WorldWideScience

Sample records for carrizo plain area

  1. Vegetation - Carrizo Plain ER, 2005 - 2008 [ds561

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Vegetation Map of the Carrizo Plain Ecological Reserve, San Luis Obispo County, California was created by the California Department of Fish and Game (DFG)...

  2. Three-Dimensional Investigation of a 5 m Deflected Swale along the San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain

    KAUST Repository

    Akciz, S. O.

    2014-10-21

    Topographic maps produced from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data are useful for paleoseismic and neotectonic research because they provide submeter representation of faulting-related surface features. Offset measurements of geomorphic features, made in the field or on a remotely sensed imagery, commonly assume a straight or smooth (i.e., undeflected) pre-earthquake geometry. Here, we present results from investigation of an ∼20 cm deep and >5 m wide swale with a sharp bend along the San Andreas fault (SAF) at the Bidart fan site in the Carrizo Plain, California. From analysis of LiDAR topography images and field measurements, the swale was initially interpreted as a channel tectonically offset ∼4:7 m. Our observations from exposures in four backhoe excavations and 25 hand-dug trenchettes show that even though a sharp bend in the swale coincides with the trace of the A.D. 1857 fault rupture, the swale formed after the 1857 earthquake and was not tectonically offset. Subtle fractures observed within a surficial gravel unit overlying the 1857 rupture trace are similar to fractures previously documented at the Phelan fan and LY4 paleoseismic sites 3 and 35 km northwest of Bidart fan, respectively. Collectively, the fractures suggest that a post-1857 moderate-magnitude earthquake caused ground cracking in the Carrizo and Cholame stretches of the SAF. Our observations emphasize the importance of excavation at key locations to validate remote and ground-based measurements, and we advocate more geomorphic characterization for each site if excavation is not possible.

  3. 77 FR 75649 - Establishment of Interim Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands Managed by the Carrizo Plain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... established supplementary rules for the Natural Area at 62 FR 54126 (Oct. 17, 1997). The RMP/ROD for the.... More recent carving and writing on the rocks, since about 1900, is considered graffiti. Where the graffiti overlies or is immediately adjacent to the pictographs and petroglyphs, commercial photography...

  4. Mineral resources of Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas, La Paz County, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosdal, R.M.; Eppinger, R.G.; Erdman, J.A.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; Blank, H.R. Jr.; O' Leary, R.M.; Watterson, J.R. (US Geological Survey (US)); Kreidler, T.J. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies in the Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas outlined in areas with moderate to high potential for gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, barite, fluorite, manganese, and sand suitable for foundry, fracturing, and abrasive uses and low resource potential for beryllium, uranium and bentonitic clays.

  5. Mineral resources of Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas, La Paz County, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies in the Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas outlined in areas with moderate to high potential for gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, barite, fluorite, manganese, and sand suitable for foundry, fracturing, and abrasive uses and low resource potential for beryllium, uranium and bentonitic clays

  6. Research on Fish Consumer Profile Evaluation in Romanian Plain Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed at shaping a fish consumer profile in the Romanian Plain area. 150 people were interviewed. Preferences evaluation was conducted by means of a questionnaire with 27 questions. Favorite fish species, purchasing place and manner, favorite preparation choices, consumption frequency and place have been identified.

  7. Radon-prone areas in the Lombard plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results of indoor radon measurements carried out in the Lombard plain. The aim of this study, which is based on the geological context, was to identify radon high-risk areas. The underlying geology has been established by means of the available stratigraphies giving a schematic representation of the sites in which either occurrence of gravel or silt and clay predominate with depths ranging from 0 to 50 m. Radon measurements were performed in a sample of 411 one-family houses in seven villages located in the southern area of Bergamo and Brescia. The findings indicate that when the substrate is dominated by clay, radon concentration for dwellings on the ground floor are low, whereas a strong predominance of underlying gravel mixed up in sand gives in winter months high radon flux from underground

  8. CBM resource potential in the Plains area of Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technical and economic assessment of the coalbed methane potential of the Plains area of Alberta was estimated in response to the National Energy Board's forecast that unconventional gas will be required to meet Canadian demand by the year 2008 and that unconventional gas could constitute up to 65 per cent of supply by 2025. The estimate based on coal depth and thickness and the potential for development stands at 187 Tcf of gas-in-place for the main prospective coal horizons of Cretaceous to Early Tertiary. These parameters and technical constraints to assess the magnitude of the potential developable coalbed methane resource were input into a reservoir simulation model to develop gas and water production forecasts. These forecasts, combined with finding and development costs estimates, the resource distribution and an acceptable rate of return on investment were included in the model to develop a coalbed methane cost supply curve for future coalbed methane development, and to provide some insight into the gas prices that will be required to meet the National Energy Board's projected supply deficiency. The result is a cost supply curve indicating that at a constant price of $ 2.50 per Mcf, approximately 10 Tcf of coalbed methane gas reserve potential could be developed. With constant price of $ 3.00 per Mcf, the potential for the Alberta Plains increases to 15 Tcf. Similar reserve potential is indicated for the Alberta Foothills and British Columbia. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  9. Population of Endogenous Pararetrovirus Genomes in Carrizo Citrange

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Avijit; Shao, Jonathan; Schneider, William L.; John S. Hartung; Brlansky, Ronald H.

    2014-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of three related endogenous pararetroviruses (EPRVs) were obtained by 454 sequencing of nucleic acid extracts from Carrizo citrange, used as a citrus rootstock. Numerous homologous sequences have been found in the sweet orange genome. The new EPRVs are most closely related to petunia vein-clearing virus.

  10. Characterizing the citrus variety Carrizo genome through 454 shotgun sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus production is of global importance both in economic impact and significance to nutrition. The number of natural citrus species appears extremely limited. The genome size is small (haploid approximately 367 Mb), arranged on 18 chromosomes. The citrus variety Carrizo, generated by a ‘Washingt...

  11. 44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas. 60.3 Section 60.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL...

  12. Propiedades acústicas de los paneles de carrizo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz, César

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reed is a plant species very similar to common cane which is widespread all over the Earth. It is an ecological and sustainable material which is low-cost, aesthetically attractive, easy to obtain and install, and can be used in different construction systems. This work analyses the acoustic properties of reed panels from the point of view of sound absorption and sound insulation against airborne noise, according to the corresponding EN ISO standards. The experimental results obtained point to the conclusion that reed panels are suitable construction systems for controlling reverberant sound within a space, and that the sound reduction index values for different thicknesses of reed panels, or reed panels used in combination with wood particle boards, demonstrate the possibility of using them in construction as an element on the facades and roofs of buildings and for interior partitions.

    El carrizo es una especie vegetal, parecida a la caña común, que se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en la superficie terrestre. Es un material ecológico y sostenible de bajo coste, estéticamente aceptable, fácil de obtener y colocar, que permite generar diferentes sistemas constructivos. En este trabajo se analizan las propiedades acústicas de los paneles de carrizo en lo referente a la absorción acústica y al aislamiento acústico a ruido aéreo, para ello se han aplicado los procedimientos de las normas EN ISO correspondientes. De los resultados experimentales obtenidos se concluye que los paneles de carrizo son unos sistemas constructivos adecuados para el control del sonido reverberante en un recinto y que los valores del índice de reducción acústica de paneles de diferentes espesores o en combinación con tableros de partículas de madera muestran la posibilidad de utilizarlos en la edificación como elemento de fachada, en cubiertas de edificios y particiones interiores.

  13. THE SNOW DRIFT POTENTIAL IN THE PLAIN AREA OF BUZĂU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulus COSTACHE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze and identify the most exposed areas to snowdrifts, in case of a blizzard phenomenon, in the plain area of Buzău County. Blizzard is the most frequently occurring climatic hazard in the study area, in the cold season, that causes the blocking of the roads and the massive snow accumulation in th built-up areas found in the open field or in negative relief forms. In order to identify areas with high potential snowdrifts, the Snow Drifts Potential Index (SDPI was defined, calculated and localized. This was achieved in the GIS by integrating three factors, namely: the use of land, river valleys and the surfaces exposure in the study area. Finally, the results showed that the most exposed areas to the the snow-drift phenomenon are the built areas found in the river beds, and also those on slopes sheltered from contact with the Carpathian. The importance of this study lies in the fact that once established and localized the areas with high potential for snow-drifts, measures can be taken in order to combat the disastrous effects generated by blizzards in the plains of Buzău County.

  14. Areas Contributing Recharge to Wells in the Tafuna-Leone Plain, Tutuila, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, Scot K.; Perreault, Jeff A.; Presley, Todd K.

    2007-01-01

    To address the concerns about the potential for contamination of drinking-water wells in the Tafuna-Leone Plain, Tutuila, American Samoa, a numerical ground-water flow model was developed and used to delineate areas contributing recharge to the wells (ACRWs). Surveys and analyses were conducted to obtain or compile certain essential hydrogeologic information needed for the model, such as groundwater production statistics, ground-water levels under current production, and an assessment of the distribution of groundwater recharge. The ground-water surveys indicate that total production from all wells in the Tafuna-Leone Plain between 1985 and 2005 averaged 6.1 Mgal/d and showed a gradual increase. A synoptic survey indicates that current water levels in the Tafuna-Leone Plain are highest near its inland boundary, decrease toward the coast, and are slightly depressed in high-production well fields. Ground-water levels showed little effect from the increased production because hydraulic conductivites are high and withdrawal is small relative to recharge. Analysis of ground-water recharge using a soil water-budget analysis indicates that the Tafuna-Leone Plain and adjacent areas receive about 280 Mgal/d of water from rainfall, of which 24 percent runs off to the ocean, 26 percent is removed by evapotranspiration, and 50 percent goes to ground-water recharge. Ground-water recharge per unit area is generally higher at the mountain crests than at the coast, but the highest recharge per unit area is in the mountain-front recharge zone at the juncture between the Tafuna-Leone Plain and the adjacent mountains. Surface water from the mountains also contributes to ground-water recharge in the eastern Tafuna-Leone Plain, in a process analogous to mountain-front recharge described in arid areas. Analysis of stream-gage data indicates that in the mountains of Tutuila, ground water discharges and contributes substantially to the total flow of the streams. In contrast, multiple

  15. A simulation/optimization model for groundwater resources management in the Afram Plains area, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yidana, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    A groundwater flow simulation model was developed using available hydrogeo logical data to A groundwater flow simulation model was developed using available hydrogeological data to describe groundwater flow in the Afram Plains area. A nonlinear optimization model was then developed and solved for the management of groundwater resources to meet irrigation and household needs. The objective was to maximize groundwater extraction for irrigation activities from the shallow aquifers of the southern Voltaian Sedimentary Basin that underly the area This would improve food security, raise the standard of living and ultimately alleviate poverty in the Afram Plains. The calibrated flow model is in tandem with the general hydrochemical evolution of groundwater in the area and fits the observed data with about a 98% degree of confidence. Groundwater resources may not be the limiting factor in the development of irrigated agriculture. Groundwater has tremendous potential to meet current and future irrigation needs. It was determined from this study that profit from maize irrigation in the Afram Plains area could rise from US$301, 000 in 2007 to over US$3.5 million by the end of the last management period (2013) as irrigation practice is improved, and the economic strength to increase the acreage for irrigation improves. Even with these margins of profit, the drawdown constraint was not reached in any of the management periods. It is expected that rechargefrom the irrigation water would reclaim the lost hydraulic head. The single significant constraint was the amount of land area that could be developed for irrigation in the area. The profit obtained per unit cubic meter of water used also improved over the same management period.

  16. Landscape planning and ecology construction of wetland comprehensive protected area system in the Sanjiang Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Wetland is one of the richest biodiversity areas in the earth. The main purpose of establishing wetland protected area is to protect biodiversity, and the protection of ecosystem diversity and landscape diversity is the key to protect biodiversity. In order to protect regional ecosystem and landscape, it is a good way to establish wetland comprehensive protected area which connected wetland nature reserves by habitat corridors. The Sanjiang Plain as a study area, its landscape evaluation index system on wetland protected area was studied, and some problems on landscape planning and ecology construction were further approached in this paper. It showed that establishing wetland comprehensive protected area is very important to protect regional wetlands, to maintain ecological balance,and to improve the sustainable development of agriculture and industry in this region.

  17. Interpretation of crustal structure from regional gravity anomalies, Ouachita Mountains area and adjacent Gulf coastal plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, J.M.; Keller, G.R.

    1986-06-01

    A gravity data base from more than 35,000 stations was used to generate a series of regional gravity maps of the Ouachita Mountains area including adjacent parts of the craton and the Gulf coastal plain. These maps were used in conjunction with information from 96 wells, data from preexisting geophysical and geological investigations, and computer models to interpret four gravity profiles that transect the study area (approximately lat. 30-37/sup 0/N, long. 91.5-99/sup 0/W). These models, gravity maps, and previous investigations were then used to analyze various regional gravity anomalies and to interpret the gross crustal structure of the region and its tectonic implications. These data suggest that variably attenuated continental crust lies beneath the Gulf coastal plain, south of the Ouachita system gravity gradient, as opposed to typical continental crust of the craton north of this gradient. This variation in crustal structure probably reflects the complexity of Eocambrian and early Mesozoic rifting in the area. The Arkoma basin gravity minima may result from the combined effect of a late Paleozoic foreland basin and an Eocambrian northwest-trending, rift-related basin. The Ouachita system interior zone gravity maximum varies along strike of this orogenic belt. This anomaly appears to be a good indicator of the position of the Eocambrian continental margin and associated rift zone. Gravity anomalies in the Gulf coastal plain appear to be a combined effect of variable crustal attenuation, basins and uplifts, and mafic intrusions. Gravity maxima in the southern Oklahoma aulacogen result from uplifts and deep-seated mafic intrusions; gravity minima result from deep sedimentary basins.

  18. Spatial distribution of biomass consumption as energy in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is widely used as energy source in rural households in India. Biomass samples and socio-economic data have been collected at district level in the rural areas of Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), India to determine the emissions of trace gases and aerosols from domestic fuels. Dung cake, fuelwood and crop residue are main sources of energy in rural areas of the IGP. Dung cake is the major domestic fuel (80-90%) in the rural areas of Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, whereas, 99% of rural households in Uttarakhand use wood as the main energy source. Using crop production data and usage of crop residues as energy, new consumption values have been estimated (21.13 Mt). Present information on the domestic fuel usage would be helpful in determining budgets estimates of trace gases and aerosols for India. (author)

  19. Aquifer recharge from infiltration basins in a highly urbanized area: the river Po Plain (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetti, M.; Nghiem, S. V.; Sorichetta, A.; Stevenazzi, S.; Santi, E. S.; Pettinato, S.; Bonfanti, M.; Pedretti, D.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the extensive urbanization in the Po Plain in northern Italy, rivers need to be managed to alleviate flooding problems while maintaining an appropriate aquifer recharge under an increasing percentage of impermeable surfaces. During the PO PLain Experiment field campaign in July 2015 (POPLEX 2015), both active and under-construction infiltration basins have been surveyed and analyzed to identify appropriate satellite observations that can be integrated to ground based monitoring techniques. A key strategy is to have continuous data time series on water presence and level within the basin, for which ground based monitoring can be costly and difficult to be obtained consistently.One of the major and old infiltration basin in the central Po Plain has been considered as pilot area. The basin is active from 2003 with ground based monitoring available since 2009 and supporting the development of a calibrated unsaturated-saturated two-dimensional numerical model simulating the infiltration dynamics through the basin.A procedure to use satellite data to detect surface water change is under development based on satellite radar backscatter data with an appropriate incidence angle and polarization combination. An advantage of satellite radar is that it can observe surface water regardless of cloud cover, which can be persistent during rainy seasons. Then, the surface water change is correlated to the reservoir water stage to determine water storage in the basin together with integrated ground data and to give quantitative estimates of variations in the local water cycle.We evaluated the evolution of the infiltration rate, to obtain useful insights about the general recharge behavior of basins that can be used for informed design and maintenance. Results clearly show when the basin becomes progressively clogged by biofilms that can reduce the infiltration capacity of the basin by as much as 50 times compared to when it properly works under clean conditions.

  20. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SALINE- ALKALI SOIL AREA OF SONGNEN PLAIN,NORTHEAST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-chun; LI Qu-sheng; LI Xiu-jun; SONG Chang-chun; ZHANG Guang-xin

    2003-01-01

    There is great potential for agriculture in saline-alkali soil area in Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Butthe sustainable crop production in this area has been restricted by a few of main factors, such as less precipitation, higherevaporation and frequent drought, high salinity and alkalinity, high exchangeable sodium content and poor infiltration ofthe soil, and insufficiency and low availability in nutrition. It is also considered that there are a few of favorable condi-tions for agricultural development in this region, such as sufficient light and heat resources, rich ground water resources,plenty of manure produced by livestock, and so on. At the same time, scientific management and measurements havebeen employed; rational irrigation and drainage system has been established; reclamation, amendment and fertilization ofsoil, and suitable strategies of cropping practices have been made for the sustainable development of agriculture. Greatprogress has been made during 1996- 2000.

  1. Effect of maize sowing area changes on agricultural water consumption from 2000 to 2010 in the West Liaohe Plain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ling; YANG Yan-zhao; FENG Zhi-ming; ZHENG Ya-nan

    2016-01-01

    TheWestLiaohe Plain is located in the eastern Inner Mongolia, known as the golden maize belt in China, where maize acreage has continued to rise in recent years. Water is the main limiting factor for maize production in the region, therefore, this study calculated the effect of maize sowing area changes on agricultural water consumption in the WestLiaohe Plain in 2000, 2005 and 2010, based on remote sensing and meteorological data. Maize remote sensing classiifcation was con-structed based on moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer, normalized difference vegatation index (MODIS NDVI) data. Then the maize sown area and water requirement and irrigation water resources were investigated. Finaly, the effect of the maize sowing area changes on agricultural water consumption in the West Liaohe Plain was systematicaly analyzed in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The results showed that maize sown areas rose from 2000 to 2010 and were concentrated in the center of the WestLiaohe Plain. Average per unit maize water deifcit amount also increased in an uneven distribution, increasing from the south, east and north to the center and west of the WestLiaohe Plain. The per unit area maize water deifcit increased from 2000 to 2010, and reached 266 mm in 2000, 272 mm in 2005 and 273 mm in 2010, respectively. And the study concluded that water deifcit during the whole growth period of maize in the West Liaohe Plain was deifned by a single peak curve. The maize water requirements increased with maize sowing area changes from 2000 to 2010, and the maize water requirements increased from 0.89 bilion m3 in 2000 to 1.19 bilion m3 in 2005, and 1.21 bilion m3 in 2010.

  2. Geochemical modeling of groundwater in southern plain area of Pengyang County, Ningxia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-yue LI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to study the evolution mechanism of hydrochemical field and to promote unpredictable benefits to the living standards of local people and to the local economy in the southern plain area of Pengyang County, Ningxia, China. Based on the understanding of the hydrogeological conditions in Pengyang County, the chemical evolution characters of groundwater in the plain area were analyzed. PHREEQC geochemical modeling software was used to perform a hydrochemical modeling for water-rock interaction and to analyze quantitatively the evolution processes and the forming mechanism of the local groundwater. Geochemical modeling results showed that along path ①, Na+ adsorption played the leading role in the precipitation process and its amount was the largest, up to 6.08 mmol/L, cation exchange was obvious on path ①, while on simulated path ② albite took up the largest amount of dissolution, reaching 9.06 mmol/L, the cation exchange was not obvious along path ②. Some conclusions were summarized according to the modeling results that along the groundwater flow path, calcite and dolomite in the whole simulation showed oversaturated status with a precipitation trend, while the fluorite and gypsum throughout the simulated path were not saturated and showed a dissolution trend. Total dissolved solids (TDS increased and water quality become worse along the flow path. Dissolution reactions of albite, CO2 and halite, exchange adsorption reaction of Na+ as well as precipitation action of sodium montmorillonite and calcite are the primary hydrogeochemical reactions which resulted in changes of hydrochemical ingredients.

  3. Development of ground water from the Carrizo sand and Wilcox group in Dimmit, Zavala, Maverick, Frio, Atacosa, Median, Bexar, Live Oak, McMullen, La Salle, and Webb Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, E.A.

    1957-01-01

    The development of ground water for irrigation from the Carrizo sand south and southwest of San Antonio, Tex., has increased rapidly during the past few years. Declining pumping water levels in irrigation wells, caused by increased withdrawals, have caused considerable concern among the residents of the area. In response, the Nueces River Conservation and Reclamation District entered into a cooperative agreement with the Texas Board of Water Engineers and the United States Geological Survey to determine the extent of development and the rate of withdrawal that has cause the decline. All wells that discharged more than 150 gallons per minute for extended periods of time in 1955 from either the Carrizo sand or sands of the Wilcox group were studied and are shown on [late 1. Estimates were made of the total withdrawals by county and are given in table 2. Similar estimates of withdrawals in some of the counties for the irrigation years 1929-30, 1938-39, 1944-45, and 1947-48 are presented for comparison in table 3. Although the Carrizo sand is the principal source of ground water pumped in the area, estimate of withdrawals of water from the Wilcox were included in this inventory because (1) the formation appears to be hydraulically connected to the Carrizo sand, (2) the quality of water generally is good in the outcrop area of the Wilcox, and (3) appreciable withdrawals are being made from the Wilcox for irrigation in a few areas. The investigation covered an area of about 7,500 square miles and included all or parts of the following counties: Dimmit, Zavala, Maverick, Frio, Atascosa, Medina, Bexar, Live Oak, McMullen, La Salle, and Webb (fig. 1).

  4. Method Study of Flood Hazard Analysis for Plain River Network Area, Taihu Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAN, C.; Liu, S.; Zhong, G.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Flood is one of the most common and serious natural calamities. Taihu Basin is located in delta region of the Yangtze River in East China (see Fig. 1). Because of the abundant rainfall and low-lying terrain, the area frequently suffers from flood hazard which have caused serious casualty and economic loss. In order to reduce the severe impacts of floods events, numerous polder areas and hydraulic constructions (including pumps, water gates etc.) were constructed. Flood Hazard Map is an effective non-structural flood mitigation tool measures. Numerical simulation of flood propagation is one of the key technologies of flood hazard mapping. Because of the complexity of its underlying surface characteristics, numerical simulation of flood propagation was faced with some special problems for the plain river network area in Taihu Basin. In this paper, a coupled one and two dimensional hydrodynamic model was established. Densely covered and interconnected river networks, numerous polder areas and complex scheduling hydraulic constructions were generalized in the model. The model was proved to be believable and stable. Based on the results of the simulation of flood propagation, flood hazard map was compiled.

  5. Eco-environment contribution of agroforestry to agriculture development in the plain area of China--Huai'an Prefecture, Jiangsu Province as the case study area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Hong-chang; LU Yong-long; LIU Can; MENG Qing-hua; SHI Ya-juan

    2005-01-01

    For improving the environmental quality and ensuring supply of wood and non-timber forest products, many forests have been planted in plain areas of China. Scientists have studied their benefits, almost all of the approaches were based on fixed-point data, and few was considered on the non-efficient factors and temporal scale effects. This paper studies the positive and negative benefits at a large temporal scale, and the effects of plain afforestation on stockbreeding and rural economy. The benefits of plain afforestation, correlation coefficiency of agroforestry and production factors are analyzed via stochastic frontier modeling in Huanghuaihai Plain Area of China; elastic coefficient of agroforestry, husbandry, farming, and total output of agricultural sector are calculated through adopting partial differential equation. Some conclusions can be drawn that, plain forests have an important effect on the development of plain agriculture. But shelterbelts and small-scale forests have different effect on the development of agricultural economy. Shelterbelts have negative effect on the industries, but small-scale forest has positive effect. On the whole, contribution of forest resource to value of animal husbandry and gross production value of agriculture is positive, and to the value of farming is negative.

  6. Wind and wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: identifying low-impact areas for wind development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Fargione

    Full Text Available Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW than most other forms of energy production and has known and predicted adverse effects on wildlife. The Northern Great Plains (NGP is home both to some of the world's best wind resources and to remaining temperate grasslands, the most converted and least protected ecological system on the planet. Thus, appropriate siting and mitigation of wind development is particularly important in this region. Steering energy development to disturbed lands with low wildlife value rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce impacts to wildlife. Goals for wind energy development in the NGP are roughly 30 GW of nameplate capacity by 2030. Our analyses demonstrate that there are large areas where wind development would likely have few additional impacts on wildlife. We estimate there are ∼1,056 GW of potential wind energy available across the NGP on areas likely to have low-impact for biodiversity, over 35 times development goals. New policies and approaches will be required to guide wind energy development to low-impact areas.

  7. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance... National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood...

  8. Spring land temperature anomalies in northwestern US and the summer drought over Southern Plains and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yongkang; Oaida, Catalina M.; Diallo, Ismaila; Neelin, J. David; Li, Suosuo; De Sales, Fernando; Gu, Yu; Robinson, David A.; Vasic, Ratko; Yi, Lan

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent drought and associated heatwave episodes are important features of the US climate. Many studies have examined the connection between ocean surface temperature changes and conterminous US droughts. However, remote effects of large-scale land surface temperature variability, over shorter but still considerable distances, on US regional droughts have been largely ignored. The present study combines two types of evidence to address these effects: climate observations and model simulations. Our analysis of observational data shows that springtime land temperature in northwest US is significantly correlated with summer rainfall and surface temperature changes in the US Southern Plains and its adjacent areas. Our model simulations of the 2011 Southern Plains drought using a general circulation model and a regional climate model confirm the observed relationship between land temperature anomaly and drought, and suggest that the long-distance effect of land temperature changes in the northwest US on Southern Plains droughts is probably as large as the more familiar effects of ocean surface temperatures and atmospheric internal variability. We conclude that the cool 2011 springtime climate conditions in the northwest US increased the probability of summer drought and abnormal heat in the Southern Plains. The present study suggests a strong potential for more skillful intra-seasonal predictions of US Southern Plains droughts when such facts as ones presented here are considered.

  9. Groundwater resource degradation in coastal plains: The example of the Cecina area (Tuscany - Central Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the degradation of the groundwater resources in the Cecina area, where seawater intrusion, B contamination and NO3 pollution are all affecting the heavily exploited Pleistocene aquifer. Over-pumping has brought water levels to about 0 m.a.s.l. as far as about 7 km from the shore line, thereby promoting the seawater intrusion. The intrusion, which is characterized by cation exchange phenomena and Ca-Cl type waters, enters the plain mostly through the shallower horizons. The saline front, which advanced from 0.5 to 1 km in 4 a, has by now reached the foot of the hills to the east of the town, where it is also affecting wells of the local aqueduct. Boron contamination, linked to past discharge of industrial waste transported downstream by the river, reached concentrations as high as 3.5 mg/L in the mid-1980s. Although a decreasing trend is now under way, B content is still close to 1 mg/L. The presence of high NO3, which, together with the seawater intrusion, represents a major issue for groundwater management in the area, is linked to the widespread utilization of fertilizers. Nitrate concentration, which reaches a maximum of about 300 mg/L in the shallow aquifer horizons and then decreases rather regularly with depth, is strongly influenced by precipitation. However, irrigation also contributes significantly to transporting the NO3 contamination to depth, as clearly shown by δ18O data. The severe decline in the quality of the groundwater resource in the Cecina area is further compounded by an overall decrease in water availability in the region of Tuscany, as evidenced by long-term monitoring of precipitation and fluvial discharge

  10. [Distribution Characteristics and Source of Fluoride in Groundwater in Lower Plain Area of North China Plain: A Case Study in Nanpi County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiao-le; Wang, Shi-qin; Zhao, Huan; Yuan, Rui-qiang

    2015-11-01

    There is an obvious regional contradiction between water resources and agricultural produce in lower plain area of North China, however, excessive fluorine in deep groundwater further limits the use of regional water resources. In order to understand the spatial distribution characteristics and source of F(-) in groundwater, study was carried out in Nanpi County by field survey and sampling, hydrogeochemical analysis and stable isotopes methods. The results showed that the center of low fluoride concentrations of shallow groundwater was located around reservoir of Dalang Lake, and centers of high fluoride concentrations were located in southeast and southwest of the study area. The region with high fluoride concentration was consistent with the over-exploitation region of deep groundwater. Point source pollution of subsurface drainage and non-point source of irrigation with deep groundwater in some regions were the main causes for the increasing F(-) concentrations of shallow groundwater in parts of the sampling sites. Rock deposition and hydrogeology conditions were the main causes for the high F(-) concentrations (1.00 mg x L(-1), threshold of drinking water quality standard in China) in deep groundwater. F(-) released from clay minerals into the water increased the F(-) concentrations in deep groundwater because of over-exploitation. With the increasing exploitation and utilization of brackish shallow groundwater and the compressing and restricting of deep groundwater exploitation, the water environment in the middle and east lower plain area of North China will undergo significant change, and it is important to identify the distribution and source of F(-) in surface water and groundwater for reasonable development and use of water resources in future. PMID:26910989

  11. Environmental Risks Within Natural Areas;The Ill River's Flood Plain, Alsace, France Water Quality And Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clandillon, Stephen; de Fraipoint, Paul

    The project's case study area is that of the IllRiver flood plain between Colmar and Strasbourgon the central Alsace plain in northern France.This area has historically been a wetland forestand prairie grassland region and has been homeand resting site to much bird wildlife. Sudden snow meltsand intense precipitation in the adjacentVosges can still cause widespreadflooding. In recent times the ploughingin of much of the prairies and intensivemaize production has led to adestabilised biotope. Therefore, the closeto surface water table is under threatfrom the infiltration of agriculturalpesticides and fertilisers and the baresoils in winter are open to erosion.This wetland has been inscribed inEU circulars under the protection ofwetland areas (79/409) and an officialflood zone has been defined. Prairiegrassland conservation policies havebeen implemented.

  12. An isotopic approach to study the recharge mechanism in Haripur plain contribution to the area from Tarbela and Khanpur lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental isotopic investigation were carried out in Haripur plain to determine the recharge mechanism in the area. The Haripur plain is bounded by river Doar (that falls in Tarbela lake) in the north mountain ranges in the east and west, while the river Haro flows on the south eastern boundary upon which Khanpur dam has been built. Effort were made to identify the different sources which recharge the aquifer in the area. Isotopic data reveals that the major source of recharge is the rainfall on adjoining hills There is no contribution of Tarbela and Khanpur lakes. The residence time varies from a few years to more than fifty years depending upon the geology of the area. 14 figs. (author)

  13. Drought and Waterlogging Characteristics during the Growth Period of Summer Maize in Luxi Plain Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peiliang; SUN; Xu; LIU; Caibo; FENG; Yaping; LI

    2014-01-01

    In summer maize growth period,the water supply and demand ratio is regarded as the evaluation index of drought and waterlogging for the summer maize in Liaocheng City. Using GIS,statistics,agrometeorology and other methods,we analyze the precipitation during the summer maize growth period in Luxi Plains from 1961 to 2011. Through the calculation of drought and waterlogging index,it indicates that the disasters of drought and waterlogging frequently occur during the summer maize growth period,mainly affected by the drought; the frequency of occurrence of drought accounts for 80. 4%,that is,it is very prone to serious drought phenomenon,seriously affecting the normal growth and development of summer maize during the seedling period. With global warming,the industrial and domestic water demand is increasing year by year,so it is extremely difficult to increase the water diversion to solve the problem of water shortage for the growth of summer maize. Finally we put forth the following recommendations:( i) Selecting drought-resistant varieties,and improving the water resource use efficiency;( ii)Promoting the water and fertilizer coupling,sprinkler irrigation,drip irrigation,micro-irrigation and other water-saving irrigation technologies,and improving the water use efficiency;( iii) Promoting the ditch,ridge and laminating cultivation technology,reducing the field evapotranspiration,keeping warming and conserving moisture,and saving water resources;( iv) Strengthening the construction of water conservancy facilities,so that it can be irrigated during drought and drained during waterlogging;( v) During dry season,timely organizing artificial rainfall operation,and increasing precipitation in arid areas to ease drought;( vi) Rationally exploiting the groundwater,and improving the underground water use efficiency.

  14. Multisensor characterization of subsurface structures in a desert plain area in Egypt with implications for groundwater exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Magaly; Gaber, Ahmed; Geriesh, Mohamed H.; Zaghloul, El-Sayed; Arafat, Sayed M.; AbuBakr, Mostafa

    2013-10-01

    A desert plain in Egypt is being investigated to develop new techniques of multisensor data integration for groundwater exploration. A combination of multispectral, thermal and microwave data (ASTER and PALSAR) and supported by ground measurements (GPR, field spectroradiometry and magnetometry) were used to investigate surface sediment characteristics of the El-Gallaba Plain area, NW of Aswan. This desert plain once hosted an ancestral river system long before the Nile even existed. Nowadays the fluvial deposits are largely covered by Aeolian and gravelly sands and thus only detectible with radar and thermal images. Results show two broad strips of thermal cooling anomalies arranged in a linear fashion and diagonally crossing the alluvial basin. Spectral signatures collected along the linear land surface temperature (LST) anomalies show generally higher reflectance values (higher albedo) than the surrounding sediments. Both, the cooler LST and higher albedo, suggest that the surface sediments within the anomaly strips have lower emissivity values (low heat storage capacity). Furthermore, the homogeneity of these sediments was measured with a ground penetrating radar (GPR) using 250 and 100 MHz shielded antenna. The 12 GPR profiles across the LST anomalies confirmed that the near-surface sediments (up to 10 m depth) consist of thin horizontal layers of sandstone with very low gravel content. They show very different textural and compositional characteristics with respect to the surrounding areas suggesting a different depositional environment. Thus 12 magnetic profiles with 1.5 km average length were acquired across the LST anomalies to investigate deep seated structures. The results confirmed the existence of graben-like structures with a maximum depth to the basement of 150 m and shallower depths toward the edges of the LST anomalies. Consequently, these structurally controlled basins could be promising areas for ground water accumulation and exploration in the El

  15. Species accounts of migratory birds at three study areas on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the species accounts of migratory birds at 3 study areas on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska during 1983. The...

  16. Liquefaction susceptibility assessment in fluvial plains using airborne lidar: the case of the 2012 Emilia earthquake sequence area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civico, R.; Brunori, C. A.; De Martini, P. M.; Pucci, S.; Cinti, F. R.; Pantosti, D.

    2015-11-01

    We report a case study from the Po River plain region (northern Italy), where significant liquefaction-related land and property damage occurred during the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence. We took advantage of a 1 m pixel lidar digital terrain model (DTM) and of the 2012 Emilia coseismic liquefaction data set to (a) perform a detailed geomorphological study of the Po River plain area and (b) quantitatively define the liquefaction susceptibility of the geomorphologic features that experienced different abundance of liquefaction. One main finding is that linear topographic highs of fluvial origin - together with crevasse splays, abandoned riverbeds and very young land reclamation areas - acted as a preferential location for the occurrence of liquefaction phenomena. Moreover, we quantitatively defined a hierarchy in terms of liquefaction susceptibility for an ideal fluvial environment. We observed that a very high liquefaction susceptibility is found in coincidence with fluvial landforms, a high-to-moderate liquefaction susceptibility within a buffer distance of 100 and 200 m from mapped fluvial landforms and a low liquefaction susceptibility outside fluvial landforms and relative buffer areas. Lidar data allowed a significant improvement in mapping with respect to conventionally available topographic data and/or aerial imagery. These results have significant implications for accurate hazard and risk assessment as well as for land-use planning. We propose a simple geomorphological approach for liquefaction susceptibility estimation. Our findings can be applied to areas beyond Emilia that are characterized by similar fluvial-dominated environments and prone to significant seismic hazard.

  17. LITHOLOGIC CONDITIONS OF THE WATER TABLE LOGGING IN THE AREA OF HAĆKI VILLAGE IN THE BIELSKA PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Micun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine lithological conditions of the water table in the area of Haćki village located in the Bielska Plain. The study involved the measurements of water level in dug wells, hand drill probing to a depth of 5 m, acquiring the samples of water-bearing deposits and analysing their granulation. The results of analyses allowed to calculate the permeability coefficient. The geological structure of the area is dominated by dusty deposits of various origins. Such deposits’ formation directly affects the conditions of filtration and depth of the water table. Groundwater logging near Haćki village in the Bielska Plain appears at a depth of several tens of centimeters to 2 meters in the depressions field and up a little over 5 meters in the case of higher ground surfaces. The presence of perched water was revealed on the hills, periodic leachates at the foot of the hills and scarps and one periodic spring. Water-bearing deposits are medium sands, fine sands and loamy fine sands or fine sands with silt. Consequently, the permeability coefficient is low or even very low. Its values range from 0,001 m·d-1 to 3,8 m·d-1 (d – 24 hours. The widespread presence of dusty deposits in the area affects the limited efficiency of the water table.

  18. Investigation of evaporate deposits in the “Great Ear” area of Lop Nor salt plain, Xinjiang Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L.; Li, B.; Jiang, P.; Lowenstein, T. K.; Zhong, J.; Sheng, J.; Wu, H.

    2009-12-01

    In arid regions of the world, salt pans are common features occupying the lowest areas of closed interior basin. The Lop Nor salt plain is located at the east end of the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Province, China. Widespread Holocene salt deposits were known to cover thousands of square kilometers and up to hundreds of meters thick. However, the salt pans in the central-eastern sector of the Lop Nor salt plain is unusually represented by successive concentric black-and-white rings that closely resembled a big human ear in satellite images. The total area of the “Great Ear” is approximately 5,500 km2, and the internal morphology is considered essentially flat with an elevation of 800 m. A series of detailed field investigations on the “Great Ear” salt pans involved describing evaporates and surface morphologies, measuring chemical compositions, and groundwater depths. The deposits show clear lateral variations in salt content, water content, evaporate mineralogy, as well as the microrelief of salt crust in the “Great Ear” area. Spatially, spectral imaging variation corresponds to color variation in the “Great Ear”, which suggests surface moist conditions of a salt pan: dark-toned areas are wet and the bright-toned areas are dry. In the wet zone, capillary fringing of groundwater brines control the precipitation of evaporites and microrelief genesis. The salt pans are marked by pressure-ridge and well-developed hexagonal honeycomb polygons structures, where the microrelief of salt crust ranges from 30 to 80 cm. In the dry salt pans zone, groundwater discharge was not observed on the surface and the salt crust is characterized by low relief, low salinity, a lack of efflorescences crusts, and significant amounts of detrital sediments. This zone shows bright-tone in the satellite images due to higher reflectance of dry salt-encrusted pans surface. Though, the sediment beneath the surface typically is saturated with concentrated brines and displacive

  19. Grass assemblages and diversity of conservation areas on the coastal plain south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Siebert

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A floristic analysis of the grass species assemblages of the Licuati Forest and Maputo Elephant Reserves south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique, is presented. Sampling of grass data was undertaken in six previously described, major vegetation types. TWINSPAN divisions distinguished grass assemblages that are characteristic for these major vegetation types of the study area. The results were supported by an Indirect Gradient Analysis. Further TWINSPAN divisions of a larger Maputaland data set indicated a floristic relationship between grass assemblages of similar major vegetation types in the study area and South Africa. This relationship was supported by high similarity values (> 65%, obtained with Sorenson's Coefficient. The coefficient also indicated varying degrees of similarity between grass assemblages of different major vegetation types within the study area. A rich diversity of 115 grass species and infraspecific taxa was recorded for the study area. The Chloridoideae and Panicoideae dominate the grass diversity and the genera with the most species include Eragrostis, Panicum and Digitaria. Most grass species in the study area are perennials and have a tufted growth form, but this varies considerably between vegetation types.

  20. Concentration and distribution patterns of naturally occurring radionuclides in sediments and flood plain soils of the catchment area of the river Elbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of uranium mining and milling as well as that of traditional mining activities on river sediments and flood plain soils in the catchment area of the river Elbe was investigated over the years 1994 to 1995. Contamination resulting from mining activities has been identified by comparing the median values for the measured radionuclides, and by establishing the ratio between Ra-226 and Ra-228. The transport and deposition of contaminated materials as a result of high water events, and river discharge of waste water from mining and milling facilities, can be considered to be the main paths of sediment and soil contamination. Sediments and flood plain soils located in the vicinity of former uranium mining and milling sites are primarily influenced by discharges of waste water. Long distance transport and deposition at dams, barrages and on flood plains has mainly been caused by high water events. In many cases the radionuclide concentrations were higher in the subsurface layer than in the top layer of flood plain soil. Due to termination of uranium mining and milling activities, no significant contamination of newer or fresh sediments was found. Radiation exposure arising in relation to angling or walking on flood plains is low

  1. Grass assemblages and diversity of conservation areas on the coastal plain south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    S. J. Siebert; Fish, L.; M. M. Uiras; S. A. Izindine

    2004-01-01

    A floristic analysis of the grass species assemblages of the Licuati Forest and Maputo Elephant Reserves south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique, is presented. Sampling of grass data was undertaken in six previously described, major vegetation types. TWINSPAN divisions distinguished grass assemblages that are characteristic for these major vegetation types of the study area. The results were supported by an Indirect Gradient Analysis. Further TWINSPAN divisions of a larger Maputaland data set indicat...

  2. Historical review of uranium-vanadium in the eastern Carrizo Mountains, San Juan County, New Mexico and Apache County, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a brief review of the uranium and/or vanadium mining in the eastern Carrizo Mountains, San Juan County, New Mexico and Apache County, Arizona. It was prepared at the request of the Navajo Tribe, the New Mexico Energy and Minerals Department, and the Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology. This report deals only with historical production data. The locations of the mines and the production are presented in figures and tables

  3. Demise of the northern Tethyan Urgonian carbonate platform and subsequent transition towards pelagic conditions: the sedimentary record of the Col de la Plaine Morte area, central Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Föllmi K.B.; Gainon F.

    2008-01-01

    The sedimentary succession of the Col de la Plaine Morte area (Helvetic Alps, central Switzerland) documents the disappearance of the northern Tethyan Urgonian platform in unprecedented detail and suggests stepwise platform demise, with each drowning phase documented by erosion and phosphogenesis. The first identified drowning phase terminated Urgonian carbonate production in a predominantly photozoan mode. Using a correlation of the whole-rock δ13C record with the well-dated record from SE F...

  4. Tetraploidy Enhances Boron-Excess Tolerance in Carrizo Citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Marta; Quiñones, Ana; Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Aleza, Pablo; Morillon, Raphaël; Navarro, Luis; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus

    2016-01-01

    Tetraploidy modifies root anatomy which may lead to differentiated capacity to uptake and transport mineral elements. This work provides insights into physiological and molecular characters involved in boron (B) toxicity responses in diploid (2x) and tetraploid (4x) plants of Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.), a widely used citrus rootstock. With B excess, 2x plants accumulated more B in leaves than 4x plants, which accounted for their higher B uptake and root-to-shoot transport rates. Ploidy did not modify the expression of membrane transporters NIP5 and BOR1 in roots. The cellular allocation of B excess differed between ploidy levels in the soluble fraction, which was lower in 4x leaves, while cell wall-linked B was similar in 2x and 4x genotypes. This correlates with the increased damage and stunted growth recorded in the 2x plants. The 4x roots were found to have fewer root tips, shorter specific root length, longer diameter, thicker exodermis and earlier tissue maturation in root tips, where the Casparian strip was detected at a shorter distance from the root apex than in the 2x roots. The results presented herein suggest that the root anatomical characters of the 4x plants play a key role in their lower B uptake capacity and root-to-shoot transport. Highlights Tetraploidy enhances B excess tolerance in citrange Carrizo Expression of NIP5 and BOR1 transporters and cell wall-bounded B are similar between ploidies B tolerance is attributed to root anatomical modifications induced by genome duplication The rootstock 4x citrange carrizo may prevent citrus trees from B excess. PMID:27252717

  5. Digital map of areas of little or no saturated thickness for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set consists of boundaries for areas of little or no saturated thickness within the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High...

  6. Aquifer geochemistry at potential aquifer storage and recovery sites in coastal plain aquifers in the New York city area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.J.; Misut, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of injecting oxic water from the New York city (NYC) drinking-water supply and distribution system into a nearby anoxic coastal plain aquifer for later recovery during periods of water shortage (aquifer storage and recovery, or ASR) were simulated by a 3-dimensional, reactive-solute transport model. The Cretaceous aquifer system in the NYC area of New York and New Jersey, USA contains pyrite, goethite, locally occurring siderite, lignite, and locally varying amounts of dissolved Fe and salinity. Sediment from cores drilled on Staten Island and western Long Island had high extractable concentrations of Fe, Mn, and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) plus chromium-reducible sulfides (CRS) and low concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U. Similarly, water samples from the Lloyd aquifer (Cretaceous) in western Long Island generally contained high concentrations of Fe and Mn and low concentrations of other trace elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U, all of which were below US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and NY maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In such aquifer settings, ASR operations can be complicated by the oxidative dissolution of pyrite, low pH, and high concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water.The simulated injection of buffered, oxic city water into a hypothetical ASR well increased the hydraulic head at the well, displaced the ambient groundwater, and formed a spheroid of injected water with lower concentrations of Fe, Mn and major ions in water surrounding the ASR well, than in ambient water. Both the dissolved O2 concentrations and the pH of water near the well generally increased in magnitude during the simulated 5-a injection phase. The resultant oxidation of Fe2+ and attendant precipitation of goethite during injection provided a substrate for sorption of dissolved Fe during the 8-a extraction phase. The baseline scenario with a low (0.001M) concentration of pyrite in aquifer sediments, indicated that nearly 190% more water

  7. Development of a regional groundwater flow model for the area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents a study conducted to develop a regional groundwater flow model for the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer in the area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The model was developed to support Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-04 groundwater flow and transport studies. The products of this study are this report and a set of computational tools designed to numerically model the regional groundwater flow in the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. The objective of developing the current model was to create a tool for defining the regional groundwater flow at the INEL. The model was developed to (a) support future transport modeling for WAG 10-04 by providing the regional groundwater flow information needed for the WAG 10-04 risk assessment, (b) define the regional groundwater flow setting for modeling groundwater contaminant transport at the scale of the individual WAGs, (c) provide a tool for improving the understanding of the groundwater flow system below the INEL, and (d) consolidate the existing regional groundwater modeling information into one usable model. The current model is appropriate for defining the regional flow setting for flow submodels as well as hypothesis testing to better understand the regional groundwater flow in the area of the INEL. The scale of the submodels must be chosen based on accuracy required for the study

  8. Tietkens Plain karst - Maralinga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tietkens Plain karst is located to the north of Maralinga village which is on the crest of the Ooldea Range on the north and east margin of the Nullarbor Plain in western South Australia. The geology of the carbonate rocks in the Maralinga area is summarised. On Tietkens Plain from 1955 to 1963 nuclear weapons tests dispersed radioactive materials over the Maralinga area. Six nuclear devices were detonated in the air and one was exploded a few metres below the surface. The effect such explosions have on the karst and the possible rate of recovery of its surface are discussed. This report is the record of a visit to the Maralinga area from the 15th -21st November 1986 which involved an inspection of the karst surface together with collection of water, soil and rock samples. Results of the measurements made in order to assess water quality and water contamination by radioactive nuclides are presented. The implications arising from the presence of radioactive materials on the surface and the possibility of their entering and contaminating the groundwater in the area are discussed in the context of the chemistry of uranium and plutonium. The potential for transmission of contaminants through groundwater conduits and aquifers in the dolomite is discussed. Evidence is produced to show that the caves of the Nullabor Plain are not contaminated at present and are unlikely to be so in the future. 21 refs., 2 figs. 3 tabs., ills

  9. Plains Tectonics on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerdt, W. B.; McGill, G. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    1996-01-01

    Tectonic deformation in the plains of Venus is pervasive, with virtually every area of the planet showing evidence for faulting or fracturing. This deformation can be classified into three general categories, defined by the intensity and areal extent of the surface deformation: distributed deformation, concentrated deformation, and local fracture patterns.

  10. An in-situ campaign of spectral measurements for monitoring the crop stress and planting area in Luancheng of North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shui-Sen; Chen, Liang-Fu; Liu, Qin-Huo; Xiao, Qing

    2004-10-01

    In an attempt to support the demonstration application of "Spectral Library Of Chinese representative surface substances", an in-situ campaign of spectral measurements was carried out during the summer of 2003 for monitoring the crop stress and planting area in North China Plain. The experiment sites, based on Luancheng Agricultural ecosystem experiment station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was a 5×5 km area located just south-east of Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, China. The spectral instrument used is ASD FieldSpecFR with wavelength of 0.35~2.5μm. The experimental achievement includes: soil moisture, corn physiological & biochemical parameters, corn leaf water & chlorophyll-a,b contents, corn structure parameters, field farmland microclimate, aerological exploration data of atmosphere, corn spectra of component, corn crown & background spectra cross the growth period of crop. The paper details the whole experimental scheme and design and partial representation of results of data analysis.

  11. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Detecting and monitoring agricultural vegetative water stress over large areas using LANDSAT digital data. [Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. R.; Wehmanen, O. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Green Number Index technique which uses LANDSAT digital data from 5X6 nautical mile sampling frames was expanded to evaluate its usefulness in detecting and monitoring vegetative water stress over the Great Plains. At known growth stages for wheat, segments were classified as drought or non drought. Good agreement was found between the 18 day remotely sensed data and a weekly ground-based crop moisture index. Operational monitoring of the 1977 U.S.S.R. and Australian wheat crops indicated drought conditions. Drought isoline maps produced by the Green Number Index technique were in good agreement with conventional sources.

  12. Transport of 14C and uranium in the Carrizo aquifer of south Texas, a natural analog of radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground water flow and transport were modeled along a one-dimensional, vertical cross-section of the Carrizo aquifer from its outcrop down gradient for 100 km. Using a constant flux of 14C at the recharge boundary, the 14C mass fraction distribution downgradient was simulated until steady-state was attained. The match between the observed data and simulated results is excellent for a porosity of 35% and a K/sub D/ of zero. The transport of both 234U and 238U was simulated with varying retardation coefficients. The best fit occurred with a R/sub D/ of about 30, which corresponds to a K/sub D/ of 6. The results indicate that modeling may be reliably conducted over time periods and distances of interest in radionuclide transport performance assessments and that regionally averaged hydrologic properties can provide appropriate values for predicting groundwater flow and nuclide transport

  13. Reconstruction of late glacial climates from the groundwater archive: Cl- and 36Cl in the Carrizo aquifer, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climate history (temperature and precipitation minus evapotranspiration) of southern Texas was reconstructed for the past 35 ka, on the basis of groundwater data from the Carrizo aquifer. Palaeotemperatures derived from noble gases dissolved in groundwater indicate a mean annual temperature 5 deg. C lower than today for the last glacial maximum. Recharge rates (a measure of precipitation minus evapotranspiration) were estimated from Cl- and from 36Cl concentrations after performing corrections for variations of atmospheric Cl- and 36Cl deposition rates. The two lines of evidence are consistent and indicate that the recharge rate between 16 and 20 ka was up to to 100% higher than today. The occurrence of high lake levels in the Great Basin during that period suggests that the shift to a better climate during the late glacial was a common feature of the southwestern and southern United States of America. (author). 22 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  14. Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols: Impact of biomass burning and secondary formation in summertime in a rural area of the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lan; Yang, Lingxiao; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Xinfeng; Xue, Likun; Li, Weijun; Sui, Xiao; Wen, Liang; Chi, Jianwei; Zhu, Yanhong; Zhang, Junmei; Xu, Caihong; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-07-01

    To determine the characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols in rural areas of the North China Plain, field measurements were conducted at Yucheng (YC) in the summers of 2013 and 2014. The concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols at YC exhibited clear diurnal variation, with higher concentrations in the early morning and at night and lower concentrations during the afternoon hours. The mass-balance method designed for particulate matter smaller than 2.5μm (PM2.5) was used to calculate the organic matter (OM)/organic carbon (OC) ratio. The value obtained, 2.07±0.05, was suggested as a reference to estimate organics in PM2.5 in rural areas of the North China Plain. Biomass burning was identified to be a significant source of carbonaceous aerosols; approximately half of the samples obtained at YC were affected by biomass burning during summer 2013. Case studies revealed that biomass burning accounted for up to 52.6% of the OC and 51.1% of the elemental carbon in PM2.5 samples. The organic coatings observed on sulphur-rich and potassium-rich particles indicated the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from the oxidation of precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the aging of smoke released from biomass burning. Based on the evolution of the VOCs, the contribution of VOCs oxidation to SOA concentration was 3.21 and 1.07μgm(-3)ppm(-1) CO under conditions of low nitrogen oxide (NOx) and high NOx, respectively. Aromatics (e.g. benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene) made the greatest contribution to SOA concentration (88.4% in low-NOx conditions and 80.6% in high-NOx conditions). The results of the study offer novel insights into the effects of biomass burning on the carbonaceous aerosols and SOA formation in polluted rural areas. PMID:27031303

  15. Geographical information systems as a tool in limnological studies An applied case study in a shallow .lake of a plain area, Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The understanding of the hydrological functioning and the interaction among the different water bodies in an area is essential when a sustainable use of the hydric resources is considered. The aim of the present paper is to assess both hydrological-limnological methods and GIS as an integrated methodology applied to the study of shallow lakes, and the hydrological behavior of shallow wetlands in plain areas. La Salada is an areic permanent shallow lake with an area of 5,78 km2 located near La Dulce town (SE of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina). In this paper we applied methods and tools of the Geographical information Systems in order to assess both, the evolution and state of the wetland. Topographic profiles, showing the relationship among the lake and the other aquatic systems, and also a multi temporal assessment of the morphometric parameters were performed by using a Digital Terrain Model of the area. A sample grid was designed to obtain bathymetric, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data. The chemical water composition is homogeneous in area and depth. changes in the conductivity values along depth, the isotopic contents and the Gibbs diagram showed that the evaporation is the main process controlling the water chemistry. Physical-chemical parameters established water quality and uses of the lake.

  16. Study on Farmers’ Cognition and Willingness to Plant Trees during Collective Forest Right Reform Based on Data from Plain Areas of Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min; LIU; Shaozhou; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the survey data from plain areas of Henan Province,farmers’ cognition and willingness to plant trees in collective forest right reform are studied. According to statistical analysis and regression equation of binary logistic regress analysis,it is generally believed that different participants have various attitudes to the reform,with regard to if planting trees or more,reform variables have a distinct effect,as well as income variable and loaning or lending variable. At last,some advices are put forward,that is,the government should strengthen collective forest right reform,accelerate matching reform and increase policy and financial support to forestry farmers.

  17. Attempted integration of geologic and geophysical data from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory area, Eastern Snake River Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is a late-Cenozoic, bimodal volcanic province that developed synchronously with basin-and-range extension in the surrounding tectonic province. Strong geologic and geophysical contrasts exist between these two provinces. The Basin and Range is composed of northwest-trending, carbonate-bedrock ranges and alluvium-filled valleys. The ESRP is a bimodal volcanic province, with Tertiary silicic-volcanic rocks overlain by Quaternary mafic lavas. Patterns of ESRP volcanism and associated dike-induced surface deformation suggest that Quaternary crustal extension on the ESRP is accommodated by intrusion of basaltic dikes along northwest-trending volcanic-rift zones. This contrasts with recurrent seismogenic slip along northwest-trending, segmented normal faults in the adjacent Basin and Range tectonic province. The authors present new geophysical compilations, and they attempt to correlate these data with the surface distribution of volcanic-rift zones and other mapped geologic features near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Numerous, northwest-trending aeromagnetic anomalies do not always correspond with mapped volcanic-rift zones, which are expected to be underlain by mafic-dike swarms. Northwest-trending gravity anomalies also cross the ESRP, but their widths suggest broadly distributed masses rather than narrow rift zones. The spatial and temporal distribution of volcanic-rift zones on the ESRP has important implications for regional tectonics and seismicity, as well as the assessment of seismic- and volcanic hazards at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Discrepancies among the data sets suggest that older, buried volcanic-rift zones may have existed in a different configuration than is currently indicated by surficial geology. Alternatively, the geophysical signatures of non-rift-zone features may be indistinguishable from those of volcanic-rift zones

  18. Subsurface stratigraphy and uranium--vanadium favorability of the Morrison Formation, Sage Plain Area, southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The four members of the Morrison Formation that are recognizable in the area studied are, in ascending order, the Salt Wash, Recapture, Westwater Canyon, and Brushy Basin. The Salt Wash member has the highest uranium favorability of all the Morrison strata in the area studied. An especially favorable area, in which the Salt Wash interval is thick and contains several thick sandstones, is situated on either side of the Utah-Colorado state line between Monticello, Utah, and Dove Creek, Colorado. The upper Morrison strata (Westwater Canyon and Brushy Basin members) have low uranium favorability. The Westwater Canyon member contains adequate sandstones but lacks known uranium deposits in the project area. The Brushy Basin member, although rated as having low potential, nevertheless does possess some attributes that make it worthy of further attention. The Recapture member does not contain sufficient well-developed sandstones or uranium deposits to merit its being classed as favorable for potential uranium-vanadium resources. (LK)

  19. Desenvolvimento Vegetativo e morfologia radicular de citrange carrizo afetado por ácido indolbutírico e micorrizas arbusculares Vegetative development and root morphology of carrizo citrange affected by indolebutyric acid and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vitor Dutra de Souza

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado na localidade de Alcanar (Tarragona, Espanha e objetivou avaliar o efeito de cinco concentrações do ácido indolbutírico (AIB (0,0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 g/L e da inoculação com micorrizas arbusculares (MA (Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith sobre o desenvolvimento vegetativo, conteúdo foliar de P e K e morfologia radicular de plântulas de citrange Carrizo (Citrus sinensis (L. X Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualisados em esquema fatorial, com 4 repetições e 10 plantas por parcela. A aplicação de AIB não alterou o desenvolvimento vegetativo das plântulas cultivadas em ausência de MA, apesar de haver incrementado a quantidade de P e K e a espessura dos feixes vasculares. As MA incrementaram o conteúdo de P foliar. Encontrou-se uma interação positiva entre o AIB e as MA, pois as plântulas micorrizadas apresentaram um incremento no desenvolvimento vegetativo, nos conteúdos foliares de P e K e na espessura dos feixes vasculares com o aumento das concentrações de AIB.This study was carried out in Alcanar (Tarragona - Spain to evaluate the effect of five indolebutyric acid (IBA concentrations (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 g/L and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF (Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith on Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis (L. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. vegetative development, P and K foliar contents and root morphology. The experimental design was in a Completly Randomized Block Design with 10 seedlings per plot and 4 replicates. The IBA concentrations had no effect on vegetative development of nonmycorrhizal seedlings, althougt it had increased P and K foliar contents and primary xylem tickness. AMF increased P foliar content. IBA x AMF interaction was observed, increasing IBA concentrations on mycorrhizal seedlings resulted in increased in vegetative development, P and K foliar contents and primary xylem thickness.

  20. Hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical investigation of the dune area and adjacent low polders at Wenduine-Uitkerke, Flemish coastal plain

    OpenAIRE

    Walraevens, K.; Clays, S.; Hermans, A.; Camp, M. Van

    2000-01-01

    The hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry of the dune area at Wenduine and the polders behind it have been investigated. Of special interest are the lowlying polders at Uitkerke, that are situated at the flow lines’ end. For the purpose of a nature restoration project, that will be implemented soon, a hydrogeological investigation is currently being carried out in the core of these lowlying polders. Insight in the overal hydrogeological functioning of the system has been obtained beforehand. The...

