutrient cycling, food production, raw materials and climate regulation increased during the same period. We also put forward a few proposals concerning the future land use policy formulation and sustainable ecosystems. They are adjusting the 'food first' agricultural policy, establishing more nature reserves for wetlands, creating systems for the rational use of water, harnessing the degraded cultivated land and encouraging eco-tourism.

  18. Brown-headed cowbird, Molothrus ater, parasitism and abundance in the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, L.D.; Johnson, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) reaches its highest abundance in the northern Great Plains, but much of our understanding of cowbird ecology and host-parasite interactions comes from areas outside of this region. We examine cowbird brood parasitism and densities during two studies of breeding birds in the northern Great Plains during 1990-2006. We found 2649 active nests of 75 species, including 746 nonpasserine nests and 1902 passerine nests. Overall, parasitized by Brown-headed Cowbirds. Although the overall frequency of cowbird parasitism in passerine nests in these two studies is considered moderate, the frequency of multiple parasitism among parasitized nests was heavy (nearly 50%). The mean number of cowbird eggs per parasitized passerine nest was 1.9 ?? 1.2 (SD; range = 1-8 cowbird eggs). The parasitism rates were 9.5% for passerines that typically nest in habitats characterized by woody vegetation, 16.4% for grassland-nesting passerines, 4.7% for passerines known to consistently eject cowbird eggs, and 28.2% for passerines that usually accept cowbird eggs. The Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) was the most commonly parasitized species (43.1 % parasitism, 49.6% multiple parasitism, 71.2% of all cases of parasitism). Passerine nests found within areas of higher female cowbird abundance experienced higher frequencies of cowbird parasitism than those found in areas of lower female cowbird abundance. Densities of female cowbirds were positively related to densities and richness of other birds in the breeding bird community.

  19. Probabilistic risk assessment of nitrate groundwater contamination from greenhouses in Albenga plain (Liguria, Italy) using lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladino, Ombretta; Seyedsalehi, Mahdi; Massabò, Marco

    2018-04-05

    The use of fertilizers in greenhouse-grown crops can pose a threat to groundwater quality and, consequently, to human beings and subterranean ecosystem, where intensive farming produces pollutants leaching. Albenga plain (Liguria, Italy) is an alluvial area of about 45km 2 historically devoted to farming. Recently the crops have evolved to greenhouses horticulture and floriculture production. In the area high levels of nitrates in groundwater have been detected. Lysimeters with three types of reconstituted soils (loamy sand, sandy clay loam and sandy loam) collected from different areas of Albenga plain were used in this study to evaluate the leaching loss of nitrate (NO 3 - ) over a period of 12weeks. Leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was selected as a representative green-grown crop. Each of the soil samples was treated with a slow release fertilizer, simulating the real fertilizing strategy of the tillage. In order to estimate the potential risk for aquifers as well as for organisms exposed via pore water, nitrate concentrations in groundwater were evaluated by applying a simplified attenuation model to the experimental data. Results were refined and extended from comparison of single effects and exposure values (Tier I level) up to the evaluation of probabilistic distributions of exposure and related effects (Tier II, III IV levels). HHRA suggested HI >1 and about 20% probability of exceeding RfD for all the greenhouses, regardless of the soil. ERA suggested HQ>100 for all the greenhouses; 93% probability of PNEC exceedance for greenhouses containing sand clay loam. The probability of exceeding LC50 for 5% of the species was about 40% and the probability corresponding to DBQ of DEC/EC50>0.001 was >90% for all the greenhouses. The significantly high risk, related to the detected nitrate leaching loss, can be attributed to excessive and inappropriate fertigation strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimation of groundwater recharge using the chloride mass-balance method, Pingtung Plain, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Cheh-Shyh; Kerh, Tienfuan; Liao, Chiu-Jung

    Due to rapid economic growth in the Pingtung Plain of Taiwan, the use of groundwater resources has changed dramatically. Over-pumping of the groundwater reservoir, which lowers hydraulic heads in the aquifers, is not only affecting the coastal area negatively but has serious consequences for agriculture throughout the plain. In order to determine the safe yield of the aquifer underlying the plain, a reliable estimate of groundwater recharge is desirable. In the present study, for the first time, the chloride mass-balance method is adopted to estimate groundwater recharge in the plain. Four sites in the central part were chosen to facilitate the estimations using the ion-chromatograph and Thiessen polygon-weighting methods. Based on the measured and calculated results, in all sites, including the mountain and river boundaries, recharge to the groundwater is probably 15% of the annual rainfall, excluding recharge from additional irrigation water. This information can improve the accuracy of future groundwater-simulation and management models in the plain. Résumé Du fait de la croissance économique rapide de la plaine de Pingtung à Taiwan, l'utilisation des ressources en eau souterraine s'est considérablement modifié. La surexploitation des aquifères, qui a abaissé le niveau des nappes, n'affecte pas seulement la région côtière, mais a de sérieuses répercutions sur l'agriculture dans toute la plaine. Afin de déterminer les ressources renouvelables de l'aquifère sous la plaine, une estimation précise de la recharge de la nappe est nécessaire. Dans cette étude, le taux de recharge de la nappe a d'abord été estimé au moyen d'un bilan de matière de chlorure. Quatre sites de la partie centrale ont été sélectionnés pour réaliser ces estimations, à l'aide d'un chromatographe ionique et de la méthode des polygones de Thiessen. A partir des résultats mesurés et calculés, à chaque site, et en prenant comme limites les montagnes et les rivi

  1. Carpal pseudoerosions: a plain X-ray interpretation pitfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawer, Richard [Univ. Catholique de Lille (France). Service d' Imagerie Medicale; Budzik, Jean Francois [Univ. Catholique de Lille (France). Service d' Imagerie Medicale; Univ. Nord de France, Boulogne sur Mer (France). Unite de Recherche EA 4490, Physiopathologie des Maladies Osseuses Inflammatoires; Demondion, Xavier [Univ. Lille 2 (France). Service d' Imagerie Musculosquelettique; CHRU Lille (France). Lab. d' Anatomie; Forzy, Gerard [Univ. Catholique de Lille, Lomme (France). Lab. de Biologie; Cotten, Anne [Univ. Lille 2 (France). Service d' Imagerie Musculosquelettique; Univ. Nord de France, Boulogne sur Mer (France). Unite de Recherche EA 4490, Physiopathologie des Maladies Osseuses Inflammatoires

    2014-10-15

    To examine in detail images of pseudoerosion of the wrist and hand on plain radiographs. The study was conducted with 28 cadaver wrists. During a single imaging session three techniques - plain radiography, tomosynthesis, and computed tomography - were used to visualize the wrist and hand specimens. For each technique, 20 radio-ulno-carpo-metacarpal sites known to present bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis were analyzed by two radiologists using a standard system to score the cortical bone: normal, pseudoerosion, true erosion, or other pathology. Cohen's concordance analysis was performed to determine inter-observer and intra-observer (for the senior radiologist) agreement by site and by technique. Serial sections of two cadaver specimens were examined to determine the anatomical correlation of the pseudoerosions. On the plain radiographs, the radiologists scored many images as pseudoerosion (7.3 %), particularly in the distal ulnar portion of the capitate, the distal radial portion of the hamate, the proximal ulnar portion of the base of the third metacarpal, the proximal radial portion of the base of the fourth metacarpal, the distal ulnar portion of the hamate, and the proximal portion of the base of the fifth metacarpal. The computed tomography scan revealed that none of these doubtful images corresponded to true erosions. The anatomical correlation study showed that these images could probably be attributed to ligament insertions, thinner lamina, and enhanced cortical bone transparency. Knowledge of the anatomical carpal localizations where pseudoerosions commonly occur is a necessary prerequisite for analysis of plain radiographs performed to diagnose or monitor rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.)

  2. Structural Reliability of Plain Bearings for Wave Energy Converter Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ambühl

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The levelized cost of energy (LCOE from wave energy converters (WECs needs to be decreased in order to be able to become competitive with other renewable electricity sources. Probabilistic reliability methods can be used to optimize the structure of WECs. Optimization is often performed for critical structural components, like welded details, bolts or bearings. This paper considers reliability studies with a focus on plain bearings available from stock for the Wavestar device, which exists at the prototype level. The Wavestar device is a point absorber WEC. The plan is to mount a new power take-off (PTO system consisting of a discrete displacement cylinder (DDC, which will allow different hydraulic cycles to operate at constant pressure levels. This setup increases the conversion efficiency, as well as decouples the electricity production from the pressure variations within the hydraulic cycle when waves are passing. The new PTO system leads to different load characteristics at the floater itself compared to the actual setup where the turbine/generator is directly coupled to the fluctuating hydraulic pressure within the PTO system. This paper calculates the structural reliability of the different available plain bearings planned to be mounted at the new PTO system based on a probabilistic approach, and the paper gives suggestions for fulfilling the minimal target reliability levels. The considered failure mode in this paper is the brittle fatigue failure of plain bearings. The performed sensitivity analysis shows that parameters defining the initial crack size have a big impact on the resulting reliability of the plain bearing.

  3. Long term acroecosystem research in the Southern Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean L. Steiner; Patrick J. Starks; Jurgen Garbrecht; Daniel Moriasi; Paul Bartholomew; Jim Neel; Kenneth E. Turner; Brian Northup

    2016-01-01

    The Southern Plains (SP) site of the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is headquartered at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory (GRL) in El Reno, Oklahoma. The GRL was established in 1948. A long-term watershed and climate research program was established in the Little Washita River Experimental Watershed (LWREW) in 1961 and in the Fort Cobb...

  4. Suspended particulate studies over the Madeira Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Various aspects relating to suspended matter over the Madeira Abyssal Plain are discussed. Special attention is paid to the nepheloid layer including resuspension and transport processes; time variabilities in particle concentrations and fluxes; particle morphology, microbiology and chemical composition; phase association of metals. Also, tentative predictions of the behaviour of some radionuclides are made based on theory and data on rare earth elements. Instrumentation developed for the project is detailed - the deep water particle sampler. (author)

  5. Orthorad - the online reference database of skeletal plain film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkmann, F.M.; Heberlein, C.; Greess, H.; Ketelsen, D.; Klose, K.J.; Grunewald, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: it is evident that there is a growing need for internet-based reference databases for reasons of practicability and due to the increasing use of reporting on digital workstations. The main advantages of online databases are expected with respect to plain film radiography and cross-sectional imaging. A reference database of skeletal plain film radiography was to be created using the Orthorad program. Materials and methods: the most important standard settings and special images of young and healthy adults in plain film radiography were collected over one year. All samples were approved for the Orthorad database by a board qualified radiologist. Based on the workflows of radiographers and radiologists, the records were organized by body part (http://www.idr.med.uni-erlangen.de/orthorad/orthorad.htm). This logical data structure will ensure that the tool serves as a source of information in two ways: On the one hand, the radiographer can access information on positioning, tube voltage and cassette format. On the other hand, the radiologist receives important knowledge regarding X-ray anatomy, reference data regarding the human skeleton, and information about the correct reporting for an image. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of Holocene pollen records from the Romanian Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomescu

    2000-05-01

    This study is a critical review of pollen analyses carried out on Holocene sequences from 15 sites in and near the Romanian Plain. Three sites come from natural sediments, 10 sites are from anthropogenic deposits and two are from both anthropogenic and natural settings. The general reconstruction is of a steppe-forest-steppe vegetation through the Holocene. The nature of the deposits, however, casts doubts on this reconstruction. Deposits of archaeological sites generally yield pollen spectra that are influenced by human activities and thus unsuitable for vegetation reconstructions. Loess deposits are also unfavorable for pollen preservation because of high pH and porosity. Consequently, pollen spectra from loess deposits are strongly biased by selective pollen destruction. Research and experiments carried out by several authors suggest that spectra dominated by Asteraceae, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae or Pinus pollen in soils and loess are a result of selective pollen destruction, especially if low pollen concentrations, progressive pollen deterioration or high frequencies of deteriorated or unidentifiable pollen are evidenced. The fact that pollen records from the Romanian Plain come from loess, alkaline peat or archaeological sites reduces their reliability for reconstructions of vegetation. The vegetation history of similar regions in Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey suggests that early Holocene steppe vegetation was gradually replaced by forest or forest-steppe vegetation in the late Holocene. Records from lake sediments are required to find out whether the Holocene vegetation history of the Romanian Plain was similar.

  7. Diagnosis of lumbar central spinal stenosis by plain radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilkko, E.

    1989-01-01

    The usefulness of plain radiography in the diagnosis of lumbar central spinal stenosis was studied in 116 patients using computed tomography (CT) as a reference. The most significant signs found in central spinal stenosis were short pedicles, high narrow intervertebral foramina, small interlaminar windows and deep posterior concavity of the vertebral bodies. The sensitivity of plain radiography in the diagnosis of central spinal stenosis as compared to CT was 66%, the specificity was 93% and the accuracy was 86%. The midsagittal and interpedicular diameters were measured from plain radiograms and were compared with corresponding CT diameters. In approximately half of the cases, the sagittal diameters were compatible. The maximum error was 6 mm. On average, the interpedicular distances were measured as too wide. The reliability of CT measurements were established by taking the measurements from the vertebral column of a moose calf, and then comparing these to the real measurements obtained with a calibrated ruler. The maximal differences were 2 mm. (author). 24 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  8. Systematic assessment of constipation on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, Maurice van den; Graafmans, Doortje; Nievelstein, Rutger; Beek, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Constipation in childhood is common and its clinical assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and used to quantify constipation. Three scoring systems, those of Barr et al., Leech et al. and Blethyn et al., have been developed to quantify fecal loading on the abdominal radiograph. In order to determine which method is the most useful in clinical practice, we assessed the reproducibility of the three scoring systems. Plain abdominal radiographs from 40 clinically constipated children were retrospectively reviewed by two paediatric radiologists on two separate occasions. The radiographs were scored according to three different systems developed by Barr et al., Leech et al., Blethyn et al. Intraobserver variability and interobserver reproducibility were determined for each system. Kappa coefficients were calculated as indicators of inter- and intraobserver agreement for categorical outcome variables. The Leech score showed the highest reproducibility: the intraobserver agreement was high for both observers (κ values of 0.88 and 1.00, respectively, P<0.05). Furthermore, the interobserver agreement was also high: κ 0.91 in the first round and 0.84 in the second. The Leech score proved to be a highly reproducible tool for assessment of childhood constipation and is of value in clinical practice for systematic assessment of constipation on plain abdominal radiographs in children. (orig.)

