WorldWideScience

Sample records for carrizo mountains

  1. Historical review of uranium-vanadium in the eastern Carrizo Mountains, San Juan County, New Mexico and Apache County, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a brief review of the uranium and/or vanadium mining in the eastern Carrizo Mountains, San Juan County, New Mexico and Apache County, Arizona. It was prepared at the request of the Navajo Tribe, the New Mexico Energy and Minerals Department, and the Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology. This report deals only with historical production data. The locations of the mines and the production are presented in figures and tables

  2. Vegetation - Carrizo Plain ER, 2005 - 2008 [ds561

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Vegetation Map of the Carrizo Plain Ecological Reserve, San Luis Obispo County, California was created by the California Department of Fish and Game (DFG)...

  3. Population of Endogenous Pararetrovirus Genomes in Carrizo Citrange

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Avijit; Shao, Jonathan; Schneider, William L.; John S. Hartung; Brlansky, Ronald H.

    2014-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of three related endogenous pararetroviruses (EPRVs) were obtained by 454 sequencing of nucleic acid extracts from Carrizo citrange, used as a citrus rootstock. Numerous homologous sequences have been found in the sweet orange genome. The new EPRVs are most closely related to petunia vein-clearing virus.

  4. Characterizing the citrus variety Carrizo genome through 454 shotgun sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus production is of global importance both in economic impact and significance to nutrition. The number of natural citrus species appears extremely limited. The genome size is small (haploid approximately 367 Mb), arranged on 18 chromosomes. The citrus variety Carrizo, generated by a ‘Washingt...

  5. Characterizing the citrus cultivar Carrizo genome through 454 shotgun sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belknap, William R; Wang, Yi; Huo, Naxin; Wu, Jiajie; Rockhold, David R; Gu, Yong Q; Stover, Ed

    2011-12-01

    The citrus cultivar Carrizo is the single most important rootstock to the US citrus industry and has resistance or tolerance to a number of major citrus diseases, including citrus tristeza virus, foot rot, and Huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening). A Carrizo genomic sequence database providing approximately 3.5×genome coverage (haploid genome size approximately 367 Mb) was populated through 454 GS FLX shotgun sequencing. Analysis of the repetitive DNA fraction indicated a total interspersed repeat fraction of 36.5%. Assembly and characterization of abundant citrus Ty3/gypsy elements revealed a novel type of element containing open reading frames encoding a viral RNA-silencing suppressor protein (RNA binding protein, rbp) and a plant cytokinin riboside 5′-monophosphate phosphoribohydrolase-related protein (LONELY GUY, log). Similar gypsy elements were identified in the Populus trichocarpa genome. Gene-coding region analysis indicated that 24.4% of the nonrepetitive reads contained genic regions. The depth of genome coverage was sufficient to allow accurate assembly of constituent genes, including a putative phloem-expressed gene. The development of the Carrizo database (http://citrus.pw.usda.gov/) will contribute to characterization of agronomically significant loci and provide a publicly available genomic resource to the citrus research community.

  6. Propiedades acústicas de los paneles de carrizo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz, César

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reed is a plant species very similar to common cane which is widespread all over the Earth. It is an ecological and sustainable material which is low-cost, aesthetically attractive, easy to obtain and install, and can be used in different construction systems. This work analyses the acoustic properties of reed panels from the point of view of sound absorption and sound insulation against airborne noise, according to the corresponding EN ISO standards. The experimental results obtained point to the conclusion that reed panels are suitable construction systems for controlling reverberant sound within a space, and that the sound reduction index values for different thicknesses of reed panels, or reed panels used in combination with wood particle boards, demonstrate the possibility of using them in construction as an element on the facades and roofs of buildings and for interior partitions.

    El carrizo es una especie vegetal, parecida a la caña común, que se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en la superficie terrestre. Es un material ecológico y sostenible de bajo coste, estéticamente aceptable, fácil de obtener y colocar, que permite generar diferentes sistemas constructivos. En este trabajo se analizan las propiedades acústicas de los paneles de carrizo en lo referente a la absorción acústica y al aislamiento acústico a ruido aéreo, para ello se han aplicado los procedimientos de las normas EN ISO correspondientes. De los resultados experimentales obtenidos se concluye que los paneles de carrizo son unos sistemas constructivos adecuados para el control del sonido reverberante en un recinto y que los valores del índice de reducción acústica de paneles de diferentes espesores o en combinación con tableros de partículas de madera muestran la posibilidad de utilizarlos en la edificación como elemento de fachada, en cubiertas de edificios y particiones interiores.

  7. 77 FR 75649 - Establishment of Interim Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands Managed by the Carrizo Plain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... established supplementary rules for the Natural Area at 62 FR 54126 (Oct. 17, 1997). The RMP/ROD for the... the Carrizo Plain National Monument in Kern and San Luis Obispo Counties, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Register and will apply to public lands within the Carrizo Plain National Monument in Kern and San...

  8. Mountaineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘步东

    2005-01-01

    Most young people enjoy some forms of physical activities.It may be walking,cycling or swimming,or in wither,skating or skiing.It may be a game of some kind,football,hockey(曲棍球),golf,or tennis.Perhaps it may be mountaineering.

  9. Tetraploidy Enhances Boron-Excess Tolerance in Carrizo Citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Marta; Quiñones, Ana; Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Aleza, Pablo; Morillon, Raphaël; Navarro, Luis; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus

    2016-01-01

    Tetraploidy modifies root anatomy which may lead to differentiated capacity to uptake and transport mineral elements. This work provides insights into physiological and molecular characters involved in boron (B) toxicity responses in diploid (2x) and tetraploid (4x) plants of Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.), a widely used citrus rootstock. With B excess, 2x plants accumulated more B in leaves than 4x plants, which accounted for their higher B uptake and root-to-shoot transport rates. Ploidy did not modify the expression of membrane transporters NIP5 and BOR1 in roots. The cellular allocation of B excess differed between ploidy levels in the soluble fraction, which was lower in 4x leaves, while cell wall-linked B was similar in 2x and 4x genotypes. This correlates with the increased damage and stunted growth recorded in the 2x plants. The 4x roots were found to have fewer root tips, shorter specific root length, longer diameter, thicker exodermis and earlier tissue maturation in root tips, where the Casparian strip was detected at a shorter distance from the root apex than in the 2x roots. The results presented herein suggest that the root anatomical characters of the 4x plants play a key role in their lower B uptake capacity and root-to-shoot transport. Highlights Tetraploidy enhances B excess tolerance in citrange Carrizo Expression of NIP5 and BOR1 transporters and cell wall-bounded B are similar between ploidies B tolerance is attributed to root anatomical modifications induced by genome duplication The rootstock 4x citrange carrizo may prevent citrus trees from B excess. PMID:27252717

  10. Transport of 14C and uranium in the Carrizo aquifer of south Texas, a natural analog of radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground water flow and transport were modeled along a one-dimensional, vertical cross-section of the Carrizo aquifer from its outcrop down gradient for 100 km. Using a constant flux of 14C at the recharge boundary, the 14C mass fraction distribution downgradient was simulated until steady-state was attained. The match between the observed data and simulated results is excellent for a porosity of 35% and a K/sub D/ of zero. The transport of both 234U and 238U was simulated with varying retardation coefficients. The best fit occurred with a R/sub D/ of about 30, which corresponds to a K/sub D/ of 6. The results indicate that modeling may be reliably conducted over time periods and distances of interest in radionuclide transport performance assessments and that regionally averaged hydrologic properties can provide appropriate values for predicting groundwater flow and nuclide transport

  11. Reconstruction of late glacial climates from the groundwater archive: Cl- and 36Cl in the Carrizo aquifer, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climate history (temperature and precipitation minus evapotranspiration) of southern Texas was reconstructed for the past 35 ka, on the basis of groundwater data from the Carrizo aquifer. Palaeotemperatures derived from noble gases dissolved in groundwater indicate a mean annual temperature 5 deg. C lower than today for the last glacial maximum. Recharge rates (a measure of precipitation minus evapotranspiration) were estimated from Cl- and from 36Cl concentrations after performing corrections for variations of atmospheric Cl- and 36Cl deposition rates. The two lines of evidence are consistent and indicate that the recharge rate between 16 and 20 ka was up to to 100% higher than today. The occurrence of high lake levels in the Great Basin during that period suggests that the shift to a better climate during the late glacial was a common feature of the southwestern and southern United States of America. (author). 22 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  12. Three-Dimensional Investigation of a 5 m Deflected Swale along the San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain

    KAUST Repository

    Akciz, S. O.

    2014-10-21

    Topographic maps produced from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data are useful for paleoseismic and neotectonic research because they provide submeter representation of faulting-related surface features. Offset measurements of geomorphic features, made in the field or on a remotely sensed imagery, commonly assume a straight or smooth (i.e., undeflected) pre-earthquake geometry. Here, we present results from investigation of an ∼20 cm deep and >5 m wide swale with a sharp bend along the San Andreas fault (SAF) at the Bidart fan site in the Carrizo Plain, California. From analysis of LiDAR topography images and field measurements, the swale was initially interpreted as a channel tectonically offset ∼4:7 m. Our observations from exposures in four backhoe excavations and 25 hand-dug trenchettes show that even though a sharp bend in the swale coincides with the trace of the A.D. 1857 fault rupture, the swale formed after the 1857 earthquake and was not tectonically offset. Subtle fractures observed within a surficial gravel unit overlying the 1857 rupture trace are similar to fractures previously documented at the Phelan fan and LY4 paleoseismic sites 3 and 35 km northwest of Bidart fan, respectively. Collectively, the fractures suggest that a post-1857 moderate-magnitude earthquake caused ground cracking in the Carrizo and Cholame stretches of the SAF. Our observations emphasize the importance of excavation at key locations to validate remote and ground-based measurements, and we advocate more geomorphic characterization for each site if excavation is not possible.

  13. Desenvolvimento Vegetativo e morfologia radicular de citrange carrizo afetado por ácido indolbutírico e micorrizas arbusculares Vegetative development and root morphology of carrizo citrange affected by indolebutyric acid and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vitor Dutra de Souza

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado na localidade de Alcanar (Tarragona, Espanha e objetivou avaliar o efeito de cinco concentrações do ácido indolbutírico (AIB (0,0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 g/L e da inoculação com micorrizas arbusculares (MA (Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith sobre o desenvolvimento vegetativo, conteúdo foliar de P e K e morfologia radicular de plântulas de citrange Carrizo (Citrus sinensis (L. X Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualisados em esquema fatorial, com 4 repetições e 10 plantas por parcela. A aplicação de AIB não alterou o desenvolvimento vegetativo das plântulas cultivadas em ausência de MA, apesar de haver incrementado a quantidade de P e K e a espessura dos feixes vasculares. As MA incrementaram o conteúdo de P foliar. Encontrou-se uma interação positiva entre o AIB e as MA, pois as plântulas micorrizadas apresentaram um incremento no desenvolvimento vegetativo, nos conteúdos foliares de P e K e na espessura dos feixes vasculares com o aumento das concentrações de AIB.This study was carried out in Alcanar (Tarragona - Spain to evaluate the effect of five indolebutyric acid (IBA concentrations (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 g/L and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF (Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith on Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis (L. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. vegetative development, P and K foliar contents and root morphology. The experimental design was in a Completly Randomized Block Design with 10 seedlings per plot and 4 replicates. The IBA concentrations had no effect on vegetative development of nonmycorrhizal seedlings, althougt it had increased P and K foliar contents and primary xylem tickness. AMF increased P foliar content. IBA x AMF interaction was observed, increasing IBA concentrations on mycorrhizal seedlings resulted in increased in vegetative development, P and K foliar contents and primary xylem thickness.

  14. Tetraploidy enhances boron-excess tolerance in Carrizo Citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eRuiz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetraploidy modifies root anatomy which may lead to differentiated capacity to uptake and transport mineral elements. This work provides insights into physiological and molecular characters involved in boron (B toxicity responses in diploid (2x and tetraploid (4x plants of Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf., a widely used citrus rootstock. With B excess, 2x plants accumulated more B in leaves than 4x plants, which accounted for their higher B uptake and root-to-shoot transport rates. Ploidy did not modify the expression of membrane transporters NIP5 and BOR1 in roots. The cellular allocation of B excess differed between ploidy levels in the soluble fraction, which was lower in 4x leaves, while cell wall-linked B was similar in 2x and 4x genotypes. This correlates with the increased damage and stunted growth recorded in the 2x plants. The 4x roots were found to have fewer root tips, shorter specific root length, longer diameter, thicker exodermis and earlier tissue maturation in root tips, where the Casparian strip was detected at a shorter distance from the root apex than in the 2x roots. The results presented herein suggest that the root anatomical characters of the 4x plants play a key role in their lower B uptake capacity and root-to-shoot transport.

  15. Mountain research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The newly incorporated International Mountain Society (IMS) will in May begin publication of an interdisciplinary scientific journal, Mountain Research and Development. The quarterly will be copublished with the United National University; additional support will come from UNESCO.A primary objective of IMS is to ‘help solve mountain land-use problems by developing a foundation of scientific and technical knowledge on which to base management decisions,’ according to Jack D. Ives, president of the Boulder-based organization. ‘The Society is strongly committed to the belief that a rational worldwide approach to mountain problems must involve a wide range of disciplines in the natural and human sciences, medicine, architecture, engineering, and technology.’

  16. Successful Female Mountaineers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANSIYIN

    2004-01-01

    The Third Mountaineering Meet took place from September 26 to October 8, 2003. It was sponsored by the Tibet Association for Mountaineers and undertaken by the Tibet Mountaineering Team and the Tibet Mountaineering School.

  17. Early Evaluation of Compatibility between Commercial Citrus Varieties and Kaffir Lime (Citrus hystrix and Carrizo Citrange (C. sinensis Osb. x P. trifoliata L. Raf. Rootstocks at Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Khoe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigation on early evaluation of compatibility between commercial citrus varieties, and Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix and Carrizo citrange (C. sinensis Osb. x P. trifoliata L. Raf. rootstocks, at Mekong Delta Vietnam, during four successive years from 2010 to 2013, reported that out of the tested combinations of the recent commercial citrus varieties, included Da xanh pumelo (C. grandis Osbeck, seedless Mat orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck, Sanh orange (C. nobilis Lour. and Duong mandarin  (C. reticulata, budded on Kaffir lime and Carrizo citrange, in the 3rd and 4th  year after planting under the trial fields at Mekong Delta Vietnam, the trees of Sanh orange (C. nobilis Lour. budded on Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix were supperior with precocity, producing high number of fruits (16.67 fruits per tree , and very good fruit quality of larger fruit size (334.6 g and 11.16 cm, fruit weight and diameter, respectively, higher total soluble solids (12.5 brix, better orange-yellow juice color development, and excellent flavor and aroma of juice, as compared to the typical characteristics; meanwhile these were followed by trees of seedless Mat orange budded on Kaffir lime, which produced the highest number of fruits (47.33 fruits per tree, with little inferior quality of seedy fruit (1-3 seeds per fruit, lower total soluble solids (7.33%, and no good flavor and aroma, as somewhat differed from the typical fruit traits.

  18. Regional Geologic Map of San Andreas and Related Faults in Carrizo Plain, Temblor, Caliente and La Panza Ranges and Vicinity, California; A Digital Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibblee, T. W.; Digital database compiled by Graham, S. E.; Mahony, T.M.; Blissenbach, J.L.; Mariant, J.J.; Wentworth, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    This Open-File Report is a digital geologic map database. The report serves to introduce and describe the digital data. There is no paper map included in the Open-File Report. The report includes PostScript and PDF plot files that can be used to plot images of the geologic map sheet and explanation sheet. This digital map database is prepared from a previously published map by Dibblee (1973). The geologic map database delineates map units that are identified by general age, lithology, and clast size following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. For descriptions of the units, their stratigraphic relations, and sources of geologic mapping, consult the explanation sheet (of99-14_4b.ps or of99-14_4d.pdf), or the original published paper map (Dibblee, 1973). The scale of the source map limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:125,000 or smaller. For those interested in the geology of Carrizo Plain and vicinity who do not use an ARC/INFO compatible Geographic Information System (GIS), but would like to obtain a paper map and explanation, PDF and PostScript plot files containing map images of the data in the digital database, as well as PostScript and PDF plot files of the explanation sheet and explanatory text, have been included in the database package (please see the section 'Digital Plot Files', page 5). The PostScript plot files require a gzip utility to access them. For those without computer capability, we can provide users with the PostScript or PDF files on tape that can be taken to a vendor for plotting. Paper plots can also be ordered directly from the USGS (please see the section 'Obtaining Plots from USGS Open-File Services', page 5). The content and character of the database, methods of obtaining it, and processes of extracting the map database from the tar (tape archive) file are described herein. The map database itself, consisting of six ARC/INFO coverages, can be obtained over the Internet or by magnetic tape

  19. Acute mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  20. Mountain Plover [ds109

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Point locations representing observations of mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) feeding and roosting flocks (and occasional individuals) documented during an...

  1. Recreational mountain biking injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect. PMID:20659880

  2. Mountain-Top Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussen, John P.

    1976-01-01

    Described is the Talcott Mountain Science Center for Student Involvement, Inc., near Hartford, Connecticut, and the programs in natural science offered at the facility and by center personnel in local schools. (SL)

  3. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 212. Walker DH, Blaton LS. Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (Rocky ...

  4. Diurnal variation of mountain waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountain waves could be modified as the boundary layer varies between stable and convective. However case studies show mountain waves day and night, and above e.g. convective rolls with precipitation lines over mountains. VHF radar measurements of vertical wind (1990–2006 confirm a seasonal variation of mountain-wave amplitude, yet there is little diurnal variation of amplitude. Mountain-wave azimuth shows possible diurnal variation compared to wind rotation across the boundary layer.

  5. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  6. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

  7. Influence of Different AMF on Growth and Content of Nitrogen and Phosphorus of Container Seedlings of Carrizo Citrange in Three Substrates%3种基质下不同丛枝菌根真菌对卡里佐枳橙容器苗生长及氮磷含量影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新雷; 王丹; 郭梦露; 张艳; 杨霞

    2011-01-01

    In order to make use of dominant species of AMF to produce high quality citrus rootstock seedlings, container seedlings of Carrizo citrange growing in three different soil substrates in greenhouse were inoculated with seven AM fungi. The effects of AMFs and substrates on growth and content of N,P of seedlings were studied. It was shown that all the tested AMFs could form mycor-rhiza in roots of Carrizo citrange seedlings. Significant differences were observed among treatments. Combined inoculation with Glomus mosseae and Glomus versiforme gave the best results in accelerating growth of seedlings, increasing colonization rate of AMF and the content of N and P, and, similarly, the soil containing rotten leaves was the best among the three tested substrates. Therefore, the best combination of fungi and soil substrate for growing Carrizo seedlings was inoculation with Gm+Gv plus the use of rotten leaves as substrate.%为了探索在柑桔砧木容器苗生产中,更好地利用丛枝菌根真菌(AMF)优势菌种资源,培育优良的柑桔砧木菌根化容器苗,本试验采用盆栽方法,研究了7种丛枝菌根真菌在3种基质下对卡里佐枳橙容器苗生长及氮磷含量的影响.结果表明:不同AM真菌接种剂对卡里佐枳橙丛枝菌根的形成均有显著影响.在7种丛枝菌根真菌处理中,GM和GV混合接种对卡里佐枳橙幼苗的生长、菌根侵染率和氮磷含量促进作用最强;在备选的3种基质中,腐叶土对幼苗的生长、菌根侵染率及含氮量促进作用最强.因此以GM和GV混合接种,并采用腐叶土的容器基质组合为最佳.

  8. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  9. Rocky Mountain Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jody Steiner, Ed.

    This publication features articles detailing the state of educational programs in the Rocky Mountain area. The articles address: 1) the impact of physical geography on culture, education, and lifestyle; 2) the education of migrant and/or agricultural workers and their children; 3) educational needs of children in rural areas; 4) outdoor education;…

  10. Xiuhua Mountain Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    XIUHUA Mountain Museum,a building nestled amongthe hills,is the first private museum of the Tujiaethnicity.Its name is an amalgamation of the names ofthe couple who run it,Gong Daoxiu and her husband ChenChuhua.According to Chen,the reason that he put his wife’s

  11. [Mountaineering and altitude sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiorini, M

    2001-06-01

    Almost every second trekker or climber develops two to three symptoms of the high altitude illness after a rapid ascent (> 300 m/day) to an altitude above 4000 m. We distinguish two forms of high altitude illness, a cerebral form called acute mountain sickness and a pulmonary form called high altitude pulmonary edema. Essentially, acute mountain sickness is self-limiting and benign. Its symptoms are mild to moderate headache, loss of appetite, nausea, dizziness and insomnia. Nausea rarely progresses to vomiting, but if it does, this may anticipate a progression of the disease into the severe form of acute mountain sickness, called high altitude cerebral edema. Symptoms and signs of high altitude cerebral edema are severe headache, which is not relieved by acetaminophen, loss of movement coordination, ataxia and mental deterioration ending in coma. The mechanisms leading to acute mountain sickness are not very well understood; the loss of cerebral autoregulation and a vasogenic type of cerebral edema are being discussed. High altitude pulmonary edema presents in roughly twenty percent of the cases with mild symptoms of acute mountain sickness or even without any symptoms at all. Symptoms associated with high altitude pulmonary edema are incapacitating fatigue, chest tightness, dyspnoe at the minimal effort that advances to dyspnoe at rest and orthopnoe, and a dry non-productive cough that progresses to cough with pink frothy sputum due to hemoptysis. The hallmark of high altitude pulmonary edema is an exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Successful prophylaxis and treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema using nifedipine, a pulmonary vasodilator, indicates that pulmonary hypertension is crucial for the development of high altitude pulmonary edema. The primary treatment of high altitude illness consists in improving hypoxemia and acclimatization. For prophylaxis a slow ascent at a rate of 300 m/day is recommended, if symptoms persist, acetazolamide at a

  12. Digital mountains: toward development and environment protection in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaobo

    2007-06-01

    Former studies on mountain system are focused on the department or subject characters, i.e. different department and branches of learning carry out researches only for their individual purposes and with individual characters of the subject of interests. As a whole, their investigation is lacking of comprehensive study in combination with global environment. Ecological environment in mountain regions is vulnerable to the disturbance of human activities. Therefore, it is a key issue to coordinate economic development and environment protection in mountain regions. On the other hand, a lot of work is ongoing on mountain sciences, especially depending on the application of RS and GIS. Moreover, the development of the Digital Earth (DE) provides a clue to re-understand mountains. These are the background of the emergence of the Digital Mountains (DM). One of the purposes of the DM is integrating spatial related data and information about mountains. Moreover, the DM is a viewpoint and methodology of understanding and quantifying mountains holistically. The concept of the DM is that, the spatial and temporal data related to mountain regions are stored and managed in computers; moreover, manipulating, analyzing, modeling, simulating and sharing of the mountain information are implemented by utilizing technologies of RS, GIS, GPS, Geo-informatic Tupu, computer, virtual reality (VR), 3D simulation, massive storage, mutual operation and network communication. The DM aims at advancing mountain sciences and sustainable mountain development. The DM is used to providing information and method for coordinating the mountain regions development and environment protection. The fundamental work of the DM is the design of the scientific architecture. Furthermore, construct and develop massive databases of mountains are the important steps these days.

  13. Patient-centred mountain medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawarski, Piotr; Hillebrandt, David

    2016-08-01

    Venturing into the mountains, doctors have accompanied expeditions to provide routine care to the teams, undertake research and occasionally take on a rescue role. The role of doctors practicing mountain medicine is evolving. Public health issues involving concepts of health and safety have become necessary with the coming of commercial and youth expeditions. Increasingly individuals with a disability or a medical diagnosis choose to ascend to high altitudes. Doctors become involved in assessment of risk and providing advice for such individuals. The field of mountain medicine is perhaps unique in that acceptance of risk is part of the ethos of climbing and adventure. The pursuit of mountaineering goals may represent the ultimate conquest of a disability. Knowledge of mountain environment is essential in facilitating mountain ascents for those who choose to undertake them, in spite of a disability or medical condition. PMID:27234206

  14. A Breath of Mountain Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU LINTAO

    2011-01-01

    Mountains are everywhere,and rivers flow in almost every valley.This is the Qinling Mountains,a major eastto-west range in southern Shaanxi Province,bordering Hubei and Henan provinces.Because of its huge forest coverage,the Qinling Mountains are also known as one of the lungs of China.Expectations for travelling are changing in China as the lifestyle of city dwellers has become fast-paced and demanding.That provides the Qirding Mountain area a great opportunity to develop leisure tourism.

  15. "Christ is the Mountain"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Hallencreutz

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author focuses on the religious function of symbols in the encounter and interaction of Christianity and other religions. Some observations on the religious function of the symbol of the Holy Mountain in different African contexts are presented. These contexts are a traditional Kikuyu religion, b a Christian hymn from Northern Tanzania, and c the New Year's Fiest of the independent Nazaretha Church among Zulu in South Africa. The examples of how the symbol of the holy mountain is used in different religious contexts in Africa are, of course, too limited to provide a basis for far-reaching generalizations on how symbols function religiously in the encounter of Christianity and other religions. However, this kind of analysis can be applied also when studying other encounters of religions inside and outside Africa. The symbol functions both as a carrier of a new religious message and as an indigenous means to appropriate this message locally and give it adequate form in different milieus. The symbols, which most likely have the religious functions are those which are of a general nature; light, way, living water, and which some are tempted to speak of as archetypes. Yet the comparison between the Chagga-hymn to the holy mountain and Shembe's interpretation of the blessing of the New Year's Fiest on Inhlangakozi indicates, that in the encounter of Christianity and other religions it is not only the symbols as such which produce the local appropriation of the new religious message and give it adequate localized form. Not even in the encounter of Christianity and other religions the symbols function religiously without human beings as actors in the historical process.

  16. Depositional environments of the coal-bearing Mist Mountain formation, Eagle Mountain, southeastern Canadian Rocky mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, R.L.; Bustin, R.M. (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Department of Geological Sciences)

    1987-12-01

    Fifteen major coal seams have been identified at the Mist Mountain formation at Eagle Mountain in southeastern British Columbia. In this paper a detailed three-dimensional analysis of the sedimentology of the Mist Mountain formation is undertaken, with particular reference to factors controlling lateral and vertical distribution of major coal seams and coal quality. Data was based on examination of 200 drill hole samples. 32 refs., 20 figs.

  17. Mini Mountain Wear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PHOTOCOME

    2005-01-01

    THE depths of the southeastern Guizhou Province mountains are inhabited by a branch of the Miao ethnic group known as the “Shortskirt” Miao. They number 50,000 to 60,000.Some live in Langdong, Kongshen, and Konglie villages of Rongjiang County, while others may be found living in the Datang area of Leishan County. Their clothing is distinct and colorful for both casual and holiday wear, which consists of a tunic top decorated with silver ornaments and handembroidered designs, and a hand-knitted skirt no more than 20 centimeters long.

  18. Human impacts to mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  19. Mountains and Tropical Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Z.; Goodman, P. J.; Krasting, J. P.; Malyshev, S.; Russell, J. L.; Stouffer, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Observed tropical convection exhibits zonal asymmetries that strongly influence spatial precipitation patterns. The drivers of changes to this zonally-asymmetric Walker circulation on decadal and longer timescales have been the focus of significant recent research. Here we use two state-of-the-art earth system models to explore the impact of earth's mountains on the Walker circulation. When all land-surface topography is removed, the Walker circulation weakens by 33-59%. There is a ~30% decrease in global, large-scale upward vertical wind velocities in the middle of the troposphere, but only minor changes in global average convective mass flux, precipitation, surface and sea-surface temperatures. The zonally symmetric Hadley circulation is also largely unchanged. Following the spatial pattern of changes to large-scale vertical wind velocities, precipitation becomes less focused over the tropics. The weakening of the Walker circulation, but not the Hadley circulation, is similar to the behavior of climate models during radiative forcing experiments: in our simulations, the weakening is associated with changes in vertical wind velocities, rather than the hydrologic cycle. These results indicate suggest that mountain heights may significantly influence the Walker circulation on geologic time scales, and observed changes in tropical precipitation over millions of years may have been forced by changes in tropical orography.

  20. Protected areas in mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The importance of a global Protected Areas Network in sustaining appropriate mountain development is presented in this paper. Present status of the world’s “official” Protected Areas in the UN List, and the proportion that are in mountain areas, and including international designations (World Heritage and Biosphere Reserves. Current and future challenges in the management of these special areas are also commented.



    El autor destaca la importancia de una Red Mundial de Espacios Protegidos para el desarrollo sostenible de las montañas. Comenta luego el estatus actual de las Áreas Protegidas “oficiales” del Mundo en la Lista de las Naciones Unidas y qué proporción de ellas forma parte de las montañas, sin olvidar las figuras internacionales de protección como Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Reservas de Biosfera. Para terminar, se discuten los problemas de gestión actuales y futuros de estas áreas tan especiales

  1. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet

  2. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2003-08-05

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

  3. European mountain biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy, Jennifer

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, originally prepared as a discussion document for the ESF Exploratory Workshop «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop», provides an overview of current mountain biodiversity research in Europe. It discusses (a biogeographical trends, (b the general properties of biodiversity, (c environmental factors and the regulation of biodiversity with respect to ecosystem function, (d the results of research on mountain freshwater ecosystems, and (e climate change and air pollution dominated environmental interactions.- The section on biogeographical trends highlights the importance of altitude and latitude on biodiversity. The implications of the existence of different scales over the different levels of biodiversity and across organism groups are emphasised as an inherent complex property of biodiversity. The discussion on ecosystem function and the regulation of biodiversity covers the role of environmental factors, productivity, perturbation, species migration and dispersal, and species interactions in the maintenance of biodiversity. Regional and long-term temporal patterns are also discussed. A section on the relatively overlooked topic of mountain freshwater ecosystems is presented before the final topic on the implications of recent climate change and air pollution for mountain biodiversity.

    [fr] Ce document a été préparé à l'origine comme une base de discussion pour «ESF Exploratory Workshop» intitulé «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop»; il apporte une vue d'ensemble sur les recherches actuelles portant sur la biodiversité des montagnes en Europe. On y discute les (a traits biogéographiques, (b les caractéristiques générales- de la biodiversité, (c les facteurs environnementaux et la régulation de la biodiversité par rapport à la fonction des écosystèmes, (d les résultats des études sur les écosystèmes aquatiques des montagnes et (e les

  4. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper.

  5. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  6. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  7. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  8. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  9. The Table Mountain Field Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Table Mountain Field Site, located north of Boulder, Colorado, is designated as an area where the magnitude of strong, external signals is restricted (by State...

  10. Yucca Mountain Project public interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to keeping the citizens of Nevada informed about activities that relate to the high-level nuclear waste repository program. This paper presents an overview of the Yucca Mountain Project's public interaction philosophy, objectives, activities and experiences during the two years since Congress directed the DOE to conduct site characterization activities only for the Yucca Mountain site

  11. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  12. Yearly report, Yucca Mountain project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, J.N.

    1992-09-30

    We proposed to (1) Develop our data logging and analysis equipment and techniques for analyzing seismic data from the Southern Great Basin Seismic Network (SGBSN), (2) Investigate the SGBSN data for evidence of seismicity patterns, depth distribution patterns, and correlations with geologic features (3) Repair and maintain our three broad band downhole digital seismograph stations at Nelson, nevada, Troy Canyon, Nevada, and Deep Springs, California (4) Install, operate, and log data from a super sensitive microearthquake array at Yucca Mountain (5) Analyze data from micro-earthquakes relative to seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain.

  13. Life in the Taihang Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    THE Taihang Mountain Range meanders for 500 kilometers across the territories of Henan, Shanxi and Hebei provinces. It is an important ecological screen for the North China Plain and source of water. In Hebei’s Shexian County sits Wangjinzhuang, a 300-year-old stone village nestled in the mountains.The village is a stone world-lanes, houses, court-yard walls, towers, pavilions, tables, benches and mills are all hewn fom ancient rock. Streets and lanes are paved in stones of various shapes and sizes whose sur-

  14. WHITE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Kenneth; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. If mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in veins and breccia pipes or, more significanlty, the possibility for large low-grade disseminated porphyry-type molybdenum deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources in the area.

  15. Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their Relationship to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and ...

  16. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics ...

  17. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  18. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  19. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  20. Anatomy of a Mountain Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Berkeley

    1993-01-01

    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  1. A mountain of millipedes I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Twenty new species of the millipede genus Chaleponcus Attems, 1914, are described from the Udzungwa Mountains: C. netus sp. nov., C. quasimodo sp. nov., C. malleolus sp. nov., C. scopus sp. nov., C. nikolajscharffi sp. nov., C. mwanihanensis sp. nov., C. basiliscus sp. nov., C. krai sp. nov., C...

  2. Mountain potentials in aid of tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Stevan M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountains are distinguished by specific characteristics according to a series of elements, occurrences, processes, shapes, significance for human society and influence on the hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. In the world as well as in this country, many mountain tourist regions have become affirmed, with developed winter, summer and whole year tourism. They have important recreational, health, sport-manifestation and cultural-manifestation significance. The best economic effects based on the development of mountain tourism are accomplished where mountains are appropriately evaluated. This must be truly expressed in the year 2002, which has been named the year for protection of mountains.