  1. Revisiting Plain Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the plain language movement and its origins. Reviews past and current resources related to plain language writing. Examines criticism of the movement while examining past and current plain language literature, with particular attention to the information design field. (SR)

  2. Tertiary thrust systems and fluid flow beneath the Beaufort coastal plain (1002 area), Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Grow, John A.; Perry, William J., Jr.; Moore, Thomas E.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    Beneath the Arctic coastal plain (commonly referred to as "the 1002 area") in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, northeastern Alaska, United States, seismic reflection data show that the northernmost and youngest part of the Brookian orogen is preserved as a Paleogene to Neogene system of blind and buried thrust-related structures. These structures involve Proterozoic to Miocene (and younger?) rocks that contain several potential petroleum reservoir facies. Thermal maturity data indicate that the deformed rocks are mature to overmature with respect to hydrocarbon generation. Oil seeps and stains in outcrops and shows in nearby wells indicate that oil has migrated through the region; geochemical studies have identified three potential petroleum systems. Hydrocarbons that were generated from Mesozoic source rocks in the deformed belt were apparently expelled and migrated northward in the Paleogene, before much of the deformation in this part of the orogen. It is also possible that Neogene petroleum, which was generated in Tertiary rocks offshore in the Arctic Ocean, migrated southward into Neogene structural traps at the thrust front. However, the hydrocarbon resource potential of this largely unexplored region of Alaska's North Slope remains poorly known.

  3. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiqin; Tang, Changyuan; Song, Xianfang; Wang, Qinxue; Zhang, Yinghua; Yuan, Ruiqiang

    2014-06-01

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths. PMID:24657581

  4. Groundwater Pollution Characteristics and Hydrochemical Properties of Typical Plain River-net Area in Lower Yangtze River Delta, China: A Case Study in Suzhou City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Ruan, X.; Sun, H.; Pan, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Due to anthropogenic activities, tidal river water retention and other geological factors, groundwater quality in plain river-net area is vulnerable to pollution. Detailed chemical analysis results of 49 groundwater samples were carried out to identify groundwater pollution characteristics, hydrochemical properties and to assess groundwater quality and usability in Suzhou City, a typical plain area in Lower Yangtze River Delta, China. In order to protect, utilize and manage groundwater resources effectively, it is necessary to recognize the dominant processes responsible for hydrogeochemistry, groundwater pollution threats in study area. The results revealed ammonia concentration in confined and shallow groundwater ranges from 0.02 to 6.78 mg/L, 0.04 to 3.17 mg/L, respectively. Nitrite concentrations range from 0.004 to 1.01 mg/L, 0.004 to 3.66 mg/L, respectively. Iron concentrations range from 0.006 to 16.9 mg/L, 0.02 to 7.88 mg/L, respectively. Manganese concentrations range from 0.003 to 1.04 mg/L, 0.06 to 0.58 mg/L, respectively. On the basis of analytical results and water quality standards, majority of groundwater samples are not suitable for drinking, domestic as well as for industrial uses directly. Toxic metals and high levels ions should be removed if groundwater is supplied for different purposes. Salinity, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate and sodium percentage values revealed that most of groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation purposes except only a few. The salinity hazard of study area is regarded as low to medium, and special management for salinity control is required in scattered regions. Results of suitability for industrial purposes according to calculated Langeliar saturation index and Larson Ratio showed that majority of samples are calcium carbonate depositing, whereas a few are calcium carbonate dissolving in nature. Results show that sodium, calcium and bicarbonate are the dominant ions of groundwater. Na-HCO3

  5. Demise of the northern Tethyan Urgonian carbonate platform and subsequent transition towards pelagic conditions: The sedimentary record of the Col de la Plaine Morte area, central Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föllmi, Karl B.; Gainon, François

    2008-04-01

    The sedimentary succession of the Col de la Plaine Morte area (Helvetic Alps, central Switzerland) documents the disappearance of the northern Tethyan Urgonian platform in unprecedented detail and suggests stepwise platform demise, with each drowning phase documented by erosion and phosphogenesis. The first identified drowning phase terminated Urgonian carbonate production in a predominantly photozoan mode. Using a correlation of the whole-rock δ13C record with the well-dated record from SE France, its age is inferred to as Middle Early Aptian (near the boundary between the weissi and deshayesi zones). A subsequent drowning phase is dated by ammonites and by a correlation of the whole-rock δ13C record as Late Early Aptian (late deshayesi to early furcata zone). A third drowning phase provides an ammonite-based age of Early Late Aptian ( subnodosocostatum and melchioris zones) and is part of a widely recognized phase of sediment condensation and phosphogenesis, which is dated as latest Early to Middle Late Aptian (late furcata zone to near the boundary of the melchioris and nolani zones). The fourth and final drowning phase started in the latest Aptian ( jacobi zone) as is also indicated by ammonite findings at the Col de la Plaine Morte. The phases of renewed platform-carbonate production intervening between the drowning phases were all in a heterozoan mode. During the ultimate drowning phase, phosphogenesis continued until the Early Middle Albian, whereas condensation processes lasted until the Middle Turonian. Coverage of the external margin of the drowned Urgonian platform by a drape of pelagic carbonates started only in the Late Turonian. During the Santonian, the external part of the drowned platform underwent normal faulting and saw the re-exposure of already lithified Urgonian carbonates at the seafloor. Based on the here-inferred ages, the first drowning phase just precedes oceanic anoxic episode 1a (OAE 1a or "selli event") in time, and the second

  6. A Vulnerability Evaluation of the Phreatic Water in the Plain Area of the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang Based on the VDEAL Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiliang Jia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A VDEAL (V is the lithology of the vadose zone, D is the groundwater depth, E is the degree of groundwater exploitation, A is the aquifer characteristics and L is the land use pattern. model, which is suitable for a vulnerability evaluation of the groundwater in arid inland areas, and that is based on the GOD (G is the groundwater status, O is overburden feature and D is groundwater depth method and DRASTIC (D is the depth of water-table, R is the net recharge, A is the aquifer media, S is the soil media, T is the topography, I is the impact of the vadose and C is the conductivity of the aquifer. model is proposed in this paper. Five indicators were selected by reference to the DRAV (D is the depth of water-table, R is the net recharge, A is the aquifer media and V is the impact of the vadose. and VLDA (V is the lithology of the vadose zone , L is the land use pattern, D is the groundwater depth and A is the aquifer characteristics and. models, namely, the lithology of the vadose zone (V, the groundwater depth (D, the degree of groundwater exploitation (E, the aquifer characteristics (A and the land use pattern (L. According to monitoring data from 2003 and 2011, the variations of phreatic water quality in the plain area of the Junggar Basin were divided into three types: the water quality may have deteriorated, be unchanged or improved. Four groups of indicator weights were configured to calculate the vulnerability index using the VDEAL model. The changes of phreatic water quality were then compared against the vulnerability index. The normalized weights of V, D, E, A, and L were respectively 0.15, 0.25, 0.10, 0.10, and 0.40; this is according to the principle that the sampling sites of deteriorated water quality are generally distributed in a high-vulnerability region, and the sites of unchanged and improved water quality are distributed in middle vulnerability, low vulnerability and invulnerable regions. The evaluation results of phreatic

  7. Characterization of Lunar Farside Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mest, S.C.; Garry, W. B.; Ostrach, L. R.; Han, S.-C.; Staid, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    The Moon contains broad and isolated areas of plains that have been recognized as mare, cryptomare, impact ejecta, or impact melt. These deposits have been extensively studied on the lunar nearside by remote sensing via telescopes and numerous spacecraft, and in some cases, in situ robotically and by astronauts. Only recently have the deposits on the entire farside been able to be observed and evaluated to the same degree. There are spatially extensive plains deposits located throughout the lunar farside highlands whose formation has remained ambiguous. Many of the plains deposits in the lunar farside highlands display higher albedos than mare materials. Some deposits are located in close proximity to relatively younger impact craters suggesting that plains could be composed of cryptomare or ejecta materials. Some deposits are within the range in which ejecta from large basin-forming events (e.g., SPA and Orientale) likely distributed large amounts of ejecta across the surface. Here we are conducting a series of observations and models in order to resolve the nature and origin of lunar farside plains deposits. Understanding these plains is important for understanding the volcanic and impact histories of the lunar farside, and is important for future mapping and thermal modeling studies.

  8. Historical water-quality data for the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study Area in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1930-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litke, David W.

    2001-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States and includes eight primary hydrogeologic units, including the well-known Ogallala Formation. The High Plains aquifer is an important resource, providing water for 27 percent of the Nation?s irrigated agricultural lands in an otherwise dry landscape. Since the 1980?s there has been concern over the sustainability of the aquifer due to water-level declines caused by substantial pumping. Water quality of the aquifer is a more recent concern. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program, historical water-quality data have been gathered for the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study Area into a retrospective data base, which can be used to evaluate the occurrence and distribution of water-quality constituents of concern.Data from the retrospective data base verify that nitrate, pesticides, and dissolved solids (salinity) are important water-quality concerns in the High Plains study area. Sixteen percent of all measured nitrate concentrations were larger than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter. In about 70 percent of the counties within the High Plains study area, nitrate concentrations for 1980-98 were significantly larger than for 1930-69. While nitrate concentrations are largest where depth to water is shallow, concentrations also have increased in the Ogallala Formation where depth to water is large. Pesticide data primarily are available only in the northern half of the study area. About 50 pesticides were detected in the High Plains study area, but only four pesticides (atrazine, alachlor, cyanazine, and simazine) had concentrations exceeding a drinking-water standard. The occasional detection of pesticides in deeper parts of the Ogallala Formation indicates that contamination pathways exist. Dissolved solids, which are a direct measure of salinity, had 29 percent of measured concentrations in

  9. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths. - Highlights: • An unlined wastewater reservoir caused the deterioration of groundwater quality. • An evaporation fraction was estimated by Rayleigh distillation theory of isotopes. • 73.5% of wastewater recharge to groundwater by leakage and irrigation infiltration. • The region influenced by wastewater was divided into four subzones. • Mixing, ion exchange, and

  10. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shiqin [Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo-City 271-8510 (Japan); Tang, Changyuan, E-mail: cytang@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo-City 271-8510 (Japan); Song, Xianfang [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Wang, Qinxue [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Zhang, Yinghua [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Yuan, Ruiqiang [College of Environment and Resources, Shanxi University (China)

    2014-06-01

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths. - Highlights: • An unlined wastewater reservoir caused the deterioration of groundwater quality. • An evaporation fraction was estimated by Rayleigh distillation theory of isotopes. • 73.5% of wastewater recharge to groundwater by leakage and irrigation infiltration. • The region influenced by wastewater was divided into four subzones. • Mixing, ion exchange, and

  11. Research on drinking water purification technology in rural area of Jianghan Plain%江汉平原农村饮用水净化工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩; 马慧珍; 李运娥; 陈小敏

    2015-01-01

    针对江汉平原农村地表水污染情况和农村水生疾病的状况,设计了农村饮用水的净化方案与工艺,以满足农村居民的基本饮水需求。工艺设计兼顾了集成式装置对结构紧凑的要求和净化功能;预处理选用臭氧预氧化和混凝沉降进行,常规处理选用可靠的石英砂过滤,深度处理选用紫外线杀菌和膜分离。在水处理工艺的基础上,设计了一套集混合、絮凝、沉降于一体的旋流强化混凝设备。该水处理系统采用模块化组合,结构紧凑,安装、使用方便,为农村饮用水的净化提供了新的方法。%Aiming to the surface water pollution situation and drinking water-induced disease in rural area of Jianghan Plain, the rural water purification scheme and technology were designed to meet the basic drinking water demand of rural populations. The designed technology considered both the tight-structure demand of integrated equipment and the water purification function;the ozone pre-oxidation and coagulating sedimentation are selected as pre-treatment, the reliable quartz sand filtering are se-lected as regular treatment and the ultraviolet sterilization and membrane separation are chosen as advanced treatment. Based on the technical design of water treatment, a set of hydro -cyclone and enhanced coagulation equipment is designed, which in-tegrates mixing, flocculating and settling. As a modularization design, the water purification system is tight in structure, conven-ient in installation and use, and provides a new method for the purification of drinking water in rural areas.

  12. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 3. Appendices, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouradian, E. M.

    1983-12-31

    Thermal analyses for the preliminary design phase of the Receiver of the Carrizo Plains Solar Power Plant are presented. The sodium reference operating conditions (T/sub in/ = 610/sup 0/F, T/sub out/ = 1050/sup 0/F) have been considered. Included are: Nominal flux distribution on receiver panal, Energy input to tubes, Axial temperature distribution; sodium and tubes, Sodium flow distribution, Sodium pressure drop, orifice calculations, Temperature distribution in tube cut (R-0), Backface structure, and Nonuniform sodium outlet temperature. Transient conditions and panel front face heat losses are not considered. These are to be addressed in a subsequent design phase. Also to be considered later are the design conditions as variations from the nominal reference (operating) condition. An addendum, designated Appendix C, has been included describing panel heat losses, panel temperature distribution, and tube-manifold joint thermal model.

  13. Geochemistry and hydrologic processes in the evolution of hypersaline brines at a ground water discharge area: Raak Plains, Murray Darling Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now recognized that significant amounts of groundwater leakage from natural groundwater discharge zones has the potential to carry saline brine into down-gradient regional groundwaters. At Raak Plain, in the Murray Basin of south-eastern Australia, groundwater is discharged by evaporation through a complex system of wind-deflated playa lakes. Three methods are compared to determine the impact of the entire system on regional groundwater. A simple water balance, using chloride and stable isotope profiles to calculate recharge and discharge, is used to determine the amount of water leaving Raak Plain via the groundwater flow path. Large uncertainties, including large spatial variations in discharge and a high dependence on accurate recharge rate estimates, highlight the inadequacy of the simple model for the Raak Plain system. An evaporation/leakage model based on an oxygen-18 mass balance for a single salt lake also indicates large variations in leakage from individual salt lakes, further discrediting a simple model approach. Both methods do agree however that a large proportion of inflow is lost from the system and Cl/Br mass ratios across the site also indicate brine sinking

  14. Nuevos datos cinemáticos para la Falla Sierra Castillo en Quebrada del Carrizo, Precordillera de la Región de Atacama, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Niemeyer

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la Falla Sierra Castillo y sus estructuras mesoscópicas conexas en Quebrada del Carrizo y sus alrededores, donde al este yuxtapone terrenos triásicos y paleozoicos, con terrenos bajocianos al oeste. en dicha falla juega el papel de falla maestra respecto de sus estructuras conexas. Se infiere que sus movimientos eoceno-oligocenos estuvieron dominados por 'stresses' transpresivos con transcurrencia sinistral. Esta inferencia surge del estudio de estructuras S-C en rocas de falla, y en la vergencia de un pliegue de arrastre, directamente observados sobre la traza de la falla. Sus estructuras conexas son compatibles con dicho sentido de movimiento y están formadas por fallas inversas, pliegues ptigmáticos, grietas de tensión, clivaje; además de vetas y fallas subverticales en posición T (tensión y R (Riedel. Se determinaron las direcciones y sentidos del transporte tectónico sobre la base de la cinemática de fallas inversas y la intersección de éstas con el clivaje. Se deduce una rotación de 65° en el sentido horario de la dirección de acortamiento, desde un rumbo oeste hasta uno nor-noroeste. Por otro lado, se consideró la alternativa que las rocas hayan rotado en sentido antihorario, conservándose constante la dirección de acortamientoNew kinematic data from the Sierra Castillo Fault at Quebrada del Carrizo, Precordillera of Atacama Region, Chile. The Sierra Castillo Fault and its associated mesoscopic structures were studied at Quebrada del Carrizo. Here the fault juxtaposes Triassic and Paleozoic rocks on the east with Bajocian rocks on the west. The Sierra Castillo Fault serves as a master fault of its associated mesoscopic structures. It is inferred that a sinistral traspression occurred along it during the Eocene-Oligocene. This inference is based on S-C structures and a drag fold directly observed on the trace of the fault. This deduction is also based on other associated structures such as reverse faults

  15. 平原地区农村河道治理模式初探%A Preliminary Investigation into the Rural River Regulation and Improvement Mode at Plain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆银军; 明月敏; 许雪梅

    2015-01-01

    平原地区农村河道落差小,水流缓,流速低。目前农村河道存在水体污染淤积严重、河网水面面积减少等问题,如何科学治理、创新治理,就显得特别重要。针对当前平原地区农村河道现状,探索了平原河道治理的原则、目的、思路和措施。%Rural rivers at plain area have low water head and flows slowly. Problems mainly exist in rurual rivers such as water polution,serious sedimention and reduction of water surface area of river network etc. So it is very important to regulate and manage rivers scientifically and inovatively. The principles,purposes,measures of rural river regulation and improvement are studied in this paper based on the analysis of present rural river at plain areas.

  16. DS-777 Spatial Location of the Active and Inactive areas of the Model Boundary for the Northern High Plains Groundwater-Flow Model in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set defines the boundary of the northern High Plains aquifer. It is one of many developed in support of The High Plains Groundwater Availability Project...

  17. Early Evaluation of Compatibility between Commercial Citrus Varieties and Kaffir Lime (Citrus hystrix) and Carrizo Citrange (C. sinensis Osb. x P. trifoliata L. Raf.) Rootstocks at Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le Thi Khoe; Tran Van Mi

    2015-01-01

    The results of investigation on early evaluation of compatibility between commercial citrus varieties, and Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) and Carrizo citrange (C. sinensis Osb. x P. trifoliata L. Raf.) rootstocks, at Mekong Delta Vietnam, during four successive years from 2010 to 2013, reported that out of the tested combinations of the recent commercial citrus varieties, included Da xanh pumelo (C. grandis Osbeck), seedless Mat orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck), Sanh orange (C. nobilis Lour.) and...

  18. On the Sources of Salinity in Groundwater under Plain Areas. Insights from δ18O, δ2H and Hydrochemistry in the Azul River Basin, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Azul River basin, with some 6200 km2, is located in the plains of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The Azul River flows along 160 km from the Tandilia Range, in the SW, to the Channel 11, in the NE. Average annual precipitation is 1005 mm (1988-2000); mean reference evapotranspiration is 1090 mm. The geology consists of Miocene to recent sediments, mostly sands and silts with some clay and calcrete layers, overlying crystalline rocks and marine sediments. The water table is shallow and groundwater in the aquifer upper 30 m displays an increasing salinity from SW to NE. The previous hypothesis to explain the salinity was infiltration of evapo-concentrated surface water, as the small soil slope in the northern basin (< 0.2%) induces rainfall accumulation in lowlands, where water evaporates prior to infiltration. But recent chemical and isotopic data reveal two salinity sources: evaporation of recent recharge water, and mixing with old saline groundwater of yet unknown origin. (author)

  19. Plain Language in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cassany, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the communicative style Spain inherited from the dictatorship, Spain???s conception of plain language, the goals it set for the four most widely used languages, and the results achieved.

  20. 北京市平原区地下水流动数值模型应用研究%Application Research on Groundwater Flow Numerical Model for Beijing Plain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章树安; 黎明; 窦艳兵; 周东; 杨建青; 杨桂莲; 于钋

    2012-01-01

    Taking Beijing plain groundwater system as the research object, this paper collected the concerned geological and hydro-geological data. By analyzing the data, a reasonable generalization was made on the boundary conditions and aquifer structure, and a conceptual model of hydrogeology was established. On this basis, MODFLOW was used to establish a groundwater flow numerical model for Beijing plain area. In order to describe the complex aquifer structure and three-dimensional groundwater flow characteristics, the vertical section of the model was divided into 10 layers, and every layer surface was divided into 499×499 irregular rectangular grid, with effective 1 103 000 units in total. According to the model parameter identification and correction based on the observed data, the most calculated and observed groundwater levels have better fitting, the simulated flow field and measured flow field coincide the parameters conform with the hydrological and geological conditions, which shows this study to establish the numerical model can characterize the Beijing plain groundwater flow characteristics.%以北京市平原区地下水系统作为研究对象,系统地收集整理了相关的地质和水文地质资料,通过对资料的综合分析,对边界条件、含水层结构等进行合理概化,建立了水文地质概念模型.在此基础上,运用MODFLOW软件建立了北京市平原区地下水流动的三维数值模型.模型垂向上剖分为10层,平面上每层剖分为499行×499列不规则矩形网格,有效单元共计1 103000个,以刻画复杂的含水层结构和地下水三维流动特征.依据实测地下水位数据进行模型参数识别与校正,绝大多数计算水位与实测水位拟合较好,模拟流场与实测流场吻合,参数符合水文地质条件,表明本研究建立的数值模型能够较好地刻画北京平原区地下水流动特征.

  1. Silicate weathering in the Ganges alluvial plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, Patrick J.; Clymans, Wim; Fontorbe, Guillaume; Gray, William; Chakrapani, Govind J.; Conley, Daniel J.; De La Rocha, Christina

    2015-10-01

    The Ganges is one of the world's largest rivers and lies at the heart of a body of literature that investigates the interaction between mountain orogeny, weathering and global climate change. Three regions can be recognised in the Ganges basin, with the Himalayan orogeny to the north and the plateaus of peninsular India to the south together delimiting the Ganges alluvial plain. Despite constituting approximately 80% of the basin, weathering processes in the peninsula and alluvial plain have received little attention. Here we present an analysis of 51 water samples along a transect of the alluvial plain, including all major tributaries. We focus on the geochemistry of silicon and its isotopes. Area normalised dissolved Si yields are approximately twice as high in rivers of Himalaya origin than the plain and peninsular tributaries (82, 51 and 32 kmol SiO2 km-2 yr-1, respectively). Such dissolved Si fluxes are not widely used as weathering rate indicators because a large but variable fraction of the DSi mobilised during the initial weathering process is retained in secondary clay minerals. However, the silicon isotopic composition of dissolved Si (expressed as δ30Si) varies from + 0.8 ‰ in the Ganges mainstem at the Himalaya front to + 3.0 ‰ in alluvial plain streams and appears to be controlled by weathering congruency, i.e. by the degree of incorporation of Si into secondary phases. The higher δ30Si values therefore reflect decreasing weathering congruency in the lowland river catchments. This is exploited to quantify the degree of removal using a Rayleigh isotope mass balance model, and consequently derive initial silica mobilisation rates of 200, 150 and 107 kmol SiO2 km-2 yr-1, for the Himalaya, peninsular India and the alluvial plain, respectively. Because the non-Himalayan regions dominate the catchment area, the majority of initial silica mobilisation from primary minerals occurs in the alluvial plain and peninsular catchment (41% and 34%, respectively).

  2. Stratigraphy of the Martian northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars are roughly defined as the large continuous region of lowlands that lies below Martian datum, plus higher areas within the region that were built up by volcanism, sedimentation, tectonism, and impacts. These northern lowlands span about 50 x 10(exp 6) km(sup 2) or 35 percent of the planet's surface. The age and origin of the lowlands continue to be debated by proponents of impact and tectonic explanations. Geologic mapping and topical studies indicate that volcanic, fluvial, and eolian deposition have played major roles in the infilling of this vast depression. Periglacial, glacial, fluvial, eolian, tectonic, and impact processes have locally modified the surface. Because of the northern plains' complex history of sedimentation and modification, much of their stratigraphy was obscured. Thus the stratigraphy developed is necessarily vague and provisional: it is based on various clues from within the lowlands as well as from highland areas within and bordering the plains. The results are summarized.

  3. Equal-area polygons used in design and installation of a well network for long-term monitoring of agricultural chemicals in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are in support of report DS 456 (Arnold and others, 2009). 30 equal-area polygons generated using techniques described in Scott (1990). Polygons include...

  4. Extraction of lakes from an IfSAR DSM and a GIS-based analysis of drainage potential, Western Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska. Study area footprint

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — A total of 312 IfSAR-derived digital surface model (DSM) tiles were merged to create a seamless mosaic for the 46,000 km2 study area. The airborne interferometric...

  5. Simulated impacts of artificial groundwater recharge and discharge of the source area and source volume of an Atlantic Coastal Plain Stream, Delaware, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Joshua W.; Denver, Judish M.; McKenna, Thomas E.; Ullman, William J.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical groundwater-flow model was used to characterize the source area and volume of Phillips Branch, a baseflow-dominated stream incising a highly permeable unconfined aquifer on the low relief Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Particle-tracking analyses indicate that the source area (5.51 km2) is ~20% smaller than the topographically defined watershed (6.85 km2), and recharge entering ~37% of the surface watershed does not discharge to Phillips Branch. Groundwater residence time within the source volume ranges from a few days to almost 100 years, with 95% of the volume "flushing" within 50 years. Artificial discharge from groundwater pumping alters the shape of the source area and reduces baseflow due to the interception of stream flow paths, but has limited impacts on the residence time of groundwater discharged as baseflow. In contrast, artificial recharge from land-based wastewater disposal substantially reduces the source area, lowers the range in residence time due to the elimination of older flow paths to the stream, and leads to increased discharge to adjacent surface-water bodies. This research suggests that, in this and similar hydrogeologic settings, the "watershed" approach to water-resource management may be limited, particularly where anthropogenic stresses alter the transport of soluble contaminants through highly permeable unconfined aquifers.

  6. Stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone and uppermost part of the Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Test Reactors Area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complex sequence of basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds underlies the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Test Reactors Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in eastern Idaho. Wells drilled to a depth of 700 feet penetrate a sequence of 23 basalt-flow groups and 15 to 20 sedimentary interbeds that range in age from 200,000 to 640,000 years. The 23 flow groups consist of about 40 separate basalt flows and flow units. Each flow group is made up of one to three petrographically similar basalt flows that erupted from related source areas during periods of less than 200 years. Sedimentary interbeds consist of fluvial, lacustrine, and eolian deposits of clay, silt, sand, and gravel that accumulated during periods of volcanic inactivity ranging from thousands to hundreds of thousands of years. Multiple flow groups and sedimentary interbeds of similar age and source form seven composite stratigraphic units with distinct upper and lower contacts. Composite units older than 350,000 years were tilted, folded, and fractured by differential subsidence and uplift. Basalt and sediment of this sequence are unsaturated to a depth that ranges from 430 to 480 feet below land surface. Basalt and sediment in the lower part of the sequence are saturated and make up the uppermost part of the Snake River Plain aquifer. Stratigraphic relations in the lowermost part of the aquifer below a depth of 700 feet are uncertain. 23 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab

  7. Specific yield, High Plains aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents specific-yield ranges in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer underlies 112.6 million acres...

  8. Hydrogeochemical analysis for Tasuj plain aquifer, Iran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ata Allah Nadiri; Asghar Asghari Moghaddam; Frank T-C Tsai; Elham Fijani

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the hydrogeochemical processes of groundwater in the Tasuj plain, Iran. The Tasuj plain is one of the 12 marginal plains around Urmia Lake which is currently under a critical ecological condition. In the last decades, the Tasuj plain aquifer suffered from severe groundwater level declination and caused degradation of groundwater quality. To better understand hydrogeochemical processes in the Tasuj plain, this study adopted graphical methods and multivariate statistical techniques to analyze groundwater samples. A total of 504 groundwater samples was obtained from 34 different locations (qanats, wells, and springs) over 12 years (1997–2009) and analyzed for 15 water quality parameters. From the results, the Piper diagram indicated four groundwater types and the Stiff diagram showed eight different sources of groundwater samples. The Durov diagram identified five major hydrogeochemical processes in the aquifer. However, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) identified five water types in the groundwater samples because HCA was able to analyze more chemical and physical data than graphical methods. The HCA result was checked by discriminant analysis and found consistency in all samples that were classified into correct groups. Using factor analysis, we identified three factors that accounted for 81.6% of the total variance of the dataset. Based on the high factor loadings of the variables, factors 1 and 2 reflected the natural hydrogeochemical processes and factor 3 explained the effect of agricultural fertilizers and human activities in the Tasuj plain. Dendrograms from 2000 to 2009 were studied to understand the temporal variation of groundwater quality. Comparing the distributions of groundwater types in 2000 and 2009, we found that the mixing zone was expanded. This may be due to artificial groundwater recharge in the recharge area and the effect of inverse ion exchange in the discharge area.

  9. Aerial Images of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain; 1974-1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is comprised of 10 aerial images of three different study areas on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain flown by NASA in 1974, 1977, 1979 and obtained from...

  10. Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was constructed by standardizing and extrapolating previous physiographic interpretations for areas within and...

  11. Hydrogeological characteristics of the Paraíba do Sul river flood plains: a case study of a mining area in the Tremembé municipality, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo dos Santos Targa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The sand mining activity in the São Paulo part of the Paraíba do Sul River Valley started in the 1950s, in the area of Jacareí municipality, located in the Southwestern part of the basin. From there, it advanced by the neighboring municipalities, fostered by urbanization and industrialization processes, especially of São Paulo Metropolitan Region. The lack of detailed hydrogeological studies in this area motivated this study that had the objective of verifying the hypothesis that sand mining pits interfere on the quality and storage of the water in the quaternary sedimentary aquifer. This study focused specifically in the eastern part of the Tremembé Municipality, São Paulo State, in a mining place called “Mineração Paraíso”. The investigation involved infiltration and flow tests, laboratory analyses of soil physical parameters and estimation, water quality indices and infrastructure construction for equipment installation including piezometers, dynamic penetration tests – (SPT - Standard Penetration Test, wells opening and office analyses. The soil physical parameters analyses revealed high porosity (66% in the friable soils. This in addition to the high levels of transmissivity (15.5 m2/h measured in Well 1 and 33 m2/h in Well 3, obtained from the flow test, increases the speed of the transportation of solutes including bacteria, to the underground water. Results of the granulometric analyses showed that the sand mining technique is not only predatory, but also inefficient, since the sand at the bottom of the pit is left unexploited, as well as the bentonite clay found in the deeper layers. According to the penetration tests (SPT, the aquifer has an average thickness of 5.5 m and an upper layer of impermeable organic clays that confine the sand deposits. Furthermore, an aquiclude composed of green bentonitic clays was identified just below the confined layer. However, it is necessary to point out that the confinement condition

  12. The effects of plant structure adjustment on agriculture water use in plain area of Ningxia%宁夏平原种植结构调整对农业用水的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金萍

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the water cycle simulation model was applied to analyze the changes of water supply and water consumption of Yellow River induced by plant structure adjustment.The results show that the Yellow River is the main water source for plain area of Ningxia;the strengthen of planting adjustment increases the ratio of Yellow River water consumption,and water consumption for agriculture is only 45 percent;the reduce of paddy rice and interplanting area is contributed to save water intaking and consumption,but the consumption is less than intaking.%应用平原区水循环模拟模型,结合宁夏平原区未来农业发展方向,分析宁夏平原种植结构调整下农业对黄河水量的取用和消耗状况。结果表明:(1)在广义水资源利用过程中,黄河水资源耗用量占75%以上,黄河是宁夏平原区重要的支撑水源;(2)种植结构调整力度的增强可提高耗黄水量在引黄水量中的比重,而农业对黄河水量的实际消耗仅为45%,水资源有效利用率较低;(3)水稻和套种是农业耗黄水量的主力,两者面积的大幅度减少有助于水资源取用量和消耗量的节约,但耗水节水量远小于取用水节水量。

  13. Early Evaluation of Compatibility between Commercial Citrus Varieties and Kaffir Lime (Citrus hystrix and Carrizo Citrange (C. sinensis Osb. x P. trifoliata L. Raf. Rootstocks at Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Khoe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigation on early evaluation of compatibility between commercial citrus varieties, and Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix and Carrizo citrange (C. sinensis Osb. x P. trifoliata L. Raf. rootstocks, at Mekong Delta Vietnam, during four successive years from 2010 to 2013, reported that out of the tested combinations of the recent commercial citrus varieties, included Da xanh pumelo (C. grandis Osbeck, seedless Mat orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck, Sanh orange (C. nobilis Lour. and Duong mandarin  (C. reticulata, budded on Kaffir lime and Carrizo citrange, in the 3rd and 4th  year after planting under the trial fields at Mekong Delta Vietnam, the trees of Sanh orange (C. nobilis Lour. budded on Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix were supperior with precocity, producing high number of fruits (16.67 fruits per tree , and very good fruit quality of larger fruit size (334.6 g and 11.16 cm, fruit weight and diameter, respectively, higher total soluble solids (12.5 brix, better orange-yellow juice color development, and excellent flavor and aroma of juice, as compared to the typical characteristics; meanwhile these were followed by trees of seedless Mat orange budded on Kaffir lime, which produced the highest number of fruits (47.33 fruits per tree, with little inferior quality of seedy fruit (1-3 seeds per fruit, lower total soluble solids (7.33%, and no good flavor and aroma, as somewhat differed from the typical fruit traits.

  14. 新疆焉耆盆地平原区地下水溶解性总固体时空演化%Spatial-temporal evolution of total dissolved solids of groundwater in plain area of Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵江涛; 周金龙; 高业新; 曾妍妍; 李巧; 杜明亮

    2016-01-01

    fragile ecological system seriously affected by human. In order to identify the groundwater pollution status in the plain area of Yanqi Basin, 42 groundwater samples was collected in 2014. TDS and concentration of anion and cationic of the 42 groundwater samples were tested. T test was used based on the observed data of groundwater in the different periods of the plain area to determine the variability of TDS. The relationships between TDS and macro anion, macro cation, pH were analyzed with SPSS software. The results showed that TDS of groundwater was mainly affected by SO42-, Cl-, K++Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+. And the TDS were highly correlated with Cl- and K++Na+. The correlation between the TDS and macro anion was highest, followed byCl-, SO42-and HCO3-; the correlation between the TDS and macro cation was also high, followed by K++Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. Zone map of TDS was drewn by the MAPGIS software. In the temporal scale, the average of TDS of groundwater was increased then decreased and increased again from 1983 to 2014,and the average value was 305.0, 1773.1 and 589.44 mg/L in 1983, 1999 and 2014, respectively. In the spatial scale, the TDS of groundwater evolved horizontally from piedmont to the plain area. The TDS of groundwater increased from upstream to downstream. Influenced by topography and hydrogeology conditions, the main hydrogeochemistry action changed from strong runoff to slow evaporation gradually. Area of groundwater with TDS<1 g/L showed an increasing trend but a decreasing trend from 1999 to 2014, which was consistent with downtrend of the mean value of TDS from 1999 to 2014 increased from 2011.7 to 2229.3 km2. There were 2 main reasons causing that change of groundwater TDS: 1)The groundwater table dropped from 4.98 to 7.34 m from 2000 to 2014, which prompted the solid phase calcium and magnesium soluble salts, insoluble salts and exchangeable calcium and magnesium in the soil and the lower layer sediments transferred to the groundwater; Meanwhile the

  15. 基于GMS的北京市房山平原区地下水数值模拟研究%Groundwater Numerical Simulation on Plain Area in Fangshan District of Beijing on GMS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琴; 叶水根; 高盼

    2012-01-01

    根据北京市房山平原区的水文地质条件,将研究区水文地质概念模型概化为三维非均质、各向同性、非稳定地下水流系统,并应用GMS软件对研究区地下水系统进行了识别和验证。采用情景分析方法,在模拟8种不同情景方案下规划年地下水的变化情况,给出适宜研究区地下水可持续发展的最佳方案。在情景5方案,即在中度节水、种植结构保持现状和强化减少地下水的情形下,研究区2020和2030年的地下水位处于最佳状态,相比于基准年,地下水位分别回升了3.55m和5.85m,研究区处于正均衡状态,降落漏斗消失。%Based on an analysis of the hydrogeological conditions on the plain area in Fangshan district of Beijing, the hydrogeological concept model is conceptualized as a 3-D heterogeneous, isotropic and unstable groundwater flow system. By using GMS(Groundwa- ter Modeling System) software, numerical simulation of groundwater flow in this area is carried out. After identification and verifica- tion of the model, eight different scenarios are set up to analyze the changes in groundwater under the planning year, the best solu- tion suitable for the sustainable development of groundwater in this area is found. The results show that the water table is the best by moderate water-saving, the present planting structure and intensified reduction groundwater overexploitation(scenario 5). Compared with the water table in 2005, it will raise 3.55 m and 5.86 m respectively.

  16. Geology and geochemistry of abyssal plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, P.P.E.; Thomson, J. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    In this publication is assembled a set of 14 papers from the presentations at a meeting of the Marine Studies Group of the Geological Society, held on the 29th and 30th January 1986. The papers cover various aspects of the geophysics, sedimentology, geochemistry and geotechnics of abyssal-plain sediments. During the late 1970s an international research program began to examine selected areas of the N Atlantic and Pacific Ocean sea beds to assess the feasibility of disposal of radioactive wastes in deep-sea sediments. The considerations of sea-floor properties required for such studies had the results that some of the N Atlantic study areas were in abyssal plains. The availability of new geological information from this program provided the impetus for convening this meeting, but the papers are not restricted to those deriving from such studies. All papers have been abstracted separately for inclusion on the Energy Data Base.

  17. Geomorphological development of Eastern Mongolian plain, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    khukhuudei, Ulambadrakh; otgonbayar, Orolzodmaa

    2016-04-01

    Several summaries and investigations of the geomorphological description and feature for Eastern Mongolian plain (EMP), the one of the largest geomorphological district, fully covering east side of Mongolia (Murzayev, 1949; Vlodavets, 1950, 1955; Marinov, Khasin, 1954; Marinov, 1966; Nikolayeva, 1971; Selivanov, 1972; Chichagov, 1974, 1976; Grigorov, 1975; Korjuyev, 1982; Syirnev, 1982, 1984) had been publishing continuously. But literature for geomorphology of EMP have been not appeared during over the past 20 years. However, we re-combine the geomorphological development of EMP, according to the results of many publications for surrounding regions of Russia and China and unpublished maps. Main morphology of EMP has the plain, containing with aeolian, fluvial and lacustrine landforms. Plain morphology defined that denudation plains to North Kherlen, South Kherlen, Baruun Urt, Uulbayan, Delgerekh and other which developed on the Paleozoic rocks, layered plain to Choibalsan, Tamsag, Ongon, Gert, Sumiin nuur and Torey- on the Late Cretaceous and Neogene sediments and accumulation plain with alluvial and lacustrine origin such as Menen, Buir nuur, Tamsagbulag, Khalzan and other. These plains of EMP related with tectonics and structure of region and inherited the development of the Mesozoic, particularly Late Mesozoic structure. Large basins of EMP are Tamsag, Choibalsan and Torey and other small basins - from 7-10 km to 25-30 km width and rather a several 10 km extend, cutting a basement. The origin of plain morphology for EMP is interpreted as two main stages of the geomorphological development model, based on geology. In first stage or Late Jurassic (?) - Lower Cretaceous period, there was developed rift basin, then, in second stage or since Late Cretaceous period, plain morphology originated from the intermountain basin that dominated by exogenic process and kept in current EMP area. Data relevant to the development history of EMP are following. 1. Rift volcanism

  18. Landscape-ecological estimation of radionuclides migration in flood-plain of the Sozh river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work investigate a landscape - geochemical distribution of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in valley river Sozh for the subsequent determination of the possible ways optimization use of the agricultural landscapes in limits flood-plain. One of primal problems of investigation - on the basis of geochemical structure flood-plain landscape to mark out geochemical barriers, which accumulating chemical elements, including radionuclides and to exclude this areas of flood-plain from agricultural use. (Authors)

  19. Plain formation on Mercury: tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four major plain units, plus intermediates, are distinguished on Mercury. The chronologic relationships between these plains indicate that plains formation was a permanent process on Mercury. Their location and morphology seem to indicate a possible volcanic origin for these plains. The relationships between tectonism and volcanism seems to indicate the global contraction is not the only tectonic process on Mercury. (Auth.)

  20. Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system in Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina.

  1. (SUPERCEDED) High Plains aquifer (SUPERCEDED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the High Plains aquifer in the states of South Dakota, Wyoming, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas....

  2. Woodville Karst Plain, North Florida

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Map showing the largest mapped underwater cave systems and conduit flow paths confirmed by tracer testing relative to surface streams, sinkholes and potentiometric surface of the Florida aquifer in the Woodville Karst Plain, Florida

  3. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Mohamed Wahid; Marguerite Madden; Fikry Khalaf; Ibtehal Fathy

    2009-01-01

    Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the are...

  4. Sustentabilidade de sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas em solos de várzea no Sul do Brasil Crop rotations sustainability and successions systems in tilled plain areas in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Jesus Vernetti Junior

    2009-09-01

    [nabo x soja x arroz (PD] apresentam, respectivamente, a maior e a menor sustentabilidade entre aqueles sistemas em que a cultura da soja participa; (c o sistema S5 [campo nativo x soja x arroz (SC] apresenta o menor índice de sustentabilidade; (d o sistema S8 [Consórcio x milho x arroz (PD] apresenta a melhor distribuição e o melhor equilíbrio entre as diversas perspectivas de sustentabilidade consideradas; (e o sistema S10 [campo nativo x milho x arroz (SC] tem pior desempenho, no que se refere à sustentabilidade entre os que incluem o milho; (f o sistema de PD confere maior sustentabilidade às sucessões de cultura.The quantitative analysis with different types of indicators is crucial in determining the sustainability of crop succession. This study aimed to appraise that in tilled plain areas. The research was carried out in Pelotas, RS, Brazil at Embrapa Clima Temperado research area. The treatments consisted of successions of winter and spring-summer crops species for five years, followed by two years of fallow and three years of rice cropping. The spring-summer crops were corn and soybean, besides rice; the winter crops were cereals, leguminous pastures, mixtures species, turnip and native grass species. Seeding was performed either by no-till (NT or conventional (CT. The experiment was planned in a split-plot randomized blocks design with three replications, where the summer crops occupied the plots, while the winter's species were allocated to the subplots. The parameters measured were transformed into index to standardize the variables, each one in relation to the better measurement behavior, and arranged in four categories of analysis: (a Agronomics indices (dry weight and grain yield; (b Environmental indicators (soil fertility; (c Energy Indicators (gain and energy efficiency; d Economic Indicators (profitability and gross value of production. Through harmonic average rates calculated for each indicator, comparisons to the crop succession were then

  5. Sainte-Croix-En-Plaine

    OpenAIRE

    Roth-Zehner, Muriel; Rougier, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    Identifiant de l'opération archéologique : Date de l'opération : 2001 (EV) À la suite du projet d'aménagement de la seconde phase de la zone d'activités économiques de Sainte-Croix-en-Plaine par le SISCO (Syndicat Intercommunal de la Plaine d'activités de Sainte-Croix-en-Plaine - Colmar), des fouilles d'évaluation ont été réalisées sur une surface de 86708 m² sur des terrains actuellement réservés à la culture. Une partie du site a été détruit récemment (1992-1994) lors de l'aménagement ...

  6. Aerial Image of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain; 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is comprised of a single aerial image of a single area on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain taken on 21 June 1955 by the U.S. Air Force and obtained from...

  7. Aerial Images of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain; 1948, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is comprised of 36 black and white 9x9 inch aerial images of four different study areas on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain taken between 1948-1949 and...

  8. Hiding in Plain Sight: The Sibling Connection in Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessing, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the author argues that sibling relationships are a missing piece of the eating disorder puzzle. She notes that disturbing relationships with siblings have been present all along in the literature, but have not been included as a separate area of study. They have thus been hiding in plain sight, present but not accounted for in our…

  9. A Wear Geometry Model of Plain Woven Fabric Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Gu Dapeng; Yang Yulin; Chen Suwen; Su Wenwen

    2014-01-01

    The paper g describes a model meant for analysis of the wear geometry of plain woven fabric composites. The referred model consists of a mathematical description of plain woven fabric based on Peirce’s model coupled with a stratified method for the solution of the wear geometry. The evolutions of the wear area ratio of weft yarn, warp yarn and matrix resin on the worn surface are simulated by MatLab software in combination of warp and weft yarn diameters, warp and weft yarn-to-yarn distances,...

  10. Saturated thickness, High Plains aquifer, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents the saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer of the United States, 2009, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  11. The Plain Rapper. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Hampshire Educational Media Association, Concord.

    This is a guide to policies and procedures for instructional material selection and reconsideration for school media personnel. It includes the basic statements, interpretations, writings, and forms from national library and teacher organizations. A major section discusses legal precedents in the area of intellectual freedom, in addition to…

  12. Older Smooth Plains on Mercury Obscured by Impact Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, P. K.; Denevi, B. W.; Klimczak, C.; Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Whitten, J.; Head, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    On the basis of morphology and spectral reflectance, the surface of Mercury can be broadly divided into three major terrain types: low-reflectance material, intermediate terrain, and smooth plains. This last terrain type is distinguished morphologically by a comparatively smooth and gently rolling surface, has a lower density of impact craters and basins than other surface units on the planet, and typically occupies low-lying areas. Their smooth texture, embayment of other landforms, and distinctive partial to complete burial of older impact features suggests that most of these plains are probably volcanic in nature. Recent mapping work has shown that smooth plains younger than the end of the late heavy bombardment (LHB) occupy ~30% of Mercury's surface. An outstanding question concerns the distribution and nature of older plains units on the planet, especially those that underlie large impact features and may correspond morphologically to smooth plains but have not yet been mapped accordingly. A preliminary survey of such terrain yielded five exemplar sites: at the Amaral (26.5°S, 117.8°E; 101 km diameter), Mickiewicz (23.2°N, 256.7°E; 103 km), and Vivaldi (13.8°N, 274.1°E; 212 km) basins and at two unnamed features at 53.1°S, 38.6°E (83 km in diameter) and 7.1°N, 38.3°E (118 km). We expect that more thorough mapping will uncover additional candidate areas. In each of the example sites, an extensive continuous ejecta deposit and secondary impact field characterize the proximal and distal facies, respectively, of the impact feature; and in each case, the secondaries field (and impact-sculpted terrain in the case of Vivaldi) is superposed upon patches of plains that otherwise appear smooth and host numerous, flooded antecedent craters tens of kilometers in diameter. Moreover, these smooth patches occur at several ranges of azimuths surrounding each crater or basin, suggesting that they may have formed contiguous units prior to formation of the younger

  13. Risks associated with rainfall and floods in the Moldavian Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan BURUIANĂ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes, less effective land exploitation and insufficient security infrastructure against extreme phenomena induce vulnerabilities for the Moldavian Plain, where floods are relatively frequent. The middle and lower segments of the major streams dispose of improved hydro-technical infrastructure to prevent floods, still, the secondary streams and tributaries, with pronounced torrential characterremain vulnerable. The torrential character of the majority of rivers inthe Moldavian Plain results in management difficulties related with risksat maximum flow, especially on the first rank tributaries. Our studyanalyzes the main causes and consequences of floods in the MoldavianPlain and identifies potentially significant flood risks areas.

  14. Suitable scale of Weigan River plain oasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU ShunJun; SONG YuDong; TIAN ChangYan; LI YueTan; LI XiuCang; CHEN XiaoBing

    2007-01-01

    Desert coexists with oasis in long time, and the existence and development of oasis system demand better oasis vegetation ecological system. Oasis scale of arid zone plain encircling water should be determined in case of desertification caused by land over-reclamation under the circumstance of water resources shortage. Steady oasis with virtuous circle must have appropriate land use structure for agriculture, forestry and graziery. The study on the suitable scale and developmental space of oasis will provide theoretical and applicable foundation for effective construction of oases. By analyzing the hydrothermal, water and soil balance, an optimal mathematical model has been established. Based on hydrometeorology data collected for years in Weigan River plain, and by the principle of water balance,a calculation has been made of the water resources for evapotranspiration and the optimal acreage of oasis and cultivated land, which shows that the water resources for evapotranspiration in the Weigan River plain oasis is 22.32×108 m3 and the optimal oasis acreage under the condition of conventional irrigation mode is 3716.06 km2, in which the suitable cultivated land acreage is 1564.79 km2. Under the condition of water-saving irrigation, the suitable oasis acreage is 5515.49 km2, in which the suitable cultivated land acreage is 2322.31 km2. The oasis area had reached 4123 km2, and the cultivated land acreage had reached 1507 km2 after the Agriculture Irrigation Drainage Water Project of World Bank Loan in Weigan River basin was finished in 1997. The oasis and cultivated land acreage will be more suitable, and the oasis scale can be enlarged moderately by means of water saving irrigation.

  15. Plain Language Clear and Simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Secretariat, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Written for Canadian public servants and written with their help, this handbook presents principles and tips to make official writing clear, concise, and well organized. The handbook defines "plain language" writing as a technique of organizing information in ways that make sense to the reader--using familiar, straightforward words. The handbook…

  16. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to...

  17. An aerodynamic temperature-based regional ET model evaluation for Texas High Plains agrometeorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    High groundwater pumping costs and rapidly declining water levels in the Texas High Plains makes it imperative to improve irrigation water management for sustainability and economic viability. In this area, agriculture uses approximately 90% of groundwater withdrawals. Accurate regional evapotrans...

  18. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of constant recharge rates for the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. This area encompasses the panhandle counties of...

  19. Well network for long-term monitoring of agricultural chemicals in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are in support of report DS 456 (Arnold and others, 2009). Data set contains point locations of 20 wells located in areas overlying the High Plains...

  20. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of constant hydraulic conductivity values for the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. This area encompasses the panhandle...

  1. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized water-level elevation contours for the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma. This area encompasses the panhandle counties of...

  2. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital aquifer boundaries for the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma. This area encompasses the panhandle counties of Cimarron,...

  3. Furrow Dike Water Conservation Practices in the Texas High Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Wistrand, Glen L.

    1984-01-01

    Furrow diking can prevent irrigation and rainfall runoff, conserve energy use, prevent soil loss, amd allow producers to reclaim land otherwise unusable, depending on soil, climate, and crops grown in a given area. Initial investment to use this technique may be recovered within the first season. This study analyzes the effects of diking on water and soil conservation, crop yields, costs, and energy use in farming, using examples of farms in the Texas High Plains area.

  4. Evaluation of area of review variance opportunities for the East Texas field. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, D.L.; Koederitz, L.F.; Laudon, R.C.; Dunn-Norman, S.

    1995-05-01

    The East Texas oil field, discovered in 1930 and located principally in Gregg and Rusk Counties, is the largest oil field in the conterminous United States. Nearly 33,000 wells are known to have been drilled in the field. The field has been undergoing water injection for pressure maintenance since 1938. As of today, 104 Class II salt-water disposal wells, operated by the East Texas Salt Water Disposal Company, are returning all produced water to the Woodbine producing reservoir. About 69 of the presently existing wells have not been subjected to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Area-of-Review (AOR) requirements. A study has been carried out of opportunities for variance from AORs for these existing wells and for new wells that will be constructed in the future. The study has been based upon a variance methodology developed at the University of Missouri-Rolla under sponsorship of the American Petroleum Institute and in coordination with the Ground Water Protection Council. The principal technical objective of the study was to determine if reservoir pressure in the Woodbine producing reservoir is sufficiently low so that flow of salt-water from the Woodbine into the Carrizo-Wilcox ground water aquifer is precluded. The study has shown that the Woodbine reservoir is currently underpressured relative to the Carrizo-Wilcox and will remain so over the next 20 years. This information provides a logical basis for a variance for the field from performing AORs.

  5. 137 Cs soil contamination of Techa river flood plain near village Muslyumovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of measuring soil contamination with 137 Cs in 16-km zone of the Techa river flood plain near the Muslyumovo village of the Chelyabinsk region are presented. The measurements are performed in 1995-1996. Maps for the 137 Cs buildup distribution in soils of the half-kilometer areas along the river branch are plotted. Total amount and area of contaminated flood plain are estimated for these zones

  6. Plain Polynomial Arithmetic on GPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for serial code on CPUs, parallel code on GPUs for dense polynomial arithmetic relies on a combination of asymptotically fast and plain algorithms. Those are employed for data of large and small size, respectively. Parallelizing both types of algorithms is required in order to achieve peak performances. In this paper, we show that the plain dense polynomial multiplication can be efficiently parallelized on GPUs. Remarkably, it outperforms (highly optimized) FFT-based multiplication up to degree 212 while on CPU the same threshold is usually at 26. We also report on a GPU implementation of the Euclidean Algorithm which is both work-efficient and runs in linear time for input polynomials up to degree 218 thus showing the performance of the GCD algorithm based on systolic arrays.

  7. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  8. Groundwater recharge at five representative sites in the Hebei Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaohui; Jin, Menggui; van Genuchten, Martinus Th; Wang, Bingguo

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimates of groundwater recharge are essential for effective management of groundwater, especially when supplies are limited such as in many arid and semiarid areas. In the Hebei Plain, China, water shortage is increasingly restricting socioeconomic development, especially for agriculture, which heavily relies on groundwater. Human activities have greatly changed groundwater recharge there during the past several decades. To obtain better estimates of recharge in the plain, five representative sites were selected to investigate the effects of irrigation and water table depth on groundwater recharge. At each site, a one-dimensional unsaturated flow model (Hydrus-1D) was calibrated using field data of climate, soil moisture, and groundwater levels. A sensitivity analysis of evapotranspirative fluxes and various soil hydraulic parameters confirmed that fine-textured surface soils generally generate less recharge. Model calculations showed that recharge on average is about 175 mm/year in the piedmont plain to the west, and 133 mm/year in both the central alluvial and lacustrine plains and the coastal plain to the east. Temporal and spatial variations in the recharge processes were significant in response to rainfall and irrigation. Peak time-lags between infiltration (rainfall plus irrigation) and recharge were 18 to 35 days in the piedmont plain and 3 to 5 days in the central alluvial and lacustrine plains, but only 1 or 2 days in the coastal plain. This implies that different time-lags corresponding to different water table depths must be considered when estimating or modeling groundwater recharge. PMID:20100294

  9. Digital Extraction of Artificial Micro-geomorphology in Plain Areas Based on DEM%基于DEM的平原区人工微地貌数字提取方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖飞; 杜耘; Parrot J F; 王学雷; 严翼

    2011-01-01

    This paper presented a numerical methodology for recognition and extraction of artificial micro-geomor-phology in the Jianghan Plain. In the different spatial scales of geomorphologic types, micro-geomorphology is the smallest spatial pattern and thus is more easily influenced by human activities. In this sense, artificial micro-geo-morphology would show more potential in understanding the interactions between natural environment and human activities. Due to the continuous land utilization and rearrangement from historical period in the Jianghan Plain, a kind of artificial micro-geomorphology characterized by enclosed embankments on the low-lying land was formed. For decades, it played a very important role in the spatial distributions of some disasters such as flood and waterlogging. Compared with the automated extraction of drainage network and catchments boundaries from nature valleys, automated recognition of artificial micro-geomorphology skeleton lines has distinctive difficulties because of its tiny size, greater susceptibility to data error, and the different spatial structures with nature geo-morphology. Despite of the progress in the automatic extraction of terrain skeleton lines, there is no auto-extrac-ting method of artificial micro-geomorphology availablility yet, and it still dependes on the manual way to extract the skeleton lines of artificial geomorphology from the remotely sensed images and topographic maps. In this pa-per , a digital method for extracting the skeleton line of artificial micro-geomorphology was developed through the combination of the local topography analysis and the overland flow simulation. According to the specific artificial geomorphology features in the Jianghan Plain, a method was brought forward to identify the potential positions of the topographic skeleton lines, which is based on the evaluation of difference between the local elevations and the average elevations within moving windows. Then, an algorithm of watershed

  10. River diversions, avulsions and captures in the Tortuguero coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galve, Jorge Pedro; Alvarado, Guillermo; Pérez Peña, José Vicente; Azañón, José Miguel; Mora, Mauricio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The Tortuguero area is a coastal plain that forms part of the North Limón sedimentary basin, the back-arc region of the Caribbean side of Costa Rica. This coastal plain is characterised by an abnormal drainage pattern with river captures, diversions and shifts in channel directions. We are analyzing this anomalous drainage network adopting a classical geomorphological approach combined with geomorphometric techniques. The SRTM DEM at 1 arc-second of resolution (~30 m) from NASA, topographic maps 1:50,000, satellital images and the digital cartography of the drainage network have been used for inventorying the channel pattern anomalies. River segments were categorized according to sinuosity, orientation, slope changes and incision using GIS tools. Initially, anomalies in the analyzed river courses suggested that buried thrust fronts could disrupt their natural pattern. However, we have not identified any evidence to link the activity of buried structures with the disruption of natural drainage. Blind thrusts detected through seismic subsurface exploration in the SE sector of the Tortuguero plain do not seem to produce changes in the sinuosity, orientation, slope and incision of rivers as those observed in the deeply studied tectonically active area of the Po Plain (Italy). The identified river pattern anomalies have been explained due to other alternative causes: (1) the migration of the mouths of Reventazón, Pacuare and Matina rivers is produced by sand sedimentation in the coast because of a successive ridge beach formation. This migration to the SE has the same direction than the main ocean currents those deposited the sand. (2) The anomalous course of Parismina river is most probably conditioned by the fracturation of the dissected volcanic apron of Turrialba volcano. (3) Channel migration and capture of Barbilla river by Matina river can be triggered by the tectonic tilting of the coastal plain towards the SE. The subsidence of the SE sector of the plain was

  11. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Wahid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the area according to various gradual ranges of suitability. According to this scenario, the area is classified into five classes of suitability. The percentage of suitability values are 51.16, 6.13, 22.32, 18.49 and 1.89% for unsuitable, least suitable, low suitable, suitable and high suitable, respectively. The second scenario is developed for a particular kind of land use planning; tourism and recreation projects. The suitability map of this scenario was classified into five values. Unsuitable areas represent 51.18% of the study area, least suitable 16.67%, low suitable 22.85%, suitable 8.61%, and high suitable 0.68%. The best area for locating development projects is the area surrounding El-Tor City and close to the coast. This area could be an urban extension of El-Tor City with more economical and environmental management.

  12. 78 FR 40635 - Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    .... 165.23 of this part, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying up or anchoring within the enforced area... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, Calumet-Saganashkee Channel on all...

  13. 76 FR 63199 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ..., transiting, mooring, laying up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any person or... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, Calumet-Saganashkee Channel on all...

  14. 78 FR 4071 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ..., mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any person or vessel is... Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel... Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, Calumet-Saganashkee Channel on...

  15. 77 FR 20295 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... into, transiting, mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, Calumet-Saganashkee Channel on all...

  16. 77 FR 60044 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    .... 165.23 of this part, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying up or anchoring within the enforced area... Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel... Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, Calumet-Saganashkee Channel on...

  17. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Cornelius

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Defining the concept ‘plain language’ has been hugely problematic since the origins of the so-called Plain Language Movement in the 1970s in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Definitions of ‘plain language’ abound, yet James (2008: 6 warns, in relation to plain language practitioners, that “we can’t yet call ourselves a coherent field, let alone a profession, while we offer such varying definitions of what we do”. Contemporary international definitions of ‘plain language’ are of three types: numerical (or formula-based, elements-focused, or outcomes-focused (Cheek 2010. In South Africa, protective legislation gave rise to a local definition of ‘plain language’ which was widely acclaimed for its comprehensiveness and practicality. From a textlinguistic angle, this article ruminates on the nature of the definition of ‘plain language’ in the National Credit Act (2005 and the Consumer Protection Act (2008, and critically appraises the value of the definition as a sharp and reliable conceptual tool for use by plain language practitioners – as applied linguists – in the absence of norms, standards or guidelines for the use of plain language in the consumer industry in contemporary South Africa.