  9. Groundwater Pollution Sources Apportionment in the Ghaen Plain, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Vesali Naseh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Iran’s Ghaen Plain provides saffron to much of the world, no regional groundwater quality (GQ assessment has yet been undertaken. Given the region’s potential for saltwater intrusion and heavy metal contamination, it is important to assess the GQ and determine its main probable source of pollution (MPSP. Such knowledge would allow for informed mitigation or elimination of the potential adverse health effects of this groundwater through its use as drinking water, or indirectly as a result of the consumption of groundwater-irrigated crops. Total dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the water of the majority of 16 wells sampled within the region exceeded World Health Organization and Iranian permissible standards for drinking water. The groundwater proved to only be suitable for irrigating salt tolerant crops under good drainage conditions. Due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the water supply facilities, the water from all wells was deemed unsuitable for industrial purposes. Heavy metal pollution and contamination indices showed no groundwater contamination. Analysis of ionic ratios and the application of principal components analysis indicated the MPSP to be saltwater intrusion, with the geology subtending the plain, and to a lesser extent, anthropogenic activities. Reducing groundwater withdrawals, particularly those for agricultural production by using high performance irrigation methods could reduce saltwater intrusion and improve GQ in the Ghaen Plain.

  10. Groundwater Pollution Sources Apportionment in the Ghaen Plain, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndtsson, Ronny; Adamowski, Jan; Sadatipour, Elaheh

    2018-01-01

    Although Iran’s Ghaen Plain provides saffron to much of the world, no regional groundwater quality (GQ) assessment has yet been undertaken. Given the region’s potential for saltwater intrusion and heavy metal contamination, it is important to assess the GQ and determine its main probable source of pollution (MPSP). Such knowledge would allow for informed mitigation or elimination of the potential adverse health effects of this groundwater through its use as drinking water, or indirectly as a result of the consumption of groundwater-irrigated crops. Total dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the water of the majority of 16 wells sampled within the region exceeded World Health Organization and Iranian permissible standards for drinking water. The groundwater proved to only be suitable for irrigating salt tolerant crops under good drainage conditions. Due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the water supply facilities, the water from all wells was deemed unsuitable for industrial purposes. Heavy metal pollution and contamination indices showed no groundwater contamination. Analysis of ionic ratios and the application of principal components analysis indicated the MPSP to be saltwater intrusion, with the geology subtending the plain, and to a lesser extent, anthropogenic activities. Reducing groundwater withdrawals, particularly those for agricultural production by using high performance irrigation methods could reduce saltwater intrusion and improve GQ in the Ghaen Plain. PMID:29361791

  11. Systematic assessment of constipation on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, Maurice van den; Graafmans, Doortje [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger; Beek, Erik [Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-03-15

    Constipation in childhood is common and its clinical assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and used to quantify constipation. Three scoring systems, those of Barr et al., Leech et al. and Blethyn et al., have been developed to quantify fecal loading on the abdominal radiograph. In order to determine which method is the most useful in clinical practice, we assessed the reproducibility of the three scoring systems. Plain abdominal radiographs from 40 clinically constipated children were retrospectively reviewed by two paediatric radiologists on two separate occasions. The radiographs were scored according to three different systems developed by Barr et al., Leech et al., Blethyn et al. Intraobserver variability and interobserver reproducibility were determined for each system. Kappa coefficients were calculated as indicators of inter- and intraobserver agreement for categorical outcome variables. The Leech score showed the highest reproducibility: the intraobserver agreement was high for both observers ({kappa} values of 0.88 and 1.00, respectively, P<0.05). Furthermore, the interobserver agreement was also high: {kappa} 0.91 in the first round and 0.84 in the second. The Leech score proved to be a highly reproducible tool for assessment of childhood constipation and is of value in clinical practice for systematic assessment of constipation on plain abdominal radiographs in children. (orig.)

  12. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot: Plain radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Dae Young; Kang, Heung Sik; Sim, Jung Suk; Yoon, Yong Kyu; Kim, Chu Wan

    1994-01-01

    To determine the plain film findings of acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot was considered when fragmentation of the articular ends of bone and subluxation of the affected joint developed within eight weeks after clinical onset of diabetic gangrene. Eight toes of six diabetics were satisfactory to our criteria. We analyzed plain radiographic findings of the affected joint and soft tissue, interval changes in followed-up radiographs, and deformities after healing. The time interval between clinical onset of gangrene and bone destruction ranges from 2 weeks to 4 weeks(mean 2.6 weeks). Plane radiographs showed fragmentation of the articular ends, subluxation, and soft tissue swelling of the metatarsophalangeal joint or interphalangeal joint. The significant feature of these patients was rapid progression of the lesions. Clinically, all patients had diabetic gangrene in affected toes, however, there was no evidence of osteomyelitis in our series. Amputation was done in 2 cases, and lesions in 3 of the remaining 4 cases were repaired spontaneously with regression of gangrene, leaving radiological residua such as pointed-end, tapered-end, and ball and socket deformity. Rapid disorganisation of the joint with associated evidence of soft tissue gangrene in plain radiograph is believed to be valuable for the diagnosis of diabetic osteoarthropathy

  13. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot: Plain radiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Dae Young; Kang, Heung Sik; Sim, Jung Suk; Yoon, Yong Kyu; Kim, Chu Wan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    To determine the plain film findings of acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot was considered when fragmentation of the articular ends of bone and subluxation of the affected joint developed within eight weeks after clinical onset of diabetic gangrene. Eight toes of six diabetics were satisfactory to our criteria. We analyzed plain radiographic findings of the affected joint and soft tissue, interval changes in followed-up radiographs, and deformities after healing. The time interval between clinical onset of gangrene and bone destruction ranges from 2 weeks to 4 weeks(mean 2.6 weeks). Plane radiographs showed fragmentation of the articular ends, subluxation, and soft tissue swelling of the metatarsophalangeal joint or interphalangeal joint. The significant feature of these patients was rapid progression of the lesions. Clinically, all patients had diabetic gangrene in affected toes, however, there was no evidence of osteomyelitis in our series. Amputation was done in 2 cases, and lesions in 3 of the remaining 4 cases were repaired spontaneously with regression of gangrene, leaving radiological residua such as pointed-end, tapered-end, and ball and socket deformity. Rapid disorganisation of the joint with associated evidence of soft tissue gangrene in plain radiograph is believed to be valuable for the diagnosis of diabetic osteoarthropathy.

  14. Groundwater Pollution Sources Apportionment in the Ghaen Plain, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesali Naseh, Mohammad Reza; Noori, Roohollah; Berndtsson, Ronny; Adamowski, Jan; Sadatipour, Elaheh

    2018-01-22

    Although Iran's Ghaen Plain provides saffron to much of the world, no regional groundwater quality (GQ) assessment has yet been undertaken. Given the region's potential for saltwater intrusion and heavy metal contamination, it is important to assess the GQ and determine its main probable source of pollution (MPSP). Such knowledge would allow for informed mitigation or elimination of the potential adverse health effects of this groundwater through its use as drinking water, or indirectly as a result of the consumption of groundwater-irrigated crops. Total dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the water of the majority of 16 wells sampled within the region exceeded World Health Organization and Iranian permissible standards for drinking water. The groundwater proved to only be suitable for irrigating salt tolerant crops under good drainage conditions. Due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the water supply facilities, the water from all wells was deemed unsuitable for industrial purposes. Heavy metal pollution and contamination indices showed no groundwater contamination. Analysis of ionic ratios and the application of principal components analysis indicated the MPSP to be saltwater intrusion, with the geology subtending the plain, and to a lesser extent, anthropogenic activities. Reducing groundwater withdrawals, particularly those for agricultural production by using high performance irrigation methods could reduce saltwater intrusion and improve GQ in the Ghaen Plain.

  15. Representativeness of soil samples collected to assess mining-related contamination of flood plains in southeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2015-01-01

    Historical lead and zinc mining in the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD), located in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma, has resulted in a substantial ongoing input of lead and zinc to the environment (Juracek, 2006; Juracek and Becker, 2009). In response to concern about the mining-related contamination, southeast Cherokee County, Kansas, was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) National Priority List as a Superfund hazardous waste site (fig. 1). To provide some of the information needed to support remediation efforts in the Cherokee County Superfund site, a study was begun in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that was requested and funded by USEPA. As part of the study, surficial-soil sampling was used to investigate the extent and magnitude of mining-related lead and zinc contamination in the flood plains of the Spring River and several tributaries within the Superfund site. In mining-affected areas, flood-plain soils had lead and zinc concentrations that far exceeded background levels as well as probable-effects guidelines for toxic aquatic biological effects (Juracek, 2013). Lead- and zinc-contaminated flood plains are a concern, in part, because they represent a long-term source of contamination to the fluvial environment.

  16. Application of InSAR and GIS Techniques to Ground Subsidence Assessment in the Nobi Plain, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Minxue; Fukuyama, Kaoru; Sanga-Ngoie, Kazadi

    2014-01-01

    Spatial variation and temporal changes in ground subsidence over the Nobi Plain, Central Japan, are assessed using GIS techniques and ground level measurements data taken over this area since the 1970s. Notwithstanding the general slowing trend observed in ground subsidence over the plains, we have detected ground rise at some locations, more likely due to the ground expansion because of recovering groundwater levels and the tilting of the Nobi land mass. The problem of non-availability of upper-air meteorological information, especially the 3-dimensional water vapor distribution, during the JERS-1 observational period (1992–1998) was solved by applying the AWC (analog weather charts) method onto the high-precision GPV-MSM (Grid Point Value of Meso-Scale Model) water-vapor data to find the latter's matching meteorological data. From the selected JERS-1 interferometry pair and the matching GPV-MSM meteorological data, the atmospheric path delay generated by water vapor inhomogeneity was then quantitatively evaluated. A highly uniform spatial distribution of the atmospheric delay, with a maximum deviation of approximately 38 mm in its horizontal distribution was found over the Plain. This confirms the effectiveness of using GPV-MSM data for SAR differential interferometric analysis, and sheds thus some new light on the possibility of improving InSAR analysis results for land subsidence applications. PMID:24385028

  17. Application of InSAR and GIS techniques to ground subsidence assessment in the Nobi Plain, Central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Minxue; Fukuyama, Kaoru; Sanga-Ngoie, Kazadi

    2013-12-31

    Spatial variation and temporal changes in ground subsidence over the Nobi Plain, Central Japan, are assessed using GIS techniques and ground level measurements data taken over this area since the 1970s. Notwithstanding the general slowing trend observed in ground subsidence over the plains, we have detected ground rise at some locations, more likely due to the ground expansion because of recovering groundwater levels and the tilting of the Nobi land mass. The problem of non-availability of upper-air meteorological information, especially the 3-dimensional water vapor distribution, during the JERS-1 observational period (1992-1998) was solved by applying the AWC (analog weather charts) method onto the high-precision GPV-MSM (Grid Point Value of Meso-Scale Model) water-vapor data to find the latter's matching meteorological data. From the selected JERS-1 interferometry pair and the matching GPV-MSM meteorological data, the atmospheric path delay generated by water vapor inhomogeneity was then quantitatively evaluated. A highly uniform spatial distribution of the atmospheric delay, with a maximum deviation of approximately 38 mm in its horizontal distribution was found over the Plain. This confirms the effectiveness of using GPV-MSM data for SAR differential interferometric analysis, and sheds thus some new light on the possibility of improving InSAR analysis results for land subsidence applications.

  18. Application of InSAR and GIS Techniques to Ground Subsidence Assessment in the Nobi Plain, Central Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minxue Zheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variation and temporal changes in ground subsidence over the Nobi Plain, Central Japan, are assessed using GIS techniques and ground level measurements data taken over this area since the 1970s. Notwithstanding the general slowing trend observed in ground subsidence over the plains, we have detected ground rise at some locations, more likely due to the ground expansion because of recovering groundwater levels and the tilting of the Nobi land mass. The problem of non-availability of upper-air meteorological information, especially the 3-dimensional water vapor distribution, during the JERS-1 observational period (1992–1998 was solved by applying the AWC (analog weather charts method onto the high-precision GPV-MSM (Grid Point Value of Meso-Scale Model water-vapor data to find the latter’s matching meteorological data. From the selected JERS-1 interferometry pair and the matching GPV-MSM meteorological data, the atmospheric path delay generated by water vapor inhomogeneity was then quantitatively evaluated. A highly uniform spatial distribution of the atmospheric delay, with a maximum deviation of approximately 38 mm in its horizontal distribution was found over the Plain. This confirms the effectiveness of using GPV-MSM data for SAR differential interferometric analysis, and sheds thus some new light on the possibility of improving InSAR analysis results for land subsidence applications.

  19. Sediment records of Yellow River channel migration and Holocene environmental evolution of the Hetao Plain, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhong; Wu, Jinglu; Pan, Baotian; Jia, Hongjuan; Li, Xiao; Wei, Hao

    2018-05-01

    The origin and evolution of lakes in the Hetao Plain, northern China, were influenced by climate variation, channel migration, and human activity. We analyzed a suite of sediment cores from the region to investigate Yellow River channel migration and environmental change in this region over the Holocene. Short sediment cores show that environmental indicators changed markedly around CE 1850, a time that corresponds to flood events, when large amounts of river water accumulated in the western part of the Hetao Plain, giving rise to abundant small lakes. Multiple sediment variables (environmental proxies) from two long cores collected in the Tushenze Paleolake area show that sediments deposited between 12.0 and 9.0 cal ka BP were yellow clay, indicative of fluvial deposition and channel migration. From 9.0 to 7.5 cal ka BP, sand was deposited, reflecting a desert environment. From 7.5 to 2.2 cal ka BP, however, the sediments were blue-gray clay that represents lacustrine facies of Lake Tushenze, which owes its origin to an increase in strength of the East Asian monsoon. At about 2.2 cal ka BP, the north branch of the Yellow River was flooded, and the Tushenze Paleolake developed further. Around 2.0 cal ka BP, the paleolake shrank and eolian sedimentation was recorded. The analyzed sediment records are consistent with the written history from the region, which documents channel migration and environmental changes in the Hetao Plain over the Holocene.

  20. Effects of irrigation on streamflow in the Central Sand Plain of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, E.P.; Stangland, H.G.