  3. Best Practices Case Study: Pine Mountain Builders - Pine Mountain, GA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Pine Mountain Builders who worked with DOE’s IBACOS team to achieve HERS scores of 59 on 140 homes built around a wetlands in Georgia. The team used taped rigid foam exterior sheathing and spray foam insulation in the walls and on the underside of the attic for a very tight 1.0 to 1.8 ACH 50 building shell.

  4. Development of application system to support mountain logbook

    OpenAIRE

    Kaker, Franci

    2013-01-01

    Mountain logbooks are located on mountain peaks. Mountain logbook is a mountain peak log, where hikers log their ascent. Because nowadays most of the people are already using smart phones with GPS receiver and internet access, we decided to implement a mobile version of the mountain logbook. In this thesis we have implemented and presented MountainTrips application, which includes basic features of a classical mountain logbook and hiker ascents diary. Application is a basis for the develop...

  5. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified

  6. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-09-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

  7. On the Mountain Urban Landscape Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU ChunLan

    2009-01-01

    Mountain Urban Landscape Studies is a discipline to research on the formation, evolution and char-acteristics of the urban landscape in mountainous areas. The author has made systematic research on the basic issues of the subject, including the definition of mountain urban landscape studies, its con-notation and denotation, the research scope, research background and significance, research meth-odology, its relationship with landscape architecture, architecture, city planning and other disciplines.

  8. On the Mountain Urban Landscape Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Mountain Urban Landscape Studies is a discipline to research on the formation,evolution and characteristics of the urban landscape in mountainous areas. The author has made systematic research on the basic issues of the subject,including the definition of mountain urban landscape studies,its connotation and denotation,the research scope,research background and significance,research methodology,its relationship with landscape architecture,architecture,city planning and other disciplines.

  9. Resources, tourism and mountain territorial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and objectivesThe Journal of Alpine Research is preparing a special issue dedicated to the theme “Resources”, tourism and mountain territorial development.” The objective is to bring together analyses concerning the identification, “invention,” communication and exploitation of territorial resources in development initiatives including tourism in African and European mountainous regions, or beyond. It will particularly stress the capacity of referring to “mountains,” as a generic ca...

  10. MORPHOMETRIC AND MORPHOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF DOAMNEI RIVER MOUNTAIN BASIN (FĂGĂRAŞ MOUNTAINS)

    OpenAIRE

    Smaranda Simoni

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed morphometric and morphographic analysis of Doamnei River mountain basin (Făgăraş Mountains), based on digital morphometric maps, field observations and surveys. The mountain basin of Doamnei River is characterized by a typical alpine, subalpine and mountainous morphology. The main morphometric and morphographic characteristics are: prevalence of high hypsometric steps that exceed 1,600m altitude (including 4 peaks over 2,500m and 18 peaks over 2,400m), high valu...

  11. Fouffeen Mountain Summits:the Dreams and Glory of Chinese Mountaineers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DORJE; DRADUL

    2007-01-01

    As the first mountaineering team to challenge the fourteen world's highest mountain summits,these Chinese mountaineers have finally realized their dream.They are all ethnic Tibetans and have gone through hardship and dangers over the years;some of them have even contributed their lives to the realization of the project.Finally,three of them have accomplished it and set a marvelous record in world mountaineering that is unprecedented.

  12. Unforgettable Tour in the Jinggang Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    THE Jinggang Mountains are located in the southwestern part of Jiangxi Province, the middle section of the Luoxiao mountain chain along the border between Hunan and Jiangxi provinces. It is the cradle of the Chinese revolution, and has as many as 29 historical revolutionary sites. It is also an ideal place for sightseeing, attracting tourists with its mountains, waterfalls and forests. The city of Jinggangshan is located in the midst of the mountains, 1,000 meters above sea level. It has the lowest population density of any city in China,

  13. If The Mountain Doesn't Come

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永全

    2004-01-01

    There is a story telling of a religious master allegedly capable of moving mountains.A man came to him asking for a demonstratiom.The master sat in front of a mountain for a moment,then went to the other side of it and declared the end of the demonstration.All the audiences were greatly puzzled and begged him for an explanation.He said: “There has never been a way of moving mountains; what you can do is to go to the mountain if it doesn't come”.

  14. Folding above faults, Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, D.A. (Univ. of Akron, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Asymmetric folds formed above basement faults can be observed throughout the Rocky Mountains. Several previous interpretations of the folding process made the implicit assumption that one or both fold hinges migrated or rolled'' through the steep forelimb of the fold as the structure evolved (rolling hinge model). Results of mapping in the Bighorn and Seminoe Mountains, WY, and Sangre de Cristo Range, CO, do not support this hypothesis. An alternative interpretation is presented in which fold hinges remained fixed in position during folding (fixed hinge model). Mapped folds share common characteristics: (1) axial traces of the folds intersect faults at or near the basement/cover interface, and diverge from faults upsection; (2) fold hinges are narrow and interlimb angles cluster around 80--100[degree] regardless of fold location; (3) fold shape is typically angular, despite published cross sections that show concentric folds; and, (4) beds within the folds show thickening and/or thinning, most commonly adjacent to fold hinges. The rolling hinge model requires that rocks in the fold forelimbs bend through narrow fold hinges as deformation progressed. Examination of massive, competent rock units such as the Ord. Bighorn Dolomite, Miss. Madison Limestone, and, Penn. Tensleep Sandstone reveals no evidence of the extensive internal deformation that would be expected if hinges rolled through rocks of the forelimb. The hinges of some folds (e.g. Golf Creek anticline, Bighorn Mountains) are offset by secondary faults, effectively preventing the passage of rocks from backlimb to forelimb. The fixed hinge model proposes that the fold hinges were defined early in fold evolution, and beds were progressively rotated and steepened as the structure grew.

  15. OS X Mountain Lion bible

    CERN Document Server

    Gruman, Galen

    2012-01-01

    The complete guide to Mac OS X, fully updated for the newest release! The Mac's solid, powerful operating system and the exploding popularity of iOS devices are fueling a strong increase in market share for Apple. Previous editions of this book have sold more than 75,000 copies, and this new edition is fully updated with all the exciting features of OS X Mountain Lion, including Game Center, Messages, and Notifications. Written by industry expert Galen Gruman, it covers all the basics and then delves deep into professional and higher-end topics, making it the one book you need to succeed with

  16. Getting Beyond Yucca Mountain - 12305

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy has terminated the Yucca Mountain repository project. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has indefinitely suspended the Yucca Mountain licensing proceeding. The presidentially-appointed Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) on America's Nuclear Future is preparing a report, due in January 2012, to the Secretary of Energy on recommendations for a new national nuclear waste management and disposal program. The BRC Draft Report published in July 2011 provides a compelling critique of the past three decades failed efforts in the United States to site storage and disposal facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). However, the BRC Draft Report fails to provide detailed guidance on how to implement an alternative, successful approach to facility site selection. The comments submitted to the BRC by the State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects provide useful details on how the US national nuclear waste program can get beyond the failed Yucca Mountain repository project. A detailed siting process, consisting of legislative elements, procedural elements, and 'rules' for volunteer sites, could meet the objectives of the BRC and the Western Governors Association (WGA), while promoting and protecting the interests of potential host states. The recent termination of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository provides both an opportunity and a need to re-examine the United States' nuclear waste management program. The BRC Draft Report published in July 2011 provides a compelling critique of the past three decades failed efforts in the United States to site storage and disposal facilities for SNF and HLW. It is anticipated that the BRC Final report in January 2012 will recommend a new general course of action, but there will likely continue to be a need for detailed guidance on how to implement an alternative, successful approach to facility site selection. Getting the nation's nuclear waste program back on track

  17. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges. 

  18. Report on the Status of the Cheat Mountain Salamander in the Cabin Mountain Area of West Virginia 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This outlines the results of field surveys that were conducted for the Cheat Mountain salamander on the Kelley property on three mountains in the Cabin Mountain...

  19. Pillar Mountain Landslide, Kodiak, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachadoorian, Reuben; Slater, Willard H.

    1978-01-01

    Pillar Mountain landslide on the southeast face of Pillar Mountain is about 915 m (3,000 ft) southwest of the city of Kodiak, Alaska. The landslide is about 520 m (1,700 ft) wide at its base and extends approximately from sea level to an altitude of about 343 m (1,125 ft). The slide developed on an ancient and apparently inactive landslide. Renewed movement was first detected on December 5, 1971, following removal of about 230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of material from the base of the slope. Although movement of the landslide has decreased since December, 1971, movement continues and the possibility exists that it could increase as a result of an earthquake, water saturation of the landslide mass, or other causes. In the most extreme case, as much as 3.8 to 7.6 million m (5-10 million ) of debris could fall into the sea at Inner Anchorage. If this took place suddenly, it could generate a wave comparable in height to the tsunami that damaged Kodiak during the Alaskan Earthquake of 1964. Therefore, we believe that the Pillar landslide is a potential hazard to the city of Kodiak and its environs that merits a thorough investigation and evaluation.

  20. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  1. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount Foraker without a permit...

  2. A Report from Great Smoky Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑾

    2008-01-01

    This is a report from Great Smoky Mountain. From this report, I will tell you a story about me and my team. After ten years of hardworking, we made some achievements in Branson, Missouri in America, and then we turned to Great Smoky Mountain for another business. To my group and me, itis like a legend.

  3. Mountaineering fatalities on Aconcagua: 2001-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westensee, Jeffrey; Rogé, Ignacio; Van Roo, Jon D; Pesce, Carlos; Batzli, Sam; Courtney, D Mark; Lazio, Matthew P

    2013-09-01

    High altitude mountaineering is a dangerous endeavor due to the hypoxic hypobaric environment, extreme weather, and technical skills required. One of the seven summits, Aconcagua (6962 m) is the highest mountain outside of Asia. Its most popular route is nontechnical, attracting >3000 mountaineers annually. Utilizing data from the Servicio Médico Aconcagua (park medical service), we performed a retrospective descriptive analysis with the primary objective of deriving a fatality rate on Aconcagua from 2001 to 2012. The fatality rate on Aconcagua was then compared to other popular mountains. For climbers who died, we report all available demographic data, mechanisms of death, and circumstances surrounding the death. Between 2001 and 2012, 42,731 mountaineers attempted to summit Aconcagua. There were 33 fatalities. The fatality rate was 0.77 per 1000, or 0.077%. The fatality rate on Aconcagua is lower than that on Everest or Denali but higher than that on Rainier. PMID:24028641

  4. Influence of mountains on Arctic tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabrook, Jeffrey; Whiteway, James

    2016-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone was measured above Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic during spring of 2008 using a differential absorption lidar. The observations were carried out at Eureka Weather Station, which is located between various mountain ranges. Analysis of the observations revealed that mountains had a significant effect on the vertical distribution of ozone. Ozone depletion events were observed when air that had spent significant time near to the frozen surface of the Arctic Ocean reached Eureka. This air arrived at Eureka by flowing over the surrounding mountains. Surface level ozone depletions were not observed during periods when mountains blocked the flow of air from over the sea ice. In the case of blocking there was an enhancement in the amount of ozone near the surface as air from the midtroposphere descended in the lee of the mountains. Three case studies from spring of 2008 are described.

  5. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  6. Early Winter Habitat Use by Mountain Caribou in the North Cariboo and Columbia Mountains, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Terry, E; McLellan, B.; Watts, G.; J. Flaa

    1996-01-01

    Winter habitat use was compared between two mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) populations in British Columbia. Regional differences were apparent during November and December. Radio-collared caribou inhabiting the gentle plateaus of the northern Cariboo Mountains, near Prince George, B.C. primarily used mid-elevation balsam-spruce stands on moderate slopes (<30%). In contrast, radio-collared caribou in the North Columbia Mountains, near Revelstoke, B.C. used low elevation hemloc...

  7. Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

  8. Annual Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, Copper Mountain, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Stephen F. [Front Range Scientific, Inc., Lake City, CO (United States)

    2016-03-25

    This project supported the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, held from 2007 to 2015, at Copper Mountain, Colorado. The subject of the Copper Mountain Conference Series alternated between Multigrid Methods in odd-numbered years and Iterative Methods in even-numbered years. Begun in 1983, the Series represents an important forum for the exchange of ideas in these two closely related fields. This report describes the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, 2007-2015. Information on the conference series is available at http://grandmaster.colorado.edu/~copper/.

  9. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Fish Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Background and History The brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is the only trout native to the southern Appalachian Mountains. It was once widespread in Great Smoky...

  10. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Hydro Plus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Park Hydro Plus is a value-added attribution of data produced by Great Smoky Mountains National Park and published by the USGS NHD. Not to be confused with the USGS...

  11. Fishery management scenarios : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The fishery resources at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) have been managed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service since the early 1960's. Management activities included...

  12. Great Smoky Mountains National Wetland Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent, approximate location and type of wetlands and deepwater habitats in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. These data...

  13. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Units of Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Vicinity, Tennessee and North Carolina consists of geologic units mapped as area (polygon)...

  14. MOUNTAIN TOURISM-PLEASURE AND NECESSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Corina SLUSARIUC

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has a more and more important role in the economic development of many countries. Mountain tourism is an anti-stress solutions and a type of disconnection from the citadel life style through replacing some activities of media consuming type, games and virtual socializing with therapy through movement, the physical activity being an essential dimension in assuring the high life quality. Mountaineering is searched for: practicing winter sports, its invigorating and comforting, relaxing role, medical spa treatments practicing hiking, alpinism. Mountain tourism generates increased economic benefits for the surrounding areas, improves the life quality of the local communities and can assure the prosperity of some disadvantaged areas, being able to be a remedy for unindustrialised regions. Mountain tourism contributes to the economic development of the region and also to satisfying spiritual and psychological needs of the people, representing a necessity for a touristic area and a pleasure for tourist consumers.

  15. Starling nest box monitoring [Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document described the standard operating procedures for observing and recording data collected from starling nest box monitoring at the Rocky Mountain...

  16. Badgers on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nineteen badgers (Taxidea taxus) were captured on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) using Woodstream Softcatch traps and live snares. This represents a minimum...

  17. Owl Mountain Partnership : An external assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — External review of the Owl Mountain Partnership (OMP) to identify benefits and successes associatedwith collaborative work through the perceptions of participating...

  18. Tectonic and neotectonic framework of the Yucca Mountain Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1992-09-30

    Highlights of major research accomplishments concerned with the tectonics and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain Region include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; recognition of significance of pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; compilation of map of quaternary faulting in Southern Amargosa Valley; and preliminary paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain.

  19. Floods in mountain environments: A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Markus; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Marston, Richard A.

    2016-11-01

    Floods are a crucial agent of geomorphic change in the channels and valley floors of mountains watercourses. At the same time, they can be highly damaging to property, infrastructure, and life. Because of their high energy, mountain watercourses are highly vulnerable to environmental changes affecting their catchments and channels. Many factors have modified and frequently still tend to modify the environmental conditions in mountain areas, with impacts on geomorphic processes and the frequency, magnitude, and timing of floods in mountain watercourses. The ongoing climate changes vary between regions but may affect floods in mountain areas in many ways. In many mountain regions of Europe, widespread afforestation took place over the twentieth century, considerably increasing the amounts of large wood delivered to the channels and the likelihood of jamming bridges. At the same time, deforestation continues in other mountain areas, accelerating runoff and amplifying the magnitude and frequency of floods in foreland areas. In many countries, in-channel gravel mining has been a common practice during recent decades; the resultant deficit of bed material in the affected channels may suddenly manifest during flood events, resulting in the failure of scoured bridges or catastrophic channel widening. During the past century many rivers in mountain and foreland areas incised deeply; the resultant loss of floodplain water storage has decreased attenuation of flood waves, hence increasing flood hazard to downstream river reaches. On the other hand, a large amount of recent river restoration activities worldwide may provide examples of beneficial changes to flood risk, attained as a result of increased channel storage or reestablished floodplain water storage. Relations between geomorphic processes and floods operate in both directions, which means that changes in flood probability or the character of floods (e.g., increased wood load) may significantly modify the morphology

  20. Rethinking risk and disasters in mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Hewitt; Manjari Mehta

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents a view of risk and disaster in the mountains that finds them fully a part of public safety issues in modern states and developments, rather than separated from them. This contrasts with prevailing approaches to disaster focused on natural hazards, “unscheduled” or extreme events, and emergency preparedness; approaches strongly reinforced by mountain stereotypes. Rather, we find the legacies of social and economic histories, especially relations to down-country or metropo...

  1. “Kekexilli: Mountain Patrol”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenBaoguang

    2005-01-01

    At the 17th Tokyo International Film Festival which condluded on October 31,2004,the Special July Prize went to the sole participating Chinese film “Kekexilli:Mountain Patrol”.The theme of the film is “thrill,obligation and life”。During the weeklong festival,every screening of the film played to a packed house and received enthusiastic applause.Director Lu Chuan cried when he accepted the prize onstage.He told the media,“I put my heart and soul into producing this film.But I believe it was worth it,because the film has gained recognition by so many people”.The film debuted in mainland China on October 1,2004.According to producer wang Zhonglei,the investment in the production totaled 10 million RMB.Box office figures from the mainland are estimated to reach 10 million RMB.Meanwhile,the overseas copyright has been sold for 800,000 USD.

  2. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco formed as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates about 80 million years ago. This collision destroyed the Tethys Ocean; the limestone, sandstone, claystone, and gypsum layers that formed the ocean bed were folded and crumpled to create the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. In this ASTER image, short wavelength infrared bands are combined to dramatically highlight the different rock types, and illustrate the complex folding. The yellowish, orange and green areas are limestones, sandstones and gypsum; the dark blue and green areas are underlying granitic rocks. The ability to map geology using ASTER data is enhanced by the multiple short wavelength infrared bands, that are sensitive to differences in rock mineralogy. This image was acquired on June 13, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and

  3. Rurality, ethnicity and mountain areas:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Amilhat-Szary

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In a Latin American context where indigenous populations have had to wait until the end of the XXth century to recover a certain visibility, the definition of Andean identity is still an issue. In this paper, an analysis of the various steps in a territorially based collective movement provides insights into this identity that was for so long denied or repressed on account of socio-political conditions. The possible re-assertion of “Andeanity” is very complex, as the case study of the “Aymaras Sin Fronteras” (Aymaras without borders movement reveals. In this movement, the territorialisation process is based on the dialectics between its rural, ethnic and mountain (Andean components.Dans un contexte latinoaméricain où les populations autochtones ont dû attendre la fin du XXème siècle pour regagner en visibilité, l’identité andine pose question. Dans cet article, l’analyse des étapes d’une mobilisation collective à base territoriale permet de suivre la  redécouverte d’un ancrage identitaire longtemps nié ou refoulé du fait des conditions socio-politiques. L’affirmation retrouvée de l’ethnicité, voire de l’« andinité » s’avère très  complexe, comme le cas étudié, l’alliance « Aymaras sin Fronteras » (Aymaras sans frontières le révèle. Dans ce cas, le processus de territorialisation se fonde sur une interaction dialectique entre ses composantes rurale, ethnique, et montagnarde (andine.

  4. BVOC fluxes above mountain grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bamberger

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands comprise natural tropical savannah over managed temperate fields to tundra and cover one quarter of the Earth's land surface. Plant growth, maintenance and decay result in volatile organic compound (VOCs emissions to the atmosphere. Furthermore, biogenic VOCs (BVOCs are emitted as a consequence of various environmental stresses including cutting and drying during harvesting. Fluxes of BVOCs were measured with a proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometer (PTR-MS over temperate mountain grassland in Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria over one growing season (2008. VOC fluxes were calculated from the disjunct PTR-MS data using the virtual disjunct eddy covariance method and the gap filling method. Methanol fluxes obtained with the two independent flux calculation methods were highly correlated (y = 0.95×−0.12, R2 = 0.92. Methanol showed strong daytime emissions throughout the growing season – with maximal values of 9.7 nmol m−2 s−1, methanol fluxes from the growing grassland were considerably higher at the beginning of the growing season in June compared to those measured during October (2.5 nmol m−2 s−1. Methanol was the only component that exhibited consistent fluxes during the entire growing periods of the grass. The cutting and drying of the grass increased the emissions of methanol to up to 78.4 nmol m−2 s−1. In addition, emissions of acetaldehyde (up to 11.0 nmol m−2 s−1, and hexenal (leaf aldehyde, up to 8.6 nmol m−2 s−1 were detected during/after harvesting.

  5. A new network on mountain geomorphosites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Since about two decades, the value of geoheritage in mountain areas has been re-discovered in various parts of the Alps (Reynard et al., 2010) and other mountain ranges, and various initiatives (protection of sites worthy of protection, inventories of geomorphosites, geotourist promotion, creation of geoparks, etc.) to conserve or promote mountain geoheritage have been developed. As mountains are recognized as natural areas with a very high geodiversity, and at the same time as areas with a great potential for the development of soft tourism, a new Network on Mountain Geomorphosites was created in October 2012 in conclusion to a workshop organized by the University of Lausanne (Switzerland). The Network is open to all researchers active in geoheritage, geoconservation and geotourism studies in mountain areas. For the first years research will focus on three main issues: - Geoheritage and natural processes: Mountains are very sensitive areas where climate change impacts are very acute and where active geomorphological processes rapidly modify landscapes. It is hypothesized that geoheritage will be highly impacted by global change in the future. Nevertheless, at the moment, very little research is carried out on the evolution of landforms recognized as geoheritage and no specific management measures have been developed. Also, the tourist activities related to geoheritage, especially the trails developed to visit geomorphosites, are sensitive to geomorphological processes in mountain areas in a context of global change, and need, therefore, to be better addressed by geomorphologists. - Geotourism: During the last two decades numerous initiatives have developed geotourism in mountain areas. Nevertheless, studies addressing issues such as the needs of the potential public(s) of geotourism, the evaluation of the quality of the geotourist products developed by scientists and/or local authorities, and the assessment of the economic benefits of geotourism for the regional

  6. Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sandra H.B.

    2008-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains includes the Blue Ridge province and parts of four other physiographic provinces. The Blue Ridge physiographic province is a high, mountainous area bounded by several named mountain ranges (including the Unaka Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains) to the northwest, and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southeast. Metamorphic rocks of the mountains include (1) fragments of a billion-year-old supercontinent, (2) thick sequences of sedimentary rock that were deposited in subsiding (sinking) basins on the continent, (3) sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor, and (4) fragments of oceanic crust. Most of the rocks formed as sediments or volcanic rocks on ocean floors, islands, and continental plates; igneous rocks formed when crustal plates collided, beginning about 450 million years ago. The collision between the ancestral North American and African continental plates ended about 270 million years ago. Then, the continents began to be stretched, which caused fractures to open in places throughout the crust; these fractures were later filled with sediment. This product (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2830) consists of a geologic map of the Southern Appalachian Mountains overlain on a shaded-relief background. The map area includes parts of southern Virginia, eastern West Virginia and Tennessee, western North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. Photographs of localities where geologic features of interest can be seen accompany the map. Diagrams show how the movement of continental plates over many millions of years affected the landscapes seen today, show how folds and faults form, describe important mineral resources of the region, and illustrate geologic time. This two-sided map is folded into a convenient size (5x9.4 inches) for use in the field. The target audience is high school to college earth science and geology teachers and students; staffs of

  7. Atmospheric deposition maps for the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L.; Campbell, D.H.; Ingersoll, G.P.; Clow, D.W.; Mast, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Variability in atmospheric deposition across the Rocky Mountains is influenced by elevation, slope, aspect, and precipitation amount and by regional and local sources of air pollution. To improve estimates of deposition in mountainous regions, maps of average annual atmospheric deposition loadings of nitrate, sulfate, and acidity were developed for the Rocky Mountains by using spatial statistics. A parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model (PRISM) was incorporated to account for variations in precipitation amount over mountainous regions. Chemical data were obtained from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and from annual snowpack surveys conducted by the US Geological Survey and National Park Service, in cooperation with other Federal, State and local agencies. Surface concentration maps were created by ordinary kriging in a geographic information system, using a local trend and mathematical model to estimate the spatial variance. Atmospheric-deposition maps were constructed at 1-km resolution by multiplying surface concentrations from the kriged grid and estimates of precipitation amount from the PRISM model. Maps indicate an increasing spatial trend in concentration and deposition of the modeled constituents, particularly nitrate and sulfate, from north to south throughout the Rocky Mountains and identify hot-spots of atmospheric deposition that result from combined local and regional sources of air pollution. Highest nitrate (2.5-3.0kg/ha N) and sulfate (10.0-12.0kg/ha SO4) deposition is found in northern Colorado.

  8. The Altai Mountains environmental disaster (Eastern Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadiyeva, Z. K.

    2009-12-01

    The space centre "Baikoniyr" (Kazakhstan) has had substantial affects on the environment. During the past several decades as a result of the launching of carrier rockets, such as "Proton" that use as fuel the asymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (ASDH), more well-known as "heptyl", the unique mountain landscapes in Eastern Kazakhstan have been subjected to pollution. In 2004, RSE "Kazakh research Institute of Ecology and Climate" carried out the complex geochemical and radiation researches in East Kazakhstan that is an impact area of second stages of carrier rockets. Such detailed examinations of this area were conducted for the first time because the Eastern Kazakhstan Mountains are difficult for human access. The landscape-geochemical research over the natural landscapes covered the ridge, low, and middle mountains with fir forests. The research results have shown the presence of heptyl in the samples of the soil, plants, and rivers’ bottom sediments. The findings of the influence of space activity on environment of the Kazakhstan part of the Altai Mountains confirm and complement the Russian scientific research results over the territory of the neighbouring Altai Krai. Though the heptyl pollution in the investigated region is of a local nature and highly spatially inhomogeneous, nevertheless, this anthropogenic effect intensifying from year to year increases the load on the natural ecosystems. In particular, it strengthens the desertification process of mountain regions of East Kazakhstan.

  9. Mountains on Titan observed by Cassini Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radebaugh, J.; Lorenz, R.D.; Kirk, R.L.; Lunine, J.I.; Stofan, E.R.; Lopes, R.M.C.; Wall, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar mapper has observed elevated blocks and ridge-forming block chains on Saturn's moon Titan demonstrating high topography we term "mountains." Summit flanks measured from the T3 (February 2005) and T8 (October 2005) flybys have a mean maximum slope of 37?? and total elevations up to 1930 m as derived from a shape-from-shading model corrected for the probable effects of image resolution. Mountain peak morphologies and surrounding, diffuse blankets give evidence that erosion has acted upon these features, perhaps in the form of fluvial runoff. Possible formation mechanisms for these mountains include crustal compressional tectonism and upthrusting of blocks, extensional tectonism and formation of horst-and-graben, deposition as blocks of impact ejecta, or dissection and erosion of a preexisting layer of material. All above processes may be at work, given the diversity of geology evident across Titan's surface. Comparisons of mountain and blanket volumes and erosion rate estimates for Titan provide a typical mountain age as young as 20-100 million years. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mountain goat abundance and population trends in the Olympic Mountains, Washington, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt; Happe, Patricia; Griffin, Paul C.; Beirne, Katherine; Hoffman, Roger; Baccus, William

    2011-01-01

    We conducted an aerial helicopter survey between July 18 and July 25, 2011, to estimate abundance and trends of introduced mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in the Olympic Mountains. The survey was the first since we developed a sightability correction model in 2008, which provided the means to estimate the number of mountain goats present in the surveyed areas and not seen during the aerial surveys, and to adjust for undercounting biases. Additionally, the count was the first since recent telemetry studies revealed that the previously defined survey zone, which was delineated at lower elevations by the 1,520-meter elevation contour, did not encompass all lands used by mountain goats during summer. We redefined the lower elevation boundary of survey units before conducting the 2011 surveys in an effort to more accurately estimate the entire mountain goat population. We surveyed 39 survey units, comprising 39 percent of the 59,615-hectare survey area. We estimated a mountain goat population of 344±44 (standard error, SE) in the expanded survey area. Based on this level of estimation uncertainty, the 95-percent confidence interval ranged from 258 to 430 mountain goats at the time of the survey. To permit comparisons of mountain goat populations between the 2004 and 2011 surveys, we recomputed population estimates derived from the 2004 survey using the newly developed bias correction methods, and we computed the 2004 and 2011 surveys based on comparable survey zone definitions (for example, using the boundaries of the 2004 survey). The recomputed estimates of mountain goat populations were 217±19 (SE) in 2004 and 303±41(SE) in 2011. The difference between the current 2011 population estimate (344±44[SE]) and the recomputed 2011 estimate (303±41[SE]) reflects the number of mountain goats counted in the expanded lower elevation portions of the survey zone added in 2011. We conclude that the population of mountain goats has increased in the Olympic Mountains at

  11. Periurban landscapes in mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Bertrand

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Les mutations des paysages régionaux dues aux pressions urbaines questionnent l’usage du sol. Elles interpellent à la fois des enjeux économiques, sociaux et environnementaux voire spatiaux sous-tendus par l’étalement urbain, l’accroissement des déplacements domicile-travail, le mitage de l’espace. Ces évolutions et dysfonctionnements renvoient à la question de la durabilité du développement des régions, et particulièrement des Alpes, espace contraint géographiquement et objet de nombreuses pressions anthropiques et riche en biotopes remarquables. Cet article est basé sur deux ans de travaux menés par des socio-économistes et des écologues sur les effets sur le paysage et l’environnement de la périurbanisation d’un massif alpin. Nous avons pris en compte l’espace dans les processus environnementaux, économiques ou sociaux. Intrinsèque dans les analyses écologiques, elle a longtemps posé problème à l’économie pour intégrer l’espace comme dimension à part entière des processus économiques. Trois thèmes sont ici développés : l’approche du point de vue du paysage, les problèmes d’échelles spatiales et temporelles, le choix d’indicateurs. Ils demandent de hiérarchiser les questions et de pratiquer le travail en commun. Aller au-delà nécessite de développer une interrogation plus écologique ou plus économique et/ou sociale en quittant de ce fait l’interface pour favoriser des interrogations disciplinaires particulières.Changes in regional landscapes due to urban pressures raise questions regarding land use. They also give rise to economic, social and environmental issues related to urban sprawl, increases in daily commuting, and land consumption. These changes and dysfunctions are ultimately underpinned by the question of sustainable regional development. Mountain regions such as the Alps, with their various outstanding biotopes in a restricted space, are particularly vulnerable.

  12. Mountain Residence at Mt.Fuchun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Yuan Dynasty paintings laid stress on landscape with literary interest. Poems, calligraphy and painting were consciously arranged in perfect harmony so as to form the style of mountains-and-water painting with the "scholars’ painting" as its main theme. Huang Gongwang (1269-1354) was learned. Proficient in tonality and good at calligraphy, he began to paint mountains and streams when he was in his 50s. With his magnificent,refined and elegant style, Huang Gongwang’s paintings gained important position among artists of the time. The scroll Mountain Residence at Mt. Fuchun is his most popular piece. As a paper wash painting scroll, it is divided into two sections with the previous section 31.8 cm tall and 51.4 cm long,owned by the Zhejiang Provincial Museum, and the latter section 33 cm tall and 636.9 cm long, owned by the Palace Museum in Taiwan.

  13. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and to ensure that activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1991 (FY91) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Activities Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support

  14. Yucca Mountain biological resources monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG ampersand G/EM) during fiscal year 1992 (FY92) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support

  15. Weapons test seismic investigations at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucca Mountain, located on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site, is being characterized as part of an ongoing effort to identify a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. This site will be subjected to seismic ground motions induced by underground nuclear explosions. A knowledge of expected ground motion levels from these tests will enable the designers to provide for the necessary structural support in the designs of the various components of the repository. The primary objective of the Weapons Test Seismic Investigation project is to develop a method to predict the ground motions expected at the repository site as a result of future weapons tests. This paper summarizes the data base presently assembled for the Yucca Mountain Project, characteristics of expected ground motions, and characterization of the two-dimensional seismic properties along paths between Yucca Mountain and the testing areas of the Nevada Test Site

  16. Nuclear waste disposal: Gambling on Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the historical aspects of nuclear energy ,nuclear weapons usage, and development of the nuclear bureaucracy in the United States, and discusses the selection and siting of Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a federal nuclear waste repository. Litigation regarding the site selection and resulting battles in the political arena and in the Nevada State Legislature are also presented. Alternative radioactive waste disposal options, risk assessments of the Yucca Mountain site, and logistics regarding the transportation and storage of nuclear waste are also presented. This document also contains an extensive bibliography

  17. Panda Patrols on the Qinling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    THE Zhouzhi County Laoxiancheng Nature Reserve at the southern foot of the Qinling Mountains in Shaanxi Province is habitat to more than 30 giant pandas. They are looked upon as China’s national treasure. Covering a total area of 12,611 hectares, the nature reserve is also home to other wildlife species, such as antelopes, golden monkeys, and leopards.A patrol of 11 members, formed 15 years ago, works to protect animals living on the reserve, and their natural environment. Each month it spends 3 to 5 days on three inspections. In the 1980s the patrol rescued and treated an injured giant panda they found on the mountain.

  18. Fission track age of Transantarctic Mountain microtektites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folco, L.; Bigazzi, G.; D'Orazio, M.; Balestrieri, M. L.