  18. The current status, threats and protection way of Sanjiang Plain wetland, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUZhi-qiang; LIUTong

    2005-01-01

    The Sanjiang Plain is a vast area of alluvial floodplains and low hills in northeast Heilongjiang Province. It is the largest tract of wetlands in China and East Asia outside of Siberia. 28 wetland nature reserves exist on the Sanjiang Plain, and three of them have been listed as wetlands of international importance to water bird conservation by the Ramsar Convention Bureau. The wetlands of Sanjiang Plain are noteworthy for its rich biodiversity, but they continue to decline in area and deteriorate in quality currently. The main threats or constrains, immediate cause, root cause and required response are analyzed in this paper, and the four aspects opinion such as improvement of watershed management, enhancement of protection and restoration of habitats and biodiversity, alternative livelihoods of rural residents living in and near natural wetland reserve, and reinforcement of capacity building of natural reserves are brought forward as the effective measures for the Sanjiang Plain wetland protection.

  19. Sewage Produced Characteristic of Rural Areas in North China Plain Region%华北平原地区农村生活污水产污特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 裴国霞; 张玉华; 刘东生; 李想; 谭平

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the status of rural domestic wastewater pollution in the North China Plain region, the rural domestic wastewater of 15 typical peasant households with different income levels in Jingtangpu Village,Xushui County,Baoding City was made a continuous investigating and monitoring for 12 months,including the daily produced per capita,pH,chemical oxygen demand(COD), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), total nitrogen(TN) and total phosphorus(TP) of rural domestic wastewater.The mean value of sewage generated was 21.03 L· d-1 ? Person-1, pH was 6.14, the sewage production coefficients of COD,TAN, TN and TP were 7.87 g·d-1 ? Person-1,0.581 g·d-1 ? Person-1, 1.31 g· d-1·person-1 and 0.066 2 g·d-1·person-1. The households with middle income levels had highest indicators,followed by high and low income level households,and the difference between high,middle and low income level households was significant,these results indicated that the amount of sewage produced per capita and sewage production coefficients were related to the income.%为了解华北平原地区农村生活污水产污特征,准确评价农村生活污染状况,本研究选取华北平原地区典型农村(保定市徐水县荆塘铺村)不同收入水平的15户典型农户,对其生活污水的产污情况进行12个月(2010年8月至2011年7月)的调查和监测,得到农户的生活污水人均日产生量、pH、COD、TAN、TN和TP的产污系数.农户生活污水人均日产生量为21.03 L·d-1·人-1,pH值为6.14,COD、TAN、TN和TP的产污系数分别为7.87、0.581、1.31 g·d-1·人-1和0.066 2g·d-1·人-1.各项指标从高到低依次为中收入水平农户,高收入水平农户和低收入水平农户,且高中收入水平农户与低收入水平农户各项指标差异性较显著.以上结果表明华北平原地区农村生活污水人均日产生量和污染物产污系数与收入水平有关.

  20. Evaluation of exposure parameters in plain radiography: a comparative study with european guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Lança, Luís; Silva, Augusto; Alves, Eduardo; Serranheira, Florentino; Correia, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Typical distribution of exposure parameters in plain radiography is unknown in Portugal. This study aims to identify exposure parameters that are being used in plain radiography in the Lisbon area and to compare the collected data with European references [Commission of European Communities (CEC) guidelines]. The results show that in four examinations (skull, chest, lumbar spine and pelvis), there is a strong tendency of using exposure times above the European recommendation. The X-ray tub...

  1. Net Benefits from growing lucerne (Medicago sativa) on the Broken Plains of north eastern Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Trapnell, Lindsay N.; Malcolm, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Clearing of trees and native vegetation over the past 160 years has led to increasing rates of dryland salinization in the Goulburn-Broken Catchment area. In its dryland section, within the Goulburn Highlands, South West Goulburn, and the Broken Highlands subcatchments, hydrologic balance exists. But in the Riverine Plains comprising the Goulburn and Broken Plains sub-catchments, where average annual rainfalls are less than 600 mm per annum, it will be many decades before hydrologic balance i...

  2. Implementing Plain Language: A Manager's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.

    Drawn from the experience of various ministries and departments in governments across Canada, this guide is meant to be a practical guide in implementing plain language for managers in the Ontario (Canada) government. The guide describes how to use plain language in planning, writing, designing, and editing forms and documents, and how to set up…

  3. Study on the Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment in Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y.; Tang, W. K.; Liu, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Sanjiang Plain is located in eastern part of China's Heilongjiang Province.It's total area is 109 000 km2, with cultivated land area being 3.6677 million hm2. It is a major national commodity grain base. Rice planting area in Sanjiang Plain has been increasing year by year. Groundwater exploitation is increasing rapidly as a result of rapid increase of paddy field area. It is necessary to research and analyze spatial diversity of groundwater pollution vulnerability for Sanjiang Plain, so as to fulfill the goal of integrated planning, rational utilization of land and water resource, avoiding or minimizing groundwater contamination, and protecting grain security of China. Based on the commonly used DRASTIC method internationally, and according to hydrogeology, land use and other characteristics of Sanjiang Plain, this paper establishes groundwater vulnerability assessment index system. Since the Sanjiang Plain is an area that gives priority to agriculture, and impact of agricultural land and agricultural activity on groundwater vulnerability can not be ignored. Two indicators of agricultural land use rate (L) and population density (P) are increased in the DRASTC index system, the remaining 5 indicators are groundwater depth (D), aquifer net recharge(R), aquifer media type (A), soil type(S), aquifer hydraulic conductivity (C). Taking ArcGis as a calculation analysis platform to assess groundwater vulnerability of the Sanjiang Plain, by using hierarchical analysis method of the fuzzy mathematics method to calculate each index weigh of evaluation vulnerability. This paper applies 6 levels of assessment standard as follows: vulnerability index DI 8 stands for extremely vulnerable. Groundwater vulnerably contaminated area is delineated based on the groundwater vulnerability spatial distribution of Sanjiang Plain. Reasonable land use plan should be made, and strictly groundwater protection measures should be taken to reduce the risk of groundwater contamination.

  4. Response of Groundwater to Climate Change under Extreme Climate Conditions in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhang; Jincui Wang; Jihong Jing; Jichao Sun

    2014-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the water shortage areas of China. Lack of water resources restricted the economic and social development of North China area and resulted in deterio-ration of ecosystem and natural environment. Influenced by the climate change and human activities, the water circulation of NCP was largely changed and the crisis of water resources was aggravated. Therefore, it is important to study the features of the extreme climate and the response mechanism of groundwater to climate change. We analyzed the trend of climate change and extreme climate features in the past 60 years based on the monitoring data of meteorological stations. And then the response characteristics of groundwater to climate change were discussed. The average temperature of NCP was in an obviously upward trend. The overall precipitation variation was in a downward trend. The cli-mate change in this area showed a warming-drying trend. The intensity of extreme precipitation dis-played a trend of declining and then increasing from north to south as well as declining from eastern coastal plain to the piedmont plain. Grey correlation degree analysis indicated that groundwater depth had a close relationship with precipitation and human activities in NCP. The response of groundwater level to precipitation differed from the piedmont alluvial-pluvial plain to the coastal plain. The response was more obvious in the coastal plain than the piedmont alluvial-pluvial plain and the middle plain. The precipitation influenced the groundwater depth both directly and indirectly. Under the condition of extreme precipitation, the impact would aggravate, in the forms of rapid or lag raise of groundwater levels.

  5. 华北平原地下水漏斗区马铃薯替代小麦种植及由此节省的水资源量估算%The Estimation of Saving Water Resources Because of Substitute Planting of Potato Instead Winter Wheat in the Funnel Area of the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭燕枝; 王小虎; 孙君茂

    2014-01-01

    多年的地下水超采,导致华北平原已成为世界上最大的“漏斗区”,农业可持续发展压力巨大。综合考虑耕地资源持续利用和国家粮食安全,减少高耗水作物如冬小麦的种植面积,加快农业结构调整步伐是当务之急。根据已有研究成果,比较分析了华北平原冬小麦和马铃薯的水分亏缺量,推算出华北地下水漏斗区马铃薯替代小麦种植,每年可节约水资源总量达(3.47~7.35)×108m3,同时在一定的技术支持下,能够提高粮食产量水平。这将有利于在保障国家粮食安全的基础上,逐步缓解地下水资源衰变的态势。%During many years overexploitation of groundwater, the North China Plain has become the world�s largest“funnel areas”, the agricultural sustainable development faces much pressure. Considering the sustainable utilization of cultivated land resource and the national food security, the urgent affair is to reduce the high water consuming crops such as winter wheat planting area, accelerate the pace of adjustment of agricultural structure. Based on the existing research results, the article comparatively analyzed the winter wheat and potato water deficit in North China Plain, calculated the result that potato instead of winter wheat planting can save water reached a total of (3.47~7�35)×108m3/a in North groundwater funnel area, while in support of certain technology, it could improve the grain yield level. This would be good for national food security, and gradually decay groundwater resources situation at the same time.

  6. Pannonian plain as a morphostructural unit of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćalić Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation between the terms “Pannonian Basin” and “Pannonian Plain” is not clear enough in geographical literature. The paper discusses the usage of the term “plain” in geomorphology, as well as the usage of a quantitative method for plain delineation, through calculation of relief roughness coefficient (using a digital elevation model. Qualitative analysis, which includes the definition of dominant geomorphological processes and the distribution of Quaternary sediments, is an addition to the quantitative analysis. In the Republic of Serbia, the area of the Pannonian plain defined in this way is 24,448 km2, which is 27.5% of the total territory of the country. The paper gives the overview of the geotectonic structure and evolution of the Pannonian Basin System, with special stress on the territory of Serbia, as well as the chronology of the Pannonian sedimentation area in Serbia from the Lower Miocene till present. In order to explain the status of the Pannonian plain as one of the morphostructural units of Serbia, the theoretical basics of morphostructures are discussed, as well as the principles of their spatial definition and the relation to the notion of a geological structure. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007

  7. Low VS crustal zones in the Campanian Plain (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunziata, Concettina; Costanzo, Maria Rosaria

    2010-11-01

    Shear wave velocities of the lithospheric structure to 73 km depth have been defined along three profiles crossing the Campanian Plain (Southern Italy) from the simultaneous non linear inversion of the local and regional dispersion data. The former consist of group velocity dispersion data obtained from some seismic events which occurred at the borders of the Campanian Plain and recorded at Napoli, and the latter of group and phase dispersion data obtained in previous studies. The main features of the representative VS models are a carbonate basement deepening to ˜5 km in the central part of the Plain and a low velocity zone at a depth of ˜15 km, rising to 7 km in the southern part, close to Somma-Vesuvio. The low velocity layer can be correlated with that found at ˜10 km of depth below Campi Flegrei and the Neapolitan area, and at 5 km below the Somma-Vesuvio caldera area. Such regional velocity reduction can be associated to the presence of a zone with less than 5% partial melting that can be interpreted as magmatic reservoir of the Campanian volcanism.

  8. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman

    2004-07-01

    The Plains Co{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) activities have focused on developing information on deployment issues to support Task 5 activities by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) activities have focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) has included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) activities have focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  9. Geophysical monitoring and evaluation of coastal plain aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Lewis A; Lautier, Jeff C; Wilson, Nathaniel C; Chianese, Gabrielle; Webb, Steven

    2004-01-01

    We use time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) soundings to monitor ground water conditions beneath the coastal plain in eastern North Carolina. The TDEM method measures the earth's response to an induced electromagnetic field. The resulting signal is converted, through a complex inversion process, to apparent resistivity values, which can be directly correlated to borehole resistivity logs. TDEM soundings are used to map the interface between fresh and salt water within coastal aquifers, and estimate depth to basement when siting new monitoring wells. Focused TDEM surveys have identified areas of salt water encroachment caused by high volumes of discharge from local supply wells. Electromagnetic sounding, when used in tandem with the state's network of monitoring wells, is an accurate and inexpensive tool for evaluating fresh water/salt water relationships on both local and regional scales within coastal plain aquifers. PMID:14763617

  10. THE SIMULATED STORAGE CAPACITY OF FLOOD AND WATERLOGGING IN THE TYPICAL AGRICULTURAL REGION IN JIANGHAN PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Jianghap plain is one of the important bases of China's agricultural productivity, located in central and southern Hubei province in the middle reach of Yangtze River. The Jianghan Plain is the one region of flood and waterlogging occurring frequently. The area is low-lying and is characterized by deep alluvial deposits, many smaller rivers and numerous larger and shallow lakesformed by meandering of the Changjiang(Yangtze) River. The alluvial plain is a honeycomb of waterways bordered by natural levees, and the depressional areas encompassed by these waterways are dish-shaped in cross-section. The systems of rivers and lakes are main wetland types in this area. Owing to wetlands in Jianghan plain-lake district fulfill the function related to the flood regulation, the estimating of the storage capacity is useful tocontrolling and reducing the disasters of flooding and waterlogging. In this paper, by selecting typical experimental area, based on its DEM, the relation among the water level, area and volume of inundation in the typical region is defined by using regression analysis. Based on the agricultural cultivating line in this region and the experiment result of bearing the inundation for crop, we define the storage capacity of the typical region in Jianghan Plain - Lake district.

  11. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, V.L.

    2009-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

  12. Impact of Irrigated Agroecosystems on Groundwater Resources in the US High Plains and North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Longuevergne, L.; Cao, G.; Shen, Y.; Gates, J. B.; Reedy, R. W.; Zheng, C.

    2010-12-01

    Overabstraction of groundwater for irrigation in semiarid regions is depleting the worlds’ largest aquifers at much greater rates than these aquifers are being replenished by recharge. This study evaluates groundwater sustainability in the US High Plains (US HP) and North China Plain (NCP) where intensive irrigation has resulted in large water table declines. A variety of approaches were used to evaluate impacts of irrigation on groundwater resources, including GRACE satellite data, unsaturated zone profiling, and groundwater quantity and quality data. Cultivation (40% of area) and irrigation (12%) are less intensive in the US HP than in the NCP (80% cultivated, 50% irrigated). Irrigation is estimated to consume ~97% of groundwater resources in the US HP and ~70% in the NCP. Although only ~10% of groundwater resources has been consumed in the US HP (330 km3 out of 3,900 km3), the problem lies in the uneven spatial distribution. Groundwater depletion is greatest in the Central High Plains (CHP) where water table declines of up to 1.5 m/yr have been recorded in individual wells and regional declines of up to 30 m have been found over a 7,000 km2 area since irrigation began in the 1950s to 1960s. This depletion indicates an irrigation deficit of ~75 mm/yr over 60 yr (specific yield 15%). Recharge rates in the CHP are extremely low (median ~10 mm/yr) with reductions in groundwater storage exceeding recharge by ~10 times. High correlations between GRACE and measured water storage changes (R = 0.7 - 0.8) show that the satellite can accurately track regional changes in water storage. Groundwater in the NCP has declined from a depth of ~1 m in the 1960s to 20 to 40 m in the Piedmont region since expansion of irrigation beginning in the 1970s. Groundwater level declines in individual hydrographs range from 0.5 to 1.0 m/yr, indicating irrigation deficits ranging from 100 to 200 mm/yr (specific yield 20%). Lower groundwater storage changes from GRACE satellites relative to

  13. Determining the Origin of Aeolian Sediments of Chah Nimeh4 Located at the Sistan Plain, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Negaresh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to combat and control wind erosion of Sistan Plain, with an area of 8117 km2 and with a poor and dry climate, understanding the origin or areas of its wind deposits is of particular importance. To determine the origin of the sediments existing in reservoir of the Chah Nimeh 4, studying and comparing aerial photographs and satellite images from different periods, studying the winds in the area and its positioning include geomorphological study of the concerned area, sediment sampling of the sediments and performing required mineralogical tests. This study includes collecting local information about erosion, studying the general geomorphology and winds in the area. Therefore, an important purpose of this study was to identify the critical wind erosion Association (origins and identification of the deleterious effects of wind. According to the obtained results, occurring drought in the area of Sistan and consequently reducing vegetation and making Hamoun Lake drought as well as 120-day winds have provided favorable conditions for wind erosion and occurring dust storms. It was estimated that the origin of existing sediments in the reservoir of Chah Nimeh is the erosive winds in the area from north to north-west and with 330 to 360. The most important areas of deposits are abandoned land, sandy land-fields and puffy salt lake basin plain of Hamoun Lake and northern plains (in Afghanistan in that sand storms and moving sandy plains are considered as threatening factors in the area.

  14. Climate variability and Great Plains agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ways in which inhabitants of the Great Plains, including Indians, early settlers, and 20th century farmers, have adapted to climate changes on the Great Plains are explored. The climate of the Great Plains, because of its variability and extremes, can be very stressful to plants, animals and people. It is suggested that agriculture and society on the Great Plains have, during the last century, become less vulnerable to the stresses imposed by climate. Opinions as to the sustainability of agriculture on the Great Plains vary substantially. Lockeretz (1981) suggests that large scale, high cost technologies have stressed farmers by creating surpluses and by requiring large investments. Opie (1989) sees irrigation as a climate substitute, however he stresses that the Ogallala aquifer must inevitably become depleted. Deborah and Frank Popper (1987) believe that farming on the Plains is unsustainable, and destruction of shelterbelts, out-migration of the rural population and environmental problems will lead to total collapse. With global warming, water in the Great Plains is expected to become scarcer, and although improvements in irrigation efficiency may slow depletion of the Ogallala aquifer, ultimately the acreage under irrigation must decrease to levels that can be sustained by natural recharge and reliable surface flows. 23 refs., 2 figs

  15. Has land subsidence changed the flood hazard potential? A case example from the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H L; Ito, Y.; Sawamukai, M.; Su, T; Tokunaga, T

    2015-01-01

    Coastal areas are subject to flood hazards because of their topographic features, social development and related human activities. The Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, is located nearby the Tokyo metropolitan area and it faces to the Pacific Ocean. In the Kujukuri Plain, widespread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by exploitation of groundwater, extraction of natural gas dissolved in brine, and natural consolidation of the Holocene and landfill deposits....

  16. 京冀平原区不同类型农户耕地利用研究%Research on Different Types of Farm Household Cultivated Land Use in Jinji Plain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠珍; 孔祥斌

    2012-01-01

    Farmer households were divided into three group types in the light of their preference for grain or monetary production capacity, the succession relation between household group types and their land use objectives in different phases was discussed. The land use characteristic of each group type was discussed, taking Daxing County, Haidian County in Beijing, and Quzhou County in Hebei Province as study areas with household survey carried out in 2008. The results indicated that:1 In metropolitan suburb, households preferring for grain productivity and profit accounts for more than 40 percent, and approximately 50 percent of households have transformed into the type of demanding for profit; in Situan, Quzhou, farm households shows great preference of grain productivity and profit at the same time; by comparatively, Haidian is the closest district to the city center, households type here show diversification, especially about one third households pay more attention to farmland security function because of lower land stability. 2 During the households transition from the type of demanding for grain productivity to the type of preferring grain productivity and profit simultaneously, or from the formers to the type of demanding for profit, planting structure u-sually shows decrease in grain crop sown area and increase in cash crop sown area, and farmers' agricultural income is increasing step by step. 3The production function regression results of different household types shows that: farmland size has limited farmer income increase to some extent, and household type of preferring grain productivity and profit simultaneously and type of demanding for profit are all prone to labor-intensity crops and intensive land use pattern. Research on household land use from the prospective of household types would favor the study of land use change driving mechanism.%从农户对粮食生产能力和价值生产能力偏好的角度对农户进行群体分类,分析不同时期农

  17. Plain deltamorphostructures, highly promising oil and gas reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanev, D.

    1981-01-01

    Based on published data, an examination is made of the geographic distribution of oil and gas fields in the European and Asian sectors of the Soviet Union, Asia, Africa, North and South America, Near East and Central Europe. Most of the large and giant fields are concentrated in river valleys, delta plains and delta shelf. In the examples of the rivers of Niger, Ganges, Mississippi, Orinoco and the Cisco system in Central Texas, an analysis was made of the development, structure and lithology of the delta. It is believed that the plain forms formed on the paleodelta formations are inherited underwater and abovewater deltas with characteristic relief and structure. With regard for the structural features of the river valleys and the continuous mountain relief of the Danube, Irtysh, Kuban, Niger and Mississippi Rivers a conclusion was drawn that the base and the mountain slopes are favorable for the formation of oil and gas accumulations, and at the coast line in the delta zones in its historical development retreated into the depth of the continent, remaining linked to the water area of the World Ocean. It is assumed that the conditions of plain delta morphostructures are the most favorable for localizing giant oil and gas fields.

  18. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  19. North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system in North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Deleware, and New Jersey.

  20. Topographic Rise in the Northern Smooth Plains of Mercury: Characteristics from Messenger Image and Altimetry Data and Candidate Modes of Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, James L.; Head, James W.; Whitten, Jennifer L.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.

    2012-01-01

    MESSENGER observations from orbit around Mercury have revealed that a large contiguous area of smooth plains occupies much of the high northern latitudes and covers an area in excess of approx.6% of the surface of the planet [1] (Fig. 1). Smooth surface morphology, embayment relationships, color data, candidate flow fronts, and a population of partly to wholly buried craters provide evidence for the volcanic origin of these plains and their emplacement in a flood lava mode to depths at least locally in excess of 1 km. The age of these plains is similar to that of plains associated with and postdating the Caloris impact basin, confirming that volcanism was a globally extensive process in the post-heavy bombardment history of Mercury [1]. No specific effusive vent structures, constructional volcanic edifices, or lava distributary features (leveed flow fronts or sinuous rilles) have been identified in the contiguous plains, although vent structures and evidence of high-effusion-rate flood eruptions are seen in adjacent areas [1]. Subsequent to the identification and mapping of the extensive north polar smooth plains, data from the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on MESSENGER revealed the presence of a broad topographic rise in the northern smooth plains that is 1,000 km across and rises more than 1.5 km above the surrounding smooth plains [2] (Fig. 2). The purpose of this contribution is to characterize the northern plains rise and to outline a range of hypotheses for its origin.

  1. The hydrological effects of harvesting at Boreal Plain, Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyani, Ghasemali; Yew Gan, Thian; Devito, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Unique hydrological characteristics of Boreal Plain environment such as sub-humid climate, deep glacial deposits, and significant heterogeneity in soil and vegetation type creates a complicated hydrology in the region. The study of hydrological effects of harvesting in Boreal Plain, which is occurring at an unprecedented rate for oil and gas exploration and timber harvesting, is necessary for a sustainable forest management. However there are a few previous studies addressing the hydrological effects of harvesting on quantity and quality of water in Boreal Plain. This paper reports on an on-going paired catchments experimental study at Alpac Catchment Experiment (ACE: 55N 112W) area near Lac La Biche, Alberta started in early 2005. A 2-km2 catchment (H2) was harvested almost 70% in winter 2006. Later, the harvesting occurred sequentially within the bigger catchment (H1, 10 km2) i.e. 29% in 2007 and 19% in 2008 totally account for about 80% of aspen forest. Finally, the smallest catchments was harvested approximately 90% in summer 2008. The collected pre- and post harvest data have been used to assess the effect of harvesting on the catchment overall responses and soil moisture. The pre-harvest streamflow data collected at H1 and its reference catchment R1 show that unit area runoff of both catchments are matched fairly good, and may be used to assess changes in streamflow after harvesting. An increase in soil moisture and soil temperature after harvesting was observed in H2, but little to no change in streamflow response. This suggests the dominance of soil moisture in the catchment, which might be a promising indicator for tracking the effect of harvesting. The field data is then used to drive the hydrological model MISBA to simulate the water and energy cycling in the Boreal Plain. By adding a reservoir to MISBA to simulate the significant soil storage characteristic of the Boreal Plain, and by applying different catchment discretization schemes based on soil

  2. Determining the Origin of Aeolian Sediments of Chah Nimeh4 Located at the Sistan Plain, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Negaresh; Mehdi Jadid Aleslami

    2013-01-01

    In order to combat and control wind erosion of Sistan Plain, with an area of 8117 km2 and with a poor and dry climate, understanding the origin or areas of its wind deposits is of particular importance. To determine the origin of the sediments existing in reservoir of the Chah Nimeh 4, studying and comparing aerial photographs and satellite images from different periods, studying the winds in the area and its positioning include geomorphological study of the concerned area, sediment sampling ...

  3. Analysis of developing non-timber forest products of Sanjiang Plain,Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tong; ZHOU Zhi-qiang

    2006-01-01

    The Sanjiang Plain is a vast area of alluvial floodplains and low hills in northeast Heilongjiang Province. Because of the excessive land reclamation in the past, the whole forest area and the quality have decreased. In the view of sustainable development, this paper analyzed the possibilities for Non-timber Forest Product in terms of developing potentialities, markets, social effects and the status of NTFPs in several counties of Sanjiang Plain. The result showed that, active development and management for NTFPs is an optimistic option to how to balance the wetlands conservation and sustainable economic development.

  4. Application of flood index in monitoring Flood-plain ecosystems (by the example of the Middle Ob flood-plain)

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotnov, V. P.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of regional hydroecological monitoring has been developed for the flood-plain of the Middle Ob. Its object is to control the state of flood-plain ecosystem productivity for organization of scientific, regional-adopted and ecologically regulated nature management. For this purpose hydroecological zoning of flood-plain territory performed, the most representative stations of water-gauge observations for each flood-plain zone organized, the scheme of flood-plain flooding was prepared...

  5. Water-level changes and change in water in storage in the High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2013 and 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Virginia L.

    2014-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (about 175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States—Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with groundwater in the aquifer area (about 1950). This report presents water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (generally before 1950) to 2013 and from 2011 to 2013. The report also presents change in water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2013 and from 2011 to 2013.

  6. Managing flood prone ecosystem for rice production in Bihar plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large area of the eastern region especially Bihar (0.5 million hectare) faces flood submergence and/or drought every year which creates an unfavorable environment for crop production. In this ecosystem only flood prone rice is grown whose cultivation is entirely different than normal rice crop. Managing the flood prone ecosystem for rice production needs to evaluate the reasons and a comprehensive appropriate technology through research efforts for better rice production under such harsh ecology. An attempt was made to develop a suitable agronomic package for rice cultivation during and after flooding in flood prone plains of Bihar. (author)

  7. A study of the groundwater origin in Hebei Plain with isotopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A result from analysing data of isotopic compositions of groundwater and precipitation sampled in Hebei Plain indicates that: (1) the shallow groundwater of Hebei Plain is recharged from recent precipitation; (2) the salt waters distributed at middle depth of the center part of this plain is formed by continent salification and distributed at coastal area of the east part is formed by sea water invasion in late Quaternary period; (3) the deep groundwater in the research area was originated from precipitation in Quaternary ice age. The mean temperatures of paleoclimate in Q1-Q4 periods are counted based on the data of deuterium and oxygen-18 in the groundwaters and the history of coastline migration is also presented in the paper. (author). 3 refs, 11 figs, 5 tabs

  8. Cladocera of the pond area between Studenka and Polanka in Poodri Landscape Protected Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poodri Protected Landscape Area was established in 1991, to preserve the Odra River flood plain with many ponds and pools. 32 Cladoceran taxa were identified in samples from the pond area between Studenka and Polanka. (author)

  9. GAP analysis of wetland bird habitat diversity in Sanjiang Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiping; Li, Chuang; Liu, Qingfeng; Yu, Yang

    2008-10-01

    Sanjiang Plain was chosen as the study area in this paper, based on the relationship between species and their habitats, using principles of landscape ecology and protection biology, "3S" technique, GAP analysis of biodiversity protection on a regional scale, same surface areas of hexagons as forecasting and evaluating units to analyze protection status of wetlands birds and diversity of their habitats, to find the unprotected biodiversity hotspots there and then analyze the priority protection. As expressed from the research, some birds under second class state protection as Bubo bubo, Falco peregrinus, Accipiter gentilis, Falco tinnunculu, and Strix uralensis have not been well protected, ecological systems of forest hummocks, reed swamps and river wetlands gets worse protection. Thirteen hotspots have been discovered in this area, which are mainly distributed in surroundings near nature reserve and coast of some great rivers. GAP analysis for regions lacking data proposed in this paper not only put forward scientific evidence for the protection and management of wetland biodiversity in Sanjiang Plain, but also enriched theories and methods for China biodiversity protection.

  10. Geohazards (floods and landslides) in the Ndop plain, Cameroon volcanic line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotchoko, Pierre; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Itiga, Zénon; Nkouathio, David Guimolaire; Guedjeo, Christian Suh; Ngnoupeck, Gerald; Dongmo, Armand Kagou; Wandji, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    The Ndop Plain, located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), is a volcano-tectonic plain, formed by a series of tectonic movements, volcanic eruptions and sedimentation phases. Floods (annually) and landslides (occasionally) occur with devastating environmental effects. However, this plain attracts a lot of inhabitants owing to its fertile alluvial soils. With demographic explosion in the plain, the inhabitants (143,000 people) tend to farm and inhabit new zones which are prone to these geohazards. In this paper, we use field observations, laboratory analyses, satellite imagery and complementary methods using appropriate software to establish hazard (flood and landslide) maps of the Ndop Plain. Natural factors as well as anthropogenic factors are considered. The hazard maps revealed that 25% of the area is exposed to flood hazard (13% exposed to high flood hazard, 12% to moderate) and 5% of the area is exposed to landslide hazard (2% exposed to high landslide hazard, 3% to moderate). Some mitigation measures for floods (building of artificial levees, raising foundations of buildings and the meticulous regulation of the flood guards at Bamendjing Dam) and landslides (slope terracing, planting of trees, and building retaining walls) are proposed.

  11. Study on the variation of arsenic concentration in groundwater and chemical characteristics of arsenic in sediment cores at the areas with endemic arsenic poison disease in Jianghan Plain%江汉平原地方性砷中毒病区地下水砷含量变化及沉积物砷化学特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周素华; 叶恒朋; 李明健; 熊培生; 杜冬云; 王靖文

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解江汉平原地方性砷中毒(地砷病)病区地下水砷含量变化,探讨该区域高砷水赋存环境、地下水系统砷的来源.方法 在湖北省仙桃市和洪湖市分别以地砷病患者家为中心点,在3km半径内各采集30份地下水样品和3个地质钻孔沉积物样芯;水砷含量比较采用配对t检验或配对符号秩和检验进行分析.结果 仙桃市南洪村2011-2012年水砷浓度低于2006-2007年(t=4.645 3,P<0.000 1),洪湖市姚河村2011-2012年水砷浓度高于2006-2007年(S=-150,P<0.000 1);高砷水呈弱酸、弱氧化性,水砷浓度与水样C1-、HCO3-、Fe、Mn浓度正相关,与水样SO42-、NO3-浓度负相关;研究区沉积物中砷浓度为1.500~ 17.289mg/kg,砷含量最大值均出现在泥土层,最小值均出现在沙层.结论 江汉平原地砷病病区高砷水砷含量的时空间变化程度较大,与中国山西大同盆地、山阴地区、内蒙古河套平原等原生高砷水地区有明显差异,为典型的高砷水赋存环境;研究区沉积物样品中砷含量与岩性结构有密切关系.%Objective To understand the variation of arsenic concentration in underground water at the endemic arsenic poison disease area of Jianghan Plain so as to better understand the spatial distribution of high arsenic groundwater,hydro-chemical evolution and source of arsenic in this region.Methods Thirty underground water samples were collected respectively around 3 km radius of the two houses where arsenic poisoning patients lived,in Xiantao and Honghu.Sediment cores of three drillings were collected as well.Both paired t-test or paired Wilcoxon Signed Ranking Test were used to compare the arsenic concentration of water.Results The arsenic concentration in 2011-2012 appeared lower than that in 2006-2007 at the Nanhong village of Xiantao (t=4.645 3,P<0.000 1),but was higher(S=-150,P<0.000 1) in the Yaohe village of Honghu.The pH value showed weak acidity with Eh as weak oxidated

  12. Phytothérapie traditionnelle des bovins dans les élevages de la plaine de la Ruzizi

    OpenAIRE

    Malaisse F.; Byavu N.; Henrard C.; Dubois M.

    2000-01-01

    Traditional horned cattle phytotherapy in the Rusizi plain breedings [Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo]. After presenting the ecological characteristics of the Rusizi plain and reminding of the socio-economical importance of horned cattle for the local populations, the authors deal with the traditional phytotherapy knowledge in this area. The study lists the plants used, the organs concerned (leaves, bark, root, fruit, etc.), as well as the formula and doses recommended regarding...

  13. Plain carbon steel bipolar plates for PEMFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianli; SUN Juncai; TIAN Rujin; XU Jing

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates are a multifunctional component of PEMFC. Comparing with the machined graphite and stainless steels, the plain carbon steel is a very cheap commercial metal material. In this paper, the possibility of applying the plain carbon steels in the bipolar plate for PEMFC was exploited. In order to improve the corrosion resistance of the low carbon steel in the PEMFCs' environments,two surface modification processes was developed and then the electrochemical performances and interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of the surface modified plate of plain carbon steel were investigated. The results show that the surface modified steel plates have good corrosion resistance and relatively low contact resistance, and it may be a candidate material as bipolar plate of PEMFC.

  14. Reconstruction of the Friuli Venezia Giulia Plain aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaris, Chiara; Cimolino, Aurelie; Cucchi, Franco; Deana, Alberto; Treu, Francesco; Zini, Luca

    2010-05-01

    The constantly increasing of water demand for human consumptions has necessitated a reconstruction of the hydrogeologic characteristics and properties as well isotopic features of the aquifers of the Friuli Venezia Giulia Plain (FP). The DiSGAM and DICA have been engaged by the Hydraulic Survey of the FVG Region in order to coordinate an integrated study finalized to the FP confined and unconfined aquifer geometries reconstruction and to provide guide-lines for water rational exploitation (Agreement D.G.R. n. 1827 dd. 27.07.2007). The Friuli Venezia Giulia Plain, located in the northeastern sector of Italy, hosts well developed Plio-Quaternary unconfined and confined alluvial aquifers. The main surface drainage of the Plain is the Tagliamento River. The regional hydrogeological situation is characterized in the north by an extensive alluvial unconfined aquifer mostly contained in carbonate gravels. This area extends from the Pre-Alps to the resurgence belt. The resurgence belt is 2 to 8 km wide and 80 kilometres long. In this area the water table intersects the topographic surface forming numerous plain springs and rivers. The resurgence belt sets a geohydrological boundary between the Upper and Lower Friulian Plain. In this strip the unconfined aquifer changes into a multi-layered confined that reach a thickness of up to 500 m with a progressive increase in a westward direction towards the Adriatic Sea. In order to define underground aquifer relations and patterns, more than 1800 stratigraphic columns have been collected from different public departments water well database. Well logs have been georeferred, missing elevations calculated by regional DTM, possible correspondences controlled and datasets updated. In order to better correlate spatial data, an unique implemented lithostratigraphy legend has been created from present different ones; it is composed of: Lithological Entries (relating lithology and granulometric features; permeability linked different

  15. A Study on the Driving Factors of Food Production in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain Based on Path Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaqi; LIU; Jiazhen; LIU; Jinping; ZHANG; Yongjin; CHEN; Mengchen; XU; Chengxiang; WANG

    2015-01-01

    The effects of 14 factors on food production in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain are analyzed by path analysis in this paper,and then the linear regression models of them are established by SPSS software. The results show that electricity consumption for agriculture,growing area of crops,the affected area,annual average temperature and arable land area at the end of the year have great effects on food production. Finally some recommendations are put forward to improve the food production in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain such as improving the level of agricultural mechanization,stabilizing food production,preventing natural disasters and increasing the effective irrigation area.

  16. Occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the Spring River flood plain and tributary flood plains, Cherokee County, Kansas, 2009--11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2013-01-01

    Historical mining activity in the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD), located in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma, has resulted in a substantial ongoing input of cadmium, lead, and zinc to the environment. To provide some of the information needed to support remediation efforts in the Cherokee County, Kansas, superfund site, a 4-year study was begun in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey that was requested and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A combination of surficial-soil sampling and coring was used to investigate the occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the flood plains of the Spring River and several tributaries within the superfund site. Lead- and zinc-contaminated flood plains are a concern, in part, because they represent a long-term source of contamination to the fluvial environment. Lead and zinc contamination was assessed with reference to probable-effect concentrations (PECs), which represent the concentrations above which adverse aquatic biological effects are likely to occur. The general PECs for lead and zinc were 128 and 459 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. The TSMD-specific PECs for lead and zinc were 150 and 2,083 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. Typically, surficial soils in the Spring River flood plain had lead and zinc concentrations that were less than the general PECs. Lead and zinc concentrations in the surficial-soil samples were variable with distance downstream and with distance from the Spring River channel, and the largest lead and zinc concentrations usually were located near the channel. Lead and zinc concentrations larger than the general or TSMD-specific PECs, or both, were infrequent at depth in the Spring River flood plain. When present, such contamination typically was confined to the upper 2 feet of the core and frequently was confined to the upper 6 inches. Tributaries with few or no lead- and zinc-mined areas in the basin—Brush Creek

  17. Effect of habitat and foraging height on bat activity in the coastal plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer, M.; Menzel, Michael A.; Kilgo, John C.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.; McCracken, Gary F.

    2005-07-01

    A comparison of bat activity levels in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina among 5 habitat types: forested riparian areas, clearcuts, young pine plantations, mature pine plantations and pine savannas, using time expansion radio-microphones and integrated detectors to simultaneously monitor bat activity at three heights in each habitat type.

  18. Application of MEDALUS Method for Desertification Mapping in SEJZI plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshandehmehr, L.; Soltani, S.; Sepehr, A.

    2009-04-01

    According to the UNCCD definition, "Desertification" is land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry subhumid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities. According to this definition, natural and anthropogenic processes have main roles in desertification severity. The MEDALUS methodology is a practical approach to assess the status of desertification and evaluating of desertification risk. In this study, have been developed a regional model for desertification assessment and mapping in SEJZI plain (Eastern Isfahan) based on MEDALUS methodology. At first step, main factors and indicators affecting on desertification process were identified. According to the local condition, seven factors include: climate, soil, vegetation cover, ground water, water erosion, wind erosion and policy and management were recognized. Each factor included several indicators accounting as factor quality determination. These indicators quantified based on their influences on desertification process. For each indicator a score ranging from 100 to 200 have been assigned and desertification weighting was extracting. Ultimately, desertification severity was classified in four level including low, moderate, severe and high severe. Results showed that 1.69% of study area classified as moderate class, 34.86% classified as severe and 63.45% involved high severe class. The climate and management and policy were the most important factors affecting on desertification process. Keywords: Desertification, MEDALUS, SEJZI Plain, Desertification Mapping

  19. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness.

  20. Geodatabase compilation of hydrogeologic, remote sensing, and water-budget-component data for the High Plains aquifer, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Natalie A.; Gonzales-Bradford, Sophia L.; Flynn, Amanda T.; Qi, Sharon L.; Peterson, Steven M.; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Ryter, Derek W.; Sohl, Terry L.; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2013-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies almost 112 million acres in the central United States. It is one of the largest aquifers in the Nation in terms of annual groundwater withdrawals and provides drinking water for 2.3 million people. The High Plains aquifer has gained national and international attention as a highly stressed groundwater supply primarily because it has been appreciably depleted in some areas. The U.S. Geological Survey has an active program to monitor the changes in groundwater levels for the High Plains aquifer and has documented substantial water-level changes since predevelopment: the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study is part of a series of regional groundwater availability studies conducted to evaluate the availability and sustainability of major aquifers across the Nation. The goals of the regional groundwater studies are to quantify current groundwater resources in an aquifer system, evaluate how these resources have changed over time, and provide tools to better understand a systems response to future demands and environmental stresses. The purpose of this report is to present selected data developed and synthesized for the High Plains aquifer as part of the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study. The High Plains Groundwater Availability Study includes the development of a water-budget-component analysis for the High Plains completed in 2011 and development of a groundwater-flow model for the northern High Plains aquifer. Both of these tasks require large amounts of data about the High Plains aquifer. Data pertaining to the High Plains aquifer were collected, synthesized, and then organized into digital data containers called geodatabases. There are 8 geodatabases, 1 file geodatabase and 7 personal geodatabases, that have been grouped in three categories: hydrogeologic data, remote sensing data, and water-budget-component data. The hydrogeologic data pertaining to the northern High Plains aquifer is included in three separate

  1. Simulation of soil moisture for typical plain region using the Variable Infiltration Capacity model

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Z.; Mao, Y.; Lu, G.; Zhang, J.(High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA)

    2015-01-01

    Droughts have a severe impact on the development of the social economy in developed plain areas. Soil moisture is a good index, it can reasonably reflect changes in drought. In this study, Jiangsu province in the Yangtze River Plain was selected as the research region, and the VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) large-scale hydrological model was selected to simulate the daily soil moisture with a resolution of 0.125 × 0.125 degree from 1956 to 2009. The simulated soil moisture was verified ...

  2. Changing with the Times: The Evolution of Plain Language in the Legal Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    As is well known, the Plain language movement has been influential in a number of areas of public life over the last few decades. Within the legal sphere it has raised general awareness concerning the need to make legal matters and legal documents more comprehensible and accessible to non-experts, particularly in today’s digitalized world where information is freely available to the general public. In this paper my aim is to provide an overview of the way the Plain language movement has evolv...

  3. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1995 to 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1995 to 2000, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  4. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2005 to 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2005 to 2009, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  5. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1980 to 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1980 to 1995, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  6. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2000 to 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2000 to 2005, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  7. Low-energy Beach ridge sedimentation in the Mississippi River delta plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, R.G.; Penland, S.

    1985-01-01

    Regressive beach ridge plains, such as Cheniere Caminada, Cheniere Caillou, and Cheniere Ronquille, are common depositional features within the Mississippi River delta plain in southeastern Louisiana. Vibracored sequences indicate beach ridge formation is a 3 stage process: Stage 1: Distributary Progradation, followed by Stage 2: Longshore Transport Interception, and completed by Stage 3: Beach Ridge Progradation. Cheniere Caminada is the largest beach ridge plain and is associated with the Late Lafourche delta. Radiocarbon dates indicate beach ridge building began approximately 720 years BP, when the Bayou Lafourche distributaries built seaward of the older, retreating Bayou Blue shoreline and intercepted westward longshore sediment transport, resulting in the progradation of Cheniere Caminada. Near the fan apex, beach ridges are 7-8 m thick and thin westward 2-3 m thick against the levees of Bayou Moreau. A typical beach ridge vertical sequence coarsens upward, with shoreface silty sands overlain by a thin cap of beach, washover, and aeolian sands. Beach ridge progradation in this area ceased approximately 300 years BP with the abandonment of Bayou Lafourche. The documentation of multiple regressive beach ridge plains suggest these deposits are stratigraphically more significant in the Mississippi River delta plain than recognized previously. The regressive beach ridge sequence documented in this study both stratigraphically and genetically contrasts with the classic transgressive chenier ridges of southwestern Louisiana.

  8. APPLICATION OF ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS TO ASSESSING THE ECOLOGICAL VULNERABILITY OF WETLANDS IN THE JIANGHAN PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-lei; NING Long-mei; HU Wang-bin

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands in the Jianghan Plain are important components of wetland types in lake area in the middle and lower reaches the Changjiang (Yangtze) River and they fulfill many uses and functions related to hydrology,waste assimilation, ecosystem productivity and biodiversity. Owing to natural factors and human activities, especially excessive reclamation from lakes, the shrinking process of the lakes has been accelerated. Wetland ecosystem has shown the characteristics of vulnerability. According to the analysis of wetland ecological function in the Jianghan Plain, this paper presented an index system related to productivity, stability and environmental capacity. By using the method of Analytic Hierarchy Process, we computed the values of the relative weights of the indexes, and evaluated the vulnerability level of the wetland ecosystem by the method of multi-indexes. The case study showed that the fragile extent of wetland ecosystem in the Jianghan Plain is 5.6. This means that the wetland ecosystem in the Jiang-han Plain is laid to the state of middle vulnerability. Therefore, the wetland conservation and eco-rehabilitation in the Jianghan Plain should be paid attention to.

  9. Accuracy of radiographer plain radiograph reporting in clinical practice: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To determine the accuracy of radiographer plain radiograph reporting in clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Studies were identified from electronic sources and by hand searching journals, personal communication and checking reference lists. Eligible studies assessed radiographers' plain radiograph reporting in clinical practice compared with a reference standard, and provided accuracy data to construct 2x2 contingency tables. Data were extracted on study eligibility and characteristics, quality and accuracy. Summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to pool the accuracy data. RESULTS: Radiographers compared with a reference standard, report plain radiographs in clinical practice at 92.6% and 97.7% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Studies that compared selectively trained radiographers and radiologists of varying seniority against a reference standard showed no evidence of a difference between radiographer and radiologist reporting accuracy of accident and emergency plain radiographs. Selectively trained radiographers were also found to report such radiographs as accurately as those not solely from accident and emergency, although some variation in reporting accuracy was found for different body areas. Training radiographers improved their accuracy when reporting normal radiographs. CONCLUSION: This study systematically synthesizes the literature to provide an evidence-base showing that radiographers can accurately report plain radiographs in clinical practice

  10. Constraining rates and trends of historical wetland loss, Mississippi River Delta Plain, south-central Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Julie C.; Morton, Robert A.; Barras, John A.

    2006-01-01

    The timing, magnitude, and rate of wetland loss were described for five wetland-loss hotspots in the Terrebonne Basin of the Mississippi River delta plain. Land and water areas were mapped for 34 dates between 1956 and 2004 from historical National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) datasets, aerial photographs, and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite images. Since 1956, the emergent land area at the five study areas in south-central Louisiana has decreased by about 50%. Comparison of the water-area curve derived from the 29 TM images with water-level records from the nearby Grand Isle, Louisiana tide gauge (NOS #8761724) clearly shows that changes in land and water areas fluctuate in response to variations in regional water levels. The magnitude of water-area fluctuations decreased from the 1980s to the 1990s as former areas of wet marsh within and immediately adjacent to the wetland-loss hotspots became permanently submerged. The most rapid wetland loss occurred during the late 1960s and 1970s. Peak wetland-loss rates during this period were two to four times greater than both the pre-1970s background rates and the most recent wetland-loss rates. These results provide constraints on predicting future delta-plain wetland losses and identify Landsat TM imagery as an important source for analyzing land- and water-area changes across the entire delta plain.

  11. Water Production Functions For High Plains Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declining water supplies is the critical resource issue for irrigated agriculture in the High Plains and much of the western U.S. Farmers need to maximize production per unit water consumed to remain economically viable and sustain irrigated agriculture. The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Wat...

  12. Necrotizing fasciitis : plain radiographic and CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the plain radiographic and CT findings of the necrotizing fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic findings of 4 cases with necrotizing fasciitis. Three cases were proven pathologically. We evaluated pattern and extent of the gas shadows in plain films. CT findings were analysed, with emphasis on : (a) gas pattern, (b) extent, (c) location and involved site, (d) associated focal abscess, and (e) swelling of the adjacent muscles. On plain radiographs, four cases showed streaky or mottled gas densities in the pelvis, three cases in the perineum, one case in the abdomen, and two cases in the thigh. On CT images, gas pattern was mottled and streaky appearance with swelling of the adjacent muscles. Gas shadows located in the extraperitoneal space in four cases, fascial layer in four cases, and subcutaneous layer in four cases. There were gas shadows in pelvic wall, perineum, abdominal wall, buttock, thigh, and scrotum. Focal low density lesion suggestive of focal abscess was not visualized. Plain radiography is useful for early diagnosis of the necrotizing fasciitis and CT is very useful for detection of precise location and extent of the disease. CT is also useful for differentiation of necrotizing fasciitis from focal abscess and cellulitis

  13. Necrotizing fasciitis : plain radiographic and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Dae; Park, Jeong Hee; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Lim, Jong Nam; Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Dong Rib [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate the plain radiographic and CT findings of the necrotizing fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic findings of 4 cases with necrotizing fasciitis. Three cases were proven pathologically. We evaluated pattern and extent of the gas shadows in plain films. CT findings were analysed, with emphasis on : (a) gas pattern, (b) extent, (c) location and involved site, (d) associated focal abscess, and (e) swelling of the adjacent muscles. On plain radiographs, four cases showed streaky or mottled gas densities in the pelvis, three cases in the perineum, one case in the abdomen, and two cases in the thigh. On CT images, gas pattern was mottled and streaky appearance with swelling of the adjacent muscles. Gas shadows located in the extraperitoneal space in four cases, fascial layer in four cases, and subcutaneous layer in four cases. There were gas shadows in pelvic wall, perineum, abdominal wall, buttock, thigh, and scrotum. Focal low density lesion suggestive of focal abscess was not visualized. Plain radiography is useful for early diagnosis of the necrotizing fasciitis and CT is very useful for detection of precise location and extent of the disease. CT is also useful for differentiation of necrotizing fasciitis from focal abscess and cellulitis.

  14. Climate vulnerabilities in the southern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The value of agricultural production in the Southern Plains exceeded $59 bil (2012 Agricultural Census) with livestock accounting for 58% of total agricultural sales. Crop and livestock commodities exceeding $1 bil include wheat, corn, horticultural crops, cotton, hay and forages, sorghum, soybean, ...

  15. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  16. Writing Government Policies and Procedures in Plain Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Don

    2008-01-01

    Plain language involves more than just a few simple techniques, such as using everyday words, short sentences, and active voice. Although there is no single definition, "plain language" basically stands for several dozen well-established principles of clear communication. In this article, the author discusses the significance of plain language…

  17. 12 CFR 611.1217 - Plain language requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plain language requirements. 611.1217 Section 611.1217 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Termination of System Institution Status § 611.1217 Plain language requirements. (a) Plain language presentation....

  18. Plains Energy Services Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plains Energy Services Ltd. (Plains) is a two year old public company in the oil and gas service industry. It provides an integrated pool of services, concentrating on the life cycle of oil and gas wells as the driver for its expansion. Although the industry saw a marked decrease in well drilling activity for 1998, Plains was able to sustain a consistent income and cash flow because of its focus on ensuring access to the well during drilling, completion, production and abandonment. For 1998, revenue reached a record $93.3 million, an 85 per cent increase over 1997. This report presented Plain's major achievements for 1998. These included the completed construction of a technical, machining and manufacturing facility to enhance the development and implementation of technology and equipment among all business units. The company also introduced coiled tubing drilling services in the North American marketplace, as well as the first commercial version of a casing inspection tool. Plain's also introduced production logging through their wireline services business and applied for four new patents in relation to downhole tool development. In 1998, the company consolidated their operations into four divisions including consolidation of administration, benefits, banking and related overhead services. This report also described the company's efforts in addressing the year 2000 challenge. The company's consolidated financial statements were presented for the benefit of shareholders. These included statements of earnings and deficit, balance sheets, as well as statements of changes in financial position. Notes to the consolidated financial statements included highlights of significant accounting policies, changes in accounting policies, acquisitions, discontinued operations, and capital assets. tabs., figs

  19. Radio monitoring of the Sozh-river flood plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periodic radiation monitoring supervision is the important parameter of the radioactivity level time control with reference to concrete landscapes, estimation and their ecological radiochemistry conditions forecast in order to accept practical measures for the risk radiation danger reduction. The early monitoring supervision was carried out in the area of radioactive anomalies in Sozh-river flood plain. The new data received in 1998 and 2000 are cited below. The radiation situation of the last landscape appropriating to conditions in central and near terrace Sozh-river flood plain, more than in 10 years, is nowadays characterized by the data of the structure of Veprin one. In coastal flood plain the maximal radioactivity is dated to meadow vegetable layer in downturn of relief or to humus horizon of actual soil on coastal shaft. In central flood plain it remains rather high with the tendency of accumulation in meliorative channels, which are nowadays strongly overgrown, in 1,6-1,9 times exceeding earlier supervision. Down the Sozh near the village Gronovo in 1988 the level of gamma activity meadow vegetable layer changed. Radioactive situation is low here nowadays: on meadow vegetable layer almost in 5 times lower than former one. It is explained by the active hydro mode snow melt flood streams at the abrupt bend of Sozh channel, resulting in meadows washing and silt material washout. The deepening of Cs-137 reaches 0,20 m and connects with the accumulation of isotope in the top part of humus horizon where it is fixed in the fixed form. Monitoring supervision on radio strontium in the section of Sozh-river flood plain near the village Gronovo shows, that in 1995 its maximal concentration is observed in humusided loamy sand under meadow vegetable layer; the main mass of isotope - up to 80 % - was concentrated in the top 30-sm layer. It is remarkable, that with depth, reducing the contents almost twice and not being marked in underlaying sands, this isotope

  20. Reaction to energy development in the Northern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    This study analyzes attitudes of area residents toward mineral extraction and processing in the Northern Great Plains region of the US. Three major dimensions of people's attitudes toward energy development are examined: (1) belief in economic opportunities provided by development; (2) political effects of mineral development; and (3) concern about protecting the environment. Previous empirical studies of attitudes toward the economic opportunity afforded by industrial development suggest that there is little or no significant difference in belief in economic opportunity between people who have experienced development and those who have not had such experience. The literature reviewed suggests that attitudes toward political change are not strongly affected by experience with development. A dominant theme underlying the expectations about attitudes toward political changes accompanying development is the distrust of outsiders by inhabitants of the region. The theoretical rationale for expectations of attitudes toward the environment is based substantially on research by Vogt (1955) and Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) which stresses the view that western people perceive the natural environment as something to be mastered. It is concluded from these studies that inhabitants of the Plains would favor development of natural resources even if such development resulted in environmental degradation. Surveys from six counties in the region permit an examination of the relationship of these attitudes to the level of development occurring and to political and economic interests in an effort to understand better the process of social change.

  1. Climate Change Impacts of Irrigation on the Central High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterman, K. A.; Kendall, A. D.; Basso, B.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Since the 1940s, the High Plains Aquifer (HPA) has been pivotal for irrigation over the Central High Plains (CHP), a region spanning parts of five states in the central U.S.. Today after decades of over-pumping, many areas of the CHP are no longer able to irrigate due to localized depletion of the HPA. With a range of global climate models predicting an increase in temperature and decrease in growing-season precipitation for the CHP, demand for irrigation is likely to increase and exacerbate drawdown and depletion of the aquifer. Here we apply the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM) coupled with the crop simulation model SALUS to simulate irrigation water use in response to historical climate and land use. This model is validated using historical groundwater levels. We then simulate future climate scenarios to predict how irrigation demand and water availability will alter the hydrology of the CHP. This study provides a predictive relationship of future irrigation demand linked to both climate change and agricultural management, and presents a modeling approach to answer two questions: How will future climate change affect irrigation demand? How will climate change and irrigation demand affect groundwater availability for the future? Different climate scenarios based on the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) are used to simulate the impact of different projected future climate conditions through the year 2100. By examining predicted groundwater levels along with saturated thickness we analyze where irrigation is likely to be viable in the future and compare this to current irrigation extent.

  2. Integrated hydrological modelling of the North China Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, Yunqiao; Villholth, Karen G.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh;

    2012-01-01

    The integrated hydrological model MIKE SHE was applied to a part of the North China Plain to examine the dynamics of the hydrological system and to assess water management options to restore depleted groundwater resources. The model simulates the spatio-temporal distribution of recharge to and th......The integrated hydrological model MIKE SHE was applied to a part of the North China Plain to examine the dynamics of the hydrological system and to assess water management options to restore depleted groundwater resources. The model simulates the spatio-temporal distribution of recharge...... to and the associated dynamics of the alluvial aquifers based on climatic conditions, land use, soil characteristics, irrigation and coupled unsaturated-saturated zone processes. The model was auto-calibrated for the period 1996–2002 against daily observations of groundwater head from wells distributed across the 7230...... solely reverse declining water tables across the region. Combining the SNWT project and implementing region-wide crop and irrigation system changes, including deficit irrigation, wastewater irrigation, and alternating winter fallow, provides a feasible means to stabilize groundwater levels in the area....

  3. Isotope techniques applied to groundwater movement in the Konya plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the yields of surface waters in the Konya plain decrease noticeably in the summer months the need arises for using groundwater reservoirs for irrigation in the region. To obtain maximum benefits from groundwater the characteristics of the groundwater must be known. Conventional hydrological methods were used to locate groundwater, but these proved inadequate for sufficiently exact conclusions to be drawn. The aim of these investigations was to determine the location of aquifers in the Konya plain by using the stable isotopes oxygen-18 and deuterium. Samples were taken every month at 35 sampling points scattered homogeneously throughout the region. In addition, precipitation samples were collected at three points in the recharge area. The stable isotope values of these samples indicated that two main water bodies with different characteristics existed (one at a shallow and the other at a deeper level), and that they were fed by precipitation of continental type. In the second step of the study an attempt was made to determine the transit time in the deep aquifer by using tritium, but it was not possible to make calculations because the tritium values were extremely low. (author)

  4. Isotope Techniques Applied to Groundwater Movement in the Konya Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the yields of surface waters in the Konya plain decrease noticeably in the summer months the need arises for using groundwater reservoirs for irrigation in the region. To obtain maximum benefits from groundwater the characteristics of the groundwater must be known. Conventional hydrological methods were used to locate groundwater, but these proved inadequate for sufficiently exact conclusions to be drawn. The aim of these investigations was to determine the location of aquifers in the Konya plain by using the stable isotopes oxygen-18 and deuterium. Samples were taken every month at 35 sampling points scattered homogeneously throughout the region. In addition, precipitation samples were collected at three points in the recharge area. The stable isotope values of these samples indicated that two main water bodies with different characteristics existed (one at a shallow and the other at a deeper level), and that they were fed by precipitation of continental type. In the second step of the study an attempt was made to determine the transit time in the deep aquifer by using tritium, but it was not possible to make calculations because the tritium values were extremely low. (author)

  5. Estimation of Actual Evapotranspiration by Remote Sensing: Application in Thessaly Plain, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Nikos Mamassis; Panagiotis Elias; Demetris Koutsoyiannis; Charalabos Kontoes; Alexia Tsouni

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing can assist in improving the estimation of the geographical distribution of evapotranspiration, and consequently water demand in large cultivated areas for irrigation purposes and sustainable water resources management. In the direction of these objectives, the daily actual evapotranspiration was calculated in this study during the summer season of 2001 over the Thessaly plain in Greece, a wide irrigated area of great agricultural importance. Three different methods were adapted...

  6. Investigating organic micropollutants in a peri-urban flood plain aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Manamsa, Katya; Lapworth, Dan; Stuart, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This poster describes a pilot study to develop the sampling methodology required to investigate the occurrence and distribution of “emerging organic contaminants” in groundwater in an area of anticipated contamination. The study site was the BGS Oxford Observatory on the Port Meadow, within a peri-urban setting, including an area of ancient grassland on the gravels of the flood plain of the River Thames to the northwest of Oxford. Groundwater levels suggest that the regional groundwater flow ...

  7. Light Plains in the South-Pole Aitken Basin: Surface Ages and Mineralogical Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, F.; Hiesinger, H.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Pasckert, J. H.; Robinson, M. S.