    1971-01-01

    Development of ground water for irrigation affects streamflow and water levels in the sand-plain area of central Wisconsin. Additional irrigation development may reduce opportunities for water-based recreation by degrading the streams as trout habitat and by lowering lake levels. This study was made to inventory present development of irrigation in the sand-plain area, assess potential future development, and estimate the effects of irrigation on streamflow and ground-water levels. The suitability of land and the availability of ground water for irrigation are dependent, to a large extent, upon the geology of the area. Rocks making up the ground-water reservoir include outwash, morainal deposits, and glacial lake deposits. These deposits are underlain by crystalline rocks and by sandstone, which act as the floor of the ground-water reservoir. Outwash, the main aquifer, supplies water to about 300 irrigation wells and maintains relatively stable flow in the streams draining the area. The saturated thickness of these deposits is more than 100 feet over much of the area and is as much as 180 feet in bedrock valleys. The saturated thickness of the outwash generally is great enough to provide sufficient water for large-scale irrigation in all but two areas --one near the town of Wisconsin Rapids and one near Dorro Couche Mound. Aquifer tests indicate that the permeability of the outwash is quite high, ranging from about 1,000 gpd per square foot to about 3,800 gpd per square foot, Specific capacities of irrigation wells in the area range from 14 to 157 gpm per foot of drawdown. Water use in the sand-plain area is mainly for irrigation and waterbased recreation. Irrigation development began in the area in the late 1940's, and by 1967 about 19,500 acre-feet of water were pumped to irrigate 34,000 acres of potatoes, snap beans, corn, cucumbers, and other crops. About 70 percent of the applied water was lost to evapotranspiration, and about 30 percent was returned to the

  1. Estimation of maize yield by using a process-based model and remote sensing data in the Northeast China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fengmei; Tang, Yanjing; Wang, Peijuan; Zhang, Jiahua

    Climate change significantly impact on agriculture in recent year, the accurate estimation of crop yield is of great importance for the food security. In this study, a process-based mechanism model was modified to estimate yield of C4 crop by modifying the carbon metabolic pathway in the photosynthesis sub-module of the RS-P-YEC (Remote-Sensing-Photosynthesis-Yield estimation for Crops) model. The yield was calculated by multiplying net primary productivity (NPP) and the harvest index (HI) derived from the ratio of grain to stalk yield. The modified RS-P-YEC model was used to simulate maize yield in the Northeast China Plain during the period 2002-2011. The 111 statistical data of maize yield from study area was used to validate the simulated results at county-level. The results showed that the Pearson correlation coefficient (R) was 0.827 (p yield and the statistical data, and the root mean square error (RMSE) was 712 kg/ha with a relative error (RE) of 9.3%. From 2002 to 2011, the yield of maize planting zone in the Northeast China Plain was increasing with smaller coefficient of variation (CV). The spatial pattern of simulated maize yield was consistent with the actual distribution in the Northeast China Plain, with an increasing trend from the northeast to the southwest. Hence the results demonstrated that the modified process-based model coupled with remote sensing data was suitable for yield prediction of maize in the Northeast China Plain at the spatial scale.

  2. Preliminary report on arsenic and heavy metals contents in soils and stream bed sediments of Cornia, Bruna and Alma coastal plains (Southern Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dughetti F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Earth Sciences of University of Florence has conducted over the past ten years, numerous studies about the distribution of arsenic and heavy metals in mineralized areas of Tuscany, particularly in the Pecora basin. The area hosts several polymetallic ore bodies and a pyrite ore deposit. The studies have identified several geochemical anomalies (As, Cu, Pb, Zn… both in the areas which host the ore bodies and in the coastal plain (Scarlino Plain. To increase the knowledge concerning the distribution of As and heavy metals in other Tuscan coastal plains, research is under way in the alluvial plains of the Bruna, Cornia and Alma rivers. The preliminary analysis have focused on soils and stream sediments, to better understand the correlations between the downstream transport of rivers and the soils. We have made physic-chemical analysis, particle size analysis, mineralogical analysis for X-ray powder diffraction, chemical analysis for the determination of major element (X-ray Fluorescence and for the determination of 35 minor elements and traces (AAS and ICP.Preliminary data show high concentrations of several elements (As, Zn, Co…. The concentrations of these elements in soils and stream bed sediments are not always consistent; in particular we have found higher concentrations in soils than in stream bed sediments in Cornia Plain, while the opposite happens in the Bruna basin. Therefore the natural processes of rocks weathering does not seem to have affected uniformly. The distribution of As and heavy metals in soils and stream bed sediments of the all three basins of interest are still under investigation.

  3. Water-level and recoverable water in storage changes, High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2015 and 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Virginia L.

    2017-06-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (about 175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States—Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with groundwater in the aquifer area (about 1950). This report presents water-level changes and change in recoverable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (about 1950) to 2015 and from 2013 to 2015.The methods to calculate area-weighted, average water-level changes; change in recoverable water in storage; and total recoverable water in storage used geospatial data layers organized as rasters with a cell size of 500 meters by 500 meters, which is an area of about 62 acres. Raster datasets of water-level changes are provided for other uses.Water-level changes from predevelopment to 2015, by well, ranged from a rise of 84 feet to a decline of 234 feet. Water-level changes from 2013 to 2015, by well, ranged from a rise of 24 feet to a decline of 33 feet. The area-weighted, average water-level changes in the aquifer were an overall decline of 15.8 feet from predevelopment to 2015 and a decline of 0.6 feet from 2013 to 2015. Total recoverable water in storage in the aquifer in 2015 was about 2.91 billion acre-feet, which was a decline of about 273.2 million acre-feet since predevelopment and a decline of 10.7 million acre-feet from 2013 to 2015.

  4. I Got Them Dust Bowl Blues: Wind Erosion in the Music of the Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with the role of wind erosion and blowing dust on the music of the Dust Bowl region, a portion of the southern Great Plains of the United States. A defining characteristic of the region is dust storms, and in the 1930s, severe dust storms created dramatic images that came to symbolize all of the economic, social and environmental hardships suffered by the people during the 1930s. The music of the time, by Woody Guthrie and others, suggested that the region was being destroyed, never to recover. The region was resilient, however, and in recent decades, dust has been depicted in songs either as an adversity to be endured or simply as a normal part of life in the area. It may be that blowing dust has become a defining characteristic of the region because of a somewhat warped sense of pride in living in an often-difficult environment.

  5. Identification of marine intrusion in the plain of Collo, northeastern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saaidia Bachir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The population increase, urbanization and intensification of agriculture and demands for water supply in the coastal plain of Collo led to excessive pumping of the unconfined aquifer with limited dimensions. This study aimed to characterize the effect of the overexploitation of the groundwater from the only unconfined aquifer in the region, what resulted in the inversion of the groundwater flow and the rise the possible seawater pollution that is shown in the water table map. The causes and effects of the saltwater intrusion were discussed. The interpretation of the electrical conductivity measurements, chloride and sodium maps have shown clearly the areas where values were the highest with tighter curves towards the sea, the wadis Guebli and Cherka. These values distribution indicated a marine source of salinity in wells and boreholes close to the sea and wadis.

  6. Heat flow measurements in Great Meteor East, Madeira Abyssal Plain, during Discovery Cruise 144

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes 21 closely spaced heat flow measurements which were made along two survey lines in an area of faulted sediments east of Great Meteor Seamount in the Madeira Abyssal Plain. The heat flow was found to be correlated with basement topography as mapped by seismic reflection profiling. Data modelling suggests that this is due both to the thermal conductivity contrast between sediments and basement rocks and to the presence of hydrothermal circulation within basement highs. The existence of non-linear temperature profiles in sediments covering basement highs suggests that the underlying circulation is causing an upward movement of porewater. There is no firm evidence to show that the sediment faults act as preferred pathways for porewater advection. (author)

  7. Addressing water challenges on the North China Plain with hydroeconomic optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Grith; Davidsen, Claus; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    With its diverse environment and large population, China is facing water resource challenges, both in terms of quantity and quality. The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the world’s most densely populated areas and one of the highly water stressed regions of China. It counts for 15% of the Chinese...... GDP, from both industry and agriculture. The high water demand for especially irrigation has caused decade long groundwater depletion, ecosystem deterioration and high pollution loads in the region. To alleviate the water crisis of Northern China the South-North Water Transfer Project has been....... This enables the representation of links and interactions between the water resources system and the power system of Northern China. The multi-reservoir LP model is formulated as a flow path based optimization, which tracks each water delivery from supplier to receiver. This is useful for the exploration...

  8. Who knew? First Myotis sodalis (Indiana Bat) maternity colony in the coastal plain of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Germain, Michael J.; Kniowski, Andrew B.; Silvis, Alexander; Ford, W. Mark

    2017-01-01

    We report the first confirmed Myotis sodalis (Indiana Bat) maternity colony in Virginia, discovered at Fort A.P. Hill Military Reservation in Caroline County along the Piedmont-Coastal Plain Fall Line. Acoustic surveys conducted in 2014 indicated likely presence of Indiana Bats on the installation. Subsequent focal mist-netting during May–June 2015 resulted in capture of 4 lactating females that we subsequently radio tracked to a maternity colony site containing at least 20 individuals. The core roosting-area was comprised of Pinus taeda (Loblolly Pine) snags with abundant exfoliating bark and high solar exposure. This forest patch was adjacent to a large emergentshrub wetland and within a larger matrix of mature, mid-Atlantic hardwood forests. The site where we found the colony location is 140 km east of the nearest known hibernaculum and is outside of the previously documented extent of this species' occurrence.

  9. Assessment Of Heavy Metal Contamination Of Arable Soils In Central Bekaa Plain, Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, T.; Jomaa, I.; Khawlie, M.; Mýýuller, H. W.; Moller, A.

    2004-01-01

    The study area is located in the Bekaa plain of Lebanon totaling about 12753 ha. It lies between the eastern foothills of Mount Lebanon chain and expands across the Litani River towards the foothills of the eastern Anti-Lebanon Mountains. Its characteristics, i.e. natural terrain, climate and socio-economy, make it vulnerable especially due to soil pollution. This paper tries to identify the nature and level of soil pollution by heavy metals. Valley slopes represent a complex landform and lithology that contributed to the formation of different soil. Agriculture in the plain is being practiced mainly with cash, field crops and vegetables. Throughout the central part of the plain, groundwater table is abundant and relatively high (<1.0 m. locally) that multiplies the vulnerability of the soil-groundwater system. There are different sources of pollution, such as industrial (tanneries, batteries, leather manufacturing), solid and liquid wastes, and agricultural due to uncontrolled application of fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides. Meanwhile, no local criteria for land contamination with heavy metals are adapted yet. A total of 131 soil samples from 41 soil profiles were collected from sites representing different soil types and cropping systems. Additionally, five water samples were collected to get tentative idea about the extent of water contamination from surface and groundwater bodies. Soil samples were analyzed for physical and chemical properties and wet digested in aqua regia for the determination of the heavy metal content on the atomic absorption. Results of the total heavy metal content in the soils of the Central Bekaa showed normal values for main metals except Cr and Ni, which showed a relatively high level reaching, according to Eckamn Kloke, 1993-2000 criteria the tolerance level II. This is hazardous in an area of intensive vegetable production designed for fresh consumption. Point sources of pollution are equally found for Pb and Cd. The level

  10. Precise Dating of Flood-Plain Stratigraphy Using Changes in Tree-Ring Anatomy Following Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J. M.; Shafroth, P. B.; Vincent, K. R.; Scott, M. L.; Auble, G. T.

    2001-12-01

    Determination of sediment deposition rates from stratigraphy is typically limited by a scarcity of chronological information. We present a method for precise dating of sedimentary beds based on the change in anatomy of tree rings upon burial. When stems of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima)and sandbar willow (Salix exigua) are buried, subsequent annual rings in the buried portions become narrower and vessels within the rings become larger. Observation of these changes can be combined with tree ring counts to determine the year of deposition of sedimentary beds that are at least 10 cm thick. Using a backhoe we dug trenches across the flood plain at three locations along the arroyo of the Rio Puerco, New Mexico. At each cross section we prepared a detailed stratigraphic description and excavated several tamarisks to depths as great as 5 meters. From each excavated tree we cut and sanded 10-50 slabs for tree-ring analysis. We cross-dated slabs within and between plants and used the burial signature in the tree rings to date all sedimentary beds in the stratigraphic profile near each plant. We then used the trench stratigraphy to convert depths of sediment deposition around individual trees to areas of deposition in the cross section. In the lower Rio Puerco introduction of tamarisk in 1926 occurred just prior to the beginning of channel narrowing and arroyo filling. Thus the tamarisks record a process of channel change to which they may have contributed. Aggradation has not been synchronous along the lower arroyo. For example, near Highway 6 and Belen, the flood plain has aggraded more than 2 m since 1970, while there has been little aggradation downstream at Bernardo. Much of the sediment deposition in levies at Highway 6 occurred during a flood in 1988. Future work will document longitudinal variation in the arroyo so that we can convert areas of sediment deposition in cross sections to volumes in the arroyo.

  11. Climate and Sedentism in the Middle Missouri Subarea of the Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toom, Dennis Lee

    1992-01-01

    The development of village life in the Middle Missouri subarea of the Great Plains of North America is examined in this study, particularly in regard to the role that the improved climatic conditions of the proposed Neo -Atlantic episode might have played in this process. It is concluded that the early Middle Missouri villagers were, for the most part, immigrants from the east. Thus, the question becomes not one of why did sedentism evolve in this region of marginal agricultural potential, but one of why was sedentism transferred to and maintained in one of the optimum areas of the world for nomadic hunting and gathering adaptations. To understand this question, considerable insight must be gained into the demographic, economic, and climatic factors pertaining to the early Middle Missouri villagers. The demographic and economic data for the study were drawn from the available literature. The paleoclimatic data were generated from detailed stratigraphic studies of cutbank exposures in the Lake Sharpe area of central South Dakota. The paleoclimatic research is based on geological methods and concepts involving theoretical relationships between climate, geomorphology, and pedology. Archaeological features were used to provide precise contextual and chronological controls for the stratigraphic work, resulting in a cross -disciplinary geoarchaeological approach for this aspect of the study. The findings of the paleoclimatic research indicate that the generally warmer and moister conditions of the Neo-Atlantic episode probably did encourage and even enable the initial establishment of agricultural-based villages in the Middle Missouri. However, the cooler and drier conditions of the succeeding Pacific episode, while eliciting certain adaptive responses from the then resident village peoples, were not sufficiently detrimental to actually discourage village life in the region. Rather, it would appear that the economic diversity afforded by the Middle Missouri setting

  12. Wintering Sandhill Crane exposure to wind energy development in the central and southern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Brandt, David; Krapu, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Numerous wind energy projects have been constructed in the central and southern Great Plains, USA, the main wintering area for midcontinental Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis). In an initial assessment of the potential risks of wind towers to cranes, we estimated spatial overlap, investigated potential avoidance behavior, and determined the habitat associations of cranes. We used data from cranes marked with platform transmitting terminals (PTTs) with and without global positioning system (GPS) capabilities. We estimated the wintering distributions of PTT-marked cranes prior to the construction of wind towers, which we compared with current tower locations. Based on this analysis, we found 7% spatial overlap between the distributions of cranes and towers. When we looked at individually marked cranes, we found that 52% would have occurred within 10 km of a tower at some point during winter. Using data from cranes marked after tower construction, we found a potential indication of avoidance behavior, whereby GPS-marked cranes generally used areas slightly more distant from existing wind towers than would be expected by chance. Results from a habitat selection model suggested that distances between crane locations and towers may have been driven more by habitat selection than by avoidance, as most wind towers were constructed in locations not often selected by wintering cranes. Our findings of modest regional overlap and that few towers have been placed in preferred crane habitat suggest that the current distribution of wind towers may be of low risk to the continued persistence of wintering midcontinental Sandhill Cranes in the central and southern Great Plains.