    2011-05-01

    We determined the fission track age of Transantarctic Mountain microtektites. The plateau method yielded a formation age of 0.85 ± 0.17 Ma. This age overlaps within error with that of the catastrophic impact that produced the Australasian tektite-microtektite strewn field ca. 0.8 Ma ago. This provides further evidence that Transantarctic Mountain microtektites belong to the Australasian tektite-microtektite strewn field, as previously suggested on the basis of geochemical evidence, Sr-Nd isotope systematics and poorly resolved radiometric data.

  19. Succession status on mountain farms in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Kerbler-Kefo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the hypothesis that the offi cial statistical data does not refl ect actual succession status on mountain farms in Slovenia and also on Slovene farms in general, since the census criteria defi ning succession are still incomplete. With the purpose of confi rming our assumption, we formulated more accurate criteria and also determined as to what is the real status of succession on mountain farms in Slovenia. It has proved to be more favourable, than it is presented by the offi cial statistics.

  20. Glacial erosion changes internal mountain structure, responses to plate tectonics

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Intense glacial erosion has not only carved the surface of the highest coastal mountain range on earth, the spectacular St. Elias range in Alaska, but has elicited a structural response from deep within the mountain.

  1. MOUNTAIN TOURISM INTERCONNECTIONS. VARIATION OF MOUNTAIN TOURIST FLOW IN SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George CHEIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mountain tourism, in addition to one of the most common types of tourism, is generated by a complex of factors and at the same time, triggers a series of processes involving tourism phenomenon, especially the environment where it is taking place. This paper aims to discuss some of these causal factors, and the relationship between this type of tourism and the tourist area itself (1. By using SPSS analytical methods , it can be practically demonstrated the impact of mountain tourist flow in spas (2 and mountain resorts (3 in Suceava county.

  2. 27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spring Mountain District... Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Spring Mountain District.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  3. 27 CFR 9.118 - Ben Lomond Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ben Lomond Mountain. 9.118... Lomond Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ben Lomond Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Ben...

  4. Storymakers: Hopa Mountain's Early Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Hopa Mountain's StoryMakers program is an innovative, research-based program for donating high quality young children's books to parents. Hopa Mountain is a nonprofit organization based in Bozeman, Montana. Hopa Mountain works with groups of rural and tribal citizen leaders who form StoryMakers Community Teams to talk one-on-one with…

  5. Phytogeography of the tropical north-east African mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Friis

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The tropical north-east African mountains are tentatively divided into four phytochoria, the formal rank of which is not defined. The division is based on patterns of distribution and endemism in the region. The recognition of a distinct Afromontane phytochorion is now well established (Chapman & White, 1970; Werger, 1978; White, 1978. However, there is still very little information on the phytogeography of the individual mountains or mountain systems. This study hopes to fill a little of the gap by analysing distribution patterns and patterns of endemism in the flora of the tropical north-east African mountains. The north-east African mountain system is the largest in tropical Africa (see e.g. map in White, 1978. At the core of this system is the large Ethiopian massif, around which are located various mountains and mountain chains. These include the Red Sea Hills in the Sudan, the mountain chain in northern Somalia, the south-west Arabian mountains, and the Imatong mountains of south-east Sudan. The latter are often referred to the East African mountain system (White, 1978 but. as I will point out later, they also have a close connection with the south-west highlands of Ethiopia. The paper presents some results of my study of the mountain flora of tropical north-east Africa, particularly the forest species. Where no source is indicated, the data are from my own unpublished studies.

  6. MORPHOMETRIC AND MORPHOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF DOAMNEI RIVER MOUNTAIN BASIN (FĂGĂRAŞ MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Simoni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed morphometric and morphographic analysis of Doamnei River mountain basin (Făgăraş Mountains, based on digital morphometric maps, field observations and surveys. The mountain basin of Doamnei River is characterized by a typical alpine, subalpine and mountainous morphology. The main morphometric and morphographic characteristics are: prevalence of high hypsometric steps that exceed 1,600m altitude (including 4 peaks over 2,500m and 18 peaks over 2,400m, high values of landform energy (400-600m, and locally over 1,000m for the areas adjacent to the glacial valleys, very high and steep slopes (predominant slopes of and over 300-500, high massiveness; well developed river network, with a characteristic river density of 2-4 km/ sq.km; slopes moderately (W, SE and well (S, SW exposed to solar radiation.

  7. Mountain Biking with Groups: A "Safe" Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Terry

    2001-01-01

    A survey mailed to 200 British mountain bike leaders found that rates of cycling accidents and injuries were greater in forests and woodlands than on terrain where a license is required to lead groups of young cyclists. Excessive speed was mentioned in most accidents, coupled with poor use of breaks in many cases. (SV)

  8. Cerebral blood flow in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Wright, Anne; Lassen, N A;

    1990-01-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using the radioactive xenon technique and were related to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). In 12 subjects, ascending from 150 to 3,475 m, CBF was 24% increased at 24 h [45.1 to 55.9 initial slope index (ISI) units] and 4% increased...

  9. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report, ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', is to present information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a repository at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report provides information to four other reports: ''Number of Waste Packages Hit by Igneous Intrusion'', (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170001]); ''Atmospheric Dispersal and Deposition of Tephra from Potential Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170026]); ''Dike/Drift Interactions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170028]); ''Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027], Section 6.5). This report is organized into seven major sections. This section addresses the purpose of this document. Section 2 addresses quality assurance, Section 3 the use of software, Section 4 identifies the requirements that constrain this work, and Section 5 lists assumptions and their rationale. Section 6 presents the details of the scientific analysis and Section 7 summarizes the conclusions reached

  10. Mountain biking. Breezy ups and traumatic downs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than two decades the popularity of mountain biking as a national pastime as well as a competitive sport has been undiminished. However, its related risks are not monitored as closely as those, for example, of skiing. The injuries caused by mountain biking are specific and cannot be compared with those caused by other cycling sports. This is due not only to the characteristics of the terrain but also to the readiness to assume a higher risk compared to cycle racing. The particular value of radiology is in the acute trauma setting. Most often musculoskeletal lesions must be examined and digital radiography and MRI are the most useful techniques. Severe trauma of the cranium, face, spine, thorax and abdomen are primarily evaluated with CT, particularly in dedicated trauma centers. Therefore, radiology can play a role in the rapid diagnosis and optimal treatment of the trauma-related injuries of mountain biking. Thus, the unnecessarily high economical damage associated with mountain biking can be avoided. (orig.)

  11. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Creek; (xii) Then northeastward along Rock Creek to Petit Jean Creek; (xiii) Then generally northeastward and eastward along Petit Jean Creek until it becomes the Petit Jean River (on the Russellville map); (xiv) Then generally eastward along the Petit Jean River, flowing through Blue Mountain Lake, until...

  12. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Jean Creek. (vi) Then generally northeastward and eastward along Petit Jean Creek until it becomes the Petit Jean River (on the Russellville map). (vii) Then generally eastward along the Petit Jean River, flowing through Blue Mountain Lake, until the Petit Jean River joins the Arkansas River. (viii)...

  13. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cases of epidemic typhus have been documented in Argentina since 1919; however, no confirmed reports of spotted fever rickettsiosis were described in this country until 1999. We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R...

  14. Mountain Guides: Between Ethics and Socioeconomic Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Thierry; Bazin, Damien; Massiera, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed mountain guides' representations of environmental responsibility and explored the paradox that these professionals face: using nature as a source of income while trying to preserve it. The study was mainly guided by the philosophical literature on this topic and made use of the concepts of sustainable development and nature.…

  15. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Krier

    2004-10-04

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report, ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', is to present information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a repository at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report provides information to four other reports: ''Number of Waste Packages Hit by Igneous Intrusion'', (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170001]); ''Atmospheric Dispersal and Deposition of Tephra from Potential Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170026]); ''Dike/Drift Interactions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170028]); ''Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027], Section 6.5). This report is organized into seven major sections. This section addresses the purpose of this document. Section 2 addresses quality assurance, Section 3 the use of software, Section 4 identifies the requirements that constrain this work, and Section 5 lists assumptions and their rationale. Section 6 presents the details of the scientific analysis and Section 7 summarizes the conclusions reached.

  16. Water Quality Management in Utah Mountain Watersheds

    OpenAIRE

    Kimball, Keith R.; Middlebrooks, E. Joe

    1986-01-01

    What Quality Management in Utah Mountain Streams: Several years of thorough monitoring of water quality parameters in Little Cottonwood Creek in Salt Lake County, Utah, measured the natural levels of the major water constituents, spotted significant (largely nonpoint) pollution sources, identified the pollutants deserving primary attention, and suggested the approaches to land and water management for pollution co...

  17. Oil prospects attract workover dollars. [Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stremel, K.

    1983-12-01

    Anticipating stable crude oil prices and low service costs, Rocky Mountain operators plan to maintain strong workover programs next year. Deflated service costs are allowing operators to complete more workovers without appropriating more capital, and they plan to take advantage of the bargain prices available in the oilpatch. Workover activity next year will be concentrated in major oil producing basins of the Rockies.

  18. Mountain building of solid quark stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Haifeng

    2011-01-01

    One of the key differences between normal neutron and (bare) quark stars is relevant to the fact that the former are gravitationally bound while the latter self-confined unless their masses approach the maximum mass. This difference results in the possibility that quark stars could be very low massive whereas neutron stars cannot. Mountains could also be build on quark stars if realistic cold quark matter is in a solid state, and an alternative estimation of the mountain building is present. As spinning compact objects with non-axisymmetric mass distribution will radiate gravitational waves, the equations of states of pulsars could be constraint by the amplitude of gravitational waves being dependent on the heights of mountains. We then estimate the maximum mountains and thus quadrupole moment on solid quark stars, to be consistent with that by Owen (2005) if the breaking strain is 0.1, addressing that a solid quark star with mass < 10^{-2} Msun could be `potato-like'. We estimate the gravitational wave am...

  19. Mountains: Geology, Topography and Environmental Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F. Price

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Mountains: Geology, Topography and Environmental Concerns. Edited by António José, Bento Gonçalves, and António Avelino Batista Vieria. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, 2014. ix + 371 pp. US$ 175.00. ISBN 978-1-63117-288-5.

  20. Effects of forest expansion on mountain grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guidi, Claudia; Magid, Jakob; Rodeghiero, Mirco;

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Grassland abandonment followed by forest succession is the dominant land-use change in the European Alps. We studied the impact of current forest expansion on mountain grassland on changes in physical soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions along a land-use and management gradient...

  1. The mountain Cer: Potentials for tourism development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In northwest of Serbia in the meridians directions an elongated mountain range of Cer with Iverak and Vlašić stretches itself. On the north it goes down to Mačva and Posavina, on the west to Podrinje, on the east to the valley of Kolubara, on the south to the basins and valleys of Jadar and upper Kolubara, which separate it from the mountains of Valjevo and Podrinje area. Cer mountain offers extremely good condition for development of eco-tourism. The variety of relief with gorgeous see-sites, natural rarities, convenient bio-climatic conditions, significant water resources, forest complexes, medieval fortresses, cultural-historic monuments, richness of flora and fauna, preserved rural environment, traditions and customs of local population, were all neglected as strategic factors in the development of tourism. This mountain’s potentials are quite satisfactory for the needs of eco-tourism, similar to the National Park of Fruška Gora, but it has lacked an adequate ecotourist strategy so far. This study aims to pointing to the potential and possibilities of ecotourist valorization of this mountain.

  2. Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very low—except for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository “lifetime”). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program

  3. Generalized stationary phase approximations for mountain waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, H.; Broutman, D.; Eckermann, S. D.

    2016-04-01

    Large altitude asymptotic approximations are derived for vertical displacements due to mountain waves generated by hydrostatic wind flow over arbitrary topography. This leads to new asymptotic analytic expressions for wave-induced vertical displacement for mountains with an elliptical Gaussian shape and with the major axis oriented at any angle relative to the background wind. The motivation is to understand local maxima in vertical displacement amplitude at a given height for elliptical mountains aligned at oblique angles to the wind direction, as identified in Eckermann et al. ["Effects of horizontal geometrical spreading on the parameterization of orographic gravity-wave drag. Part 1: Numerical transform solutions," J. Atmos. Sci. 72, 2330-2347 (2015)]. The standard stationary phase method reproduces one type of local amplitude maximum that migrates downwind with increasing altitude. Another type of local amplitude maximum stays close to the vertical axis over the center of the mountain, and a new generalized stationary phase method is developed to describe this other type of local amplitude maximum and the horizontal variation of wave-induced vertical displacement near the vertical axis of the mountain in the large altitude limit. The new generalized stationary phase method describes the asymptotic behavior of integrals where the asymptotic parameter is raised to two different powers (1/2 and 1) rather than just one power as in the standard stationary phase method. The vertical displacement formulas are initially derived assuming a uniform background wind but are extended to accommodate both vertical shear with a fixed wind direction and vertical variations in the buoyancy frequency.

  4. Teach yourself visually OS X Mountain Lion

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Get to know the new cat in the pride-Mac OS X Mountain Lion-with this VISUAL guide Apple's new Mac OS X Mountain Lion is impressive, with features and functions that will be familiar to Mac users from their iPhones and iPads. Make sure you get the most out of your new big cat with this practical guide. Using step-by-step instructions and full-color screenshots or illustrations on virtually every page-the hallmark of the practical Teach Yourself VISUALLY series-this book clearly shows you how to accomplish tasks, rather than burying you with paragraphs of text. You'll learn how to customize

  5. OS X Mountain Lion Portable Genius

    CERN Document Server

    Spivey, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    Essential tips and techniques on the Mac OS X features you use most! If you want the kind of hip, friendly help you'd get from friends on how to get the most of out of Mac OS X Mountain Lion, this is the guide you need. Jump right into the coolest new Mac OS X features like Game Center, Messages, and Notification, or get a better handle on the basic tools and shortcuts that will help keep your mountain cat purring. From customizing to using multimedia to syncing your Mac to other devices, this book saves you time and hassle, avoids fluff, and covers what you want to know most. New addition t

  6. Environmental history of European high mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Galop, Didier; Catto, Norm

    2014-01-01

    International audience This volume brings together 16 papers which investigate various aspects of high mountain areas, primarily in Europe. Dietre et al. investigated the influence of settlement in the Silv-retta Alps, Switzerland/Austria. Festi et al. combined an extensive archaeological survey and pollen analyses in the high altitudes of the € Otztal Alps to elucidate the palaeo-environmental and past cultural implications that triggered the onset and development of seasonal transhumance...

  7. Evaluating cumulative ascent: Mountain biking meets Mandelbrot

    CERN Document Server

    Rapaport, D C

    2010-01-01

    The problem of determining total distance ascended during a mountain bike trip is addressed. Altitude measurements are obtained from GPS receivers utilizing both GPS-based and barometric altitude data, with data averaging used to reduce fluctuations. The estimation process is sensitive to the degree of averaging, and is related to the well-known question of determining coastline length. Barometric-based measurements prove more reliable, due to their insensitivity to GPS altitude fluctuations.

  8. Rural migration decision relating to Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individual and family migration decisions were assessed to ascertain the degree to which the siting of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository would influence decisions to remain, leave, or leave and return to the region. Data collected in Lincoln and Nye Counties in Nevada were used. The results of the two studies show that there is little or no impact of the proposed repository on residential choice decisions

  9. Yucca Mountain Project Surface Facilities Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.W. McDaniel; N.R. Brown; P.G. Harrington; J.T. Gardiner; L.J. Trautner

    2002-11-20

    With the recent designation of the Yucca Mountain site as a proposed repository for the disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel, DOE spent nuclear fuel and high- level waste, work is proceeding on the design of surface facilities to receive, unload, and package the waste into waste packages for emplacement in the repository. This paper summarizes recent progress in the design of these surface facilities.

  10. Obed Mountain Coal railcar loading automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, J.C. [Hinz Consulting Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Coal from Obed Mountain Coal`s open pit mine near Hinton, Alberta is carried 11 km. by conveyor from the plant to the train loadout facility. The loadout facility is equipped with an upgraded computer system. The bin weighing system and the train car scale are connected directly to the loadout computer. The operator has complete information to collect, enter, and access information and to produce manifest and summary reports, in addition to controlling the loadout facility. 7 figs.

  11. Salt drilling in the Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, J.S.; Collins, K.B.; Hackney, R.M.

    1983-07-11

    Design and operation data dealing with drilling and setting casings through Rocky Mountain salt formations are explained and summarized. Discussed is the origin of salt deposits, how salt can be detected during the planning and drilling of a well, and the different drilling strategies employed during salt rock drilling. Well casing design and cementing are also discussed, as well as failures which occur due to salt deposition.

  12. Mayflies (Ephemeroptera, Insecta from Vrachanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANKA VIDINOVA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen species, belonging to 7 subgenera, 11 genera and 7 families, are currently known from 8 sites of streams and rivers on the territory of Vrachanska Planina Mts. They represent 15,52 % of the mayflies known up to now for Bulgaria. Twelve species are newly reported for the mountain. Brief faunistic and zoogeographical notes are given. The conservation status of the species is also discussed. Ephemeroptera, faunistics, Vrachanska Planina Mts., NW Bulgaria.

  13. Predicting the Future at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. R. Wilson

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes a climate-prediction model funded by the DOE for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Several articles in the open literature attest to the effects of the Global Ocean Conveyor upon paleoclimate, specifically entrance and exit from the ice age. The data shows that these millennial-scale effects are duplicated on the microscale of years to decades. This work also identifies how man may have influenced the Conveyor, affecting global cooling and warming for 2,000 years.

  14. Mountains as early warning indicators of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The panoramic splendor and complexity of mountain environments have inspired and challenged humans for centuries. These areas have been variously perceived as physical structures to be conquered, as sites of spiritual inspiration, and as some of the last untamed natural places on Earth. In our time, the perception that "mountains are forever" may provide solace to those seeking stability in a rapidly changing world. However, changes in the hydrology and in the abundance and species composition of the native flora and fauna of mountain ecosystems are potential bellwethers of global change, because these systems have a propensity to amplify environmental changes within specific portions of this landscape. Mountain areas are thus sentinels of climate change. We are seeing effects today in case histories I present from the Himalaya's, Andes, Alps, and Rocky Mountains. Furthermore, these ecosystem changes are occurring in mountain areas before they occur in downstream ecosystems. Thus, mountains are early warning indicators of perturbations such as climate change. The sensitivity of mountain ecosystems begs for enhanced protection and worldwide protection. Our understanding of the processes that control mountain ecosystems—climate interactions, snowmelt runoff, biotic diversity, nutrient cycling—is much less developed compared to downstream ecosystems where human habitation and development has resulted in large investments in scientific knowledge to sustain health and agriculture. To address these deficiencies, I propose the formation of an international mountain research consortium.

  15. Geochemical quantification of semiarid mountain recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahi, Arun K; Hogan, James F; Ekwurzel, Brenda; Baillie, Matthew N; Eastoe, Christopher J

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of a typical semiarid mountain system recharge (MSR) setting demonstrates that geochemical tracers help resolve the location, rate, and seasonality of recharge as well as ground water flowpaths and residence times. MSR is defined as the recharge at the mountain front that dominates many semiarid basins plus the often-overlooked recharge through the mountain block that may be a significant ground water resource; thus, geochemical measurements that integrate signals from all flowpaths are advantageous. Ground water fluxes determined from carbon-14 ((14)C) age gradients imply MSR rates between 2 x 10(6) and 9 x 10(6) m(3)/year in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona, USA. This estimated range is within an order of magnitude of, but lower than, prior independent estimates. Stable isotopic signatures indicate that MSR has a 65% +/- 25% contribution from winter precipitation and a 35% +/- 25% contribution from summer precipitation. Chloride and stable isotope results confirm that transpiration is the dominant component of evapotranspiration (ET) in the basin with typical loss of more than 90% of precipitation-less runoff to ET. Such geochemical constraints can be used to further refine hydrogeologic models in similar high-elevation relief basins and can provide practical first estimates of MSR rates for basins lacking extensive prior hydrogeologic measurements.

  16. Food Web Topology in High Mountain Lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez-Hernández

    Full Text Available Although diversity and limnology of alpine lake systems are well studied, their food web structure and properties have rarely been addressed. Here, the topological food webs of three high mountain lakes in Central Spain were examined. We first addressed the pelagic networks of the lakes, and then we explored how food web topology changed when benthic biota was included to establish complete trophic networks. We conducted a literature search to compare our alpine lacustrine food webs and their structural metrics with those of 18 published lentic webs using a meta-analytic approach. The comparison revealed that the food webs in alpine lakes are relatively simple, in terms of structural network properties (linkage density and connectance, in comparison with lowland lakes, but no great differences were found among pelagic networks. The studied high mountain food webs were dominated by a high proportion of omnivores and species at intermediate trophic levels. Omnivores can exploit resources at multiple trophic levels, and this characteristic might reduce competition among interacting species. Accordingly, the trophic overlap, measured as trophic similarity, was very low in all three systems. Thus, these alpine networks are characterized by many omnivorous consumers with numerous prey species and few consumers with a single or few prey and with low competitive interactions among species. The present study emphasizes the ecological significance of omnivores in high mountain lakes as promoters of network stability and as central players in energy flow pathways via food partitioning and enabling energy mobility among trophic levels.

  17. Yucca Mountain Project bibliography, 1988--1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains information on the Yucca Mountain Project that was added to the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1988 through December 1989. This supplement also includes a new section which provides information about publications on the Energy Data Base that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization's list. Indexes are provided for Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, Report Number, Order Number Correlation, and Key Word in Context. All entries in the Yucca Mountain Project bibliographies are searchable online on the NNW database file. This file can be accessed through the Integrated Technical Information System (ITIS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Technical reports on the Yucca Mountain Project are on display in special open files at participating Nevada Libraries and in the Public Document Room of the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, in Las Vegas

  18. Bernoulli equation and flow over a mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Yih; Sun, Oliver M.

    2015-12-01

    The Bernoulli equation is applied to an air parcel which originates at a low level at the inflow region, climbs adiabatically over a mountain with an increase in velocity, then descends on the lee side and forms a strong downslope wind. The parcel departs from hydrostatic equilibrium during its vertical motion. The air parcel can be noticeably cooler than the temperature calculated from adiabatic lapse rate, which allows part of enthalpy to be converted to kinetic energy and produces a stronger wind at mountain peak and a severe downslope wind on the lee side. It was found that the hydrostatic assumption tends to suppress the conversion from enthalpy to kinetic energy. It is also shown that the Froude number defined in the atmosphere is equal to the ratio of kinetic energy to the potential energy, same as in Boussinesq fluid. But in the atmosphere, the Froude number cannot be used to determine whether a parcel can move over a mountain or not, unless the vertical motion is weak and the system is near hydrostatic equilibrium. Numerical simulations confirm that except in highly turbulent areas, the potential temperature and Bernoulli function are almost conserved along the streamline, as well as the change of kinetic energy comes from the change of enthalpy instead of potential energy.

  19. Mountain treelines: A roadmap for research orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanson, George P.; Resler, Lynn M.; Bader, Maaike Y.; Holtmeier, Fredrich-Karl; Butler, David R.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Daniels, Lori D.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    For over 100 years, mountain treelines have been the subject of varied research endeavors and remain a strong area of investigation. The purpose of this paper is to examine aspects of the epistemology of mountain treeline research-that is, to investigate how knowledge on treelines has been acquired and the changes in knowledge acquisition over time, through a review of fundamental questions and approaches. The questions treeline researchers have raised and continue to raise have undoubtedly directed the current state of knowledge. A continuing, fundamental emphasis has centered on seeking the general cause of mountain treelines, thus seeking an answer to the question, "What causes treeline?" with a primary emphasis on searching for ecophysiological mechanisms of low-temperature limitation for tree growth and regeneration. However, treeline research today also includes a rich literature that seeks local, landscape-scale causes of treelines and reasons why treelines vary so widely in three-dimensional patterns from one location to the next, and this approach and some of its consequences are elaborated here. In recent years, both lines of research have been motivated greatly by global climate change. Given the current state of knowledge, we propose that future research directions focused on a spatial approach should specifically address cross-scale hypotheses using statistics and simulations designed for nested hierarchies; these analyses will benefit from geographic extension of treeline research.

  20. Review article: The mountain motif in the plot of Matthew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Volschenk

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reviewed T.L. Donaldson’s book, Jesus on the mountain: A study in Matthean theology, published in 1985 by JSOT Press, Sheffield, and focused on the mountain motif in the structure and plot of the Gospel of Matthew, in addition to the work of Donaldson on the mountain motif as a literary motif and as theological symbol. The mountain is a primary theological setting for Jesus’ ministry and thus is an important setting, serving as one of the literary devices by which Matthew structured and progressed his narrative. The Zion theological and eschatological significance and Second Temple Judaism serve as the historical and theological background for the mountain motif. The last mountain setting (Mt 28:16–20 is the culmination of the three theological themes in the plot of Matthew, namely Christology, ecclesiology and salvation history.

  1. Geology of Gable Mountain-Gable Butte Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, K.R.

    1978-09-01

    Gable Mountain and Gable Butte are two ridges which form the only extensive outcrops of the Columbia River Basalt Group in the central portion of the Pasco Basin. The Saddle Mountains Basalt and two interbedded sedimentary units of the Ellensburg Formation crop out on the ridges. These include, from oldest to youngest, the Asotin Member (oldest), Esquatzel Member, Selah Interbed, Pomona Member, Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed, and Elephant Mountain Member (youngest). A fluvial plain composed of sediments from the Ringold and Hanford (informal) formations surrounds these ridges. The structure of Gable Mountain and Gable Butte is dominated by an east-west-trending major fold and northwest-southeast-trending parasitic folds. Two faults associated with the uplift of these structures were mapped on Gable Mountain. The geomorphic expression of the Gable Mountain-Gable Butte area resulted from the comlex folding and subsequent scouring by post-basalt fluvial systems.

  2. Symposium 9: Rocky Mountain futures: preserving, utilizing, and sustaining Rocky Mountain ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Seastedt, Timothy; Fagre, Daniel B.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Tomback, Diana; Garcia, Elizabeth; Bowen, Zachary H.; Logan, Jesse A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2002 we published Rocky Mountain Futures, an Ecological Perspective (Island Press) to examine the cumulative ecological effects of human activity in the Rocky Mountains. We concluded that multiple local activities concerning land use, hydrologic manipulation, and resource extraction have altered ecosystems, although there were examples where the “tyranny of small decisions” worked in a positive way toward more sustainable coupled human/environment interactions. Superimposed on local change was climate change, atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and other pollutants, regional population growth, and some national management policies such as fire suppression.

  3. Yucca Mountain Task 4, Final report FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, J.N.

    1993-09-30

    Four major projects at UNRSL have been supported by NWPO-Neotectonics Yucca Mountain Task 4 funds during the last year: (1) Operation and analysis of data from the UNRSL microearthquake network at Yucca Mountain. (2) Continued operation, maintenance, and calibration of three broadband stations. Limited data analysis was also initiated. (3) Continued review by Dr. Brune of documents and literature related to seismic hazard and tectonics of the Yucca Mountain region. (4) Testing of noise levels in boreholes.

  4. Yucca Mountain Site characterization project bibliography, January--June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy's Science and Technology Database from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1991

  5. Performance analysis of wastewater treatment plants for mountain lodges

    OpenAIRE

    Čepon, Urban

    2013-01-01

    The thesis is based on independent chemical analyses, on-site analyses and field sampling. It includes seven selected wastewater treatment plants at mountain lodges. At each plant the author conducted three sets of winter analyses and two sets of summer analyses. The research includes 200 hours of field work in the mountains. Before conducting the analyses it was necessary to catalogue all wastewater treatment plants at Slovenian Alpine Association's mountain lodges and on this basis choose a...

  6. Blue Mountain Lake, New York, earthquake of October 7, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, G.

    1984-01-01

    The October 7 earthquake near Blue Mountain Lake in the central Adirondack Mountains registered a preliminary Richter magnitude of 5.2. It was widely felt throughout the Northeastern United States and Canada and occurred in an area that has been periodically shaken by earthquakes throughout recorded history. Since 1737, at least 346 felt earthquakes have occurred in New York; an earthquake of similar magnitude last shook the Blue Mountain Lake area on June 9, 1975.    

  7. Aspen biology, community classification, and management in the Blue Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, David K; Schmitt, Craig L; Shirley, Diane M; Erickson, Vicky; Schuetz, Kenneth J; Tatum, Michael L; Powell, David C

    2010-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a valuable species that is declining in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. This publication is a compilation of over 20 years of aspen management experience by USDA Forest Service workers in the Blue Mountains. It includes a summary of aspen biology and occurrence in the Blue Mountains, and a discussion of aspen conservation and management techniques such as fencing, conifer removal, and artificial propagation. Local data on bird use of as...

  8. Notes on the mathematical modelling of alluvial mountain rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Sieben, a

    1994-01-01

    The ability of describing and predicting hydraulic and morphological phenomena in mountain rivers is limited, partially due to the limits of deterministic approaches where stochastic effects in sediment supply and water inflow are extremely significant, and partially due to the very specific conditions that can be observed in mountain rivers, that complicate the modelling. The dynamics of morphology and hydraulics of mountain rivers must be known when applying numerical modelling procedures t...

  9. THE MOUNTAIN REGIONS IN CONTEXT OF STRATEGY 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONESCU Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mountain regions in Romania and European Union represent a special territory of interest, with a huge economic, social, environmental and cultural potential. More, mountain area is considerate a natural-economic region and constitutes an important objective for regional development policy. The main sectors of mountain area are presented in agriculture and tourism fields that lead the key role in safeguarding the sensitive eco-system and thereby maintaining the general living and working space.Mountain areas should have a specific policy defined by the sustainable development principle, which meets the needs of the present without compromising the opportunities of future generations. The specific mountain policy aims to reduce the imbalance between favored and disadvantaged mountain regions, permanently marked by natural, economic, social, cultural and environmental constraints. In previous programming period, mountain regions among have profited from the intensive regional support, in specially, for constructing of and connecting them to fresh water and waste water networks, in particular for increasing of life quality. In context of 2020 Strategy, the Member States will concentrate investments on a small number of thematic objectives. In advanced regions, 60 % of funds will used for only two of these objectives (competitiveness of SME and research/innovation. The all less developed regions will received about 50% of Structural Funds In Romania, mountain representing 29.93% out of the total national surface and 20.14% from UAA (Utilised Agricultural Area of total national. The mountain territory has around 20% of the national population and is overlapping almost 100% with the Carpathian Mountains. Due to these conditions, Romania's regional development policy must take into account the specificities of mountain area, the problems they faced, and the requirements of 2020 Strategy.This paper presents the main aspects to be taken into account

  10. Subgrid snow depth coefficient of variation within complex mountainous terrain

    OpenAIRE

    Sexstone, Graham A.; Fassnacht, Steven R.; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Christopher A. Hiemstra

    2016-01-01

    Given the substantial variability of snow in complex mountainous terrain, a considerable challenge of coarse scale modeling applications is accurately representing the subgrid variability of snowpack properties. The snow depth coefficient of variation (CVds) is a useful metric for characterizing subgrid snow distributions but has not been well defined by a parameterization for mountainous environments. This study utilizes lidar-derived snow depth datasets from mountainous terrain in Colorado,...

  11. The hydrological significance of mountains: from regional to global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Viviroli

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountain regions supply a large share of the world’s population with fresh water. Quantification of the hydrological significance of mountains, however, is subject to great uncertainty. Instead of focusing on global averages in advance, the present analysis follows a catchment-based approach using discharge data provided by the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC. The River Rhine originating in the European Alps is chosen as a first study area, revealing the hydrological relationship between mountainous and lowland regions in a well-documented area. Following the findings from this analysis, different aspects of runoff characteristics for a total of 22 case-study river basins world-wide have been investigated and compared, for a global view. The view has been extended through aspects of climate and human use of mountain runoff. The particular hydrological characteristics of mountain areas are characterised by disproportionately large discharges. In humid areas, mountains supply up to 20–50% of total discharge while in arid areas, mountains contribute from 50–90% of total discharge, with extremes of over 95%. The overall assessment of the hydrological significance of mountain areas reveals that the world’s major 'water towers' are found in arid or semi-arid zones where they provide essential fresh water for a significant proportion of a quickly growing global population. Keywords: mountain hydrology, global comparative assessment, runoff, water resources, sustainability, Rhine River, European Alps

  12. The Uniform Nature of Mountain Impacts and Earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generalized results of the researches executed by the author on a problem of the mountain impacts allowed to reveal comparability of the processes occuring in a massif of rocks, anticipating mountain impacts, and processes of accumulation and realization of energy in the center of impact with the similar processes being previous and accompanying earthquakes. The author considers mountain impacts as the reduced model of earthquakes and to sees the opportunity of the earthquakes forecast on one of the features peculiar to mountain impacts. (authors)

  13. Preparing the Yucca Mountain Multimedia Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Larkin; J. Hartley; J. Scott

    2002-11-14

    In July 2002, the U.S. Congress approved Yucca Mountain in Nevada for development as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This major milestone for the country's high-level radioactive waste disposal program comes after more than 20 years of scientific study and intense public interaction and outreach. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) public involvement activities were driven by two federal regulations-the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, as amended. The NEPA required that DOE hold public hearings at key points in the development of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the NWPA required the agency to conduct public hearings in the vicinity of the site prior to making a recommendation regarding the site's suitability. The NWPA also provided a roadmap for how DOE would interact with affected units of government, which include the state of Nevada and the counties surrounding the site. As the Project moves into the next phase--applying for a license to construct a repository-the challenge of public interaction and outreach remains. It has become increasingly important to provide tools to communicate to the public the importance of the Yucca Mountain Project. Sharing the science and engineering research with the general public, as well as teachers, students, and industry professionals, is one of the project's most important activities. Discovering ways to translate project information and communicate this information to local governments, agencies, citizens' groups, schools, the news media, and other stakeholders is critical. With these facts in mind, the authors set out to create a presentation that would bring the ''mountain'' to the public.