    2012-04-01

    We studied light plains in the north-eastern South-Pole Aitken basin to investigate their origin, ages, and mineralogical composition. Light plains, also known as the Cayley Formation, occur on the near- and farside of the Moon. Due to their smooth texture, lower crater densities, and occurrence as crater fills, they were thought to be of volcanic origin [e.g., 1]. However, Apollo 16 samples of light plains deposits were in fact highly brecciated rocks [2]. Therefore, the Imbrium and Orientale impacts were thought to have formed light plains because they reshaped the surface thousands of kilometers from their impact sites. Subsequent studies revealed varying surface ages of light plains [e.g., 3] and different mineralogical compositions, which are in some cases more highland-like and in others more mare-like. Hence, an origin solely from the Imbrium and/or Orientale impacts is unlikely. Thus, the question whether light plains formed due to large impacts or regional cratering, or through endogenic processes remains open. We performed crater size-frequency measurements [e.g., 4] on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera images and obtained absolute model ages between 3.43 and 3.81 Ga. We observed neither a distinctive peak of light plains ages nor clustering of similar ages in any specific regions of the studied area. Due to the fact that the derived ages vary as much as 380 Ma, an origin by a single event seems unlikely. Moreover, some ages even post-date the Imbrium and Orientale impacts, and thus an origin related to those impacts is not likely. Examination of multispectral data from Clementine [5] shows that the Ti abundances vary between 0.2 and 3 wt % and Fe abundances between 12.5 and 19 wt %. We observed a regional difference in distribution: light plains units within the Apollo basin have lower Fe and Ti values and are more highland-like, whereas light plains outside the Apollo basin show higher Fe and Ti values and are more mare-like. Furthermore, M

  8. A decade of investigations on groundwater arsenic contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipankar; Sahu, Sudarsan

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater arsenic (As) load in excess of drinking limit (50 µg L(-1)) in the Gangetic Plains was first detected in 2002. Though the menace was known since about two decades from the downstream part of the plains in the Bengal Basin, comprising of Lower Ganga Plain and deltaic plains of Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna River system, little thought was given to its possible threat in the upstream parts in the Gangetic Plains beyond Garo-Rajmahal Hills. The contamination in Bengal Basin has become one of the extensively studied issues in the world and regarded as the severest case of health hazard in the history of mankind. The researches and investigations in the Gangetic Plains during the last decade (2003-2013) revealed that the eastern half of the plains, also referred as Middle Ganga Plain (MGP), is particularly affected by contamination, jeopardising the shallow aquifer-based drinking water supply. The present paper reviews researches and investigations carried out so far in MGP by various research institutes and government departments on wide array of issues of groundwater As such as its spatio-temporal variation, mobilisation paths, water level behaviour and flow regime, configuration of contaminated and safe aquifers and their recharge mechanism. Elevated conc. of groundwater As has been observed in grey and dark grey sediments of Holocene age (Newer Alluvium) deposited in a fluvio-lacustrine environment in the floodplain of the Ganga and most of its northern tributaries from Himalayas. Older Alluvium, comprising Pleistocene brownish yellow sediment, extending as deeper aquifers in Newer Alluvium areas, is low in groundwater As. Similarities and differences on issues between the MGP and the Bengal Basin have been discussed. The researches point towards the mobilisation process as reductive dissolution of iron hydroxide coating, rich in adsorbed As, mediated by microbial processes. The area is marked with shallow water level (bodies carry organic carbon from

  9. 78 FR 65874 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... below, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety..., mooring, laying up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any person or vessel is... Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee...

  10. 75 FR 73966 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... into, transiting, mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any..., transiting, mooring, laying up, or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any person or... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel,...

  11. 78 FR 49684 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ..., transiting, mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any person or..., transiting, mooring, laying up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any person or... Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee...

  12. 78 FR 36091 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ..., mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any person or vessel is... this part, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying up or anchoring within the enforced area of this... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel,...

  13. 77 FR 65478 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ..., mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any person or vessel is... this part, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying up or anchoring within the enforced area of this... including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee...

  14. 75 FR 64147 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... into, transiting, mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any..., transiting, mooring, laying up, or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any person or... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel,...

  15. 75 FR 52462 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... enforcement period, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of this.... 165.23 of this part, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying up, or anchoring within the enforced area... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel,...

  16. 76 FR 78161 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... enforcement period, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of ] this..., transiting, mooring, laying up or anchoring within the enforced area of this safety zone by any person or... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel,...

  17. Large lake basins of the southern High Plains: Ground-water control of their origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, W.W.; Sanford, W.E. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)); Reeves, C.C. Jr (Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock (United States))

    1992-06-01

    The origin of the {approximately}40-50 topographically large lake basins on the southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico has been an enigma. Previous workers have considered deflation or evaporite dissolution at depth and subsequent collapse as the most probable mechanisms. However, the eolian hypotheses have been unable to provide convincing arguments as to how the wind selectively erodes the thick, deflation-resistant calcrete 'caprock' that is persistent over much of the southern High Plains. Furthermore, recent detailed studies on some of the basins show no significant evaporite dissolution at depth, and neither mechanism offers a satisfactory explanation as to why the basins are almost universally associated with subsurface topographic highs, or why they are absent where the High Plains aquifer thickness exceeds 60 m. The authors address these latter concerns and modify the deflation hypothesis by proposing that the calcrete caprock may never have been deposited in the areas now occupied by the basins. The absence of calcrete deposition is proposed to have resulted from high water tables caused by an increase in hydraulic gradient where aquifers thinned above bedrock highs. A high water table close to an/or intersecting the surface prevents deposition of calcrete, and, thus, the uncemented surface would be more susceptible to deflation than the surrounding calcrete-covered areas after decline of the water table. The rise in water table associated with bedrock highs is documented by numerical simulation using boundary conditions and hydrologic parameters representative of the southern High Plains.

  18. Probability mapping of saline and sodic soils in the Harran plain using a non-linear kriging technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Volkan Bilgili

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Harran Plain, southeastern Turkey, soil salinisation causes land degradation threatening the sustainability of agricultural production. According to a recent survey, approximately 18000 ha area has been affected by soil salinity and sodicity at various levels. Determining the distribution of saline and sodic soils in the study area is the first step for effective management of these soils. Over 200 soil samples have been randomly selected across the plain and analyzed for selected soil salinity and sodicity variables in soil salinity laboratory. Indicator kriging (IK, a non-linear interpolation technique, was used to map the probability levels of occurrence of saline and sodic soils across the plain. The results of IK showed the probability distributions of risky areas under different types of soil salinity classes; nonsaline, saline, saline – sodic and sodic.

  19. Upscaling carbon fluxes over the Great Plains grasslands: Sinks and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wylie, Bruce K.; Ji, Lei; Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Tieszen, Larry L.; Howar, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that the grasslands may be carbon sinks or near equilibrium, and they often shift between carbon sources in drought years and carbon sinks in other years. It is important to understand the responses of net ecosystem production (NEP) to various climatic conditions across the U.S. Great Plains grasslands. Based on 15 grassland flux towers, we developed a piecewise regression model and mapped the grassland NEP at 250 m spatial resolution over the Great Plains from 2000 to 2008. The results showed that the Great Plains was a net sink with an averaged annual NEP of 24 ± 14 g C m−2 yr−1, ranging from a low value of 0.3 g C m−2 yr−1 in 2002 to a high value of 47.7 g C m−2 yr−1 in 2005. The regional averaged NEP for the entire Great Plains grasslands was estimated to be 336 Tg C yr−1 from 2000 to 2008. In the 9 year period including 4 dry years, the annual NEP was very variable in both space and time. It appeared that the carbon gains for the Great Plains were more sensitive to droughts in the west than the east. The droughts in 2000, 2002, 2006, and 2008 resulted in increased carbon losses over drought-affected areas, and the Great Plains grasslands turned into a relatively low sink with NEP values of 15.8, 0.3, 20.1, and 10.2 g C m−2 yr−1 for the 4 years, respectively.

  20. Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Longuevergne, Laurent; Reedy, Robert C.; Alley, William M.; McGuire, Virginia L.; McMahon, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Aquifer overexploitation could significantly impact crop production in the United States because 60% of irrigation relies on groundwater. Groundwater depletion in the irrigated High Plains and California Central Valley accounts for ~50% of groundwater depletion in the United States since 1900. A newly developed High Plains recharge map shows that high recharge in the northern High Plains results in sustainable pumpage, whereas lower recharge in the central and southern High Plains has resulted in focused depletion of 330 km3 of fossil groundwater, mostly recharged during the past 13,000 y. Depletion is highly localized with about a third of depletion occurring in 4% of the High Plains land area. Extrapolation of the current depletion rate suggests that 35% of the southern High Plains will be unable to support irrigation within the next 30 y. Reducing irrigation withdrawals could extend the lifespan of the aquifer but would not result in sustainable management of this fossil groundwater. The Central Valley is a more dynamic, engineered system, with north/south diversions of surface water since the 1950s contributing to ~7× higher recharge. However, these diversions are regulated because of impacts on endangered species. A newly developed Central Valley Hydrologic Model shows that groundwater depletion since the 1960s, totaling 80 km3, occurs mostly in the south (Tulare Basin) and primarily during droughts. Increasing water storage through artificial recharge of excess surface water in aquifers by up to 3 km3 shows promise for coping with droughts and improving sustainability of groundwater resources in the Central Valley.

  1. Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the onset of substantial irrigation with groundwater from the aquifer (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this fact sheet). By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (ft) (Luckey and others, 1981). In 1987, in response to declining water levels, Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources entities, to assess and track water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2009. Drainable water in storage is the fraction of water in the aquifer that will drain by gravity and can be withdrawn by wells. The remaining water in the aquifer is held to the aquifer material by capillary forces and generally cannot be withdrawn by wells. Drainable water in storage is termed "water in storage" in this report. A companion USGS report presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2011).

  2. Analysis of polyethylene wear in plain radiographs

    OpenAIRE

    Stilling, Maiken; Søballe, Kjeld; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Larsen, Kristian; Rahbek, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Two-dimensional computerized radiographic techniques are frequently used to measure in vivo polyethylene (PE) wear after total hip arthroplasty (THA), and several variables in the clinical set-up may influence the amount of wear that is measured. We compared the repeatability and concurrent validity of linear PE wear on plain radiographs using the same software but a different number of radiographs. Methods We used either 1, 2, or 6 anteroposterior (AP) hip radiographs ...

  3. Environmental impact of surface coal mining and reclamation in the Plains region of Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1979 and 1988, the Plains Hydrology and Reclamation Project (PHRP) studied the impacts of surface coal mining in the plains of Alberta on the hydrology and agricultural capability of reclaimed landscapes. The most important adverse hydrologic impact of surface mining is removal of the shallow aquifers that provide the majority of agricultural water supplies. In some areas, replacement water supplies are available from beneath the base of mining. Chemical quality of groundwater in mine spoil is degraded significantly relative to that in pre-existing coal aquifers. Surface mining has essentially no impact on water quality outside of mined areas. The agricultural capability of reconstructed soil landscapes generally is equivalent to, although less variable than, that of unmined landscapes. Physical and chemical properties of well-drained reconstructed soils are improved through downward leaching of sodium and through a decrease in bulk density. Surface wetness and soil salinity result in degradation of agricultural capability in small areas of reclaimed sites

  4. Improvement of water resources management through the use of satellites flood plain delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Rango, A.

    1974-01-01

    The delineation of flood-prone areas is an important activity in several parts of the world. Conventional methods map the topography surrounding the river via ground surveys and supplementary aerophotography. The conventional method costs approximately $2,000 per river-kilometer, is laborious and time-consuming. ERTS information can supplement this method by two complementary techniques: (1) the dynamic method images the floods as they occur, exploiting the fact that visible evidence of inundation remains for a substantial period after the high waters have receded; (2) the static method utilizes the fact that several flood plains have been found recognizable on ERTS imagery from distinctive, permanent indicators left by previous floods. For areas whose full development is still in the future, the dynamic method allows the gradual buildup with time of a flood plain map, by simply correlating existing ERTS imagery. The static method allows in several areas, a first-cut indication, of proneness to floods.

  5. Hydrology of Salt Wells Creek : a plains stream in southwestern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowham, H.W.; DeLong, L.L.; Collier, K.R.; Zimmerman, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Development of energy minerals in plains areas of Wyoming is expanding rapidly. Such development may affect water resources and hydrologic relations of the plains; however, little information exists concerning hydrologic processes for these areas. This report summarizes results of a hydrologic study made during 1975-78 of Salt Wells creek, a drainage area of about 500 square miles located southeast of Rock Springs, Wyoming. The area is typical of arid and semiarid plains areas in southwestern Wyoming where mineral development is occurring. Salt Wells Creek is predominately an intermittent stream. Numerous springs in the headwaters cause small perennial flows in some upstream tributaries, but evaporation, freezeup, and seepage deplete these flows so that the middle and lower reaches of the main channel have only intermittent flows. The intermittent nature of streamflow affects water quality. It was observed that a flushing of dissolved solids and suspended sediment occurs during the first flows of a runoff event. A striking feature of the stream is its deeply incised channel. The downcutting is attributed to the cummulative effects of: (1) a change in the relative climate, amounts of annual precipitation occurring as rain and snow, (2) change in base level due to downstream channelization, and (3) changes in land use. Because of the incision, erosion is now expanding to include intervening tributaries. (USGS)

  6. Environmental Implication of Intensive Farming Practices on North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Lin; Zhou Hailin; Xie Gaodi

    2005-01-01

    The current pressure on production resources of North China Plain, such as land and water to feed the growing population, necessitates the assessment of the sustainability of farming practices. This study focuses on the sustainability of farming practices related to groundwater and soil fertility management. The assessment is based on selected site-specific key indicators and their established threshold limits. The current farming practices in the study area are clearly unsustainable.Only about 6% of the surveyed farm households practice sustainable farming. The study stresses that farming practice, which is economically sustainable,should not be promoted at the cost of environment.Holistic strategies need to be developed and implemented that aim at balanced use of inputs,which satisfy both productivity and environmental concerns.

  7. Modelling of density dependent groundwater flow in the south-western Belgian coastal plain

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbohede, A.; Linster, T.; Lebbe, L.

    2005-01-01

    The study area is situated at the landward border of the Belgian western coastal plain at the right bank of the river Ijzer. The phreatic aquifer is of quaternary age. Until about the 12th century, the hydrology of the area was influenced by the North Sea. The area was criss-crossed by tidal channels and gullies and the aquifer was mainly filled with salt water. From about 1100 AD, the area was gradually reclaimed, halting the influence of the sea. The channels silted up. Fresh water started ...

  8. Assessment of Wild Ungulates in the Karnali Flood Plain of Bardia National Park, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daya Nidhi GAUTAM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The population of ungulates depends on the habitat factors and prey-predator interaction. This study aims to explore the habitat preference of ungulates and their relation with associated predators in the Bardia National Park, Nepal. The study was based on the transect survey and indirect observation of ungulates. Spotted deer recorded the highest density and blue bull recorded the lowest. Hog deer preferred mostly flood plains habitat and barking deer preferring mixed hardwood forest and tall grass flood plains. However, barking deer completely avoided the riverine forest and flood plain habitats. Swamp deer preferred Phata (grassland and blue bull was recorded only in flood plains. The higher concentration of ungulates’ pellet groups were found in areas close to water sources. The study concluded that different habitat features influence the distribution and abundance of ungulates. The higher density of spotted deer and hog deer suggests these species as the major prey base to maintain viable populations of tigers in the park.

  9. Determination of Groundwater Characteristics By Using Isotope Techniques in The Nigde Misli Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has been performed in order to define groundwater movement of the Nigde-Misli aquifer, determine the recharge of the basin by using isotope techniques. Nigde-Misli Plain situated in the southern part of the Central Anatolia,forms a closed basin which is boundaried by high mountains,such as Melendiz mountains in the west.The area of the Nigde- Misli plain is 350 sq km and its average altitude is 1340 m. Continental climate is dominant in the region.In the plain a few thousand exploration wells have been drilled for irrigation purposes and groundwater management plan has been carried out densely. Besides the conventional methods, hydrogeological investigations need to be supported by the isotopic methods to solve the tackled problems. In this purpose,groundwater and surface waters sample collected from springs and drilled wells during wet and summer periods were analysed to determine their isotopic and chemical components.Evaluated data has been compared with the data of the previous isotope hydrology investigation. As a result of this study, depending on the hydrogeological and isotope investigations, the altitude effect, recharge altitude of the plain, geothermal and irrigation effect, relation between the groundwater recharge and discharge have been explained clearly

  10. A Economic Analysis of the Akkar Plain Project

    OpenAIRE

    Chard, E. Douglas

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the economic feasibility of the Akkar Plain Agricultural Development Project. Data were collected at representative villages throughout the Akkar Plain in Syria. The data were used to establish the economic setting at the present time on the Akkar Plain and to establish a basis for determining the economic justification for the future planned developments. Methodology used was a farm budget analysis of a before development and after development situat...

  11. Definition of a Sinkhole hazard methodology in the Pontina Plain (Latium Region, Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoli, Pamela; Mazza, Roberto; Capelli, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The work presented here is the continuation of " Sinkhole Project of Latium Region" (2002), carried out by Researchers of the Laboratory of Applied Geology and Hydrogeology of the Department of Geological Sciences of the University "Roma Tre", Rome (Italy), through which were found, in different plain of the whole Region, Sinkhole prone areas, using a methodology based on the superimposition of thematic layers corresponding to geological and anthropogenic breaking factors. In the last years several specific investigations have been conducted by Researchers of the Laboratory in the Pontina Plain, that is located in the south west of the Latium Region, concerning the geological-stratigraphic setting, the sketch of flow in the aquifers located in the Pontine depression, the chemiphysical groundwater characheteristics, the density of wells, the amount of well pumping and piezometric changes. This required the implementation of several piezometric and chemiphysical surveys, the collection and validation of a large number of stratigraphic and geophysical data. All data in the archive have been computerized and the maps vectorized. This makes it possible today to address the analysis with Geographical Information Systems and to start numerical flow simulations, regarding both the heavily drained deep confined aquifer, and the areas subject to the presence of an important water exchange between the recharge area in the Lepini Mountains (carbonatic ridge) and terrigenous aquifers of the plain. Among the main causes that trigger the catastrophic collapses there are, in fact, all the phenomena that cause the mass density reduction through erosion, leaching, dissolution. All these agents are associated with water circulation: flow, velocity, CO2 saturation rate, carbonates saturation rate. The spread in the Pontina plain of deep and high pumping wells, wrongly built without the correct way of progress, and without the realization of cemented portions properly located, can lead

  12. Drought variability over Thessaly plain, Greece. Present and future changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Kapsomenakis, John; Dalezios, Nicolas R.; Kotsopoulos, Spyridon; Poulos, Serafim

    2015-04-01

    The diachronic variability of precipitation is of major scientific concern, because it is linked to water availability or deficiency on regional scale. The latter, resulted from a prolonged period of abnormally low precipitation or permanent absence of precipitation, is associated with dryness, having on one hand, a substantial impact on agricultural production and thus the society itself, and on the other hand, the redistribution of flora and fauna. In some cases, dryness drive climate refugees, and this is a great challenge - threat - that must be faced - mitigated - by stake holders in international organizations and fora. The Aridity Index (AI) measures the degree of dryness of the climate at a given region, and according to the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) it is defined as the ratio of precipitation to the potential evapotranspiration. In this study, we investigate the climate change impacts on AI over Thessaly plain, Greece. Thessaly, the largest plain and granary of Greece, includes a total area of 14,036 km2, which represents almost 11% of the Greek territory. Regarding the geomorphology, the ground is 50% mountainous-hilly and 50% flat, irrigated by Peneus, the third largest river in the country, which flows through the axis east-west. The assessment of AI was conducted utilizing daily evapotranspiration losses, based on the modified FAO-56 Penman-Monteith formula, and daily precipitation totals from a number of Regional Climate Models (RCMs), within the ENSEMBLE European Project. Further, the projected changes of AI between the period 1961-1990 (reference period) and the periods 2021-2050 (near future) and 2071-2100 (far future) along with the inter-model standard deviations are presented, under SRES A1B. The findings of the analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal changes of AI over Thessaly plain, focusing on their societal aspects. Acknowlegdements. This work is supported by the project AGROCLIMA (11SYN_3_1913), which is funded by

  13. Current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in central part of the Kanto Plain, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachinohe, S.; Hamamoto, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Hayashi, T.; Miyakoshi, A.; Yasuhara, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Kanto Plain is known as the largest plain in Japan, where a lot of huge cities are located and about 30% of population of Japan is concentrated. In the inland part of the Kanto Plain, dependence on groundwater for water requirements is relatively high; in particular around 40% of the municipal water supply is dependent on groundwater. On the other hand, various kinds of controlled substances such as arsenic, nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen, volatile organic compounds are detected in groundwater in excess of the Japanese environmental standards. Therefore, in order to evaluate current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in the central part of the Kanto Plain, we investigated around 500 wells. These wells are distributed throughout the plain area of Saitama Prefecture, stretching about 80 kilometers from east to west and about 60 kilometers from north to south. Depths of these wells range from 5m to 200m. We analyzed heavy metals and metalloids such as Fe, Mn, Al, As, Pb, using the ICP/AES and ICP/MS and also analyzed major dissolved ions such as Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, SO42-, using the ion chromatograph. As a result of investigation, rate of samples exceeded the Japanese environmental standards of arsenic (0.01 mg/l) in groundwater was about 1%, and the maximum concentration was about 10 times of the environmental standards. Groundwater with a high arsenic concentration was detected in the specific area, such as in the lowlands located upstream from the former shoreline at the Holocene glacial retreat. Taking the land use of surrounding area, well depth and groundwater condition of aquifers into account, detected arsenic is considered to be of natural origin and mainly originate from natural layers. According to the previous studies, the release mechanisms of natural arsenic are summarized in some ways and in case of this research area, it was explained that natural arsenic is released with dissolution of the iron oxide in the reduction

  14. PHREATIC WATERS POLLUTION IN THE SOMEŞ PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. BĂTINAȘ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of underground waters may determine restrictions in the water supplying of the inhabitants. In the Someş Plain, the three analyzed underground water bodies are characterized from a chemical point of view, being situated in the bicarbonate – calcic class, with various subclasses. In this study were used environment reports issued by the Counties Agencies for Environment Protection, respectively the Water management plans for Someş – Tisa and Crişuri water basins. The chronological analysis of the events that determined phreatic waters pollution, respectively, cases incidence and exceeding quantity, were made for the period 2002 – 2014, according to the available data

  15. Electrical structure of Plaine des Sables caldera, Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Reunion Island)

    OpenAIRE

    Schnegg, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    An Audio Magnetotelluric (AMT) profile has been carried out across the Plaine des Sables, a former caldera of the active Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island. Located in the Western Indian Ocean, between the Mascarene and Madagascar basins, this basaltic shield volcano originates from the activity of a hot spot. Our aim was to determine the internal structure of the volcano, in particular the shallow electrical properties of an area extending between the old and the new caldera rims....

  16. Saline systems of the Great Plains of western Canada: an overview of the limnogeology and paleolimnology

    OpenAIRE

    Last, William M; Ginn, Fawn M

    2005-01-01

    In much of the northern Great Plains, saline and hypersaline lacustrine brines are the only surface waters present. As a group, the lakes of this region are unique: there is no other area in the world that can match the concentration and diversity of saline lake environments exhibited in the prairie region of Canada and northern United States. The immense number of individual salt lakes and saline wetlands in this region of North America is staggering. Estimates vary from about one million to...

  17. The impact of anthropogenic activities on components of the natural environment of the Titu Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Elena BOGAN; Doina STAN; Daniela VĂRVĂRUC

    2015-01-01

    The anthropogenic activities on the environment cause topographic changes that have strong repercussions, some positive (afforestation, embankments) but other negative (deforestation, soil erosion, inning). The present study aims to analyze the current situation of the main anthropogenic activities in the area of Titu Plain, to highlight the negative impacts on the quality of the environment, and at the same time it proposes ways of reducing their adverse effect. Thus, there were studied the ...

  18. Kansas environmental and resource study: A Great Plains model, tasks 1-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralick, R. M.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Morain, S. A.; Yarger, H. L. (Principal Investigator); Ulaby, F. T.; Shanmugam, K. S.; Williams, D. L.; Mccauley, J. R.; Mcnaughton, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    There are no author identified significant results in this report. Environmental and resources investigations in Kansas utilizing ERTS-1 imagery are summarized for the following areas: (1) use of feature extraction techniqued for texture context information in ERTS imagery; (2) interpretation and automatic image enhancement; (3) water use, production, and disease detection and predictions for wheat; (4) ERTS-1 agricultural statistics; (5) monitoring fresh water resources; and (6) ground pattern analysis in the Great Plains.

  19. Structural evolution of Lavinia Planitia, Venus: Implications for the tectonics of the lowland plains

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Carlos; Anguita, Francisco; Ruiz Pérez, Javier; Romeo Briones, Ignacio; Martín Herrero, Álvaro Ignacio; Rodríguez, Alberto; Pimentel, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    This work shows the results of a detailed structural analysis of the deformation belts of Lavinia Planitia. Ridge belts and graben and groove belts can be observed at the studied area, while wrinkle ridges and large individual grooves predominate in the smooth plains. Transcurrent components of displacement are commonly observed, and transpression and transtension zones are the rule rather than the exception at most of the studied belts. Along strike azimuth changes of deformation belts are a...

  20. Seasonal Variations in Groundwater Level and Salinity in Coastal Plain of Eastern China Influenced by Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Shao-feng Yan; Shuang-en Yu; Yu-bai Wu; De-feng Pan; Dong-li She; Jianzhong Ji

    2015-01-01

    The coastline of China is approximately 18,000 km long. In most coastal cities, seawater intrusion is a serious threat to groundwater resources. Nine shallow monitoring wells were constructed to study the dynamics of shallow groundwater level and salinity in the coastal plain region of Jiangsu province, China. Results showed that precipitation, evaporation, and river stage affected the groundwater level in our study area. Positive correlations were observed among the groundwater level, precip...

  1. Identification of possible recent water/lava source fissures in the Cerberus Plains: stratigraphic and crater count age constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rebecca J.

    2013-04-01

    The Cerberus plains are one of the youngest surfaces on Mars. They are thought to have been formed by lava and/or water flows, but there is considerable debate regarding the source of this material. Much of the material forming the western plains, including the Athabasca Valles outflow channels, appears to have flowed from the region of the Cerberus Fossae graben system [1,2,3] and limited areas forming the eastern plains may have been erupted by low shield volcanoes [4,5]. However, flow of material from west to east is obstructed by a ridge centred on 157°E, 7°N and, prior to this study, vents which might be the source of fluid of a low enough viscosity to form the majority of the flat eastern plains had not been identified. We studied new HiRISE (25cm/px, High Resolution Science Imaging Experiment) images of the ridge between the east and west plains and observed possible source vents for this material: the ridge is cut by a series of pits and fissures which lie at the heads of flows and channels extending towards the surrounding plains. In order to establish the stratigraphic relationships between the vents and plains, this study produced large scale geomorphological maps based on the HiRISE images. The mapping showed that both incised channels and leveed flows extend onto the plain to the south of the ridge and that these were the final phase of plains-forming activity in that region. Conversely, to the north, ridge-sourced deposits only form the plains surface close to the ridge - beyond that, they are overlain by large-scale regional flows that appear to have originated from the direction of Athabasca Valles. In the southeast, a large-scale flow which does not emanate from this ridge forms the plains surface, but there is evidence that the youngest outflow activity from the ridge was contemporaneous with emplacement of this unit. We also performed crater counts to age-date the surfaces and these indicate that plains-forming and ridge-sourced units are of a

  2. Improving Web Page Readability by Plain Language

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Walayat; Ali, Arif

    2011-01-01

    In today's world anybody who wants to access any information the first choice is to use the web because it is the only source to provide easy and instant access to information. However web readers face many hurdles from web which includes load of web pages, text size, finding related information, spelling and grammar etc. However understanding of web pages written in English language creates great problems for non native readers who have basic knowledge of English. In this paper, we propose a plain language for a local language (Urdu) using English alphabets for web pages in Pakistan. For this purpose we developed two websites, one with a normal English fonts and other in a local language text scheme using English alphabets. We also conducted a questionnaire from 40 different users with a different level of English language fluency in Pakistan to gain the evidence of the practicality of our approach. The result shows that the proposed plain language text scheme using English alphabets improved the reading com...

  3. Improving Web Page Readability by Plain Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walayat Hussain

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In todays world anybody who wants to access any information the first choice is to use the web because it is the only source to provide easy and instant access to information. However web readers face many hurdles from web which includes load of web pages, text size, finding related information, spelling and grammar etc. However understanding of web pages written in English language creates great problems for non native readers who have basic knowledge of English. In this paper, we propose a plain language for a local language (Urdu using English alphabets for web pages in Pakistan. For this purpose we developed two websites, one with a normal English fonts and other in a local language text scheme using English alphabets. We also conducted a questionnaire from 40 different users with a different level of English language fluency in Pakistan to gain the evidence of the practicality of our approach. The result shows that the proposed plain language text scheme using English alphabets improved the reading comprehension for non native English speakers in Pakistan.

  4. Geology of the Gusec cratered plains from the Spirit rover transverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Crumpler, L. S.; Grant, J. A.; Greely, R.; Cabrol, N. A.; Parker, T. J.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Ward, J. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Moersch, J. E.; Fergason, J. F.; Christensen, P. R.; Castano, A.; Castano, R.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Li, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.

    2006-01-01

    The cratered plains of Gusev traversed by Spirit are generally low-relief rocky plains dominated by impact and eolian processes. Ubiquitous shallow, soil-filled, circular depressions, called hollows, are modified impact craters. Rocks are dark, fine-grained basalts, and the upper 10 m of the cratered plains appears to be an impact-generated regolith developed over intact basalt flows. Systematic field observations across the cratered plains identified vesicular clasts and rare scoria similar to original lava flow tops, consistent with an upper inflated surface of lava flows with adjacent collapse depressions. Crater and hollow morphometry are consistent with most being secondaries. The size frequency distribution of rocks >0.1 m diameter generally follows exponential functions similar to other landing sites for total rock abundances of 5-35%. Systematic clast counts show that areas with higher rock abundance and more large rocks have higher thermal inertia. Plains with lower thermal inertia have fewer rocks and substantially more pebbles that are well sorted and evenly spaced, similar to a desert pavement or lag. Eolian bed forms (ripples and wind tails) have coarse surface lags, and many are dust covered and thus likely inactive. Deflation of the surface _5-25 cm likely exposed two-toned rocks and elevated ventifacts and transported fines into craters creating the hollows. This observed redistribution yields extremely slow average erosion rates of _0.03 nm/yr and argues for very little long-term net change of the surface and a dry and desiccating environment similar to today's since the Hesperian (or _3 Ga).

  5. Organic manure as an alternative to crop residues for no-tillage wheat-maize systems in North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    NT can provide both environmental and economic benefits and has been recognized as a sustainable land use practice in many areas worldwide. NT has induced some concerns in the North China Plain (NCP), e.g. unstable crop yield and fodder shortage, with regards to the amount of crop residues retained ...

  6. 76 FR 2829 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... enforcement period, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying-up or anchoring within the enforced area of this... regulations in Sec. 165.23 of this part, entry into, transiting, mooring, laying up or anchoring within the... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel,...

  7. Casting the Buffalo Commons: A Rhetorical Analysis of Print Media Coverage of the Buffalo Commons Proposal for the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, Mary L.

    2002-01-01

    In 1987, Frank and Deborah Popper, a planner/geographer team from Rutgers University, proposed the Buffalo Commons. If implemented, the Buffalo Commons would have preserved a large area of the Great Plains, including land in ten states, in a national park to be used by exiting Native American reservations, and for the reintroduction of buffalo.

  8. Pyritization of the Coastal Sediments in the Kelantan Plains in the Malay Peninsula during the Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S.K. Enio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: For a number of geological reasons a proportion of the present coastal plains in the Malay Peninsula were inundated by seawater in the past when pyrite in some of the soils is believed to have been mineralized. Random survey of these sites showed a unique distribution and depth of pyritic layer in the soils along the coastal plains. A study was conducted in order to explain the mechanism of pyritization in the sediments of the present day coastal plains in Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia. Approach: Soil surveys were conducted and soils were sampled and analyzed. Spatial distribution of the pyritic soils was used to construct an imaginary line to indicate the probable position of the shoreline when the sea level was at its highest. Results: Results of the study showed that soils containing pyrite occur sporadically in the plains. This pyrite occurs in the soils at varying depth; some soils have pyritic layer below 2 m from the surface (northern region, while others have pyrite in the surface horizon (southern region. Pyrite was formed by the reaction of ferrous and sulfide ions which were respectively reduced from ferric ions (sediments and sulfate (seawater ions, respectively. In the middle of the study area, pyritic layer overlain by peaty materials were observed. Conclusion: The presence of pyrite in the soils can be used as an evidence for sea level rise in the area during the Holocene. This pyrite is assumed to have been formed about 6,000 years BP when the sea level rose 3-5 m above the present. Its oxidation has caused untold damage to the productivity of the paddy soils in the area.

  9. Analyzing the Various Approaches of Plain Language Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Betsy A., And Others

    1986-01-01

    Proposes a two-phase evaluation of the plain language laws that are designed to ensure that consumers can understand and use the personal business contracts they sign so that the best model for plain language legislation can be identified. (DF)

  10. Phytothérapie traditionnelle des bovins dans les élevages de la plaine de la Ruzizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaisse F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional horned cattle phytotherapy in the Rusizi plain breedings [Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo]. After presenting the ecological characteristics of the Rusizi plain and reminding of the socio-economical importance of horned cattle for the local populations, the authors deal with the traditional phytotherapy knowledge in this area. The study lists the plants used, the organs concerned (leaves, bark, root, fruit, etc., as well as the formula and doses recommended regarding the recognized diseases. Finally this ethnobotanical knowledge is placed and discussed regarding the East African one.

  11. Study on species composition of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on cotton in Çukurova plain, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    KARUT, Kamil; Kaydan,M. Bora; CASTLE, Steven J.; KAZAK, Cengiz; ULUSOY, M. Rifat

    2014-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most important pest species on cotton in the Çukurova Plain as well as in all cotton growing areas of Turkey. Although numerous studies on population dynamics, population development and parasitism were conducted on B. tabaci in the Çukurova Plain, there has been a few studies on the species complex of B. tabaci for this region. The aims of this study were to present genetic polymorphism and species compositi...

  12. Characteristics of peat deposits in Mississippi River delta plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosters, E.C.; Bailey, A.

    1983-09-01

    Variations in organic-rich sediment (peat) from the Mississippi River delta plain can be explained by differences in three interrelated parameters: (a) depositional setting, (b) balance between subsidence and detrital influx, and (c) marine inundation. Variations are observed in geomterty of the overall deposits, organic matter content, and the mineralogy of peats and related ashes. Using a vibracorer, samples were collected from two brackish areas (Avery Island/Sale-Cypremort and Barataria basin) and one freshwater area (Gueydan). Peats in all areas average 90% moisture content. Dried peat averages 81.3% organic matter with a bulk density of 0.12 g/cm/sup 3/. Holocene differential compaction has been minimal (< 4%). Conventional ash values indicate different distribution of organic materials for the two brackish areas. For the area containing interdistributary peats, approximately 5% of the subsurface contains more than 70% organic matter, whereas for blanket peats, 14% of the section has more than 70% organic matter. Mineralogic data collected on low-temperature ashes indicate that major minerals in brackish peat consist of kaolinite, quartz, and water-soluble salts, whereas minerals from freshwater samples are primarily kaolinite and quartz. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy show the presence of smectite, illite, abundant siliceous spicules, framboidal pyrite, biotite, pyroxene, and rutile in the insoluble fraction. Superficial examination of data generated so far suggests that only thin coal seams with high ash would be produced. However, the presence of decomposing siliceous sponge spicules in the ash and the possiblity of ash being leached by fresh ground water, suggest that much ash may be lost during early diagenesis.

  13. Land and Land-use Change in the Climate Sensitive High Plains: An Automated Approach with Landsat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Alexander F.; Williams, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The High Plains is an economically important and climatologically sensitive region of the United States and Canada. The High Plains contain 100,000 sq km of Holocene sand dunes and sand sheets that are currently stabilized by natural vegetation. Droughts and the larger threat of global warming are climate phenomena that could cause depletion of natural vegetation and make this region susceptible to sand dune reactivation. The original proposal was directed toward the use of Landsat TM data to establish the state and ongoing changes of the surface in the 1.2 million sq. km, semi-arid High Plains region of the central US, A key objective was to develop a model to predict the reactivation of the 100,000 sq. km of Holocene dunes found on the High Plains during an extended drought. At least one Landsat 5 image per year for 1985, 1988 and 1996 was obtained for 32 scenes on the High Plains to coincide with wet and dry years. Additional Landsat 7 data were acquired for 1999 and 2000 primarily for Colorado and Nebraska. As luck would have it, there was no severe drought during the study period 1985-2000. Attention was focused on developing methods for mapping dry vs. green vegetation on sparsely vegetated rangelands in sandy soils, since these were the areas most susceptible to surface reactivation during a drought.

  14. VECTOR ANALYSIS THEORY ON LANDSCAPE PATTERN (VATLP) IN SANJIANG PLAIN MARSH,CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shu-Qing; ZHANG Jun-Yan; LI Fang

    2004-01-01

    Landscape indices are popular for the quantification of landscape pattern. But all landscape indices being used so far are scalar quantity, which measure patterns without considering sufficiently the pattern size and the directionality together. Based on planar characteristics defined in mechanics such as centroid, moment of inertia, product of inertia, principal axes and so on, vector analysis theory on landscape pattern (VATLP) is explored here. Firstly we establish a coordinate system of centroidal principal axes (CSCPA) of a patch or patches. Some related new indices including those describing the direction of pattern distribution (patch orientation (PO), vectorial patch orientation (VPO)), and those indicating the shape of patch' s equivalent ellipse ( major axis (MJA), minor axis (MIA) and eccentric rate (ER)) are deduced. These landscape metrics are then applied to the pattern analysis of Sanjiang plain marsh, the study area. Two temporal vector-based data sets of the study area come from interpretation of remote sensing images MSS (1980) and TM (2000). The application of the theory captures some shape properties of riparian wetland in Sanjiang plain marsh. The dissymmetrieal featires of Sanjiang plain marsh around principal axes due to agricultural development could also be explained.

  15. EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURE RECLAMATION ON THE HYDROLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Sanjiang Plain is the largest and most concentrated wetland region in China, the total area is about 1. 088×107ha with rich marsh resources and biodiversity. Before 1949, the Sanjiang Plain was a large untravelled wild plant and waterfowl habitat, and there were some rare swans, red-crowned cranes and thousands of hydrophytes. From 1950, the local government began to reclaim the marsh in the Sanjiang Plain, built the commodity grain base of Northeast China, and developed the industry of grain processing, animal husbandry, etc. Up to now, there are 54 farms which control 3. 5087×106ha agriculture field. The marsh areas are reduced by 1/2; many rare animals and plants are near extinction. The human activities and agriculture reclamation made a great change on the environment, especially made water balance change and regional climate change. So to study and protect the wetland ecosystem and marsh resource are extremely urgent. This paper focus on the hydrology change and climate change before and after marsh reclamation, including evapotranspiration, run off, soil character, micro-climate on both marsh and agriculture field, and the reason that cause seasonal drought, waterlogging and degeneration of marsh.

  16. Monuments culturels historiques dans la Plaine Roumaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORINA GRECU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail met en évidence le rôle de la position gé ographique dans le développement des objectifs culturels d’importance touristique et sci entifique locale, régionale ou nationale (les géosites culturels. Dans le développement des géos ites culturels de la Plaine Roumaine plusieurs étapes s’individualisent, avec des caractéristiques spécifiques: a l’étape prédaco-romaine avec les géosites néolithiques ; b l’étape daco-romaine , période dans laquelle des villes sont apparues le long des rivières allochtones (Argedava et du D anube (Turnu Magurele et Zimnicea ; c l’étape médiévale , à laquelle sont particulières les villes avec une spécificité architecturelle (Calafat, Braila et Galati et la capitale, Bucarest, fondée en 1459 ; d l’étape moderne des monuments d’une architecture nouvelle ; e l’étape contemporaine / socialiste (1948-1989 ; f l’étape actuelle (après 1989, caractérisée par un mélange d’architectures avec un impact sur l’évolution du phénomène touristique. La Plaine Roum aine, du à ses caractéristiques physico- géographiques et historiques, réunit une palette la rge de géosites culturels qui pourraient se transformer en vrais objectifs touristiques.

  17. Early warning research on salt-alkalization desertification in western Songnen Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Desertification is an environmental issue in the world. The salt-alkalization desertification land area formed by both primary and secondary salt-alkalization has extended in a large scale, which has become a significant eco-environmental problem. Based on the characteristics of eco-environment and the situation ofdesertification in western Songnen plain, this paper reports the analyzes of its formation in background and cause. An early warning system on the salt-alkalization desertification is established and the GIS technology is used to abstract the information of desertification evaluation index. Supported by the integrated technology of the GIS and ANN, the orientation and quantitative result of desertification are gained, which is helpful to the eco-environment protection and resource development in western Songnen Plain.

  18. Electrical structure of Plaine des Sables caldera, Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Reunion Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Schnegg

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available An Audio Magnetotelluric (AMT profile has been carried out across the Plaine des Sables, a former caldera of the active Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island. Located in the Western Indian Ocean, between the Mascarene and Madagascar basins, this basaltic shield volcano originates from the activity of a hot spot. Our aim was to determine the internal structure of the volcano, in particular the shallow electrical properties of an area extending between the old and the new caldera rims. Although several teams had already conducted AMT work in this region a few years ago, there was a need for more a detailed, in depth survey. Our final model displays a noticeable slope of the Plaine des Sables basement oriented toward the present Fournaise summit. This slope is interpreted as resulting from successive landslides toward the ocean. We conclude that this dipping, electrically good conducting layer, probably belongs to the flat layering of an older caldera.

  19. The foraging behaviour of herons and egrets on the Magela Creek flood plain, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five species of diurnal herons are common on the Magela Creek flood plain and forage along the edges of natural and artifical waterbodies both inside and outside the Ranger Uranium Project Area. The species of heron differ in the kinds and sizes of prey they take, their foraging location, degree of sociality and foraging behaviour. Because it takes relatively large fish, the Great Egret, E. alba, is most likely to be affected by any contamination of the aquatic environment by heavy metals or radionuclides. The Nankeen Night Heron, Nycticorax caledonicus is also abundant on the flood plain and probably feeds on large fish and frogs. The other herons take smaller or immature prey or hunt mostly in terrestrial habitats and are therefore less likely to be affected by contamination of the aquatic environment

  20. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, V.L.

    2007-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.4 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States-Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the major agricultural regions in the world. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of extensive ground-water irrigation. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level change in the aquifer. A report by the USGS, 'Water-Level Changes in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2005 and 2003 to 2005' (McGuire, 2007), shows the areas of substantial water-level changes in the aquifer from the time prior to substantial ground-water irrigation development (predevelopment or about 1950) to 2005 (fig. 1). In parts of the area, farmers began using ground water for irrigation extensively in the 1930s and 1940s. Estimated irrigated acreage in the area overlying the High Plains aquifer increased rapidly from 1940 to 1980 and changed slightly from 1980 to 2002: 1949-2.1 million acres, 1980-13.7 million acres, 1997-13.9 million acres, 2002-12.7 million acres. Irrigated acres in 2002 were 12 percent of the aquifer area, not including the areas with little or no saturated thickness (McGuire, 2007). Ground-water withdrawals for irrigation and other uses are compiled and reported by the USGS and agencies in each State about every 5 years. Ground-water withdrawals from the High Plains aquifer for irrigation increased from 4 to 19 million acre-feet from 1949 to 1974. Ground-water withdrawals for irrigation in 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995 were from 4 to 18

  1. Method for calculating non-point source pollution distribution in plain rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Long-xi HAN; Huo, Fei; Sun, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The land area in river network is divided into some foursquare cells with certain scale for the demand of precision, proceeding from the physical mechanism of the rainfall-runoff and runoff pollution, the non-point source pollution from cells are estimated using the export coefficient of different land use types. According to the terrain of plain river network area and the positions of land cells and river network’s reaches, a principle is advanced which indicates that the non-point source po...

  2. Tobacco plain packaging: Evidence based policy or public health advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, Neil; Russell, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In December 2012, Australia became the first country to require all tobacco products be sold solely in standardised or 'plain' packaging, bereft of the manufacturers' trademarked branding and colours, although retaining large graphic and text health warnings. Following the publication of Sir Cyril Chantler's review of the evidence on the effects of plain tobacco packaging, the Ministers of the United Kingdom Parliament voted in March 2015 to implement similar legislation. Support for plain packaging derives from the belief that tobacco products sold in plain packs have reduced appeal and so are more likely to deter young people and non-smokers from starting tobacco use, and more likely to motivate smokers to quit and stay quit. This article considers why support for the plain packaging policy has grown among tobacco control researchers, public health advocates and government ministers, and reviews Australian survey data that speak to the possible introductory effect of plain packaging on smoking prevalence within Australia. The article concludes by emphasising the need for more detailed research to be undertaken before judging the capacity of the plain packaging policy to deliver the multitude of positive effects that have been claimed by its most ardent supporters. PMID:26041731

  3. New depositional model for Mississippi River delta plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penland, S.; Kosters, E.C.; Suter, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The current Mississippi River delta plain model depicts a single Holocene delta plain consisting of six delta complexes sequentially deposited over the last 7000 years by the classic delta switching process. In order of increasing age, these complexes are the Atchafalaya, Balize, Lafourche, St. Bernard, Teche, and Maringouin. Between 1981 and 1986, the Louisiana Geological Survey has acquired more than 10,000 km of high-resolution seismic profiles, 248 offshore vibracores, 397 onshore vibracores, 234 soil borings, and 226 new radiocarbon dates throughout south Louisiana. Analysis of this data set led to the development of a new, more precise stratigraphic model which depicts the Mississippi delta plain as actually two individual, imbricated shelf-phase delta plains deposited at different sea level stillstands. Termed the Modern and Late Holocene, these two delta plains are separated by a ravinement surface several hundred kilometers in extent that can be traced updip to a relict-transgressive shoreline, termed the Penchant Shoreline. The Late Holocene delta plain consists of a set of delta complexes 15-20 m thick deposited during a sea level stillstand 6 m below the present, 4500-7000 y.B.P. This unit consists of the exposed Maringouin and Teche delta complexes offshore of south-central Louisiana and an unnamed delta complex buried by the Modern delta plain in southeast Louisiana. A relative sea level rise between 2800-4500 y.B.P. to about present sea level led to the transgressive submergence of the Late Holocene delta plain, generating Trinity Shoal, Ship Shoal, and the Penchant Shoreline, which represents the subsurface eastern extension of the Vermilion Bay shoreline. The 10-15-m thick Modern delta plain began building seaward of the penchant Shoreline about 2800 y.B.P.

  4. Trends in Playa Inundation and Water Storage in the Ogallala Aquifer on the Texas High Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Gitz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ogallala Aquifer is an important source of irrigation water on the Texas High plains; however, significant decreases in saturated thickness threaten its future use for irrigation. A better understanding of the roles of playas, ephemeral surface ponds, in aquifer recharge is needed to establish levels of withdrawals that will meet either established desired future conditions or sustainability. In this study, data regarding playa inundation, depth to groundwater, precipitation and land cover from 2001 to 2011 were collected and analyzed to ascertain associations between these characteristics for four study areas on the Texas High plains. Each area covered 40,000–70,000 ha. Three of the study areas in Hockley, Floyd and Swisher counties were chosen because their center contained a playa instrumented to measure weather and depth of inundation. There were 20 distinct inundation events at the three instrumented playas between 2006 and 2010. For each of these inundations, water loss exceeded rates of potential evapotranspiration (ET by a factor of 1.6–15.7 times, implying that infiltration was occurring. Playa inundation in all four study areas was also assessed by analyzing images from the National Agricultural Imaginary program. Data on depth to groundwater were analyzed from 2000 to 2010 to determine annual changes of stored water. Annual changes in groundwater were weakly associated with surface area of inundated playas in late summer, but was strongly associated with annual rainfall. Rates of infiltration based on playa water loss versus potential ET, and volume of water in playas was more than sufficient to account for annual changes in groundwater. Land use adjoining the playas had less of influence on playa inundation than annual rainfall. These results strengthen the argument that water storage in playas on the Texas High Plains is an important source of water for aquifer recharge.

  5. Sustainable Authorship in Plain Text using Pandoc and Markdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Tenen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this tutorial, you will first learn the basics of Markdown—an easy to read and write markup syntax for plain text—as well as Pandoc, a command line tool that converts plain text into a number of beautifully formatted file types: PDF, .docx, HTML, LaTeX, slide decks, and more.1 With Pandoc as your digital typesetting tool, you can use Markdown syntax to add figures, a bibliography, formatting, and easily change citation styles from Chicago to MLA (for instance, all using plain text.

  6. Temperature Variation of Jiamusi Region in Sanjiang Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed at analysing the change characteristics of temperature in Jiamusi region of Sanjiang Plain.[Method] Based on temperature data of Jiamusi region in Sanjiang Plain from 1961 to 2010,including Jiamusi,Huanan,Fujin and Fuyuan station,we studied the change trends,abrupt climate change and abnormal years of temperature in Jiamusi region.[Result] Annual average temperature of Jiamusi region in Sanjiang Plain showed increasing trend,with the increase of 0.249-0.412 ℃/10 a.The order of an...

  7. Comparison of Allmaras and Chain Roughness Indices in Arid Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Azimzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil surface roughness (SSR is one of the important factors in wind and water erosion studies and control. Several parameters such as surface rock fragments influence SSR. Main objectives of this paper are to study and compare (Allmarass random roughness (RR and tortuosity (Tb indices in coarse, medium and fine grain plains of Yazd-Ardakan and investigate the relationship between indices and desert pavement coverage. Roughness data were obtained by pin roghness-meter and roller chain in the three mentioned plains. RR and Tb were measured in 90cm transect length with systematic sampling pattern after determining the boundary of three kinds of plains. In each plain, 30 transects were randomly sampled and the height of soil surface roughness fractions was recorded. Distance of pins in the applied roughness meter is about 2cm. Therefore, in each 90 cm transect the height of 46 points was measured. Desert pavement coverage was measured in 20×20cm2 plots. The result showed that desert pavement coverage in coarse, medium and fine grain plains were in the range of 55-100, 40-85 and less than 5%, respectively. The relationship between RR and desert pavement was significant. The result of ANOVA (Duncan showed, RR and Tb were significantly different in coarse, medium and fine grain plains (p-value<0.01. In addition, by increasing desert pavement percentage RR and Tb increased exponentially in base of Neper number. The relation between RR and desert pavement coverage is stronger than Tb and desert pavement coverage. Correlation between the two measured indices was calculated and compared in different plains. The result revealed that about 54, 33 and 14% of the arability in Tb could be explained by RR in coarse and medium grain plains, respectively. The correlations of two indices were significant in coarse and medium plain and insignificant in fine grain plain. The trend of RR and Tb decreased from mountain to plain center. Although RR increased slightly

  8. Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics

  9. Origin and fate of nitrates in groundwater from the central Po plain: Insights from isotopic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Isotopic data are crucial to identify the nitrate origin and its transformations. • B isotopes evidence the relevance, even in rural areas, of civil N sources. • Denitrification is enhanced where the water table is shallow, within 5 m depth. • Springs recycle groundwater to the surface and contaminate water courses. • Present-day land use is an equivocal indicator of the contamination source. - Abstract: Original data and information from recent studies are presented with the goal of identifying the N sources, sinks, major transformations and sites of accumulation within groundwater of the Lombardy plain. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of stable isotopes (δ15NNO3, δ18ONO3 and δ11B) in fulfilling these objectives. The area covered by this study accounts for about 18% of the Po catchment and 30% of the Po plain area. Nitrates in groundwater are not homogeneously distributed: concentrations >50 mg L−1 are often observed at the Alpine foothills, while values below 25 mg L−1 characterise other areas, especially the lower plain. An inventory of the potential N sources is conducted, revealing a complex pattern, as the distribution of nitrates in groundwater does not fully match the distribution of any of the identified N sources. In the higher plain, groundwater contamination is favoured by (i) the high permeability of the unsaturated zone and of the aquifer; (ii) the great depth of the water table; (iii) intensive cattle raising and the consequent manure effluents; (iv) the large amount of water used for irrigation. Stable isotopes of dissolved nitrates indicate the absence of denitrification, while the coupled use of B isotopes evidences, even in rural areas, a contribution from septic effluents. At the transition between the higher and the lower plain, in the so called “spring belt”, substantial recycling to the surface of the contaminated groundwater occurs, affecting the N content of surface water. Denitrification is

  10. Influence of New Product of Economic Crops Ushered in Central plains in the Republic of China on Farmers,Rural Area and Agriculture ——Taking Henan as an Example%民国前后中原地区经济作物新品种的引进对“三农”的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志军

    2011-01-01

    In the republic of China,American cotton,American tobacco,and American peanut are gradually introduced to the central plains,which also become the main crops.The new products increased the economic income of farmer,promoted the transformation of the economic crops production from self-sufficientcy to commercialization.However,The blind planting changed the plant structure,and then caused an abnormal development in agriculture.%民国前后,中原地区引进了美棉、美种烤烟、美国花生,并逐渐成为种植的主体。经济作物新品种的引进及推广,客观上增加了农民的经济收入,促进了经济作物生产由自给自足向商品化转变。但由于种植的盲目性,改变了该地区相对均衡的农业种植结构,又导致区域农业经济畸形发展。

  11. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task

  12. Disjunctive kriging and cokriging application. Example in high Venetian plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kriging theory and its developments are synthetically shown in this paper. The comparison between cokriging and ordinary kriging is carried out. The cokriging method produced a better estimator of random function realization than the ordinary kriging, utilizing a second value series to the first series correlated. The disjunctive kriging is also considered. It is about kriging with a non-linear estimator. Conditional probability, which is a powerful tool in management situations, is also available by this method. The electrical conductivity and the calcium hardness data utilized in this paper were carried out by the C.N.R. (1988) in the high Venetian plain, North Eastern Italy. The studied area is located near the Brenta river between Bassano del Grappa (Vicenza, Italy)) and Cittadella (Padua, Italy). The ground soil is constituted by gravel deposits, where an unconfined aquifer is present. The average variance of cokriging is lower (4.16%) than kriging and this is demonstrated by the variance estimation analysis. The comparison between the average variance of kriging and disjunctive kriging indicates a better result than the second one. In fact the average variance is reduced by 11.65%

  13. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Bafra Plain for Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cemek

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, groundwater quality of irrigated part of the Bafra Plain Right Bank Area was investigated. Water samples were collected from ten wells used for irrigation in June, July, and analysed for August 2005, and EC, pH, Na, Ca, K, Mg, CO3, HCO3, Cl and SO4 contents. Based on the calculated Sodium Absorbtion Rate (SAR and Residual Sodium Carbonate Concentrations (RSC, one of the wells water quality was classified high in salinity and low in sodicity, one of them was very high in salinity and medium in sodicity, one of them was high in salinity and medium in sodicity, and five of them were very high in salinity and very high sodicity. Acidity (pH values of waters from the wells ranged between 6.6 and 7.9, and RSC of water samples collected from the wells 5 and 6 were greater than 2.5. Based on the results obtained from the study, water from these wells were not suitable for irrigation

  14. Genesis of Sr Isotopes in Groundwater of Hebei Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the genesis of Sr isotopes in groundwater of Hebei plain, time-accumulative effect of 87Sr/86Sr ratio was studied. It is shown that 87Sr/86Sr ratio increases with the increasing age and depth of groundwater and has a positive correlation to 4Heexc and a negative correlation to δ18O and δD.The groundwater is divided into three groups to discuss the relation between 87Sr/86Sr ratio and Sr2+ content: ① moderate Sr2+ content and higher 87Sr/86Sr ratio (water Ⅰ); ② lower Sr2+ content and higher 87Sr/86Sr ratio (water Ⅱ); and ③ higher Sr2+ content and lower 87Sr/86Sr ratio (water Ⅲ), that is hot water. On the basis of integrated analysis, it was considered that ① the radiogenic Sr in the Quaternary groundwater (Q4-Q1) originates from weathering of silicate rich in Na and Rb, mainly from plagioclase; ② the radiogenic Sr of hot water in Huanghua port is attributed to carbonate dissolution, with lower 87Sr/86Sr ratio and higher Sr/Na ratio; ③ the recharge area is laterally recharged by the groundwater flowing through igneous and metamorphic rocks, with moderate 87Sr/86Sr ratio. However, the formation mechanism of Sr isotopes in Tertiary groundwater needs further studies.

  15. Geochemistry of raw Asphaltenes of the Oriental Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Were studied samples of asphaltenes previously separate from 44 raw (p.eb ≥ 200 Celsius degrades) of the three regions of the Oriental Plains: Meta, Casanare and Arauca. The elementary analysis of asphaltenes samples of was carried out in a Carlo Erba CHNS analyzing, with a Coulometric auxiliary of Sulfur (Western Atlas, Core Laboratories). Starting from this analysis the atomic relationships were calculated (H/C), (O/C), (N/S), (C/S) and (C/N) which were used to discriminate or to separate the samples in groups. The pyrolysis Rock-eval was carried out on 20 mg, of each sample diluted with 80 mg of fine quartz, in order to avoiding the problems that are presented when it works with samples that contain more than 20% of Total Organic Carbon (COT). The results of this pyrolysis allowed establishing the presence of six groups or families in the samples of asphaltenes. It was also proven that the raw of the Arauca Field is of terrestrial origin while those of Cano Limon are originated of marine kerogens. With Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of proton (RMN of H) the percentages of Ha, Hβ, Ha, Hox y HAR+F, were calculated as well as the percentage of carbon aromatic insubstituted (% CAR (US)). Also, it was calculated the Aromatic Factor, FA and the substitution degree a, they were also calculated starting from these data the relationships FA/s, Hα/Hox+F y Hα/Hβ. When correlating the diverse data obtained starting from the elementary analysis to each other, the pyrolysis rock-eval and the RMN of H was possible to find two families or groups of raw in each one of the three areas of the Oriental Plains, giving a total of six families or groups of raw in the 44 studied samples. The correlations were: S2/S3 versus (N/S)AT, (C/S)AT versus FA/a, % Car (US) versus FA/d, FA versus, Ha /Ha r+d versus F A/d. Keeping in mind that Behar et al (1984) they concluded in their investigation of asphalts Geochemistry that the gases chromatography (PY -GC) of asphalts it could be used for

  16. Multi-geohazards of Ende city area

    OpenAIRE

    Igan Supriatman Sutawidjaja; Sugalang Sugalang

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol2no4.20073The Ende City is a steep mountainous area, of which the height of their peaks are above 1500 m asl. It has the limited extent of plain places, without coastal plains. Due to this condition, large parts of the area are vulnerable to mass-movements mainly debris flows, rock-falls and shallow translational and rotational landslides. On the other hand, Flores Island is a segment of the Banda Arc that contains eleven very active volcanoes and numerous i...

  17. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities.

  18. Evaluation of a method of assessing faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Childhood constipation is common and assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and commonly used to assess constipation. The role of radiography with the use of a simple scoring system has not been fully evaluated. Objective. To assess the reliability of scoring faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children with intractable constipation. Materials and methods. Plain abdominal radiographs from 33 constipated and 67 control children were independently assessed by three observers on two separate occasions. A scoring system was devised with scores from 0 (no stool) to 5 (gross faecal loading with bowel dilatation) in three areas of the colon, giving a total score of 0-15. Results. There were significant differences between the scores of the constipated and control radiographs for each observer (P = 0.05). There was no intra-observer variation (P = 0.12-0.69), but significant inter-observer variation was demonstrated (P = 0.00). Conclusions. We have found this scoring system to be a clinically useful and a reproducible tool in assessing childhood constipation. Assessment of faecal loading is subjective and varies between observers, although one observer will consistently score faecal loading on the same radiograph on successive occasions. To limit exposure to ionising radiation, we recommend that radiography be reserved for the investigation of intractable constipation, and its accuracy is improved if all radiographs are scored by the same observer. (orig.)