  13. Contemporary carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems in the Southeastern Plains of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Kurtz, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Quantifying carbon dynamics over large areas is frequently hindered by the lack of consistent, high-quality, spatially explicit land use and land cover change databases and appropriate modeling techniques. In this paper, we present a generic approach to address some of these challenges. Land cover change information in the Southeastern Plains ecoregion was derived from Landsat data acquired in 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000 within 11 randomly located 20-km × 20-km sample blocks. Carbon dynamics within each of the sample blocks was simulated using the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS), capable of assimilating the variances and covariance of major input variables into simulations using an ensemble approach. Results indicate that urban and forest areas have been increasing, whereas agricultural land has been decreasing since 1973. Forest clear-cutting activity has intensified, more than doubling from 1973 to 2000. The Southeastern Plains has been acting as a carbon sink since 1973, with an average rate of 0.89 Mg C/ha/yr. Biomass, soil organic carbon (SOC), and harvested materials account for 56%, 34%, and 10% of the sink, respectively. However, the sink has declined continuously during the same period owing to forest aging in the northern part of the ecoregion and increased forest clear-cutting activities in the south. The relative contributions to the sink from SOC and harvested materials have increased, implying that these components deserve more study in the future. The methods developed here can be used to quantify the impacts of human management activities on the carbon cycle at landscape to global scales.

  14. Late Holocene evolution of a coupled, mud-dominated delta plain-chenier plain system, coastal Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijma, Marc P.; Shen, Zhixiong; Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.; Mauz, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    Major deltas and their adjacent coastal plains are commonly linked by means of coast-parallel fluxes of water, sediment, and nutrients. Observations of the evolution of these interlinked systems over centennial to millennial timescales are essential to understand the interaction between point sources of sediment discharge (i.e. deltaic distributaries) and adjacent coastal plains across large spatial (i.e. hundreds of kilometres) scales. This information is needed to constrain future generations of numerical models to predict coastal evolution in relation to climate change and other human activities. Here we examine the coastal plain (Chenier Plain, CP) adjacent to the Mississippi River delta, one of the world's largest deltas. We use a refined chronology based on 22 new optically stimulated luminescence and 22 new radiocarbon ages to test the hypothesis that cyclic Mississippi subdelta shifting has influenced the evolution of the adjacent CP. We show that over the past 3 kyr, accumulation rates in the CP were generally 0-1 Mt yr-1. However, between 1.2 and 0.5 ka, when the Mississippi River shifted to a position more proximal to the CP, these rates increased to 2.9 ±1.1 Mt yr-1 or 0.5-1.5 % of the total sediment load of the Mississippi River. We conclude that CP evolution during the past 3 kyr was partly a direct consequence of shifting subdeltas, in addition to changing regional sediment sources and modest rates of relative sea-level (RSL) rise. The RSL history of the CP during this time period was constrained by new limiting data points from the base of overwash deposits associated with the cheniers. These findings have implications for Mississippi River sediment diversions that are currently being planned to restore portions of this vulnerable coast. Only if such diversions are located in the western portion of the Mississippi Delta plain could they potentially contribute to sustaining the CP shoreline. Our findings highlight the importance of a better

  15. 44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or supporting foundation system. For the purposes of this section, a breakway wall shall have a... facilities, be designed so that below the base flood level the structure is watertight with walls... designed to automatically equalize hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls by allowing for the entry and...

  16. The Economic Impact of Universities in Non-Metropolitan Areas of the Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John

    2007-01-01

    Public universities cite their economic impact to help justify state financial support, but the literature offers no comprehensive theory that can guide analysis of such claims. This research used qualitative methodology to complement the ubiquitous economic impact studies, and showed that mission, leadership and geography determine how public…

  17. Molecular identification of the fish fauna from the pantanal flood plain area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro-Dias, Cristiane Kioko; Costa Silva, Guilherme José da; Ashikaga, Fernando Yuldi; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2017-07-01

    The Pantanal is under the influence of the Paraguay River flood regime is considered to be one of the largest wetlands of the world, and has rich biodiversity, including fishes. Until now, the identification of fish species in this biome has only considered the morphological characteristics of individuals, and the present work aimed to identify the fish species of the Pantanal region through the DNA barcode methodology for investigating the biodiversity in this region. The genetic analysis of 638 samples via the GMYC approach identified 137 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to 127 species that have previously been described according to their morphological characteristics. Data suggest that 10 cases of morphospecies (Eigenmannia trileneata, E. virescens, Pimelodella gracilis, Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus, Brachyhypopomus sp., Ancistrus sp., Hyphessobrycon eques, Jupiaba acanthogaster, and Serrapinnus calliurus) represent complexes of cryptic species, and the number of species described in the Pantanal region has thus potentially been underestimated.

  18. Elemental analysis of sediments and organisms from the Cape Verde abyssal plain (CV 1 and CV 2 sites)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, P.; Boust, D.; Sibuet, M.; Philippot, J.C.; Hemon, G.

    1984-08-01

    Some 20 stable elements were determined by neutron activation analysis in epibenthic organisms and sediments from the Cape Verde abyssal plain. The levels measured in two Plesiopenaeus sp. (shrimp) individuals and one Barathrites sp. (fish) individual are similar to those found in others crustaceans and fish from oceanic and coastal areas. Concentration factors were calculated for the elements whose radioactive isotopes should be considered in the case of subseabed waste disposal ( 90 Sr, 135 Cs, 79 Se). The sediments are biogenous marly oozes. The levels measured reflect the variations of terrigenous inputs since the last glacial maximum 18,000 B.P [fr

  19. Assessment of risk factors associated with prevalence of strongyle infection in equines from Central Plain Zone, Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gagandeep; Singh, N K; Singh, Harkirat; Rath, S S

    2016-12-01

    A total of 311 equine faecal samples (190 horses and 121 mules) collected from six districts of Central Plain Zone, Punjab were examined using standard coprological methods. The results showed an overall prevalence of 27.33 % for strongyles with rare to mild type of infection as evident from egg per gram of faeces. In particular, amongst the examined samples, 17.90 % of horses and 42.14 % of mules were infected and the difference was statistically significant (P risk factors viz. area, season, age and sex of the host had no significant effect on prevalence of strongyle infection in equines.

  20. High-performance plain bearings for diesel engines. Hochleistungs-Gleitlager fuer Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.M.; Mathias, M.; Herrmann, B. (MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    The crankshaft bearings are among the most highly stressed engine components. Conventional plain bearings no longer fulfill the requirements of modern high-performance diesel engines. Introduction of the 'Sputter' technology, as a method of anti friction layer application, opened new perspectives in the field of plain bearing manufacture. In this presentation it is intended to compare various types of plain bearings and to demonstrate operation-oriented bearing testing. (orig.).

  1. Dating fluvial archives of the Riverine Plain, Southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Daniela; Cohen, Tim; Reinfelds, Ivars; Jacobs, Zenobia; Shulmeister, James

    2016-04-01

    The Riverine Plain of Southeastern Australia is characterized by a multiplicity of relict river channels. Compared to the modern drainage system the most prominent of those distinct features are defined by large bankfull channel widths, large meander wavelengths and coarse sediment loads. Such morphological differences provide evidence for regimes of higher discharge, stemming from significant changes in runoff volumes, flood-frequency regimes and sediment supply. An existing geochronology for some of these channels is based on multi-grain thermoluminescence (Murrumbidgee River; Page et al., 1996) or radio-carbon dating (Goulburn River; Bowler, 1978) and indicates enhanced fluvial activity between 30 to 13 ka. The absence of exact Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ± 3 ka) ages of the Murrumbidgee palaeochannels was interpreted to indicate decreased fluvial activity during the peak of the LGM but was not inferred for the nearby Goulburn River. Recent developments in optical dating, especially measurements of individual grains of quartz, allow for an examination of these previous findings. Key sites along the Murrumbidgee and Goulburn Rivers have been revisited and new sites of the adjacent Murray River have been investigated. A revised, high-resolution geochronology based on single-grain optically stimulated luminescence dating is used to examine the precise occurrence of those massive channels and their implications for the Southern Hemisphere LGM. References: Page, K., Nanson, G., Price, D. (1996). Chronology of Murrumbidgee River palaeochannels on the Riverine Plain, southeastern Australia. Journal of Quaternary Science 11(4): 311-326. Bowler, J. (1978). Quaternary Climate and Tectonics in the Evolution of the Riverine Plain, Southeastern Australia. In: Davies, J. & Williams, M. (Editors). Landform Evolution in Australia, Australian National University Press: Canberra. p. 70-112.

  2. The Kansas Anthropologist Reminlscence Project for Senior Plains Anthropologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlin F. Hawley

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Remember the days of old, consider the years of many generations, ask thy father and he will show thee, thy elders, and they will tell thee. Deuteronomy 32: 7. For the past six years, 'The Kansas Anthropologist' has published an ongoing series of reminiscences or retrospective articles by senior Great Plains archaeologists. The aim of the project is to collect reminiscences from senior anthro­pologists regarding their experiences in pre-and post-World War II Plains archaeology, biological anthropology, and ethnology. The historian John Lukacs (1966:x once offered an elegant and concise comment on the value of history, one that I offer here: "I believe that history, as a form of thought, is one of the most precious and perhaps unique rational posssessions of Western civilizations. The character of a person may appear best from the reconstruc­tion of the history of his life; the same is true of the character of nations. The very history of a prob­lem may reveal its essential diagnosis. There is no human endeavor that may not be approached and studied profitably through its history." Fortunately, there hardly needs to be a justification anymore for such a project, as is attested by the recent prolifera­tion of research into the history of archaeology and anthropology on virtually a global scale.The intention of these retrospective articles is not to explore or diagnose any particular problem but rather to create a mosaic of first person narrratives informed by personal experience and illustrated with photos and anecdotes to illuminate the development of Plains anthropology in the 20th Century.

  3. Plain radiographic evaluation of children with obstructive adenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolo, E.S.; Ahmed, A.O.; Kazeem, M.J.; Nwaorgu, O.G.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are several methods of evaluating adenoidal size pre-operatively. Plain nasopharyngeal radiography is a common investigative modality: it has been advocated, and also condemned. Aim: This study was intended to assess nasopharyngeal airway obstruction by the adenoids using plain X-rays; and also to find correlation if any, with the symptomatology. Methods: This is a retrospective study carried out between January and December 2008. The case notes and plain X-rays of the nasopharynx of 34 paediatric patients with clinical features of obstructive adenoids were analyzed. Results: A total of 34 children were studied, 22 (64.7%) were males and 12 (35.3%) were females. Their ages ranged between 7 months and 10 years: mean age was 3.55 years, standard deviation 2.723. Majority (67.6%) of the children were in the age group 0-4 years. The lowest symptomatology assessment score was 0 and the highest was 3. Children 4 years and below had the highest symptomatology scores. The minimum adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio was 0.35 and the maximum was 0.94. There was no significant difference in the mean adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio of males and females (t = 0.407; p = 0.692). Many (75.0%) of the children with moderate to severe nasopharyngeal airway obstruction by the adenoids were in the age bracket 0-4 years. The lowest adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio score was 0 and the highest was 3. Children 4 years and below had the highest adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio scores. There was a very weak nonsignificant correlation between the symptomatology assessment score and the radiological assessment score (r = 0.168; p = 0.375). Conclusion: The adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio is reliable in assessing the nasopharyngeal airway in children with obstructive adenoids.

  4. Structural Reliability of Plain Bearings for Wave Energy Converter Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2016-01-01

    The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) from wave energy converters (WECs) needs to be decreased in order to be able to become competitive with other renewable electricity sources. Probabilistic reliability methods can be used to optimize the structure of WECs. Optimization is often performed...... for critical structural components, like welded details, bolts or bearings. This paper considers reliability studies with a focus on plain bearings available from stock for the Wavestar device, which exists at the prototype level. The Wavestar device is a point absorber WEC. The plan is to mount a new power...

  5. Dispersion measurements from Sofar floats on the Iberian Abyssal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.M.; Gmitrowicz, M.

    1989-01-01

    Tracks of SOFAR floats launched on the Iberian Abyssal Plain are presented. The floats were launched in two groups in early October 1984 and mid-February 1985 to a nominal depth of 2500 m. Of these floats, 4 from the first deployment and 2 from the second functioned properly. Float signals were recorded by four autonomous listening stations at a depth of 1900 m. These preliminary results show the tracks of floats up to July 1986 and represent 3600 float days of information. The main task of the experiment was to especially study the dispersion of radioactive substances

  6. Plain film emergency radiology of child abuse: a strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreich, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    A strategy is proposed for the dedicated interpretation of possible radiographic plain film signs that are suspicious for indicating child abuse. For each sign, the features ''PRO'' raise the question of abuse, while radiographic or clinical findings ''CON'' suggest an alternate explanation. Birth trauma, oesteogenesis imperfecta, rescue trauma, and metastatic neuroblastoma are among the many entities cited. A triad of situations may lead a radiologist to look systematically for changes from abuse; a triad of resolutions may result from the search. Periosteal reaction is the major factor in dating of fractures; physiologic periosteal reaction of infancy and periosteal reaction from previous fracture must be considered when so dating fractures. (orig.) [de

  7. Response of shortgrass Plains vegetation to chronic and seasonally administered gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, Jr., Leslie [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1971-08-01

    In order to determine the effect of radiation on the structure of native shortgrass plains vegetation, an 8750 Ci 137Cs source was installed on the Central Plains Experimental Range near Nunn, Colorado; The experimental area was divided into 6 treatment sectors, a control, 2 sectors for chronic exposure (irradiation initiated April 1969 and continuing as of August 1971), and one each for spring, summer and late fall seasonal semi-acute (30 day), exposures which were administered during April, July and December, 1969, respectively. Community structure was measured by coefficient of community and diversity index. Yield was determined by clipping plots in September 1970 and visual estimates in September 1969 and 1970 for the grass-sedge component of the vegetation. Individual species sensitivity was determined by density data recorded in April, June and September of 1969 and 1970 and by a phenological index recorded at weekly intervals during the 1969 and 1970 growing seasons. The response of the vegetation was similar whether determined by coefficient of community or diversity with diversity being a more sensitive measure of effects. In the chronically exposed sectors, the exposure rate which resulted in a 50 per cent reduction in these 2 parameters (CC50 or D50) was still decreasing the second growing season and was approximately 18 R/hr for the CC50 as of June 1970 and 10 R/hr for the D50 as of September 1970. For the seasonally exposed sectors, the late fall period (December, 1969) was the most sensitive, summer (July, 1969) the least sensitive and spring (April, 1969) intermediate with CC50 and D50 values of 195 and 90, 240 and 222, and 120 and 74 R/hr for the spring, summer and late fall exposed sectors, respectively. Yield and density data indicated a rapid revegetation of the spring and summer exposed sectors during 1970 as a result of an influx of invader species such as Salsola kali tenuifolia, Chenopodium leptophyllum and Lepidium densiflorum and the

  8. Simulating Effects of Long Term Use of Wastewater on Farmers Health Using System Dynamics Modeling (Case Study: Varamin Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzehali Alizadeh