  14. Preparing the Yucca Mountain Multimedia Presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 2002, the U.S. Congress approved Yucca Mountain in Nevada for development as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This major milestone for the country's high-level radioactive waste disposal program comes after more than 20 years of scientific study and intense public interaction and outreach. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) public involvement activities were driven by two federal regulations-the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, as amended. The NEPA required that DOE hold public hearings at key points in the development of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the NWPA required the agency to conduct public hearings in the vicinity of the site prior to making a recommendation regarding the site's suitability. The NWPA also provided a roadmap for how DOE would interact with affected units of government, which include the state of Nevada and the counties surrounding the site. As the Project moves into the next phase--applying for a license to construct a repository-the challenge of public interaction and outreach remains. It has become increasingly important to provide tools to communicate to the public the importance of the Yucca Mountain Project. Sharing the science and engineering research with the general public, as well as teachers, students, and industry professionals, is one of the project's most important activities. Discovering ways to translate project information and communicate this information to local governments, agencies, citizens' groups, schools, the news media, and other stakeholders is critical. With these facts in mind, the authors set out to create a presentation that would bring the ''mountain'' to the public

  15. A View from the Mountain Top: The Purple Mountain Observatory Library, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the author's experience directing the Purple Mountain Observatory Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in Nanjing, China. Routine collection development, management and preservation issues are described, and the unique challenges and opportunities involved in operating a remote observatory library are highlighted.

  16. Long-term carbon accumulation in two tropical mountain peatlands, Andes Mountains, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Chimner

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical peatlands form in at least two distinct altitudinal zones, namely lowlands and high mountains. Unlike lowland tropical peatlands, which are typically forested, tropical mountain peatlands are dominated by cushion plants, bryophytes and herbaceous plants. Tropical mountain peatlands are poorly understood and little information is available on their ages, whether their peat bodies are relicts or actively accumulating carbon, the amount of carbon they contain, or the rate at which they can accumulate carbon. Our objective in this paper is to quantify carbon accumulation rates in two peatlands in the Andes Mountains of Ecuador, South America. At each site, we collected peat cores which were analysed for bulk density, mineral content and % C and we calculated the amount of carbon stored. Due to the high amount of mineral sediment in the Cotopaxi peatland, carbon dating was not done at this site. The Cayambre-Coca peat body was 4 m thick, ca. 3,000 years old, and had accumulated 140 kgC m-2. The approximate long-term rate of carbon accumulation (LARCA is 46 gC m-2 yr-1. However, a significant part of the depth of accumulation is due to high levels of mineral sediment input from steep side slopes and volcanic ash input.

  17. Defining Hydrogeological Boundaries for Mountain Front Recharge (MFR) Predictions in Multi-Catchment Mountainous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson-Welch, L. A.; Allen, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Cross-catchment groundwater flow in mountainous watersheds results from the development of local, intermediate, and regional groundwater flow pathways in multi-catchment systems. As such, hydrogeological analysis (e.g. water balance calculations and numerical modelling) to assess contributions of groundwater to mountain front recharge (MFR) must consider the choice of boundaries based on hydrological divides. Numerical 3-dimensional hydrogeological modelling was completed using FeFlow (DHI-WASY), for conceptual regional-scale multi-catchment systems; extending from a watershed boundary to a mountain front. The modelled systems were designed to represent major ridge and valley configurations observed in mountainous watersheds including: nested, adjacent, disconnected, non-parallel, and parallel catchments. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity scenarios were simulated; with the heterogeneous scenario including a shallow zone of higher hydraulic conductivity bedrock overlying less permeable bedrock. The influence of cross-catchment flow in the development of groundwater flow pathways contributing to MFR was examined. The results provide a basis for identifying topographic scenarios where contributions to MFR may originate outside hydrological divides. This understanding will contribute to improving MFR predictions using both the numerical modelling approach and the water balance approach.

  18. Human Infection in Wild Mountain Gorillas

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-25

    This podcast discusses a study about the transmission of Human Metapneumovirus Infection to wild mountain gorillas in Rwanda in 2009, published in the April 2011 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. Dr. Ian Lipkin, Director of the Center for Infection and Immunity and Dr. Gustavo Palacios, investigator in the Center of Infection & Immunity share details of this study.  Created: 4/25/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/2/2011.

  19. Affinity Proteomics in the mountains: Alpbach 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, Michael J

    2016-09-25

    The 2015 Alpbach Workshop on Affinity Proteomics, organised by the EU AFFINOMICS consortium, was the 7th workshop in this series. As in previous years, the focus of the event was the current state of affinity methods for proteome analysis, including complementarity with mass spectrometry, progress in recombinant binder production methods, alternatives to classical antibodies as affinity reagents, analysis of proteome targets, industry focus on biomarkers, and diagnostic and clinical applications. The combination of excellent science with Austrian mountain scenery and winter sports engender an atmosphere that makes this series of workshops exceptional. The articles in this Special Issue represent a cross-section of the presentations at the 2015 meeting. PMID:27118167

  20. A Meltwater Pool Discovered in Tianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On an expedition to northwest China's Glacier 1 in the TianshanMountains, a research team led by Prof. Li Zhongqin from the CAS Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute found a 15-meter-long, 4-meterhigh ice cliff in the northwest of the source area on the glacier top. To their surprise, the south-facing ice cliff overlooked an approximately 30-m2 pool sprawling on the glacial sheet. The experts say the pool is at least 1.5 m deep and formed by the summer melt.

  1. Monitoring the Snowpack in Remote, Ungauged Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, J.; Davis, R. E.; Bair, N.; Rittger, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Our objective is to estimate seasonal snow volumes, relative to historical trends and extremes, in snow-dominated mountains that have austere infrastructure, sparse gauging, challenges of accessibility, and emerging or enduring insecurity related to water resources. The world's mountains accumulate substantial snow and, in some areas, produce the bulk of the runoff. In ranges like Afghanistan's Hindu Kush, availability of water resources affects US policy, military and humanitarian operations, and national security. The rugged terrain makes surface measurements difficult and also affects the analysis of remotely sensed data. To judge feasibility, we consider two regions, a validation case and a case representing inaccessible mountains. For the validation case, we use the Sierra Nevada of California, a mountain range of extensive historical study, emerging scientific innovation, and conflicting priorities in managing water for agriculture, urban areas, hydropower, recreation, habitat, and flood control. For the austere regional focus, we use the Hindu Kush, where some of the most persistent drought in the world causes food insecurity and combines with political instability, and occasional flooding. Our approach uses a mix of satellite data and spare modeling to present information essential for planning and decision making, ranging from optimization of proposed infrastructure projects to assessment of water resources stored as snow for seasonal forecasts. We combine optical imagery (MODIS on Terra/Aqua), passive microwave data (SSM/I and AMSR-E), retrospective reconstruction with energy balance calculations, and a snowmelt model to establish the retrospective context. With the passive microwave data we bracket the historical range in snow cover volume. The rank orders of total retrieved volume correlates with reconstructions. From a library of historical reconstruction, we find similar cases that provide insights about snow cover distribution at a finer scale than

  2. Overview of the Yucca Mountain Licensing Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the licensing process for a Yucca Mountain repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. The paper discusses the steps in the licensing proceeding, the roles of the participants, the licensing and hearing requirements contained in the Code of Federal Regulations. A description of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff acceptance and compliance reviews of the Department of Energy (DOE) application for a construction authorization and a license to receive and possess high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel is provided. The paper also includes a detailed description of the hearing process

  3. Archaeological program for the Yucca Mountain Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeological surveys, limited surface collections and selected test excavations in the Yucca Mountain Project Area have revealed four distinct aboriginal hunting and gathering adaptive strategies and a separate historic Euroamerican occupation. The four aboriginal adaptations are marked by gradual shifts in settlement locations that reflect changing resource procurement strategies. Whereas the earliest hunters and gatherers focused their activities around the exploitation of toolstone along ephemeral drainages and the hunting of game animals in the uplands, the latest aboriginal settlements reflect intensive procurement of early spring plant resources in specific upland environments. The final Euroamerican occupation in the area is marked by limited prospecting activities and travel through the area by early immigrants

  4. 77 FR 60373 - Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and Piute...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Forest Service Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and... alternatives, within the Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project area. The purpose of the Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project is to implement land management activities that...

  5. 77 FR 59985 - Healthcare Corporation of America (HCA), HCA Mountain Division Including Workers Whose Wages Were...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Healthcare Corporation of America (HCA), HCA Mountain Division... of Healthcare Corporation of America (HCA), HCA Mountain Division, Cottonwood Heights, Utah (subject... follows: All workers of Healthcare Corporation of America (HCA), HCA Mountain Division, including...

  6. 77 FR 281 - Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Application Accepted for...: Green Mountain Power Corporation. e. Name of Projects: Waterbury Hydroelectric Project. f. Location.... h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Jason Lisai, Green Mountain Power Corporation, 163 Acorn Lane,...

  7. Assessing habitat quality of the mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul H.EVANGELISTA; John NORMAN Ⅲ; Paul SWARTZINKI; Nicholas E.YOUNG

    2012-01-01

    Populations of the endangered mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni are significantly threatened by the loss of critical habitat.Population estimates are tentative,and information on the species' distribution and available habitat is required for formulating immediate management and conservation strategies.To support management decisions and conservation priorities,we integrated information from a number of small-scale observational studies,interviews and reports from multiple sources to define habitat parameters and create a habitat quality model for mountain nyala in the Bale Mountains.For our analysis,we used the FunConn model,an expertise-based model that considers spatial relationships (i.e,patch size,distance) between the species and vegetation type,topography and disturbance to create a habitat quality surface.The habitat quality model showed that approximately 18,610 km2 (82.7% of our study area) is unsuitable or poor habitat for the mountain nyala,while 2,857 km2 (12.7%) and 1,026 km2 (4.6%) was ranked as good or optimal habitat,respectively.Our results not only reflected human induced habitat degradation,but also revealed an extensive area of intact habitat on the remote slopes of the Bale Mountain's southern and southeastern escarpments.This study provides an example of the roles that expert knowledge can still play in modem geospatial modeling of wildlife habitat.New geospatial tools,such as the FunConn model,are readily available to wildlife managers and allow them to perform spatial analyses with minimal software,data and training requirements.This approach may be especially useful for species that are obscure to science or when field surveys are not practical.

  8. Restructured site characterization program at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1994 and the early part of 1995, the US Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Office (YMSCO) and its parent organization, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) underwent a significant restructuring. Senior Department officials provided the leadership to reorient the management, technical, programmatic, and public interaction approach to the US High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Program. The restructuring involved reorganizing the federal staff, conducting meaningful strategic planning, improving the management system, rationalizing contractor responsibilities, focusing upon major products, and increasing stakeholder involvement. The restructured program has prioritized technical and scientific activities toward meeting major regulatory milestones in a timely and cost-effective manner. This approach has raised concern among elements of technical, scientific, and oversight bodies that suitability and licensing decisions could be made without obtaining sufficient technical information for this first-of-its-kind endeavor. Other organizations, such as congressional committees, industrial groups, and rate payers believe characterization goals can be met in a timely manner and within the limitation of available funds. To balance these contrasting views in its decision making process, OCRWM management has made a special effort to communicate its strategy to oversight bodies, the scientific community and other stakeholders and to use external independent peer review as a key means of demonstrating scientific credibility. Site characterization of Yucca Mountain in Nevada is one of the key elements of the restructured program

  9. Using science soundly: The Yucca Mountain standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using sound science to shape government regulation is one of the most hotly argued topics in the ongoing debate about regulatory reform. Even though no one advaocates using unsound science, the belief that even the best science will sweep away regulatory controversy is equally foolish. As chair of a National Research Council (NRC) committee that studied the scientific basis for regulating high-level nuclear waste disposal, the author learned that science alone could resolve few of the key regulatory questions. Developing a standard that specifies a socially acceptable limit on the human health effects of nuclear waste releases involves many decisions. As the NRC committee learned in evaluating the scientific basis for the Yucca Mountain standard, a scientifically best decision rarely exists. More often, science can only offer a useful framework and starting point for policy debates. And sometimes, science's most helpful contribution is to admit that it has nothing to say. The Yucca mountain study clearly illustrates that excessive faith in the power of science is more likely to produce messy frustration than crisp decisions. A better goal for regulatory reform is the sound use of science to clarify and contain the inevitable policy controversy

  10. Yucca Mountain drift scale test progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Peterson,J.E.; Sonnenthal, E.; Spycher, N.; Tsang, Y.W.; Williams, K.H.

    1999-01-01

    The Drift Scale Test (DST) is part of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Thermal Test being conducted underground at the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purpose of the ESF Thermal Test is to acquire a more in-depth understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes likely to be encountered in the rock mass surrounding the potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain. These processes are monitored by a multitude of sensors to measure the temperature, humidity, gas pressure, and mechanical displacement, of the rock formation in response to the heat generated by the heaters. In addition to collecting passive monitoring data, active hydrological and geophysical testing is also being carried out periodically in the DST. These active tests are intended to monitor changes in the moisture redistribution in the rock mass, to collect water and gas samples for chemical and isotopic analysis, and to detect microfiacturing due to heating. On December 3, 1998, the heaters in the DST were activated. The planned heating phase of the DST is 4 years, and the cooling phase following the power shutoff will be of similar duration. The present report summarizes interpretation and analysis of thermal, hydrological, chemical, and geophysical data for the first 6 months; it is the first of many progress reports to be prepared during the DST.

  11. Rethinking risk and disasters in mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Hewitt

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents a view of risk and disaster in the mountains that finds them fully a part of public safety issues in modern states and developments, rather than separated from them. This contrasts with prevailing approaches to disaster focused on natural hazards, “unscheduled” or extreme events, and emergency preparedness; approaches strongly reinforced by mountain stereotypes. Rather, we find the legacies of social and economic histories, especially relations to down-country or metropolitan actors, are decisive in shaping contemporary “mountain realities”. Developments in transportation, resource extraction and tourism that serve state and international agendas can increase rather than reduce risks for mountain populations, and undermine pre-existing strategies to minimise environmental dangers. Above all, we see rapid urbanisation in mountains generally and the Himalaya in particular as highly implicated in exacerbating risks and creating new types of vulnerabilities. Enforced displacement, and concentration of people in urban agglomerations, is a major part of the modern history of mountain lands that invites more careful exploration. Rapid expansion of built environments and infrastructure, without due regard to hazards and structural safety, introduce new and complex risks, while altering older equations with and to the land and sapping people’s resilience. In the lives of mountain people, environmental hazards are mostly subordinate to other, societal sources of risk and vulnerability, and to the insecurities these involve. Basically we conclude that “marginalisation” of mountain lands is primarily an outcome of socio-economic developments in which their condition is subordinated to strategic planning by state, metropolitan and global actors.Cet article aborde la question des risques et des catastrophes en montagne. Il vise non pas à dissocier mais plutôt à replacer ces concepts au cœur des questions de s

  12. Total system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's evaluation of site suitability for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository, the long-term behavior of the mined geologic disposal system must be determined. This determination requires a knowledge of the characteristics of the present natural system, waste-package and engineered-system designs, a description of the environment around the emplacement zone, and descriptions of possible perturbations that may affect the nature of the engineered and natural systems. In 1991, participants in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project completed a preliminary assessment of the likely performance of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This preliminary assessment evaluated aqueous and gaseous flow, future climatic conditions, and disturbances to the system by basaltic volcanism and inadvertent human intrusion. A second total system performance evaluation is currently in progress. This second iteration is building on the previous analyses in a number of ways. More recent site characterization information and a much more complex model representing the source term are being incorporated. Multiple waste package designs, emplacement modes, and areal power densities are being analyzed. (author)

  13. Salt drilling in the Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, J.S.; Collins, K.B.; Hackney, R.M.

    1983-02-01

    A compilation of literature, design and operational data dealing with drilling and setting casing through salt formations is explained and summarized. This paper is adapted to drilling conditions in the Rocky Mountain area. Discussion includes the origin of salt deposits, how salt can be detected during the planning and drilling of a well, and different drilling strategies employed for drilling salt. Casing design and cementing are discussed as well as failure of casing due to salt loading. Operating experience is reviewed in several Rocky Mountain areas. Casing strings were set through salt with collapse ratings ranging from .3 psi per foot to 1.5 psi per foot. Casing collapse due to salt loading was observed in several wells with casing design ratings less than 1.0 psi per foot. Conclusions are made concerning the major areas discussed in the paper including salt flow, interbedded salt, cementing and drilling strategy. The suggestion is made that casing set through salt zones should be designed for a collapse rating of 1.2 psi per foot.

  14. Magma Dynamics at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Krier

    2005-08-29

    Small-volume basaltic volcanic activity at Yucca Mountain has been identified as one of the potential events that could lead to release of radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Release of material could occur indirectly as a result of magmatic dike intrusion into the repository (with no associated surface eruption) by changing groundwater flow paths, or as a result of an eruption (dike intrusion of the repository drifts, followed by surface eruption of contaminated ash) or volcanic ejection of material onto the Earth's surface and the redistribution of contaminated volcanic tephra. Either release method includes interaction between emplacement drifts and a magmatic dike or conduit, and natural (geologic) processes that might interrupt or halt igneous activity. This analysis provides summary information on two approaches to evaluate effects of disruption at the repository by basaltic igneous activity: (1) descriptions of the physical geometry of ascending basaltic dikes and their interaction with silicic host rocks similar in composition to the repository host rocks; and (2) a summary of calculations developed to quantify the response of emplacement drifts that have been flooded with magma and repressurized following blockage of an eruptive conduit. The purpose of these analyses is to explore the potential consequences that could occur during the full duration of an igneous event.

  15. Geophysical expression of the Ghost Dance Fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Gravity and ground magnetic data collected along surveyed traverses across Antler and Live Yucca Ridges, on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, reveal small-scale faulting associated with the Ghost Dance and possibly other faults. These studies are part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  16. Geophysical expression of the Ghost Dance Fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravity and ground magnetic data collected along surveyed traverses across Antler and Live Yucca Ridges, on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, reveal small-scale faulting associated with the Ghost Dance and possibly other faults. These studies are part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

  17. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  18. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  19. Adoption of Geospatial Systems towards evolving Sustainable Himalayan Mountain Development

    OpenAIRE

    M S R Murthy; Bajracharya, B.; Shestra, B.; Bajracharya, R.; Shakya, K.; Wesselmann, S.; M. Ali; Bajracharya, S; Pradhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural resources dependence of mountain communities, rapid social and developmental changes, disaster proneness and climate change are conceived as the critical factors regulating sustainable Himalayan mountain development. The Himalayan region posed by typical geographic settings, diverse physical and cultural diversity present a formidable challenge to collect and manage data, information and understands varied socio-ecological settings. Recent advances in earth observation, near ...

  20. Terrestrial Ecosystem Classification in the Rocky Mountains, Northern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Kusbach, Antonin

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is no comprehensive terrestrial ecosystem classification for the central Rocky Mountains of the United States. A comprehensive classification of terrestrial ecosystems in a mountainous study area in northern Utah was developed incorporating direct gradient analysis, spatial hierarchy theory, the zonal concept, and concepts of diagnostic species and fidelity, together with the biogeoclimatic ecosystem classification approach used in British Columbia, Canada. This classificati...

  1. Folk Culture History of the Blue Ridge Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Gene, Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The article covers the historic period between 1730 (the earliest proof of initial European settlement in the district) and 1800 (the closing of the pioneer stage of mountain development) of the Blue Ridge Mountains from Front Royal to Waynesboro, Virginia. (NQ)

  2. Mountain geomorphosites in Odle Group (Dolomites, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Ghinoi, Alessandro; Marchetti, Mauro; Soldati, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    The area, considered in the present study, is located in the north-eastern sector of the Gardena valley, in the Odle Group, a popular destination of summer and winter tourism (more than 3000 m a.s.l.). The area has a strong hiking-tourism vocation thanks to its spectacular high-mountain landscape and a dense network of hiking tracks. The well-developed network of hiking paths and slopes for many different climbing skills offers a lot of possibilities for high-mountain excursions. Permanent dwelling-places are absent with the exceptions of a few tourist structures nearby opened during certain periods of the year. This area, as all Dolomites, which became UNESCO Word Heritage Site in 2009, represent landscape mosaics, which express the summation of landscape histories and processes offering an almost complete educational open-air laboratory due to the variety and complexity of phenomena and processes taking place during present climate conditions and during recent geological periods. These mountains, due to the aggregation of relict, recent and active landforms constitute an outstanding geoheritage, suitable for educational and tourist purposes. Landforms typical of past morphoclimatic conditions (inherited geomorphosites) share the stage with forms and processes active in the current morphoclimatic conditions (active geomorphosites); their spatial and geometrical relationships may be sufficient to trace a relative time-line of the geomorphological history of the area. Several glacial landforms testify for the presence and the activity of a glacial tongue hosted in the valley during the Lateglacial, mainly located in the northern sector of the area, where altitudes range from about 2000 m to about 2300 m a.s.l. Among these, worth of note are the well-preserved glacial cirques of Val dla Roa and those located at the southern margin of the Odle Group. Quite well preserved moraine ridges are present at a mean altitude of some 2000 m at the Alpe di Cisles as well as

  3. Rare and endangered plant species of the Chinese Altai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marina; V.OLONOVA

    2010-01-01

    Altai (also named Altay in China) Mountain Country (Mountain System) is a unique natural region,located on the border between different floristic regimes of the Boreal and ancient Mediterranean sub-kingdoms,where distribution of plant species is actually limited. It is known to have sufficient endemic floral biodiversity in the Northern Asia. Many plants of Altai Mountain System need effective care and proper conservation measures for their survival and longer-term protection. Important Plant Area identified as the IUCN (the International Union for Conservation of Nature),specified criteria attract global attention for protection of floral biodiversity across the world. The records of 71 plant species from the Chinese Altai Mountains attributed to the criterion A and the dark conifer forests of Chinese Altai Mountains satisfied the criterion C,which may help qualify to fulfill the national obligation of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

  4. Big Data Are All the Rage—For Mountains, Too

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Gleeson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Big data. For some, it is a vaguely apocalyptic term; for others, it represents a new era of understanding our environment and ourselves. Today, big data are being harnessed in ever more innovative ways that simply were not possible when we only had small sets of data to work with. Although mountain system research does not yet produce the vast quantities of data that are now common to other fields, there are nevertheless many data that, if pooled, could provide new insights into how mountain socioecological systems function. As the Mountain Research Initiative's Concerted Efforts progress, it becomes clear that it is time for the mountain research community to harness the lessons and power of at least “medium data” to develop a stronger, evidence-based understanding of both the generalities and the specificities of mountain systems.

  5. Altitudinal Levels and Altitudinal Limits in High Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias Kuhle

    2007-01-01

    In lowlands climate-specific processes due to weathering and erosion are dominant, whilst the geomorphology of mountains is dependent on the geologic-tectonic structure, i.e., the energy of erosion that increases according to the vertical. The expression "extremely high mountains" has been established as the extreme of a continuous mountain classification. It has to be understood in terms of geomorphology, glaciology and vegetation.Correspondence of the planetary and hypsometric change of forms is of great value as synthetic explanation. It is confirmed with regard to vegetation,periglacial geomorphology and glaciology. Due to the world-wide reconstruction of the snowline its paleoclimatic importance increases, too. Apart from lower limits the periglacial and glacial altitudinal levels also show zones of optimum development and climatic upper limits in the highest mountains of the earth. According to the proportion of the altitudinal levels a classification as to arid, temperate and humid high mountains has been carried out.

  6. Thermochronology applied to the Chiapas mountains, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brichau, S.; Witt, C.; Carter, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Chiapas area is located at a triple junction between the Caribbean, North American and Cocos plates. It is an ideal area to investigate how tectonics influence landscape development and surface processes in the context of erosion, sediment routing and sedimentary basin evolution. At present the long-term evolution of the Chiapas Mountain is not well understood especially regarding the timing and magnitude of tectonic phases that led to formation of the Chiapas Mountains and its present-day topography. This area is mainly formed by the Permian Chiapas batholith (~250 Ma) and the Chiapas sierra. Important stratigraphic changes in nature and thickness lead authors to consider that up to six tectonic 'phases' participated in mountain formation and evolution. In this way, each major change in sediment nature, from marine to continental, has been related to uplift of the batholith and increase of sediment input. The onset of deformation along the region results from the northward migration of the left-lateral strike slip systems which is connected, further south, to the Polochic-Motagua fault system (i.e. limit between the North America and Caribbean plates). In this tectonic setting deformation along the Chiapas area results from the transpressive component of deformation related to the relative motion of the North American and Caribbean plates. A regional thermochronological study has been initiated to constrain the location, timing and magnitude of rock uplift associated with this transpressive regime. Thermochronometry will also help to constrain links to sedimentary basin development by identifying possible source areas (based on the assumption that exhumation of uplifted blocks is accompanied by erosion) and constrain sediment routing. U-Pb results obtained on the Palaeocene-Miocene series of the Sierra shows an important component from Greenvillian- type basement rocks (i.e. 0.8-1Ga) that have not been identified along the Chiapas region. The most likely

  7. ARISK PHENOMENA IN THE SILVANIA MOUNTAINS, INTUITIVE AND GENETIC REFLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA BOGDAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Risk phenomena in the Silvania Mountains, intuitive and genetic reflexes. In the contemporary period, the scientific research under the auspices of the global development has experienced a real quantitative and qualitative revolution. Theoretically and methodologically, the widespread promotion of the “concept of discontinuity” in terms of content, significances, manifestation, implications is observed, which has become a new imperative of the nowadays geography. The phenomena of discontinuity happen as real “paroxysmal, rhythm and intensity ruptures“ in relation to the normal occurrence defined either through the average value, determined on statistical basis as hydrological, meteorological, climatic phenomena or in discrete forms, when the phenomena occur in a veiled manner and they are perceptible only through their effects, respectively the environmental reflexes. Among the notions used with reference to extreme evolutionary discontinuities, we quote: the hazard, the disaster, the calamity and the risk to which was added a series of related notions: stability, sensitivity, resilience, fragility and vulnerability. The Silvania Mountains, a representative territorial unit within Silvania Land, with a fascinating and controversial geological origin, a real petrographic synthesis with uncovered crystalline stone, brought to the surface due to erosion under the layers of Neogene sediments, as a last remaining of a grandiose Hercynian chain with a varied orientation SW-NE of which were part the Massif Central –France, the east side, the Vosges Mountains, the Black Forest Mountains, the Harz Mountains and Bohemia. In this range of mountains, we also mention the Silvania Hercynian Mountains, respectively Plopiș and Meseș Mountains.This mountainous elevation level has an important role within the landscape as "geographical discontinuity factor” on one hand, between the Someșan Plateau and the Silvania piedmontan hills (Meseș Mountains

  8. Productivity of Mountain Reedbugk Redunca Fulvorufula (Afzelius, 1815 at the Mountain Zebra National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D Skinner

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty two adult mountain reedbuck Redunca fulvoru- fula were collected during four seasons, autumn, winter, spring and summer at the Mountain Zebra National Park mainly during 1975 and 1976. Body mass and carcass characteristics varied little with season, body mass varying from 24,0-35,5 kg for all buck shot and dressing percentage always exeeded 50. According to KFI animals were all in fair to good condition. Sixty four percent of all ewes were pregnant and 38,5 lactating. Females and males bred throughout the year but there was a peak in births during mid-summer. The species is highly productive, well adapted to the niche it occupies and lends itself to exploitation for meat production.

  9. Annual Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, Copper Mountain, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Stephen F. [Front Range Scientific, Inc., Lake City, CO (United States)

    2016-03-25

    This project supported the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, held from 2007 to 2015, at Copper Mountain, Colorado. The subject of the Copper Mountain Conference Series alternated between Multigrid Methods in odd-numbered years and Iterative Methods in even-numbered years. Begun in 1983, the Series represents an important forum for the exchange of ideas in these two closely related fields. From 1983 until 2002, conferences in the Series were organized by the University of Colorado in cooperation with the Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM), with support provided by Front Range Scientific Computations, Inc. In 2003, 2005, and 2007, the conferences on Multigrid Methods were organized jointly by Van Emden Henson of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Joel Dendy of Los Alamos National Laboratory. In 2009 and 2011 (and continuing forward in the odd numbered years), the conferences on Multigrid Methods were organized jointly by Van Emden Henson, as overall conference chairman, along with Ulrich Rüde of the Universität Erlangen (Nürnberg, Germany) and Irad Yavneh of the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology (Haifa, Israel), serving as conference Program co-Chairmen. Similarly, the 2004, 2006, and 2008 Copper Mountain Conferences on Iterative Methods were organized jointly by Howard Elman of the University of Maryland and Panayot Vassilevski of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In 2010, Ray Tuminaro (Sandia National Laboratory) replaced Panayot Vassilevski as co-Chair, with Howard Elman, of the Iterative Conferences. In 2014, Michele Benzi (Emory University) replaced Howard Elman as Co-Chair, with Ray Tuminaro.

  10. Assessing habitat quality of the mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. EVANGELISTA, John NORMAN III, Paul SWARTZINKI, Nicholas E. YOUNG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Populations of the endangered mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni are significantly threatened by the loss of critical habitat. Population estimates are tentative, and information on the species’ distribution and available habitat is required for formulating immediate management and conservation strategies. To support management decisions and conservation priorities, we integrated information from a number of small-scale observational studies, interviews and reports from multiple sources to define habitat parameters and create a habitat quality model for mountain nyala in the Bale Mountains. For our analysis, we used the FunConn model, an expertise-based model that considers spatial relationships (i.e., patch size, distance between the species and vegetation type, topography and disturbance to create a habitat quality surface. The habitat quality model showed that approximately 18,610 km2 (82.7% of our study area is unsuitable or poor habitat for the mountain nyala, while 2,857 km2 (12.7% and 1,026 km2 (4.6% was ranked as good or optimal habitat, respectively. Our results not only reflected human induced habitat degradation, but also revealed an extensive area of intact habitat on the remote slopes of the Bale Mountain’s southern and southeastern escarpments. This study provides an example of the roles that expert knowledge can still play in modern geospatial modeling of wildlife habitat. New geospatial tools, such as the FunConn model, are readily available to wildlife managers and allow them to perform spatial analyses with minimal software, data and training requirements. This approach may be especially useful for species that are obscure to science or when field surveys are not practical [Current Zoology 58 (4: 525–535, 2012].

  11. Experimental Evaluation of Mountain Bike Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Titlestad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant distinction between competitive mountain bikes is whether they have a suspension system. Research studies indicate that a suspension system gives advantages, but it is difficult to quantify the benefits because they depend on so many variables, including the physiology and psychology of the cyclist, the roughness of the track and the design of the suspension system. A laboratory based test rig has been built that allows the number of variables in the system to be reduced and test conditions to be controlled. The test rig simulates regular impacts of the rear wheel with bumps in a rolling road. The physiological variables of oxygen consumption and heart rate were measured, together with speeds and forces at various points in the system. Physiological and mechanical test results both confirm a significant benefit in using a suspension system on the simulated rough track, with oxygen consumption reduced by around 30 % and power transmitted through the pedals reduced by 30 % to 60 %.