  19. Achieving conservation goals in managed forests of the southeastern coastal plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehle, Craig; Wigley, T Bently; Schilling, Erik; Tatum, Vickie; Beebe, John; Vance, Eric; Van Deusen, Paul; Weatherford, Philip

    2009-12-01

    Managed forests are a primary land use within the Coastal Plain of the southern United States. These forests are generally managed under standards, guidelines, or regulations to conserve ecosystem functions and services. Economic value of commercial forests provides incentives for landowners to maintain forests rather than convert them to other uses that have substantially reduced environmental benefits. In this review, we describe the historical context of commercial forest management in the southern United States Coastal Plain, describe how working forests are managed today, and examine relationships between commercial forest management and maintenance of functional aquatic and wetland systems and conservation of biological diversity. Significant challenges for the region include increasing human population and urbanization and concomitant changes in forest area and structure, invasive species, and increased interest in forest biomass as an energy feedstock. Research needs include better information about management of rare species and communities and quantification of relationships between ecosystem attributes and forest management, including biomass production and harvest. Incentives and better information may help commercial forest managers in the Coastal Plain more efficiently contribute to landscape-scale conservation goals. PMID:19856021

  20. Moored current meter data from the Madeira Abyssal Plain (GME). 1. deployment (1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near bottom current have been measured at three closely spaced sites in the N.E. Atlantic for 13 months. Locations were selected in the Great Meteor East study site area, near 310 30'N 250W, one on the abyssal plain, one on top of a small abyssal hill about 400 m high and one on its flank just above the plain. Current meters were moored 10, 100, and 1000 m above the local bottom (5438 m, 5398 m and 4999 m) in January 1984 and recovered in February 1985. This report displays the characteristics of the currents in numerous tables and figures. In the mean they ar found to be very weak and though adjacent moorings are separated by only 12 km and 27 km the year-long current directions differ radically. Current variations are principally due to semi-diurnal tides, inertial oscillations and eddies the latter of which migrate over the moorings. The tidal energy meets expectations as does the eddy energy with magnitude 2-3 cm2 s-2. Horizontal (isopycnal) diffusivity is estimated as about 2x102 m2 s-1. Currents 10 m above the bottom exceed 10 cm/s least frequently on the plain and most frequently at the hill-foot. The influence of the hill is surprisingly large. At all three sites the strongest currents are found near the sea bed. Speeds also show a Weibull distribution and rough 50 year return currents are inferred. (author)

  1. Threshold responses in regional runoff from a heterogeneous low relief terrain - Western Canada's Boreal Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devito, Kevin; Anderson, Axel; Kettridge, Nick; Mendoza, Carl; Petrone, Rich; Silins, Uldis; Smith, Kevin; Waddington, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Runoff from larger catchments (>1000km) in the continental Boreal Plains (BP) eco-region of Western Canada, although low, can range over 3 orders of magnitude (4 mm to 350 mm/yr) among years and be difficult to predict. This region of western Canada is experiencing unprecedentedly rapid and large-scale industrial development. There is a need to assess and understand the dominant controls on the temporal and spatial threshold responses of regional runoff generation to be able to predict and mitigate the potential impacts of land use and effectiveness of reclamation practices on surface water quantity and quality. The Boreal Plain climate has regional moisture deficit (Pdeciduous and conifers forests, with some areas greater that 50 % of the surface is covered be wetlands ecosystems, mostly peatland.. Process based and experimental studies of forest-wetland hydrologic linkages show that at the local scale forested areas infrequently generate runoff because of high storage capability of the deep soils and effective transpiration capabilities of the trees. This contrasts wetlands that saturate readily due to lower soil storage capabilities and less effective evaporative processes, which results in persistent lateral surface or near surface runoff from wetland complexes. We examine the interaction among the wetland and forest HUs, the glacial landforms HRAs and decadal climate cycles on the threshold response of regional runoff in a range of catchments (50 ha to 50000 km2) from the Boral Plain of Alberta. Annual runoff (mm) and efficiency (RC) were poorly correlated with annual precipitation, but showed a strong threshold relationship with multi-year cumulative moisture deficit (CMD). Changes in precipitation patterns result in decadal cycles of dry (CMD 200 mm) states occurring every 2-3 decades. The differing CMD states altered the hydrologic connectivity among different portions of HRA's and HUs within catchments. During dry states base flow conditions ranged by over

  2. Subcropping Geology for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Subcropping geology for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was compiled and interpreted from available published sources. Formation contacts were interpolated across...

  3. Saturated thickness of the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are in support of report DS 472 (Arnold and others, 2009). This data set represents the saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer within Colorado....

  4. Whooping crane stopover site use intensity within the Great Plains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Whooping cranes (Grus americana) of the Aransas- Wood Buffalo population migrate twice each year through the Great Plains in North America. Recovery activities for...

  5. Southern Great Plains rapid ecoregional assessment : Pre-assessment report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Pre-Assessment Report for the Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to document the selection process for and final list of...

  6. Warm Deformation Microstructure of a Plain Carbon Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B Eghbali; M Shaban

    2011-01-01

    Grain refinement in a plain carbon steel under intercritical warm deformation was studied by torsion tes ring. Based on the experimental results, the warm flow behaviour and microstructural evolution of ferrite were researched with particular emphasis on

  7. Analysis of High Plains Resource Risk and Economic Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dealy, Bern Caudill [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaneyfelt, Calvin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Braeton James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moreland, Barbara Denise [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the High Plains Aquifer is broadly recognized as is its vulnerability to continued overuse. T his study e xplore s how continued depletions of the High Plains Aquifer might impact both critical infrastructure and the economy at the local, r egional , and national scale. This analysis is conducted at the county level over a broad geographic region within the states of Kansas and Nebraska. In total , 140 counties that overlie the High Plains Aquifer in these two states are analyzed. The analysis utilizes future climate projections to estimate crop production. Current water use and management practices are projected into the future to explore their related impact on the High Plains Aquifer , barring any changes in water management practices, regulat ion, or policy. Finally, the impact of declining water levels and even exhaustion of groundwater resources are projected for specific sectors of the economy as well as particular elements of the region's critical infrastructure.

  8. Structural Reliability of Plain Bearings for Wave Energy Converter Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2016-01-01

    critical structural components, like welded details, bolts or bearings. This paper considers reliability studies with a focus on plain bearings available from stock for the Wavestar device, which exists at the prototype level. The Wavestar device is a point absorber WEC. The plan is to mount a new power...... of the different available plain bearings planned to be mounted at the new PTO system based on a probabilistic approach, and the paper gives suggestions for fulfilling the minimal target reliability levels. The considered failure mode in this paper is the brittle fatigue failure of plain bearings....... The performed sensitivity analysis shows that parameters defining the initial crack size have a big impact on the resulting reliability of the plain bearing....

  9. Paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain, Northern coast of Santa Catarina, SC, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper aims to characterize the paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain during the Quaternary and to compare this evolution with other proposed models. To reach the objectives the area was mapped in scale 1:50.000, sub-surface information were obtained from geotechnical drillings and paleosea-levels were inferred by radiocarbon dating performed on vermetids tubes, wood fragments and shells of Anomalocardia brasiliana samples. The paleosea-level reconstructions are consistent with the sea level curve proposed in previous works. The evolution model for the Itapoa coastal plain proposed in this work is similar to the model proposed for the coastal plain of Paranagua. The paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain can be summarized as: formation of fans during Lower Miocene, with sea level similar or lower than the present one; island-barrier formation during the Upper Pleistocene transgression maximum; formation of extensive regressive barriers and later dissection by a rectangular pattern drainage system, during sea level low stand; island barrier formation during the Holocene transgression maximum, with inlets associated to the present mouth of Sai-Mirim and Sai-Guacu rivers; formation of extensive regressive barriers during falling sea level period. During the Holocene regression, spits grew northward, moving northward the estuarine inlets as well. This drift direction is the same that was suggested for Parana and Santa Catarina north coast. During regression until present the Sai-Mirim River has eroded the Holocene barrier inland portion, that probably caused the erosion of most of the Holocene transgressive barrier-islands. (author)

  10. Groundwater Management Innovations in the High Plains Aquifer, USA: A possible path towards sustainability? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. High Plains aquifer, one of the largest freshwater aquifer systems in the world covering parts of eight US states, continues to decline, threatening the long-term viability of the region’s irrigation-based economy. The theory of the commons has meaningful messages for High-Plains jurisdictions as no private incentive exists to save for tomorrow, and agricultural prosperity depends on mining water from large portions of the aquifer. The eight High Plains states take different approaches to the development and management of the aquifer based on each state’s body of water laws that abide by different legal doctrines, on which Federal laws are superposed, thus creating difficulties in integrated regional water management efforts. Although accumulating hydrologic stresses and competing demands on groundwater resources are making groundwater management increasingly complex, they are also leading to innovative approaches to the management of groundwater supplies, and those are highlighted in this presentation as good examples for emulation in managing groundwater resources. The highlighted innovations include (1) the Texas Groundwater Availability Modeling program, (2) Colorado’s water-augmentation program, (3) Kansas’ Intensive Groundwater Use Control Area policy, (4) the Kansas Groundwater Management Districts’ “safe yield” policies, (5) the water-use reporting program in Kansas, (6) the Aquifer Storage and Recovery program of the City of Wichita, Kansas, and (7) Nebraska’s Natural Resources Districts. It is concluded that the fragmented and piecemeal institutional arrangements for managing the supplies and quality of water are unlikely to be sufficient to meet the water challenges of the future. A number of recommendations for enhancing the sustainability of the aquifer are presented, including the formation of an interstate groundwater commission for the High Plains aquifer along the lines of the Delaware and Susquehanna River Basins

  11. Hydrogeology and geochemistry of the multilayered confined aquifer of the Pisa plain (Tuscany - central Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pisa plain contains a multilayered confined aquifer made up of Pleistocene sands and gravels. The groundwater from the wells tapping these horizons are generally of poor quality: they exhibit significant TDS, relatively high Cl content and considerable hardness. During geothermal prospecting of the Pisa plain, about 80 wells ranging in depth from 20 to 250 m were sampled, and both chemical (major ions) and isotope analyses were conducted. The data collected show that TDS is strongly influenced by HCO3 and Cl, and that a 3-component mixing process affects the groundwater's chemical composition. The end members of this mixing process have been identified as: (a) diluted HCO3 meteoric water, which enters the plain mainly from the eastern and northern sides of the study area; (b) Cl-rich water, which largely characterizes the shallow sandy horizons of the multilayered aquifer system and has been attributed to the presence of seawater, as also suggested by δ18O data; and (c) SO4-rich groundwater, which is linked to the hot groundwater circulation within Mesozoic carbonate formations and, at first sight, seemed to affect only the gravelly aquifer. A SO4-rich water also contributes to the sandy aquifer; it probably enters the plain both laterally, from the margins of the Pisan Mountains and from depth, but promptly undergoes substantial SO4 reduction processes by bacteria. That such processes are at work is suggested both by the low SO4 and high HCO3 concentrations found in the well waters and by their C and S isotope compositions. The collected data have allowed zones with higher quality waters to be identified, which may someday be used for the local water supply

  12. Alluvial plain dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardo, U

    2015-01-01

    Alluvial plains are formed with sediments that rivers deposit on the adjacent flood-basin, mainly through crevasse splays and avulsions. These result from a combination of processes, some of which push the river towards the crevasse threshold, while others act as triggers. Based on the floodplain sedimentation patterns of large rivers in the southern Amazonian foreland basin, it has been suggested that alluvial plain sediment accumulation ...

  13. Characterization of Some Regosols in the Bursa Plain

    OpenAIRE

    AYDINALP, CUMHUR

    2000-01-01

    In the Bursa plain, Regosols are extensively cultivated soils for horticultural crops and irrigated by water from aquifers. These soils are quite widespread on the west side of the plain and developed on different types of parent materials. This research was carried out to determinate genesis and classification of the Regosols developed on calcareous colluvium material. Five soil profiles were examined in this research and their characterization included field morphology and physico-chemic...

  14. No (more) logo: plain packaging and communicative agency

    OpenAIRE

    Pottage, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The tobacco industry’s archives suggest that the global campaign for the plain packaging of tobacco products originated in 1986, when the Canadian Medical Association passed a resolution calling for cigarettes to be sold in packages bearing only a brand name and the health message ‘this product is injurious to your health’. In most jurisdictions, regulations requiring the apposition of health warnings to cigarette packs have been in force for decades. Proposals for plain packaging aim to go f...

  15. Flood risk mitigation and anthropogenic modifications of a coastal plain in southern Italy: combined effects over the past 150 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effects of human modification of a coastal plain mainly involving land reclamation and flood protection is proposed. The approach involves historical, geomorphological and hydrological data as a whole, taking into account the equilibrium of rivers, plains and coastal areas.

    The test area, a telling example of profound economic and social transformation of a coastal plain, is the Piana di Sibari (Calabria, southern Italy, subject to major human modifications over the last 150 years. The study area, at most 300 m a.s.l., is 450 km2 wide and comprises 24 hydrographic basins.

    The approach is based on the creation and analysis of four databases: 1 a historical series of geo-coded flood damage (DAMAGES database, concerning damaging floods which occurred over the past few centuries in the study area; 2 a geocoded series of protection works for land reclamation, protection from floods and improvement of soil stability in steep areas (WORKS database, gathered from the archives of the agencies that carried out the works, organized in a GIS-format; 3 a historical series of maximum flood discharges and extreme rainy events (HYMAX database aimed at defining the trends of occurrence and the intensity of flooding; 4 a coastal line position and migration over time (COASTAL database, created using mainly literature data based on discontinuous data such as historical maps and images.

    The work describes the complex succession of floods, protection and reclamation works, human transformation of the plain and major land use changes over the last two centuries in the test area. The new characteristics of the plain and its modifications, including major engineering works, land-use transformation and urbanisation, are illustrated. The damaging floods of the last 200 years, the modifications of runoff and flooding due to works built over the basins, hydrological data and the records concerning coastal

  16. Chemical and isotopic compositions of waters from springs and wells in the Damour River basin and coastal plain of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A hydro chemical and isotopic study was achieved on groundwater of the Damour River basin and on wells in the coastal Mediterranean plain in Lebanon. The aim of this study was to determine the origin, the age and the quality of groundwater resources in the limestone aquifer of the Damour river basin. The results showed that most of the groundwater in the coastal plain and pumped from wells for irrigation and drinking water supply is directly recharged in this area. It contains up to 30% of groundwater recharged in the high mountains. The pumped groundwater is not polluted by seawater intrusion. The elevated solute content of the ground waters in the coastal plain compared to that of the spring waters is due to the different intensive agricultural activities. The relatively long mean residence time of the spring waters of around 10 years contradicts the assumption that the low Mg++/Ca++ ratio is due to a non-established hydro chemical equilibrium. The results of this combined hydrochemical and isotopic study in the Damour River basin and the coastal plain yielded new hydrological insights: Most of the groundwater in the coastal plain and pumped from wells for irrigation and drinking water supply is directly recharged in this area. It contains up to 30% of groundwater recharged in the high mountains. The pumped groundwater from shallow wells contains such water only during the summer season; The pumped groundwater is not polluted by seawater intrusion; The elevated solute content of the groundwaters in the coastal plain compared to that of the spring waters is due to the different intensive agricultural activities. There is no relationship to the MRT of the water; The temperature of the spring waters is related to the altitude of the recharge area. The temperature of the groundwater decreases with depth and reflects the admixture of groundwater recharged in higher elevations. The thermal gradient does not play any role; The relatively long mean residence

  17. Potential Liquefaction of Loose Sand Lenses: Case Study In Surabaya East Coastal Plain, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putera Agung M. Agung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The zone of east coastal Surabaya becomes the object of development for the city, especially to the east coastal plain. Although in the recent years, that area does not have a structure or heavy construction and or a high rise building yet, but in the future the zone will turn into a business area with a variety of activities.. The zone of east coastal Surabaya is an alluvium deposit area. This layer is considered as clay deposited from some rivers and sea. From general information, the typical soil stratigraphy consists of soft clay and silt layers with many sand lenses with or without coarse grained soil with a depth varying from 0.00 to 10.00 meters (m. The saturated sand lenses with a water table depth varies from 0.40 to 1.20 m is susceptible earthquake and it has a relatively large seismic amplification from base-rock due to geological and soil condition nature of the site. Liquefaction hazard of the sand lenses has to be anticipated and evaluated. For development of Surabaya city area toward the east coastal plain, all developer are recommended to give some criteria of sand lenses density and some consideration for anticipating the liquefaction hazard.

  18. Geo-archaeological aspects of the Modena plain (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriano Castaldini

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the various stages of geomorphological evolution of the plain area around Modena from the VIth millennium B.C.E. (Neolithic to the Present, through a reconstruction of the ancient landscape and human settlements.By means of a GIS platform, geomorphological investigations led to the implementation of a Microrelief Map, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM, a Map of Surface Deposits and a Geomorphological Map.The most striking altimetric features in the study area are the morphological changes of the Rivers Secchia and Panaro: south of Modena they run deep in the alluvial plain whereas north of the town they flow elevated over the plain. The surface lithology consists mainly of silt, with bands of sand and clay; mainly gravel deposits crop out only near southern tracks of the main Apennine watercourses. The geomorphological landscape is mainly characterised by alluvial fans, fluvial ridges paleo-riverbeds fluvial scarps, natural springs and some depressed areas; worth of note are also forms connected with human activity.There have been several attempts to cross–date geological and geomorphological evidence with archaeological data, on both detailed and wide territorial scales. A further advancement can now be attempted by comparing data obtained from systematic research on fluvial forms with data contained in the archives.In the area studied, some 800 archaeological sites were identified and catalogued. Such a high number of archaeological sites can give a great deal more information than is found in any other place in northern Italy.The research took into account the overlapping of archaeological and geomorphological data, with the implementation into a GIS (ArcGis 8.3 of geoarchaeological maps divided in main periods and here represented from the Neolithic to the to Iron Age and from Roman period to the Early Middle Ages. The dating thus obtained for fluvial forms was mainly based on the relationship between these forms and

  19. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O' Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  20. Comparative geoscience studies of the Madeira and Southern Nares Abyssal Plains: NEA/SWG preference location document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffret, G.A.; Buckley, D.E.; Schuttenhelm, R.T.E.; Searle, R.C.; Shephard, L.E.; Cranston, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    This document summarizes the status of geoscience investigations in the two primary North Atlantic study locations Great Meteor East (GME) in the Madeira Abyssal Plain, and the Southern Nares Abyssal Plain (SNAP), and assesses the characteristics of these locations relative to the guidelines considered desirable and necessary for a potential subseabed high-level waste repository. These characteristics will be continually reevaluated as additional data become available and as our understanding of deep-sea sediment processes within abyssal plain environments improves. Initially, a number of areas of minimum size were identified in the ocean basins that appeared to comply with most of the stability and barrier guidelines. However, detailed studies in both GME and SNAP demonstrate that as our level of knowledge improves, and the degree of resolution increases, the number of 100 km/sup 2/ areas complying with these guidelines becomes much more limited. This observation may be characteristic of abyssal plain and abyssal hill environments in both the North Atlantic and North Pacific basins. Marked differences in geoscience characteristics exist between the Great Meteor East and the Southern Nares Abyssal Plain study locations. The significance of these differences, as they impact the selection of a single preferred site for a potential subseabed repository, can only be determined by using an integrated systems risk assessment modeling approach. The known geoscience characteristics can, however, be used in conjunction with the site assessment guidelines to draw conclusions concerning the geoscience suitability of these two locations. These conclusions will be modified as specific types of data from future expeditions become available.

  1. Thermal Inertia, Albedo, and MOLA-derived Roughness for Terrains in the Terra Meridiani Area, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Deal, K.; Hynek, B. M.; Seelos, F. P., IV; Snider, N. O.; Mellon, M. T.; Garvin, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    Surface properties of layered deposits draped on dissected, cratered terrain in the Terra Meridiani area are analyzed using remote sensing data. The etched plains are cemented and differentially eroded, and the hematite plains are loose and drifting. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. IMPACT OF A MORE INTENSIVE INSECT PEST INFESTATION LEVEL ON COTTON PRODUCTION: TEXAS HIGH PLAINS

    OpenAIRE

    Masud, Sharif M.; Ronald D. Lacewell; Stoll, John R.; Walker, J. Knox; Leser, James F.; Sellar, Christine

    1985-01-01

    This study evaluated implications of increased bollworm problems in a 20-county area of the Texas High Plains relative to cotton yields and economic impact. Results did not indicate a serious effect of bollworms upon lint yield when insecticides were used for control. However, estimated annual reduction in farmer profit due to the bollworm for 1979-81 was over $30 million. Yields were estimated to decline about 300,000 bales without insecticide use and about 30,000 bales with insecticide use....

  3. Coastal Plain Soil Fertility Degradation And Natural Forest Ecosystem Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Sato, C. A.; Reis-Duarte, R. M.; Soares, M. R.; Galvão Bueno, M. S.

    2009-04-01

    The sand coastal plain vegetation (Restinga Forest) has been described as an ecosystem associated with the Atlantic Forest, constituted of mosaics, which occur in areas of great ecological diversity, particularly the features of the soil which mostly influence the forest, therefore assigned as edaphic community. The Restinga forest is one of the most fragile, showing low resilience to human damage This work was carried out in several points (14) of Restinga Forest (six low - trees from 3 to 10 m high - and eight high forest - trees from 10 to 15 m high) in the litoral coast of the state of São Paulo. Each sample was made of 15 subsamples of each area collected in each depth (one in 0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 15, 15 - 20, and another in 0 - 20, 20 - 40, 40 and 60 cm). Soil characteristics analyzed were pH, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, H + Al, Al, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn contents and base saturation, cation exchange capacity and aluminum saturation. The vegetation physiognomies of Restinga forest (low and high) were associated with soil results and with the history of human occupation. The soils are sandy (2 to 4% of clay), resulting in a low capacity of nutrient retention. Soil fertility analysis to low and high Restinga forest were similar and showed very low contents of phosphorous, calcium and magnesium in all areas investigated. The base saturation was low due to low amounts of Na, K, Ca and Mg. Base saturation presents low level in all cases, less than 10, indicating low nutritional reserve in the soil. The aluminum saturation values varied from 58 to 69%. The level of calcium and magnesium were low in the subsurface soil layer mainly, associate with high aluminum saturation, representing an limiting factor for the root system development in depth. If soil fertility parameters do not show any significant difference between low and high Restinga physiognomy, what make distinction is the recuperation time. In the areas of high Forest can be note a too long time of recuperation

  4. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeast United States: Southeastern Coastal Plain Subregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature review was made of the geological characteristics of the Southeastern Coastal Plain physiograhic province in the states of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate exploration areas for the possible location of a mined repository for the storage of radioactive waste in the argillaceous sedimentary rocks of the Coastal Plain. Candidate areas were selected on the basis of geological characteristics, available subsurface data, and generally accepted requirements for waste isolation developed by previous studies. Factors considered in the evaluation include the stratigraphy and lithology, geologic history, structure, seismicity, hydrogeology, and natural resources of the candidate area. Unlike other potential regions, the Southeastern Coastal Plain is not composed of competent rock, but consists primarily of unconsolidated and water-saturated sediments overlying a basement of crystalline and metavolcanic rocks. Thus, construction of both shafts and tunnels to depths of approx. 1000 meters may encounter difficulties. Socio-economic and construction considerations have not been addressed in the evaluation. Based on the applied criteria, four areas were selected as being most favorable for future field investigation. These include one in Maryland, one in North Carolina, and two in Georgia

  5. A hydrogeological investigation of the Yeşilyurt (Isparta-Sütçüler plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Taşdelen

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation area is almost 10 km in the north-west of Sütçüler country of Isparta and covers 60 km2 area. Firstly, detailed geological and hydrological investigation of Yeşilyurt Plain surface drainage area has been performed. Long term monitoring and analyses have been done for direction of hydrological investigation. An isohiyetal map was prepared for the investigation area. Water table maps were drawn by means of deep and shallow boreholes in the plain and flow direction was determined (October 2000. Water which was collected at boreholes was chemically analyzed to determine the characteristic of water for domestic use, irrigation and industrial purposes. In order to achieve this, the anion and cation concentrations, ionization abilities ionic activity, calcite dolomite sulphate saturation indexes and the partial pressures of dissolved CO2 were calculated and the results were interpreted. In addition, water has been classified according to chemical contend and use purpose by means of Wilcox, USA Salinity Laboratory, Piper and Schoeller diagrams and similarities in the origins of waters were investigated. During the study, a groundwater budget of Yeşilyurt Plain was prepared in the light of obtained data and optimum output of groundwater has been calculated.

  6. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith CN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Collin N Smith,1 John D Kraemer,2 Andrea C Johnson,1 Darren Mays1 1Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC, USA; 2Department of Health Systems Administration, School of Nursing and Health Studies, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. Keywords: cigarette smoking, tobacco, plain packaging, regulation, policy

  7. Unexpectedly higher metazoan meiofauna abundances in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench compared to the adjacent abyssal plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christina; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    We studied meiofauna standing stocks and community structure in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent abyssal plains in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. In general, the Nematoda were dominant (93%) followed by the Copepoda (4%). Nematode abundances ranged from 87% to 96%; those of copepods from 2% to 7%. The most diverse deployment yielded 17 taxa: Acari, Amphipoda, Annelida, Bivalvia, Coelenterata, Copepoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Isopoda, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Priapulida, Tanaidacea, Tantulocarida, and Tardigrada. Nauplii were also present. Generally, the trench slope and the southernmost deployments had the highest abundances (850-1392 individuals/cm2). The results of non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that these deployments were similar to each other in meiofauna community structure. The southernmost deployments were located in a zone of higher particulate organic carbon (POC) flux (g Corg m-2 yr-1), whereas the trench slope should have low POC flux due to depth attenuation. Also, POC and abundance were significantly correlated in the abyssal plains. This correlation may explain the higher abundances at the southernmost deployments. Lateral transport was also assumed to explain high meiofauna abundances on the trench slope. Abundances were generally higher than expected from model results. ANOSIM revealed significant differences between the trench slope and the northern abyssal plains, between the central abyssal plains and the trench slope, between the trench slope and the southern abyssal plains, between the central and the southern abyssal plains, and between the central and northern deployments. The northern and southern abyssal plains did not differ significantly. In addition, a U-test revealed highly significant differences between the trench-slope and abyssal deployments. The taxa inhabited mostly the upper 0-3 cm of the sediment layer (Nematoda 80-90%; Copepoda 88-100%). The trench-slope and abyssal did not differ

  8. The peatlands developing history in the Sanjiang Plain, NE China, and its response to East Asian monsoon variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenqing; Xing, Wei; Wang, Guoping; Tong, Shouzheng; Lv, Xianguo; Sun, Jimin

    2015-06-01

    Studying the peatlands accumulation and carbon (C) storage in monsoonal areas could provide useful insights into the response of C dynamics to climate variation in the geological past. Here, we integrated 40 well-dated peat/lake sediment cores to reveal the peatlands evolution history in the Sanjiang Plain and examine its links to East Asian monsoon variations during the Holocene. The results show that 80% peatlands in the Sanjiang Plain initiated after 4.7 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP), with the largest initiating frequency around 4.5 ka. The mean C accumulation rate of peatlands in the Sanjiang Plain exhibits a synchronous increase with the peatlands expansion during the Holocene. Such a peatlands expanding and C accumulating pattern corresponds well to the remarkable drying event subsequent to the Holocene monsoon maximum. We suggest that in addition to the locally topographic conditions, Holocene variations of East Asian summer monsoon (especially its associated precipitation) have played a critical role in driving the peatlands initiation and expansion in the Sanjiang Plain.

  9. Impacts of Climate Changes on the Future Groundwater Storage in the High Plains Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, M. H.; Wu, W. Y.; Wada, Y.; Reager, J. T., II; Famiglietti, J. S.; Yeh, P. J. F.; Ducharne, A.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater contributes approximately 40% of global freshwater use, and it is critical for water supply and associated food production in arid or semi-arid areas during dry seasons. The increasing demand for water and finite water sources have led to long-term groundwater depletion, creating an obstacle to sustainability in several regions of the world under the pressures of population growth and climate change. The High Plains Aquifer System has an area of 450,000 km2, and is the most pumped aquifer and one of the most important agricultural areas in the United States. In this study, we use coupled climate-hydrological model simulations from the NCAR Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble Project to investigate the groundwater storage changes in the High Plains Aquifer under future climate changes and also to explore how such groundwater storage changes might in turn affect the climate through land-atmosphere coupling. Preliminary results indicate that not only the amount of groundwater recharge declines, but the seasonal variations of groundwater recharge also become smaller, resulting in widespread water table decline in a future warmer climate. We will explore how such variations associate to projected changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration, and feedback to the climate.

  10. Method for calculating non-point source pollution distribution in plain rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-xi HAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The land area in river network is divided into some foursquare cells with certain scale for the demand of precision, proceeding from the physical mechanism of the rainfall-runoff and runoff pollution, the non-point source pollution from cells are estimated using the export coefficient of different land use types. According to the terrain of plain river network area and the positions of land cells and river network’s reaches, a principle is advanced which indicates that the non-point source pollution from a land cell should all get into its closest reach. A corresponding relationship between a single land cell and its pollution receiving reach can be obtained under the principle. In view of the above, a spatial distribution model of the rainfall-runoff and non-point source pollution in reaches of plain river network area is established. The method can provide a technological support for the further research on the dynamic effect on water quality which is caused by non-point source pollution.

  11. Investigating the limping child: The role of plain radiographs and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A retrospective study was carried out on children between the ages of 1 and 6 years who had radiological investigations for an acute atraumatic limp. The study focused on children who had a whole leg X-ray but also included those having specific radiographic projections with a hip ultrasound scan. Children under the age of 1 year were excluded from the study as the possibility of non-accidental injury may warrant a whole leg X-ray in the absence of trauma. The study aimed to determine if there is a relationship between pain and radiological findings and to establish whether the absence of pain is predictive of a normal radiological investigation. The study also sought to compare the value of plain radiographs and ultrasound in the investigation of these children. Methods: Records and radiographs of children presenting to a Paediatric Accident and Emergency department were reviewed in order to identify those meeting the eligibility criteria. Results: A total of 107 limping children were included in the study. Forty-five (42%) were pain free, and 87 (85%) had normal radiological investigations. Five (5%) had unexpected findings; two (2%) on plain radiographs and three (3%) on ultrasound. Seventy children (65%) had complete resolution of symptoms within 1 week and four (4%) had positive findings on follow-up investigations. Conclusions: The findings in this study suggested that the association between pain and radiological findings was highly significant (P < 0.05). Plain radiographs and possibly ultrasound scan of the hips in a limping child who is not experiencing any pain, can be deferred until review, and it is not likely to be detrimental to the management of that child. Furthermore, plain radiographs for those children who are experiencing pain on physical examination can be limited to the affected area. If the pain is in the hip joint, an ultrasound scan is more sensitive than plain radiographs (in %, 100:26.6) and would be the better investigation to

  12. 基于星地同步观测的华北平原中部背景地区冬季霾污染过程%A study of winter haze pollution over a rural area of central Northern China Plain based on satellite and surface observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新辉; 苏林; 陶明辉; 王子峰; 陈良富; 李莘莘; 汪洋

    2016-01-01

    利用地基观测结果和多源卫星遥感观测,结合气象数据及HYSPLIT4后向轨迹模式,对华北平原中部背景地区(河南省郑州市中牟县东南郊)冬季霾事件的污染物特征和形成过程进行分析.综合观测时间为2014年12月13日~2015年1月16日,共有5次霾过程,占观测总天数的82%.地面监测结果显示,不同的污染过程污染物浓度变化曲线相似,O3浓度在清洁天浓度较高;NOx、SO2、PM10、PM2.5呈较强正相关性,NOx、SO2与 PM10相关系数0.64、0.57,与PM2.5相关系数0.56、0.45;近地面污染物以细粒子污染物为主,其中又以气态污染物二次生成的细粒子为主.AMPLE地基激光雷达和CALIPSO数据表明,华北平原霾层中上部受浮尘影响,以粗粒子污染物为主.气象探空数据表明该地区冬季大气对流层稳定利于霾的维持,假相当位温垂直差、K指数、露点差与能见度相关系数分别为0.52、0.56和0.38.分析近地面风速风向对霾过程的影响表明,该地区冬季以南方向静小风为主,风速与能见度相关系数为0.32,PM1受东北方向污染源影响,PM1~2.5及PM2.5~10受西北方向污染源影响;结合高空风场分析,霾过程1受西北浮尘影响,霾过程5受南来水汽影响.通过后向轨迹分析,该地区冬季的低空污染传输主要来自东北和西北方向,其中东北方向区域传输来自河北与山东,占来源比例的14%,近距离污染传输主要来自站点以西的郑州、洛阳,约占来源比例的33%.%This paper employed ground-based measurements, multiple satellite observations, NCEP reanalysis data, meteorological sounding data and Modeled HYSPLIT4backward trajectory results to analyse the pollution characteristics and forming process of haze pollution in Zhongmou, a rural site located in the central North China Plain. The Comprehensive observation campaign lasted from December 13th, 2014 to January 16th, 2015 and a total of five haze pollution episodes

  13. Glaciation of the Coastal Plain of Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, M. T.; Shur, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Our 15 years of studies of permafrost soils on the coastal plain of northern Alaska show that it was affected by a continental ice sheet during the last glacial maximum. Evidence for this includes: occurrence of buried glacial basal ice at Barter Island; widespread sandy diamicton from Demarcation Bay to Barrow of late Pleistocene age; orientation of surficial deposits; poorly integrated drainage and gentle ridge and swale topography; the continuity of glacial-related deposits from the coast to the Brooks Foothills; and perennially frozen sediments unlike those of unglaciated Arctic regions. We documented a 10-m-high exposure ~1 km long at Barter Island that had abundant basal glacier ice with large-scale deformation structures, complex ice-contact deposits, and highly deformed bedded silt, sand, and gravel inclusions within the basal ice. Similar ice structures were observed at Prudhoe Bay and Cape Halkett. The glacial till is highly unusual in that it is comprised of massive, non-fossiliferous, brackish, slightly pebbly loamy sand with occasional gravel to cobble-sized clasts. In most areas the till is only 2-5 m thick, although at Barter Island the till was up to 10- m thick. Gravel particles, which comprise 1-5% of the deposits, usually are 0.5-2 cm long, mostly durable chert, highly polished, and frequently cracked off at one end, with the broken face faceted and polished. We believe the material mostly originated from marine deposits on the continental shelf, although rocks of Canadian provenance also occur. Prevalent, large (1-5 m) deformation features of discontinuous yellow oxidized and gray reduced sediment suggest deformation of sediment during collapse of the ice sheet. The sandy till is found along most of the Beaufort coast with the exception of deltas and lagoons and is found inland as much as 80 km. The sandy till is easily eroded, causing the morainal margin to be indistinct and the topography subdued. Previous thermoluminescence dating by

  14. General practitioners' willingness to request plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To examine general practitioners' attitudes to plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations. Design: A postal questionnaire consisting of questions on background data and doctors' opinions about plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, as well as eight vignettes (imaginary patient cases) presenting indications for lumbar radiography, and five vignettes focusing on the doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiography on the basis of patients' age and duration of symptoms. The data were analysed according to the doctor's age, sex, workplace and the medical school of graduation. Setting: Finland. Subjects: Six hundred and fifteen randomly selected physicians working in primary health care (64% of original target group). Results: The vignettes revealed that the use of plain lumbar radiographic examination varied between 26 and 88%. Patient's age and radiation protection were the most prominent factors influencing doctors' decisions to request lumbar radiographies. Only slight differences were observed between the attitudes of male and female doctors, as well as between young and older doctors. Doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiographies increased with the patient's age in most vignettes. The duration of patients' symptoms had a dramatic effect on the doctor's decision: in all vignettes, doctors were more likely to request lumbar radiography when patient's symptoms had exceeded 4 weeks. Conclusions: General practitioners commonly use plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, despite its limited value in the diagnosis of low back pain. Further consensus and medical education is needed to clarify the indications for plain lumbar radiographic examination

  15. Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) Experiment Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Parsons, D [NCAR; Geerts, B [Department of Atmospheric Science, University of Wyoming

    2015-03-01

    The Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) experiment is a large field campaign that is being supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) with contributions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Atmospheric and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The overarching goal of the PECAN experiment is to improve the understanding and simulation of the processes that initiate and maintain convection and convective precipitation at night over the central portion of the Great Plains region of the United States (Parsons et al. 2013). These goals are important because (1) a large fraction of the yearly precipitation in the Great Plains comes from nocturnal convection, (2) nocturnal convection in the Great Plains is most often decoupled from the ground and, thus, is forced by other phenomena aloft (e.g., propagating bores, frontal boundaries, low-level jets [LLJ], etc.), (3) there is a relative lack of understanding how these disturbances initiate and maintain nocturnal convection, and (4) this lack of understanding greatly hampers the ability of numerical weather and climate models to simulate nocturnal convection well. This leads to significant uncertainties in predicting the onset, location, frequency, and intensity of convective cloud systems and associated weather hazards over the Great Plains.

  16. SOIL SEQUENCES ALONG A SLOPE OF THE OPALENICA PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kozłowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study on differentiation of the morphological structure of soil and selected physical and chemical properties of soils in toposequence of the Opalenica Plain. The study was conducted in a 1200 m long transect running through a typical soil toposequence for the Polish Lowland, and therefore the results presented in this study can be extrapolated to similar geomorphological conditions of the area. On the basis of pedological cross-section, the following soil units were distinguished: PWspgl – Albic Luvisols (Arenic with glossic properties, PAt – Albic Glossic Retisols (Loamic, PAsp – Albic Glossic Retisols (Aric, Arenic, PAspgg – Albic Glossic Retisols (Aric, Arenic, Oxyaquic, PWsggl – Albic Luvisols (Aric, Arenic, Stagnic with glossic properties, PWgggl – Albic Luvisols (Aric, Loamic, Stagnic with glossic properties, CZgg – Mollic Reductigleyic Eutric Gleysols (Aric, Loamic, CFt – Fluvic Phaeozems (Aric, Arenic. Each of these units has its own specific position in toposequence but the occurrence of Fluvic Phaeozems (Aric, Arenic are associated with geogenetic processes of Mogilnica river. In this work, using a multiple regression analysis a statistically significant relationships between the position of the soils in relief and the terrain slopes and the organic carbon content in Ap horizon, the cation exchangeable capacity, the sum of exchangeable bases and the pH were obtained. Systematic variability of most soil properties of Ap horizon have shown two distances of spatial variation. The first concerns the systematic changes in shorter distance (from 132 to 344 m and can be associated with differences in soil properties between separate soil units. The second distance of spatial correlation ranges from 431 m to 792 m, which testify to the fact that quantitative changes in the properties of soils are realized gradually and distinctly, together with the differentiation of the slope, over several

  17. Indigenous utilization of termite mounds and their sustainability in a rice growing village of the central plain of Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Sivilay Sengdeaune; Adachi Yoshinao; Matsushita Yuichi; Kokubo Mika; Koyama Yusaku; Miyagawa Shuichi; Kawakubo Nobumitsu; Oba Shinya

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to investigate the indigenous utilization of termite mounds and termites in a rain-fed rice growing village in the central plain of Laos, where rice production is low and varies year-to-year, and to assess the possibility of sustainable termite mound utilization in the future. This research was carried out from 2007 to 2009. Methods The termites were collected from their mounds and surrounding areas and identified. Twenty villagers were inte...

  18. Distribution and Sources of Air pollutants in the North China Plain Based on On-Road Mobile Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yi; Zhang, Jiping; Wang, Junxia; Chen, Wenyuan; Han, Yiqun; Ye, Chunxiang; Li, Yingruo; LIU Jun; Zeng, Limin; Wu, Yusheng; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Wenxing; Chen, Jianmin; Zhu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) has been experiencing severe air pollution problems with rapid economic growth and urbanisation. Many field and model studies have examined the distribution of air pollutants in the NCP, but convincing results have not been achieved mainly due to a lack of direct measurements of pollutants over large areas. Here, we employed a mobile laboratory to observe the main air pollutants in a large part of the NCP from June 11 to July 15, 2013. High median concentrations of...

  19. Modeling water and carbon fluxes above summer maize field in North China Plain with back-propagation neural networks*

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Zhong; Su, Gao-li; Yu, Qiang; Hu, Bing-min; Li, Jun

    2005-01-01

    In this work, datasets of water and carbon fluxes measured with eddy covariance technique above a summer maize field in the North China Plain were simulated with artificial neural networks (ANNs) to explore the fluxes responses to local environmental variables. The results showed that photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), air temperature (T) and leaf area index (LAI) were primary factors regulating both water vapor and carbon dioxide fluxes. Three-layer back...

  20. Cadmium Contents of Soils, Durum, and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkılıç, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet; Faz Cano, Angel; Carmona Garces, Doria

    2010-05-01

    Turkey is growing significant amount of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum - (Desf.)Husn) which is widely used for making pasta, spaghetti, noodles etc. Objective of this study were to: 1) determine Cd concentrations of the soils, durum and bread wheats grown in the Harran plain, southeast Turkey and 2) evaluate this element in terms of food safety. Soil samples from the selected 16 profiles, grains, roots, and leaves of durum and bread wheats were taken for analyses. Total Cd contents of the soils were below the threshold values. The soils in the northern part of the plain have more than 0.2 ppm of Cd. Carbonate and clay contents are > 15% and 40% respectively and have substantial amounts of Fe-oxy-hydroxides. Three phosphorus fertilizer samples, frequently used in the area, had > 2 ppm of Cd. As expected, the amounts of Cd in bread wheat were lower than durum wheat. However, the Cd contents in durum wheat grains in the area studied were 100 ?g kg-1) and similar to the drum grains from Italy. Some samples in Italy even had 71 ?g kg-1. These were attributed to the presence of high amounts of carbonates, Fe-oxy-hydroxides, and clay in the soils we studied. In the surface soil, Zn contents were between 21.5 and 72.8 mg kg-1.This could be another reason for lower contents of Cd in our durum wheat. Our study confirms that durum wheat grown in the Harran plain southeast Turkey has a better quality, therefore advantageous; in terms of food safety from the standpoint of Cd contents.

  1. Predicting Nitrate Concentration in Groundwater Resources using Lumped-Parameter Model: Case Study in Qazvin Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S Hajimirmohammad Ali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The concentration of nitrate, factors affecting the balance sheet, and the changes in an aquifer is of utmost importance. Because modeling is an efficient method to predict the concentration of ions in water resources, in this study using lumped-parameter model and Monte Carlo simulation model, the nitrate concentrations in groundwater resources of Qazvin Plain were estimated and analyzed. Materials and Methods: A total of 19 wells in different climates of saline watershed in Qazvin Plain were selected and entry and exit routes of nitrate to these sources were analyzed using lumped-parameter model.  Finally, Monte Carlo simulation was used to determine the probability of the estimated nitrate concentration in aquifer. Results: Application of lumped-parameter model for a part of a part of groundwater resources in Qazvin Plain watershed predicted the nitrate concentration in the range of 8.12 to 15.94 mg/l.   The maximum concentration was estimated in cold-dry climate with 12.8±0.04 mg/L. Moreover, it was found that the difference between the estimated nitrate concentration and factors affecting its concentration in different climates was significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: Despite the predicted concentrations of nitrate in the study area were in accordance with the Iran national standard for drinking purposes, the cumulative probability of Monte Carlo simulation showed that the possible violation of nitrate from the safe limit of 10 mg/l in the study area is 90% (p = 0.005.

  2. Agricultural Climate Change and Wetland Agriculture Study under the Climate Change in the Sanjiang Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Minhua; LIU Xingtu; LI Xiujun

    2009-01-01

    With linear curvefitting, Mann-kendall method and Yamamoto method, ≥10 ℃accumulated temperature and precipitation from May to September of 6 meteorological stations (Baoqing, fujin, Jiamusi, Hegang, Jixi and Hulin) from 1978 to 2007 were used to explore 30-year agricultural climate change and trend in the Sanjiang Plain. The results showed that ≥10 ℃ accumulated temperature of the 6 stations have risen by 141.0 ℃ to 287.4 ℃ when estimated by their significant linear trends (n=30, α=0.05) over the last 30 years (1978 to 2007). The rates of warming for the last 30 years range from 4.70 ℃per year to 9.58 ℃ per year. There are not significant linear trends on precipitation from May to September of the 6 stations over the last 30 years. The period of 1978 to 1998 in which ≥10 ℃ accumulated temperature is lower is consistent with that in which there is more precipitation from May to September, and warming and drying period has occurred in the Sanjiang Plain since 1999. Under the background of warming and drying agricultural climate, high yield cultivation of Phragmites australis and establishment of Phragmites australis-fish (crab) symbiosis ecosystem in natural mire are the ways for reasonable use of natural wetland. The area of paddy fields has been increasing from 7.25×104 ha in 1978 to 121.2×104 ha in 2006. It is proposed that paddy field range should not be expanded blindly toward the north in the Sanjiang Plain, and chilling injury forecast and prevention should be pay attention to. In the area that the chilling injury happens frequently, the rotation between rice and other crops should be implemented. Measures, which combine drainage, store and irrigation, should be taken instead of single drainage on comprehensive control of regional low and wet croplands to ensure controlling drought and flood.

  3. Great Meteor East (distal Madeira Abyssal Plain): geological studies of its suitability for disposal of heat-emitting radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises geological and geophysical studies carried out by the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences up to December 1983 in an area of the Madeira Abyssal Plain in order to assess its suitability for the disposal of heat-emitting radioactive waste. The results of work carried out in the same area by the Rijks Geologische Dienst of the Netherlands are also reviewed in the report. Other oceanographic studies in the area in the fields of geochemistry, biology and oceanography are briefly touched upon. (author)

  4. 北京平原顺义ZK12-2钻孔剖面第四纪磁性地层学研究%Quaternary Magnetostratigraphy of the Shunyi Area in Beijing Plain Using ZK12-2 Borehole Profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵勇; 蔡向民; 王继明; 吴怀春; 白凌燕; 张磊; 何静; 何付兵

    2013-01-01

    对北京平原顺义凹陷内的ZK12-2钻孔岩芯进行了详细的磁性地层学研究,结果表明,719m的岩芯记录了布容正向极性时(Brunhes)、贾拉米洛(Jaramillo)极性亚时、奥尔都维(Olduvai)极性亚时和高斯正极性时(Gauss).在系统古地磁样品采集、处理和测试的基础上,应用古地磁法、光释光法,结合岩芯特征,对ZK12-2钻孔剖面进行了详细地层划分,分别确定了下更新统、中更新统、上更新统和全新统的分布深度及地质年代,将Q/N定位于706m处,Q1/Q2、Q2/Q3、Q3/Q4分别定位于170m、66.5m、10m处.本项研究结果为该区第四纪地层划分对比、古地理环境、活动断裂相关研究提供了可靠的地层年代框架.%Magnetostratigraphy was studied in detail using ZK12-2 borehole core from the Shunyi depressuib in Beijing Plain. Here we present the magnetostratigraphic results of ZK12-2 borehole (719m) located at Shunyi Depression. A total of 648 undisturbed samples were collected from ZK12-2 borehole at an interval of 0. 2~0. 8m except for several missing intervals during drilling. 640 samples were performed on thermal demagnetization in emperature steps until 580℃. The Brunhes/Matuyama boundary was found at the depth of 170m, the Matuyama / Gauss boundary at 706m. The Gauss normal polarity chron is shown from 706 to 719m deep in the borehole. The interval from 170m to 706m is fairly correlative with the Matuyama reversal in the geomagnetic polarity timescale with two normal polarity zones corresponding to Jaramillo (200~210m) and Olduvai(464~520m) subchrons, respectively. The OSL age of 10200 800a and 117800 590a was obtained from the sample at the depth of 9. 7m and 40. 5m. The lithologic section of the borehole ZK12-2 includes the entire Pleistocene and Holocene series and part of Pliocene series. According to the correlation of the polarity column, and the OSL ages from the samples, and the lithologic section, Our definition boundary for the

  5. Environmental isotope study related to groundwater age, flow system and saline water origin in Quaternary aquifers of North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isotopic hydrology section across the North China Plain has been studied to investigate problems of groundwater age, flow system and saline water origin in a semi-arid pre-mountain artesian basin. Two local and one regional flow system along the section have been recognized. Turnover time of water for alluvial fan, shallow and regional systems are estimated to be the order of 102, 103, and 104 years respectively. Specific flow rates for the three systems have been calculated. Only less than 5 percent of flow from alluvial fan is drained by the regional flow system and the rest, in natural conditions, discharges at surface in the front edge of an alluvial fan and forms a groundwater discharge belt at a good distance away from the mountain foot. Developed in the alluvial plain and coastal plain areas the shallow flow system embraces a series of small local systems. Groundwater in these systems appears to be the salt carrier during continental salinization. It washes salt out of the recharge area and deep-occurred strata by circulating and carries it up to the surface in lowland areas. Consequently, in parallel with salinization at surface a desalinization process occurs at depth, which provides an additional explanation for the existing thick deep fresh water zone in most arid and semi-arid regions, where continental salting process is in progress. (author). 6 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs

  6. Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2012-05-01

    We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure. PMID:22203384

  7. Putting the 'informed' into 'consent': a matter of plain language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J B; Duncan, R E; Barnes, G L; Oberklaid, F

    2003-12-01

    Health professionals frequently write at the same level for lay readers as they write for peers. In relation to health research and ethical requirements to provide written explanation of studies, this can complicate the notion of informed consent. Plain language information statements need to be clearly understood by research subjects if the ethics process for research approval is to fulfil its objective. Many delays in gaining ethics approval for child-related research are caused by substandard plain language statements (PLS). We describe specific issues for information statements for research with children, young people and their parents/guardians, particularly in consideration of the literacy capabilities of the general population. We highlight the usefulness of everyday language when explaining research and science in writing to families, and present some guidelines for writing PLS that have emerged from the introduction of a plain language service by an Ethics in Human Research Committee. PMID:14629504

  8. Holocene tectono-geomorphic evolution of parts of the Upper and Middle Gangetic plains, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Pitambar; Parkash, B.; Awasthi, A. K.; Acharya, Vivekanand

    2011-05-01

    Using multispectral scanning (MSS) images and digital elevation models (DEMs), 26 terrain morphological units were delineated in the study area between the Rapti and Kosi Rivers in the Gangetic plains. Based on the degree of soil development and the infrared stimulated luminescence chronology, these terrain morphological units have been grouped into six members of a morphostratigraphic sequence with ages ≤ 1.65, 1.65-5.3, 5.3-7.5, 7.5-8.5, 8.5-10, and > 10 Ka. Integrated use of geomorphic markers including different drainage patterns identified from MSS images, significant breaks in topographic profiles, terminal fans, and artifact terrain features (e.g., 'cliffs' and 'significant breaks in slopes') in DEMs/digital terrain models (DTMs) with highly exaggerated vertical dimensions were made to infer and map 20 nascent faults in the region between the Ghaghara and Kosi Rivers in the flat Gangetic plains. The three major tectonic blocks are; the upland Ghaghara-Rapti block of the Upper Gangetic Plain, and the Rapti-Gandak and Gandak-Kosi blocks of the Middle Gangetic Plain, marked by high rates of subsidence and sedimentation. The Ghaghara-Rapti block bounded by the incised Ghaghara and Rapti rivers is an upland region and is primarily overlain by > 10 Ka old soils. Subsequent activity along the NE-SW trending transverse normal faults led to deposition of young terminal fans. Southward tilt of the Ghaghara-Rapti block generated two E-W trending terraces on the left bank of the Ghaghara River. Southwestward tilting of the upper part of the Ghaghara-Rapti block led to development of the widest Old Ghaghara Plain and Rapti Floodplain in the SW direction. Northeastward tilting of the Rapti-Gandak block shifted the Gandak River from west to east over a distance of 80 km during the period from 10 to 8.5 Ka. Further compression from the SW caused development of four extensional normal faults. The activity of three faults between 5.7 and 1.0 Ka generated four terminal

  9. Connecting Indigenous Knowledge to Thaw Lake Cycle Research on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, W. R.; Cuomo, C. J.; Hinkel, K. M.; Jones, B. M.; Hurd, J.

    2005-12-01

    Thaw lakes cover about 20% of the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Another 26% is scarred by basins that form when lakes drain, and these drained thaw-lake basins are sites for preferential carbon accumulation as plant biomass. Recent studies in the continuous permafrost zone of Western Siberia suggest that lakes have been expanding in the past several decades in response to regional warming. Anticipated regional warming would likely mobilize sequestered soil organic carbon, resulting in the emission of CO2 and CH4. Our understanding of the processes leading to thaw lake formation, expansion, and drainage in northern Alaska has been limited because models are specific to the flat, young Outer (seaward) Coastal Plain comprising 1/3 of the region. Furthermore, spatial and temporal analysis of lake dynamics is largely restricted to the period since 1948, when aerial photographs first became available across large regions of the Coastal Plain. In order to fill these gaps, we have been interviewing Iñupiaq elders, hunters, and berry pickers from the villages of Atqasuk and Barrow. The objective of these interviews is to obtain accounts of lake formation, expansion and drainage that have occurred within living or oral memory, and extend the record back several generations. To date, we have interviewed fifteen Iñupiat; most of these are people who travel the tundra frequently and have done so for decades. They have first-hand experience of lake drainage, sea cliff and river bank erosion, permafrost degradation, and other landscape changes. Many informants expressed concern that landscape changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. They have identified lakes that have drained, areas where the permafrost is thawing, and places where the sea and river coastline is eroding. We have been able to corroborate reports of lake drainage from our informants with a series of aerial photographs, satellite images, and radiocarbon dates. In many instances, the elders have

  10. Magnetotelluric characterization of a tectonic boundary in the Chaco-Pampean Plain (27° S), Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, V. G.; Pomposiello, C.; Favetto, A.; Barcelona, H.; Rossello, E.

    2013-05-01

    The study area is placed in the Chaco-Pampean Plain (Central-North Argentina), which is part of the distal plain of the central Andean piedmont originated by the uplift and erosion of the Andean Cordillera. A sedimentary aggradational process typifies this region and buries a large history related to Western Gondwana and Andean Orogeny. The Andean piedmont is composed of a collage of crustal blocks that were amalgamated by different orogeny and deformation belts. The Transbrasiliano lineament constitutes one of these continental belts and transversely intersects the South American Platform, from NNE to SSW. Northward, this lineament is well evidenced, while southward, in the distal Andean foreland, it remains unknown and is associated with the tectonic boundary between the Río de la Plata Craton (RPC) and the Pampean terrane (PT). This tectonic boundary is mostly unexposed in the Chaco-Pampean Plain. An east or west dipping subduction and a later collision between these terranes is still under debate. Deep geophysical studies are not abundant in this region. Few works have locally characterized the composition and structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath this extensive intracontinental plain. Magnetotelluric (MT), gravimetric and magnetic data have inferred the boundary between the RPC and the PT at the limit between Eastern Pampean Ranges and the Chaco-Pampean Plain. Furthermore, at regional scale, 3-D seismic tomographies and images of the seismic structure of the crust and the uppermost mantle have revealed the Moho depths and other lithospheric discontinuities. Here, we report the results of a MT survey along a W-E profile located at 27° S between 63°45' and 60°30' W, that characterized the geoelectric structure of the tectonic boundary between the RPC and the PT beneath the Chaco-Pampean Plain. The MT method provides an image of the electrical resistivity distribution of the Earth's subsurface and constitutes an effective and complementary technique

  11. Ice-walled-lake plains: Implications for the origin of hummocky glacial topography in middle North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Lee; Attig, John W.; Ham, Nelson R.; Johnson, Mark D.; Jennings, Carrie E.; Syverson, Kent M.

    2008-05-01

    Ice-walled-lake plains are prominent in many areas of hummocky-till topography left behind as the Laurentide Ice Sheet melted from middle North America. The formation of the hummocky-till topography has been explained by: (1) erosion by subglacial floods; (2) squeezing of subglacial till up into holes in stagnant glacial ice; or (3) slumping of supraglacial till. The geomorphology and stratigraphy of ice-walled-lake plains provide evidence that neither the lake plains nor the adjacent hummocks are of subglacial origin. These flat lake plains, up to a few kilometers in diameter, are perched as much as a few tens of meters above surrounding depressions. They typically are underlain by laminated, fine-grained suspended-load lake sediment. Many ice-walled-lake plains are surrounded by a low rim ridge of coarser-grained shore sediment or by a steeper rim ridge of debris that slumped off the surrounding ice slopes. The ice-walled lakes persisted for hundreds to thousands of years following glacial stagnation. Shells of aquatic molluscs from several deposits of ice-walled-lake sediment in south-central North Dakota have been dated from about 13 500 to 10 500 B.P. (calibrated radiocarbon ages), indicating a climate only slightly cooler than present. This is confirmed by recent palaeoecological studies in nearby non-glacial sites. To survive so long, the stagnant glacial ice had to be well-insulated by a thick cover of supraglacial sediment, and the associated till hummocks must be composed primarily of collapsed supraglacial till.

  12. Ice-walled-lake plains: Implications for the origin of hummocky glacial topography in middle North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, L.; Attig, J.W.; Ham, N.R.; Johnson, M.D.; Jennings, C.E.; Syverson, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    Ice-walled-lake plains are prominent in many areas of hummocky-till topography left behind as the Laurentide Ice Sheet melted from middle North America. The formation of the hummocky-till topography has been explained by: (1) erosion by subglacial floods; (2) squeezing of subglacial till up into holes in stagnant glacial ice; or (3) slumping of supraglacial till. The geomorphology and stratigraphy of ice-walled-lake plains provide evidence that neither the lake plains nor the adjacent hummocks are of subglacial origin. These flat lake plains, up to a few kilometers in diameter, are perched as much as a few tens of meters above surrounding depressions. They typically are underlain by laminated, fine-grained suspended-load lake sediment. Many ice-walled-lake plains are surrounded by a low rim ridge of coarser-grained shore sediment or by a steeper rim ridge of debris that slumped off the surrounding ice slopes. The ice-walled lakes persisted for hundreds to thousands of years following glacial stagnation. Shells of aquatic molluscs from several deposits of ice-walled-lake sediment in south-central North Dakota have been dated from about 13 500 to 10 500??B.P. (calibrated radiocarbon ages), indicating a climate only slightly cooler than present. This is confirmed by recent palaeoecological studies in nearby non-glacial sites. To survive so long, the stagnant glacial ice had to be well-insulated by a thick cover of supraglacial sediment, and the associated till hummocks must be composed primarily of collapsed supraglacial till. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. GAP analysis of state protection wetland bird diversity on the Sanjiang Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiping; Sheng, Lianxi; Wang, Haixi; Yu, Yang

    2008-12-01

    Sanjiang Plain was chosen as the study area in this paper, based on the relationship between species and their habitats, using principles of landscape ecology and protection biology, "3S" technique, same surface areas of hexagons as forecasting and evaluating units to analyze protection status of state protection wetlands birds and diversity of their habitats, to find the unprotected biodiversity hotspots there and then analyze the priority protection. The study results showed that nationally protected bird categories I, such as Ciconia boyciana and Haliaeetus albicilla have been protected well, the area which protects in the protected occupies its distribution area 41.5% and 31.2%, simply has obtained the very good protection. The Mergus squamatus, Grus japonensis and Aquila chrysaetos also occupy their always dispersal area in the protectorate dispersal area above 20%, but their main distribution area not in protectorate, mainly is nature or half natural ecosystem. Some birds under second class state protection as Bubo bubo, Falco peregrinus, Accipiter gentilis, Falco tinnunculu, and Strix uralensis have not been well protected. Specially Bubo bubo, only protects its dispersal area 0.6%, simply h as not obtained the very good protection. Looked from various ecosystem type that, the typical meadow and the island forest to protect well, but the islands, the Reed marshesand the rivers ecosystem to protect relatively bad. Thirteen hotspots have been discovered in this area, which are mainly distributed in surroundings near nature reserve and coast of some great rivers.