    2017-06-01

    (supplying 90 percent of the demand, 368 MCM of which was supplied through groundwater and 252 MCM was supplied by surface water. In recent years supplying water from Latyan Dam to the agriculture in Varamin Plain due to water supply of Tehran and the recent droughts has been reduced to lower than half (the average 68.8 MCM. On the other hand, shortage of surface water resources has caused an additional pressure to the groundwater resources of the Plain. Excessive groundwater withdrawal and use of brackish reused waters in the southern parts of the plain has caused the quality loss in groundwater resources, so that groundwater salinity has increased about 0.5 dS/m from the year 2000 to 2011. Obviously, by continuing the present situation, in less than two decades the groundwater resources in Varamin will be either quite destroyed or unable to be used due to inappropriate quality. Another source of surface water is allocated to the Varamin Plain is treated wastewater produced from Tehran Wastewater Treatment Plant. Utilizing the phases 1 to 4 of this treatment plant, about 80 MCM (2.5 up to 4 m3/s of wastewater is annually transferred to Varamin Plain. According to the projections, it is assumed that wastewater will be used in near future as the most important water resource to Varamin Plain. In this study, SD was applied as the system analysis method for the Varamin wastewater management. The spatial boundary of the SD model for Varamin model was the whole Varamin area, which is 1584 km2. The historical review period was from 2001 to 2011, the simulated period was from 2011 to 2036, and the simulation time interval was one year. The most important scenarios evaluated consisted of four wastewater allocation scenarios [(i keeping the excising condition, (ii complete allocation of Latian dam reservoir water to Tehran domestic use, allocation of 200 MCM treated wastewater during growing season to agricultural sector and 40 MCM to artificial aquifer recharge during non

  9. Water footprint of crop production for different crop structures in the Hebei southern plain, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yingmin; Shen, Yanjun; Yuan, Zaijian

    2017-06-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) has a serious shortage of freshwater resources, and crop production consumes approximately 75 % of the region's water. To estimate water consumption of different crops and crop structures in the NCP, the Hebei southern plain (HSP) was selected as a study area, as it is a typical region of groundwater overdraft in the NCP. In this study, the water footprint (WF) of crop production, comprised of green, blue and grey water footprints, and its annual variation were analyzed. The results demonstrated the following: (1) the WF from the production of main crops was 41.8 km3 in 2012. Winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables were the top water-consuming crops in the HSP. The water footprint intensity (WFI) of cotton was the largest, and for vegetables, it was the smallest; (2) the total WF, WFblue, WFgreen and WFgrey for 13 years (2000-2012) of crop production were 604.8, 288.5, 141.3 and 175.0 km3, respectively, with an annual downtrend from 2000 to 2012; (3) winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables consumed the most groundwater, and their blue water footprint (WFblue) accounted for 74.2 % of the total WFblue in the HSP; (4) the crop structure scenarios analysis indicated that, with approximately 20 % of arable land cultivated with winter wheat-summer maize in rotation, 38.99 % spring maize, 10 % vegetables and 10 % fruiters, a sustainable utilization of groundwater resources can be promoted, and a sufficient supply of food, including vegetables and fruits, can be ensured in the HSP.

  10. Water footprint of crop production for different crop structures in the Hebei southern plain, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP has a serious shortage of freshwater resources, and crop production consumes approximately 75 % of the region's water. To estimate water consumption of different crops and crop structures in the NCP, the Hebei southern plain (HSP was selected as a study area, as it is a typical region of groundwater overdraft in the NCP. In this study, the water footprint (WF of crop production, comprised of green, blue and grey water footprints, and its annual variation were analyzed. The results demonstrated the following: (1 the WF from the production of main crops was 41.8 km3 in 2012. Winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables were the top water-consuming crops in the HSP. The water footprint intensity (WFI of cotton was the largest, and for vegetables, it was the smallest; (2 the total WF, WFblue, WFgreen and WFgrey for 13 years (2000–2012 of crop production were 604.8, 288.5, 141.3 and 175.0 km3, respectively, with an annual downtrend from 2000 to 2012; (3 winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables consumed the most groundwater, and their blue water footprint (WFblue accounted for 74.2 % of the total WFblue in the HSP; (4 the crop structure scenarios analysis indicated that, with approximately 20 % of arable land cultivated with winter wheat–summer maize in rotation, 38.99 % spring maize, 10 % vegetables and 10 % fruiters, a sustainable utilization of groundwater resources can be promoted, and a sufficient supply of food, including vegetables and fruits, can be ensured in the HSP.

  11. Quantifying changes in multiple ecosystem services during 1992-2012 in the Sanjiang Plain of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongming; Mao, Dehua; Li, Lin; Jia, Mingming; Dong, Zhangyu; Miao, Zhenghong; Ren, Chunying; Song, Changchun

    2015-05-01

    Rapid and periodic assessment of the impact of land cover changes on ecosystem services at regional levels is essential to understanding services and sustainability of ecosystems. This study focused on quantifying and assessing changes of multiple ecosystem services in the Sanjiang Plain of China as a result of land cover changes over the period of 1992-2012. This region is important for its large area of natural wetlands and intensive agriculture. The ecosystem services that were assessed for this region included its regulating services (water yield and ecosystem carbon stocks), supporting services (suitable waterbird habitats), and provisioning services (food production), and the approach to the assessment was composed of the surface energy balance algorithms for land (SEBAL), soil survey re-sampling method and an empirical waterbird habitat suitability model. This large scale and integrated investigation represents the first systematic evaluation on the status of ecosystem carbon stocks in the Sanjiang Plain in addition to the development of an effective model for analysis of waterbird habitat suitability with the use of both remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS). More importantly, the result from this study has confirmed trade-offs between ecosystem services and negative consequences to environment in this region. The trade-offs were typically manifested by increased water yield and significantly grown food production, which is in contrast with significant losses in ecosystem carbon stocks (-14%) and suitable waterbird habitats (-23%) mainly due to the conversion of land cover from wetland to farmland. This finding implies that land use planning and policy making for this economically important region should take ecosystem service losses into account in order to preserve its natural ecosystems in the best interest of society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Groundwater-pumping optimization for land-subsidence control in Beijing plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Huanhuan; Andrews, Charles B.; Tian, Fang; Cao, Guoliang; Luo, Yong; Liu, Jiurong; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2018-01-01

    Beijing, in the North China plain, is one of the few megacities that uses groundwater as its main source of water supply. Groundwater accounts for about two-thirds of the city's water supply, and during the past 50 years the storage depletion from the unconsolidated aquifers underlying the city has been >10.4 billion m3. By 2010, groundwater pumping in the city had resulted in a cumulative subsidence of greater than 100 mm in an area of about 3,900 km2, with a maximum cumulative subsidence of >1,200 mm. This subsidence has caused significant social and economic losses in Beijing, including significant damage to underground utilities. This study was undertaken to evaluate various future pumping scenarios to assist in selecting an optimal pumping scenario to minimize overall subsidence, meet the requirements of the Beijing Land Subsidence Prevention Plan (BLSPP 2013-2020), and be consistent with continued sustainable economic development. A numerical groundwater and land-subsidence model was developed for the aquifer system of the Beijing plain to evaluate land subsidence rates under the possible future pumping scenarios. The optimal pumping scenario consistent with the evaluation constraints is a reduction in groundwater pumping from three major pumping centers by 100, 50 and 20%, respectively, while maintaining an annual pumping rate of 1.9 billion m3. This scenario's land-subsidence rates satisfy the BLSPP 2013-2020 and the pumping scenario is consistent with continued economic development. It is recommended that this pumping scenario be adopted for future land-subsidence management in Beijing.

  13. Characterizing mercury concentrations and fluxes in a Coastal Plain watershed: Insights from dynamic modeling and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, H.E.; Knightes, C.D.; Conrads, P.A.; Davis, G.M.; Feaster, T.D.; Journey, C.A.; Benedict, S.T.; Brigham, M.E.; Bradley, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the leading water quality concerns in surface waters of the United States. Although watershed-scale Hg cycling research has increased in the past two decades, advances in modeling watershed Hg processes in diverse physiographic regions, spatial scales, and land cover types are needed. The goal of this study was to assess Hg cycling in a Coastal Plain system using concentrations and fluxes estimated by multiple watershed-scale models with distinct mathematical frameworks reflecting different system dynamics. We simulated total mercury (HgT, the sum of filtered and particulate forms) concentrations and fluxes from a Coastal Plain watershed (McTier Creek) using three watershed Hg models and an empirical load model. Model output was compared with observed in-stream HgT. We found that shallow subsurface flow is a potentially important transport mechanism of particulate HgT during periods when connectivity between the uplands and surface waters is maximized. Other processes (e.g., stream bank erosion, sediment re-suspension) may increase particulate HgT in the water column. Simulations and data suggest that variable source area (VSA) flow and lack of rainfall interactions with surface soil horizons result in increased dissolved HgT concentrations unrelated to DOC mobilization following precipitation events. Although flushing of DOC-HgT complexes from surface soils can also occur during this period, DOC-complexed HgT becomes more important during base flow conditions. TOPLOAD simulations highlight saturated subsurface flow as a primary driver of daily HgT loadings, but shallow subsurface flow is important for HgT loads during high-flow events. Results suggest limited seasonal trends in HgT dynamics.

  14. Patterns in stream greenhouse gas dynamics from mountains to plains in northcentral Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, C.; Bettigole, C.; Glick, H. B.; Seegmiller, L.; Oliver, C. D.; Raymond, P.

    2017-09-01

    Quantification of small stream contributions to global carbon cycling is key to understanding how freshwater systems transmit and transform carbon between terrestrial and atmospheric pools. To date, greenhouse gas emissions of carbon dioxide and methane from freshwaters, particularly in mountainous regions, remain poorly characterized due to a lack of direct field observations. Using a unique longitudinal approach, we conducted field surveys across two ecoregions (Middle Rockies and Great Plains) in the Clear Creek watershed, a subwatershed of Wyoming's Powder River Basin. We took direct measurements of stream gases using headspace sampling at 30 sites (8 June to 23 October). We observed the lowest and most variable concentrations in headwaters, which flow through a federally designated alpine wilderness area. By contrast, the Great Plains exhibited 1.45 and 4 times higher pCO2 and pCH4 concentrations and the relative contributions of methane increased downstream. Fluxes during snowmelt were 45% and 58% higher for CO2 and CH4 than during base flow but overall were lower than estimates for other systems. Variability for pCO2 was highest during late summer and in the uppermost sections of the headwaters. The high heterogeneity and common undersaturation observed through space and time, especially in the mountains, suggest that downscaled regional estimates may fail to capture variability in fluxes observed at these smaller scales. Based on these results, we strongly recommend higher resolution time series studies and increased scrutiny of systems at near equilibrium, inclusive of winter storage and ice-off events, to improve our understanding of the effects of seasonal dynamics on these processes.

  15. Groundwater quality assessment using the water quality pollution indices in Toyserkan Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhanardakani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iran is located within the dry and semi dry regions, thus almost 90% of the required water is secured via the use of groundwater. Owing to the increasing pollution of water resources, this study was performed to evaluate water quality pollution indices for heavy metals (As, Zn, Pb and Cu contamination monitoring in Toyserkan Plain during spring and summer in 2012. Methods: A total of 20 ground water wells were chosen randomly. The samples were filtered (0.45 μm and kept cool in polyethylene bottles. Samples were taken for the analysis of metals, the former was acidified with HNO3 to pH lower than 2. Metal concentrations were determined using ICP-OES. Results: The results revealed that the mean values of contamination index (Cd, heavy metal pollution index (HPI and heavy metal evaluation index (HEI in samples for spring season were -2.81, 9.74 and 1.20, respectively and were -2.67, 9.51 and 1.32, respectively in samples for summer season and this indicates low contamination levels. Comparing the mean concentrations of the evaluated metals with WHO permissible limits demonstrated a significant difference (P < 0.05. Thus, the mean concentrations of the metals were significantly lower than the permissible limits. Conclusion: Although the heavy metal pollution of the ground water in Toyserkan Plain is not higher than permissible limits, the irregular and long-term utilization of agricultural inputs, use of wastewater and sewage sludge in agriculture, over utilization of organic fertilizers and establishment of pollutant industries can threaten the ground water, and cause irreversible damages in this area

  16. Psychological distress among Plains Indian mothers with children referred to screening for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Tassy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress (PD includes symptoms of depression and anxiety and is associated with considerable emotional suffering, social dysfunction and, often, with problematic alcohol use. The rate of current PD among American Indian women is approximately 2.5 times higher than that of U.S. women in general. Our study aims to fill the current knowledge gap about the prevalence and characteristics of PD and its association with self-reported current drinking problems among American Indian mothers whose children were referred to screening for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Methods Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was conducted from maternal interviews of referred American Indian mothers (n = 152 and a comparison group of mothers (n = 33 from the same Plains culture tribes who participated in an NIAAA-funded epidemiology study of FASD. Referred women were from one of six Plains Indian reservation communities and one urban area who bore children suspected of having an FASD. A 6-item PD scale (PD-6, Cronbach's alpha = .86 was constructed with a summed score range of 0-12 and a cut-point of 7 indicating serious PD. Multiple statistical tests were used to examine the characteristics of PD and its association with self-reported current drinking problems. Results Referred and comparison mothers had an average age of 31.3 years but differed (respectively on: education ( Conclusions Psychological distress among referred mothers is significantly associated with having a self-reported drinking problem. FASD prevention requires multi-level prevention efforts that provide real opportunities for educational attainment and screening and monitoring of PD and alcohol use during the childbearing years. Mixed methods studies are needed to illuminate the social and cultural determinants at the base of the experience of PD and to identify the strengths and protective factors of unaffected peers who reside within the same

  17. Assessment of vertebral scalloping in neurofibromatosis type 1 with plain radiography and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsirikos, A.I.; Ramachandran, M.; Lee, J.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com

    2004-11-01

    AIM: To evaluate vertebral scalloping in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) and spinal deformity using plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to determine the possible aetiological association with neurofibromas, dural ectasia and lateral meningocoeles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nineteen patients with NF-1, who had full spine radiographs and whole-spine MRI, were retrospectively reviewed. Dystrophic features and their relationship to the curve were recorded from radiographs. A comparison was then made between the dystrophic features evident on radiographs and adjacent soft-tissue abnormalities identified on MRI. RESULTS: Dystrophic changes were documented in 16 patients on plain radiographs and in all patients on MRI. Rib pencilling was the most common finding on radiographs. In 80% of the cases with scoliosis, scalloping was seen on the concavity of the curvature. In all patients with kyphoscoliosis, scalloping was contiguous to the apex of kyphosis. Twenty-four areas of scalloping were identified on MRI. Scalloping usually developed in the concavity of the scoliotic curve or at levels unrelated to the curve. Scalloping was evident in combination with dural ectasia or neurofibroma in 15 cases. The presence of dural ectasia was confirmed in 75% of the cases of posterior scalloping and in 25% of those of lateral scalloping. The presence of neurofibromas was recognized in 25% of the cases of anterior or lateral scalloping. Dural ectasia was identified in two patients without associated scalloping. Lateral meningocoeles were not related to the development of scalloping. CONCLUSION: Whereas posterior scalloping was commonly associated with dural ectasia, anterior and lateral scalloping were commonly the result of primary mesodermal dysplasia.