  12. Craniomandibular osteopathy in two Pyrenean mountain dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craniomandibular osteopathy was diagnosed in two Pyrenean mountain dogs with a history of mandibular swelling, pain, fever and, in dog 1, lameness. Radiographs demonstrated extensive, active new bone formation on the ventral aspect of the mandibular bodies of both dogs. Dog 2 responded well to treatment but dog 1 was euthanased owing to severe pain, dysphagia and unsuccessful treatment. The mandibles were examined by means of back-scattered scanning electron microscopy and a well arranged mineralised trabecular network of chondroid tissue and woven bone was observed. The mandibular cortical bone under the areas of periosteal proliferation was also affected, showing a looseness of the characteristic compact appearance of lamellar bone. This is the first report of craniomandibular osteopathy in this breed

  13. Interface management for the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of this report is selection of that portion of physical and informational interfaces that need to be controlled on the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Physical interfaces are interactions between physical elements of the mined geologic disposal system; for example, the repository shafts will interface with the shafts in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF), because the ESF shafts will eventually be absorbed into the repository as additional repository shafts. Informational interfaces are interactions involving an exchange of information between organizations working on the mined geologic disposal system; for example, the in situ testing contractor will interact with the site performance assessment contractor and will supply information regarding host rock behavior. This report describes the physical system interfaces that can be identified from analysis of a physical system structure. A discussion of informational interfaces can be found elsewhere. 30 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Possible tool use in a mountain gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueter, Cyril C; Robbins, Martha M; Ndagijimana, Felix; Stoinski, Tara S

    2013-11-01

    Here we report a description of putative tool use in wild mountain gorillas. At the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund's Karisoke Research Center in Volcanoes National Park (Rwanda), an adult female was observed using a bamboo culm as a ladder for her offspring. This is one of only a few documented cases of possible tool use in wild gorillas, although tool use behavior is commonly observed in captive gorillas. Although the behavior observed may have been incidental, the present report in combination with previous evidence (Breuer et al., 2005) suggests that tool use in gorillas occurs outside the context of food acquisition and may be directed at overcoming physical obstacles in complex rugged microhabitats such as bamboo forest and swamps. PMID:24096185

  15. Environmental radiation protection standards for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been given the responsibility of setting site-specific health and safety standards for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The same legislation that gave the Agency that responsibility, mandated a study by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to provide input into the bases for the EPA standards. The NAS has completed and presented a report to the Agency; this paper summarizes the report's recommendations and conclusions. Following receipt of the report, the Agency opened a comment period and held public meetings to gather comments; the major issues from the comments are summarized. Based upon the report from NAS and the public comments, EPA has started formulating proposed standards which will be known as 40 CFR Part 197. It is planned for the proposal of 40 CFR Part 197 to occur in the summer of 1996

  16. Numerical studies of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, B.; Amter, S.; Lu, Ning [Disposal Safety, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    A computer model (TGIF -- Thermal Gradient Induced Flow) of two-dimensional, steady-state rock-gas flow driven by temperature and humidity differences is described. The model solves for the ``fresh-water head,`` a concept that has been used in models of variable-density water flow but has not previously been applied to gas flow. With this approach, the model can accurately simulate the flows driven by small differences in temperature. The unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are being studied as a potential site for a repository for high-level nuclear waste. Using the TGIF model, preliminary calculations of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain are made for four east-west cross-sections through the mountain. Calculations are made for three repository temperatures and for several assumptions about a possible semi-confining layer above the repository. The gas-flow simulations are then used to calculate travel-time distributions for air and for radioactive carbon-14 dioxide from the repository to the ground surface.

  17. The Generation of Downwind Rainbands by Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Carly; Gray, Sue; Kirshbaum, Daniel; Schultz, David

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigate rainbands that form downwind of mountainous terrain using both observational data and output from an operational forecast model. Although relatively small in scale (a few tens of km across by up to ˜100 km in length), these often poorly forecast bands can cause localised flooding as they can be associated with intense precipitation over several hours due to the anchoring effect of orography. A case study is performed of a rainband that was observed over Scotland on the 29 December 2012. This case study was chosen due to the occurrence of heavy continuous precipitation near orography. Radar images during the event showed a clear band along The Great Glen Fault, a deep valley between the Northern Highlands and the Grampian Mountains. The deterministic convection-permitting high-resolution Met Office model forecast, using the United Kingdom Variable resolution (UKV) model (1.5 km horizontal grid spacing), failed to represent this band. However, some members of the ensemble convection-permitting (MOGREPS-UK) Met Office forecast produced a similar band to that observed. Localised convergence and weak convective available potential energy (CAPE) along the fault supported the formation of the valley band. To determine the effect of model resolution on the model's representation of the rainband, a forecast was performed with the horizontal grid spacing decreased to 500 m. In this forecast a rainband formed in the correct location which generated precipitation accumulations close to those observed, but with a time displacement. Work is in progress to assess the robustness of this forecast skill improvement by embedding simulations at the same resolution within the operational global (MOGREPS-G) ensemble members. Results to date suggest that accurate representation of mesoscale rainbands requires model resolutions higher than those used operationally by national weather centres.

  18. Detailed modeling of mountain wave PSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fueglistaler

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs play a key role in polar ozone depletion. In the Arctic, PSCs can occur on the mesoscale due to orographically induced gravity waves. Here we present a detailed study of a mountain wave PSC event on 25-27 January 2000 over Scandinavia. The mountain wave PSCs were intensively observed by in-situ and remote-sensing techniques during the second phase of the SOLVE/THESEO-2000 Arctic campaign. We use these excellent data of PSC observations on 3 successive days to analyze the PSCs and to perform a detailed comparison with modeled clouds. We simulated the 3-dimensional PSC structure on all 3 days with a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP model and a microphysical box model (using best available nucleation rates for ice and nitric acid trihydrate particles. We show that the combined mesoscale/microphysical model is capable of reproducing the PSC measurements within the uncertainty of data interpretation with respect to spatial dimensions, temporal development and microphysical properties, without manipulating temperatures or using other tuning parameters. In contrast, microphysical modeling based upon coarser scale global NWP data, e.g. current ECMWF analysis data, cannot reproduce observations, in particular the occurrence of ice and nitric acid trihydrate clouds. Combined mesoscale/microphysical modeling may be used for detailed a posteriori PSC analysis and for future Arctic campaign flight and mission planning. The fact that remote sensing alone cannot further constrain model results due to uncertainities in the interpretation of measurements, underlines the need for synchronous in-situ PSC observations in campaigns.

  19. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Valentine

    2001-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', presents information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Many aspects of this work are aimed at resolution of the Igneous Activity Key Technical Issue (KTI) as identified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC 1998, p. 3), Subissues 1 and 2, which address the probability and consequence of igneous activity at the proposed repository site, respectively. Within the framework of the Disruptive Events Process Model Report (PMR), this AMR provides information for the calculations in two other AMRs ; parameters described herein are directly used in calculations in these reports and will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Compilation of this AMR was conducted as defined in the Development Plan, except as noted. The report begins with considerations of the geometry of volcanic feeder systems, which are of primary importance in predicting how much of a potential repository would be affected by an eruption. This discussion is followed by one of the physical and chemical properties of the magmas, which influences both eruptive styles and mechanisms for interaction with radioactive waste packages. Eruptive processes including the ascent velocity of magma at depth, the onset of bubble nucleation and growth in the rising magmas, magma fragmentation, and velocity of the resulting gas-particle mixture are then discussed. The duration of eruptions, their power output, and mass discharge rates are also described. The next section summarizes geologic constraints regarding the interaction between magma and waste packages. Finally, they discuss bulk grain size produced by relevant explosive eruptions and grain

  20. Approach to Mountain Hazards in Tibet,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Dongtao; TU Jianjun; CUI Peng; LU Ruren

    2004-01-01

    Tibet is located at the southwest boundary of China. It is the main body of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the highest and the youngest plateau in the world. Owing to complicated geology, Nco-tectonic movements, geomorphology, climate and plateau environment, various mountain hazards, such as debris flow, flash flood, landslide, collapse, snow avalanche and snow drifts, are widely distributed along the Jinsha River (the upper reaches of the Yangtze River), the Nu River and the Lancang River in the east, and the Yarlungzangbo River, the Pumqu River and the Poiqu River in the south and southeast of Tibet. The distribution area of mountain hazards in Tibet is about 589,000 km2, 49.3% of its total territory. In comparison to other mountain regions in China, mountain hazards in Tibet break out unexpectedly with tremendously large scale and endanger the traffic lines, cities and towns, farmland,grassland, mountain environment, and make more dangers to the neighboring countries, such as Nepal,India, Myanmar and Bhutan. To mitigate mountain hazards, some suggestions are proposed in this paper,such as strengthening scientific research, enhancing joint studies, hazards mitigation planning, hazards warning and forecasting, controlling the most disastrous hazards and forbidding unreasonable human exploring activities in mountain areas.

  1. Repository site data report for unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, P.L.; Updegraff, C.D.; Siegel, M.D.; Wahi, K.K.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1985-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering the thick sequences of unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, on the southwestern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, as a possible candidate host rock for a nuclear-waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in one of the most arid areas in the United States. The site is within the south-central part of the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range physiographic province and is located near a number of silicic calderas of Tertiary age. Although localized zones of seismic activity are common throughout the province, and faults are present at Yucca Mountain, the site itself is basically aseismic. No data are available on the composition of ground water in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. It has been suggested that the composition is bounded by the compositions of water from wells USW-H3, UE25p-1, J-13, and snow or rain. There are relatively few data available from Yucca Mountain on the moisture content and saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and characteristic curves of the unsaturated zone. The available literature on thermomechanical properties of tuff does not always distinguish between data from the saturated zone and data from the unsaturated zone. Geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical data available on the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain are tabulated in this report. Where the data are very sparse, they have been supplemented by data from the saturated zone or from areas other than Yucca Mountain. 316 refs., 58 figs., 37 tabs.

  2. Winter Tourism and mountain wetland management and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucherand, S.; Mauz, I.

    2012-04-01

    The degradation and loss of wetlands is more rapid than that of other ecosystems (MEA 2005). In mountains area, wetlands are small and scattered and particularly sensitive to global change. The development of ski resorts can lead to the destruction or the deterioration of mountain wetlands because of hydrologic interferences, fill in, soil compression and erosion, etc. Since 2008, we have studied a high altitude wetland complex in the ski resort of Val Thorens. The aim of our study was to identify the impacts of mountain tourism development (winter and summer tourism) on wetland functioning and to produce an action plan designed to protect, rehabilitate and value the wetlands. We chose an approach based on multi-stakeholder participatory process at every stage, from information gathering to technical choices and monitoring. In this presentation, we show how such an approach can efficiently improve the consideration of wetlands in the development of a ski resort, but also the bottlenecks that need to be overcome. We will also discuss some of the ecological engineering techniques used to rehabilitate or restore high altitude degraded wetlands. Finally, this work has contributed to the creation in 2012 of a mountain wetland observatory coordinated by the conservatory of Haute-Savoie. The objective of this observatory is to estimate ecosystem services furnished by mountain wetlands and to find restoration strategies adapted to the local socio-economical context (mountain agriculture and mountain tourism).

  3. Repository site data report for unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering the thick sequences of unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, on the southwestern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, as a possible candidate host rock for a nuclear-waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in one of the most arid areas in the United States. The site is within the south-central part of the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range physiographic province and is located near a number of silicic calderas of Tertiary age. Although localized zones of seismic activity are common throughout the province, and faults are present at Yucca Mountain, the site itself is basically aseismic. No data are available on the composition of ground water in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. It has been suggested that the composition is bounded by the compositions of water from wells USW-H3, UE25p-1, J-13, and snow or rain. There are relatively few data available from Yucca Mountain on the moisture content and saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and characteristic curves of the unsaturated zone. The available literature on thermomechanical properties of tuff does not always distinguish between data from the saturated zone and data from the unsaturated zone. Geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical data available on the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain are tabulated in this report. Where the data are very sparse, they have been supplemented by data from the saturated zone or from areas other than Yucca Mountain. 316 refs., 58 figs., 37 tabs

  4. Western Mountain Initiative: predicting ecosystem responses to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Peterson, David L.; Wilson, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Mountain ecosystems of the western United States provide irreplaceable goods and services such as water, timber, biodiversity, and recreational opportunities, but their responses to climatic changes are complex and not well understood. The Western Mountain Initiative (WMI), a collaboration between USGS and U.S. Forest Service scientists, catalyzes assessment and synthesis of the effects of disturbance and climate change across western mountain areas, focusing on national parks and surrounding national forests. The WMI takes an ecosystem approach to science, integrating research across science disciplines at scales ranging from field studies to global trends.

  5. Identification and Analysis of Symbolic Elements in the Mountain Tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingchun; HU

    2015-01-01

    As a traditional tourist type,mountain tourism now is highly focused on and it has already accumulated a great many academic papers in different types of researches. However,there still exists improvement in positive and qualitative study. This paper uses Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique( ZMET) as the study method to identify,sort and present all the typical elements in the mountain tourism context,aiming to find out the potential expectations and needs hiding in the subconscious of the mountain tourist.

  6. MOUNTAIN-SCALE COUPLED PROCESSES (TH/THC/THM)MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.S. Wu

    2005-08-24

    This report documents the development and validation of the mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic (TH), thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC), and thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) models. These models provide technical support for screening of features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842], Section 2.1.1.1). The purpose and validation criteria for these models are specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Drift-Scale Abstraction) Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842]). Model results are used to support exclusion of certain FEPs from the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model on the basis of low consequence, consistent with the requirements of 10 CFR 63.342 [DIRS 173273]. Outputs from this report are not direct feeds to the TSPA-LA. All the FEPs related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ and SZ flow are discussed in Sections 6 and 7 of this report. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The mountain-scale TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH model captures mountain-scale three-dimensional flow effects, including lateral diversion and mountain-scale flow patterns. The mountain-scale THC model evaluates TH effects on

  7. Meteorites from Grove Mountains, Antarctica:An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道德; 林杨挺

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-two meteorites were collected in Grove Mountains area, Antarctica,by the 15th and 16th Chinese Antarctic Research Expeditions (CHINARE). Petrography and mineral chemistry of these meteorites are reviewed, among which there are one Martian lherzolite, one eucrite, one ungrouped iron meteorite, and six unequilibrated and twenty-three equilibrated ordinary chondrites. An equilibrated ordinary chondrite GRV 98004 (H5) has an unusually low cosmic-ray exposure age. Meteorite concentrating processes in Grove Mountains area are discussed. In addition, future studies on Grove Mountains (GRV) meteorites are proposed.

  8. MOUNTAIN-SCALE COUPLED PROCESSES (TH/THC/THM) MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the development and validation of the mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic (TH), thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC), and thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) models. These models provide technical support for screening of features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842], Section 2.1.1.1). The purpose and validation criteria for these models are specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Drift-Scale Abstraction) Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842]). Model results are used to support exclusion of certain FEPs from the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model on the basis of low consequence, consistent with the requirements of 10 CFR 63.342 [DIRS 173273]. Outputs from this report are not direct feeds to the TSPA-LA. All the FEPs related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ and SZ flow are discussed in Sections 6 and 7 of this report. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The mountain-scale TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH model captures mountain-scale three-dimensional flow effects, including lateral diversion and mountain-scale flow patterns. The mountain-scale THC model evaluates TH effects on water and gas

  9. The ABL due to a Mountain Pass and Coriolis Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Grisogono, B.; Enger, L.; Belušić, D.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Idealized airflow over a mountain with a pass is studied using a numerical mesoscale model with a trustful higher-order turbulence parameterization scheme. A uniformly stratified inflow of 8 m/s over mountain, 100km x 20km x 1km, yields Froude number 0.6, while Rossby number along the flow ranges from 7.6 to infinity. A pass drops the mountain top to ~ 400m locally increasing Froude number and modifying the overall wave breaking and the ABL. In the presence of the Earth rotation, f ...

  10. 75 FR 37353 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Mountain Plover as Threatened

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... September 9, 2003, decision to withdraw the proposed listing of the mountain plover (68 FR 53083) and to.... Mountain plovers breed in the western Great Plains and Rocky Mountain States from the Canadian border to... to list the mountain plover described the life history, ecology, and habitat use of the...

  11. Mantle Subduction and Uplift of Intracontinental Mountains: A Case Study from the Chinese Tianshan Mountains within Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyi; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Xixi; Jiang, Mei; Li, Yaping; Zhu, Zhixin; Feng, Qianwen; Wang, Lijia; Sun, Guihua; Liu, Jianfeng; Yang, Tiannan

    2016-06-29

    The driving mechanism that is responsible for the uplift of intracontinental mountains has puzzled geologists for decades. This study addresses this issue by using receiver function images across the Chinese Tianshan Mountains and available data from both deep seismic profiles and surface structural deformation. The near-surface structural deformation shows that the Tianshan crust experienced strong shortening during the Cenozoic. The receiver function image across the Tianshan Mountains reveals that the lithosphere of the Junggar Basin to the north became uncoupled along the Moho, and the mantle below the Moho subducted southwards beneath the northern part of the Tianshan Mountains, thereby thickening the overlying crust. Similar deep structures, however, are not observed under the Tarim Basin and the adjacent southern Tianshan Mountains. This difference in the deep structures correlates with geomorphological features in the region. Thus, a new model of mantle subduction, herein termed M-type subduction, is proposed for the mountain-building processes in intracontinental compressional settings. The available geomorphological, geological and seismic data in the literatures show that this model is probably suitable for other high, linear mountains within the continent.

  12. Mantle Subduction and Uplift of Intracontinental Mountains: A Case Study from the Chinese Tianshan Mountains within Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyi; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Xixi; Jiang, Mei; Li, Yaping; Zhu, Zhixin; Feng, Qianwen; Wang, Lijia; Sun, Guihua; Liu, Jianfeng; Yang, Tiannan

    2016-06-01

    The driving mechanism that is responsible for the uplift of intracontinental mountains has puzzled geologists for decades. This study addresses this issue by using receiver function images across the Chinese Tianshan Mountains and available data from both deep seismic profiles and surface structural deformation. The near-surface structural deformation shows that the Tianshan crust experienced strong shortening during the Cenozoic. The receiver function image across the Tianshan Mountains reveals that the lithosphere of the Junggar Basin to the north became uncoupled along the Moho, and the mantle below the Moho subducted southwards beneath the northern part of the Tianshan Mountains, thereby thickening the overlying crust. Similar deep structures, however, are not observed under the Tarim Basin and the adjacent southern Tianshan Mountains. This difference in the deep structures correlates with geomorphological features in the region. Thus, a new model of mantle subduction, herein termed M-type subduction, is proposed for the mountain-building processes in intracontinental compressional settings. The available geomorphological, geological and seismic data in the literatures show that this model is probably suitable for other high, linear mountains within the continent.

  13. Effect of latitude and mountain height on the timberline (Betula pubescens ssp. czerpanovii elevation along the central Scandinavian mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid Odland

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previously published isoline maps of Fennoscandian timberlines show that their highest elevations lie in the high mountain areas in central south Norway and from there the limits decrease in all directions. These maps are assumed to show differences in “climatic forest limits”, but the isoline patterns indicate that factors other than climate may be decisive in most of the area. Possibly the effects of ‘massenerhebung’ and the “summit syndrome” may locally have major effects on the timberline elevation. The main aim of the present study is to quantify the effect of latitude and mountain height on the regional variation of mountain birch timberline elevation. The study is a statistical analysis of previous published data on the timberline elevation and nearby mountain height. Selection of the study sites has been stratified to the Scandinavian mountain range (the Scandes from 58 to 71o N where the timberlines reach their highest elevations. The data indicates that only the high mountain massifs in S Norway and N Sweden are sufficiently high to allow birch forests to reach their potential elevations. Stepwise regression shows that latitude explains 70.9% while both latitude and mountain explain together 89.0% of the timberline variation. Where the mountains are low (approximately 1000 m higher than the measured local timberlines effects of the summit syndrome will lower the timberline elevation substantially and climatically determined timberlines will probably not have been reached. This indicates that models of future timberlines and thereby the alpine area extent in a warmer world may result in unrealistic conclusions without taking account of local mountain heights.

  14. Task 5 -- Tectonic and neotectonic framework of the Yucca Mountain region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Progress on the tectonics of the Yucca Mountain region is described. Results are reported in the following: regional overview of structure and geometry of Meozoic thrust faults and folds in the area around Yucca Mountain; Evaluation of pre-middle Miocecne structure of Grapevine Mountains and it`s relation to Bare Mountain; Kinematic analysis of low and high angle normal faults in the Bare Mountain area, and comparison of structures with the Grapevine Mountains; and Evaluation of paleomagnetic character of tertiary and pre-tertiary units in the Yucca Mountain region.

  15. The Glacial Morphology of the North of Çapans Mountains Rize

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRGEN, Gürcan

    2003-01-01

    Çapans Mountains are situated in East Black Sea Region. These mountains are between Verçenik Mountains (3709 m) and Demirkapı Mountains (3376 m). Çapans peaks have an average altitude of 3000-3300 m. These mountains are important glaciations in Northern Anatolia Mountains. The heights of Çapans Mountains are covered with perennial snow and glaciers in Pleistocene era. There are 4 glacier troughs a lot of cirques and many glacial lakes in this area. These glacier forms are 10-12 kilomete...

  16. Tectonic and neotectonic framwork of the Yucca Mountain region, Task 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1993-09-30

    Research continued on the tectonic and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain region. Highlights from projects include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Funeral Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; development of structural models for pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; Paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain; sampling of pegmatites in Bullfrog Hills and Funeral Mountains for U-Pb isotopic analysis; and review and analysis of Mesozoic structure between eastern sierra and Nevada test Site.

  17. PUSH-PULL FACTORS IN MOUNTAIN RESORTS--A Case Study of Huangshan Mountain as World Heritage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG De-gen

    2004-01-01

    The push-pull framework provides a useful approach for examining the tourist motivation. This paper takes the world heritage-Huangshan Mountain as a sample. From the two different aspects of pull and push factors, the underlying features of visitors' motives to Huangshan Mountain are analyzed with the help of factor analysis. As a result,five push factors and four pull factors are identified. Further analyses investigate differences in the push and pull factors among different socio-demographic subgroups with one-way ANOVA analysis. The result of the study affords us useful references for development, protection and marketing expansion of mountain resorts.

  18. Minerals in the foods eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelliere, Emma C; DeAngelis, Nicole; Nkurunungi, John Bosco; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M

    2014-01-01

    Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods.

  19. Minerals in the foods eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Cancelliere

    Full Text Available Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods.

  20. The Trail Inventory of Mountain Longleaf NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Mountain Longleaf National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  1. Hanford Reach - Strategic Control of Phragmites Within Saddle Mountain Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Saddle Lakes Fire of 2015 burned 14,200 acres of habitat on Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge, part of the Hanford Reach National Monument. Within the...

  2. The development of mountain risk governance: challenges for application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, S.; Stötter, J.

    2015-01-01

    The complexity the management of mountain risks in the Alps has considerably increased since its institutionalisation in the late nineteenth century. In the history of approaches to dealing with mountain risks four successive paradigms can be distinguished on the basis of key indicators such as guiding principles, characteristic elements and typical instruments: "hazard protection", "hazard management", "risk management", and "risk governance". In this contribution, special attention is paid to the development of hazard zone planning and the growing importance of communication and participation over the course of this transformation. At present, the risk management paradigm has reached maturity. In the Alps, risk governance frameworks are not yet applied to risks from natural hazards. Based on a historical analysis, the suitability and applicability of general risk governance frameworks in the context of mountain risks are discussed. Necessary adaptations (e.g., in administration, educational, and legal structures) are proposed for the upcoming transformation towards mountain risk governance.

  3. THE GENERAL HYDROTECHNICAL PLANNING POTENTIAL OF ŢIBLEŞ MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. HOGNOGI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The General Hydrotechnical Planning Potential of Ţibleş Mountains. The need to supply the cities with water, to provide runoff control and to ensure the efficient use of the hydropower generation potential are the most important motivations of the hydropower planning on water courses. These reasons also prevail in the Ţibleş Mountains, a mountainous area with actual planning conditions for the improvement of the existing situation, both for the mountain area and for the surrounding area. The assessment of the general hydrotechnical planning potential implied the identification of favourable (hydrographical potential, the hydropower surface and linear potential or restrictive (erodibility elements, as well as imperative elements (water supply and flood occurrence risk. All these were identified and quantified for sites subsequently subjected to the analysis of natural e as a support for development.

  4. Outdoor thermal environmental research of the mountainous city by GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The study of urban outdoor thermal environment was carried out in one of the mountainous cities by using geography information system(GIS) technique which is connected with predicting and evaluating models for the outdoor thermal environment, monitoring data and simulating data. A prediction and evaluation system were set up.A typical mountainous city, i. e. , Yunyang city in Chongqing in China, was taken as an example, its urbanization trend and population growth was predicted and evaluated. The heat island intensity and its trend were simulated, the temperature field, velocity field and the humidity field were analyzed. The results show that GIS is an effective tool to deal with the outdoor thermal environment, especially for the mountainous cities with special geographical particularities. GIS can be used in the environmental management and the city planning especially for the mountainous cities.

  5. Bison Tissue Contaminant Study - Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — There is a well-documented history of disturbance and contamination from previous activities on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. In April 2013,...

  6. A simple method to estimate fractal dimension of mountain surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kolwankar, Kiran M

    2014-01-01

    Fractal surfaces are ubiquitous in nature as well as in the sciences. The examples range from the cloud boundaries to the corroded surfaces. Fractal dimension gives a measure of the irregularity in the object under study. We present a simple method to estimate the fractal dimension of mountain surface. We propose to use easily available satellite images of lakes for this purpose. The fractal dimension of the boundary of a lake, which can be extracted using image analysis softwares, can be determined easily which gives the estimate of the fractal dimension of the mountain surface and hence a quantitative characterization of the irregularity of the topography of the mountain surface. This value will be useful in validating models of mountain formation

  7. Final Environmental Impact Statement Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This final environmental impact statement identifies the purpose and need for a management plan; outlines the legal foundation for management of the Rocky Mountain...

  8. Acute Mountain Sickness and Hemoconcentration in Next Generation Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the threat astronauts face from acute mountain sickness (AMS). It includes information about the symptoms of AMS, the potential threat to astronauts, and future efforts to mitigate the AMS threat.

  9. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Restoration Site Histories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project contains a collection of restoration site histories for the cleanup restoration at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. This project...

  10. The potential of sustainable tourism development at the Stara mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragović Ranko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, the greatest part of the Stara mountain had been subjected to anthropogenic processes which induced serious ecologic consequences and diminished the worth of the potential for tourism development. The present study investigates the possibilities for the development of sustainable tourism of the Stara mountain with focus on analyzing the natural environment and the consequences that may be induced by preparations for more intensive tourist exploitation (technical interventions. The importance is stressed of anti-erosion protection and of the measures for improvement of biodiversity and geo-diversity of the Stara mountain. The necessity of finding the modes of more rational exploitation of natural and anthropogenic qualities of the Stara mountain is indicated.

  11. Gardening and Agricultural Application in Chengde Summer Mountain Resort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping; LI; Yiyong; ZHANG; Haicheng; YU

    2013-01-01

    Taking Chengde Summer Mountain Resort for example, agricultural development and application in gardening practices in the flourishing ages of Kangxi and Qianlong, and cultural connotations of valuing the fundamental role of agriculture in national economy were analyzed.

  12. Bull Mountain Basin Boundary from 1999 National Coal Resource Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representing the extent of the Bull Mountain coal basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National...

  13. Land Protection Plan: Rocky Mountain Front Conservation Area Expansion

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Land Protection Plan for Rocky Mountain Front Conservation Area provides a description of the project, a description of the area and its resources, threats to...

  14. Modules for mountain shelters; Mit Arbeitspunkt auf der Almhuette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, Katrin

    2011-07-01

    Formerly, autonomous systems installed in mountain shelters or in remote African regions had to be equipped with offgrid solar modules. This is no longer necessary. With MPPT charge control elements, low-cost standard modules can be used as well.

  15. Rocky Mountains offer plenty to keep producers looking for more

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duey, R.

    1995-12-01

    Throughout the Rocky Mountain region, geological variety offers everything from coalbed methane to helium and carbon dioxide, and producers keep plugging hoping that an upswing in prices could make the region more lucrative.

  16. Aquatic management plan : [Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aquatic management plan for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) provides management direction and guidance to ensure the conservation of...

  17. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  18. [Summer work study report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report on research and observations at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal for the summer of 1982.This report is divided into 8 major sections or individual logs. The first...

  19. Geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegtly, Nickolas E.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas, during June-December 1975, resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie ' basement ' rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present. (USGS)

  20. Fault kinematics and stress fields in the Rwenzori Mountains, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachau, Till; Koehn, Daniel; Stamps, D. Sarah; Lindenfeld, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The Rwenzori Mountains in western Uganda form an active rift-transfer zone in the western branch of the East African Rift System. Here we quantify local stress fields in high resolution from field observations of fault structures to shed light on the complex, polyphase tectonics expected in transfer zones. We apply the multiple inverse method, which is optimized for heterogeneous fault-slip data, to the northern and central Rwenzori Mountains. Observations from the northern Rwenzori Mountains show larger heterogeneity than data from the central Rwenzori, including unexpected compressional features; thus the local stress field indicates polyphase transpressional tectonics. We suggest that transpression here is linked to rotational and translational movements of the neighboring Victoria block relative to the Rwenzori block that includes strong overprinting relationships. Stress inversions of data from the central Rwenzori Mountains indicate two distinct local stress fields. These results suggest that the Rwenzori block consists of smaller blocks.

  1. Wilderness study areas : Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on two wilderness study areas located in the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge. The report only contains a map and summaries of...

  2. Rocky Mountain Arsenal is showing off its wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on the first tours of wildlife habitat at Rocky Mountain Arsenal prior to refuge establishment. Tours are sponsored by the Denver Audubon Society.

  3. Mountain Longleaf National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mountain Longleaf National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of...

  4. Fe Oxidation State in Microtektites from the Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuli, G.; Cicconi, M. R.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Paris, E.; Pratesi, G.; Folco, L.

    2012-03-01

    Fe oxidation state of microtektites from the Transantarctic mountains is consistent with that of Australasian tektites and microtektites. Despite the long distance from the presumed impact site, the Fe oxidation state does not show appreciable variation.

  5. Ecology of Land Cover Change in Glaciated Tropical Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Young

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical mountains contain unique biological diversity, and are subject to many consequences of global climate change, exasperated by concurrent socioeconomic shifts. Glaciers are in a negative mass balance, exposing substrates to primary succession and altering downslope wetlands and streams. A review of recent trends and future predictions suggests a likely reduction in areas of open habitat for species of high mountains due to greater woody plant cover, accompanied by land use shifts by farmers and pastoralists along the environmental gradients of tropical mountains. Research is needed on the biodiversity and ecosystem consequences of successional change, including the direct effects of retreating glaciers and the indirect consequences of combined social and ecological drivers in lower elevations. Areas in the high mountains that are protected for nature conservation or managed collectively by local communities represent opportunities for integrated research and development approaches that may provide ecological spaces for future species range shifts.

  6. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Habitat Management Plan identifies important wildlife resources on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge and the management strategies that will...

  7. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Brook Trout Genetics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) is committed to monitoring ecological and evolutionary functions and processes of park ecosystems. Brook trout...

  8. Fractal analysis in digital cartographic modeling of Miroč mountain

    OpenAIRE

    Valjarević Aleksandar; Živković Dragica; Petrašević Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Miroc is a mountain in Eastern Serbia placed between Donji Milanovac and Tekija in Negotinska Krajina. The highest mountain summit is Veliki Strbac, 768 metres above sea level. Miroc is the most protruding part of Eastern Serbia and the most western part of the Djerdap Mountain Massive. The mountain is surrounded by the Danube from all the sides. Miroc Mountain, Veliki and Mali Srbac, the Danube River, the Djerdap Gorge, Veliki and Mali Kazan are the real p...

  9. Mountain-Scale Coupled Processes (TH/THC/THM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dixon

    2004-02-09

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the development of the Mountain-Scale Thermal-Hydrological (TH), Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical (THC), and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) Models and evaluate the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This Model Report was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.12.7), and was developed in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, Models. In this Model Report, any reference to ''repository'' means the nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, and any reference to ''drifts'' means the emplacement drifts at the repository horizon. This Model Report provides the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses for analyzing mountain-scale hydrological/chemical/mechanical changes and predict flow behavior in response to heat release by radioactive decay from the nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH Model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH Model captures mountain-scale three dimensional (3-D) flow effects, including lateral diversion at the PTn/TSw interface and mountain-scale flow patterns. The Mountain-Scale THC Model evaluates TH effects on water and gas chemistry, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and the resulting impact to UZ hydrological properties, flow and transport. The THM Model addresses changes

  10. Mountain-Scale Coupled Processes (TH/THC/THM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the development of the Mountain-Scale Thermal-Hydrological (TH), Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical (THC), and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) Models and evaluate the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This Model Report was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.12.7), and was developed in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, Models. In this Model Report, any reference to ''repository'' means the nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, and any reference to ''drifts'' means the emplacement drifts at the repository horizon. This Model Report provides the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses for analyzing mountain-scale hydrological/chemical/mechanical changes and predict flow behavior in response to heat release by radioactive decay from the nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH Model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH Model captures mountain-scale three dimensional (3-D) flow effects, including lateral diversion at the PTn/TSw interface and mountain-scale flow patterns. The Mountain-Scale THC Model evaluates TH effects on water and gas chemistry, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and the resulting impact to UZ hydrological properties, flow and transport. The THM Model addresses changes in permeability due to mechanical and thermal disturbances in

  11. Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grodek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales – Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel – both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand, which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources. This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraced homes and gardens created areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens and created favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1–4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc. generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 22% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively. During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, it was found, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is

  12. Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grodek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales – Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel – both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand, which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources.

    This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraces with homes and gardens create areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens create favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1–4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc. generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 35% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively. During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant

  13. Museum of Wangwu Mountain International Geo-park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baofeng LI; Weining ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The design for Wangwu Mountain Geological Park Museum emphasizes protecting terrain, geomorpho-logy and natural vegetation, utilization of local materials and traditional craftsmanship, and integrates multi-spe-cialty design into a whole. The idea of green architecture organically guides the designer to create a museum in a remote mountain and creates a special place that is geo-logically significant in architectural language.