  14. Causes and Predictability of the 2012 Great Plains Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.; Kumar, A.; Leung, R.; Mariotti, A.; Mo, K.; Schubert, S.; Seager, R.

    2013-01-01

    Central Great Plains precipitation deficits during May-August 2012 were the most severe since at least 1895, eclipsing the Dust Bowl summers of 1934 and 1936. Drought developed suddenly in May, following near-normal precipitation during winter and early spring. Its proximate causes were a reduction in atmospheric moisture transport into the Great Plains from the Gulf of Mexico. Processes that generally provide air mass lift and condensation were mostly absent, including a lack of frontal cyclones in late spring followed by suppressed deep convection in summer owing to large-scale subsidence and atmospheric stabilization. Seasonal forecasts did not predict the summer 2012 central Great Plains drought development, which therefore arrived without early warning. Climate simulations and empirical analysis suggest that ocean surface temperatures together with changes in greenhouse gases did not induce a substantial reduction in summertime precipitation over the central Great Plains during 2012. Yet, diagnosis of the retrospective climate simulations also reveals a regime shift toward warmer and drier summertime Great Plains conditions during the recent decade, most probably due to natural decadal variability. As a consequence, the probability for severe summer Great Plains drought may have increased in the last decade compared to the 1980s and 1990s, and the so-called tail-risk for severe drought may have been heightened in summer 2012. Such an extreme drought event was nonetheless still found to be a rare occurrence within the spread of 2012 climate model simulations. Implications of this study's findings for U.S. seasonal drought forecasting are discussed.

  15. Water consumption in summer maize and winter wheat cropping system based on SEBAL model in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-ying; MEI Xu-rong; HUO Zhi-guo; YAN Chang-rong; JU Hui; ZHAO Feng-hua; LIU Qin

    2015-01-01

    Crop consumptive water use is recognized as a key element to understand regional water management performance. This study documents an attempt to apply a regional evapotranspiration model (SEBAL) and crop information for assessment of regional crop (summer maize and winter wheat) actual evapotranspiration (ETa) in Huang-Huai-Hai (3H) Plain, China. The average seasonal ETa of summer maize and winter wheat were 354.8 and 521.5 mm respectively in 3H Plain. A high-ETa belt of summer maize occurs in piedmont plain, while a low ETa area was found in the hil-irrigable land and dry land area. For winter wheat, a high-ETa area was located in the middle part of 3H Plain, including low plain-hydropenia irrigable land and dry land, hil-irrigable land and dry land, and basin-irrigable land and dry land. Spatial analysis demonstrated a linear relationship between crop ETa, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and the land surface temperature (LST). A stronger relationship between ETa andNDVI was found in the metaphase and last phase than other crop growing phase, as indicated by higher correlation coefifcient values. Additionaly, higher correlation coefifcients were detected between ETa and LST than that between ETa and NDVI, and this signiifcant relationship ran through the entire crop growing season. ETa in the summer maize growing season showed a signiifcant relationship with longitude, while ETa in the winter wheat growing season showed a signiifcant relationship with latitude. The results of this study wil serve as baseline information for water resources management of 3H Plain.

  16. Residual Tensile Strength of Plain Concrete Under Tensile Fatigue Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The functional relation between the residual tensile strength of plain concrete and number of cycles was determined. 99 tappered prism specimens of plain concrete were tested under uniaxial tensile fatigue loading. Based on the probability distribution of the residual tensile strength, the empirical expressions of the residual tensile strength corresponding to the number of cycles were obtained. The residual tensile strength attenuating curves can be used to predict the residual fatigue life of the specimen under variable-amplitude fatigue loading. There is a good correlation between residual tensile strength and residual secant elastic modulus.The relationship between the residual secant elastic modulus and number of cycles was also established.

  17. Diagnostic value of digitization of mammograms and abdominal plain films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 100 mammograms (including 50 cancers) and 100 abdominal plain films were read by two observers. Examinations were analyzed independently at a 3-month interval, comparing conventional films and images obtained with the Film Digital Radiography System (FilmDRS, Dupont), which had a resolution of 100 μm. A total of 35 parameters were evaluated on mammograms versus 50 on abdominal plain films. The study was aimed at determining whether image digitization with a resolution of 100 μm improves image interpretation and radiologic diagnosis

  18. Holocene sand shoals offshore of Mississippi River delta plain, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penland, S.; McBride, R.A. (Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge (USA)); Suter, J.R. (Exxon Production Research, Houston, TX (USA)); Williams, S.J. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Kindinger, J.L. (Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL (USA)); Boyd, R. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada))

    1989-09-01

    Offshore of the Mississippi River delta plain lies a series of Holocene sand shoals marking the position of ancient submerged shorelines. These ancient shorelines represent stillstand positions during which the Holocene transgression drove sea level across the former lowstand subaerial erosion surface of the Mississippi River delta plain. Short periods of rapid sea level rise led to the transgressive submergence of these sandy shorelines. Two shoreline trends can be recognized at the {minus}10-m and {minus}20-m isobaths on the continental shelf.

  19. Holocene sand shoals offshore of the Mississippi River delta plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penland, Shea; Suter, John R.; McBride, Randolph A.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Kindinger, Jack G.; Boyd, Ron

    1989-01-01

    Offshore of the Mississippi River delta plain lies a series of Holocene sand shoals marking the position of ancient submerged shorelines associated with younger shelf-phase delta plains. These submerged shorelines represent positions when sea level stood lower than present. Short periods of rapid sea level rise during the Holocene transgression, in combination with subsidence, led to the submergence of these sandy shorelines, which can be recognized at the -33 ft (-10 m) and -66 ft (-20 m) isobaths on the Louisiana continental shelf

  20. Plain and Rolled Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIST Plain and Rolled Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 29 is being distributed for use in development and testing fingerprint matching systems. The data consist of 216 ten-print fingerprint card pairs with both the rolled and plains (from a bottom of the fingerprint card) scanned at 19.7 pixels per mm. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  1. Evaluation of plain radiograph in mitral stenosis related to hemodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Ku Ok; Suh, Jung Ho; Park, Chang Yun; Choi, Byung So [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-04-15

    Mitral stenosis, the most frequent heart disease in adult, showed relatively characteristic pulmonary findings in plain chest X-ray. In recent years the knowledge of the altered physiology of hemodynamics could offer considerable amount of hemodynamic barrier in plain chest. But the value of several parameters was still controversial. In this study a variety of roentgen signs were related to physiologic data and those were acquired by the cardiac catheterization in total of 67 cases of mitral stenosis. 1. Correlation of DPA/DHT ratio (Diameter of pulmonary arterial segment/ Diameter of hemithorax X 100) to hemodynamic data; The pulmonary arterial segments was dilated by two factors, the one was pulmonary blood flow and the other the blood pressure within it. In mitral stenosis, the cardiac output was decreased to quite uniform level, hence measurement of pulmonary arterial segment might be valuable. The correlation coefficient of DPA/ DHT ratio to hemodynamic data were as follows: 0.54 to mean pulmonary artery pressure, 0.32 to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, -0.37 to mitral valvular area and 0.07 to pulmonary vascular resistance. No significant difference was noted in between pure mitral stenosis and mitral stenosis associated with other valvular disease. 2. Correlation of diameter of right descending pulmonary artery to hemodynamic data: The measurement was made near the first bifurcation of right descending pulmonary artery at its widest point. Pulmonary vascular pattern was best correlated (r=0.71). Another had rough correlation: 0.05 to mean pulmonary artery pressure, 0.31 to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, -0.44 to mitral valvular area in correlation coefficient. No pulmonary arterial hypertension was observed in the cases diameter of less than 12 mm, but all except two cases had pulmonary hypertension in which diameter exceeded 16 mm. According to increase of the mean pulmonary arterial pressure, the same increment in pressure increased change

  2. Evaluation of plain radiograph in mitral stenosis related to hemodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitral stenosis, the most frequent heart disease in adult, showed relatively characteristic pulmonary findings in plain chest X-ray. In recent years the knowledge of the altered physiology of hemodynamics could offer considerable amount of hemodynamic barrier in plain chest. But the value of several parameters was still controversial. In this study a variety of roentgen signs were related to physiologic data and those were acquired by the cardiac catheterization in total of 67 cases of mitral stenosis. 1. Correlation of DPA/DHT ratio (Diameter of pulmonary arterial segment/ Diameter of hemithorax X 100) to hemodynamic data; The pulmonary arterial segments was dilated by two factors, the one was pulmonary blood flow and the other the blood pressure within it. In mitral stenosis, the cardiac output was decreased to quite uniform level, hence measurement of pulmonary arterial segment might be valuable. The correlation coefficient of DPA/ DHT ratio to hemodynamic data were as follows: 0.54 to mean pulmonary artery pressure, 0.32 to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, -0.37 to mitral valvular area and 0.07 to pulmonary vascular resistance. No significant difference was noted in between pure mitral stenosis and mitral stenosis associated with other valvular disease. 2. Correlation of diameter of right descending pulmonary artery to hemodynamic data: The measurement was made near the first bifurcation of right descending pulmonary artery at its widest point. Pulmonary vascular pattern was best correlated (r=0.71). Another had rough correlation: 0.05 to mean pulmonary artery pressure, 0.31 to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, -0.44 to mitral valvular area in correlation coefficient. No pulmonary arterial hypertension was observed in the cases diameter of less than 12 mm, but all except two cases had pulmonary hypertension in which diameter exceeded 16 mm. According to increase of the mean pulmonary arterial pressure, the same increment in pressure increased change

  3. Directory of Personnel in Research, Technology, Education, Administration and Management. Development Activities in the Marine Environment of the Coastal Plains Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecca, Christyna E.

    Listed in this directory are individuals concerned currently with marine activities on the coasts of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, and the adjacent offshore area, known administratively as the Coastal Plains Region. The categories for the listings include educational institutions, state and county agencies, and federal agencies. The…

  4. Geological-morphological description of the Sedna and Guinevra plains on the Venus planet (photomaps lists B-11, B-20, B-21)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The description and maps are given for the area of Sedna and Guinevre plains which are representative examples of largest geological provinces of Venus composed of volcanic rocks. Units of different age and their relations are shown and interpretation of their probable origin is given

  5. Research on the origin of the Karst Waters in Yukari Curuksu plain using isotope techniques. Final report for the period August 1986 - September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the project was to research the drainage area of the karstic springs in the plain in southwest Turkey and to assist the economic development of the region by determining the optimum amount of groundwater to be produced by means of drilled wells. 12 refs, figs, maps and tabs

  6. Hydrochemical characteristics and the effects of irrigation on groundwater quality in Harran Plain, GAP Project, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilnacar, M. Irfan; Gulluoglu, M. Said

    2008-03-01

    Improper design, faulty planning, mismanagement and incorrect operation of irrigation schemes are the principle reasons for the deterioration of groundwater quality in a large number of countries, in particular in semi-arid and arid regions. The aim of this study is to determine the dimensions of groundwater quality after surface irrigation was begun in the semi-arid Harran Plain. Physical and chemical parameters of the groundwater including pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate, sulphate, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, total phosphorus, total organic carbon and turbidity were determined monthly during the 2006 water year. The quality of the groundwater in the study area was assessed hydrochemically in order to determine its suitability for human consumption and agricultural purposes. In the general plain, the EC values measured were considerably above the guide level of 650 μS/cm, while nitrate in particular was found in almost all groundwater samples to be significantly above the maximum admissible concentration of 50 mg/l for the quality of water intended for human consumption as per the international and national standards. Total hardness reveals that a majority of the groundwater samples fall in the very hard water category. Interpretation of analytical data shows that Ca HCO3 and Ca SO4 are the dominant hydrochemical facies in the study area.

  7. Assessing satellite-based start-of-season trends in the US High Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To adequately assess the effects of global warming it is necessary to address trends and impacts at the local level. This study examines phenological changes in the start-of-season (SOS) derived from satellite observations from 1982–2008 in the US High Plains region. The surface climate-based SOS was also evaluated. The averaged profiles of SOS from 37° to 49°N latitude by satellite- and climate-based methods were in reasonable agreement, especially for areas where croplands were masked out and an additional frost date threshold was adopted. The statistically significant trends of satellite-based SOS show a later spring arrival ranging from 0.1 to 4.9 days decade−1 over nine Level III ecoregions. We found the croplands generally exhibited larger trends (later arrival) than the non-croplands. The area-averaged satellite-based SOS for non-croplands (i.e. mostly grasslands) showed no significant trends. We examined the trends of temperatures, precipitation, and standardized precipitation index (SPI), as well as the strength of correlation between the satellite-based SOS and these climatic drivers. Our results indicate that satellite-based SOS trends are spatially and primarily related to annual maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, mostly in summertime) and/or annual minimum NDVI (mostly in wintertime) and these trends showed the best correlation with six-month SPI over the period 1982–2008 in the US High Plains region. (letter)

  8. Effects of Urbanization-Induced Cultivated Land Loss on Ecosystem Services in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the implementation of market oriented economic reform in 1978, China has been on the track of rapid urbanization. The unprecedented urbanization in China has resulted in substantial cultivated land loss and rapid expansion of urban areas. The cultivated land loss due to urbanization not only threatens food security in China, but has also led to ecological system degradation to which close attention should be paid. Therefore, we examined the effects of the conversion from cultivated to urban areas on the ecosystem service in the North China Plain on the basis of a net primary productivity based ecosystem service model (NESM and a buffer comparison method. Cultivated land loss due to urbanization in the North China Plain led to a total loss of ecosystem service value of 34.66% during the period 1988–2008. Urban expansion significantly decreased the ecosystem service function of water conservation (–124.03%, nutrient cycling (–31.91%, gas regulation (−7.18%, and organic production (–7.18%, while it improved the soil conservation function (2.40%. Land use change accounted for 57.40% of the changes in ecosystem service and had a major influence on the changes in nutrient cycling and water conservation. However, climate change mainly determined the changes in gas regulation, organic production, and soil conservation.

  9. Analytical data of holocene sediments in the Miyazaki Plain, Southern Kyushu, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the devastated tsunami induced by the Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011, a lot of geologists have started to focus on the study of subduction-zone giant earthquakes using tsunami deposits. After the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, a lot of geologists studying tsunami deposits suggest the importance of the study concerning the tsunamis in the eastern coastal side of Kyushu. On the other hand, the Miyazaki Plain, facing the Hyuga-nada, had been attacked repeatedly by historical tsunami events induced by the giant earthquakes whose hypocenters were located in the Hyuga-nada or Nankai Trough. However, scientific studies concerning the tsunami events are still poor in this area. We are studying paleo-tsunami deposits in the Miyazaki Plain to develop investigation methods of tsunami deposits and elucidate the process of uplift and erosion for several thousand years in regional area. This data set shows the result of this study. A DVD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  10. Quantifying the Impacts of Irrigation Technology Adoption on Water Resources in the High Plains Aquifer, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Anthony; Cotterman, Kayla; Hyndman, David

    2016-04-01

    Producers in key agricultural regions worldwide are contending with increasing demand while simultaneously managing declining water resources. The High Plains Aquifer (HPA) is the largest aquifer system in the United States, and supplied most of the water to irrigate 6 million hectares in 2012. Water levels in the central and southern sections of the aquifer have steadily declined, as groundwater recharge in this semi-arid region is insufficient to meet water demands. Individual irrigators have responded to these declines by moving from less efficient irrigation technologies to those that apply water more precisely. Yet, these newer technologies have also allowed for water to be pumped from lower-yielding wells, thus extending the life of any given well and allowing drawdown to continue. Here we use a dataset of the annual irrigation technology choices from every irrigator in the state of Kansas, located in the Central High Plains. This irrigation data, along with remotely-sensed Leaf Area Index, crop choice, and irrigated area, drives a coupled surface/groundwater simulation created using the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM) to examine the impacts of changing irrigation technology on the regional water cycle, and water levels in the HPA. The model is applied to simulate cases in which no irrigation technology change had occurred, and complete adoption of newer technologies to better understand impacts of management choices on regional water resources.

  11. Factors affecting spatial variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface soils in North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilong; Zuo, Qian; Duan, Yonghong; Liu, Wenxin; Cao, Jun; Tao, Shu

    2012-10-01

    The spatial variation in concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface soils in the North China Plain and the influential factors were examined in the present study. High concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (∑PAH(16) ) appeared in cities and their surrounding areas. Emissions and soil organic carbon (SOC) content significantly regulated spatial differentiation of PAH contamination in soils in the study area. Compared with emissions, concentrations of individual and total PAHs in soils were more closely controlled by the SOC content. Furthermore, concentrations of PAH species with lower molecular weight (e.g., two- or three-ring) in surface soils were more strongly correlated with the SOC content in comparison with those of higher molecular weight (e.g., five- or six-ring), mainly because of their higher saturated vapor pressure, thus higher mobility. The spatial variation of PAH species in soils in the North China Plain tended to be larger with increasing benzene ring numbers, and the difference in physicochemical properties of PAH species determined their distinct spatial distribution characteristics. The present study highlights the relative importance of emissions and SOC content in spatial variation of PAHs and the dependence of the spatial distribution characteristics of PAH species in surface soils on their physicochemical properties at a regional scale. Results of the present work are helpful for regional risk assessment of the contaminants tested. PMID:22847656

  12. On the Holocene sea-level highstand along the Yangtze Delta and Ningshao Plain, East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Cheng; ZHENG Chaogui; MA Chunmei; YANG Xiaoxuan; GAO Xizhen; WANG Haiming; SHAO Jiuhua

    2003-01-01

    The temporal-spatial distribution of Neolithic sites shows a long period of absence of human settlements during the early Holocene on the Yangtze Delta, and the area has not been colonized until 7000 aBP, corresponding to the onset of the Majiabang culture. Besides the regions east to the sandbar of Maqiao Site in Shanghai, foraminifera are not found in Neolithic cultural layers since 7000 aBP, indicating a widespread transgression between 10000 and 7000 aBP. Evidence of radiocarbon-dated cultural relics, foraminifera and pollen records from the Hemudu Site suggests that the Hemudu culture emerged and developed during the mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum. Therefore, the hypothesis of a mid-Holocene sea-level highstand along the Yangtze Delta and Ningshao Plain from 7000 to 5000 aBP is an open debate. New evidence from archaeological excavations and bio-stratigraphy suggests that, prior to 7000 aBP, a high sea level occurred along the Ningshao Plain. Subsequently, the sea level was lowered between 7000 and 5000 aBP, and the area suffered from frequent floods from 5000 to 3900 aBP.

  13. Comparison of optimal irrigation scheduling and groundwater recharge at representative sites in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying

    2014-05-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is an important food production area in China, facing an increasing water shortage and overexploitation of groundwater. It is critical to optimize the irrigation scheduling and accurately estimate groundwater recharge for saving water and increasing crop water use efficiency. However, the water cycle and crop responses to irrigation are quite various in different areas, because of the spatial variation of climatic, soil, water table and other management practices in the NCP. In this study, three representative sites (LC site in the piedmont plain, TZ site in the northern alluvial and lacustrine plain, YC site in the southern alluvial and lacustrine plain) were selected to compare the optimal irrigation scheduling and corresponding groundwater recharge under different hydrological years for winter wheat-summer maize double cropping system. At each site, a physically based agro-hydrological model (SWAP) was calibrated using field data of soil moisture. Then, scenarios under different irrigation time and amount were simulated. Results showed that the optimal irrigation scheduling and corresponding groundwater recharge were significant different between the three representative sites. The mean water table depth at the LC (33.0 m), YC (10.3 m), and TZ site (2.5 m) caused great different time lags of infiltrated water and groundwater contribution to evapotranspiration. Then, the most irrigation amount was required for the TZ site but the least requirement for the YC site at each hydrologic year. As most clay contents in the deep soils at the LC site increased tortuosity and limited water movement, which resulted in lower rates of recharge compared to more sandy soils at the other two sites. Averagely, using the optimal irrigation scheduling could save 2.04×109 m3 irrigation water and reduce about 84.3% groundwater over-exploitation in winter wheat growth period in the NCP. Therefore, comparison of the simulation results among the three

  14. Floristic composition of two wetland forests in Araguaian Plain, State of Tocantins, Brazil, and comparison with other areas Composição floristica de duas florestas inundáveis na Planície do Araguaia, Estado do Tocantins, Brasil, e comparação com outras áreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Venâncio Martins

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonally inundated native forest fragments ("ipucas" located in natural landform depression swales of the Araguaian Plain are currently under land use pressure. Their composition needs to be better understood to guarantee their protection. This comparative study of fragments under different land use conditions was carried out at Lago Verde Farm, Lagoa da Confusão,Tocantins, Brazil. The location coordinates are UTM 643586 and 644060 East and 8792795 and 8799167 North. This study aimed to first analyze and compare the floristic composition of two seasonally inundated forest fragments of approximately one hectare each. The first is located in an intact (without human intervention Gramineous-Woody Savanna region and the second in a rice cultivation region. The floristic composition of both fragments was then compared to that of other wetland forests located in the Northern, Central Western and Southeastern regions of Brazil.All the floristic compositions are affected by seasonal flooding and soil water saturation. The floristic inventory used a census method that sampled all trees and shrubs with perimeter at 1.30 m from soil (PAP = 15cm; 665 individuals, 33 families and 49 species were recorded for the intact region and 807 individuals, 35 families and 70 species for the altered region fragment. The values of H' = 0.806 (Shannon-Weaver and J = 3.44 nats /individual (equability for the fragment in the region affected by rice cultivation are considered high compared to the intact region fragment values (H' = 0.761 and J = 2.97. Families contributing to floristic richness in the altered region fragment were Fabaceae (9 species, Vochysiaceae (6 and Annonaceae (4. In the intact region fragment, Fabaceae also presented the largest number of species (8 followed by Arecaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Vochysiaceae (3 each. When comparing the forests from various regions in Brazil, floristic similarity was found to be small. Greater similarity was found when

  15. A new plain film finding in cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, M.E.; Haughton, V.M. (Medical Coll. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (USA). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-02-01

    Lytic lesions of the skull due to cysticercosis are described. Encysted larvae in the subarachnoid space eroded the inner table of the skull in a 10-year-old Guatemalan male. In an area with endemic cysticercosis infections, this diagnosis should be considered when round, lytic defects are demonstrated in a skull radiograph. (orig.).

  16. A new plain film finding in cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytic lesions of the skull due to cysticercosis are described. Encysted larvae in the subarachnoid space eroded the inner table of the skull in a 10-year-old Guatemalan male. In an area with endemic cysticercosis infections, this diagnosis should be considered when round, lytic defects are demonstrated in a skull radiograph. (orig.)

  17. Analysis of a winter regional haze event and its formation mechanism in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. J. Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A regional haze episode occurred in the Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei province (BTH area in the North China Plain (NCP from 16 to 19 January 2010. The chemical and optical properties of aerosols and the meteorological condition were investigated in this study with intensive measurement of aerosol and trace gases from 14 to 23 January 2010 at five sites. The episode was caused by the combination of anthropogenic emissions and surface air stagnation under a high pressure system followed by a low pressure system. The concentrations of PM2.5 and trace gases increased significantly on a regional scale during this episode. The increased aerosol scattering coefficient (σsp, absorption coefficient (σap, and aerosol optical depth (AOD showed the importance of aerosol extinction during this haze episode. The increase of secondary inorganic pollutants (SO42−, NO3, NH4+ was observed simultaneously at four sites, especially in the plain area of BTH, which could be identified as a common characteristic of pollution haze in east China. The organic matter (OM was different from secondary inorganic pollutants, which increased more significantly at Chengde (CD site than the other three sites in plain area. The sulfate and nitrate in PM2.5 were mainly formed through the heterogeneous reaction process in the urban area. The secondary organic aerosols in PM2.5 only existed during haze days at CD but in both haze and normal days at the other three sites. The chemical characteristics of aerosols in PM2.5 indicated that the secondary formation of aerosol was one important mechanism in the formation of haze episode. The strong temperature inversion and descending air motions in the planetary boundary layer (PBL allowed pollutants to accumulate in a shallow layer. The weak surface wind speed produced high pollutants concentration within

  18. IMPACTS OF DRYNESS AND DROUGHT PHENOMENA ON AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE IN THE TITU PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAVRIŞ LOREDANA-ELENA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the dryness and drought phenomena in one of the subsidence areas of the Romanian Plain, namely Titu Plain, located in its central-north part, a region frequently affected by such phenomena, under the influence of persistent continental antyciclones. The topic approached in this study is in line with the current concerns of agriculture stakeholders to undertake climate change adaptation measures for a better management of water resources for crops in the the main agricultural regions of the country. In this paper we focused mainly on the impact of dryness and drought on agricultural landscape, although their direct and indirect effects affect not only agriculture, but also the whole economic activity of the region. The impact of these phenomena was assessed by using relevant statistical-climatological methods (e.g. the Helmann method, the Walter-Lieth climatic diagrams, applied on the monthly temparature and precipitation datasets from four weather stations located in the study region covering a 47-year period of meteorological observations (1961-2007: Târgovişte, Ploieşti, Titu şi Videle. The distribution of elements at risk within the Titu Plain region, included in the vulnerability analysis, was determined using land use map of the region extracted from CLC (Corine Land Cover, 2006, by reclassifying the primary land use classes under GIS, resulting six categories of vulnerable items to dryness and drought. Among these items, the agricultural lands have a share of 66.5% across the study region, the main crops being represented by cereals (wheat and corn, potatoes and sunflowers.

  19. Paleochannels and Sediment Characteristics of the Chenier Plain Inner Shelf, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, A.; Fagherazzi, S.; Orange, D.

    2011-12-01

    In the last 3000 yrs, sediments from the Mississippi Delta have been transported to the western part of the Louisiana shelf, triggering beach progradation through a series of shell and sandy ridges (cheniers) separated by muddy hollows. Distinct events of chenier plain development have been explained as being the result of delta lobe switching in the Mississippi delta combined to local processes responsible for formation of beach ridges, recurved spits, eolian deposits, storm berms, and natural levees. In the present work we investigate the recent infill of the inner shelf off the Chenier Plain coast, just west of the recent deltaic deposits of the Mississippi River. We use shallow seismic analysis and the identification of paleochannels to understand their relationship with current rivers off the present coastline. We have been able to identify four seismic units U1 to U4 and their associated surfaces and discontinuities. A tentative reconstruction for the last 20 ky sedimentary infill is provided, correlating well with the datations available for the area. The identification and tracking of several buried channels across the shelf in units U1 and U3 let us track the position of the Mermentau-Calcasieu hydrological system in previous lowstands. It is interpreted that the Mermentau river was flowing more eastward during the Wisconsinan, occupying the location of our study and was then diverted to the west as a result of coastal processes and the development of the Chenier plains. Also, the Mermentau was re-occupying almost the same location at different lowstands, and only when the Chenier formed (due to reactivation of the west Mississippi lobe), the Mermentau was deviated westward due to sediment accumulation at the shoreline.

  20. Backcasting the decline of a vulnerable Great Plains reproductive ecotype: identifying threats and conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Thomas A; Brewer, Shannon K; Grabowski, Timothy B; Mueller, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Conservation efforts for threatened or endangered species are challenging because the multi-scale factors that relate to their decline or inhibit their recovery are often unknown. To further exacerbate matters, the perceptions associated with the mechanisms of species decline are often viewed myopically rather than across the entire species range. We used over 80 years of fish presence data collected from the Great Plains and associated ecoregions of the United States, to investigate the relative influence of changing environmental factors on the historic and current truncated distributions of the Arkansas River shiner Notropis girardi. Arkansas River shiner represent a threatened reproductive ecotype considered especially well adapted to the harsh environmental extremes of the Great Plains. Historic (n = 163 records) and current (n = 47 records) species distribution models were constructed using a vector-based approach in MaxEnt by splitting the available data at a time when Arkansas River shiner dramatically declined. Discharge and stream order were significant predictors in both models; however, the shape of the relationship between the predictors and species presence varied between time periods. Drift distance (river fragment length available for ichthyoplankton downstream drift before meeting a barrier) was a more important predictor in the current model and indicated river segments 375-780 km had the highest probability of species presence. Performance for the historic and current models was high (area under the curve; AUC > 0.95); however, forecasting and backcasting to alternative time periods suggested less predictive power. Our results identify fragments that could be considered refuges for endemic plains fish species and we highlight significant environmental factors (e.g., discharge) that could be manipulated to aid recovery. PMID:23873736

  1. CHANGES IN SUMMER TYPES IN RELATION TO DROUGHT OCCURRENCE IN THE ROMANIAN PLAIN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICU DANA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at analysing the exposure of an important agricultural region of Romania (the Romanian Plain region to hot summers and droughts over the 1961-2009 period, in response to the combined action of air temperature and precipitation. This study is focused on the changes of summer types, herein defined as four modes (warm/dry, warm/wet, cold/dry, cold/wet, based on the exceedence probabilities of the joint extreme quantiles (the 25th and the 75th of mean daily temperature and precipitation, for a number of six weather stations located in the Romanian Plain region. The trends in the evolution of the four summer modes have been investigated in relation to the changes in the frequency, magnitude and duration of precipitation deficit and drought, as revealed by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and the maximum number of consecutive dry days. The changing behaviour of summer modes is strongly associated to the region wide signal of significant summer warming (both daytime and night-time and less to the slight drying trend. The results show that most areas of the Romanian Plain region are subject to a greater exposure to heat stress in summer and also, to a slight intensification of dryness, more spatially extended since the mid 1980s to early 1990s. These findings are supported mainly by a significant increase of the frequency of the warm/dry summers and a slight lengthening of summer dry spells and less, by the long-term trends of summer SPI (at both 3- and 6-month time-scales, which suggest only a slight increase of the frequency of the moderately dry SPI values, yet not statistically significant.

  2. Multi-modeling assessment of recent changes in groundwater resource: application to the semi-arid Haouz plain (Central Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakir, Younes; Brahim, Berjamy; Page Michel, Le; Fathallah, Sghrer; Houda, Nassah; Lionel, Jarlan; Raki Salah, Er; Vincent, Simonneaux; Said, Khabba

    2015-04-01

    The Haouz plain (6000 km2) is a part of the Tensift basin located in the Central Morocco. The plain has a semi-arid climate (250 mm/y of rainfall) and is bordered in the south by the High-Atlas mountains. Because the plain is highly anthropized, the water resources face heavy demands from various competing sectors, including agriculture (over than 273000 ha of irrigated areas), water supply for more than 2 million inhabitants and about 2 millions of tourists annually. Consequently the groundwater is being depleted on a large area of the plain, with problems of water scarcity which pose serious threats to water supplies and to sustainable development. The groundwater in the Haouz plain was modeled previously by MODFLOW (USGS groundwater numerical modeling) with annual time steps. In the present study a multi-modeling approach is applied. The aim is to enhance the evaluation of the groundwater pumping for irrigation, one of the most difficult data to estimate, and to improve the water balance assessment. In this purpose, two other models were added: SAMIR (Satellite Estimation of Agricultural Water Demand) and WEAP (integrated water resources planning). The three models are implemented at a monthly time step and calibrated over the 2001-2011 period, corresponding to 120 time steps. This multi-modeling allows assessing the evolution of water resources both in time and space. The results show deep changes during the last years which affect generally the water resources and groundwater particularly. These changes are induced by a remarkable urbanism development, succession of droughts, intensive agriculture activities and weak management of irrigation and water resources. Some indicators of these changes are as follow: (i) the groundwater table decrease varies between 1 to 3m/year, (ii) the groundwater depletion during the last ten year is equivalent to 50% of the lost reserves during 40 years, (iii) the annual groundwater deficit is about 100 hm3, (iv) the renewable

  3. Depth to Water, Saturated Thickness, and Other Geospatial Datasets Used in the Design and Installation of a Groundwater Monitoring-Well Network in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Jennifer L.; Arnold, L. Rick; Paschke, Suzanne S.

    2009-01-01

    These datasets were compiled in support of U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 456, Design and Installation of a Groundwater Monitoring-Well Network in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado. These datasets were developed as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Department of Agriculture. The purpose of the project was to design a 30-well network and install 20 of the 30 wells to characterize water quality in the High Plains aquifer in areas of irrigated agriculture in Colorado. The five datasets are described as follows and are further described in Data Series 456: (1) ds472_dtw: This dataset represents the depth to groundwater in the High Plains Aquifer in Colorado in 2000. This grid was used to determine areas where the depth to water was less than 200 feet below land surface. (2) Ds472_sat: This dataset represents the saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer within Colorado in 2000. This grid was used to determine areas where the saturated thickness was greater than 50 feet. (3) Ds472_equalareas: This dataset includes 30 equal-area polygons overlying the High Plains Aquifer in Colorado having a depth to water less than 200 feet, a saturated thickness greater than 50 feet, and underlying irrigated agricultural lands. (4) Ds472_randomsites: This dataset includes 90 randomly-generated potential groundwater sampling sites. This dataset provides a first, second, and third choice placed within the 30 equal area polygons of dataset dsXX_equalareas. (5) Ds472_welldata: This dataset includes point locations and well completion data for the 20 wells installed as part of this project. The datasets that pertain to this report can be found on the U.S. Geological Survey's NSDI (National Spatial Data Infrastructure) Node, the links are provided on the sidebar.

  4. Fallow land mapping for better crop monitoring in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain using HJ-1 CCD data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prediction of grain production is essential for socio-economic development planning, guidance and control of macro cropping structure adjustment. Fallow areas should be identified each growing season which is critical for grain production prediction. This paper focuses on fallow arable land monitoring during summer grain season in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain using China Environment Satellite HJ-1 CCD data. With the two satellites HJ-1A and HJ-1B, high temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can be obtained. HJ-1 CCD data were acquired from early March to early June in 2010 over the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. Multi-temporal HJ-1 CCD data were pre-processed and time series of NDVI were derived. An algorithm for separating cropped and fallow areas was developed based on three key periods of NDVI in early-March, mid-April and mid-May, 2010. The influence of fallow arable lands to yield estimation and crop condition monitoring over the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain were also investigated and analyzed. Preliminary results in this paper showed that HJ-1 CCD data are capable for fallow land monitoring. Information of fallow arable lands is an essential part of crop monitoring and it should be incorporated into crop monitoring systems. In the future, the fallow lands over autumn grain season should also be identified and information of fallow arable lands should be generated yearly in order to get more reliable production prediction

  5. METRIC estimated ET evaluation on the semiarid Southern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declining groundwater levels in the Southern High Plains of the United States, and the fact that agriculture in this region uses more than 90% of groundwater withdrawals, requires efficient agricultural water use. Accurate regional evapotranspiration (ET) maps would provide valuable information on c...

  6. Plains Prickly Pear Cactus Response to Fire and Fuel Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of prickly pear on rangelands has lead to numerous studies aimed at understanding prickly pear response to various natural and human induced treatments. Information is lacking on Plains prickly pear response to varied fuel loads. Pads of clones from three soil types (claypan, gravel, si...

  7. Astrobiology and the Basaltic Plains in Gusev Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMarais, D. J.; Clark, B. C.; Crumpler, L. S.; Farmer, J. D.; Grotzinger, John P.; Haskin, Larry A.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Schroeder, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This report assesses the availability of nutrient elements, energy and liquid water on the plains surrounding Columbia Memorial Station by evaluating observations by the MER rover Spirit in the context of previous Mars missions, Earth-based studies of martian meteorites and studies of microbial communities on Earth that represent potential analogs of martian biota.

  8. Deathscapes, Topocide, Domicide: The Plains in Contemporary Print Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Christina E.

    2009-01-01

    The American print media are a powerful mechanism for communicating information about places and environment to the American public. When it comes to a landscape such as the Great Plains, experienced by many Americans as either sleep-through land in a car or flyover land in a plane, the print media may be their only real source of information…

  9. Introducing Plain Language Principles to Business Communication Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Rachelle R.

    2012-01-01

    In response to current federal mandates requiring selected businesses and government agencies to use plain language (PL) when reporting information to the public, this article advocates the introduction of PL principles into current business communication curricula. Despite recent PL mandates and advances, many current business textbooks and…

  10. 19th Century Plains Indian Robe Painting: Wearable Art Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Gerald R.

    1983-01-01

    The Indians of the Great Plains of North America once wore some of the most magnificent works of art in the form of bison robes that were painted in a variety of modes. These forms of expression have become obsolete and their function has been replaced by new materials. (Availability: CHEA National Office, 151 Slater Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1P…

  11. Educational enhancements to the Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration (ET) network

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, an irrigation scheduling and management tool was developed for addressing large acreage and multiple field irrigated farms, particularly those in the Texas High Plains where the declining Ogallala Aquifer is the primary source of irrigation water. This tool, while providing in-season ...

  12. Fields of Opportunity: Wind Machines Return to the Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a rebirth of wind machines on the rural landscape. In ironic fashion the wind's kinetic energy has grown in significance through its ability to generate commercial amounts of electricity, the commodity that a few generations earlier hastened the demise of the old Great Plains windmill. Yet the reemergence of wind…

  13. Long-term Agroecosystem Research in the Northern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmer, M.; Sanderson, M.; Liebig, M. A.; Wienhold, B.; Awada, T.; Papiernik, S.; Osborne, S.; Kemp, W.; Okalebo, J. A.; Riedall, W.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern Great Plains is the bread basket of the United States, accounting for a substantial portion of U.S. agricultural production. This region faces critical challenges regarding balancing food needs, resource conservation (e.g Ogallala aquifer), environmental concerns, and rural economy development. Developing transformative, multifunctional systems will require equally imaginative and efficient tools to help farmers manage complex agroecosystems in a rapidly changing climate. The Northern Plains long-term agroecosystem research (LTAR) site at Mandan, ND and the Platte River High Plains LTAR (ARS/University of Nebraska-Lincoln) at Lincoln, NE in collaboration with USDA-ARS research units in Brookings, SD and Fargo, ND are collaborating to address the grand challenge of providing and sustaining multiple service provisions from Northern Great Plains agroecosystems. We propose to attain these goals through sustainable intensification based on the adoption of conservation agriculture principles including reduced soil disturbance, livestock integration, and greater complexity and diversity in the cropping system. Here, we summarize new concepts these locations have pioneered in dynamic cropping systems, resource use efficiency, and agricultural management technologies. As part of the LTAR network, we will conduct long-term cross-site research to design and assess new agricultural practices and systems aimed at improving our understanding of decision making processes and outcomes across an array of agricultural systems.

  14. The impact of anthropogenic activities on components of the natural environment of the Titu Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BOGAN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The anthropogenic activities on the environment cause topographic changes that have strong repercussions, some positive (afforestation, embankments but other negative (deforestation, soil erosion, inning. The present study aims to analyze the current situation of the main anthropogenic activities in the area of Titu Plain, to highlight the negative impacts on the quality of the environment, and at the same time it proposes ways of reducing their adverse effect. Thus, there were studied the three essential components: water, air and soil, and were established the main problems that they currently acts as a result of the work carried out in this geographical area. It is also highlighted the human concern for the conservation and improvement of the quality of the environment, because the man begins to become more aware of the negative impacts of his activities on the environment

  15. Mercury and methylmercury dynamics in a coastal plain watershed, New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, J.L.; Riskin, M.L.; Szabo, Z.; Reilly, P.A.; Rosman, R.; Bonin, J.L.; Fischer, J.M.; Heckathorn, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    The upper Great Egg Harbor River watershed in New Jersey's Coastal Plain is urbanized but extensive freshwater wetlands are present downstream. In 2006-2007, studies to assess levels of total mercury (THg) found concentrations in unfiltered streamwater to range as high as 187 ng/L in urbanized areas. THg concentrations were water with THg that exceeds the drinking water standard (2,000 ng/L). THg concentrations were lower (water/sediment interface. Atmospheric deposition is presumed to be the main source of Hg to the wetlands and also may be a source to groundwater, where wastewater inputs in urban areas are hypothesized to mobilize Hg deposited to soils. ?? 2010 US Government.

  16. Large lake basins of the southern High Plains: ground-water control of their origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, W.W.; Sanford, W.E.; Reeves, C.C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    We modify the deflation hypothesis by proposing that the calcrete caprock may never have been deposited in the areas now occupied by the basins. The absence of calcrete deposition is proposed to have resulted from high water tables caused by an increase in hydraulic gradient where aquifers thinned above bedrock highs. A high water table close to and/or intersecting the surface prevents deposition of calcrete, and thus, the uncemented surface would be more susceptible to deflation than the surrounding calcrete-covered areas after decline of the water table. The rise in water table associated with bedrock highs is documented by numerical simulation using boundary conditions and hydrologic parameters representative of the southern High Plains. -from Authors

  17. 41 CFR 102-2.140 - What elements of plain language appear in the FMR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION SYSTEM Plain Language Regulatory Style § 102-2.140 What elements of plain language appear in the FMR? The FMR is written in a “plain language” regulatory style. This style is easy to read... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What elements of...

  18. Has land subsidence changed the flood hazard potential? A case example from the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. L.; Ito, Y.; Sawamukai, M.; Su, T.; Tokunaga, T.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal areas are subject to flood hazards because of their topographic features, social development and related human activities. The Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, is located nearby the Tokyo metropolitan area and it faces to the Pacific Ocean. In the Kujukuri Plain, widespread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by exploitation of groundwater, extraction of natural gas dissolved in brine, and natural consolidation of the Holocene and landfill deposits. The locations of land subsidence include areas near the coast, and it may increase the flood hazard potential. Hence, it is very important to evaluate flood hazard potential by taking into account the temporal change of land elevation caused by land subsidence, and to prepare hazard maps for protecting the surface environment and for developing an appropriate land-use plan. In this study, flood hazard assessments at three different times, i.e., 1970, 2004, and 2013 are implemented by using a flood hazard model based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis with Geographical Information System techniques. The model incorporates six factors: elevation, depression area, river system, ratio of impermeable area, detention ponds, and precipitation. Main data sources used are 10 m resolution topography data, airborne laser scanning data, leveling data, Landsat-TM data, two 1:30 000 scale river watershed maps, and precipitation data from observation stations around the study area and Radar data. The hazard assessment maps for each time are obtained by using an algorithm that combines factors with weighted linear combinations. The assignment of the weight/rank values and their analysis are realized by the application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. This study is a preliminary work to investigate flood hazards on the Kujukuri Plain. A flood model will be developed to simulate more detailed change of the flood hazard influenced by land subsidence.

  19. Are typical plains state towns potential superfund sites?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A typical plains town (Hastings, population 23,000) in south-central Nebraska was the subject of a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS). This town was classified as a Superfund site in 1985. The RI/FS consisted of installing 40 monitoring wells, drilling 111 exploratory boreholes, and analyzing numerous soil, soil gas, and ground-water samples. As the picture unfolded, it became evident that this Superfund site is probably typical of any agricultural community in the plains states. The site is approximately 3.25 miles long, 0.5 mile wide, and is centered on the intersection of two major rail lines. The site was segmented into seven subsites based on identified sources of ground-water contamination. Each source could represent an operation typical of small towns located on the plains. Two of the subsites were designated because of fumigant releases at former and current grain storage facilities; one of these subsites also experienced a solvent release from a manufacturing facility. A third subsite was designated because of a solvent release. This subsite was adjacent to a fourth subsite containing the residuals of a former coal gasification operation. Another two subsites were former landfills. The seventh subsite, a former Navy Ammunition Depot located outside of town, is not typical of most towns in the plains states. This subsite is currently an industrial complex. Contaminant releases have been identified on this subsite that are the result of former ammunition operations and some current operations. Ground-water contaminant configuration is very complicated in that the site ground-water contaminant plume is the commingling of six major contaminants forming five separate plumes. Given the overall similarity in the physiographic conditions, geologic formations, hydrogeology, and farming related industries/operations, we believe that HaStings may not be unique and other typical plains state towns have the potential to become Superfund sites

  20. Acute paediatric ankle trauma: MRI versus plain radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnosis of acute physeal ankle fractures on plain radiographs using MRI as the gold standard. Methods: Sixty consecutive children, 29 with a clinical diagnosis of lateral ligament injury and 31 with physeal ankle fractures, were examined using both radiographs and MRI in the acute period. The imaging data were reviewed by three ''masked'' radiologists. The fracture diagnosis and Slater-Harris classification of radiographs were compared with findings on MRI. Results: Plain radiography produced five of 28 (18%) false negative and 12 of 92 (13%) false positive fracture diagnoses compared with MRI. Six of the 12 false positive fractures were due to a misclassification of lateral ligament disruption as SH1 fractures. Altogether a difference was found in 21% of cases in either the diagnosis or the classification of the fractures according to Salter- Harris. All bone bruises in the distal tibia and fibula and 64% of bone bruises in the talus were seen in association with lateral ligament injuries. Talar bone bruises in association with fractures occurred on the same side as the malleolar fracture; talar bone bruises in association with lateral ligament disruption were seen in different locations. The errors identified on radiographs by MRI did not affect the management of the injury. Conclusions: The incidence of false negative ankle fractures in plain radiographs was small and no complex ankle fractures were missed on radiographs. The total extent of complex fractures was, however, not always obvious on radiographs. In an unselected series of relatively mild ankle injuries, we were unable to show a single case where the treatment or prognosis based on plain radiography should have been significantly altered after having done a routine MRI examination. Plain radiography is still the diagnostic cornerstone of paediatric ankle injuries. (orig.)

  1. Plain abdominal film and abdominal ultrasound in intestine occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plain film of the abdomen is widely used in the diagnostic evaluation of intestinal occlusion. Even though this technique can yield a panoramic and high-resolution view of gas-filled intestinal loops, several factors, such as type and duration of occlusion, neurovascular status of the intestine and general patient condition, may reduce the diagnostic specificy of the plain film relative to the organic or functional nature of the occlusion. From 1987 to 1989, fifty-four patients with intestinal occlusion were studied combining plain abdominal film with abdominal ultrasound (US). This was done in order to evaluate whether the additional information obtained from US could be of value in better determining the nature of the ileus. US evaluation was guided by the information already obtained from plain film which better demonstrates gas-filled loops. The results show that in all 27 cases of dynamic ileus (intestinal ischemia, acute appendicitis, acute cholecistis, acute pancreatitis or blunt abdominal trauma) US demonstrates: intestinal loops slightly increased in caliber, with liquid content, or loops containing rare hyperechoic particles, intestinal wall thickening and no peristalsis. In 27 cases of acute, chronic or complicated mechanical ileus (adhesions, internal hernia, intestinal neoplasm, peritoneal seedings) US shows: 1) in acute occlusion: hyperperistaltic intestinal loops containing inhomogeneous liquid; 2) in chronic occlusion: liquid content with a solid echigenic component; 3) in complicated occlusion: liquid stasis, frequent increase in wall thickness, moderate peritoneal effusion and inefficient peristalsis. In conclusion, based on the obtained data, the authors feel that the combination of plain abdominal film and abdominal US can be useful in the work-up of patient with intestinal occlusion. The information provided by US allows a better definition of the nature of the ileus

  2. Acute paediatric ankle trauma: MRI versus plain radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohman, M. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Radiological Dept., Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Kivisaari, A.; Kivisaari, L. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Kallio, P.; Puntila, J. [Dept. of Paediatric Surgery, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Vehmas, T. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland)

    2001-09-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnosis of acute physeal ankle fractures on plain radiographs using MRI as the gold standard. Methods: Sixty consecutive children, 29 with a clinical diagnosis of lateral ligament injury and 31 with physeal ankle fractures, were examined using both radiographs and MRI in the acute period. The imaging data were reviewed by three ''masked'' radiologists. The fracture diagnosis and Slater-Harris classification of radiographs were compared with findings on MRI. Results: Plain radiography produced five of 28 (18%) false negative and 12 of 92 (13%) false positive fracture diagnoses compared with MRI. Six of the 12 false positive fractures were due to a misclassification of lateral ligament disruption as SH1 fractures. Altogether a difference was found in 21% of cases in either the diagnosis or the classification of the fractures according to Salter- Harris. All bone bruises in the distal tibia and fibula and 64% of bone bruises in the talus were seen in association with lateral ligament injuries. Talar bone bruises in association with fractures occurred on the same side as the malleolar fracture; talar bone bruises in association with lateral ligament disruption were seen in different locations. The errors identified on radiographs by MRI did not affect the management of the injury. Conclusions: The incidence of false negative ankle fractures in plain radiographs was small and no complex ankle fractures were missed on radiographs. The total extent of complex fractures was, however, not always obvious on radiographs. In an unselected series of relatively mild ankle injuries, we were unable to show a single case where the treatment or prognosis based on plain radiography should have been significantly altered after having done a routine MRI examination. Plain radiography is still the diagnostic cornerstone of paediatric ankle injuries. (orig.)

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF AREAS LOW IN SOIL FERTILITY AND ANALYSIS OF THEIR LIMITING FACTORS IN THE REGION TYPICAL OF THE NORTH CHINA PLAIN%华北平原典型区土壤肥力低下区识别及限制因子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贝尔; 黄标; 赵永存; 孙维侠; 胡文友; 张晓光

    2012-01-01

    To perform sustainable land use management, it is essential to predict accurately spatial distribution of soil fertility quality and identify problem areas in soil fertility quality. Based on the soil fertility quality data of a total of 99 samples of topsoil (0-20 cm) from Yucheng City, the sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) method was applied to a conditional stochastic simulation in this paper to quantitatively assess the uncertainty of spatial distribution prediction of soil fertility quality and identify problem areas in soil fertility quality. Results show that the southwestern and the central parts of Yucheng City are higher than the northern part, the northwestern and the southeastern parts in soil fertility quality. By making use of the relationship between soil fertility and crop yield, the threshold value for identifying problem areas in soil fertility quality is determined to be 0. 55. The soil quality indices of most parts of the city are beyond the value. Using this cutoff value and the spatial uncertainty assessment, only a total of 2 494 hm2 of land is identified as problem area. The main limiting factors are soil texture and low soil total phosphorus content in the northern part of the study area, soil salinization in the northwestern part, and low soil nutrient availability nutrient, soil salinization, poor soil texture and low soil total nitrogen content.%采用序贯高斯模拟方法对山东禹城市土壤质量指数的空间表征进行了评价,并深入分析了土壤肥力低下区的范围及其主要限制因子.结果表明,禹城市西南和中部土壤肥力质量指数较高,肥力质量较低的区域主要分布在该市北部、西北和东南三个区域.利用土壤肥力质量与产量的关系,确定禹城市土壤肥力低下的判定阈值为0.55,该市大部分区域土壤质量指数处于该阈值以上,仅在北部、西北和东南三个相对独立的区域共有2494 hm2的耕地土壤肥力低下的风险较高.

  4. Evaluation of Four Water Management Policies for Ogallala Aquifer Sustainability in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, J. E.; Gowda, P. H.; Howell, T. A.; Marek, T. H.; Ha, W.; Almas, L. K.

    2010-12-01

    Diminishing groundwater supply in the Ogallala Aquifer will severely reduce regional crop and animal production in the absence of a sustainable water management policy. It is essential to mitigate adverse impacts on the regional economy due to future withdrawals of the limited groundwater resource. Currently, approximately ten alternative water management policies are being debated by policy makers in the Central and Southern High Plains of the Ogallala Aquifer region. Before implementing any new policy or modifying current policies, newer alternative policies should be evaluated for their impact on groundwater levels with eventual extension to regional economic impacts. The main objective of this study was to evaluate four water management policies, from the debated ones, on future groundwater levels in the Ogallala Aquifer beneath four heavily irrigated counties (Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore) located in the northwest corner of the Texas High Plains using a calibrated ModFlow model. The four water management policies were (1) voluntary permanent conversion to dry land production up to 10% of the total irrigated area, (2) adoption of advances in biotechnology that allow water use reductions at a rate of 1% per year up to 10% of current use, (3) mandatory water use reduction to decrease the total water pumped by 10% (volume per unit land area per year), and (4) voluntary temporary conversion to dry land production during 15 years for a maximum area of 10% of the total irrigated area. The water management policies were converted into water demand rates for ModFlow model inputs. Simulations were conducted for a 50-year (2010-2060) period. Preliminary results indicate that a combination of more than one policy will be required to produce a significant reduction in the current groundwater depletion rates.

  5. Assessing Potential Habitat and Carrying Capacity for Reintroduction of Plains Bison (Bison bison bison) in Banff National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenweg, Robin; Hebblewhite, Mark; Gummer, David; Low, Brian; Hunt, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Interest in bison (Bison bison, B. bonasus) conservation and restoration continues to grow globally. In Canada, plains bison (B. b. bison) are threatened, occupying less than 0.5% of their former range. The largest threat to their recovery is the lack of habitat in which they are considered compatible with current land uses. Fences and direct management make range expansion by most bison impossible. Reintroduction of bison into previously occupied areas that remain suitable, therefore, is critical for bison recovery in North America. Banff National Park is recognized as historical range of plains bison and has been identified as a potential site for reintroduction of a wild population. To evaluate habitat quality and assess if there is sufficient habitat for a breeding population, we developed a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the proposed reintroduction and surrounding areas in Banff National Park (Banff). We then synthesize previous studies on habitat relationships, forage availability, bison energetics and snowfall scenarios to estimate nutritional carrying capacity. Considering constraints on nutritional carrying capacity, the most realistic scenario that we evaluated resulted in an estimated maximum bison density of 0.48 bison/km2. This corresponds to sufficient habitat to support at least 600 to 1000 plains bison, which could be one of the largest 10 plains bison populations in North America. Within Banff, there is spatial variation in predicted bison habitat suitability and population size that suggests one potential reintroduction site as the most likely to be successful from a habitat perspective. The successful reintroduction of bison into Banff would represent a significant global step towards conserving this iconic species, and our approach provides a useful template for evaluating potential habitat for other endangered species reintroductions into their former range. PMID:26910226

  6. Assessing Potential Habitat and Carrying Capacity for Reintroduction of Plains Bison (Bison bison bison in Banff National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Steenweg

    Full Text Available Interest in bison (Bison bison, B. bonasus conservation and restoration continues to grow globally. In Canada, plains bison (B. b. bison are threatened, occupying less than 0.5% of their former range. The largest threat to their recovery is the lack of habitat in which they are considered compatible with current land uses. Fences and direct management make range expansion by most bison impossible. Reintroduction of bison into previously occupied areas that remain suitable, therefore, is critical for bison recovery in North America. Banff National Park is recognized as historical range of plains bison and has been identified as a potential site for reintroduction of a wild population. To evaluate habitat quality and assess if there is sufficient habitat for a breeding population, we developed a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI model for the proposed reintroduction and surrounding areas in Banff National Park (Banff. We then synthesize previous studies on habitat relationships, forage availability, bison energetics and snowfall scenarios to estimate nutritional carrying capacity. Considering constraints on nutritional carrying capacity, the most realistic scenario that we evaluated resulted in an estimated maximum bison density of 0.48 bison/km2. This corresponds to sufficient habitat to support at least 600 to 1000 plains bison, which could be one of the largest 10 plains bison populations in North America. Within Banff, there is spatial variation in predicted bison habitat suitability and population size that suggests one potential reintroduction site as the most likely to be successful from a habitat perspective. The successful reintroduction of bison into Banff would represent a significant global step towards conserving this iconic species, and our approach provides a useful template for evaluating potential habitat for other endangered species reintroductions into their former range.

  7. Investigation of wind erosion process for estimation, prevention, and control of DSS in Yazd-Ardakan plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhtesasi, M R; Sepehr, A

    2009-12-01

    Wind erosion is a phenomenon that is reasonably common in regions where dry winds blow. For the most part, these regions correspond to the dry lands; areas where the soil, generally, is dry and shifting and lacks vegetation for most of the year. The winds are sufficiently strong to lift and move sands and soil particles. The repeated removal of superficial layers by the action of winds can modify the texture of the topsoil, by removing the fine particles and leaving the larger particles. Dust and sandstorm (DSS) is the generic term for a serious environmental phenomenon that involves strong winds that blow a large quantity of dust and fine sand particles away from the ground and carry them over a long distance with significant environmental impacts along the way. In the realm of DSS in Iran country, the people who live in Yazd and Sistan-Baluchestan provinces form a single ecological community due to their geographic proximity and climatic contiguity. The major sources of DSS in the region are believed to be the desert and semidesert areas of the Yazd-Ardakan plain in Yazd province. Both Sistan and Baluchestan are the recipients of this dust. To address the long-range transboundary environmental problem of DSS, a regional cooperation mechanism must be established among the provinces in the region. Yazd-Ardakan plain, with area of about 650,000 ha, is located in the center of Iran, between Yazd and Ardakan cities. The mean annual rainfall is less than 65 mm. Rainfall distribution is a simple modal and more than 70% of it occurs in winter. Plant density varies from 0% to 25%, and Artemisia sieberi is the dominant plant species. The major part of Yazd-Ardakan plain is bare land. According to the recent investigation, more than 20,000-m(3) dust with less than 100-microm diameter falls down annually on Yazd city with an area of 7,000 ha. Horizontal visibility is reduced to less than 6 m in stormy days in some parts of Yazd-Ardakan plain. This phenomenon causes car

  8. Isotopes to Study the coastal aquifer plain, Cap Bon, Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study area is located in the northeastern part of Tunisia about 60 km south of the Tunis city. It is bounded by the Gulf of Haematite in the East, Djebel Sidi Aberahmane in the West, The town of Nabeul in the south and the area of the town Kelibia in the north. The landscape is a coastal plain slightly sloping (3%) towards the sea. The groundwater of the Oriental coast aquifer system occurs mainly at two levels, a shallow aquifer up to depths of about 50 m whose reservoir is consisted by sediments of the Plio quaternary and a deep aquifer between about 150 and 400 m located in the sand stone formations of Miocene of the anticline of Djebel Sidi Abderrahmene. The climate of the region is semi-arid to sub-humid and of Mediterranean type. There are no perennial rivers in this region; but intense storms occasionally cause surface runoff, which is discharged by the oueds. The study is related to a technical cooperation project with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, aimed at the use of isotope techniques to study the seawater intrusion into the coastal aquifers of Cap Bon in Tunisia. In this regard, a better understanding of the recharge and flow regime as well as the origin or salinity of the groundwater was required. To reach this goal, isotope and geochemical investigations were carried out. Water samples were taken from wells, boreholes from deep and shallow aquifer of the Oriental coastal aquifer located between Beni Khiar in the south and Kelibia in the north. The samples were analysed for their chemical and isotopic compositions (18O, 2H, 3H, 13C, 14C, 34S). In the following, the results of these analyses are presented and discussed in terms of the recharge and flow regime of the groundwater and the origin and evolution of its salinity. The results of geochemical and isotopic studies have shown that the groundwater is very eterogeneous and suggest the aquifer is replenished by recent water coming from direct infiltration from rain. At

  9. Stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone and the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unsaturated zone and the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are made up of at least 178 basalt-flow groups, 103 sedimentary interbeds, 6 andesite-flow groups, and 4 rhyolite domes. Stratigraphic units identified in 333 wells in this 890-mile2 area include 121 basalt-flow groups, 102 sedimentary interbeds, 6 andesite-flow groups, and 1 rhyolite dome. Stratigraphic units were identified and correlated using the data from numerous outcrops and 26 continuous cores and 328 natural-gamma logs available in December 1993. Basalt flows make up about 85% of the volume of deposits underlying the area

  10. Flood plain analysis for Petris, , Troas, and Monoros, tia watersheds, the Arad department, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győri, M.-M.; Haidu, I.