  18. International collaborative study for the calibration of proposed International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain, and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Besselaar, A M H P; Chantarangkul, V; Angeloni, F; Binder, N B; Byrne, M; Dauer, R; Gudmundsdottir, B R; Jespersen, J; Kitchen, S; Legnani, C; Lindahl, T L; Manning, R A; Martinuzzo, M; Panes, O; Pengo, V; Riddell, A; Subramanian, S; Szederjesi, A; Tantanate, C; Herbel, P; Tripodi, A

    2018-01-01

    Essentials Two candidate International Standards for thromboplastin (coded RBT/16 and rTF/16) are proposed. International Sensitivity Index (ISI) of proposed standards was assessed in a 20-centre study. The mean ISI for RBT/16 was 1.21 with a between-centre coefficient of variation of 4.6%. The mean ISI for rTF/16 was 1.11 with a between-centre coefficient of variation of 5.7%. Background The availability of International Standards for thromboplastin is essential for the calibration of routine reagents and hence the calculation of the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Stocks of the current Fourth International Standards are running low. Candidate replacement materials have been prepared. This article describes the calibration of the proposed Fifth International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain (coded RBT/16) and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain (coded rTF/16). Methods An international collaborative study was carried out for the assignment of International Sensitivity Indexes (ISIs) to the candidate materials, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for thromboplastins and plasma used to control oral anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists. Results Results were obtained from 20 laboratories. In several cases, deviations from the ISI calibration model were observed, but the average INR deviation attributabled to the model was not greater than 10%. Only valid ISI assessments were used to calculate the mean ISI for each candidate. The mean ISI for RBT/16 was 1.21 (between-laboratory coefficient of variation [CV]: 4.6%), and the mean ISI for rTF/16 was 1.11 (between-laboratory CV: 5.7%). Conclusions The between-laboratory variation of the ISI for candidate material RBT/16 was similar to that of the Fourth International Standard (RBT/05), and the between-laboratory variation of the ISI for candidate material rTF/16 was slightly higher than that of the Fourth International Standard (rTF/09). The candidate materials

  19. Assessment of groundwater contamination risk using hazard quantification, a modified DRASTIC model and groundwater value, Beijing Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; He, Jiangtao; Chen, Honghan

    2012-08-15

    Groundwater contamination risk assessment is an effective tool for groundwater management. Most existing risk assessment methods only consider the basic contamination process based upon evaluations of hazards and aquifer vulnerability. In view of groundwater exploitation potentiality, including the value of contamination-threatened groundwater could provide relatively objective and targeted results to aid in decision making. This study describes a groundwater contamination risk assessment method that integrates hazards, intrinsic vulnerability and groundwater value. The hazard harmfulness was evaluated by quantifying contaminant properties and infiltrating contaminant load, the intrinsic aquifer vulnerability was evaluated using a modified DRASTIC model and the groundwater value was evaluated based on groundwater quality and aquifer storage. Two groundwater contamination risk maps were produced by combining the above factors: a basic risk map and a value-weighted risk map. The basic risk map was produced by overlaying the hazard map and the intrinsic vulnerability map. The value-weighted risk map was produced by overlaying the basic risk map and the groundwater value map. Relevant validation was completed by contaminant distributions and site investigation. Using Beijing Plain, China, as an example, thematic maps of the three factors and the two risks were generated. The thematic maps suggested that landfills, gas stations and oil depots, and industrial areas were the most harmful potential contamination sources. The western and northern parts of the plain were the most vulnerable areas and had the highest groundwater value. Additionally, both the basic and value-weighted risk classes in the western and northern parts of the plain were the highest, indicating that these regions should deserve the priority of concern. Thematic maps should be updated regularly because of the dynamic characteristics of hazards. Subjectivity and validation means in assessing the

  20. Potential future impacts of climatic change on the Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, B.

    1991-01-01

    A synopsis is provided of approaches to impact studies in the Great Plains, findings from studies of future impacts are summarized, and opportunities for enhancing understanding of future impacts are discussed. Potential impacts of climate change on agriculture, water resources, forestry, recreation/tourism, and energy are summarized. Impact analyses need to look more rigorously at variability in climate, the probabilities of various climatic conditions, and the sensitivity of social and economic activities to climatic variability. Most economic impact studies have assumed no adaptive behavior on the part of economic decision makers. Credible impact assessments require an improved understanding of the sensitivity and adaptability of sectors to climatic conditions, particularly variability. The energy sector in the Great Plains region is likely to be more sensitive to political developments in the Middle East than to climatic variability and change. Speculation and analysis of climate impacts have focused on supply conditions and demands, yet the sector is more keenly sensitive to policy implications of climatic change, such as the potential for fossil fuel taxes or other legislative or pricing constraints. 28 refs

  1. Trace metal enrichment in agricultural soils of Jianghan Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Ying, S.; Daniel, J. N.; Bu, J.; Gan, Y.; Wang, Y.; Schaefer, M.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Coal consumption in China is increasing annually due to constantly rising energy demand. As a result, a massive amount of coal combustion byproducts, particularly in the form of fly ash, are expelled from power plants and distributed through atmospheric transport. The fly ash is eventually deposited on to land, potentially contaminating agricultural soils. Coal fly ash contains high concentration of a suite of toxic trace metals including lead, chromium, and arsenic. In this study, we surveyed the concentration of trace metals in agricultural soils at 131 sites within a 20 km radius of Yangluo Power Plant, a 2400 MW plant within the highly populated Jianghan Plain of Central China. Using X-ray fluorecence (XRF) spectrometry, the total concentration of trace metals in homogenized surface and subsurface soil samples were measured to calculate the corresponding enrichment factor at each site. Our initial findings demonstrate that Pb is enriched in a majority of sites, independent of land use, whereas As and Cr are generally not enriched in this region. Further studies using Pb isotopes as a source-tracing tool will help determine the Pb pollution's origin. Ultimately, the results of this study may inform whether crops grown within the Jianghan Plain have the potential of being contaminated by metals emitted from coal power plants.

  2. Analysis of farming types’ characteristics in the Boianu Plain (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Vijulie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the distribution and dimensional structure of the farms depending on their legal status, and the owners’ perceptions on the current status. The main research methods used in the study were: direct observation method, digital mapping, statistical analysis, surveying (semi-structured interview and SWOT analysis. The Boianu Plain is by excellence an agricultural region. Its arable land is worked/operated by three main categories of farms: individual holdings, family farming associations and farming societies. Production obtained within individual holdings is always lower comparative to family farming associations and especially to farming societies. Partnership helps farmers to join their technical and financial means in order to increase the annual production and, implicitly, gain profit. In this respect, the farmers’ perception resulted from the semi-structured interviews is a good evaluation instrument. The most critical issue at local level is making individual farmers aware of the benefits of family association and/or farmland leasing. The SWOT analysis reveals the possibility of an efficient management as driven by the way that the existing opportunities are able to mitigate or completely remove the weaknesses. The Boianu Plain has a very good agricultural potential in a highly favourable environment, but poorly capitalized.

  3. Quaternary subsidence of the Oahu Coastal Plain, Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, M.; Sandstrom, R. M.; Huppert, K.; Taylor, F. W.; Cronin, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Inter-plate hotspots continue to test our understanding of how the Earth's lithosphere deforms in response to an applied load, in part, because many current models are based on short or discontinuous observational datasets. Here we reconstruct a record of relative sea level rise spanning nearly two million years using the strontium isotope stratigraphy (SIS) of shallow water carbonates (e.g. corals, mollusks) recovered from a >300 m long drill core through the coastal plain of Oahu. We then compare it to model-predicted subsidence histories for our site that incorporate displacements at Ewa Beach, Oahu, due to the flexural isostatic response of the lithosphere to loading of each volcano along the Hawaiian Ridge as well as its migration over the Hawaiian Swell. Preliminary results indicate Oahu experienced relatively rapid rates of subsidence ( 0.45 mm/yr) during the mid-Pleistocene—vertical displacements our model largely attributes to loading of West Molokai. An abrupt slowing of subsidence over the past million years may be driven by the relative eastward progression of volcanism, including construction of large shields on Maui and Hawaii. Shallowly buried, late Pleistocene aged corals, however, may suggest: (1) a more limited flexural response to this loading for southeastern Oahu than has been inferred from raised marine isotope stage (MIS) 11/13 dated, shallow-water, deposits found elsewhere on the island and/or (2) substantial dissolution of coastal plain carbonates between MIS 31 and 11.

  4. Plain abdominal radiographs in children with inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G.A.; Nancarrow, P.A.; Hernanz-Schulman, M.; Teele, R.L.

    1986-03-01

    The value of plain abdominal radiography in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been ascertained. We reviewed the scout radiographs prior to first barium examination in 100 children with IBD (53 Crohn, 47 ulcerative colitis (UC) and scout films prior to excretory urography in 50 patients who had no clinical evidence of intestinal disease (controls)). The films were reviewed without clinical information, and the abnormalities on each film scored according to severity and location. Criteria included: mural thickening, dilatation and mucosal abnormalities of the small bowel and colon, as well as abnormal quantity and/or distribution of feces in the colon. Eighty percent (40/50) of the films in the control group were interpreted as normal. Abnormalities suggestive of IBD were presented in 73% of the IBD group (76% Crohn and 72% UC). Thirty-one percent of the films in the IBD group had a moderately abnormal score (>=3) or markedly abnormal score (>=5) at presentation. The most reliable radiographic findings were: mucosal abnormality in the colon and small bowel and an abnormal stool pattern (feces completely absent or only present in one colonic segment). The clinical presentation of IBD in childhood is often vague and nonspecific. Abnormalities in plain films of the abdomen are common in these patients and may be helpful in suggesting the presence and, to a great degree, the severity of disease in these children.

  5. Irrigation Water Availability and Winter Wheat Abandonment in the North China Plain (NCP): Findings from a Case Study in Cangxian County of Hebei Province

    OpenAIRE

    Xue Wang; Xiubin Li

    2018-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is the major winter wheat producing area in China. Abandonment of this crop has, however, become more and more prevalent in this region since the late 1990s. Although the underlying causes of this phenomenon remain little understood, irrigation water availability (IWA) has always been regarded as the key factor limiting winter wheat production on the NCP. The aim of this paper is to determine the role played by IWA in the abandonment of winter wheat, using evidence...

  6. Mapping the northern plains of Mars: origins, evolution and response to climate change - a new overview of recent ice-related landforms in Utopia Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séjourné, A.; Costard, F.; Losiak, A.; Swirad, Z. M.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.; Gallagher, C.; Hauber, E.; Johnsson, A. E.; Kereszturi, A.; Orgel, C.; Platz, T.; Ramsdale, J. D.; Reiss, D.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Van Gasselt, S.

    2015-10-01

    An International Space Science Institute (ISSI) team project has been convened to study ice-related landforms in targeted areas in the northern plain of Mars: Acidalia Planitia, Arcadia Planitia, and Utopia Planitia. Here, over western Utopia Planitia, ice-related landforms were identified and recorded in a sub-grid square. The end result of the mapping is a "raster" showing the distribution of thevarious different types of landforms across the whole strip providing a digital geomorph ological map (Fig. 1).

  7. Little impact of the Three Gorges Dam on recent decadal lake decline across China's Yangtze Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jida; Sheng, Yongwei; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-05-01

    The ubiquitous lakes across China's Yangtze Plain (YP) are indispensable freshwater resources sustaining ecosystems and socioeconomics for nearly half a billion people. Our recent survey revealed a widespread net decline in the total YP lake inundation area during 2000-2011 (a cumulative decrease of ˜10%), yet its mechanism remained contentious. Here we uncover the impacts of climate variability and anthropogenic activities including (i) Yangtze flow and sediment alterations by the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) and (ii) human water consumption in agricultural, industrial, and domestic sectors throughout the downstream Yangtze Basin. Results suggest that climate variability is the dominant driver of this decadal lake decline, whereas studied human activities, despite varying seasonal impacts that peak in fall, contribute marginal fraction (˜10-20% or less) to the interannual lake area decrease. Given that the TGD impacts on the total YP lake area and its seasonal variation are both under ˜5%, we also dismiss the speculation that the TGD might be responsible for evident downstream climate change by altering lake surface extent and thus open water evaporation. Nevertheless, anthropogenic impacts exhibited a strengthening trend during the past decade. Although the TGD has reached its full-capacity water regulation, the negative impacts of human water consumption and TGD-induced net channel erosion, which are already comparable to that of TGD's flow regulation, may continue to grow as crucial anthropogenic factors to future YP lake conservation.

  8. The geology of Pine and Crater Buttes: Two basaltic constructs on the far eastern Snake River Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazierski, Paul F.; King, John S.

    1987-01-01

    The emplacement history and petrochemical evolution of the volcanics associated with Pine Butte, Crater Butte, and other nearby vents are developed and described. Four major vents were identified in the study area and their associated eruptive products were mapped. All of the vents show a marked physical elongation or linear orientation coincident with the observed rift set. Planetary exploration has revealed the importance of volcanic processes in the genesis and modification of extraterrestrial surfaces. Interpretation of surface features has identified plains-type basaltic volcanism in various mare regions of the Moon and the volcanic provinces of Mars. Identification of these areas with features that appear analogous to those observed in the Pine Butte area suggests similar styles of eruption and mode of emplacement. Such terrestrial analogies serve as a method to interpret the evolution of volcanic planetary surfaces on the inner planets.