  14. The Pahrump Valley Museum Yucca Mountain History Exhibit - 12389

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its management of the Yucca Mountain project, the Department of Energy maintained several information centers to provide public access to information about the status of the Yucca Mountain project. Those information centers contained numerous displays, historical information, and served as the location for the Department's outreach activities. As the Department of Energy dealt with reduced budgets in 2009 following the Obama Administration's intent to terminate the program, it shut down its information centers. Nye County considered it important to maintain a public information center where people would be able to find information about what was happening with the Yucca Mountain project. Initially the Nye County assumed responsibility for the information center in Pahrump; eventually the County made a decision to move that information center into an expansion of the existing Pahrump Valley Museum. Nye County undertook an effort to update the information about the Yucca Mountain project and modernize the displays. A parallel effort to create a source of historical information where people could find out about the Yucca Mountain project was undertaken. To accompany the Yucca Mountain exhibits in the Pahrump Valley Museum, Nye County also sponsored a series of interviews to document, through oral histories, as much information about the Yucca Mountain project as could be found in these interviews. The paper presents an overview of the Yucca Mountain exhibits in the Pahrump Valley Museum, and the accompanying oral histories. An important conclusion that can be drawn from the interviews is that construction of a repository in Nevada should have been conceptualized as but the first step in transforming the economy of central Nevada by turning part of the Nevada National Security Site and adjoining area into a world-class energy production and energy research center. (authors)

  15. Using noble gases to investigate mountain-front recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, A.H.; Solomon, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Mountain-front recharge is a major component of recharge to inter-mountain basin-fill aquifers. The two components of mountain-front recharge are (1) subsurface inflow from the mountain block (subsurface inflow), and (2) infiltration from perennial and ephemeral streams near the mountain front (stream seepage). The magnitude of subsurface inflow is of central importance in source protection planning for basin-fill aquifers and in some water rights disputes, yet existing estimates carry large uncertainties. Stable isotope ratios can indicate the magnitude of mountain-front recharge relative to other components, but are generally incapable of distinguishing subsurface inflow from stream seepage. Noble gases provide an effective tool for determining the relative significance of subsurface inflow, specifically. Dissolved noble gas concentrations allow for the determination of recharge temperature, which is correlated with recharge elevation. The nature of this correlation cannot be assumed, however, and must be derived for the study area. The method is applied to the Salt Lake Valley Principal Aquifer in northern Utah to demonstrate its utility. Samples from 16 springs and mine tunnels in the adjacent Wasatch Mountains indicate that recharge temperature decreases with elevation at about the same rate as the mean annual air temperature, but is on average about 2??C cooler. Samples from 27 valley production wells yield recharge elevations ranging from the valley elevation (about 1500 m) to mid-mountain elevation (about 2500 m). Only six of the wells have recharge elevations less than 1800 m. Recharge elevations consistently greater than 2000 m in the southeastern part of the basin indicate that subsurface inflow constitutes most of the total recharge in this area. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Paleogene Sediment Character of Mountain Front Central Sumatra Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Suandhi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i3.164The SE-NW trending Mountain Front of Central Sumatra Basin is located in the southern part of the basin. The Mountain Front is elongated parallel to the Bukit Barisan Mountain, extending from the Regencies of North Padang Lawas (Gunung Tua in the northwest, Rokan Hulu, Kampar, Kuantan Singingi, and Inderagiri Hulu Regency in the southeast. The Palaeogene sediments also represent potential exploration objectives in Central Sumatra Basin, especially in the mountain front area. Limited detailed Palaeogene sedimentology information cause difficulties in hydrocarbon exploration in this area. Latest age information and attractive sediment characters based on recent geological fieldwork (by chaining method infer Palaeogene sediment potential of the area. The Palaeogene sedimentary rock of the mountain front is elongated from northwest to southeast. Thickness of the sedimentary unit varies between 240 - 900 m. Palynology samples collected recently indicate that the oldest sedimentary unit is Middle Eocene and the youngest one is Late Oligocene. This latest age information will certainly cause significant changes to the existing surface geological map of the mountain front area. Generally, the Palaeogene sediments of the mountain front area are syn-rift sediments. The lower part of the Palaeogene deposit consists of fluvial facies of alluvial fan and braided river facies sediments. The middle part consists of fluvial meandering facies, lacustrine delta facies, and turbidity lacustrine facies sediments. The upper part consists of fluvial braided facies and transitional marine facies sediments. Volcanism in the area is detected from the occurrence of volcanic material as lithic material and spotted bentonite layers in the middle part of the mountain front area. Late rifting phase is indicated by the presence of transitional marine facies in the upper part of the Palaeogene sediments.

  17. Efficiency of group work in harvesting mountainous broadleaf thinning stands

    OpenAIRE

    Legat, Nejc; Zečić, Željko; Krpan, Ante P. B.

    2016-01-01

    Group work was researched for felling, processing, skidding and quality inspection activities in mountainous broadleaf thinning stands with approximately the same terrain and stand conditions. The stands were 55 and 70years old. In the forest communities of the mountainous beech forest with dead nettle (Lamio orvale - Fagetum sylvaticae/Ht. 1938) and the forests of the sessile oak and horn beam with beech (Epimedio - Carpinetum betuli var. Fagus sylvatica/Ht. 1938/Borth.1963), the main tree s...

  18. Current research trends in mountain biodiversity in NW Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Väisänen, Risto A.

    1998-01-01

    Focusing on four themes in relation to biodiversity (vegetation science, keystone grazers, long-term studies and protected areas), a synthesis of current research in the mountain areas of Fennoscandia, Iceland and Scotland is presented. Recent relevant advances in vegetation science include classifications of mountain habitats which together with species distribution maps offer new possibilities for analysis. Generalisations emerging from comparisons of the ecology and ecophysiology of plants...

  19. Nobel Laureate 2000 Gao Xingjian and His Novel Soul Mountain

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Mabel

    2000-01-01

    In her article, "Nobel Laureate 2000 Gao Xingjian and his Novel Soul Mountain," Mabel Lee introduces Gao Xingjian, the winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature of 2000. Lee is the translator of several of Gao's works from the Chinese into English, including the Nobel's main text of reference, Soul Mountain (first published in Chinese in 1990). Lee's article combines descriptions of Gao's biographical background and its relevance to his work and writing with a brief analysis of literary aspects...

  20. WESTERN CHARPATHIAN RURAL MOUNTAIN TOURISM MAPPING THROUGH CLUSTER METHODOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Elena TOMA; Andreea-Cristiana LINCĂ

    2013-01-01

    Rural tourism from Western Carpathian Mountain was characterized in the last years by a low occupancy rate and a decline in tourist arrivals, due, beside of the direct effects of economic crises, to the remote location of mountain villages and to the low quality of infrastructure. For this reason we consider that the implementation of complex and integrated products based on tour thematic circuits represents a real opportunity to develop local rural tourism industry. The aim of this paper is ...

  1. Road and Street Centerlines, Summit Mountain (Sugarloaf Mountain), Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Summit Mountain (Sugarloaf Mountain)'....

  2. Pyritic ash-flow tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yucca Mountain site is underlain by a 1,500-m-thick Miocene volcanic sequence that comprises part of the southwestern Nevada volcanic field. Rocks of this sequence, which consists mainly of ash-flow tuff sheets with minor flows and bedded tuff, host precious metal mineralization in several areas as near as 10 km from the site. In two such areas, the Bullfrog and Bare Mountain mining districts, production and reserves total over 60 t gold and 150 t silver. Evidence of similar precious metal mineralization at the Yucca Mountain site may lead to mining or exploratory drilling in the future, compromising the security of the repository. The authors believe that most of the pyrite encountered by drilling at Yucca Mountain was introduced as pyroclastic ejecta, rather than by in situ hydrothermal activity. Pyritic ejecta in ash-flow tuff are not reported in the literature, but there is no reason to believe that the Yucca Mountain occurrence is unique. The pyritic ejecta are considered by us to be part of a preexisting hydrothermal system that was partially or wholly destroyed during eruption of the tuff units. Because it was introduced as ejecta in tuff units that occur at depths of about 1,000 m, such pyrite does not constitute evidence of shallow mineralization at the proposed repository site; however, the pyrite may be evidence for mineralization deep beneath Yucca Mountain or as much as tens of kilometers from it

  3. GPR Surveying in the kernel area of Grove Mountains, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zemin; TAN Zhi; AI Songtao; LIU Haiyan; CHE Guowei

    2014-01-01

    The Grove Mountains, located between the Zhongshan Station and Dome A, are a very important area in inland Antarctic research. China has organized ifve investigations of the Grove Mountains, encompassing the geological structure, ancient climate, meteorites, ice-movement monitoring, basic mapping, meteorological observations, and other multi-disciplinary observational studies. During the 26th Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition in 2010, the Grove Mountains investigation team applied specialized ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to survey subglacial topography in the eastern kernel area of the Grove Mountains. In this paper, we processed GPS and GPR data gathered in the ifeld and drew, for the ifrst time, two subglacial topographic maps of the Grove Mountains kernel area using professional graphics software. The preliminary results reveal the mystery of the nunatak landform of this area, give an exploratory sense of the real bedrock landforms, and indicate a possible sedimentary basin under the Pliocene epoch fossil ice in the Grove Mountains area. Additionally, it has been proven from cross-sectional analysis between Mount Harding and the Zakharoff ridge that the box-valley shape between two nunataks has already matured.

  4. The Region of the Tara Mountain – Entrepreneurial Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Lukić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tara Mountain is situated on the west border of Serbia. Terrain observation has provided comparative analysis of attractive mountains in Serbia. It has explained the position of the Tara Mountain in different important categories (geographic, touristic etc. Literature sources have helped in the analysis of the past entrepreneurial initiatives. Some important facts are provided by the questionnaire, in the form of the interview. The article has presented entrepreneurial initiatives on the two levels. “Time level” has divided entrepreneurial initiatives on: the time before socialist period, socialist period, then initiatives in the period from 1991 to 1999 and initiatives from the period of transition and owner transformation. “Space level” has differed entrepreneurial initiatives from the two points of view. Depending on the relief, different entrepreneurial initiatives have found “perfect place under the sun” on the different exposure of the Tara Mountain and on the different altitude levels. Short survey of genders and professions of entrepreneurs is given. Synthesis of explorations results has showed some common characteristics of all entrepreneurial initiatives. Data obtained in the Republic Statistic Bureau have used for analyze of tourist circulation in the last ten years. It has contributed illustration of the last results of new entrepreneurial initiatives. The article search the answer on the following questions: How entrepreneurial initiatives contributed to the development of the Tara Mountain? Which entrepreneurial initiatives can improve the quality of life on the Tara Mountain? Using interview, the answer was gotten and formed by locals, tourists and experts.

  5. Geodesy and contemporary strain in the Yucca Mountain region, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geodetic surveys provide important information for estimating recent ground movement in support of seismotectonic investigations of the potential nuclear-waste storage site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Resurveys of established level lines document up to 22 millimeters of local subsidence related to the 1992 Little Skull Mountain earthquake, which is consistent with seismic data that show normal-slip rupture and with data from a regional trilateration network. Comparison of more recent surveys with a level line first established in 1907 suggests 3 to 13 centimeters of subsidence in the Crater Flat-Yucca Mountain structural depression that coincides with the Bare Mountain fault; small uplifts also were recorded near normal faults at Yucca Mountain. No significant deformation was recorded by a trilateration network over a 10-year period, except for coseismic deformation associated with the Little Skull Mountain earthquake, but meaningful results are limited by the short temporal period of that data set and the small rate of movement. Very long baseline interferometry that is capable of measuring direction and rates of deformation is likewise limited by a short history of observation, but rates of deformation between 8 and 13 millimeters per year across the basin and Range province are indicated by the available data

  6. Acute mountain sickness: controversies and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Peter; Bailey, Damian M; Berger, Marc M; Knauth, Michael; Baumgartner, Ralf W

    2004-01-01

    This review discusses the impact of recent publications on pathophysiologic concepts and on practical aspects of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Magnetic resonance imaging studies do not provide evidence of total brain volume increase nor edema within the first 6 to 10 h of exposure to hypoxia despite symptoms of AMS. After 16 to 32 h at about 4500 m, brain volume increases by 0.8% to 2.7%, but morphological changes do not clearly correlate with symptoms of AMS, and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure was unchanged from normoxic values in individuals with AMS. These data do not support the prevailing hypothesis that AMS is caused by cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure. Direct measurement of increased oxygen radicals in hypoxia and a first study reducing AMS when lowering oxygen radicals by antioxidants suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of AMS. Placebo-controlled trials demonstrate that theophylline significantly attenuates periodic breathing without improving arterial oxygen saturation during sleep. Its effects on AMS are marginal and clearly inferior to acetazolamide. A most recent large trial with Ginkgo biloba clearly showed that this drug does not prevent AMS in a low-risk setting in which acetazolamide in a low dose of 2 x 125 mg was effective. Therefore, acetazolamide remains the drug of choice for prevention and the recommended dose remains 2 x 250 mg daily until a lower dose has been tested in a high-risk setting and larger clinical trials with antioxidants have been performed.

  7. Controls of tor formation, Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, Bradley W.; Skelton, Alasdair; Martel, Stephen J.; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Jansson, Krister N.; Hättestrand, Clas

    2014-02-01

    Tors occur in many granitic landscapes and provide opportunities to better understand differential weathering. We assess tor formation in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland, by examining correlation of tor location and size with grain size and the spacing of steeply dipping joints. We infer a control on these relationships and explore its potential broader significance for differential weathering and tor formation. We also assess the relationship between the formation of subhorizontal joints in many tors and local topographic shape by evaluating principle surface curvatures from a digital elevation model of the Cairngorms. We then explore the implications of these joints for tor formation. We conclude that the Cairngorm tors have formed in kernels of relatively coarse grained granite. Tor volumes increase with grain size and the spacing of steeply dipping joints. We infer that the steeply dipping joints largely formed during pluton cooling and are more widely spaced in tor kernels because of slower cooling rates. Preferential tor formation in coarser granite with a wider joint spacing that is more easily grusified indicates that joint spacing is a dominant control on differential weathering. Sheet jointing is well developed in tors located on relatively high convex surfaces. This jointing formed after the gross topography of the Cairngorms was established and before tor emergence. The presence of closely spaced (tens of centimeters), subhorizontal sheeting joints in tors indicates that these tors, and similarly sheeted tors elsewhere, formed either after subaerial exposure of bedrock or have progressively emerged from a regolith only a few meters thick.

  8. Floristic study of Cheondeungsan Mountain in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ro-Young Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of native plants of Cheondeungsan Mountain (807 m, N 37°05'00“–37°05'30”, E 128°00'0“–128°02'0” in Chungcheongbuk-do was determined and the major flora were identified. During field investigations carried out from May 2011 to October 2011, 87 families, 254 genera, and 369 taxonomic groups (327 species, 4 subspecies, 33 varieties, and 5 forms were confirmed, and the distribution of 219 taxonomic groups was discovered for the first time. The distribution of four endemic plants of Korea, including Ajuga spectabilis Nakai and Salvia chanryoenica Nakai, and that of Penthorum chinense Pursh, a Grade V specific plant species, was found. There were 20 taxa of naturalized plants at Cheondeungsan; the growth and development of plants that are harmful to the ecosystem, such as Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Ambrosia trifida L., Eupatorium rugosum Houtt., and Aster pilosus Willd., was observed around the forest paths and lowlands.

  9. BIOSPHERE MODELING AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the biosphere modeling efforts are to assess how radionuclides potentially released from the proposed repository could be transported through a variety of environmental media. The study of these transport mechanisms, referred to as pathways, is critical in calculating the potential radiation dose to man. Since most of the existing and pending regulations applicable to the Project are radiation dose based standards, the biosphere modeling effort will provide crucial technical input to support the Viability Assessment (VA), the Working Draft of License Application (WDLA), and the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). In 1982, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) was enacted into law. This federal law, which was amended in 1987, addresses the national issue of geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste generated by commercial nuclear power plants, as well as defense programs during the past few decades. As required by the law, the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a site characterization project at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, approximately 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, to determine if the site is suitable for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository

  10. Mercury audit at Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.M.; Jensen, M.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, G.M. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Denver, CO (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This report presents the results of an environmental compliance audit to identify potential mercury-containing equipment in 261 building and 197 tanks at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA). The RMA, located near Denver, Colorado, is undergoing clean up and decommissioning by the Department of the Army. Part of the decommissioning procedure is to ensure that all hazardous wastes are properly identified and disposed of. The purpose of the audit was to identify any mercury spills and mercury-containing instrumentation. The audit were conducted from April 7, 1992, through July 16, 1992, by a two-person team. The team interviewed personnel with knowledge of past uses of the buildings and tanks. Information concerning past mercury spills and the locations and types of instrumentation that contain mercury proved to be invaluable for an accurate survey of the arsenal. The team used a Jerome{reg_sign} 431-X{trademark} Mercury Vapor Analyzer to detect spills and confirm locations of mercury vapor. Twelve detections were recorded during the audit and varied from visible mercury spills to slightly elevated readings in the corners of rooms with past spills. The audit also identified instrumentation that contained mercury. All data have been incorporated into a computerized data base that is compatible with the RMA data base.

  11. Preliminary mapping of surficial geology of Midway Valley Yucca Mountain Project, Nye County, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesling, J.R.; Bullard, T.F.; Swan, F.H.; Perman, R.C.; Angell, M.M. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Gibson, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The tectonics program for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada must evaluate the potential for surface faulting beneath the prospective surface facilities. To help meet this goal, Quaternary surficial mapping studies and photolineament analyses were conducted to provide data for evaluating the location, recency, and style of faulting with Midway Valley at the eastern base of Yucca Mountain, the preferred location of these surface facilities. This interim report presents the preliminary results of this work.

  12. Ecological relations and temporal changes in the pelagial of the high mountain lakes in the Rila Mountains (Bulgaria)

    OpenAIRE

    TRICHKOVA Teodora; Dobrina TEMNISKOVA-TOPALOVA; Maya STOYNEVA; Galerida RAIKOVA-PETROVA; Wesselin NAIDENOW†; Milena HRISTOZOVA; Botev, Ivan; Roumen KALCHEV

    2004-01-01

    The high mountain lakes in the Rila Mountains (Bulgaria) were studied in the years 2000 and 2001 considering the following groups of variables: geography, geology, morphology, hydrology, water chemistry of the pelagial, biomass and size structure of bacterio- phyto- and zooplankton, and occurrence of three fish species. Multivariate analysis (RDA) revealed that the nutrient concentrations in the lakes were significantly influenced by the soil percentage coverage of the catchment area. The exp...

  13. Causal Chains Arising from Climate Change in Mountain Regions: the Core Program of the Mountain Research Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Mountains are a widespread terrestrial feature, covering from 12 to 24 percent of the world's terrestrial surface, depending of the definition. Topographic relief is central to the definition of mountains, to the benefits and costs accruing to society and to the cascade of changes expected from climate change. Mountains capture and store water, particularly important in arid regions and in all areas for energy production. In temperate and boreal regions, mountains have a great range in population densities, from empty to urban, while tropical mountains are often densely settled and farmed. Mountain regions contain a wide range of habitats, important for biodiversity, and for primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy. Climate change interacts with this relief and consequent diversity. Elevation itself may accentuate warming (elevationi dependent warming) in some mountain regions. Even average warming starts complex chains of causality that reverberate through the diverse social ecological mountain systems affecting both the highlands and adjacent lowlands. A single feature of climate change such as higher snow lines affect the climate through albedo, the water cycle through changes in timing of release , water quality through the weathering of newly exposed material, geomorphology through enhanced erosion, plant communities through changes in climatic water balance, and animal and human communities through changes in habitat conditions and resource availabilities. Understanding these causal changes presents a particular interdisciplinary challenge to researchers, from assessing the existence and magnitude of elevation dependent warming and monitoring the full suite of changes within the social ecological system to climate change, to understanding how social ecological systems respond through individual and institutional behavior with repercussions on the long-term sustainability of these systems.

  14. Lessons Learned and Future Challenges for Integrated and Participatory Approaches to Mountain Research——Conclusions from the Mountain Symposium and this Special Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franz Heidhues; Karl Stahr; Uwe Jens Nagel; David Thomas; Andreas Neef

    2006-01-01

    @@ The International Symposium 'Towards Sustainable Livelihoods and Ecosystems in Mountainous Regions', held in Chiang Mai from 7-9 March 2006 (hereafter referred to as 'Mountain Symposium'),brought together a wealth of experience from mountain research and development in four continents. Some of its highlights are presented in this Special Issue.

  15. Estimating abundance of mountain lions from unstructured spatial sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robin E.; Royle, J. Andrew; Desimone, Richard; Schwartz, Michael K.; Edwards, Victoria L.; Pilgrim, Kristy P.; Mckelvey, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are often difficult to monitor because of their low capture probabilities, extensive movements, and large territories. Methods for estimating the abundance of this species are needed to assess population status, determine harvest levels, evaluate the impacts of management actions on populations, and derive conservation and management strategies. Traditional mark–recapture methods do not explicitly account for differences in individual capture probabilities due to the spatial distribution of individuals in relation to survey effort (or trap locations). However, recent advances in the analysis of capture–recapture data have produced methods estimating abundance and density of animals from spatially explicit capture–recapture data that account for heterogeneity in capture probabilities due to the spatial organization of individuals and traps. We adapt recently developed spatial capture–recapture models to estimate density and abundance of mountain lions in western Montana. Volunteers and state agency personnel collected mountain lion DNA samples in portions of the Blackfoot drainage (7,908 km2) in west-central Montana using 2 methods: snow back-tracking mountain lion tracks to collect hair samples and biopsy darting treed mountain lions to obtain tissue samples. Overall, we recorded 72 individual capture events, including captures both with and without tissue sample collection and hair samples resulting in the identification of 50 individual mountain lions (30 females, 19 males, and 1 unknown sex individual). We estimated lion densities from 8 models containing effects of distance, sex, and survey effort on detection probability. Our population density estimates ranged from a minimum of 3.7 mountain lions/100 km2 (95% Cl 2.3–5.7) under the distance only model (including only an effect of distance on detection probability) to 6.7 (95% Cl 3.1–11.0) under the full model (including effects of distance, sex, survey effort, and

  16. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions. PMID:26546596

  17. How the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) breached the Canadian Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Jasmine K; Li, Yisu; Keeling, Christopher I; Yuen, Macaire M S; Boone, Celia K; Cooke, Janice E K; Bohlmann, Joerg; Huber, Dezene P W; Murray, Brent W; Coltman, David W; Sperling, Felix A H

    2014-07-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), a major pine forest pest native to western North America, has extended its range north and eastward during an ongoing outbreak. Determining how the MPB has expanded its range to breach putative barriers, whether physical (nonforested prairie and high elevation of the Rocky Mountains) or climatic (extreme continental climate where temperatures can be below -40 °C), may contribute to our general understanding of range changes as well as management of the current epidemic. Here, we use a panel of 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess population genetic structure, connectivity, and signals of selection within this MPB range expansion. Biallelic SNPs in MPB from southwestern Canada revealed higher genetic differentiation and lower genetic connectivity than in the northern part of its range. A total of 208 unique SNPs were identified using different outlier detection tests, of which 32 returned annotations for products with putative functions in cholesterol synthesis, actin filament contraction, and membrane transport. We suggest that MPB has been able to spread beyond its previous range by adjusting its cellular and metabolic functions, with genome scale differentiation enabling populations to better withstand cooler climates and facilitate longer dispersal distances. Our study is the first to assess landscape-wide selective adaptation in an insect. We have shown that interrogation of genomic resources can identify shifts in genetic diversity and putative adaptive signals in this forest pest species. PMID:24803641

  18. The upper mountain forest and tree response to climate change in south Siberian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, V.; Ranson, J.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate topographic features of high elevation mountain environments govern spatial distribution and climate-driven dynamics of the forests growing there. The study area included upper mountain forest stands formed by larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb) and Siberian pine(Pinus sibirica Du Tour) (elevation range 1800-2600 m) in the mountains of southern Siberia. We used archive maps, satellite and on-ground data from 1960-2002. Data were normalized to avoid bias caused by uneven distribution of elevation, and slope steepness within the analyzed area. Spatial distribution of forest stands were analyzed with respect to topography based on a DEM. The primary results show that mountain forest spatial patterns are anisotropic with respect to topography. At a given elevation, the majority of forests occupied slopes with greater than mean slope values. As the elevation increased forests shifted to steeper slopes. The forest azimuth distribution orientation changed clockwise with elevation increase (total shift was 120 deg) indicating a combined effect of wind and water stress on the observed forest patterns. Warming caused changes in the forest distribution patterns during the last four decades. The area of closed forests increased 1.5 times, which was attributed to increased stand density and tree migration. The migration rate was 1.5 ± 0.9 m yr^-1 and caused a mean forest line shift of 63 ± 37m. Along with upward migration, downward tree migration onto hill slopes was observed. Changes in tree morphology were also noted as wide-spread transformation of the prostrate forms of Siberian pine and larch into erect forms. An analysis of the radial growth increments showed that the widespread vertical transformation of krummholz began in the mid -1980s. Radial and apical growth increments correlated with increase in air temperature (summer and “cold period”) and CO2 concentration. Regeneration responded to temperature increase of 1 deg C by migration

  19. Climate dominated topography in a tectonically active mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, B. A.; Ehlers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Tests of the interactions between tectonic and climate forcing on Earth's topography often focus on the concept of steady-state whereby processes of rock deformation and erosion are opposing and equal. However, when conditions change such as the climate or tectonic rock uplift, then surface processes act to restore the balance between rock deformation and erosion by adjusting topography. Most examples of canonical steady-state mountain ranges lie within the northern hemisphere, which underwent a radical change in the Quaternary due to the onset of widespread glaciation. The activity of glaciers changed erosion rates and topography in many of these mountain ranges, which likely violates steady-state assumptions. With new topographic analysis, and existing patterns of climate and rock uplift, we explore a mountain range previously considered to be in steady-state, the Olympic Mountains, USA. The broad spatial trend in channel steepness values suggests that the locus of high rock uplift rates is coincident with the rugged range core, in a similar position as high temperature and pressure lithologies, but not in the low lying foothills as has been previously suggested by low-temperature thermochronometry. The details of our analysis suggest the dominant topographic signal in the Olympic Mountains is a spatial, and likely temporal, variation in erosional efficiency dictated by orographic precipitation, and Pleistocene glacier ELA patterns. We demonstrate the same topographic effects are recorded in the basin hypsometries of other Cenozoic mountain ranges around the world. The significant glacial overprint on topography makes the argument of mountain range steadiness untenable in significantly glaciated settings. Furthermore, our results suggest that most glaciated Cenozoic ranges are likely still in a mode of readjustment as fluvial systems change topography and erosion rates to equilibrate with rock uplift rates.

  20. ICESat laser altimetry over small mountain glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treichler, Désirée; Kääb, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Using sparsely glaciated southern Norway as a case study, we assess the potential and limitations of ICESat laser altimetry for analysing regional glacier elevation change in rough mountain terrain. Differences between ICESat GLAS elevations and reference elevation data are plotted over time to derive a glacier surface elevation trend for the ICESat acquisition period 2003-2008. We find spatially varying biases between ICESat and three tested digital elevation models (DEMs): the Norwegian national DEM, SRTM DEM, and a high-resolution lidar DEM. For regional glacier elevation change, the spatial inconsistency of reference DEMs - a result of spatio-temporal merging - has the potential to significantly affect or dilute trends. Elevation uncertainties of all three tested DEMs exceed ICESat elevation uncertainty by an order of magnitude, and are thus limiting the accuracy of the method, rather than ICESat uncertainty. ICESat matches glacier size distribution of the study area well and measures small ice patches not commonly monitored in situ. The sample is large enough for spatial and thematic subsetting. Vertical offsets to ICESat elevations vary for different glaciers in southern Norway due to spatially inconsistent reference DEM age. We introduce a per-glacier correction that removes these spatially varying offsets, and considerably increases trend significance. Only after application of this correction do individual campaigns fit observed in situ glacier mass balance. Our correction also has the potential to improve glacier trend significance for other causes of spatially varying vertical offsets, for instance due to radar penetration into ice and snow for the SRTM DEM or as a consequence of mosaicking and merging that is common for national or global DEMs. After correction of reference elevation bias, we find that ICESat provides a robust and realistic estimate of a moderately negative glacier mass balance of around -0.36 ± 0.07 m ice per year. This regional

  1. Long term BVOC fluxes above mountain grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bamberger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands comprise natural tropical savannah over managed temperate fields to tundra and cover over a quarter of the Earth's land surface. Plant growth, maintenance and decay result in volatile organic compound (VOCs emissions to the atmosphere. Furthermore, biogenic VOCs (BVOCs are emitted due to various environmental stresses including cutting and drying during harvesting. Fluxes of BVOCs were measured with a proton-transfer-reaction – mass-spectrometer (PTR-MS over temperate mountain grassland in Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria over one growing season (2008. VOC fluxes were calculated from the disjunct PTR-MS data using the virtual disjunct eddy covariance method and the gap filling method. The two independent methods obtained methanol fluxes following a regression line of y=0.94x−0.06 (correlation factor: R2=0.94. Methanol showed strong daytime emissions throughout the growing season. With maximal values of 9.7 nmol m−2 s−1 the methanol fluxes from growing grassland were considerably higher at the beginning of the growing season in June compared to those measured during October (2.5 nmol m−2 s−1. During the growth only methanol emissions were observed. The cutting and drying of the grass increased the emissions of methanol, up to 30 nmol m−2 s−2. In addition, emissions of acetaldehyde, up to 10 nmol m−2 s−1, and hexenal (leaf aldehyde were detected during harvesting.

  2. MOUNTAIN BIKE, MONITORING AND HEART RATE MONITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Scotton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chi pratica sport, sia con obiettivi agonistici sia di fitness, cerca di mantenere il proprio stato di forma ad un livello che gli permetta di essere prestativo e contemporaneamente di prevenire eventi traumatici (Scotton et Al 2006; Viru, Viru 2002. L’atleta che compete, amatore o professionista, dovrebbe seguire scrupolosamente la periodizzazione (Scotton, Gollin 2006 e la programmazione più idonee ai propri scopi, privilegiando i mezzi e i metodi di allenamento più congeniali a lui e più utili per lo specifico periodo. E’ noto che quando si avvicinano le gare il tipo di allenamento seguito assomiglia sempre più alla tipologia di competizione. E’ abitudine consolidata per chi svolge una qualsiasi specialità sportiva (Scotton 2003 con finalità non agonistiche cercare di mantenere efficiente l’apparato locomotore ed i sistemi ad esso collegati (Wilmore, Costill 2005 per ottenere divertimento e, appunto, il fitness, senza considerare troppo le norme che regolano l’allenamento sportivo. Un soggetto, non professionista, indossando il cardiofrequenzimetro Polar S710i ha effettuato due sessioni di allenamento su una mountain bike da free-ride in due distinte giornate e sullo stesso percorso.Il software dello strumento consente di sovrapporre i files del medesimo giro evidenziando le somiglianze dei tratti principali delle sedute: la durata della salita e della discesa con le velocità ottenute e i km percorsi, le frequenze cardiache medie e massime relative alle singole frazioni dell’allenamento e nel totale.Obiettivo: Nel lavoro si propone di utilizzare i dati raccolti sul percorso “reale” per permettere all’atleta di replicarlo a casa o in palestra mantenendo le frequenze cardiache per il tempo indicato abbinando all’uso dei rulli, su cui è posizionata la bicicletta, anche l’impiego del cardiofrequenzimetro (Wirnitzer KC, Kornexl E 2008.

  3. Observed Changes in Mountain Hydrology Following a Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in the Snowy Range of Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, A. L.; Miller, S. N.; Paige, G. B.; Kelleners, T.; Ohara, N.; Hayes, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    A mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Snowy Range Mountains of Wyoming peaked in 2008 coinciding with changes in climate. The combination of the two effects have potentially changed hydrologic response in mountain watersheds. Shorter snowmelt duration and an earlier onset of snowmelt are hypothesized to occur as results of both mountain pine beetle epidemics and global climate change, while beetle effects likely point to increased total flows, baseflows, and peak flows. We used statistical analysis to identify changes in hydrologic response over the past four decades by comparing hydrograph components from 2012-2014 water years to hydrograph components from the 1960's-1980's water years using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) including a precipitation covariate. The 2012-2014 group was found to be associated with (1) shorter snowmelt duration, (2) earlier onset of snowmelt, and (3) increased baseflows. No differences in total discharge, snowmelt discharge, stormflow discharge, peak discharge, or day of peak discharge were detected. Pearson's correlation coefficients between watershed and runoff characteristics for six mountain watersheds were calculated for the 2013 and 2014 water years. Watershed characteristics include percent green conifers, percent red phase conifers, and percent grey phase conifers derived from a Random Forest land classification map. For the 2013 water year, watershed area expressed as percent red phase conifer was found to be significantly correlated to watershed discharge expressed as percent baseflow with a Pearson's Correlation Coefficient of +0.95 (alpha level = 0.05). The positive correlation between red phase conifer and baseflow may be considered corroborating evidence of a mountain pine beetle induced change on mountain hydrology detected in the ANOVA/ANCOVA analysis. No significant correlations between beetle phase and either snowmelt duration or onset of snowmelt were detected.

  4. VALUE ORIENTATION AS STRUCTURAL COMPONENT OF PERSONALITY IN MOUNTAIN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Lemko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper, presented at the Conference Plenary, is devoted to the problem of formation of values and value orientations of a personality in mountain regions. The author asserts that value orientation in mountain regions is a complex formation, which includes different levels and forms of interaction of public and individual personality. The article also regards and analyzes the hierarchy of values. It is mentioned that the personality value orientations in mountain regions don’t only determine the motivation of individual behavior but also forms his world outlook. The special attention is also devoted to the pseudo-values. The author points out that they do not contribute to human self-realization. The article also analyzes the reasons of forming of the value orientation in mountain regions and gives the classification of people in accordance with the commitment to certain values. The author touches the problem of cultural values of modern youth, the influence of electronic mass media and comes to the conclusion that classical culture begins to lose value and attractiveness. In conclusion the author says that the valued orientations in mountain regions occupy the central place in the psychical adjusting of man’s behavior. That is why considerable attention is spared to the study of valued-semantic sphere of personality on the modern stage of development of pedagogical science.