    2012-04-01

    The present study sets out to determine the flood plains corresponding to flood discharges having 10, 50 and 100 year recurrence intervals on the Monoroštia, Petriš and Troaš Rivers, located in Western Romania, the Arad department. The data of the study area is first collected and pre-processed in ArcGIS. It consists of land use data, soil data, the DEM, stream gauges' and meteorological stations' locations, on the basis of which the watersheds' hydrologic parameters' are computed using the Geospatial Hydrologic Modelling Extension (HEC Geo-HMS). HEC Geo-HMS functions as an interface between ArcGIS and HEC-HMS (Hydrologic Engineering Centre- Hydrologic Modelling System) and converts the data collected and generated in ArcGIS to data useable by HEC-HMS. The basin model component in HEC-HMS represents the physical watershed. It facilitates the effective rainfall computation on the basis of the input hyetograph, passing the results to a transform function that converts the excess precipitation into runoff at the subwatersheds' outlet. This enables the estimation and creation of hydrographs for the ungauged watersheds. In the present study, the results are achieved through the SCS CN loss method and the SCS Unit hydrograph transform method. The simulations use rainfall data that is registered at the stations situated in the catchments' vicinity, data that spans over two decades (1989-2009) and which allows the rainfall hyetographs to be determined for the above mentioned return periods. The model will be calibrated against measured streamflow data from the gauging stations on the main rivers, leading to the adjustment of watershed parameters, such as the CN parameter. As the flood discharges for 10, 50 and 100 year return periods have been determined, the profile of the water surface elevation along the channel will be computed through a steady flow analysis, with HEC-RAS (Hydrologic Engineering Centre- River Analysis System). For each of the flood frequencies, a

  11. Contamination of organochlorine pesticides in the soils of the Campania Plain, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chengkai; Albanese, Stefano; Doherty, Angela; Chen, Wei; Lima, Annamaria; Piccolo, Alessandro; Arienzo, Michele; Qi, Shihua; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-04-01

    For the last several decades, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been introduced into the environment through anthropogenic activity. Due to their volatility and persistence, OCPs may undergo long-range atmospheric transport and, as a result, can be redistributed globally. Exposure to OCPs can pose serious health risks, including certain cancers, birth defects, respiratory illness, dysfunctional reproductive and immune systems, greater susceptibility to disease and damages to the central and peripheral nervous systems. To date, only a handful of studies, have reported the OCPs contamination level in water, sediment and organisms in the Campania Region, however a regional study of the soil contamination is still lacking. In our study, the distribution, inventory and potential risk of OCPs, including Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and their correlation with environmental and anthropological factors were investigated in soils of the Campania Plain. The specific objectives of this study were to (I) investigate the residual levels, distribution and possible sources of legacy OCPs, and further estimate their mass inventories in soils of the Campania Plain, (II) analyze the impact of soil properties on contaminant distribution, and (III) evaluate the potential ecological and health risks of OCPs. The total concentrations of HCHs and DDTs has a geometric mean (GM) of 0.05 ng/g, and 14.4 ng/g, respectively. The significant difference in spatial variations of OCPs (Kruskal-Wallis test, P<0.05) was observed in the Campania Plain. Two specific areas exhibited higher concentrations of OCP residues: one situated in the Acerra-Marigliano conurbation with elevated HCHs and DDTs; and the other in the Sarno River basin which contains elevated levels of DDTs. The recent application of technical HCHs and DDTs in large quantities appears unlikely in light of the ratio of α-HCH/β-HCH and p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE, and the prohibition of the use

  12. USGS Historical, Current, and Projected Future Land Cover Mapping for the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, T. L.; Gallant, A.; Sayler, K. L.

    2008-12-01

    Land cover in the Northern Great Plains has changed considerably in the last several decades. While a significant proportion of the landscape has been cultivated for over one hundred years, the intensity of cultivation, crop type, and management practices have changed in response to shifts in government policy, commodity prices, access to water, and technological advances. Changes in land cover impact a wide variety of ecosystem processes and services, including carbon balances, climate, hydrology and water quality, and biodiversity. A consistent record of historical land cover is required to understand relations between land- cover change and these ecological processes, while projections of future land cover are needed for planning and potential mitigation efforts. Several U.S. Geological Survey efforts have been completed or are ongoing in the Northern Great Plains, resulting in the compilation of an unmatched record of historical, current, and future land-cover information for the region. The USGS Land Cover Trends project is using the historical record of Landsat imagery and a robust sampling approach to examine the rates, causes, and consequences of contemporary (1973-2000) land-cover change on an ecoregional basis for the conterminous United States. Results from completed Trends analyses for Great Plains ecoregions revealed changes in the proportion and distribution of grassland/shrubland and agricultural uses during the study period; Some areas exhibited considerable loss in cultivated land after initiation of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in the mid 1980s. In recent years (post-2000), agricultural commodity prices have skyrocketed as food and energy compete for use of agricultural products, which in conjunction with the expiration of many CRP contracts, has led to expansion of cultivated land. In the coming decades, calls for U.S. energy independence and the development of biofuels from cellulosic stock could result in a transformation of the Great

  13. A Study of the Plain Writing Act of 2010: Federal Agency, Writer, and User Appropriations of U.S. Plain Language Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Kathleen T.

    2014-01-01

    On October 13, 2010, President Barack Obama signed the Plain Writing Act of 2010 into law. It requires federal government agencies to use plain writing in all "covered" documents "the agency issues or substantially revises" (Sec. 4 (b)). The goal of the Plain Writing Act is to "enhance citizen access to Government information" (Introduction) and improve government operations and accountability "by promoting clear Government communication the public can understand and use (Sec. 2). This disser...

  14. Flood Insurance Study, Salt Lake County, Utah, Unincorporated Areas, Volume 1

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1994-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the unincorporated areas of Salt Lake County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the county that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the county in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain ...

  15. DS-777 Annual Model-Forecasted Land-Use/Land-Cover Rasters from 2009 to 2050 for the B2 Climate Scenario for the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Estimates of area and aerial extent of land use categories are an essential component for computing the water budget of the High Plains aquifer. These raster...

  16. DS-777 Annual Model-Forecasted Land-Use/Land-Cover Rasters from 2009 to 2050 for the A2 Climate Scenario for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Estimates of area and aerial extent of land-use categories are an essential component for computing the water budget of the High Plains aquifer. These raster...

  17. Influence of climate and land use changes on recent trend of soil erosion within the Russian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golosov, Valentin; Yermolaev, Oleg; Rysin, Ivan; Litvin, Leonid; Kiryukhina, Zoya; Safina, Guzel

    2016-04-01

    The Russian Plain is one of the largest plains with an area of 460 × 106 ha. Soil erosion during snow-melting and rainstorms occurs mostly on arable lands at the Russian Plain. The relative contribution of different types of soil erosion changes from the central part of the Russian Plain to the south. Sheet and rill soil erosion during snow-melting and rainfall are practically equal in the forest zone, while rainfall erosion prevails in the forest-steppe zone and the northern part of the steppe zone. Mostly rainfall erosion is observed in the southern part of the steppe zone. Mean annual soil losses from cultivated lands change in the range from 1 to 3 t ha-1 within lowlands to 6 to 8 t ha-1 at uplands with the maximum (10 t ha-1) observed near the Caucasus Mountains in the Stavropolskiy Krai. The intensity of gully erosion is relatively low during the last two decades. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a serious crisis in the agriculture because of financial problems and structural reorganization. As a result, the area of arable lands decreased in the southern half of the Russian Plain in 1991 - 2003. To a greater extent it was observed in the south of the forest zone because of the low productivity of its soils compared with chernozem. More than one third of the arable lands were abandoned in the dry steppe - semi-desert zones because these lands were irrigated during the Soviet period. The reduction of the arable land occurred in the forest-steppe and steppe zones mostly because of funding limitations during the 1990s. Recently the area of arable lands in the steppe zone was practically restored to its pre-1991 size. Simultaneously the last 25 years are characterized by unusual warm winters - in particular, in the southern half of the Russian Plain because of the global warming. As a result, the coefficient of surface snow-melting runoff considerably decreased for both cultivated fields and compacted fields after harvesting. Accordingly, spring

  18. Cowbird parasitism in grassland and cropland in the northern Great Plains: Chapter 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koford, Rolf R.; Bowen, B.S.; Lokemoen, John T.; Kruse, Arnold D.

    2000-01-01

    The landscape of the Great Plains has been greatly altered by human activities in the past century, and several grassland passerines have experienced significant population declines in recent decades. We explore here whether brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds, which are abundant in the Great Plains, has contributed to these declines. We measured the frequency of cowbird parasitism of passerine species in seeded grassland, natural grassland, and cropland in studies conducted in North Dakota during 1981-1993. The proportions of parasitized nests were 25%, 34%, and 39% in seeded grassland, natural grassland, and cropland, respectively. We speculate that much of the variation in parasitism rate among these habitats is related to the local abundance of cowbirds, to nest visibility, and to the presence of suitable perches for female cowbirds. Local abundance of cowbirds may be high in areas with cattle pastures. Nests and nesting behavior are probably more visible to female cowbirds in cropland than in grassland. Female cowbirds may use shrubs as perches while searching for host nests, and shrubs are more common in natural grasslands than in the other habitats we examined. Experimental work on the determinants of cowbird abundance in grasslands is needed.

  19. Halotolerant aerobic heterotrophic bacteria from the Great Salt Plains of Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, T M; Witte, L R; Ngyuen, H D; Buchheim, J A; Buchheim, M A; Schneegurt, M A

    2004-11-01

    The Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge (SPNWR) near Cherokee, Oklahoma, contains a barren salt flat where Permian brine rises to the surface and evaporates under dry conditions to leave a crust of white salt. Rainfall events dissolve the salt crust and create ephemeral streams and ponds. The rapidly changing salinity and high surface temperatures, salinity, and UV exposure make this an extreme environment. The Salt Plains Microbial Observatory (SPMO) examined the soil microbial community of this habitat using classic enrichment and isolation techniques and phylogenetic rDNA studies. Rich growth media have been emphasized that differ in total salt concentration and composition. Aerobic heterotrophic enrichments were performed under a variety of conditions. Heterotrophic enrichments and dilution plates have generated 105 bacterial isolates, representing 46 phylotypes. The bacterial isolates have been characterized phenotypically and subjected to rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Fast-growing isolates obtained from enrichments with 10% salt are predominantly from the gamma subgroup of the Proteobacteria and from the low GC Gram-positive cluster. Several different areas on the salt flats have yielded a variety of isolates from the Gram-negative genera Halomonas, Idiomarina, Salinivibrio, and Bacteroidetes. Gram-positive bacteria are well represented in the culture collection including members of the Bacillus, Salibacillus, Oceanobacillus, and Halobacillus. PMID:15696379

  20. Water Quality and Hydrogeochemical Characteristics of Surface Water and Groundwaters in Aksu (Isparta Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehnaz Şener

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, geological, hydrological, hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical characteristics of the Aksu (Isparta plain were investigated. In addition, determination of the water quality and availability in current status besides groundwater dynamics were aimed in the scope of work. The study area is located in the southwest Turkey, and lithological units belonging to Beydaglari autochthonous and Antalya nappes are observed. The most important surface water and groundwater reservoirs are Aksu river and alluvial-karst aquifers, respectively. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and quality of the water are important because water is used as drinking water and irrigation water in the plain. For this purpose, in situ measurements and chemical analyzes were carried out in the period of May-2013 on water resources. According to the obtained results, water resources is Mg-HCO3, Ca-HCO3, and Mg-Ca-HCO3 facies. According to the Water Pollution Control Regulation, all surface and groundwaters are determined in 4th water quality class in terms of sulfur owing to water-rock interaction. The assessment of the usage properties of the waters indicate that water sources is suitable for drinking and irrigation water usage in generally.

  1. 137Cs contamination of the Techa river flood plain near the village of Muslumovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a radiometric survey of the Techa river flood plain near the village of Muslumovo in the Chelyabinsk region of Russia are presented. The observed territory extended 16.6 km along the riverbed, with a total area of 2.5 km2. The collimated scintillation detector technique was applied to in situ field measurements of 137Cs deposition on the soil. Maps of 137Cs deposition and soil penetration depth were developed on the basis of approximately 5000 measurements. The total 137Cs deposition within the surveyed territory has been estimated at 6.6 TBq. The means of the total 137Cs soil depositions at half-kilometer sites on the flood plain and its distribution along the river have also been calculated. A maximum 137Cs contamination above 7.5 MBq/m2 is associated with a bank height up to 1 m above the usual water level. The data identify zones of intensive radionuclide sedimentation and transit zones

  2. Mangshan loess on China’s Central Plain and its response to tectonic movement and climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锡浩; 蒋复初; 肖华国; 薛滨; 孙东怀

    1999-01-01

    The Mangshan loess on China’s Central Plain, located on the transitional zone between the uplifting Loess Plateau and the subsiding North China Plain, is a proximal sandy loess transported from the fanhead of alluvial fan in the lower reaches of the Yellow River and has recorded the eoupting effect of the tectonics and climate over the last 200 ka. An abrupt environmental change indicated by the abrupt rise of deposit rate in the late penultimate glaciation, about 150 ka BP, took place; that is, the Yellow River downcut and moved eastwards through the Sanmenxia Gorge and transported abundant materials from the Loess Plateau to form paleosol S1 with a thickness of 15.7 m and loess L1 with a thickness of 77.3 m. The loess-paleosol sequence at Mangshan has not only recorded detailed climate responses of this area to the East Asian monsoon, but also refleets the tectonogenetie environmental effect caused by the trunk stream of the Yellow River cutting through Sanmenxia Gorge into sea.

  3. Isotopic investigation of groundwater in the Cul-de-Sac plain, Haiti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major aquifer of the Cul-de-Sac plain consists of a Quaternary multilayer alluvial formation occupying a graben between two Eocene karst anticlinoriums. Environmental isotopes clearly delineate the origin and major flow patterns of groundwater in this aquifer and its relationship with the karst systems. The major source of recharge is the Riviere Grise, but other sources from the southeastern karst are also important. The northern karst does not contribute significantly. The origin of groundwater salinization in the northern part of the plain and in the zone of Port-au-Prince is also being investigated with isotopes. It appears that this is derived from mixing with a saline water which is slightly enriched in heavy isotopes with respect to fresh groundwater but obeys the same δ18O-δD relationship. Possible mechanisms of saline water formation are discussed which could account for the isotopic enrichment observed. Saline groundwater may derive from water submitted to evaporation in conditions of high relative humidity or it may have formed during a period when the isotopic composition of precipitation was slightly enriched in heavy isotopes in comparison to the present. Sea water intrusion induced by exploitation is reponsible for water salinization in wells close to the coast in the area of Port-au-Prince. (author). 5 refs, 7 figs, 6 tabs

  4. Design and Installation of a Groundwater Monitoring-Well Network in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L.R.; Flynn, J.L.; Paschke, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer is an important water source for irrigated agriculture and domestic supplies in northeastern Colorado. To address the needs of Colorado's Groundwater Protection Program, the U.S. Geological Survey designed and installed a groundwater monitoring-well network in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Agriculture in 2008 to characterize water quality in the High Plains aquifer underlying areas of irrigated agriculture in eastern Colorado. A 30-well network was designed to provide for statistical representation of water-quality conditions by using a computerized technique to generate randomly distributed potential groundwater sampling sites based on aquifer extent, extent of irrigated agricultural land, depth to water from land surface, and saturated thickness. Twenty of the 30 sites were selected for well installation, and wells were drilled and installed during the period June-September 2008. Lithologic logs and well-construction reports were prepared for each well, and wells were developed after drilling to remove mud and foreign material to provide for good hydraulic connection between the well and aquifer. Documentation of the well-network design, site selection, lithologic logs, well-construction diagrams, and well-development records is presented in this report.

  5. Geochemistry of the near surface sediments of the Nares Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geochemistry of a suite of box and 2m gravity cores from the Nares Abyssal Plain has been characterised by means of pore water analyses, XRF determination of major and trace element concentrations, mineralogy and 230Thsub(excess) dating. The interstitial fluid environment of those deep-sea clays is mildly reducing, although one site exhibits manganese remobilisation and precipitation. Despite their marked colour differences, there is a similarity in clay mineralogy between the grey silt/clay turbidites and the brown clays found in the area. Sediment accumulation rates of pelagic brown clays range between 0.5 and 1.0 cm/103 yr. These pelagic brown clays are metal-rich relative to the grey clays, and a model is used to estimate the hydrogenous metal fluxes on the assumption that they are constant over the Plain. This model gives values of approx. 1300 μg/cm2/103 yr for Mn, approx. 2600 μg/cm2/103 yr for Fe and Co, Ni, Cu, V and Zn in the range 6 to 26 μg/cm2/103 yr. An associated model-derived estimate of the detrital contents of the same elements agrees well with the mean values of the grey clays and of average shale. Metal-poor brown clays and assorted minor lithologies are intermediate in composition between these two end-members. (author)

  6. Preliminary data describing the distribution of fluoride and silica in the water in the Ogallala Aquifer on the High Plains of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, R.L.; Perkins, S.G.; Waddell, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    The Ogallala aquifer of Texas historically has been known for elevated fluoride concentration, with many areas in excess of 4 milligrams per liter. In addition, on a regional scale, silica concentrations are also somewhat elevated, with concentrations averaging in the 40 to 50 milligrams per liter range. This aquifer provides a unique geochemical and epidemiological study area because it is completely contained within the High Plains physiographic province. (USGS)

  7. Brown-headed cowbird, Molothrus ater, parasitism and abundance in the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, L.D.; Johnson, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) reaches its highest abundance in the northern Great Plains, but much of our understanding of cowbird ecology and host-parasite interactions comes from areas outside of this region. We examine cowbird brood parasitism and densities during two studies of breeding birds in the northern Great Plains during 1990-2006. We found 2649 active nests of 75 species, including 746 nonpasserine nests and 1902 passerine nests. Overall, parasitized by Brown-headed Cowbirds. Although the overall frequency of cowbird parasitism in passerine nests in these two studies is considered moderate, the frequency of multiple parasitism among parasitized nests was heavy (nearly 50%). The mean number of cowbird eggs per parasitized passerine nest was 1.9 ?? 1.2 (SD; range = 1-8 cowbird eggs). The parasitism rates were 9.5% for passerines that typically nest in habitats characterized by woody vegetation, 16.4% for grassland-nesting passerines, 4.7% for passerines known to consistently eject cowbird eggs, and 28.2% for passerines that usually accept cowbird eggs. The Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) was the most commonly parasitized species (43.1 % parasitism, 49.6% multiple parasitism, 71.2% of all cases of parasitism). Passerine nests found within areas of higher female cowbird abundance experienced higher frequencies of cowbird parasitism than those found in areas of lower female cowbird abundance. Densities of female cowbirds were positively related to densities and richness of other birds in the breeding bird community.

  8. Hydrogeological and isotopic study of surface water and groundwater in the Eastern Haouz Plain. Western Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mandour, Abdennabi; Rochdane, Samia; Reddy, Venkat; Himi, Mahjoub; Casas, Albert

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Haouz area, characterized by a semi-arid climate, is part of the Haouz plain. The basin is built over a broad synclinal between the High Atlas and the Jebilets mountains. The compilation of geological, geophysical and hydrogeological data shows that this area is straddling two major basins of western Morocco. Map of the river system and the piezometric map show the same division line of surface water and groundwater. This division line oriented NNW-SSE is evidenced by the rise of the basement constituted by Paleozoic schists that outcrop near Tamelalt. Thus we can distinguish two main directions of groundwater flow feeding two watersheds (Tensift and Oum Rabiaa rivers) and two large reservoirs in the region of Marrakech. As a contribution to solve the water supply problem in the area, a hydrochemical study has been conducted, involving 40 groundwater samples for major ions and 20 stable isotope analyses. Hydrochemical results show the geological control on water quality. Samples from Paleozoic schists and Triassic sediments are relatively highly mineralisation and unsuitable for drinking as well as for irrigation. Conversely, groundwater from the alluvial plains is relatively less mineralised than other older geological formations; however, many of the samples are also non-potable. Apart of salinity problem, about 25% of the samples have higher nitrate content than the drinking water permissible limit. Stable isotope analysis show that groundwater recharge to the phreatic aquifer is controlled by local conditions. The small difference in the isotopic content of river water and a group of groundwater samples is interpreted as the evaporation effect during the recharge. On the other hand, the group of samples with relatively depleted stable isotopic content shows faster recharge conditions and less water-rock interaction. Finally, another group of samples is relatively enriched in stable isotope content and confirm an increase during the recharge

  9. Precipitation-centered Conceptual Model for Sub-humid Uplands in Lampasas Cut Plains, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S. R.; Tu, M.; Wilcox, B. P.

    2011-12-01

    Conceptual understandings of dominant hydrological processes, system interactions and feedbacks, and external forcings operating within catchments often defy simple definition and explanation, especially catchments encompassing transition zones, degraded landscapes, rapid development, and where climate forcings exhibit large variations across time and space. However, it is precisely those areas for which understanding and knowledge are most needed to innovate sustainable management strategies and counter past management blunders and failed restoration efforts. The cut plain of central Texas is one such area. Complex geographic and climatic factors lead to spatially and temporally variable precipitation having frequent dry periods interrupted by intense high-volume precipitation. Fort Hood, an army post located in the southeast cut plain contains landscapes ranging from highly degraded to nearly pristine with a topography mainly comprised of flat-topped mesas separated by broad u-shaped valleys. To understand the hydrology of the area and responses to wet-dry cycles we analyzed 4-years of streamflow and rainfall from 8 catchments, sized between 1819 and 16,000 ha. Since aquifer recharge/discharge and surface stream-groundwater interactions are unimportant, we hypothesized a simple conceptual model driven by precipitation and radiative forcings and having stormflow, baseflow, ET, and two hypothetical storage components. The key storage component was conceptualized as a buffer that was highly integrated with the ET component and exerted controls on baseflow. Radiative energy controlled flux from the buffer to ET. We used the conceptual model in making a bimonthly hydrologic budget, which included buffer volumes and a deficit-surplus indicator. Through the analysis, we were led to speculate that buffer capacity plays key roles in these landscapes and even relatively minor changes in capacity, due to soil compaction for example, might lead to ecological shifts. The

  10. Siting MSW landfills using MCE methodology in GIS environment (Case study: Birjand plain, Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Zeynab Karimzadeh; Sayadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-12-01

    The rapid municipal solid waste growth of Birjand plain causes to find an appropriate site selection for the landfill. In order to reduce the negative impacts of waste, the use of novel tools and technologies to gain a suitable site for landfill seems imperative. The present paper aimed to exhibits the Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE) for the landfill site selection of the Birjand plain because till date a suitable action has not been implicated. In the present research, the parameters such as environmental and socio-economical factors have been used. The factors like slope, water resources, soil parameters, landuse, fault and protected areas in the model of effective environmental criteria and the factors viz. distance from road, urban areas, village, airport, historical place, and industries in the model of socio-economic criteria were investigated and with the use of Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) and Analytical Network Process (ANP) models were compounded and according to the Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) and Fuzzy Linguistic Quantifier (LQ) were aggregated. The paper focuses on the OWA method as well as an approach for integrating Geographic Information System (GIS) and OWA. OWA has been developed as a generalization of multi-criteria combination. In this study we attained comparable data via the technique of ANP and five scenarios of OWA method were used. The results of field studies, fifth scenario for the study area proposed. Based on the research findings, OWA method had a great potential and flexibility in the modeling of the complex decision-making problems. PMID:26321380

  11. Estimation of groundwater recharge using the chloride mass-balance method, Pingtung Plain, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Cheh-Shyh; Kerh, Tienfuan; Liao, Chiu-Jung

    Due to rapid economic growth in the Pingtung Plain of Taiwan, the use of groundwater resources has changed dramatically. Over-pumping of the groundwater reservoir, which lowers hydraulic heads in the aquifers, is not only affecting the coastal area negatively but has serious consequences for agriculture throughout the plain. In order to determine the safe yield of the aquifer underlying the plain, a reliable estimate of groundwater recharge is desirable. In the present study, for the first time, the chloride mass-balance method is adopted to estimate groundwater recharge in the plain. Four sites in the central part were chosen to facilitate the estimations using the ion-chromatograph and Thiessen polygon-weighting methods. Based on the measured and calculated results, in all sites, including the mountain and river boundaries, recharge to the groundwater is probably 15% of the annual rainfall, excluding recharge from additional irrigation water. This information can improve the accuracy of future groundwater-simulation and management models in the plain. Résumé Du fait de la croissance économique rapide de la plaine de Pingtung à Taiwan, l'utilisation des ressources en eau souterraine s'est considérablement modifié. La surexploitation des aquifères, qui a abaissé le niveau des nappes, n'affecte pas seulement la région côtière, mais a de sérieuses répercutions sur l'agriculture dans toute la plaine. Afin de déterminer les ressources renouvelables de l'aquifère sous la plaine, une estimation précise de la recharge de la nappe est nécessaire. Dans cette étude, le taux de recharge de la nappe a d'abord été estimé au moyen d'un bilan de matière de chlorure. Quatre sites de la partie centrale ont été sélectionnés pour réaliser ces estimations, à l'aide d'un chromatographe ionique et de la méthode des polygones de Thiessen. A partir des résultats mesurés et calculés, à chaque site, et en prenant comme limites les montagnes et les rivi

  12. Application of InSAR and GIS Techniques to Ground Subsidence Assessment in the Nobi Plain, Central Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minxue Zheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variation and temporal changes in ground subsidence over the Nobi Plain, Central Japan, are assessed using GIS techniques and ground level measurements data taken over this area since the 1970s. Notwithstanding the general slowing trend observed in ground subsidence over the plains, we have detected ground rise at some locations, more likely due to the ground expansion because of recovering groundwater levels and the tilting of the Nobi land mass. The problem of non-availability of upper-air meteorological information, especially the 3-dimensional water vapor distribution, during the JERS-1 observational period (1992–1998 was solved by applying the AWC (analog weather charts method onto the high-precision GPV-MSM (Grid Point Value of Meso-Scale Model water-vapor data to find the latter’s matching meteorological data. From the selected JERS-1 interferometry pair and the matching GPV-MSM meteorological data, the atmospheric path delay generated by water vapor inhomogeneity was then quantitatively evaluated. A highly uniform spatial distribution of the atmospheric delay, with a maximum deviation of approximately 38 mm in its horizontal distribution was found over the Plain. This confirms the effectiveness of using GPV-MSM data for SAR differential interferometric analysis, and sheds thus some new light on the possibility of improving InSAR analysis results for land subsidence applications.

  13. Application of InSAR and GIS techniques to ground subsidence assessment in the Nobi Plain, Central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Minxue; Fukuyama, Kaoru; Sanga-Ngoie, Kazadi

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation and temporal changes in ground subsidence over the Nobi Plain, Central Japan, are assessed using GIS techniques and ground level measurements data taken over this area since the 1970s. Notwithstanding the general slowing trend observed in ground subsidence over the plains, we have detected ground rise at some locations, more likely due to the ground expansion because of recovering groundwater levels and the tilting of the Nobi land mass. The problem of non-availability of upper-air meteorological information, especially the 3-dimensional water vapor distribution, during the JERS-1 observational period (1992-1998) was solved by applying the AWC (analog weather charts) method onto the high-precision GPV-MSM (Grid Point Value of Meso-Scale Model) water-vapor data to find the latter's matching meteorological data. From the selected JERS-1 interferometry pair and the matching GPV-MSM meteorological data, the atmospheric path delay generated by water vapor inhomogeneity was then quantitatively evaluated. A highly uniform spatial distribution of the atmospheric delay, with a maximum deviation of approximately 38 mm in its horizontal distribution was found over the Plain. This confirms the effectiveness of using GPV-MSM data for SAR differential interferometric analysis, and sheds thus some new light on the possibility of improving InSAR analysis results for land subsidence applications. PMID:24385028

  14. Three-dimensional stress analysis of plain weave composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, John D.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques were developed and described for performing three-dimensional finite element analysis of plain weave composites. Emphasized here are aspects of the analysis which are different from analysis of traditional laminated composites, such as the mesh generation and representative unit cells. The analysis was used to study several different variations of plain weaves which illustrate the effects of tow waviness on composite moduli, Poisson's ratios, and internal strain distributions. In-plane moduli decreased almost linearly with increasing tow waviness. The tow waviness was shown to cause large normal and shear strain concentrations in composites subjected to uniaxial load. These strain concentrations may lead to earlier damage initiation than occurs in traditional cross-ply laminates.

  15. Plain Language for Expert or Lay Audiences: Designing Text Using Protocol-Aided Revision. Technical Report No. 46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriver, Karen A.

    This paper recognizes that critics of the "plain language movement" point out that what is "plain" to one audience may mystify and confuse another. It adds that questions such as "Plain language for whom?" and "How can we know whether a text is written in plain language?" raise legitimate concerns about the danger of ignoring the fact that what is…

  16. Computer and Internet Use by Great Plains Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Aaron; Morrison Paul, Catherine J.; Goe, W. Richard; Kenney, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This study uses data from a 2001 survey of Great Plains farmers to explore the adoption, usage patterns, and perceived benefits of computers and the Internet. Adoption results suggest that exposure to the technology through college, outside employment, friends, and family is ultimately more influential than farmer age and farm size. Notably, about half of those who use the Internet for farm-related business report zero economic benefits from it. Whether a farmer perceives that the Internet ge...

  17. Suspended particulate studies over the Madeira Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects relating to suspended matter over the Madeira Abyssal Plain are discussed. Special attention is paid to the nepheloid layer including resuspension and transport processes; time variabilities in particle concentrations and fluxes; particle morphology, microbiology and chemical composition; phase association of metals. Also, tentative predictions of the behaviour of some radionuclides are made based on theory and data on rare earth elements. Instrumentation developed for the project is detailed - the deep water particle sampler. (author)

  18. METRIC Estimated ET Evaluation on the Semiarid Southern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, J. L.; Gowda, P. H.; Colaizzi, P. D.; Evett, S. R.; Howell, T. A.; Copeland, K.

    2007-05-01

    Declining groundwater levels in the Southern High Plains of the United States, and the fact that agriculture in this region uses more than 90% of groundwater withdrawals, combine to increase the demand for efficient agricultural water use. Accurate regional evapotranspiration (ET) maps would provide valuable information on crop water use. In this study, we applied METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution using Internalized Calibration), a remote sensing based ET algorithm, and micrometeorological data measured at a grass reference ET weather station maintained by the Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration Network (TXHPET). For this purpose, a Landsat Thematic Mapper image covering a major portion of the Southern High Plains (parts of Texas Panhandle and northeastern New Mexico) was acquired for 23 July 2006 at 11:26 AM CST. Comprehensive ground-truth data were collected to develop a detailed land use map showing major crops grown in the region. Performance of the METRIC model was evaluated using measured ET data on five weighing lysimeters at Bushland, TX [35 Deg. 11' N, 102 Deg. 06' W; 1,170 m elevation MSL] managed by the Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS. Lysimeter-measured ET rates varied from 2.4 to 7.8 mm/d. Good agreement was found between the remote sensing based ET and measured ET. Comparison of estimated daily mapped ET values with lysimetric measurements had an accuracy within 9% of the measured ET (r2 = 0.89) with a mean square error of 0.9 mm/d. The use of METRIC for advective conditions of the Southern High Plains is promising; however, more evaluation is needed for different agroclimatological conditions.

  19. Architectural Plain-Air Home Fest at the River Snezhnaya

    OpenAIRE

    Darya Kulesh

    2015-01-01

    The results of the first architectural plain-air Home Fest held from the 3rd to the 6th of September at the resort “The Warm Lakes on the Snezhnaya” (Slyudyansky District, Irkutsk region) are presented. The Festival was aimed at drawing attention to the nature and the relationship between man and nature. The principal requirement of the project was using the real landscape as the main artistic material and the object.

  20. Pannonian plain as a morphostructural unit of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Ćalić Jelena; Milošević Marko V.; Gaudenji Tivadar; Štrbac Dragoljub; Milivojević Milovan

    2012-01-01

    Differentiation between the terms “Pannonian Basin” and “Pannonian Plain” is not clear enough in geographical literature. The paper discusses the usage of the term “plain” in geomorphology, as well as the usage of a quantitative method for plain delineation, through calculation of relief roughness coefficient (using a digital elevation model). Qualitative analysis, which includes the definition of dominant geomorphological processes and the distribution of Quaternary sediments, is an ad...

  1. Carpal pseudoerosions: a plain X-ray interpretation pitfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawer, Richard [Univ. Catholique de Lille (France). Service d' Imagerie Medicale; Budzik, Jean Francois [Univ. Catholique de Lille (France). Service d' Imagerie Medicale; Univ. Nord de France, Boulogne sur Mer (France). Unite de Recherche EA 4490, Physiopathologie des Maladies Osseuses Inflammatoires; Demondion, Xavier [Univ. Lille 2 (France). Service d' Imagerie Musculosquelettique; CHRU Lille (France). Lab. d' Anatomie; Forzy, Gerard [Univ. Catholique de Lille, Lomme (France). Lab. de Biologie; Cotten, Anne [Univ. Lille 2 (France). Service d' Imagerie Musculosquelettique; Univ. Nord de France, Boulogne sur Mer (France). Unite de Recherche EA 4490, Physiopathologie des Maladies Osseuses Inflammatoires

    2014-10-15

    To examine in detail images of pseudoerosion of the wrist and hand on plain radiographs. The study was conducted with 28 cadaver wrists. During a single imaging session three techniques - plain radiography, tomosynthesis, and computed tomography - were used to visualize the wrist and hand specimens. For each technique, 20 radio-ulno-carpo-metacarpal sites known to present bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis were analyzed by two radiologists using a standard system to score the cortical bone: normal, pseudoerosion, true erosion, or other pathology. Cohen's concordance analysis was performed to determine inter-observer and intra-observer (for the senior radiologist) agreement by site and by technique. Serial sections of two cadaver specimens were examined to determine the anatomical correlation of the pseudoerosions. On the plain radiographs, the radiologists scored many images as pseudoerosion (7.3 %), particularly in the distal ulnar portion of the capitate, the distal radial portion of the hamate, the proximal ulnar portion of the base of the third metacarpal, the proximal radial portion of the base of the fourth metacarpal, the distal ulnar portion of the hamate, and the proximal portion of the base of the fifth metacarpal. The computed tomography scan revealed that none of these doubtful images corresponded to true erosions. The anatomical correlation study showed that these images could probably be attributed to ligament insertions, thinner lamina, and enhanced cortical bone transparency. Knowledge of the anatomical carpal localizations where pseudoerosions commonly occur is a necessary prerequisite for analysis of plain radiographs performed to diagnose or monitor rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.)

  2. Nature, distribution, and origin of Titan's Undifferentiated Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Malaska, M. J.; Solomonidou, A.; Le Gall, A.; Janssen, M. A.; Neish, C. D.; Turtle, E. P.; Birch, S. P. D.; Hayes, A. G.; Radebaugh, J.; Coustenis, A.; Schoenfeld, A.; Stiles, B. W.; Kirk, R. L.; Mitchell, K. L.; Stofan, E. R.; Lawrence, K. J.

    2016-05-01

    The Undifferentiated Plains on Titan, first mapped by Lopes et al. (Lopes, R.M.C. et al., 2010. Icarus, 205, 540-588), are vast expanses of terrains that appear radar-dark and fairly uniform in Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. As a result, these terrains are often referred to as "blandlands". While the interpretation of several other geologic units on Titan - such as dunes, lakes, and well-preserved impact craters - has been relatively straightforward, the origin of the Undifferentiated Plains has remained elusive. SAR images show that these "blandlands" are mostly found at mid-latitudes and appear relatively featureless at radar wavelengths, with no major topographic features. Their gradational boundaries and paucity of recognizable features in SAR data make geologic interpretation particularly challenging. We have mapped the distribution of these terrains using SAR swaths up to flyby T92 (July 2013), which cover >50% of Titan's surface. We compared SAR images with other data sets where available, including topography derived from the SARTopo method and stereo DEMs, the response from RADAR radiometry, hyperspectral imaging data from Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS), and near infrared imaging from the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS). We examined and evaluated different formation mechanisms, including (i) cryovolcanic origin, consisting of overlapping flows of low relief or (ii) sedimentary origins, resulting from fluvial/lacustrine or aeolian deposition, or accumulation of photolysis products created in the atmosphere. Our analysis indicates that the Undifferentiated Plains unit is consistent with a composition predominantly containing organic rather than icy materials and formed by depositional and/or sedimentary processes. We conclude that aeolian processes played a major part in the formation of the Undifferentiated Plains; however, other processes (fluvial, deposition of photolysis products) are likely to have contributed

  3. Carpal pseudoerosions: a plain X-ray interpretation pitfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine in detail images of pseudoerosion of the wrist and hand on plain radiographs. The study was conducted with 28 cadaver wrists. During a single imaging session three techniques - plain radiography, tomosynthesis, and computed tomography - were used to visualize the wrist and hand specimens. For each technique, 20 radio-ulno-carpo-metacarpal sites known to present bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis were analyzed by two radiologists using a standard system to score the cortical bone: normal, pseudoerosion, true erosion, or other pathology. Cohen's concordance analysis was performed to determine inter-observer and intra-observer (for the senior radiologist) agreement by site and by technique. Serial sections of two cadaver specimens were examined to determine the anatomical correlation of the pseudoerosions. On the plain radiographs, the radiologists scored many images as pseudoerosion (7.3 %), particularly in the distal ulnar portion of the capitate, the distal radial portion of the hamate, the proximal ulnar portion of the base of the third metacarpal, the proximal radial portion of the base of the fourth metacarpal, the distal ulnar portion of the hamate, and the proximal portion of the base of the fifth metacarpal. The computed tomography scan revealed that none of these doubtful images corresponded to true erosions. The anatomical correlation study showed that these images could probably be attributed to ligament insertions, thinner lamina, and enhanced cortical bone transparency. Knowledge of the anatomical carpal localizations where pseudoerosions commonly occur is a necessary prerequisite for analysis of plain radiographs performed to diagnose or monitor rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.)

  4. Agricultural use and water quality at karstic Cuban western plain.

    OpenAIRE

    Fagundo Castillo Juan Reynerio; Gonzàlez Hernandez Patricia

    1999-01-01

    In the paper some results of studies on the karstic aquifers of the western plain of Cuba are presented and discussed. The intensive exploitation of these aquifers for agriculture use and drinking water supply induces an increase of marine water intrusion, water salinisation and a progressive increase of chemical corrosion with a greater dissolution of carbonates. During the period of study (1983-1998) a trend in the deterioration of water quality was observed by means of a chronological seri...

  5. Tillage practices and identity formation in High Plains farming

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Katherine; Arnould, Eric; Press, Melea

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the ideological tensions of organic and chemical farmersin the High Plains. They show that the identity of these farmers is created and maintainedthrough competing systems of tillage and the ideologies that support them, which also shapethe agricultural landscape. Specifically, they compare conservation tillage wedded to ‘modern’ideologies of scientific farming with conventional tillage newly linked to beliefs about both organicand traditional farming, and...

  6. Structural Reliability of Plain Bearings for Wave Energy Converter Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Ambühl; Morten Kramer; John Dalsgaard Sørensen

    2016-01-01

    The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) from wave energy converters (WECs) needs to be decreased in order to be able to become competitive with other renewable electricity sources. Probabilistic reliability methods can be used to optimize the structure of WECs. Optimization is often performed for critical structural components, like welded details, bolts or bearings. This paper considers reliability studies with a focus on plain bearings available from stock for the Wavestar device, which exists ...

  7. Structural Reliability of Plain Bearings for Wave Energy Converter Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ambühl

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The levelized cost of energy (LCOE from wave energy converters (WECs needs to be decreased in order to be able to become competitive with other renewable electricity sources. Probabilistic reliability methods can be used to optimize the structure of WECs. Optimization is often performed for critical structural components, like welded details, bolts or bearings. This paper considers reliability studies with a focus on plain bearings available from stock for the Wavestar device, which exists at the prototype level. The Wavestar device is a point absorber WEC. The plan is to mount a new power take-off (PTO system consisting of a discrete displacement cylinder (DDC, which will allow different hydraulic cycles to operate at constant pressure levels. This setup increases the conversion efficiency, as well as decouples the electricity production from the pressure variations within the hydraulic cycle when waves are passing. The new PTO system leads to different load characteristics at the floater itself compared to the actual setup where the turbine/generator is directly coupled to the fluctuating hydraulic pressure within the PTO system. This paper calculates the structural reliability of the different available plain bearings planned to be mounted at the new PTO system based on a probabilistic approach, and the paper gives suggestions for fulfilling the minimal target reliability levels. The considered failure mode in this paper is the brittle fatigue failure of plain bearings. The performed sensitivity analysis shows that parameters defining the initial crack size have a big impact on the resulting reliability of the plain bearing.

  8. Field Pea and Lentil Marketing Strategies for Northern Plains Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Flaskerud, George

    2006-01-01

    Marketing strategies are analyzed for field pea and lentil producers in the Northern Plains. Seasonal price patterns were derived from the 1999-2003 marketing years. Correlations indicate that corn futures may provide risk reduction for cross-hedging pea prices. Relationships were too weak to consider a cross-hedge for lentils. Combining a pre-harvest strategy with a marketing loan strategy offered the best total net price for the pea crop in 2004. No one marketing loan strategy performed bes...

  9. Cultural Landscape and Tourism Potential in the Transylvanian Plain

    OpenAIRE

    WILFRIED SCHREIBER; SIMONA CREŢA; OCTAVIAN-LIVIU MUNTEAN; NICOLAE BACIU; EDUARD SCHUSTER

    2007-01-01

    Contradicting the general belief that the Transylvanian Plain has a poor tourism potential, we bring proof that even in a non-tourist region there are many elements that can provide a generous support for a variety of tourism activities, such as: rural tourism, agro-tourism, recreational tourism, cultural and religious tourism, eco-tourism, and even the critical tourism may occur if the resources are not properly managed. Definitions, examples, two tables, and a map are offering additional in...

  10. Options of sustainable groundwater development in Beijing Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yangxiao; Wang, Liya; Liu, Jiurong; Li, Wenpeng; Zheng, Yuejun

    Overexploitation of groundwater resources has supported rapid social and economical developments in Beijing City in last 30 years. The newly constructed emergency well fields have saved Beijing from a critical water crisis caused by a long drought spell of eight consecutive years from 1999 to 2006. But this unsustainable development has resulted in serious consequences: discharges to rivers ceased, large number of pumping wells went dry, and land subsidence caused destruction of underground infrastructure. The completion of the middle route of South to North water transfer project to transfer water from Yangtze river to Beijing City by 2010 provides opportunity to reverse the trend of groundwater depletion and to achieve a long-term sustainable development of groundwater resources in Beijing Plain. Four options of groundwater development in Beijing Plain were formulated and assessed with a regional transient groundwater flow model. The business as usual scenario was used as a reference for the comparative analysis and indicates fast depletion of groundwater resources. The reduction of abstraction scenario has immediate and fast recovery of groundwater levels, especially at the cone of depression. The scenario of artificially enhanced groundwater recharge would replenish groundwater resources and maintain the capacity of present water supply well fields. The combined scenario of the reduction of abstraction and the increase of recharge could bring the aquifer systems into a new equilibrium state in 50 years. A hydrological sustainability of groundwater resources development could then be achieved in Beijing Plain.

  11. Presence of bias in radiographer plain film reading performance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose To raise awareness of the frequency of bias that can affect the quality of radiographer plain film reading performance studies. Methods Studies that assessed radiographer(s) plain film reading performance were located by searching electronic databases and grey literature, hand-searching journals, personal communication and scanning reference lists. Thirty studies were judged eligible from all data sources. Results A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrates no statistically significant difference (P=0.25) in the mean proportion of biases present from diagnostic accuracy (0.37), performance (0.42) and outcome (0.44) study designs. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed no statistically significant linear association between the proportion of biases present for the three different study designs and the year that the study was performed. The frequency of biases in film and observer selection and application of the reference standard was quite low. In contrast, many biases were present concerning independence of film reporting and comparison of reports for concordance. Conclusions The findings indicate variation in the presence of bias in radiographer plain film reading performance studies. The careful consideration of bias is an essential component of study quality and hence the validity of the evidence-base used to underpin radiographic reporting policy

  12. Systematic assessment of constipation on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constipation in childhood is common and its clinical assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and used to quantify constipation. Three scoring systems, those of Barr et al., Leech et al. and Blethyn et al., have been developed to quantify fecal loading on the abdominal radiograph. In order to determine which method is the most useful in clinical practice, we assessed the reproducibility of the three scoring systems. Plain abdominal radiographs from 40 clinically constipated children were retrospectively reviewed by two paediatric radiologists on two separate occasions. The radiographs were scored according to three different systems developed by Barr et al., Leech et al., Blethyn et al. Intraobserver variability and interobserver reproducibility were determined for each system. Kappa coefficients were calculated as indicators of inter- and intraobserver agreement for categorical outcome variables. The Leech score showed the highest reproducibility: the intraobserver agreement was high for both observers (κ values of 0.88 and 1.00, respectively, P<0.05). Furthermore, the interobserver agreement was also high: κ 0.91 in the first round and 0.84 in the second. The Leech score proved to be a highly reproducible tool for assessment of childhood constipation and is of value in clinical practice for systematic assessment of constipation on plain abdominal radiographs in children. (orig.)

  13. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot: Plain radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the plain film findings of acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot was considered when fragmentation of the articular ends of bone and subluxation of the affected joint developed within eight weeks after clinical onset of diabetic gangrene. Eight toes of six diabetics were satisfactory to our criteria. We analyzed plain radiographic findings of the affected joint and soft tissue, interval changes in followed-up radiographs, and deformities after healing. The time interval between clinical onset of gangrene and bone destruction ranges from 2 weeks to 4 weeks(mean 2.6 weeks). Plane radiographs showed fragmentation of the articular ends, subluxation, and soft tissue swelling of the metatarsophalangeal joint or interphalangeal joint. The significant feature of these patients was rapid progression of the lesions. Clinically, all patients had diabetic gangrene in affected toes, however, there was no evidence of osteomyelitis in our series. Amputation was done in 2 cases, and lesions in 3 of the remaining 4 cases were repaired spontaneously with regression of gangrene, leaving radiological residua such as pointed-end, tapered-end, and ball and socket deformity. Rapid disorganisation of the joint with associated evidence of soft tissue gangrene in plain radiograph is believed to be valuable for the diagnosis of diabetic osteoarthropathy

  14. Selection criteria for plain and segmented finned tubes for heat recovery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, D. R.; Taborek, J.

    1994-04-01

    Heat recovery heat exchangers with gas as one of the streams depend on the use of finned tubes to compensate for the inherently low gas heat transfer coefficient. Standard frequency welded 'plain' fins were generally used in the past, until the high-frequency resistance welding technology permitted a cost-effective manufacture of 'segmented' fins. The main advantage of this fin design is that it permits higher heat flux and hence smaller, lighter weight units for most operating conditions. While the criteria that dictate optimum design, such as compactness, weight, and cost per unit area favor the segmented fin design, a few other considerations such as fouling, ease of cleaning, and availability of dependable design methods have to be considered. This paper analyzes the performance parameters that affect the selection of either fin type.

  15. Vegetation, substrate and hydrology in floating marshes in the Mississippi river delta plain wetlands, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasser, C.E.; Gosselink, J.G.; Swenson, E.M.; Swarzenski, C.M.; Leibowitz, N.C.

    1996-01-01

    In the 1940s extensive floating marshes (locally called 'flotant') were reported and mapped in coastal wetlands of the Mississippi River Delta Plain. These floating marshes included large areas of Panicum hemitomon-dominated freshwater marshes, and Spartina patens/Scirpus olneyi brackish marshes. Today these marshes appear to be quite different in extent and type. We describe five floating habitats and one non-floating, quaking habitat based on differences in buoyancy dynamics (timing and degree of floating), substrate characteristics, and dominant vegetation. All floating marshes have low bulk density, organic substrates. Nearly all are fresh marshes. Panicum hemitomon floating marshes presently occur within the general regions that were reported in the 1940's by O'Neil, but are reduced in extent. Some of the former Panicum hemitomon marshes have been replaced by seasonally or variably floating marshes dominated, or co-dominated by Sagittaria lancifolia or Eleocharis baldwinii. ?? 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  16. Heat flow measurements in Great Meteor East, Madeira Abyssal Plain, during Discovery Cruise 144

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes 21 closely spaced heat flow measurements which were made along two survey lines in an area of faulted sediments east of Great Meteor Seamount in the Madeira Abyssal Plain. The heat flow was found to be correlated with basement topography as mapped by seismic reflection profiling. Data modelling suggests that this is due both to the thermal conductivity contrast between sediments and basement rocks and to the presence of hydrothermal circulation within basement highs. The existence of non-linear temperature profiles in sediments covering basement highs suggests that the underlying circulation is causing an upward movement of porewater. There is no firm evidence to show that the sediment faults act as preferred pathways for porewater advection. (author)

  17. Water quality of the Chhoti Gandak River using principal component analysis, Ganga Plain, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikram Bhardwaj; Dhruv Sen Singh; A K Singh

    2010-02-01

    Chhoti Gandak is a meandering river which originates in the terai area of the Ganga Plain and serves as a lifeline for the people of Deoria district, Uttar Pradesh. It travels a distance of about 250 km and drains into Ghaghara near Gothani, Siwan district of Bihar. It has been observed that people of this region suffer from water-borne health problems; therefore water samples were collected to analyse its quality along the entire length of Chhoti Gandak River. The principal components of water quality are controlled by lithology, gentle slope gradient, poor drainage, long residence of water, ion exchange, weathering of minerals, heavy use of fertilizers, and domestic wastes. At some stations water is hard with an excess alkalinity and is not suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes. The variation in the local and regional hydrogeochemical processes distinguished the geogenic sources from the anthropogenic one.

  18. Contribution of air-proof doors and windows to asthma in Campania Plain (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencivenga, Marilisa; Capasso, Michele; Capristo, Carlo; Del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Salvestrini, Stefano; Capasso, Sante

    2004-06-01

    The relation between the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma in children and the presence of air-proof doors and windows (doors and windows with rubber gaskets) in their homes was investigated by a cross-sectional survey in the area of Campania Plain, South Italy. Information on the occurrence of asthma and home/family characteristics, including parental smoking habit and level of education, was obtained by a questionnaire given to school children, aged 8-14 years, and their parents. After possible confounders were controlled, the risk of developing asthma was found to be significantly higher in children living in houses equipped with air-proof doors and windows (Odds ratio = 1.30, 95% Confidence interval = 1.1-1.5). By reducing the air exchange, these fixtures are likely to produce increased levels of indoor pollutants. No interaction was found between the two variables 'air-proof doors and windows' and 'parental smoking habit'. PMID:15203454

  19. Discharge estimation from planform characters of the Shedhi River, Gujarat alluvial plain: Present and past

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alpa Sridhar

    2007-08-01

    In the absence of long-term hydrologic and streamflow records an understanding of river morphology (present and past) can help delineate changes in magnitudes of water and sediment discharges. The relict drainage system of Gujarat alluvial plain provides an opportunity to reconstruct the palaeochannel morphology-related discharge estimations. In this paper, based on the geomorphological evidence and channel geometry, an attempt has been made to reconstruct the palaeohydrological condition in the Shedhi River during the Holocene. A comparison of the present day channel of the Shedhi River with that of its palaeo counterpart reveals that the former was carrying much higher bankfull discharge (∼5500m3s−1) as compared to the present (∼200m3s−1). This is attributed to a larger drainage area and enhanced precipitation in the Shedhi River basin.

  20. The effects of landscape differentiation on Cs 137 wash-off in the Iput' and Besed' rivers catchment (Bryansk region) and the Plava river flood plain (Tula region)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    .01- 0.005 mm and 0.005-0.001 mm. In the Iput' floodplain deposits the contribution of these fractions to the total activity is considerably smaller and is equal 30%, the maximum activity being found in the fraction of 0.1-0.05 mm. The principal Cs 137 wash-off in the Iput' River flood plain occurs in spring, with the concentration of dissolved Cs 137 reaching 70-90 Bq/m3 in the area of Starye Bobrovichi and amounting to 200-370 Bq/m3 in its tributary the Buldynka River. In summer the concentration of dissolved Cs 137 in the Iput' River falls to 45 Bq/m3 and to 77 Bq/m3 in the Buldynka, 97 Bq/m3 being transferred with load sediments in the Buldynka River. At the period of snow melting Cs 137 transfer in dispersed alluvia peaks up to 94% and drops to 55% in summer. The estimated coefficient of Cs 137 wash-off from the Buldynka River watershed was to be equal to 1.0·10-'5 y-1 in 1999

  1. Assessment Of Heavy Metal Contamination Of Arable Soils In Central Bekaa Plain, Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study area is located in the Bekaa plain of Lebanon totaling about 12753 ha. It lies between the eastern foothills of Mount Lebanon chain and expands across the Litani River towards the foothills of the eastern Anti-Lebanon Mountains. Its characteristics, i.e. natural terrain, climate and socio-economy, make it vulnerable especially due to soil pollution. This paper tries to identify the nature and level of soil pollution by heavy metals. Valley slopes represent a complex landform and lithology that contributed to the formation of different soil. Agriculture in the plain is being practiced mainly with cash, field crops and vegetables. Throughout the central part of the plain, groundwater table is abundant and relatively high (<1.0 m. locally) that multiplies the vulnerability of the soil-groundwater system. There are different sources of pollution, such as industrial (tanneries, batteries, leather manufacturing), solid and liquid wastes, and agricultural due to uncontrolled application of fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides. Meanwhile, no local criteria for land contamination with heavy metals are adapted yet. A total of 131 soil samples from 41 soil profiles were collected from sites representing different soil types and cropping systems. Additionally, five water samples were collected to get tentative idea about the extent of water contamination from surface and groundwater bodies. Soil samples were analyzed for physical and chemical properties and wet digested in aqua regia for the determination of the heavy metal content on the atomic absorption. Results of the total heavy metal content in the soils of the Central Bekaa showed normal values for main metals except Cr and Ni, which showed a relatively high level reaching, according to Eckamn Kloke, 1993-2000 criteria the tolerance level II. This is hazardous in an area of intensive vegetable production designed for fresh consumption. Point sources of pollution are equally found for Pb and Cd. The level

  2. Integrated geophysical studies of the Fort Worth Basin (Texas), Harney Basin (Oregon), and Snake River Plain (Idaho)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Murari

    Geophysical methods such as seismic, gravity, magnetics, electric, and electromagnetics are capable of identifying subsurface features but each has a different spatial resolution. Although, each of these methods are stand-alone tools and have produced wonderful and reliable results for decades to solve geological problems, integrating geophysical results from these different methods with geological and geospatial data, adds an extra dimension towards solving geological problems. Integration techniques also involve comparing and contrasting the structural and tectonic evolution of geological features from different tectonic and geographic provinces. I employed 3D and 2D seismic data, passive seismic data, and gravity and magnetic data in three studies and integrated these results with geological, and geospatial data. Seismic processing, and interpretation, as well as filtering techniques applied to the potential filed data produced many insightful results. Integrated forward models played an important role in the interpretation process. The three chapters in this dissertation are stand-alone separate scientific papers. Each of these chapters used integrated geophysical methods to identify the subsurface features and tectonic evolution of the study areas. The study areas lie in the southeast Fort Worth Basin, Texas, Harney Basin, Oregon, and Snake River Plain, Idaho. The Fort Worth Basin is one of the most fully developed shale gas fields in North America. With the shallow Barnett Shale play in place, the Precambrian basement remains largely unknown in many places with limited published work on the basement structures underlying the Lower Paleozoic strata. In this research, I show how the basement structures relate to overlying Paleozoic reservoirs in the Barnett Shale and Ellenburger Group. I used high quality, wide-azimuth, 3D seismic data near the southeast fringe of the Fort Worth Basin. The seismic results were integrated with gravity, magnetic, well log, and

  3. Wintering Sandhill Crane exposure to wind energy development in the central and southern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Brandt, David; Krapu, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Numerous wind energy projects have been constructed in the central and southern Great Plains, USA, the main wintering area for midcontinental Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis). In an initial assessment of the potential risks of wind towers to cranes, we estimated spatial overlap, investigated potential avoidance behavior, and determined the habitat associations of cranes. We used data from cranes marked with platform transmitting terminals (PTTs) with and without global positioning system (GPS) capabilities. We estimated the wintering distributions of PTT-marked cranes prior to the construction of wind towers, which we compared with current tower locations. Based on this analysis, we found 7% spatial overlap between the distributions of cranes and towers. When we looked at individually marked cranes, we found that 52% would have occurred within 10 km of a tower at some point during winter. Using data from cranes marked after tower construction, we found a potential indication of avoidance behavior, whereby GPS-marked cranes generally used areas slightly more distant from existing wind towers than would be expected by chance. Results from a habitat selection model suggested that distances between crane locations and towers may have been driven more by habitat selection than by avoidance, as most wind towers were constructed in locations not often selected by wintering cranes. Our findings of modest regional overlap and that few towers have been placed in preferred crane habitat suggest that the current distribution of wind towers may be of low risk to the continued persistence of wintering midcontinental Sandhill Cranes in the central and southern Great Plains.

  4. Modelling of 90Sr wash-off from the river Pripyat flood plain by four year flood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrodynamic finite element model RMA-2V and the contaminant transport model FETRA have been applied to predict wash-out of 90Sr deposited on the River Pripyat flood plain northwest of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant following a spring flood such as occurs once every four years, with a water discharge of 2000 m3/s. Steady state velocity fields were computed by RMA-2V for the Pripyat flood plain configuration both before and after the diking of the left bank in 1992. The dimensions of the domain (before diking) were 15 by 3.5 km. The release rate of radiostrontium for the area source was calculated directly using the map of contamination and results of experiments with flooded soil monoliths carried out at the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute, which revealed that for the first 20 days from the beginning of flooding the upper stratum of soil releases about 0.2% of the total inventory of 90Sr every day. The results of computations show that the areas of highest strontium concentration in the water column are the stagnation zones near the outlet, where the concentration exceeds 800 pCi/L. Comparison of the situations before and after diking of the flood plain left bank leads to the conclusion that the problem of 90Sr wash-off has not been entirely solved. However, a substantial but not crucial decrease of concentration averaged over the cross-section at the outflow (from 290 to 160 pCi/L) was achieved. Shrinking of the highly contaminated area adjacent to the right bank due to the increase of water velocity is less than was expected. These results are consistent with the strontium measurements made during the ice jam in 1991 (before diking) and spring flood in 1994 (after diking). (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

  5. Associations of grassland bird communities with black-tailed prairie dogs in the North American Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, David J; Baker, Bruce W

    2013-04-01

    Colonial burrowing herbivores can modify vegetation structure, create belowground refugia, and generate landscape heterogeneity, thereby affecting the distribution and abundance of associated species. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are such a species, and they may strongly affect the abundance and composition of grassland bird communities. We examined how prairie dog colonies in the North American Great Plains affect bird species and community composition. Areas occupied by prairie dogs, characterized by low percent cover of grass, high percent cover of bare soil, and low vegetation height and density, supported a breeding bird community that differed substantially from surrounding areas that lacked prairie dogs. Bird communities on colony sites had significantly greater densities of large-bodied carnivores (Burrowing Owls [Athene cunicularia], Mountain Plovers, [Charadrius montanus], and Killdeer [Charadrius vociferus]) and omnivores consisting of Horned Larks (Eremophila alpestris) and McCown's Longspurs (Rhynchophanes mccownii) than bird communities off colony sites. Bird communities off colony sites were dominated by small-bodied insectivorous sparrows (Ammodramus spp.) and omnivorous Lark Buntings (Calamospiza melanocorys), Vesper Sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus), and Lark Sparrows (Chondestes grammacus). Densities of 3 species of conservation concern and 1 game species were significantly higher on colony sites than off colony sites, and the strength of prairie dog effects was consistent across the northern Great Plains. Vegetation modification by prairie dogs sustains a diverse suite of bird species in these grasslands. Collectively, our findings and those from previous studies show that areas in the North American Great Plains with prairie dog colonies support higher densities of at least 9 vertebrate species than sites without colonies. Prairie dogs affect habitat for these species through multiple pathways, including creation of belowground

  6. Water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2011 and 2009-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Virginia L.