  9. Late Hesperian plains formation and degradation in a low sedimentation zone of the northern lowlands of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Tanaka, K.L.; Berman, D.C.; Kargel, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    The plains materials that form the martian northern lowlands suggest large-scale sedimentation in this part of the planet. The general view is that these sedimentary materials were transported from zones of highland erosion via outflow channels and other fluvial systems. The study region, the northern circum-polar plains south of Gemini Scopuli on Planum Boreum, comprises the only extensive zone in the martian northern lowlands that does not include sub-basin floors nor is downstream from outflow channel systems. Therefore, within this zone, the ponding of fluids and fluidized sediments associated with outflow channel discharges is less likely to have taken place relative to sub-basin areas that form the other northern circum-polar plains surrounding Planum Boreum. Our findings indicate that during the Late Hesperian sedimentary deposits produced by the erosion of an ancient cratered landscape, as well as via sedimentary volcanism, were regionally emplaced to form extensive plains materials within the study region. The distribution and magnitude of surface degradation suggest that groundwater emergence from an aquifer that extended from the Arabia Terra cratered highlands to the northern lowlands took place non-catastrophically and regionally within the study region through faulted upper crustal materials. In our model the margin of the Utopia basin adjacent to the study region may have acted as a boundary to this aquifer. Partial destruction and dehydration of these Late Hesperian plains, perhaps induced by high thermal anomalies resulting from the low thermal conductivity of these materials, led to the formation of extensive knobby fields and pedestal craters. During the Early Amazonian, the rates of regional resurfacing within the study region decreased significantly; perhaps because the knobby ridges forming the eroded impact crater rims and contractional ridges consisted of thermally conductive indurated materials, thereby inducing freezing of the tectonically

  10. Assessing Restoration Perspectives of Disturbed Brook Valleys : The Gorecht Area, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diggelen, Rudy; Grootjans, Ab; Burkunk, Rob

    1994-01-01

    Several landscape restoration alternatives were evaluated in the Gorecht area, a cultivated river plain in the northern part of the Netherlands. A landscape analysis was performed to investigate the hydrological functioning of this area. Groundwater composition in the area was assessed by using

  11. Historic maps and landscape evolution: a case study in the Little Hungarian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámolyi, A.; Székely, B.; Draganits, E.; Timár, G.

    2009-04-01

    Georeferenced historic maps provide a useful tool to derive geomorphologic landscape elements largely uninfluenced by anthropogenic activity, thus allowing the study of natural changes in the landscape evolution of increasingly densely populated areas. The study area, the Little Hungarian Plain (LHP), is located at the geologically and geomorphologically highly interesting region at the transition between the mountain chains of the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians. The area, as transport route and exchange zone of goods has had its specific importance since the Neolithic times. Consequently, the environment has been subject to human influence, especially since the onset of the industrial age. Geographically the LHP lies in the vicinity of major settlement areas (Vienna, Bratislava, Sopron, Győr) and stretches from the Leithagebirge, a mountainous area in Eastern Austria, to the City of Győr in Western Hungary. The political division of the area into two separate countries occurred after World War I. Thus, historic mapping in the Habsburg Empire and later in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy that was organized and conducted before World War I allows a comprehensive overview of the study area. Map sheets of the 2nd Military Survey of the whole Monarchy were mapped in the time from 1807 to 1873 in the area of the entire Empire (Kretschmer et al., 2004). The Kingdom of Hungary, as part of the Empire was mapped in a homogenous campaign in the time from 1819 - 1869. Beside the increasing human impact the area is characterized by active surface processes. The geologic evolution of the Little Hungarian Plain is dominated by tectonic processes related to the lateral extrusion of the Eastern Alps and the acceleration of northward movement of the Carpathians. Subsidence is accommodated mainly along high- and low angle normal faults with a high vertical movement component. Strike-slip movements at these faults are very rare. Most of these processes have been active also in the

  12. Geomorphological Approach for Regional Zoning In The Merapi Volcanic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langgeng Wahyu Santosa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphologial approach can be used as the basic for identifying and analyzing the natural resources potentials, especially in volcanic landscape. Based on its geomorphology, Merapi volcanic landscape can be divided into 5 morphological units, i.e.: volcanic cone, volcanic slope, volcanic foot, volcanic foot plain, and fluvio-volcanic plain. Each of these morphological units has specific characteristic and natural resources potential. Based on the condition of geomorphology, the regional zoning can be compiled to support the land use planning and to maintain the conservation of environmental function in the Merapi Volcanic area.

  13. Favourable environments for the deposition of uranium in the Subandean Belt and the Amazon Plain of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canepa, L.; Rosado, F.

    1981-01-01

    The area described is located between the east flank of the eastern Cordillera on the territorial limits with Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil and Bolivia. It covers the morphological areas called sub-Andean zone and Amazon plain. The physiographic characteristics change from west to east. In the eastern Cordillera the morphology is rough, with altitudes of 5000 m. Descending to sub-Andean, it presents a moderate topography with low hills between 1000 and 2500 m. Further east the Amazon plain forms an extensive peneplain with altitudes of 400 m. The stratigraphy of the area includes rocks with ages from the Precambrian (eastern Cordillera) to recent. Outcrops of the Palaeozoic formations are found to the east of the eastern Cordillera. Rocks that belong to the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are extensively distributed in the area, as deposits of continental or deltaic facies. The geological evolution of the area is favourable for the formation of stratiform deposits of uranium. The intensity of the orogenic deformation decreases progressively from west to east. The tendency to low dips favours the conditions of migration and precipitation of uranium. The majority of the geological formations of continental and deltaic origin, as well as igneous bodies of upper Palaeozoic and Tertiary age, have been selected as rocks of good geological uranium favourability, taking into consideration criteria found in other parts of the world. These have been modified to suit local conditions. This area presents similar geological conditions to the eastern side of the Andean Cordillera in Argentina where a number of uranium deposits have been located. (author)

  14. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Estimated thickness of ejecta deposits compared to to crater rim heights. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    The area of the continuous ejecta deposits on mercury was calculated to vary from 2.24 to 0.64 times the crater's area for those of diameter 40 km to 300 km. Because crater boundaries on the geologic map include the detectable continuous ejecta blanket, plains exterior to these deposits must consist of farther-flung ejecta (of that or other craters), or volcanic deposits flooding the intervening areas. Ejecta models are explored.

  15. Parallel 3D Simulation of Seismic Wave Propagation in the Structure of Nobi Plain, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, A.; Furumura, T.; Hirahara, K.

    2003-12-01

    We performed large-scale parallel simulations of the seismic wave propagation to understand the complex wave behavior in the 3D basin structure of the Nobi Plain, which is one of the high population cities in central Japan. In this area, many large earthquakes occurred in the past, such as the 1891 Nobi earthquake (M8.0), the 1944 Tonankai earthquake (M7.9) and the 1945 Mikawa earthquake (M6.8). In order to mitigate the potential disasters for future earthquakes, 3D subsurface structure of Nobi Plain has recently been investigated by local governments. We referred to this model together with bouguer anomaly data to construct a detail 3D basin structure model for Nobi plain, and conducted computer simulations of ground motions. We first evaluated the ground motions for two small earthquakes (M4~5); one occurred just beneath the basin edge at west, and the other occurred at south. The ground motions from these earthquakes were well recorded by the strong motion networks; K-net, Kik-net, and seismic intensity instruments operated by local governments. We compare the observed seismograms with simulations to validate the 3D model. For the 3D simulation we sliced the 3D model into a number of layers to assign to many processors for concurrent computing. The equation of motions are solved using a high order (32nd) staggered-grid FDM in horizontal directions, and a conventional (4th-order) FDM in vertical direction with the MPI inter-processor communications between neighbor region. The simulation model is 128km by 128km by 43km, which is discritized at variable grid size of 62.5-125m in horizontal directions and of 31.25-62.5m in vertical direction. We assigned a minimum shear wave velocity is Vs=0.4km/s, at the top of the sedimentary basin. The seismic sources for the small events are approximated by double-couple point source and we simulate the seismic wave propagation at maximum frequency of 2Hz. We used the Earth Simulator (JAMSTEC, Yokohama Inst) to conduct such

  16. SDI increases water use efficiency of grain crops in the Southern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the semi-arid Southern High Plains, nearly all irrigation water is derived from the declining High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer. As well capacities likewise decline, one tactic for continued irrigation is to install subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems with zones sized to accommodate the limited...

  17. Plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking behavior: study protocol for a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Leonards, Ute; Attwood, Angela S; Bauld, Linda; Hogarth, Lee; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-06-25

    Previous research on the effects of plain packaging has largely relied on self-report measures. Here we describe the protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of the plain packaging of cigarettes on smoking behavior in a real-world setting. In a parallel group randomization design, 128 daily cigarette smokers (50% male, 50% female) will attend an initial screening session and be assigned plain or branded packs of cigarettes to smoke for a full day. Plain packs will be those currently used in Australia where plain packaging has been introduced, while branded packs will be those currently used in the United Kingdom. Our primary study outcomes will be smoking behavior (self-reported number of cigarettes smoked and volume of smoke inhaled per cigarette as measured using a smoking topography device). Secondary outcomes measured pre- and post-intervention will be smoking urges, motivation to quit smoking, and perceived taste of the cigarettes. Secondary outcomes measured post-intervention only will be experience of smoking from the cigarette pack, overall experience of smoking, attributes of the cigarette pack, perceptions of the on-packet health warnings, behavior changes, views on plain packaging, and the rewarding value of smoking. Sex differences will be explored for all analyses. This study is novel in its approach to assessing the impact of plain packaging on actual smoking behavior. This research will help inform policymakers about the effectiveness of plain packaging as a tobacco control measure. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52982308 (registered 27 June 2013).

  18. Landscape-scale patterns of fire and drought on the high plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulette Ford; Charles Jackson; Matthew Reeves; Benjamin Bird; Dave Turner

    2015-01-01

    We examine 31 years (1982-2012) of temperature, precipitation and natural wildfire occurrence data for Federal and Tribal lands to determine landscape-scale patterns of drought and fire on the southern and central High Plains of the western United States. The High Plains states of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas and...

  19. 17 CFR 240.15d-20 - Plain English presentation of specified information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plain English presentation of specified information. 240.15d-20 Section 240.15d-20 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Other Reports § 240.15d-20 Plain English presentation of...

  20. 17 CFR 240.13a-20 - Plain English presentation of specified information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plain English presentation of specified information. 240.13a-20 Section 240.13a-20 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Other Reports § 240.13a-20 Plain English presentation of...

  1. Horses of Different Colors: The Plains Indians in Stories for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes the stereotypes of Plains Indians and then surveys the realities of that culture, emphasizing the physical and spiritual role of the horse. Reviews two children's books by writer-artist Paul Goble, pointing out their accurate depiction of the material and spiritual nature of the traditional Plains Indian culture. (JHZ)

  2. Plain Language to Communicate Physical Activity Information: A Website Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Samantha R; Black, David R; Mattson, Marifran; Coster, Daniel C; Stellefson, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Plain language techniques are health literacy universal precautions intended to enhance health care system navigation and health outcomes. Physical activity (PA) is a popular topic on the Internet, yet it is unknown if information is communicated in plain language. This study examined how plain language techniques are included in PA websites, and if the use of plain language techniques varies according to search procedures (keyword, search engine) and website host source (government, commercial, educational/organizational). Three keywords ("physical activity," "fitness," and "exercise") were independently entered into three search engines (Google, Bing, and Yahoo) to locate a nonprobability sample of websites ( N = 61). Fourteen plain language techniques were coded within each website to examine content formatting, clarity and conciseness, and multimedia use. Approximately half ( M = 6.59; SD = 1.68) of the plain language techniques were included in each website. Keyword physical activity resulted in websites with fewer clear and concise plain language techniques ( p websites with more clear and concise techniques ( p language techniques did not vary by search engine or the website host source. Accessing PA information that is easy to understand and behaviorally oriented may remain a challenge for users. Transdisciplinary collaborations are needed to optimize plain language techniques while communicating online PA information.

  3. 49 CFR 215.109 - Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication... Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.109 Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system...) Metal parts contacting the journal; or (e) Is— (1) Missing; or (2) Not in contact with the journal. ...

  4. The role of plain radiographs in the diagnosis of chronic maxillary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Computed tomography is currently the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis. However, this facility is not readily available in many developing countries. Thus, plain sinus radiography is still widely in use in our practice. Objectives: To assess the diagnostic value of plain radiographs in adult ...

  5. 100 years of mapping the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta plain: combining research and teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K. M.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoek, W. Z.; Middelkoop, H.; Geomorfologie

    2012-01-01

    The history of modern soil, geomorphological and shallow geological mapping in the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta plain goes back about 100 years. The delta plain is of very heterogeneous build up, with clayey and peaty flood basins, dissected by sandy fluvial distributary channel belts with fine

  6. An appraisal of plain language in the South African banking sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) came into full force in April 2011. An important corollary of this Act, and the National Credit Act 34 of 2005, is the obligation that consumer documents must be in plain language. It has long been debated whether it is possible to make legal documents available in plain ...

  7. Selected approaches to estimate water-budget components of the High Plains, 1940 through 1949 and 2000 through 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Qi, Sharon L.; Ryter, Derek W.; Falk, Sarah E.; Houston, Natalie A.; Peterson, Steven M.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Christenson, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    method. Precipitation estimates using these sources, as a 10-year average annual total volume for the High Plains, ranged from 192 to 199 million acre-feet (acre-ft) for 1940 through 1949 and from 185 to 199 million acre-ft for 2000 through 2009. Evapotranspiration was obtained from three sources: the National Weather Service Sacramento-Soil Moisture Accounting model, the Simplified-Surface-Energy-Balance model using remotely sensed data, and the Soil-Water-Balance model. Average annual total evapotranspiration estimated using these sources was 148 million acre-ft for 1940 through 1949 and ranged from 154 to 193 million acre-ft for 2000 through 2009. The maximum amount of shallow groundwater lost to evapotranspiration was approximated for areas where the water table was within 5 feet of land surface. The average annual total volume of evapotranspiration from shallow groundwater was 9.0 million acre-ft for 1940 through 1949 and ranged from 9.6 to 12.6 million acre-ft for 2000 through 2009. Recharge was estimated using two soil-water-balance models as well as previously published studies for various locations across the High Plains region. Average annual total recharge ranged from 8.3 to 13.2 million acre-ft for 1940 through 1949 and from 15.9 to 35.0 million acre-ft for 2000 through 2009. Surface runoff and groundwater discharge to streams were determined using discharge records from streamflow-gaging stations near the edges of the High Plains and the Base-Flow Index program. For 1940 through 1949, the average annual net surface runoff leaving the High Plains was 1.9 million acre-ft, and the net loss from the High Plains aquifer by groundwater discharge to streams was 3.1 million acre-ft. For 2000 through 2009, the average annual net surface runoff leaving the High Plains region was 1.3 million acre-ft and the net loss by groundwater discharge to streams was 3.9 million acre-ft. For 2000 through 2009, the average annual total estimated groundwater pumpage volume from two

  8. Land Use Changes and Their Effects on the Value of Ecosystem Services in the Small Sanjiang Plain in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Sun, Bo-Ming; Chen, Dan; Wu, Xin; Guo, Long-Zhu; Wang, Gang

    2014-01-01

    The small Sanjiang plain is one of the most important commodity grain production bases and the largest fresh water wetland in China. Due to the rapid expansion of agricultural activities in the past 30 years, the contradiction between economic development and the loss of ecosystem services has become an issue of increasing concern in the area. In this study, we analysed land use changes and the loss of ecosystem services value caused by these changes. We found that cropland sprawl was predominant and occurred in forest, wetland, and grassland areas in the small Sanjiang plain from 1980 to 2010. Using a model to evaluate ecosystem services value, we calculated that the decreased values of ecosystem services were 169.88 × 108 Yuan from 1980 to 2000 and 120.00 × 108 Yuan from 2000 to 2010. All of the ecosystem services were diminished from 1980 to 2010 except for food production. Therefore, the loss of ecosystem services value should be considered by the policymakers of land use and development. PMID:24741356

  9. Executive summary - Geologic assessment of coal in the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander K.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has assessed the quantity and quality of the nation's coal deposits that potentially could be mined during the next few decades. For eight years, geologic, geochemical, and resource information was collected and compiled for the five major coal-producing regions of the United States: the Appalachian Basin, Illinois Basin, Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains, Colorado Plateau, and the western part of the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain (Gulf Coast) region (Figure 1). In particular, the NCRA assessed resource estimates, compiled coal-quality information, and characterized environmentally sensitive trace elements, such as arsenic and mercury, that are mentioned in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1990). The results of the USGS coal assessment efforts may be found at: http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/coal/coal-assessments/index.html and a summary of the results from all assessment areas can be found in Ruppert et al. (2002) and Dennen (2009).Detailed assessments of the major coal-producing areas for the Gulf Coast region along with reviews of the stratigraphy, coal quality, resources, and coalbed methane potential of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene coal deposits are presented in this report (Chapters 5-10).