  5. Mountain building on Io driven by deep faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Michael; McKinnon, William B

    2016-01-01

    Jupiter’s volcanic moon Io possesses some of the highest relief in the Solar System: massive, isolated mountain blocks that tower up to 17 km above the surrounding plains. These mountains are likely to result from pervasive compressive stresses induced by subsidence of the surface beneath the near-continual emplacement of volcanic material. The stress state that results from subsidence and warming of Io’s lithosphere has been investigated in detail1, 2, 3, 4; however, the mechanism of orogenesis itself and its effect on regional tectonism and volcanism has not been firmly established. Here we present viscoelastic–plastic finite element simulations demonstrating that Io’s mountains form along deep-seated thrust faults that initiate at the base of the lithosphere and propagate upward. We show that faulting fundamentally alters the stress state of Io’s lithosphere by relieving the large volcanism-induced subsidence stresses. Notably, in the upper portion of the lithosphere, stresses become tensile (near-zero differential stress). A number of processes are therefore altered post-faulting, including magma transport through the lithosphere, interactions with tidal stresses and potentially the localization of mountain formation by thermoelastic stresses. We conclude that Io’s mountains form by a unique orogenic mechanism, compared with tectonic processes operating elsewhere in the Solar System.

  6. Magma ascent pathways associated with large mountains on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Patrick J.; Kirchoff, Michelle R.; White, Oliver L.; Schenk, Paul M.

    2016-07-01

    While Jupiter's moon Io is the most volcanically active body in the Solar System, the largest mountains seen on Io are created by tectonic forces rather than volcanic construction. Pervasive compression, primarily brought about by subsidence induced by sustained volcanic resurfacing, creates the mountains, but at the same time inhibits magma ascent in vertical conduits (dikes). We superpose stress solutions for subsidence, along with thermal stress, (both from the "crustal conveyor belt" process of resurfacing) in Io's lithosphere with stresses from Io mountain-sized loads (in a shallow spherical shell solution) in order to evaluate magma ascent pathways. We use stress orientation (least compressive stress horizontal) and stress gradient (compression decreasing upwards) criteria to identify ascent pathways through the lithosphere. There are several configurations for which viable ascent paths transit nearly the entire lithosphere, arriving at the base of the mountain, where magma can be transported through thrust faults or perhaps thermally eroded flank sections. The latter is consistent with observations of some Io paterae in close contact with mountains.

  7. Hydrology and the natural heritage of the Scottish mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R C; Thompson, D B

    2002-07-22

    The physical natures of the Scottish mountains and their geographical position have created a montane environment, which can be considered as unique in European terms. The mountains of Scotland have been subjected to major environmental changes throughout the past centuries including climate change, deforestation, hydropower developments and more recently the expansion of plantation forestry. Mountain ecosystems have the ability to withstand large climatic variations and extreme events but it is suggested that they may not withstand some of the climatic barriers, which have recently been crossed. The greatest recent land use change in Scotland's mountains has been the expansion of plantation forests. The effects on headwater catchment hydrology are mainly in the reduction in runoff. It is suggested that plantation forestry has a more significant impact on the natural heritage through other influences such as water chemistry and river sediments. Future management of the Scottish mountains needs to consider the great natural heritage value in addition to other interests such as water resources, hydropower generation, commercial forestry and tourism. PMID:12169004

  8. Field trip guide to selected outcrops, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-11-17

    The Arbuckle Mountains, named for Brigadier General Matthew Arbuckle, are located in south-central Oklahoma. The formations that comprise the Arbuckle Mountains have been extensively studied for hydrocarbon source rock and reservoir rock characteristics that can be applied to the subsurface in the adjacent Anadarko and Ardmore basins. Numerous reports and guidebooks have been written concerning the Arbuckle Mountains. A few important general publications are provided in the list of selected references. The purpose of this handout is to provide general information on the geology of the Arbuckle Mountains and specific information on the four field trip stops, adapted from the literature. The four stops were at: (1) Sooner Rock and Sand Quarry; (2) Woodford Shale; (3) Hunton Anticline and Hunton Quarry; and (4) Tar Sands of Sulfur Area. As part of this report, two papers are included for more detail: Paleomagnetic dating of basinal fluid migration, base-metal mineralization, and hydrocarbon maturation in the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma and Laminated black shale-bedded chert cyclicity in the Woodford Formation, southern Oklahoma.

  9. Geologic map of the Paintbrush Canyon Area, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, R.P. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Drake, R.M. II [Pacific Western Technologies, Ltd., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    This geologic map is produced to support site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a potential nuclear waste storage facility. The area encompassed by this map lies between Yucca Wash and Fortymile Canyon, northeast of Yucca Mountain. It is on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain caldera complex within the southwest Nevada volcanic field. Miocene tuffs and lavas of the Calico Hills Formation, the Paintbrush Group, and the Timber Mountain Group crop out in the area of this map. The source vents of the tuff cones and lava domes commonly are located beneath the thickest deposits of pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows. The rocks within the mapped area have been deformed by north- and northwest-striking, dominantly west-dipping normal faults and a few east-dipping normal faults. Faults commonly are characterized by well developed fault scarps, thick breccia zones, and hanging-wall grabens. Latest movement as preserved by slickensides on west-dipping fault scarps is oblique down towards the southwest. Two of these faults, the Paintbrush Canyon fault and the Bow Ridge fault, are major block-bounding faults here and to the south at Yucca Mountain. Offset of stratigraphic units across faults indicates that faulting occurred throughout the time these volcanic units were deposited.

  10. Synoptic Flow Interactions with an Isolated Mountain in Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocut, C. M.; Creegan, E.; Wang, Y.; Hoch, S.; Silver, Z.; Leo, L. S.; Di Sabatino, S.; Fernando, H. J.; Pardyjak, E.

    2015-12-01

    In the spring of 2013, the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations Program (MATERHORN) conducted its second extensive field experiment at the Granite Mountain Atmospheric Science Testbed (GMAST), US Army Dugway Proving Grounds (DPG), Utah. Of particular interest to MATERHORN-X-2 were synoptic dominated conditions in which synoptic flows interacted with the topography leading to external-flow generated lee and progressive waves and if the Froude number was low; development of eddies, large vortices, wakes and waves in the lee of Granite Mountain. To capture these phenomena, a suite of advanced instrumentation was used, which could characterize the upstream unmodified synoptic approach flow and identify the synoptic flow / mountain interactions. In addition to meteorological towers, three Doppler LiDARs, placed at two locations to the east and in the lee of Granite Mountain were particularly useful, showing the horizontal spatial pattern and temporal evolution of the synoptic generated phenomena. WRF simulations were used to provide analysis guidance. This research was funded by Office of Naval Research Grant # N00014-11-1-0709 and the Air Force Weather Agency.

  11. Mountain building on Io driven by deep faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Michael T.; McKinnon, William B.

    2016-06-01

    Jupiter's volcanic moon Io possesses some of the highest relief in the Solar System: massive, isolated mountain blocks that tower up to 17 km above the surrounding plains. These mountains are likely to result from pervasive compressive stresses induced by subsidence of the surface beneath the near-continual emplacement of volcanic material. The stress state that results from subsidence and warming of Io's lithosphere has been investigated in detail; however, the mechanism of orogenesis itself and its effect on regional tectonism and volcanism has not been firmly established. Here we present viscoelastic-plastic finite element simulations demonstrating that Io's mountains form along deep-seated thrust faults that initiate at the base of the lithosphere and propagate upward. We show that faulting fundamentally alters the stress state of Io's lithosphere by relieving the large volcanism-induced subsidence stresses. Notably, in the upper portion of the lithosphere, stresses become tensile (near-zero differential stress). A number of processes are therefore altered post-faulting, including magma transport through the lithosphere, interactions with tidal stresses and potentially the localization of mountain formation by thermoelastic stresses. We conclude that Io's mountains form by a unique orogenic mechanism, compared with tectonic processes operating elsewhere in the Solar System.

  12. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-08-20

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these communities. Also, it is debated whether mountain endemics mostly originate from local lowland taxa, or from lineages that reach the mountain by long-range dispersal from cool localities elsewhere. Here we investigate the evolutionary routes to endemism by sampling an entire tropical mountain biota on the 4,095-metre-high Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, East Malaysia. We discover that most of its unique biodiversity is younger than the mountain itself (6 million years), and comprises a mix of immigrant pre-adapted lineages and descendants from local lowland ancestors, although substantial shifts from lower to higher vegetation zones in this latter group were rare. These insights could improve forecasts of the likelihood of extinction and 'evolutionary rescue' in montane biodiversity hot spots under climate change scenarios.

  13. Performance predictions for mechanical excavators in Yucca Mountain tuffs; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, L.; Gertsch, L.; Neil, D.; Friant, J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Earth Mechanics Inst.

    1992-09-01

    The performances of several mechanical excavators are predicted for use in the tuffs at Yucca Mountain: Tunnel boring machines, the Mobile Miner, a roadheader, a blind shaft borer, a vertical wheel shaft boring machine, raise drills, and V-Moles. Work summarized is comprised of three parts: Initial prediction using existing rock physical property information; Measurement of additional rock physical properties; and Revision of the initial predictions using the enhanced database. The performance predictions are based on theoretical and empirical relationships between rock properties and the forces-experienced by rock cutters and bits during excavation. Machine backup systems and excavation design aspects, such as curves and grades, are considered in determining excavator utilization factors. Instanteous penetration rate, advance rate, and cutter costs are the fundamental performance indicators.

  14. Modeling studies of mountain-scale radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, George J.; Seol, Yongkoo; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2003-04-29

    We investigate radionuclide transport from a high-level nuclear waste repository to be situated in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. Several radioactive solutes (that cover the range of sorption behavior) and colloids of various sizes are studied. The results of the study indicate the importance of the subsurface geology and site hydrology, i.e., the presence of faults (they dominate and control transport), fractures (the main migration pathways), and the relative distribution of zeolitic and vitric tuffs. The effects of the climatic conditions, diffusion, and sorption (for solutes) or infiltration (for colloids) onto the matrix are discussed. The influence of the colloid size on transport is also investigated.

  15. Correlation of the Klamath Mountains and Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, William P.

    2003-01-01

    This report graphically portrays the broadly parallel tectonic development of the Klamath Mountains and Sierra Nevada from early Paleozoic to Early Cretaceous time. It is dedicated to J.S. Diller of the U.S. Geological Survey who, during his pioneer field studies a century ago, recognized significant similarities between these two important provinces. The report is based mainly on the numerous published reports of the field and laboratory studies by various geologists and students during the last century, and to a lesser extent on my own field work which has been substantial in the Klamath Mountains but minimal in the Sierra Nevada. For brevity, required by the format of this report, little of the extensive literature pertaining to these two provinces is referenced. This report is preliminary in nature and was prepared as an aid to further study of the tectonic relations between the Klamath Mountains and Sierra Nevada. This report consists of two sheets: Sheet 1, Map showing accreted terranes and plutons of the Klamath Mountains and Sierra Nevada, and Sheet 2, Successive accretionary episodes of the Klamath mountains and northern part of Sierra Nevada, showing related plutonic, volcanic, and metamorphic events. The map on Sheet 1 was compiled and modified from two Open-File maps (Irwin and Wooden, 1999 and 2001) which had been compiled and modified mainly from Jennings (1977), Harwood (1992), Irwin (1994), Jayko (1988), Graymer and Jones (1994), Edelman and Sharp (1989), Schweickert and others (1999), Saucedo and Wagner(1992), Saleeby and Sharp (1980), Wagner and others (1981), and various other sources. For detailed lists of the sources for the isotopic age data used in Sheets 1 and 2, see Irwin and Wooden (1999 and 2001). On Sheet 2, the accretionary episodes are shown sequentially from left to right in two tiers of figures. Episodes for the Klamath Mountains are in the upper tier; correlative episodes of the Sierra Nevada are directly below in the lower tier

  16. CLIMATOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WINTER IN BUCIN MOUNTAIN TOP (GURGHIU MOUNTAINS, EASTERN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. RUSZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the features of winter in Bucin Mountaintop, data collected from Bucin meteorological station (1270 m were used. The Bucin mountaintop is situated in the central part of Gurghiu Mountains and it is a popular touristic destination. Several climatological parameters of the the cold months (November, December, January, February, March, April in the period 1978-2010 were studied: mean temperatures, snow depth, snow cover, number of days with solid precipitation, etc. The mean temperature of these months is between -5.8°C (January and 3.1°C (April. The absolute minimum temperature (-26.1°C since the Bucin weather station functions (from 1978 was registered in February 1985 (in case of nearly mountain depressions this value approached -40°C. Generally, durable snow cover is present from November to April and on average 150 days/year are covered by snow. The highest mean snow depth is registered in March (76 cm. According to the Köppen asymmetric index the number of years that have lower snow depth that average is higher in case of all months. Mean number of frosty days (annual count of days when Tmin < 0°C is 161, of extremely cold days (annual count of days when Tmin< -10°C is 44 and of winter days (annual count of days when Tmax < 0°C is 75. Correlation tests (Pearson show statistically significant values in case of snow depth and mean temperature for almost all months, but in January and February, there are no statistically significant correlations between snow depth and precipitation amounts respectively number of days with solid precipitation. Generally, there are no statistically significant trends (Mann-Kendall tests regarding these climatological parameters typical for winter.

  17. Spatiotemporal patterns of mountain pine beetle activity in the southern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Teresa B; Veblen, Thomas T; Schoennagel, Tania

    2012-10-01

    The current mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in the southern Rocky Mountains has impacted approximately 750 000 ha of forest. Weather and habitat heterogeneity influence forest insect population dynamics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Comparison of forest insect population dynamics in two principal host species may elucidate the relative contribution of weather and landscape factors in initiating and driving extensive outbreaks. To investigate potential drivers of the current MPB outbreak, we compared broadscale spatiotemporal patterns of MPB activity in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from 1996 to 2010 in Colorado and southern Wyoming with regional weather fluctuations, and then tracked the annual meso-scale progression of the epidemic in lodgepole pine with respect to weather, topographic, previous MPB activity, and forest stand attributes. MPB activity in lodgepole pine compared to ponderosa pine showed higher magnitude and extent of spatial synchrony. Warm temperatures and low annual precipitation favorable to beetle populations showed high regional synchrony across areas of both pine species, suggesting that habitat interacts with weather in synchronizing MPB populations. Cluster analysis of time series patterns identified multiple, disjunct locations of incipient MPB activity (epicenters) in lodgepole pine, which overlapped an earlier 1980s MPB outbreak, and suggests a regional trigger (drought) across this homogenous forest type. Negative departures from mean annual precipitation played a key role in subsequent spread of MPB outbreak. Development of the outbreak was also associated with lower elevations, greater dominance by lodgepole pine, stands of larger tree size, and stands with higher percentage canopy cover. After epidemic levels of MPB activity were attained, MPB activity was less strongly associated with stand and weather variables. These results emphasize the importance of

  18. Zoonotic infections among employees from Great Smoky Mountains and Rocky Mountain National Parks, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjemian, Jennifer; Weber, Ingrid B; McQuiston, Jennifer; Griffith, Kevin S; Mead, Paul S; Nicholson, William; Roche, Aubree; Schriefer, Martin; Fischer, Marc; Kosoy, Olga; Laven, Janeen J; Stoddard, Robyn A; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Smith, Theresa; Bui, Duy; Wilkins, Patricia P; Jones, Jeffery L; Gupton, Paige N; Quinn, Conrad P; Messonnier, Nancy; Higgins, Charles; Wong, David

    2012-11-01

    U.S. National Park Service employees may have prolonged exposure to wildlife and arthropods, placing them at increased risk of infection with endemic zoonoses. To evaluate possible zoonotic risks present at both Great Smoky Mountains (GRSM) and Rocky Mountain (ROMO) National Parks, we assessed park employees for baseline seroprevalence to specific zoonotic pathogens, followed by evaluation of incident infections over a 1-year study period. Park personnel showed evidence of prior infection with a variety of zoonotic agents, including California serogroup bunyaviruses (31.9%), Bartonella henselae (26.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (22.2%), Toxoplasma gondii (11.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8.1%), Brucella spp. (8.9%), flaviviruses (2.2%), and Bacillus anthracis (1.5%). Over a 1-year study period, we detected incident infections with leptospirosis (5.7%), B. henselae (5.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (1.5%), T. gondii (1.5%), B. anthracis (1.5%), and La Crosse virus (1.5%) in staff members at GRSM, and with spotted fever group rickettsiae (8.5%) and B. henselae (4.3%) in staff at ROMO. The risk of any incident infection was greater for employees who worked as resource managers (OR 7.4; 95% CI 1.4,37.5; p=0.02), and as law enforcement rangers/rescue crew (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1,36.5; p=0.03), relative to those who worked primarily in administration or management. The results of this study increase our understanding of the pathogens circulating within both parks, and can be used to inform the development of effective guidelines and interventions to increase visitor and staff awareness and help prevent exposure to zoonotic agents. PMID:22835153

  19. Zoonotic Infections Among Employees from Great Smoky Mountains and Rocky Mountain National Parks, 2008–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Ingrid B.; McQuiston, Jennifer; Griffith, Kevin S.; Mead, Paul S.; Nicholson, William; Roche, Aubree; Schriefer, Martin; Fischer, Marc; Kosoy, Olga; Laven, Janeen J.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Smith, Theresa; Bui, Duy; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Jones, Jeffery L.; Gupton, Paige N.; Quinn, Conrad P.; Messonnier, Nancy; Higgins, Charles; Wong, David

    2012-01-01

    Abstract U.S. National Park Service employees may have prolonged exposure to wildlife and arthropods, placing them at increased risk of infection with endemic zoonoses. To evaluate possible zoonotic risks present at both Great Smoky Mountains (GRSM) and Rocky Mountain (ROMO) National Parks, we assessed park employees for baseline seroprevalence to specific zoonotic pathogens, followed by evaluation of incident infections over a 1-year study period. Park personnel showed evidence of prior infection with a variety of zoonotic agents, including California serogroup bunyaviruses (31.9%), Bartonella henselae (26.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (22.2%), Toxoplasma gondii (11.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8.1%), Brucella spp. (8.9%), flaviviruses (2.2%), and Bacillus anthracis (1.5%). Over a 1-year study period, we detected incident infections with leptospirosis (5.7%), B. henselae (5.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (1.5%), T. gondii (1.5%), B. anthracis (1.5%), and La Crosse virus (1.5%) in staff members at GRSM, and with spotted fever group rickettsiae (8.5%) and B. henselae (4.3%) in staff at ROMO. The risk of any incident infection was greater for employees who worked as resource managers (OR 7.4; 95% CI 1.4,37.5; p=0.02), and as law enforcement rangers/rescue crew (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1,36.5; p=0.03), relative to those who worked primarily in administration or management. The results of this study increase our understanding of the pathogens circulating within both parks, and can be used to inform the development of effective guidelines and interventions to increase visitor and staff awareness and help prevent exposure to zoonotic agents. PMID:22835153

  20. Yucca Mountain biological resources monitoring program; Annual report FY92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) during fiscal year 1992 (FY92) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  1. Yucca Mountain Site characterization project bibliography, January--June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy's Energy Science and Technology Database from January 1, 1992, through June 30, 1992. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor resorts, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization's list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it

  2. Field Studies Delve Into the Intricacies of Mountain Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Harindra J. S.; Pardyjak, Eric R.

    2013-09-01

    Mountain meteorology, in particular weather prediction in complex (rugged) terrain, is emerging as an important topic for science and society. Large urban settlements such as Los Angeles, Hong Kong, and Rio de Janeiro have grown within or in the shadow of complex terrain, and managing the air quality of such cities requires a good understanding of the air flow patterns that spill off of mountains. On a daily time scale, the interconnected engineered and natural systems that sustain urban metabolism and quality of life are affected by weather [Fernando, 2010]. Further, recent military engagements in remote mountainous areas have heightened the need for better weather predictions—alpine warfare is considered to be one of the most dangerous types of combat.

  3. DINSAR measurement of glacier motion in Antarctic Grove Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xiao; LI XiaoWen; SHAO Yun; LI Zhen

    2007-01-01

    Grove Mountain is an important nunatak region on East Antarctic Glacier that blocks the ice flow toward Lambert Glacier. The existence of nunataks and subglacial mountains leads to complex ice flow patterns, which are difficult to be measured by conventional ground-based methods. In this study, several JERS-1 and ERS-1/2 SAR images covering this area are used for 3-pass and 4-pass differential interferometric processing. The ice flow field of Grove Mountain and the eastern zone are derived and validated with related knowledge. The research shows that DINSAR is an effective method for measuring complex ice flow in Antarctic inland glacier. L-band DINSAR is more suitable for mid or fast ice flow than C-band over this region.

  4. Tectonic stability and expected ground motion at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A workshop was convened on August 7-8, 1984 at the direction of DOE to discuss effects of natural and artificial earthquakes and associated ground motion as related to siting of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A panel of experts in seismology and tectonics was assembled to review available data and analyses and to assess conflicting opinions on geological and seismologic data. The objective of the meeting was to advise the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project about how to present a technically balanced and scientifically credible evaluation of Yucca Mountain for the NNWSI Project EA. The group considered two central issues: the magnitude of ground motion at Yucca Mountain due to the largest expected earthquake, and the overall tectonic stability of the site given the current geologic and seismologic data base. 44 refs

  5. DETERMINATION OF CHARACTERISTICS MAXIMAL RUNOFF MOUNTAIN RIVERS IN CRIMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ovcharuk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article has been examined maximum runoff of the rivers of theCrimeanMountains. The rivers flow through the western and eastern part of the northern slope Crimean Mountains, and on its southern coast. The largest of them: Belbek, Alma, Salgir, Su-Indol and others. To characterize the maximum runoff of rain floods (the layers of rain floods and maximum discharge of water on the rivers of the Crimean Mountains were used materials of observations for long-term period (from the beginning of observations to 2010 inclusive on 54 of streamflow station with using a the so-called «operator» model for maximum runoff formation.

  6. Climate change in Mediterranean mountains during the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogués Bravo, David; Araújo, Miguel B; Lasanta, Teodoro;

    2008-01-01

    Mediterranean mountain biomes are considered endangered due to climate change that affects directly or indirectly different key features (biodiversity, snow cover, glaciers, run-off processes, and water availability). Here, we provide an assessment of temperature, precipitation, and spring...... precipitation changes in Mediterranean mountains under different emission scenarios (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) and Atmosphere-Ocean-Coupled General Circulation Models for two periods: 2055 (2040-2069 period) and 2085 (2070-2099). Finally, the future climate trends projected for Mediterranean...... spring (-17% under Alfi and -4.8% under B1 for 2085). On the contrary, non-Mediterranean European mountains will not experience a reduction of annual and spring precipitation. Implications of predicted climate change for both human and physical features are coupled in an integrated framework to gain...

  7. Winter climate variability and classification in the Bulgarian Mountainous Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of snowiness and thermal conditions of winters are of high interest of investigations because of the more frequent droughts, occurred in the region. In the present study an attempt to reveal tendencies existing during the last 70 years of 20 th century in the course winter precipitation and,temperature as well as in some of the snow cover parameters. On the base of mean winter air temperature winters in the Bulgarian mountains were analyzed and classified. The main results of the study show that winter precipitation has decrease tendencies more significant in the highest parts of the mountains. On the other hand winter air temperature increases. It shows a relatively well-established maximum at the end of the studied period. In the Bulgarian mountains normal winters are about 35-40% of all winters. (Author)

  8. Spermatophyte Flora Distribution in Hubei Daqi Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengyu; LEI; Jingyong; CAI; Tao; BAI; Jianguo; JIANG; Shaoming; WANG

    2013-01-01

    A basic ingredient analysis of flora and geographic elements of plant genera and families in Daqi Mountain Nature Reserve was conducted through the field survey and specimen collection,based on the system investigation of plant flora,and an R/T ratio comparison between the flora in Daqi Mountain and adjacent mountain floras was made.Plant taxonomy identification indicates that spermatophytes in the nature reserve comprises 1035 species of 534 genera,falling in 140families,of which 10 gymnosperm species of 8 genera fall in 5 families,while 1025angiosperm species of 526 genera in 135 families.The analysis of flora demonstrates that the region harbors 15 flora distribution types,with high complexity,paleo-flora origin,distinct trait of temperate zone,abundant ingredient of tropical zone,and close connection with the flora of East China.

  9. Neptunium retardation with tuffs and groundwaters from Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retardation of neptunium was studied using batch sorption and column techniques. Pure mineral separates, tuffs and groundwaters from Yucca Mountain were used for these experiments. Our results indicate that Np sorption increases rapidly as the pH of the water increases in cases where surface complexation is thought w be the dominant sorption mechanism. Oxide minerals (such as hematite) sorb Np strongly; therefore, these minerals even at trace levels in Yucca Mountain tuffs can result in significant Np retardation. Neptunium in groundwaters from Yucca Mountain exhibited a significant amount of sorption onto quartz. Neptunium sorption onto quartz is important because of the large quantity of silica in the tuffs. Elution of neptunium solutions in groundwater through columns made of crushed tuff yielded sorption coefficients that agree with the sorption results obtained using batch sorption techniques. Agreement between batch and column experiments indicates a neptunium sorption mechanism that is linear, reversible, and instantaneous

  10. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography, July--December 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountains Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy's Energy Science and Technology Database from July 1990 through December 1990. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers and articles are included in the sponsoring organizations list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it

  11. The establishment of GPS network in Grove Mountains, East Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Grove Mountains are located in Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica, extending from 72° to 73°S latitude and 73° to 76°E longitude, covering approximately 8000 km2 areas. During the 2002/2003 austral summer season, the 19th CHINARE (Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition) carried out the third expedition in Grove Mountains, East Antarctica. The Geodetic network was established, which can provide ground control for the satellite image map for the multi-discipline expedition in the Grove Mountains where seven permanent GPS benchmarks were set up supported by the helicopter and snow vehicles. All GPS sites besides Z001 were observed at least for one hour using the dual frequencies Trimble 4000ssi GPS receivers. The data were processed by the comprehensive GPS analysis package-GAMIT/GLOBK and the precision is good enough to satisfy with the acquirement of satellite mapping in this area.

  12. Preparing to Submit a License Application for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1982, the U.S. Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, a Federal law that established U.S. policy for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Congress amended the Act in 1987, directing the Department of Energy to study only Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site for a permanent geologic repository. As the law mandated, the Department evaluated Yucca Mountain to determine its suitability as the site for a permanent geologic repository. Decades of scientific studies demonstrated that Yucca Mountain would protect workers, the public, and the environment during the time that a repository would be operating and for tens of thousands of years after closure of the repository. A repository at this remote site would also: preserve the quality of the environment; allow the environmental cleanup of Cold War weapons facilities; provide the nation with additional protection from acts of terrorism; and support a sound energy policy. Throughout the scientific evaluation of Yucca Mountain, there has been no evidence to disqualify Yucca Mountain as a suitable site for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Upon completion of site characterization, the Secretary of Energy considered the results and concluded that a repository at Yucca Mountain would perform in a manner that protects public health and safety. The Secretary recommended the site to the President in February 2002; the President agreed and recommended to Congress that the site be approved. The Governor of Nevada submitted a notice of disapproval, and both houses of Congress acted to override the disapproval. In July 2002, the President's approval allowed the Department to begin the process of submittal of a license application for Yucca Mountain as the site for the nation's first repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Yucca Mountain is located on federal land in Nye County in southern Nevada, an arid region

  13. Native American plant resources in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents Native American interpretations of and concerns for plant resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This one of three research reports regarding Native American cultural resources that may be affected by site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Representatives of the sixteen involved American Indian tribes identified and interpreted plant resources as part of a consultation relationship between themselves and the US Department of Energy (DOE). Participants in the ethnobotany studies included botanists who have conducted, and continue to conduct, botanical studies for the Yucca Mountain Project. This report is to be used to review research procedures and findings regarding the process of consulting with the sixteen tribes, interviews with tribal plant specialists and elders, and findings from the ethnobotanical visits with representatives of the sixteen tribes. An annual report will include a chapter that summarizes the key findings from this plant resources study. 23 refs., 75 figs., 39 tabs

  14. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Annual report, FY91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and to ensure that activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1991 (FY91) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Activities Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  15. The vegetation of Yucca Mountain: Description and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was monitored over a six-year period, from 1989 through 1994. Yucca Mountain is located at the northern limit of the Mojave Desert and is the only location being studied as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Site characterization consists of a series of multidisciplinary, scientific investigations designed to provide detailed information necessary to assess the suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site as a repository. This vegetation description establishes a baseline for determining the ecological impact of site characterization activities; it porvides input for site characterization research and modeling; and it clarifies vegetation community dynamics and relationships to the physical environment. A companion study will describe the impact of site characterization of vegetation. Cover, density, production, and species composition of vascular plants were monitored at 48 Ecological Study Plots (ESPs) stratified in four vegetation associations. Precipitation, soil moisture, and maximum and minimum temperatures also were measured at each study plot

  16. The vegetation of Yucca Mountain: Description and ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-29

    Vegetation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was monitored over a six-year period, from 1989 through 1994. Yucca Mountain is located at the northern limit of the Mojave Desert and is the only location being studied as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Site characterization consists of a series of multidisciplinary, scientific investigations designed to provide detailed information necessary to assess the suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site as a repository. This vegetation description establishes a baseline for determining the ecological impact of site characterization activities; it porvides input for site characterization research and modeling; and it clarifies vegetation community dynamics and relationships to the physical environment. A companion study will describe the impact of site characterization of vegetation. Cover, density, production, and species composition of vascular plants were monitored at 48 Ecological Study Plots (ESPs) stratified in four vegetation associations. Precipitation, soil moisture, and maximum and minimum temperatures also were measured at each study plot.

  17. Yucca Mountain Site characterization project bibliography, January--June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy's Energy Science and Technology Database from January 1991 through June 1991. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization's list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it

  18. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project bibliography, January--June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy's Energy Science and Technology Database from January 1, 1993, through June 30, 1993. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization's list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it

  19. Managing Recreational Trail Environments for Mountain Bike User Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symmonds; Hammitt; Quisenberry

    2000-05-01

    / The carrying capacity model is an effective tool for the management of a wildland recreation resource. Within the model are four primary subcapacities, namely, physical capacity, biological capacity, social capacity, and facility capacity; combined, they are essential to the appropriate management of wildland recreation resource environments. This study focuses on environmental factors of recreational environments that are primarily used by mountain bikers. Little research has been conducted on the social carrying capacity of mountain biking environments, relative to the amount of physical and biological capacity research that has been conducted. The objective of this study was to further resource management knowledge of the mountain bike user in order to better incorporate social carrying capacity into the management of bike use environments. An email survey was used to identify such issues as mountain biker preference of soil erosion management techniques and to measure the effect on experience of resultant factors of soil erosion and trail design. Other issues, such as environmental concern, biker perception of other users, and biker commitment, were also measured. A 58% response rate was achieved. Data gathered from bikers in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand (N = 406), highlight some important issues concerning the design and management of wildland recreation environments that are primarily used for mountain biking. For example, bikers were found to significantly prefer water bars above all other tested soil erosion management techniques; trail erosion factors, including the presence of rocks, roots, and gullies, all added to biking experiences on average; trail design factors, such as the presence of turns, bumps, jumps, and obstacles, all added to biking experiences in general. These findings were used to address questions that resource managers should consider when striving to effectively manage wildland recreation areas

  20. Spatial and temporal interactions of sympatric mountain lions in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Kerry L.; Krausman, Paul R.; Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Culver, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Spatial and temporal interactions among individual members of populations can have direct applications to habitat management of mountain lions (Puma concolor). Our objectives were to evaluate home range overlap and spatial/temporal use of overlap zones (OZ) of mountain lions in Arizona. We incorporated spatial data with genetic analyses to assess relatedness between mountain lions with overlapping home ranges. We recorded the space use patterns of 29 radio-collared mountain lions in Arizona from August 2005 to August 2008. We genotyped 28 mountain lions and estimated the degree of relatedness among individuals. For 26 pairs of temporally overlapping mountain lions, 18 overlapped spatially and temporally and eight had corresponding genetic information. Home range overlap ranged from 1.18% to 46.38% (x̄=2443, SE = 2.96). Male–male pairs were located within 1 km of each other on average, 0.04% of the time, whereas male–female pairs on average were 3.0%. Two male–male pairs exhibited symmetrical spatial avoidance and two symmetrical spatial attractions to the OZ. We observed simultaneous temporal attraction in three male–male pairs and four male–female pairs. Individuals from Tucson were slightly related to one another within the population (n = 13, mean R = 0.0373 ± 0.0151) whereas lions from Payson (n = 6, mean R = -0.0079 ± 0.0356) and Prescott (n = 9, mean R = -0.0242 ± 0.0452) were not as related. Overall, males were less related to other males (n = 20, mean R = -0.0495 ± 0.0161) than females were related to other females (n = 8, mean R = 0.0015 ± 0.0839). Genetic distance was positively correlated with geographic distance (r2 = 0.22, P = 0.001). Spatial requirements and interactions influence social behavior and can play a role in determining population density.