    2013-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States--Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with groundwater in the aquifer area. This report presents water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer from the time before substantial groundwater irrigation development began (generally before 1950, and termed "predevelopment" in this report) to 2011 and from 2009-11. The report also presents total water in storage, 2011, and change in water in storage in the aquifer from predevelopment to 2011. The methods to calculate area-weighted, average water-level changes; change in water in storage; and total water in storage for this report used geospatial data layers organized as rasters with a cell size of about 62 acres. These methods were modified from methods used in previous reports in an attempt to improve estimates of water-level changes and change in water in storage.Water-level changes from predevelopment to 2011, by well, ranged from a rise of 85 feet to a decline of 242 feet. The area-weighted, average water-level changes in the aquifer were an overall decline of 14.2 feet from predevelopment to 2011, and a decline of 0.1 foot from 2009-11. Total water in storage in the aquifer in 2011 was about 2.96 billion acre-feet, which was a decline of about 246 million acre-feet since predevelopment.

  7. Water Resource Management in the Intermountain Izeh Plain, Southwest of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalantari. N; Pawar.N.J; Keshavarzi.M.R

    2009-01-01

    Ever growing demand for water for agricultural activities in the Izeh Plain has enhanced the use of groundwater. Due to enormous groundwater abstraction since 1985, the overall static water level has receded by more than 5 meters reflecting that the aquifer is under stress condition. As a result, interest is focused on application of artificial recharge as an option for groundwater management to augment water supply in this area. Therefore, in the present investigations, suitable sites for artificial recharge were selected by an integrated surface and sub-surface assessment of the area. On the basis of the data collected from four target points, it was realized that the selected sites for artificial recharge could not meet water demand of the area. In this study attention was also paid to utilization of the existing Miangran Lake water as an alternative to combat water shortage for irrigation. The study further indicated that the available Miangran Lake water could be used for irrigation of the reclaimed agricultural land and enabling to convert 2000 hectares of rain-fed land into irrigation. The total cost to utilize lake water is USS 9,756,729 and it was estimated that the project could recoup the investment within 5 years which is quite reasonable in this water scarcity prone area.

  8. Modelling urban growth in the Indo-Gangetic plain using nighttime OLS data and cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chowdhury, P. K.; Maithani, Sandeep

    2014-12-01

    The present study demonstrates the applicability of the Operational Linescan System (OLS) sensor in modelling urban growth at regional level. The nighttime OLS data provides an easy, inexpensive way to map urban areas at a regional scale, requiring a very small volume of data. A cellular automata (CA) model was developed for simulating urban growth in the Indo-Gangetic plain; using OLS data derived maps as input. In the proposed CA model, urban growth was expressed in terms of causative factors like economy, topography, accessibility and urban infrastructure. The model was calibrated and validated based on OLS data of year 2003 and 2008 respectively using spatial metrics measures and subsequently the urban growth was predicted for the year 2020. The model predicted high urban growth in North Western part of the study area, in south eastern part growth would be concentrated around two cities, Kolkata and Howrah. While in the middle portion of the study area, i.e., Jharkhand, Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh, urban growth has been predicted in form of clusters, mostly around the present big cities. These results will not only provide an input to urban planning but can also be utilized in hydrological and ecological modelling which require an estimate of future built up areas especially at regional level.

  9. Land use change and its driving forces in alluvial-plain oasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Luxiang; Zhang, Zengxiang; Chen, Xi; Luo, Geping; Wen, Qingke

    2007-11-01

    Land use change and its driving factors are hot topics of global change research, and also important topics of sustainable development. This paper selected a small area in alluvial plain oasis in Xinjiang Autonomous region of China as the study area. Using Landsat TM data of 1987, 1998 and 2004, the dynamic process of the spatial-temporal characteristics of land use changes were analyzed to improve understanding and to find the driving forces of land use changes so that sustainable land utilization could be practiced. During the 17 years salt-alkali tolerant cropland, cereal cropland, vegetable-fruit land, and shrubbery, had decreased remarkably by 78.59%, 85.95%, 92.13%, 68.43%, respectively. Cotton-liquorice land, grape-hop land, planted forest, residential area in town, residential area in village, and saline-alkaline field had increased dramatically. The increased percentage received the value of 2432.11%, 10103.18%, 889.91%, 222.45%, 96.00%, 44.18%, respectively. By the logistic regression, the main driving factors were derived for each land use type. The advance of technology (fertilizer input, irrigation quota, and animal labor et al.) and market (unit are yield net) were the main driving factors. Policy, in a higher level, influenced the land use dynamics for all the land use changes.

  10. Spatial Trends in the Texture, Moisture Content, and pH of a Virginia Coastal Plain Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Zacharais, S.; Heatwole, C.D.; Campbell, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    Soil texture, moisture content, and pH data from an agricultural field area of 48 _ 32 m in a Suffolk sandy loam soil in the Virginia Coastal Plain was examined for spatial trends. Trend surface analysis of sand, silt, and clay content data (n = 35) found that 68%, 74%, and 31% of the total variability in sand, silt, and clay content, respectively, was explained by second-order trend surfaces. Soil moisture content and pH also exhibited spatial trends, which resulted in statistically signific...

  11. Modeling water and carbon fluxes above summer maize field in North China Plain with back-propagation neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Zhong; SU Gao-li; YU Qiang; HU Bing-min; LI Jun

    2005-01-01

    In this work, datasets of water and carbon fluxes measured with eddy covariance technique above a summer maize field in the North China Plain were simulated with artificial neural networks (ANNs) to explore the fluxes responses to local environmental variables. The results showed that photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), air temperature (T) and leaf area index (LAI) were primary factors regulating both water vapor and carbon dioxide fluxes. Three-layer back-propagation neural networks (BP) could be applied to model fluxes exchange between cropland surface and atmosphere without using detailed physiological information or specific parameters of the plant.

  12. Modeling water and carbon fluxes above summer maize field in North China Plain with back-propagation neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhong; Su, Gao-Li; Yu, Qiang; Hu, Bing-Min; Li, Jun

    2005-05-01

    In this work, datasets of water and carbon fluxes measured with eddy covariance technique above a summer maize field in the North China Plain were simulated with artificial neural networks (ANNs) to explore the fluxes responses to local environmental variables. The results showed that photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), air temperature (T) and leaf area index (LAI) were primary factors regulating both water vapor and carbon dioxide fluxes. Three-layer back-propagation neural networks (BP) could be applied to model fluxes exchange between cropland surface and atmosphere without using detailed physiological information or specific parameters of the plant. PMID:15822158

  13. Hydrogeochemical characterization of the rocks of the Accra plains for a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geological disposal of radioactive waste in well-engineered repositories in stable geological formations has been internationally accepted as a suitable option. The disposal system makes use of both man-made and natural barriers to contain and isolate the radionuclides. Precambrian crystalline rocks are regarded as one of the favourable host rocks for a radioactive waste repository. Hydrogeochemical characterization of the rocks of the Accra Plains, located in the south eastern part of Ghana underlain by crystalline gneisses and schists, has been carried out to determine its suitability for a radioactive waste repository. The mineralogical analyses of the rock and soil samples collected indicated that feldspars, hornblende, biotite, quartz with minor pyroxenes are the primary minerals with illite, kaolinite, montmorillonite and carbonates occurring as secondary minerals. The accessory minerals present include chlorite, epidote, magnetite, rutile and sphene. The iron rich minerals, magnetite, biotite, chlorite, and amphiboles will create a reducing environment required for a repository. The pH value of the groundwater at the Valley View University is lower than the recommended pH values (6-10) for a repository environment, making the site unsuitable for a radioactive waste repository. Calcium and magnesium ions which constitute 48% of the total cations in the groundwater will provide a stable chemical environment for a backfill and buffer materials. The groundwaters of the Accra Plains is composed of three (3) water types. Groundwater Type 1 is composed of Na-Mg-Ca-CI-HC03 and found along the foot of the Akwapim- Togo Mountains. Groundwater Type 2 is composed of Na-Mg-Ca-CI and found in most parts of the central area of the Plains whilst groundwater type 3 occur along the coastal zone of the Plains and composed of Na-Ca-Cl. Silicate mineral weathering is the predominant influence on the composition of the groundwaters. Evaporative enrichment of recharging waters

  14. Poverty and Migration: Evidence from the Khayelitsha/Mitchell's Plain Area

    OpenAIRE

    Derek Yu; Sihaam Nieftagodien

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of misguided economic and social policies in the previous dispensation remain evident in the structure of poverty in South Africa. Enforced migration control, job reservation for whites and inadequate education and public services have all left their mark on the social and economic structure of the population. Migration and the pattern thereof play a significant role in explaining poverty in South Africa. This paper asks who the poor are, but with a focus that enables us both...

  15. LAND DEGRADATION ON AREAS WITH DESERTIFICATION PHENOMENON RISK IN CENTRAL BĂRĂGAN PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vrinceanu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is defined by FAO/UNEP/UNESCO (1979 as "a process that decreases the current capacity and/or potential soil to produce (quantitatively and/or qualitatively goods or services”, this is not necessarily continuous. It can occur in a relatively short period between the “two states of ecological balance". Land degradation refers to one or more of land resources such as soil, water, vegetation, rocks, air, climate and topography have changed for the worse (Stocking and Murnaghan, 2001. This change can be neutralized only for short-term, degraded resource recovered quickly. Alternative may be the precursor of a strong process of deterioration, which causing changes in the long term, permanently, of the state resource. Therefore includes changes in soil quality, reduce water available, reducing the vegetation sources and biodiversity, and many other ways in which the overall integrity of the land is compromised by inappropriate use.The soil condition is the most important factor of land degradation which may change considerably in a short time and can be regarded as a time-dependent soil property. It can be affected by soil moisture in the vegetation period, when the consumption is higher due to evapotranspiration, but also in the rest of the year, when soil is exposed to rainfall (rain storms, the speed of wetting of rain, etc., can also be influenced by composition, but depends largely on the state of components making up ground at a time (texture, clay mineralogy, soil pH, cation-saturated, moisture, organic content, etc. (Norton et al., 1999.

  16. The Economic Impact of Universities in Non-Metropolitan Areas of the Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John

    2007-01-01

    Public universities cite their economic impact to help justify state financial support, but the literature offers no comprehensive theory that can guide analysis of such claims. This research used qualitative methodology to complement the ubiquitous economic impact studies, and showed that mission, leadership and geography determine how public…

  17. Tectonic controls on the geomorphic evolution of alluvial fans in the Piedmont Zone of Ganga Plain, Uttarakhand, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Pradeep K.; Pant, Charu C.; Pandey, Shefali

    2009-06-01

    The Piedmont Zone is the least studied part of the Ganga Plain. The northern limit of the Piedmont Zone is defined by the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) along which the Himalaya is being thrust over the alluvium of the Ganga Plain. Interpretation of satellite imagery, Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) and field data has helped in the identification and mapping of various morphotectonic features in the densely forested and cultivated Piedmont Zone in the Kumaun region of the Uttarakhand state of India. The Piedmont Zone has formed as a result of coalescing alluvial fans, alluvial aprons and talus deposits. The fans have differential morphologies and aggradation processes within a common climatic zone and similar litho-tectonic setting of the catchment area. Morphotectonic analysis reveals that the fan morphologies and aggradation processes in the area are mainly controlled by the ongoing tectonic activities. Such activities along the HFT and transverse faults have controlled the accommodation space by causing differential subsidence of the basin, and aggradation processes by causing channel migration, channel incision and shifting of depocentres. The active tectonic movements have further modified the landscape of the area in the form of tilted alluvial fan, gravel ridges, terraces and uplifted gravels.

  18. Tectonic controls on the geomorphic evolution of alluvial fans in the Piedmont Zone of Ganga Plain, Uttarakhand, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pradeep K Goswami; Charu C Pant; Shefali Pandey

    2009-06-01

    The Piedmont Zone is the least studied part of the Ganga Plain.The northern limit of the Piedmont Zone is defined by the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT)along which the Himalaya is being thrust over the alluvium of the Ganga Plain.Interpretation of satellite imagery,Digital Terrain Models (DTMs)and field data has helped in the identification and mapping of various morpho-tectonic features in the densely forested and cultivated Piedmont Zone in the Kumaun region of the Uttarakhand state of India.The Piedmont Zone has formed as a result of coalescing alluvial fans,alluvial aprons and talus deposits.The fans have differential morphologies and aggradation processes within a common climatic zone and similar litho-tectonic setting of the catchment area. Morphotectonic analysis reveals that the fan morphologies and aggradation processes in the area are mainly controlled by the ongoing tectonic activities.Such activities along the HFT and transverse faults have controlled the accommodation space by causing differential subsidence of the basin,and aggradation processes by causing channel migration,channel incision and shifting of depocentres.The active tectonic movements have further modified the landscape of the area in the form of tilted alluvial fan,gravel ridges,terraces and uplifted gravels.

  19. [Malacologic-schistosomal study of the refugee camps on the Plain of Ruzizi in the Democratic Republic of the Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluku, B; Bagalwa, M; Basabose, K

    1999-01-01

    Bilharziasis due to Schistosoma mansoni is widespread in the eastern part of the People's Republic of the Congo, particularly in the Ruzizi plain area. The intermediate host is the fresh-water snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi whose ecology is now well documented. Bilharziasis due to Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma intercalatum have not yet been observed but the potential for this development is high given the presence of the intermediate hosts, i.e. Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus globosus, and Bulinus forskalii, and the migration of populations in the area. Malacological and cercariometric studies were undertaken in 3 refugee camps in 1995. Findings showed that Biomphalaria pfeifferi was present in all water systems tested but that levels varied from 21 p. 100 to 70 p. 100 from one camp to another. The rate of infestation by Biomphalaria pfeifferi varied from 37 to 20 p. 100 depending on the sampling site. Given the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in the population, extension of bilharziasis is likely in the Ruzizi plain area and its surroundings. Potential intermediary hosts for Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma intercalatum were of lower relative prevalence and were found in specific biotopes. The authors propose methods of controlling water snails and preventing infection of people and water systems. PMID:10472580

  20. Genetic approach to the development of crop production systems on savanna soils of the Eastern plains of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The savanna region of the eastern plains of Colombia is characterized by its low fertility with reduced soil content of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S); low pH; high exchangeable aluminum (Al); high al saturation and high soil fragility, however these acid soils offer several advantages which make them ideal for sustainable agriculture, such as 1) abundant and adequate rainfall distribution from April to November, 2) flat topography, 3) good physical soil characteristics and, 4) large potential area. The eastern plains of Colombia comprise about 26 million hectares, 53% of them have good drainage and are currently under extensive cattle grazing systems with no or little technology practices and inherent low productivity. Low cost soil management technology is needed to utilize efficient/y these vast areas. Key technology components must include the identification of suitable crop species and cultivars that can tolerate al and absorb N in the presence of excess Al. Research on crop production systems to incorporate this huge area into food production has been led by ICA and CORPOICA toward the generation of crop varieties suitable to acid soil conditions and the development of adequate technology practices to preserve the ecosystem. The goal of the systemic approach is to develop sustainable technology with the participation of a multidisciplinary group

  1. Exploring Perception of Indians about Plain Packaging of Tobacco Products: A Mixed Method Research

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Monika; Tewari, Abha; Grills, Nathan; Nazar, Gaurang P.; Sonrexa, Juhi; Gupta, Vinay K.; Moodie, Rob; Reddy, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed perceptions and support among the Indian populace about plain packaging for all tobacco products. Twelve focus group discussions (n = 124), stakeholder analysis with 24 officials and an opinion poll with 346 participants were conducted between December 2011 and May 2012, Delhi. Plain packages for tobacco products were favored by majority of participants (69%) and key stakeholders (92%). The majority of participants perceived that plain packaging would reduce the appeal and...

  2. What do people think about the way government talks? Attitudes to plain language in official communication

    OpenAIRE

    Friskney, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    When official publications supposed to inform the public do not do their job well the consequences can be serious, impacting for example on someone’s income because they did not know they were entitled to benefits. Campaigners argue that official communication should be written in plain language to make it more understandable. This seems to be largely accepted by Government and yet plain language has not become everyday practice. The public conversation about plain language invokes a range of...

  3. Euro-murkiness: Plain language and "fighting the fog" in European Union translation

    OpenAIRE

    Neubauer, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This memoir examines the basis and development of the Plain Language Movement (PLM), the official relationship between plain language and the European Union, and the application of plain-language guidelines to EU translation with a particular focus on translation from French into English. It uses various aspects of translation theory, including Skopos theory, deverbalization, and intralinguistic translation, to explore reasons that EU translations are still notoriously murky and unclear and t...

  4. Remote sensing, planform, and facies analysis of the Plain of Tineh, Egypt for the remains of the defunct Pelusiac River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar, Jessica; Khan, Shuhab D.; Fathy, Mohamed S.; Zalat, Abdel-Fattah A.

    2013-11-01

    and a shoreline parallel transect were also constructed to portray the paleogeography of the Mediterranean coastline in the Plain of Tineh at ~ 25 A.D. and indicate that the sampled study area is the downdrift margin of an asymmetric delta with barrier lagoon systems.

  5. Response of shortgrass Plains vegetation to chronic and seasonally administered gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, L. Jr.

    1971-08-01

    In order to determine the effect of radiation on the structure of native shortgrass plains vegetation, an 8750 Ci 137Cs source was installed on the Central Plains Experimental Range near Nunn, Colorado; The experimental area was divided into 6 treatment sectors, a control, 2 sectors for chronic exposure (irradiation initiated April 1969 and continuing as of August 1971), and one each for spring, summer and late fall seasonal semi-acute (30 day), exposures which were administered during April, July and December, 1969, respectively. Community structure was measured by coefficient of community and diversity index. Yield was determined by clipping plots in September 1970 and visual estimates in September 1969 and 1970 for the grass-sedge component of the vegetation. Individual species sensitivity was determined by density data recorded in April, June and September of 1969 and 1970 and by a phenological index recorded at weekly intervals during the 1969 and 1970 growing seasons. The response of the vegetation was similar whether determined by coefficient of community or diversity with diversity being a more sensitive measure of effects. In the chronically exposed sectors, the exposure rate which resulted in a 50 per cent reduction in these 2 parameters (CC50 or D50) was still decreasing the second growing season and was approximately 18 R/hr for the CC50 as of June 1970 and 10 R/hr for the D50 as of September 1970. For the seasonally exposed sectors, the late fall period (December, 1969) was the most sensitive, summer (July, 1969) the least sensitive and spring (April, 1969) intermediate with CC50 and D50 values of 195 and 90, 240 and 222, and 120 and 74 R/hr for the spring, summer and late fall exposed sectors, respectively. Yield and density data indicated a rapid revegetation of the spring and summer exposed sectors during 1970 as a result of an influx of invader species such as Salsola kali tenuifolia, Chenopodium leptophyllum and Lepidium densiflorum and the

  6. Alluvial plain dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Lombardo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial plains are formed with sediments that rivers deposit on the adjacent flood-basin, mainly through crevasse splays and avulsions. These result from a combination of processes, some of which push the river towards the crevasse threshold, while others act as triggers. Based on the floodplain sedimentation patterns of large rivers in the southern Amazonian foreland basin, it has been suggested that alluvial plain sediment accumulation is primarily the result of river crevasse splays triggered by above normal precipitation events due to La Niña. However, more than 90 % of the Amazonian river network is made of small rivers and it is unknown whether small river floodplain sedimentation is influenced by the ENSO cycle as well. Using Landsat images from 1984 to 2014, here I analyse the behaviour of all the twelve tributaries of the Río Mamoré with a catchment in the Andes. I show that these are very active rivers and that the frequency of crevasses is not linked to ENSO activity. I found that most of the sediments eroded from the Andes by the tributaries of the Mamoré are deposited in the alluvial plains, before reaching the parent river. The mid- to late Holocene paleo-channels of these rivers are located tens of kilometres further away from the Andes than the modern crevasses. I conclude that the frequency of crevasses is controlled by intrabasinal processes that act on a year to decade time scale, while the average location of the crevasses is controlled by climatic or neo-tectonic events that act on a millennial scale. Finally, I discuss the implications of river dynamics on rural livelihoods and biodiversity in the Llanos de Moxos, a seasonally flooded savannah covering most of the southern Amazonian foreland basin and the world's largest RAMSAR site.

  7. Alluvial plain dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto

    2016-05-01

    Alluvial plains are formed with sediments that rivers deposit on the adjacent flood-basin, mainly through crevasse splays and avulsions. These result from a combination of processes, some of which push the river towards the crevasse threshold, while others act as triggers. Based on the floodplain sedimentation patterns of large rivers in the southern Amazonian foreland basin, it has been suggested that alluvial plain sediment accumulation is primarily the result of river crevasse splays and sheet sands triggered by above-normal precipitation events due to La Niña. However, more than 90 % of the Amazonian river network is made of small rivers and it is unknown whether small river floodplain sedimentation is influenced by the ENSO cycle as well. Using Landsat images from 1984 to 2014, here I analyse the behaviour of all 12 tributaries of the Río Mamoré with a catchment in the Andes. I show that these are very active rivers and that the frequency of crevasses is not linked to ENSO activity. The data suggest that most of the sediments eroded from the Andes by the tributaries of the Mamoré are deposited in the alluvial plains, before reaching the parent river. The mid-to-late Holocene paleo-channels of these rivers are located tens of kilometres further away from the Andes than the modern crevasses. I conclude that the frequency of crevasses is controlled by intrabasinal processes that act on a yearly to decadal timescale, while the average location of the crevasses is controlled by climatic or neo-tectonic events that act on a millennial scale. Finally, I discuss the implications of river dynamics on rural livelihoods and biodiversity in the Llanos de Moxos, a seasonally flooded savannah covering most of the southern Amazonian foreland basin and the world's largest RAMSAR site.

  8. Plain radiographic evaluation of children with obstructive adenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: There are several methods of evaluating adenoidal size pre-operatively. Plain nasopharyngeal radiography is a common investigative modality: it has been advocated, and also condemned. Aim: This study was intended to assess nasopharyngeal airway obstruction by the adenoids using plain X-rays; and also to find correlation if any, with the symptomatology. Methods: This is a retrospective study carried out between January and December 2008. The case notes and plain X-rays of the nasopharynx of 34 paediatric patients with clinical features of obstructive adenoids were analyzed. Results: A total of 34 children were studied, 22 (64.7%) were males and 12 (35.3%) were females. Their ages ranged between 7 months and 10 years: mean age was 3.55 years, standard deviation 2.723. Majority (67.6%) of the children were in the age group 0-4 years. The lowest symptomatology assessment score was 0 and the highest was 3. Children 4 years and below had the highest symptomatology scores. The minimum adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio was 0.35 and the maximum was 0.94. There was no significant difference in the mean adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio of males and females (t = 0.407; p = 0.692). Many (75.0%) of the children with moderate to severe nasopharyngeal airway obstruction by the adenoids were in the age bracket 0-4 years. The lowest adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio score was 0 and the highest was 3. Children 4 years and below had the highest adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio scores. There was a very weak nonsignificant correlation between the symptomatology assessment score and the radiological assessment score (r = 0.168; p = 0.375). Conclusion: The adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio is reliable in assessing the nasopharyngeal airway in children with obstructive adenoids.

  9. The Kansas Anthropologist Reminlscence Project for Senior Plains Anthropologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlin F. Hawley

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Remember the days of old, consider the years of many generations, ask thy father and he will show thee, thy elders, and they will tell thee. Deuteronomy 32: 7. For the past six years, 'The Kansas Anthropologist' has published an ongoing series of reminiscences or retrospective articles by senior Great Plains archaeologists. The aim of the project is to collect reminiscences from senior anthro­pologists regarding their experiences in pre-and post-World War II Plains archaeology, biological anthropology, and ethnology. The historian John Lukacs (1966:x once offered an elegant and concise comment on the value of history, one that I offer here: "I believe that history, as a form of thought, is one of the most precious and perhaps unique rational posssessions of Western civilizations. The character of a person may appear best from the reconstruc­tion of the history of his life; the same is true of the character of nations. The very history of a prob­lem may reveal its essential diagnosis. There is no human endeavor that may not be approached and studied profitably through its history." Fortunately, there hardly needs to be a justification anymore for such a project, as is attested by the recent prolifera­tion of research into the history of archaeology and anthropology on virtually a global scale.The intention of these retrospective articles is not to explore or diagnose any particular problem but rather to create a mosaic of first person narrratives informed by personal experience and illustrated with photos and anecdotes to illuminate the development of Plains anthropology in the 20th Century.

  10. Influence of lowland forests on subsurface salt accumulation in shallow groundwater areas

    OpenAIRE

    Tóth, Tibor; Balog, Kitti; Szabó, András; PÁSZTOR László; Jobbágy, Esteban G.; Marcelo D. Nosetto; GRIBOVSZKI, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    In flat sedimentary plains in areas with a sub-humid climate, tree planting on grasslands and arable lands creates strong hydrological shifts. As a result of deep rooting and high water uptake of trees, groundwater levels drop and subsurface salt accumulation increases. Tree planting has expanded globally and in Hungary it reached rates of 15 000 ha year−1, being focused mainly in the Great Hungarian Plain where forests replace grasslands and crops in a region with widespread shallow groundwa...

  11. Plain strain problem of poroelasticity using eigenvalue approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajneesh Kumar; Aseem Miglani; N R Garg

    2000-09-01

    A plain strain problem of an isotropic elastic liquid-saturated porous medium in poroelasticity has been studied. The eigenvalue approach using the Laplace and Fourier transforms has been employed and these transforms have been inverted by using a numerical technique. An application of infinite space with concentrated force at the origin has been presented to illustrate the utility of the approach. The displacement and stress components in the physical domain are obtained numerically. The results are shown graphically and can be used for a broad class of problems related to liquid-saturated porous media.

  12. Plain film emergency radiology of child abuse: a strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strategy is proposed for the dedicated interpretation of possible radiographic plain film signs that are suspicious for indicating child abuse. For each sign, the features ''PRO'' raise the question of abuse, while radiographic or clinical findings ''CON'' suggest an alternate explanation. Birth trauma, oesteogenesis imperfecta, rescue trauma, and metastatic neuroblastoma are among the many entities cited. A triad of situations may lead a radiologist to look systematically for changes from abuse; a triad of resolutions may result from the search. Periosteal reaction is the major factor in dating of fractures; physiologic periosteal reaction of infancy and periosteal reaction from previous fracture must be considered when so dating fractures. (orig.)

  13. SPECTACULAR EDUCATION WITH PROGRAMMING PLAIN MULTIMEDIA ELEMENTS IN DELPHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Menyhárt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available I present a witty solution in this article about how we may obtain data simply and cheaply from physical experiments, with which we can do counting, as well. To this interdisciplinary task I turn to Delphi for help, in which we can program a digital video as a multimedia element. I show an example from the programming of plain multimedia elements until we get to the first efficient step in the processing of the video. High-school students who are learning programming in Delphi are able to understand the presented source code because it is not too complicated.

  14. Evaluation of Urban Polder Drainage System performance in Jakarta. Case Study Kelapa gading Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmah, L.; Suryadi, F.X.; Schultz, E.

    2010-01-01

    Kelapa Gading area is located in the plains of North Jakarta about 6 km from the coastline of Jakarta Bay. Kelapa Gading area covers 1288 ha it consists of three large compartments and next to that the Kodamar Unit separated system from Kelapa Gading excess water of the area is discharged to Sunter

  15. Differential Detection of Echinococcus Spp. Copro-DNA by Nested-PCR in Domestic and Wild Definitive Hosts in Moghan Plain, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mobedi, I; Zare-Bidaki, M; Siavashi, MR; SR Naddaf; EB Kia; M. Mahmoudi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite Echinococcus granulosus, there are merely two old reports of E. multilocularis infection among Iranian canids of Moghan Plain, the only area known endemic for the species. We detected specific DNA markers in fecal samples by PCR (Copro-PCR) for differential diagnosis of Echinococcus species in living canids.Methods: Totally 144 fecal samples from domestic dogs, red foxes and a golden jackal were examined for genus-specific Echinococcus coproantigens using ELISA. Forty two ...

  16. Hydrogeochemistry and quality assessment of shallow groundwater in the southern part of the yellow river alluvial plain (zhongwei section), northwest china

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peiyue; Wu, Jianhua; Qian, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Statistical analyses, a Piper diagram, the saturation index and the correlations of chemical parameters were used to reveal the hydrogeochemistry and hydrogeochemical evolution of shallow groundwater in the southern part of the Zhongwei section of the Yellow River alluvial plain. The water quality for agricultural and domestic uses was also assessed in the study. The results suggest that the shallow groundwater in the study area is fresh to moderately mineralized water. Higher Ca2+ and HCO3- ...

  17. Distal delta-plain successions : architecture and lithofacies of organics and lake fills in the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, I.J.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to analyze and explain the architecture, facies distribution, age and origin of coarse-grained overbank deposits, with special attention for organic-clastic lake fills, and organics in the distal Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta plain. In order to depict the influence of lakes and their fills on the development and architecture of fluvial systems, I reconstructed the development in the Angstel-Vecht area. To obtain insight in the facies composition, architecture and ...

  18. Mapping the northern plains of Mars: origins, evolution and response to climate change - a new overview of recent ice-related landforms in Utopia Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séjourné, A.; Costard, F.; Losiak, A.; Swirad, Z. M.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.; Gallagher, C.; Hauber, E.; Johnsson, A. E.; Kereszturi, A.; Orgel, C.; Platz, T.; Ramsdale, J. D.; Reiss, D.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Van Gasselt, S.

    2015-10-01

    An International Space Science Institute (ISSI) team project has been convened to study ice-related landforms in targeted areas in the northern plain of Mars: Acidalia Planitia, Arcadia Planitia, and Utopia Planitia. Here, over western Utopia Planitia, ice-related landforms were identified and recorded in a sub-grid square. The end result of the mapping is a "raster" showing the distribution of thevarious different types of landforms across the whole strip providing a digital geomorph ological map (Fig. 1).

  19. Silica biogeochemical cycle in temperate ecosystems of the Pampean Plain, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterrieth, Margarita; Borrelli, Natalia; Alvarez, María Fernanda; Fernández Honaine, Mariana

    2015-11-01

    Silicophytoliths were produced in the plant communities of the Pampean Plain during the Quaternary. The biogeochemistry of silicon is scarcely known in continental environments of Argentina. The aim of this work is to present a synthesis of: the plant production and the presence of silicophytoliths in soils with grasses, and its relationship with silica content in soil solution, soil matrix and groundwaters in temperate ecosystems of the Pampean Plain, Argentina. We quantified the content of silicophytoliths in representative grasses and soils of the area. Mineralochemical determinations of the soils' matrix were made. The concentration of silica was determined in soil solution and groundwaters. The silicophytoliths assemblages in plants let to differenciate subfamilies within Poaceae. In soils, silicophytoliths represent 40-5% of the total components, conforming a stock of 59-72 × 103 kg/ha in A horizons. The concentration of SiO2 in soil solution increases with depth (453-1243 μmol/L) in relation with plant communities, their nutritional requirements and root development. The average concentration of silica in groundwaters is 840 umol/L. In the studied soils, inorganic minerals and volcanic shards show no features of weathering. About 10-40% of silicophytoliths were taxonomically unidentified because of their weathering degrees. The matrix of the aggregates is made up by microaggregates composed of carbon and silicon. The weathering of silicophytoliths is a process that contributes to the formation of amorphous silica-rich matrix of the aggregates. So, silicophytoliths could play an important role in the silica cycle being a sink and source of Si in soils and enriching soil solutions and groundwaters.

  20. Fatigue behavior of plain C–Mn steel plates with fine grained ferrite in surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Grain refinement can improve effectively the fatigue properties of C–Mn steel plates. ► The area of fatigue striations in plate with fine grained ferrite is less than that with coarse grained ferrite. ► The ferrite grain refinement in the surface layers of the steel plates can hold back or postpone the formation of surface fatigue cracks. ► The banding pearlite can promote the formation and extension of the secondary cracks. - Abstract: The effect of fine-grained surface layers on the fatigue behavior of plain C–Mn steel plates is investigated. The plain C–Mn steel plates have been manufactured by a special thermo-mechanical controlled process (TMCP). For plates rolled by the special TMCP (designated special plates), the ferrite grain size approaches 5.5 μm in the surface layers and reaches 6.5 μm on average in the whole thickness of the plates, while for usually rolled plates (designated usual plates), the grain size is 15 μm on average in the whole thickness of the plates, without obvious difference between surface and central layers. Significant improvements of fatigue properties have been achieved by the ferrite grain refinement. Under the similar stress condition, the fatigue lifetime of the special plate is more than 10 times as long as that of the usual plate, and the first stage of fatigue crack propagation can be prolonged. With a similar lifetime of the usual plate under a load ratio R (σmin/σmax) approaching zero, the special plate can sustain a load 40 MPa higher than that of the usual plate. Furthermore, fatigue fractographs have been observed and analyzed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  1. Assessment of vertebral scalloping in neurofibromatosis type 1 with plain radiography and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To evaluate vertebral scalloping in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) and spinal deformity using plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to determine the possible aetiological association with neurofibromas, dural ectasia and lateral meningocoeles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nineteen patients with NF-1, who had full spine radiographs and whole-spine MRI, were retrospectively reviewed. Dystrophic features and their relationship to the curve were recorded from radiographs. A comparison was then made between the dystrophic features evident on radiographs and adjacent soft-tissue abnormalities identified on MRI. RESULTS: Dystrophic changes were documented in 16 patients on plain radiographs and in all patients on MRI. Rib pencilling was the most common finding on radiographs. In 80% of the cases with scoliosis, scalloping was seen on the concavity of the curvature. In all patients with kyphoscoliosis, scalloping was contiguous to the apex of kyphosis. Twenty-four areas of scalloping were identified on MRI. Scalloping usually developed in the concavity of the scoliotic curve or at levels unrelated to the curve. Scalloping was evident in combination with dural ectasia or neurofibroma in 15 cases. The presence of dural ectasia was confirmed in 75% of the cases of posterior scalloping and in 25% of those of lateral scalloping. The presence of neurofibromas was recognized in 25% of the cases of anterior or lateral scalloping. Dural ectasia was identified in two patients without associated scalloping. Lateral meningocoeles were not related to the development of scalloping. CONCLUSION: Whereas posterior scalloping was commonly associated with dural ectasia, anterior and lateral scalloping were commonly the result of primary mesodermal dysplasia

  2. High-Resolution Topography and its Implications for the Formation of Europa's Ridged Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, E. J.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Yin, A.; Patthoff, D. A.; Schenk, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Galileo Solid State Imager (SSI) recorded nine very high-resolution frames—eight at 12 m/pixel and one at 6 m/pixel—during the E12 flyby of Europa in Dec. 1997. To understand the implications for the small-scale structure and evolution of Europa, we mosaicked these frames (observations 12ESMOTTLE01 and 02, incidence ≈18°, emission ≈77°) into their regional context (part of observation 11ESREGMAP01, 220 m/pixel, incidence ≈74°, emission ≈23°). The topography data, which was created from the image mosaic overlaps, is sparse and segmented over the high-resolution images but connected by the underlying regional resolution topography. The high-resolution topography (24 m/pixel) is among the best for the current Europan dataset. From this dataset we ascertain the root mean square, or RMS, slope for some of the most common Europan surface features in a new region. We also employ a Fourier Transform method previously used on Ganymede and on other areas of Europa (Patel et al., 1999 JGR), to derive common wavelengths for the subunits of the ubiquitous ridged plains terrain. These results have important implications for differentiating between possible formation mechanisms—extensional tilt blocks (Pappalardo et al., 1995 JGR) or folds (Leonard et al., 2015 LPSC Abstract)—and for potential future missions. We continue this method for another high-resolution region taken in the E12 orbit, WEDGES01 and 02, with the specific goal of investigating how the variations in ridged plains morphologies relate across the surface of Europa.

  3. The Mar Chiquita Lake: An indicator of intraplate deformation in the central plain of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Adolfo Antonio

    2009-10-01

    The Mar Chiquita saline lake is located in the lowest part of one of the largest endorreic saline basins of South America. With a surface area of 6000-6500 km 2, the lake is located in a tectonic depression with an asymmetric cross section. The Sierras Pampeanas foothills, (with altitudes near 1500 m) are to the west and a 100-m topographic high (San Guillermo high) is to the east whose western border is bounded by a buried Middle Pleistocene fault (the Tostado-Selva Fault). The main tributary of the lake is the Dulce River, which flows from north to south. The southward flow of the river was impeded by an obstacle that closed the Dulce Valley, generating the Mar Chiquita Lake. The megafans of the Primero, Segundo, and Tercero Rivers deposited a large amount of sediment against the faulted border of the San Guillermo high, generating an obstacle that impeded the normal flow of the rivers and diverted the Dulce and the Salado Rivers to their present positions. Precise data concerning the age of the impounding of Mar Chiquita does not exist, but lacustrine conditions are undoubtedly younger than the uplift of the San Guillermo high, which occurred in the Middle Pleistocene. The well-preserved dry valley of the Dulce River, located southward of Mar Chiquita, is still visible in satellite images and confirms the youth of the impounding. The observations introduced in this paper allow us to understand the origin of a significant feature of the central plains of South America. The generation of Mar Chiquita Lake and upstream wetlands produced a pronounced environmental change in the arid Chaco-Pampeana Plain, which favored human life by introducing changes in vegetation and fauna.

  4. Characterizing mercury concentrations and fluxes in a Coastal Plain watershed: Insights from dynamic modeling and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, H.E.; Knightes, C.D.; Conrads, P.A.; Davis, G.M.; Feaster, T.D.; Journey, C.A.; Benedict, S.T.; Brigham, M.E.; Bradley, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the leading water quality concerns in surface waters of the United States. Although watershed-scale Hg cycling research has increased in the past two decades, advances in modeling watershed Hg processes in diverse physiographic regions, spatial scales, and land cover types are needed. The goal of this study was to assess Hg cycling in a Coastal Plain system using concentrations and fluxes estimated by multiple watershed-scale models with distinct mathematical frameworks reflecting different system dynamics. We simulated total mercury (Hg T, the sum of filtered and particulate forms) concentrations and fluxes from a Coastal Plain watershed (McTier Creek) using three watershed Hg models and an empirical load model. Model output was compared with observed in-stream Hg T. We found that shallow subsurface flow is a potentially important transport mechanism of particulate Hg T during periods when connectivity between the uplands and surface waters is maximized. Other processes (e.g., stream bank erosion, sediment re-suspension) may increase particulate Hg T in the water column. Simulations and data suggest that variable source area (VSA) flow and lack of rainfall interactions with surface soil horizons result in increased dissolved Hg T concentrations unrelated to DOC mobilization following precipitation events. Although flushing of DOC-Hg T complexes from surface soils can also occur during this period, DOC-complexed Hg T becomes more important during base flow conditions. TOPLOAD simulations highlight saturated subsurface flow as a primary driver of daily Hg T loadings, but shallow subsurface flow is important for Hg T loads during high-flow events. Results suggest limited seasonal trends in Hg T dynamics. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Evaluation of concentration of some heavy metals in ground water resources of Qahavand Plain-Hamedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhan Ardakani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the increasing pollution and decreasing quality of water resources due to agricultural, industrial and urban development activities, this study was conducted to evaluate the concentration of As, Zn, Pb and Cu in groundwater resources of Qahavand Plain and to prepare the zoning map using GIS. Methods: Groundwater samples were collected from 20 selected wells during two spring and summer in 2012. The concentrations of elements in the samples were determined by ICP after laboratory preparations. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Also, spatial distribution map of elements was prepared by ArcGIS software using Kriging Method. Results: The results showed that mean concentrations of As, Zn, Pb and Cu in groundwater samples in the spring were 7.5±1.2, 13.7±2.1, 2.5±0.4 and 9.2±2 ppb, respectively, and mean concentrations of these elements in groundwater samples in the summer were 9±1.2, 7.1±1.9, 2.8±0.65 and 9.3±1.2 ppb, respectively. Also, the results of one-sample t-test, comparing the mean concentrations of evaluated metals in groundwater samples with WHO and ISIRI showed a significant difference with permissible limit (P<0.001, so that the mean concentration of all metals was lower than the standard limit. The mean concentration of Zn was significantly lower in the summer than in the spring (P=0.003. Conclusion: Although, the current groundwater resources of Qahavand Plain are not exceedingly polluted with heavy metals, long-term and excessive use of agricultural inputs and construction of polluting industries can threaten the groundwater resources of this area, followed by irreversible consequences such as health-related risks for consumers.

  6. Adaptive data-driven models for estimating carbon fluxes in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, B.K.; Fosnight, E.A.; Gilmanov, T.G.; Frank, A.B.; Morgan, J.A.; Haferkamp, Marshall R.; Meyers, T.P.

    2007-01-01

    Rangeland carbon fluxes are highly variable in both space and time. Given the expansive areas of rangelands, how rangelands respond to climatic variation, management, and soil potential is important to understanding carbon dynamics. Rangeland carbon fluxes associated with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) were measured from multiple year data sets at five flux tower locations in the Northern Great Plains. These flux tower measurements were combined with 1-km2 spatial data sets of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), temperature, precipitation, seasonal NDVI metrics, and soil characteristics. Flux tower measurements were used to train and select variables for a rule-based piece-wise regression model. The accuracy and stability of the model were assessed through random cross-validation and cross-validation by site and year. Estimates of NEE were produced for each 10-day period during each growing season from 1998 to 2001. Growing season carbon flux estimates were combined with winter flux estimates to derive and map annual estimates of NEE. The rule-based piece-wise regression model is a dynamic, adaptive model that captures the relationships of the spatial data to NEE as conditions evolve throughout the growing season. The carbon dynamics in the Northern Great Plains proved to be in near equilibrium, serving as a small carbon sink in 1999 and as a small carbon source in 1998, 2000, and 2001. Patterns of carbon sinks and sources are very complex, with the carbon dynamics tilting toward sources in the drier west and toward sinks in the east and near the mountains in the extreme west. Significant local variability exists, which initial investigations suggest are likely related to local climate variability, soil properties, and management.

  7. Psychological distress among Plains Indian mothers with children referred to screening for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Tassy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress (PD includes symptoms of depression and anxiety and is associated with considerable emotional suffering, social dysfunction and, often, with problematic alcohol use. The rate of current PD among American Indian women is approximately 2.5 times higher than that of U.S. women in general. Our study aims to fill the current knowledge gap about the prevalence and characteristics of PD and its association with self-reported current drinking problems among American Indian mothers whose children were referred to screening for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Methods Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was conducted from maternal interviews of referred American Indian mothers (n = 152 and a comparison group of mothers (n = 33 from the same Plains culture tribes who participated in an NIAAA-funded epidemiology study of FASD. Referred women were from one of six Plains Indian reservation communities and one urban area who bore children suspected of having an FASD. A 6-item PD scale (PD-6, Cronbach's alpha = .86 was constructed with a summed score range of 0-12 and a cut-point of 7 indicating serious PD. Multiple statistical tests were used to examine the characteristics of PD and its association with self-reported current drinking problems. Results Referred and comparison mothers had an average age of 31.3 years but differed (respectively on: education ( Conclusions Psychological distress among referred mothers is significantly associated with having a self-reported drinking problem. FASD prevention requires multi-level prevention efforts that provide real opportunities for educational attainment and screening and monitoring of PD and alcohol use during the childbearing years. Mixed methods studies are needed to illuminate the social and cultural determinants at the base of the experience of PD and to identify the strengths and protective factors of unaffected peers who reside within the same

  8. Quantifying changes in multiple ecosystem services during 1992-2012 in the Sanjiang Plain of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongming; Mao, Dehua; Li, Lin; Jia, Mingming; Dong, Zhangyu; Miao, Zhenghong; Ren, Chunying; Song, Changchun

    2015-05-01

    Rapid and periodic assessment of the impact of land cover changes on ecosystem services at regional levels is essential to understanding services and sustainability of ecosystems. This study focused on quantifying and assessing changes of multiple ecosystem services in the Sanjiang Plain of China as a result of land cover changes over the period of 1992-2012. This region is important for its large area of natural wetlands and intensive agriculture. The ecosystem services that were assessed for this region included its regulating services (water yield and ecosystem carbon stocks), supporting services (suitable waterbird habitats), and provisioning services (food production), and the approach to the assessment was composed of the surface energy balance algorithms for land (SEBAL), soil survey re-sampling method and an empirical waterbird habitat suitability model. This large scale and integrated investigation represents the first systematic evaluation on the status of ecosystem carbon stocks in the Sanjiang Plain in addition to the development of an effective model for analysis of waterbird habitat suitability with the use of both remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS). More importantly, the result from this study has confirmed trade-offs between ecosystem services and negative consequences to environment in this region. The trade-offs were typically manifested by increased water yield and significantly grown food production, which is in contrast with significant losses in ecosystem carbon stocks (-14%) and suitable waterbird habitats (-23%) mainly due to the conversion of land cover from wetland to farmland. This finding implies that land use planning and policy making for this economically important region should take ecosystem service losses into account in order to preserve its natural ecosystems in the best interest of society. PMID:25659310

  9. THE STUDY OF CHANGES IN ARDABIL PLAIN GROUNDWATER LEVEL USING GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Zare Aghbolagh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled exploitation of groundwater in many parts of the world has led to a sharp drop in groundwater levels. In this study, changes in Ardabil plain groundwater level were studied using geographic information system (GIS. For this purpose, the interpolation table method was used, the intrinsic data as table data of piezo metric wells was used. In order to implement the model, the Majol Geoestatical in geographic information system software was used. The data entered as regions into the geographic information system, and then done for the entire zoning area, due to zoning 8 models, the IDW, GPI, RBF, LPI, KO, KS, KU and EBK in geostatical extension were evaluated. The ordinary kriging method (KO with the lowest RMSE, was determined as the most accurate one, and finally, as the ultimate method for zoning and map providing for the changes in groundwater levels drop of the region. The results of classification showed that the biggest drop of about 40 meters was in the areas close to the southeastern parts of the study region and in other areas, little changes were observed, this rate of the change and decline in some parts of the desert like southern regions is very tangible and specified.

  10. Behavior of some organic pollutants in the waters of Meboudja's plain (North - East Algerian)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassane, Amina; Kherici, Nacer; Bouguerra, Hamza; Haouli, Zouina

    2016-07-01

    Meboudja's plain is a huge surface and groundwater reservoir in terms of amount and quality. Currently this region is facing various pollution problems, the present study conducted allowed the identification of factors responsible for water resources degradation and assessment of aquifers by organic pollutantsand determining the water quality, for each pointby the mostdowngradingparameter. In a contaminated aquifer site located along the river Meboudja (Annaba, Algeria). Chemical analysis of water (ground and surface) were performed, to measure the dissolved oxygen (O2), and detect the concentration (NO3), (NO2), (NH4) and (BOD5). The intensive use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture as well as disorganized water resources, exploitation has worsen the environmental situation. Chemical analyzes on water samples taken were conducted, the results show that: water quality in the study area was considerably deteriorated in recent years. According to the WHO standard World Health Organization and the results of selected parameters, it is estimated that the water quality of the area in question,classified mainly, in poor and very poor quality,due to uncontrolled industrial discharges. Moreover, the quality between, good and very good in some sites, such as drilling is explained by the depth of the water table. The results confirm what has been written before about the area, now it would be better to approach the part relating to pollution because, the situation has reached threshold of no return.

  11. Land cover changes associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin; Northern Great Plains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M; Kim, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    The Williston Basin in the Northern Great Plains has experienced rapid energy development since 2000. To evaluate the land cover changes resulting from recent (2000-2015) development, the area and previous land cover of all well pads (pads) constructed during this time were determined, the amount of disturbed and reclaimed land adjacent to pads was estimated, land cover changes were analyzed over time for three different well types, and the effects from future development were predicted. The previous land cover of the 12,990ha converted to pads was predominately agricultural (49.5%) or prairie (47.4%) with lesser amounts of developed (2.3%), aquatic (0.5%), and forest (0.4%). Additionally, 12,121ha has likely been disturbed and reclaimed. The area required per gas well remained constant through time while the land required per oil well increased initially and then decreased as development first shifted from conventional to unconventional drilling and then to multi-bore pads. For non-oil-and-gas wells (i.e. stratigraphic test wells, water wells, and injection wells), the area per well increased through time likely due to increased produced water disposal requirements. Future land cover change is expected to be 2.7 times greater than recent development with much of the development occurring in five counties in the core Bakken development area. Direct land cover change and disturbance from recent and expected development are predicted to affect 0.4% of the landscape across the basin; however, in the core Bakken development area, 2.3% of the landscape will be affected including 2.1% of the remaining grassland. Although future development will result in significant land cover change, evolving industry practices and proactive siting decisions, such as development along energy corridors and placing pads in areas previously altered by human activity, have the potential to reduce the ecological effects of future energy development in the Williston Basin. PMID:27318516

  12. Horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminant solvents introduced during different periods into coastal plain aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within a 10 square mile sector in the NW part of the Savannah River Site, degreasing solvents, trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) from contaminant plumes primarily within Tertiary Coastal Plain strata. In the central area, TCE has migrated farther down-section than PCE; to the north, TCE concentrations are > PCE, although both are significantly lower. SW groundwater flow characterizes aquifers beneath the region. Vertical migration potentials are downward. Within the central area, maximum contaminant concentrations are confined to the upper part of the Steed Pond aquifer. Wells do not penetrate deep enough in the central area to determine if contaminants > 5 ppb occur below the 30-50 ft thick Crouch Branch confining unit (CBcu). In the NE part of the sector, the confining layers are thinner, and contaminants are in the Crouch Branch aquifer (CRa) beneath the CBcu. The plume originating from the NE part of the area extends steeply downward to a 360+ ft depth below the surface (30--20 ft above mean sea level), and extends laterally as two distinct lobes of high concentration in the Middle Sand aquifer zone (MSa) within the CBcu and in the CBa in the Cretaceous part of the stratigraphic section. The plume extending beneath the NE part of the area has the deepest known vertical extent. The PCE plume shows relatively moderate levels of contamination extending down to the Middle Sand aquifer zone, but only very low concentrations at deeper levels. In the central part of the area, multiple plumes of high contaminant concentration are steeply inclined from the vertical in the Steed Pond aquifer, whereas high concentrations of PCE do not show as much areal distribution as TCE

  13. Neotectonic control on river sinuosity at the western margin of the Little Hungarian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámolyi, A.; Székely, B.; Draganits, E.; Timár, G.

    2010-10-01

    This study investigates the influence of neotectonic activity on river channel patterns in low-relief areas. Our study area, the westernmost part of the Little Hungarian Plain, belongs to the Danube catchment in the transition zone between the Eastern Alps and Western Carpathians. This area evolved within the Pannonian back-arc basin during the Neogene and was also affected by the major lateral tectonic extrusion of the Eastern Alps. Water course analysis has been carried out on the Leitha, Répce, Rábca, Ikva and Wulka rivers, to detect a possible relationship between their river courses and any on-going tectonic activity that is otherwise difficult to detect in this poorly exposed low-relief area. In order to derive channel geometries hardly modified by human activity (i.e. prior to the major river control works of the last 150 years), calculations of river channel properties were based on georeferenced historical map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire. These recorded the channel patterns and geomorphologic situation around 1840. Classic sinuosity values from the reconstructed river courses have been derived using several window sizes. The calculated values show surprisingly strong local variations, considering the low-relief and lithological homogeneity of the area. The spatial distribution of the pronounced sinuosity variations coincides with the location of Late Miocene faults well-known from seismic data. On-going active tectonic activity along these faults is further indicated by the local earthquake record and geomorphic parameters derived from high-resolution digital elevation models. In conclusion, river sinuosity calculations represent a sensitive tool for recognizing neotectonic activity in low-relief areas.

  14. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Estimated thickness of ejecta deposits compared to to crater rim heights. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    The area of the continuous ejecta deposits on mercury was calculated to vary from 2.24 to 0.64 times the crater's area for those of diameter 40 km to 300 km. Because crater boundaries on the geologic map include the detectable continuous ejecta blanket, plains exterior to these deposits must consist of farther-flung ejecta (of that or other craters), or volcanic deposits flooding the intervening areas. Ejecta models are explored.

  15. Parallel Simulation of Groundwater Flow in the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tangpei Cheng; Jingli Shao; Yali Cui; Zeyao Mo; Zhong Han; Ling Li

    2014-01-01

    Numerical modeling is of crucial importance in understanding the behavior of regional groundwater system. However, the demand on modeling capability is intensive when performing high-resolution simulation over long time span. This paper presents the application of a parallel pro-gram to speed up the detailed modeling of the groundwater flow system in the North China Plain. The parallel program is implemented by rebuilding the well-known MODFLOW program on our parallel- computing framework, which is achieved by designing patch-based parallel data structures and algo-rithms but maintaining the compute flow and functionalities of MODFLOW. The detailed model with more than one million grids and a decade of time has been solved. The parallel simulation results were examined against the field observed data and these two data are generally in good agreement. For the comparison on solution time, the parallel program running on 32 cores is 6 times faster than the fastest MICCG-based MODFLOW program and 11 times faster than the GMG-based MODFLOW program. Therefore, remarkable computational time can be saved when using the parallel program, which facili-tates the rapid modeling and prediction of the groundwater flow system in the North China Plain.

  16. The Study on 400 MPa Class Plain Carbon Structure Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-mei; LI Sheng-li; LI Wei-juan; DU Lin-xiu; WANG Guo-dong

    2004-01-01

    New generation of structure steel has been developed to meet the uninterruptedly increasing needs of the economic construction and development of society, and such material is characterized by ultra-fine grain. In this paper, 400MPa class plain carbon structure steel has been studied, making its yield strength doubled and service life doubled on the basis of good comprehensive properties in large quantity utilization. The deformation behavior and the stain induced transformation of SS400 steel at different temperature were investigated in the laboratory, and the industrial rolling test was carried out in 2 050mm HSM of Baosteel. Not only the laboratory studies but also the industrial test show that the technical route of the experimentis correct and the industrial test results on the basis of low carbon plain steel indicate that the grain size of ferrite was near to 4 ~ 5 μm, elongation was more than 30% , impact property was good, the yield strength can reach 400 MPa.

  17. [Biodegradation Coefficients of Typical Pollutants in the Plain Rivers Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuai; Li, Xu-yongl; Deng, Jian-cai

    2016-05-15

    Biodegradation is a significant part of pollutant integrated degradation, the process rate of which is represented by the biodegradation coefficient. To investigate the biodegradation law of typical pollutants in the plain rivers network located in the upstream of the Lake Taihu, experiments were conducted in site in September 2015, one order kinetics model was used to measure the biodegradation coefficients for permanganate index, ammonia, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, and influencing factors of the biodegradation coefficients were also analyzed. The results showed that the biodegradation coefficients for permanganate index, ammonia, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were 0.008 3-0.126 4 d⁻¹, 0.002 1-0.213 8 d⁻¹, 0.002 1-0.090 5 d⁻¹ and 0.011 0- 0.152 8 d⁻¹, respectively. The influencing factors of the biodegradation coefficients for permanganate index were permanganate index and pH; those for ammonia were ammonia concentration and pH; those for total nitrogen were inorganic nitrogen concentration, total dissolved solid concentration and nitrite concentration; and those for total phosphorus were background concentration and pH. The research results were of important guiding significance for pollutants removal and ecological restoration of the plain rivers network located in the unstream of the Lake Taihu. PMID:27506025

  18. Carbon Stocks in Harran Plain Soils, Sanliurfa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal SAKIN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Soils are an important component of the global carbon cycle and can be net sources or sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2. The goals of the present study were to analyze the soil organic carbon (SOC and soil inorganic carbon (SIC content of Harran Plain soil in Sanliurfa, Turkey, part of the Southeast Anatolia region (SAR, and to estimate carbon stocks (CSs in soil series that are representative of arid and semiarid lands. To this end, soil samples were collected from 16 profiles in the Harran Plain at depths of 100, 120, and 160 cm of the genetic horizons, and the SOC stocks in the three soil depths were estimated. The carbon stock was 56.41 Tg of C in the 0-100 cm layer, 67.80 Tg of C in the 0-120 cm layer and 87.91 Tg of C in the 0-160 cm layer. For the three soil depths 100, 120, and 160 cm, the SOC content ranged from 6.33 to 11.04, 7.11 to 11.98 and 8.72 to 16.53 kg of C m-2, respectively, and the soil inorganic carbon content ranged from 8.83 to 19.26, 11.00 to 23.34 and 14.82 to 32.64 kg of C m-2, respectively.

  19. Making information accessible: developing plain English discharge instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A; Miller, M

    1996-09-01

    Discharge education has always been an important role for nurses working in acute care contexts. With the advent of case mix funding and subsequent trends towards early discharge from hospital, this educational role is assuming increasing importance. This paper addresses one aspect of a participatory action research study where a group of nurses, working in a paediatric orthopaedic ward, explored their discharge education practices and resources. The seemingly large number of post-discharge telephone queries received from parents of children treated on the ward prompted these nurses to question whether their discharge teaching practices were effective. Data collected on these telephone queries identified parental concerns regarding the care of their child at home in a plaster. This finding prompted group members to explore the ways that written information relating to care of the plaster at home might be implicated in the situation. An analysis of an existing 'home cast care' discharge instruction sheet raised issues concerning the content and language used in such resources. The paper describes the subsequent development of a plain English 'plaster care' discharge instruction sheet and argues the importance of using plain English in such resources. PMID:8876413

  20. Potential future impacts of climatic change on the Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A synopsis is provided of approaches to impact studies in the Great Plains, findings from studies of future impacts are summarized, and opportunities for enhancing understanding of future impacts are discussed. Potential impacts of climate change on agriculture, water resources, forestry, recreation/tourism, and energy are summarized. Impact analyses need to look more rigorously at variability in climate, the probabilities of various climatic conditions, and the sensitivity of social and economic activities to climatic variability. Most economic impact studies have assumed no adaptive behavior on the part of economic decision makers. Credible impact assessments require an improved understanding of the sensitivity and adaptability of sectors to climatic conditions, particularly variability. The energy sector in the Great Plains region is likely to be more sensitive to political developments in the Middle East than to climatic variability and change. Speculation and analysis of climate impacts have focused on supply conditions and demands, yet the sector is more keenly sensitive to policy implications of climatic change, such as the potential for fossil fuel taxes or other legislative or pricing constraints. 28 refs