  10. Land use changes and their effects on the value of ecosystem services in the small Sanjiang plain in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Sun, Bo-Ming; Chen, Dan; Wu, Xin; Guo, Long-Zhu; Wang, Gang

    2014-01-01

    The small Sanjiang plain is one of the most important commodity grain production bases and the largest fresh water wetland in China. Due to the rapid expansion of agricultural activities in the past 30 years, the contradiction between economic development and the loss of ecosystem services has become an issue of increasing concern in the area. In this study, we analysed land use changes and the loss of ecosystem services value caused by these changes. We found that cropland sprawl was predominant and occurred in forest, wetland, and grassland areas in the small Sanjiang plain from 1980 to 2010. Using a model to evaluate ecosystem services value, we calculated that the decreased values of ecosystem services were 169.88 × 10(8) Yuan from 1980 to 2000 and 120.00 × 10(8) Yuan from 2000 to 2010. All of the ecosystem services were diminished from 1980 to 2010 except for food production. Therefore, the loss of ecosystem services value should be considered by the policymakers of land use and development.

  11. Isotope hydrology study of Molai area in Laconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leontiadis, J.L.

    1981-04-01

    The isotopic composition of the groundwater was used in order to investigate the mechanism of recharge of the Molai plain (Laconia) and of the coastal brackish springs of the area. The results of this study have shown that the Tripolitza carbonates, northeast of the plain, do not form a unique aquifer nor contribute to the recharge of the plain which is mainly fed by the local rainwater. The brackish springs at Glyfada are fed by the Tripolitza carbonates, northeast of the Mavrovouni-Koupia fault, through an isolated from the neogene aquifer of the plain conduit. The water content of the corresponding reservoir is estimated in the range of 2318 to 3091 hm 3 . The brackish springs at Plytra are fed by the marbles of Chavallas and Skardolakka mountains through the bedrock of Assopos river and the neogene aquifer of that part of the plain. The water content of the corresponding reservoir is estimated to be more than 284 hm 3 . The brackish coastal springs between Palea Monemvasia and Hierax are fed by the Tripolitza limestones southeast of the Mavrovouni-Koupia fault. (T.A.)

  12. Potentiometric surfaces, summer 2013 and winter 2015, and select hydrographs for the Southern High Plains aquifer, Cannon Air Force Base, Curry County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Jake

    2016-04-07

    Cannon Air Force Base (Cannon AFB) is located in the High Plains physiographic region of east-central New Mexico, about 5 miles west of Clovis, New Mexico. The area surrounding Cannon AFB is primarily used for agriculture, including irrigated cropland and dairies. The Southern High Plains aquifer is the principal source of water for Cannon AFB, for the nearby town of Clovis, and for local agriculture and dairies. The Southern High Plains aquifer in the vicinity of Cannon AFB consists of three subsurface geological formations: the Chinle Formation of Triassic age, the Ogallala Formation of Tertiary age, and the Blackwater Draw Formation of Quaternary age. The Ogallala Formation is the main water-yielding formation of the Southern High Plains aquifer. Groundwater-supplied, center-pivot irrigation dominates pumping from the Southern High Plains aquifer in the area surrounding Cannon AFB, where the irrigation season typically extends from early March through October. The U.S. Geological Survey has been monitoring groundwater levels in the vicinity of Cannon AFB since 1954 and has developed general potentiometric-surface maps that show groundwater flow from northwest to southeast in the study area. While previous potentiometric-surface maps show the general direction of groundwater flow, a denser well network is needed to show details of groundwater flow at a local scale. Groundwater levels were measured in 93 wells during summer 2013 and 100 wells during winter 2015.The summer and winter potentiometric-surface maps display the presence of what is interpreted to be a groundwater trough trending from the northwest to the southeast through the study area. This groundwater trough may be the hydraulic expression of a Tertiary-age paleochannel. Groundwater north of the trough flows in a southerly direction into the trough, and groundwater south of the trough flows in an easterly direction into the trough.During the 18-month period between summer 2013 and winter 2015, changes

  13. Environmental setting and factors that affect water quality in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, M.P.; Oaksford, E.T.; Darst, M.R.; Marella, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit covers an area of nearly 62,000 square miles in the southeastern United States, mostly in the Coastal Plain physiographic province. Land resource provinces have been designated based on generalized soil classifications. Land resource provinces in the study area include: the Coastal Flatwoods, the Southern Coastal Plain, the Central Florida Ridge, the Sand Hills, and the Southern Piedmont. The study area includes all or parts of seven hydrologic subregions: the Ogeechee-Savannah, the Altamaha- St.Marys, the Suwannee, the Ochlockonee, the St. Johns, the Peace-Tampa Bay, and the Southern Florida. The primary source of water for public supply in the study area is ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. In 1990, more than 90 percent of the 2,888 million gallons per day of ground water used came from this aquifer. The population of the study area was 9.3 million in 1990. The cities of Jacksonville, Orlando, St. Petersburg, Tallahassee, and Tampa, Florida, and parts of Atlanta and Savannah, Georgia, are located in the study area. Forest and agricultural areas are the most common land uses in the study area, accounting for 48 percent and 25 percent of the study area, respectively. Climatic conditions range from temperate in Atlanta, Georgia, where mean annual temperature is about 61.3 degrees Fahrenheit, to subtropical in Tampa, Florida, where mean annual temperature is about 72.4 degrees Fahrenheit. Long-term average precipitation (1961-90) ranges from 43.9 inches per year in Tampa, Florida, and 44.6 in Macon, Georgia, to 65.7 inches per year in Tallahassee, Florida. Floods in the study area result from frontal systems, hurricanes, tropical storms, or severe thunderstorms. Droughts are not common in the study area,especially in the Florida part of the study area due to extensive maritime exposure. The primary physical and cultural characteristics in the study area include physiography, soils and land resource provinces

  14. Late Pleistocene dune activity in the central Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J.A.; Swinehart, J.B.; Hanson, P.R.; Loope, D.B.; Goble, R.J.; Miao, X.; Schmeisser, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Stabilized dunes of the central Great Plains, especially the megabarchans and large barchanoid ridges of the Nebraska Sand Hills, provide dramatic evidence of late Quaternary environmental change. Episodic Holocene dune activity in this region is now well-documented, but Late Pleistocene dune mobility has remained poorly documented, despite early interpretations of the Sand Hills dunes as Pleistocene relicts. New optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from drill cores and outcrops provide evidence of Late Pleistocene dune activity at sites distributed across the central Great Plains. In addition, Late Pleistocene eolian sands deposited at 20-25 ka are interbedded with loess south of the Sand Hills. Several of the large dunes sampled in the Sand Hills clearly contain a substantial core of Late Pleistocene sand; thus, they had developed by the Late Pleistocene and were fully mobile at that time, although substantial sand deposition and extensive longitudinal dune construction occurred during the Holocene. Many of the Late Pleistocene OSL ages fall between 17 and 14 ka, but it is likely that these ages represent only the later part of a longer period of dune construction and migration. At several sites, significant Late Pleistocene or Holocene large-dune migration also probably occurred after the time represented by the Pleistocene OSL ages. Sedimentary structures in Late Pleistocene eolian sand and the forms of large dunes potentially constructed in the Late Pleistocene both indicate sand transport dominated by northerly to westerly winds, consistent with Late Pleistocene loess transport directions. Numerical modeling of the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum has often yielded mean monthly surface winds southwest of the Laurentide Ice Sheet that are consistent with this geologic evidence, despite strengthened anticyclonic circulation over the ice sheet. Mobility of large dunes during the Late Pleistocene on the central Great Plains may have been the result of

  15. [Fluorine speciation and its distribution characteristics in selected agricultural soils of North China Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chun-Yao; Wang, Bing-Guo; Jin, Meng-Gui

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to study fluorine speciation and its distribution characteristics in the cultivated soils of wheat-corn fields at the typical areas, the North China Plain. The fluorine contents in cultivated soils and profile soils were measured by consecutive extraction. The results showed that the soil total fluorine (T-F) content at typical areas in the North China Plain ranged from 338.31 mg x kg(-1) to 781.67 mg x kg(-1), with a mean of 430.46 mg x kg(-1). The soil fluorine speciation with the highest content was Residual-Fluorine (Res-F), with a mean of 402.73 mg x kg(-1). The average content of Water soluble Fluorine (Ws-F) was 14.39 mg x kg(-1). The result indicated that the cultivated soil in the study area was at a relatively high fluoride pollution level, which may be harmful to human health and the ecological environment. The contents of Organic Fluorine (Or-F) and Fe/Mn Oxide-Fluorine (Fe/ Mn-F) were also quite high, with a mean of 8.90 mg x kg(-1) and 4.10 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The exchangeable fluorine (Ex-F) only had a very small amount of 0.33 mg x kg(-1). Soil Ws-F was positively correlated with soil pH and CEC, while it was negatively correlated with the percentage of soil clay. The content of soil Fe/Mn-F was positively correlated with soil pH, CEC and the sand grain content percentage, while it was negatively correlated with the clay grain content percentage. The soil pH value had the most significant influence on the water soluble fluorine (Ws-F) and Fe/Mn Oxide-Fluorine (Fe/Mn-F), and the soil CEC had the most significant influence on the soil total fluorine (T-F) and residual-Fluorine (Res-F) by stepwise regression analysis. In the soil profiles, the T-F content appeared as peaks and valleys representing the change of the soil lithology in the vadose zone. The Ws-F in the soil profiles mainly changed in the depth of 0-100 cm near the surface soil and was little influenced by the soil lithology. But it was strongly

  16. Exploring perception of Indians about plain packaging of tobacco products: a mixed method research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eArora

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed perceptions and support among the Indian populace about plain packaging for all tobacco products.12 focus group discussions (n=124, stakeholder analysis with 24 officials and an opinion poll with 346 participants were conducted between December 2011 - May 2012 , Delhi. Plain packages for tobacco products were favoured by majority of participants (69% and key stakeholders (92%. The majority of participants perceived that plain packaging would reduce the appeal and promotional value of the tobacco pack (>80%, prevent initiation of tobacco use among children and youth (>60%, motivate tobacco users to quit (>80%, increase noticeability and effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on tobacco packs (>90%,reduce tobacco usage (75% of key stakeholders. Majority of participants favoured light grey colour for plain packaging. This study provides key evidence to advocate with Indian Government and other countries in South Asia region to introduce plain packaging legislation for all tobacco products.

  17. Geohazards (floods and landslides in the Ndop plain, Cameroon volcanic line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wotchoko Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ndop Plain, located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL, is a volcano-tectonic plain, formed by a series of tectonic movements, volcanic eruptions and sedimentation phases. Floods (annually and landslides (occasionally occur with devastating environmental effects. However, this plain attracts a lot of inhabitants owing to its fertile alluvial soils. With demographic explosion in the plain, the inhabitants (143,000 people tend to farm and inhabit new zones which are prone to these geohazards. In this paper, we use field observations, laboratory analyses, satellite imagery and complementary methods using appropriate software to establish hazard (flood and landslide maps of the Ndop Plain. Natural factors as well as anthropogenic factors are considered.

  18. Digital elevations and extents of regional hydrogeologic units in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Jason P.; Andreasen, David C.; Mcfarland, E. Randolph; Watt, Martha K.

    2016-08-31

    Digital geospatial datasets of the extents and top elevations of the regional hydrogeologic units of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina were developed to provide an updated hydrogeologic framework to support analysis of groundwater resources. The 19 regional hydrogeologic units were delineated by elevation grids and extent polygons for 20 layers: the land and bathymetric surface at the top of the unconfined surficial aquifer, the upper surfaces of 9 confined aquifers and 9 confining units, and the bedrock surface that defines the base of all Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments. The delineation of the regional hydrogeologic units relied on the interpretive work from source reports for New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina rather than from re-analysis of fundamental hydrogeologic data. This model of regional hydrogeologic unit geometries represents interpolation, extrapolation, and generalization of the earlier interpretive work. Regional units were constructed from available digital data layers from the source studies in order to extend units consistently across political boundaries and approximate units in offshore areas.Though many of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain hydrogeologic units may extend eastward as far as the edge of the Atlantic Continental Shelf, the modeled boundaries of all regional hydrogeologic units in this study were clipped to an area approximately defined by the furthest offshore extent of fresh to brackish water in any part of the aquifer system, as indicated by chloride concentrations of 10,000 milligrams per liter. Elevations and extents of units that do not exist onshore in Long Island, New York, were not included north of New Jersey. Hydrogeologic units in North Carolina were included primarily to provide continuity across the Virginia-North Carolina State boundary, which was important for defining the southern edge of

  19. Landscape evaluation in industrial areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luud, A.; Liblik, V.; Sepp, M.

    2003-01-01

    In the North-East of Estonia, the landscape is contrasting: different natural and man-made landforms exist together. In this area, oil shale mining and processing have essentially changed the landscape, and as a result, different man-made industrial landscape forms have come into being. The attitude of local inhabitants towards the heritage of oil shale industry has been traditionally negative. Nevertheless, the artificial 'mountainous' and 'hilly' relief offers also a positive effect, having some expressive image in the background of the natural plain landscape forms. For protection of cultural landscapes from damages, 32 landscapes that are more valuable were selected, whereat the historical, cultural, natural, recreational, aesthetic, scientific, etc. factors were taken into account. In the future the status of industrial landscapes needs a more exact defining,and special means must be worked out to protect and manage those valuable cultural areas. (author)

  20. High variation and very low differentiation in wide ranging plains zebra (Equus quagga): insights from mtDNA and microsatellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline D; Arctander, Peter; Siegismund, Hans R

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of genetic differentiation in the plains zebra (Equus quagga) were analysed using mitochondrial DNA control region variation and seven microsatellites. The six morphologically defined subspecies of plains zebra lacked the population genetic structure indicative of distinct evolutionary...