  1. The interaction of katabatic winds and mountain waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulos, G.S.

    1997-01-01

    The variation in the oft-observed, thermally-forced, nocturnal katabatic winds along the east side of the Rocky Mountains can be explained by either internal variability or interactions with various other forcings. Though generally katabatic flows have been studied as an entity protected from external forcing by strong thermal stratification, this work investigates how drainage winds along the Colorado Front Range interact with, in particular, topographically forced mountain waves. Previous work has shown, based on measurements taken during the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain 1993 field program, that the actual dispersion in katabatic flows is often greater than reflected in models of dispersion. The interaction of these phenomena is complicated and non-linear since the amplitude, wavelength and vertical structure of mountain waves developed by flow over the Rocky Mountain barrier are themselves partly determined by the evolving atmospheric stability in which the drainage flows develop. Perturbations to katabatic flow by mountain waves, relative to their more steady form in quiescent conditions, are found to be caused by both turbulence and dynamic pressure effects. The effect of turbulent interaction is to create changes to katabatic now depth, katabatic flow speed, katabatic jet height and, vertical thermal stratification. The pressure effect is found to primarily influence the variability of a given katabatic now through the evolution of integrated column wave forcing on surface pressure. Variability is found to occur on two scales, on the mesoscale due to meso-gamma scale mountain wave evolution, and on the microscale, due to wave breaking. Since existing parameterizations for the statically stable case are predominantly based on nearly flat terrain atmospheric measurements under idealized or nearly quiescent conditions, it is no surprise that these parameterizations often contribute to errors in prediction, particularly in complex terrain.

  2. Volcanism Studies: Final Report for the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. An assessment of the risk of future volcanic activity is one of many site characterization studies that must be completed to evaluate the Yucca Mountain site for potential long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste. The presence of several basaltic volcanic centers in the Yucca Mountain region of Pliocene and Quaternary age indicates that there is a finite risk of a future volcanic event occurring during the 10,000-year isolation period of a potential repository. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt ( than about 7 x 10-8 events yr-1 . Simple probability estimates are used to assess possible implications of not drilling aeromagnetic anomalies in the Amargosa Valley. The sensitivity of the disruption probability to the location of northeast boundaries of volcanic zones near the Yucca Mountain sit

  3. Some deep caves in Biokovo Mountain (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2014-05-01

    The investigation of 3 caves explored more than 1000 meters in depth in the Dinaric karst area in Croatia, has been in progress for a considerable period of time. These are complex speleological features situated in the longest mountain range of the Dinaric karst, i.e. at the Northern Velebit mountain range. In fact, these caves have been studied for over two decades now. The first one is a cave system of Lukina jama (Luke's Cave) - Trojama cave, which has been investigated until the depth of 1421 meters (Jalžić, 2007; Šmida, 1993). Its total length is 3731 meters and a new expedition will soon continue to investigate this pit through speleodiving in siphons. The second greatest cave by depth is Slovačka jama (Slovak Cave), 1320 meters in depth, with cave chanals measuring 5677 meters in total length. The third greatest cave by depth is the Cave system of Velebita, reaching down to 1026 m in depth, with the chanal length of 3176 meters (Bakšić, 2006a; 2006b). However, another 3 speleological sites, which can rightly be added to those deeper than 1000 m, have recently been discovered. These are three caverns that were discovered during construction of the Sveti Ilija Tunnel that passes through Mt. Biokovo, in the Dinaric karst area. These caverns undoubtedly point to the link with the ground surface, while the rock overburden above the tunnel in the zone where the caverns were discovered ranges from 1250 and 1350 meters. Bats from the ground surface were found in the caverns and, according to measurements, they are situated in the depth from 200 and 300 meters below the tunnel level. This would mean that the depth of these newly found caves ranges from 1450 and 1650 m, when observed from the ground surface. There are several hundreds of known caves in Biokovo, and the deepest ones discovered so far are Jama Mokre noge (Wet Feet Cave) 831 m in depth, and Jama Amfora (Amphora Cave) 788 m in depth (Bockovac, 1999; Bakšić & all, 2002; Lacković & all, 2001

  4. Echoes from Si gang lih: Burao Yilu's 'Moon Mountain'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wa poet Burao Yilu's utilization of myth, ritual, and folk customs in representing the Wa ethnic group in the poem 'Moon Mountain' is discussed. Negative stereotypes of the Wa, an indigenous people of southwestern Yunnan Province, China, include the now forbidden practice of headhunting. By referencing the origin myth 'Si gang lih' and evoking images of ancient cliff paintings, rituals, and agricultural practices, Burao offers a nuanced view of Wa culture while affirming deep-rooted aspects of the Wa worldview. As a literary work, 'Moon Mountain' is an example of the Chinese language (Sinophone poetry being produced by ethnic minority writers in southwest China today.

  5. Climate change and hazardous processes in high mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Clague

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent and continuing reduction in glacier ice cover in high mountains and thaw of alpine permafrost may have an impact on many potentially hazardous processes. As glaciers thin and retreat, existing ice- and moraine-dammed lakes can catastrophically empty, generating large and destructive downstream floods and debris flows. New ice-dammed lakes will form higher in mountain catchments, posing additional hazards in the future. The magnitude or frequency of shallow landslides and debris flows in some areas will increase because of the greater availability of unconsolidated sediment in new deglaciated terrain. Continued permafrost degradation and glacier retreat probably will decrease the stability of rock slopes.

  6. Yucca Mountain student tours: Response, reactions, and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March of 1991, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) began providing monthly tours for the general public to visit the Yucca Mountain site. The goal of these tours has been to inform the public and to provide direct contact to Project scientists. An overwhelming response has since created a need for expansion of the tour program to meet community demands. This paper describes the development, implementation, and results of the grade 6-12 tour program introduced in the last year to meet the needs of the educational community in particular

  7. Sustaining native microbial growth with endogenous nutrients at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integrity of candidate waste package materials for the proposed Yucca Mountain (YM) repository may be compromised by the corrosive activities of microorganisms. Bacterial activities will be dependent on the abilities of deleterious bacteria to grow and multiply in the repository environment. Therefore, preliminary to assessing microbial induced corrosion, experiments were undertaken to determine the growth of native YM bacterial communities in modified YM pore water. Specifically, we sought to define nutrients that limit bacterial growth in Yucca Mountain and determine growth rates under aerobic, saturated conditions

  8. Summer weather characteristics on the Grove Mountain of East Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The summer weather characteristics of the Grove Mountain, East Antarctica, are presented based on the data obtained by Chinese National Antarctic Expedition (CHINARE) in January 1999. The result shows that the pattern of daily variation of temperature and the prevailing wind direction in Grove is similar to that of Zhongshan Station. However, the daily range of temperature and strong wind frequency are much higher than those of Zhongshan Station. The change of wind direction is close to the weather system that impacted the Grove Mountain. The warm and wet air from northern parts often causes the precipitation. The clear weather appears when controlled by eastern winds in January.

  9. GATES OF THE MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mitchell W.; Close, Terry J.

    1984-01-01

    The Gates of the Mountains Wilderness and Additions, Montana, have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources. This conclusion is based on detailed investigation of the geology and mineral and fossil fuel resources. Geologic structures of the area, although similar to potential petroleum-bearing structures in other parts of the Rocky Mountains overthrust belt, are open to the surface and probably could not have trapped or held hydrocarbons. Rocks that potentially could have generated petroleum have higher levels of thermal maturity than the range of oil generation but are within the range of dry natural gas generation.

  10. An exhumed Late Paleozoic canyon in the rocky mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreghan, G.S.; Sweet, D.E.; Marra, K.R.; Eble, C.F.; Soreghan, M.J.; Elmore, R.D.; Kaplan, S.A.; Blum, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Landscapes are thought to be youthful, particularly those of active orogenic belts. Unaweep Canyon in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, a large gorge drained by two opposite-flowing creeks, is an exception. Its origin has long been enigmatic, but new data indicate that it is an exhumed late Paleozoic landform. Its survival within a region of profound late Paleozoic orogenesis demands a reassessment of tectonic models for the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, and its form and genesis have significant implications for understanding late Paleozoic equatorial climate. This discovery highlights the utility of paleogeomorphology as a tectonic and climatic indicator. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  11. Basaltic volcanic episodes of the Yucca Mountain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize briefly the distribution and geologic characteristics of basaltic volcanism in the Yucca Mountain region during the last 10--12 Ma. This interval largely postdates the major period of silicic volcanism and coincides with and postdates the timing of major extensional faulting in the region. Field and geochronologic data for the basaltic rocks define two distinct episodes. The patterns in the volume and spatial distribution of these basaltic volcanic episodes in the central and southern part of the SNVF are used as a basis for forecasting potential future volcanic activity in vicinity of Yucca Mountain. 33 refs., 2 figs

  12. Final report on the Copper Mountain conference on multigrid methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods was held on April 6-11, 1997. It took the same format used in the previous Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid Method conferences. Over 87 mathematicians from all over the world attended the meeting. 56 half-hour talks on current research topics were presented. Talks with similar content were organized into sessions. Session topics included: fluids; domain decomposition; iterative methods; basics; adaptive methods; non-linear filtering; CFD; applications; transport; algebraic solvers; supercomputing; and student paper winners.

  13. Glacial reorganization of topography in a tectonically active mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Byron; Ehlers, Todd

    2016-04-01

    Tests of the interactions between tectonic and climate forcing on Earth's topography often focus on the concept of steady-state whereby processes of rock deformation and erosion are opposing and equal. However, when conditions change such as the climate or tectonic rock uplift, then surface processes act to restore the balance between rock deformation and erosion by adjusting topography. Most examples of canonical steady-state mountain ranges lie within the northern hemisphere, which underwent a radical change in the Quaternary due to the onset of widespread glaciation. The activity of glaciers changed erosion rates and topography in many of these mountain ranges, which likely violates steady-state assumptions. With new topographic analysis, and existing patterns of climate and rock uplift, we explore a mountain range previously considered to be in steady-state, the Olympic Mountains, USA. The details of our analysis suggest the dominant topographic signal in the Olympic Mountains is a spatial, and likely temporal, variation in erosional efficiency dictated by orographic precipitation, and Pleistocene glacier ELA patterns, and not tectonic rock uplift rates. Alpine glaciers drastically altered the relief structure of the Olympic Mountains. The details of these relief changes are recorded in channel profiles as overdeepenings, reduced slopes, and associated knickpoints. We find the position of these relief changes within the orogen is dependent on the position of the Pleistocene ELA. While alpine glaciers overdeepened valleys in regions near the Pleistocene ELA (which has a tendency to increase relief), headward erosion of west and north flowing glacier systems captured significant area from opposing systems and caused drainage divide lowering. This divide lowering reduced relief throughout the range. We demonstrate similar topographic effects recorded in the basin hypsometries of other Cenozoic mountain ranges around the world. The significant glacial overprint on

  14. Examples of Variable Star Photometry from the West Mountain Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joner, Michael D.; Laney, C. D.; Joner, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    The West Mountain Observatory has three research telescopes with instrumentation that can be used to secure CCD images in various photometric systems. The telescopes include 0.3-meter, 0.5-meter, and 0.9-meter Ritchey-Chretien systems that are used primarily at visible wavelengths. This poster presents light curves for a variety of short period variable stars in a wide range of apparent magnitudes in order to highlight the capabilities of each system. The West Mountain Observatory is operated by the College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences at Brigham Young University and supported with funds from an NSF grant, AST-0618209.

  15. 76 FR 22393 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Cancellation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... and Wildlife Service for the proposed Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project....

  16. 77 FR 47628 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric...

  17. 78 FR 26358 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy...), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and federal...

  18. Summer Diet, Feeding Site Selection, and Forage Resources of Mountain Goats on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses managing mountain goat populations and their habitats on Kodiak Island. Introduced mountain goats (Oreamnus americanus) on Kodiak Island...

  19. 76 FR 9350 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization: AHRQ...

  20. 76 FR 66327 - Iron Mountain Information Management, Inc., Corporate Service Group, Information Technology (IT...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration Iron Mountain Information Management, Inc., Corporate Service Group..., applicable to workers of Iron Mountain Information Management, Inc., Corporate Service Group, Information... Management, Inc., Corporate Service Group, Information Technology (IT) Division. The Department...

  1. 78 FR 69363 - Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit, California, Heavenly Mountain Resort Epic Discovery Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Forest Service Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit, California, Heavenly Mountain Resort Epic Discovery... prepare a joint Environmental Impact Statement and Initial Study. SUMMARY: The Epic Discovery Project is... Opportunity Enhancement Act of 2011. Heavenly Mountain Resort (Heavenly) proposes to improve...

  2. Geographic conditions for distribution of agriculture and potentials for tourism development on Mokra mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Marko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work considers important natural conditions of distribution of agricultural production, cattle breeding in particular, and also potentials for tourism development on Mokra mountain. Half-nomadic cattle breeding in mountain settlements was highly developed in recent past. It represented the main source of existence for local highlanders. Today it is neglected and in phase of dying out. The mountain disposes with excellent natural potentials for ecological and mountain tourism, but these potentials are unused.

  3. Volcanism Studies: Final Report for the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce M. Crowe; Frank V. Perry; Greg A. Valentine; Lynn M. Bowker

    1998-12-01

    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. An assessment of the risk of future volcanic activity is one of many site characterization studies that must be completed to evaluate the Yucca Mountain site for potential long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste. The presence of several basaltic volcanic centers in the Yucca Mountain region of Pliocene and Quaternary age indicates that there is a finite risk of a future volcanic event occurring during the 10,000-year isolation period of a potential repository. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt (<5 Ma). The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. The age of the Lathrop Wells center is now confidently determined to be about 75 thousand years old. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. The Crater Flat volcanic zone is

  4. 75 FR 29686 - Proposed Establishment of the Pine Mountain-Mayacmas Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: N.A. Sutton, Regulations and Rulings Division, Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau... Environs, and Families,'' refers to the Pine Mountain junction and the Pine Mountain toll road in... winemaking in the Pine Mountain region goes back to the 19th century, according to the petition. The...

  5. 76 FR 66629 - Establishment of the Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... date: November 28, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elisabeth C. Kann, Regulations and Rulings..., and Families,'' refers to the Pine Mountain junction and the Pine Mountain toll road in discussing the.... boundary line. The history of grape-growing and winemaking in the Pine Mountain region goes back to...

  6. Modeling the Biophysical Impacts of Global Change in Mountain Biosphere Reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bugmann, H.; Björnsen Gurung, A.; Ewert, F.; Haeberli, W.; Guisan, A.; Fagre, D.; Kääb, A.

    2007-01-01

    Mountains and mountain societies provide a wide range of goods and services to humanity, but they are particularly sensitive to the effects of global environmental change. Thus, the definition of appropriate management regimes that maintain the multiple functions of mountain regions in a time of gre

  7. 49 CFR 71.7 - Boundary line between central and mountain zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boundary line between central and mountain zones... BOUNDARIES § 71.7 Boundary line between central and mountain zones. (a) Montana-North Dakota. Beginning at... mountain standard time zone, except Murdo, S. Dak., which is in the central standard time zone....

  8. 78 FR 22537 - Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Application Accepted for.... Applicant: Green Mountain Power Corporation. e. Name of Project: Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project. f... U.S.C. 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Mike Scarzello, Green Mountain Power Corporation,...

  9. 40 CFR 81.274 - Mountain Counties Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountain Counties Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.274 Mountain Counties Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Mountain Counties Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  10. 75 FR 21343 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Round Mountain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ...: 14X5017] Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Round Mountain... prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Round Mountain Expansion Project and by this... the Federal Register. ADDRESSES: Copies of the Round Mountain Expansion Project Final EIS...

  11. Time development of soils in mountain landscapes - divergence and convergence of properties with age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.; Lange, K.; Schwering, M.F.A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Three previously published datasets of high-mountain soil variation in proglacial valleys in the Swiss Alps (80 soils) and a new dataset of high-mountain soil variation in a formerly glaciated valley in the Colorado Rocky Mountains (9 soils) are used to test the validity of the chronosequen

  12. 75 FR 49929 - Music Mountain Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Music Mountain Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On May 18, 2010, Music Mountain Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Music ] Mountain...

  13. 75 FR 32171 - American Electric Power Service Corporation's Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... American Electric Power Service Corporation's Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage... Power Initiative (CCPI) Program. AEP's Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project (Mountaineer CCS II Project) would construct a commercial scale carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage...

  14. The High-mountain Cryosphere: Environmental Changes and Human Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Shahgedanova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: The High-mountain Cryosphere: Environmental Changes and Human Risks Edited by Christian Huggel, Mark Carey, John J. Clague, and Andreas Kääb. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2015. xii + 363 pp. Hardcover: US$ 140.00, ISBN 978-1-107-06584-0. E-book: US$ 112.00, ISBN 978-1-316-35515-2.

  15. Yucca Mountain transportation routes: Preliminary characterization and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents appendices related to the preliminary assessment and risk analysis for high-level radioactive waste transportation routes to the proposed Yucca Mountain Project repository. Information includes data on population density, traffic volume, ecologically sensitive areas, and accident history

  16. Shoshones in the Rocky Mountain Area. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultkrantz, Ake; And Others

    Derived from a monograph of the same title by Ake Hultkrantz, this student workbook contains seven articles which have been adapted for classroom use. Several student activities follow each article. Describing the Shoshones (who have historically lived in the neighborhood of the Rocky Mountains), the articles are titled: Historical Groupings,…

  17. Natural gels in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relict gels at Yucca Mountain include pore- and fracture-fillings of silica and zeolite related to diagenetic and hydrothermal alternation of vitric tuffs. Water-rich free gels in fractures at Rainier Mesa consist of smectite with or without silica-rich gel fragments. Gels are being studied for their potential role in transport of radionuclides from a nuclear-waste repository

  18. The Rocky Mountain Center for Occupational and Environmental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Rom, William N.

    1980-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Center for Occupational and Environmental Health, established at the University of Utah in 1977, has developed innovative training programs in occupational and environmental health, and an administrative structure that may assist other universities as they develop multidisciplinary programs in the field of occupational health and safety.

  19. A new Lasiocampid from the Tengger Mountains, E. Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eecke, van R.

    1931-01-01

    Some years ago I received from Dr. S. Leefmans, Buitenzorg, Java, two females of a Lasiocampid with two caterpillars, injuring the Casuarines of the Tengger Mountains at a height of 2000 M. Now, after years, I saw also two males and three other females, probably belonging to an Australian genus, rel

  20. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Pottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on pottery making is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the history of pottery, including terms to know; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and…

  1. 75 FR 12163 - Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR AGENCY:...

  2. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky Mountains National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) License. A person fishing within the park must have in possession the...

  3. TOURISM AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN MOUNTAIN REGIONS AN ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todt Horst

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a critical assessment of the theses of UNWTO that tourism is an effective means of developing whole regions especially difficult aeries such as mountain regions. Growth Pole Theory and Economic Base Theory are used as methodological base.

  4. River chemistry as a monitor of Yosemite Park mountain hydroclimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David; Smith, Richard; Hager, Stephen; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Dettinger, Michael; Huber, King

    2005-01-01

    High-frequency, high-altitude measurements of water chemistry provide insights into processes relating to the hydrology, climate, and geochemistry of mountain catchments. When such observations are combined with stream stage, temperature, snow, weather, and other surface hydroclimate measurements, they are particularly useful in allowing connections between climate, river discharge, river chemistry, and ecosystems to be discerned.

  5. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, V.; Hendriks, K.; Beentjes, K.; Mennes, C.B.; Becking, L.E.; Geurts, R.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism1–3, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood4. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these

  6. Enhanced climate change and its detection over the Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyfe, J.C.; Flato, G.M. [Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

    1999-01-01

    Results from an ensemble of climate change experiments with increasing greenhouse gas and aerosols using the Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis Coupled Climate Model are presented with a focus on surface quantities over the Rocky Mountains. There is a marked elevation dependency of the simulated surface screen temperature increase over the Rocky Mountains in the winter and spring seasons, with more pronounced changes at higher elevations. The elevation signal is linked to a rise in the snow line in the winter and spring seasons, which amplifies the surface warming via the snow-albedo feedback. Analysis of the winter surface energy budget shows that large changes in the solar component of the radiative input are the direct consequence of surface albedo changes caused by decreasing snow cover. Although the warming signal is enhanced at higher elevations, a two-way analysis of variance reveals that the elevation effect has no potential for early climate change detection. In the early stages of surface warming the elevation effect is masked by relatively large noise, so that the signal-to-noise ratio over the Rocky Mountains is no larger than elsewhere. Only after significant continental-scale warming does the local Rocky Mountain signal begin to dominate the pattern of climate change over western North America (and presumably also the surrounding ecosystems and hydrological networks).

  7. Wolf-cattle interactions in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since gray wolf reintroduction in 1995, wolf populations in the northern Rocky Mountains have increased dramatically. Incidents of wolf predation on livestock have increased with wolf populations. Although rough tallies of livestock death or injury losses caused by wolf predation are made each yea...

  8. Teacher Contract Non-Renewal: Midwest, Rocky Mountains, and Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Andy; Dam, Margaret; Packard, Abbot L.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated reasons that school principals recommend non-renewal of probationary teachers' contracts. Principal survey results from three regions of the US (Midwest, Rocky Mountains, & Southeast) were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U statistical procedures, while significance was tested applying a…

  9. Wolf-livestock interactions in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since reintroduction in 1995, gray wolf populations in the northern Rocky Mountains have increased dramatically. Although rough tallies of livestock death/injury losses resulting from wolf predation are made each year, we know almost nothing about the indirect effects of wolf-livestock interactions...

  10. Postmodern Features in Donald Barthelme’s The Glass Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马彩梅; 宣菁

    2012-01-01

      This paper aims to analyze some postmodern features shown in The Glass Mountain by Donald Barthelme, which could be roughly categorized into two types:1) Parody and collage in terms of the writing techniques;2) Absurdity, ugliness, and uncertainty in terms of the content.

  11. Preliminary report: The Little Skull Mountain earthquake, June 29, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Little Skull Mountain earthquake occurred about 20 km from the potential high level nuclear repository at Yucca Mountain. The magnitude was 5.6, and the focal mechanism indicates normal faulting on a northeast trending structure. There is evidence that the earthquake was triggered by the magnitude MS = 7.5 earthquake in Landers, California, which occurred less than 24 hours earlier. Preliminary locations of the hypocenter and several aftershocks define an L shaped pattern near the southern boundary of the Nevada Test Site. One arm trends to the northeast beneath Little Skull Mountain, and a shorter, more diffuse zone trends to the southeast. The aftershocks are mostly located at depths between 7 km and 11 km, and may suggest a southeast dipping plane. There is no clear correlation with previously mapped surface faulting. The strongest recorded acceleration is about 0.21 g at Lathrop Wells, Nevada, 15 km from the epicenter. An extensive network of aftershock recorders was installed by the Seismological Laboratory, University of Nevada, Reno, by the US Geological Survey, Golden, Colorado, and by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, California. Aftershock experiments are ongoing as of November, 1992, and include experiments to improve location, depth, focal mechanism, and stress drop, study basin and ridge response near the epicenter and at Midway Valley, and study response of a tunnel at Little Skull Mountain. Analysis of this data, which includes thousands of aftershocks, has only begun

  12. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Rug Braiding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on rug braiding is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at low cost. Contents include notes on the history of rug braiding; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup,…

  13. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Weaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on weaving is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students as a low cost. Contents include notes on the history of weaving; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup, where…

  14. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Apple Dolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on apple dolls is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the apple doll making; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup,…

  15. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Caning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on chair caning is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the history of caning; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup,…

  16. Lightcurve Analysis of Asteroids from Blue Mountains Observatory in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oey, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Photometric observations of a number of asteroids were done from Blue Mountains Observatory in 2014. The observations were made in support of the binary asteroid and asteroid pairs campaigns by Petr Pravec, and to obtain new data at favorable apparitions for asteroids with poorly defined lightcurves.

  17. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Quilting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on quilting is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the history of quilting (including vocabulary words); process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and…

  18. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Instructor's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    Module synopses and resource lists are provided for eight adult basic education modules on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts, each designed to utilize basic skills and develop avocational or vocational skills (see Note). Included are explanations of the skills incorporated in each module and a resource list, including local people and…

  19. Political ecology, mountain agriculture, and knowledge in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    The social and biophysical processes entailed in environmental deterioration are the subject of intense debate in Honduras, one of the poorest countries of Latin America. This book analyses the political ecology of precarious farming in mountainous areas. The author evaluates a rich array of social

  20. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Candles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on candles is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the history of candle making; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup,…

  1. Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welker, Frido; Duijm, Elza; Gaag, Kristiaan J. van der; Geel, Bas van; Knijff, Peter de; Leeuwen, Jacqueline van; Mol, Dick; Plicht, Johannes van der; Raes, Niels; Reumer, Jelle; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Humans colonized the Balearic Islands 5–4 ka ago. They arrived in a uniquely adapted ecosystem with the Balearic mountain goat Myotragus balearicus (Bovidae, Antilopinae, Caprini) as the only large mammal. This mammal went extinct rapidly after human arrival. Several hypotheses have been proposed to

  2. Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Welker; E. Duijm; K.J. van der Gaag; B. van Geel; P. de Knijff; J. van Leeuwen; D. Mol; J. van der Plicht; N. Raes; J Reumer; B. Gravendeel

    2014-01-01

    Humans colonized the Balearic Islands 5-4 ka ago. They arrived in a uniquely adapted ecosystem with the Balearic mountain goat Myotragus balearicus (Bovidae, Antilopinae, Caprini) as the only large mammal. This mammal went extinct rapidly after human arrival. Several hypotheses have been proposed to

  3. Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welker, F.; Duijm, E.; van der Gaag, K.J.; de Knijff, P.; van Leeuwen, J.; Mol, D.; van der Plicht, J.; Raes, N.; Reumer, J.; Gravendeel, B.

    2014-01-01

    Humans colonized the Balearic Islands 5-4. ka ago. They arrived in a uniquely adapted ecosystem with the Balearic mountain goat Myotragus balearicus (Bovidae, Antilopinae, Caprini) as the only large mammal. This mammal went extinct rapidly after human arrival. Several hypotheses have been proposed t

  4. Leading Organizational Change Is Like Climbing a Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Judith

    2004-01-01

    Leading organizational change is like climbing a mountain. Transformational leaders must prepare to lead change, understand the process and nature of change, and provide the essential gear so that those involved can be successful. The author draws on the literature and personal experiences as a hiker and change leader to provide a guide for…

  5. Trade-Offs between Ecosystem Services in a Mountain Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Briner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mountain ecosystems provide a broad range of ecosystem services (ES. Trade-offs between different ES are an important aspect in the assessment of future sustainable land-use. Management of ES in mountain regions must confront the challenges of spatial and temporal heterogeneity, and interaction with structural changes in agriculture and forestry. Using a social-ecological modeling framework, we assess the relationships between forest and agricultural ES in a mountain region in Switzerland. Based on the concept of jointness in production, we evaluated trade-offs and synergies among food provision, biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, and protection against natural hazards. Results show that increasing the provision of a focal ES in a mountain region may result in alternating trade-offs and synergies, depending on the interaction of economic and technological interdependencies. Thus, management schemes aiming to increase the provision of one focal ES have to consider not only the technological or biological nature of interrelationships, but also the economic interdependencies among different ES. Trade-offs and synergies from these interactions strongly depend on the underlying structural and environmental conditions driven by socioeconomic and climatic developments.

  6. Mountain biking. Cool way to enjoy nature with side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, MP

    2005-01-01

    Mountain biking grew from a trend to a serious branch of sport. This article presents the different subspecialties within the sport, the injury rates and the types of injuries among high-class and recreational bikers. The experiences made during several years as a team physician of top athletes as w

  7. Forest ecosystem services of Changbai Mountain in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO; Guofan(邵国凡); LI; Jing(李静); WU; Gang(吴钢); XIAO; Han(肖寒); ZHAO; Jingzhu(赵景柱)

    2002-01-01

    The forest ecosystem of the Changbai Mountain is the most typical upland temperate forest ecosystem in eastern Asia. It is also of the most primitive vegetation type that came into being through the natural succession of soil and vegetation following volcanic eruption. The forest ecosystem has great importance for maintaining the structures and functions of the watershed ecosystems of the Songhua River, the Yalu River and the Tumen River. We combined physical assessment method(PAM) with the value assessment method(VAM) to evaluate the forest ecosystem services of the northern slope of the Changbai Mountain, including eco-tourism, forest by-products, timber, soil and water conservation, air purification, and the recycling of nutritive elements. We also assessed the integrated forest ecosystem service and analyzed its dynamics. The service value provided by the Changbai Mountain forest ecosystem amounts up to RMB 3.38×1012 yuan, of which, water conservation is 66%, water conservation and air purification together make up 80%, while the timber value is only 7%. Therefore, developing the ecosystem services besides timber is the best way to exert the integrated value of the forest ecosystem services of Changbai Mountain.

  8. Mountaineer Commerical Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deanna Gilliland; Matthew Usher

    2011-12-31

    The Final Technical documents all work performed during the award period on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. This report presents the findings and conclusions produced as a consequence of this work. As identified in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0002673, AEP's objective of the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (MT CCS II) project is to design, build and operate a commercial scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) system capable of treating a nominal 235 MWe slip stream of flue gas from the outlet duct of the Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system at AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant (Mountaineer Plant), a 1300 MWe coal-fired generating station in New Haven, WV. The CCS system is designed to capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the incoming flue gas using the Alstom Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) and compress, transport, inject and store 1.5 million tonnes per year of the captured CO{sub 2} in deep saline reservoirs. Specific Project Objectives include: (1) Achieve a minimum of 90% carbon capture efficiency during steady-state operations; (2) Demonstrate progress toward capture and storage at less than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE); (3) Store CO{sub 2} at a rate of 1.5 million tonnes per year in deep saline reservoirs; and (4) Demonstrate commercial technology readiness of the integrated CO{sub 2} capture and storage system.

  9. Wei Shunde: Persistent Explorer of the Tianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUJIANZHONG

    2005-01-01

    Aman nearly 70 years old stands at the foot of west China's Tianshan Mountains. For almost two decades,this adventurer has wandered around Mt. Tomur, capturing on film its snowy peaks and the area's bountiful flora and fauna. His pictures of national category-I protected species,the black stork and snow leopard, are regarded as treasures.

  10. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.S.F.T. Merckx; K.P. Hendriks; K.K. Beentjes; C.B. Mennes; L.E. Becking; K.T.C.A. Peijnenburg; A. Afendy; N. Arumugam; H. de Boer; A. Biun; M.M. Buang; P.P. Chen; A.Y.C. Chung; R.. Dow; F.A.A. Feijen; H. Feijen; C. Feijen-van Soest; J. Geml; R. Geurts; B. Gravendeel; P. Hovenkamp; P. Imbun; I. Ipor; S.B. Janssens; M. Jocqué; H. Kappes; E. Khoo; P. Koomen; F. Lens; R.J. Majapun; L.N. Morgado; S. Neupane; N. Nieser; J.T. Pereira; H. Rahman; S. Sabran; A. Sawang; R.M. Schwallier; P.S. Shim; H. Smit; N. Sol; M. Spait; M. Stech; F. Stokvis; J.B. Sugau; M. Suleiman; S. Sumail; D.C. Thomas; J. van Tol; F.Y.Y. Tuh; B.E. Yahya; J. Nais; R. Repin; M. Lakim; M. Schilthuizen

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism1, 2, 3, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood4. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of th

  11. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these comm

  12. The gelechiid fauna of the southern Ural Mountains, part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junnilainen, Jari; Karsholt, Ole; Nupponen, Kari;

    2010-01-01

    A list comprising 236 species in the family Gelechiidae from the southern Ural Mountains is presented. The material was collected during 1996–2007 on 21 different Finnish-Russian expeditions. The following new combinations are proposed: Caulastrocecis interstratella (Christoph, 1873) comb. n., Me...

  13. Mountain Risks: From Prediction to Management and Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Petley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Mountain Risks: From Prediction to Management and Governance. Edited by Theo Van Asch, Jordi Corominas, Stefan Greiving, Jean-Philippe Malet, and Sterlacchini Simone. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer, 2014. xi + 413 pp. US$ 129.00, € 90.00, € 104.00. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-94-007-6768-3.

  14. Modelling reversibility of central European mountain lakes from acidification: Part II – the Tatra Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kopácek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic, process-based model of surface water acidification, MAGIC7, has been applied to four representative alpine lakes in the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia and Poland. The model was calibrated for a set of 12 to 22-year experimental records of lake water composition. Surface water and soil chemistry were reconstructed from 1860 to 2002 and forecast to 2050 based on the reduction in sulphur and nitrogen emissions presupposed by the Gothenburg Protocol. Relatively small changes in the soil C:N ratios were not sufficient to simulate observed changes in NO3‾ concentrations, so an alternative empirical approach of changes in terrestrial N uptake was applied. Measured sulphate sorption isotherms did not allow calibration of the pattern of sulphate response in the lakes, indicating that other mechanisms of S release were also important. The lake water chemistry exhibited significant changes during both the acidification advance (1860 to 1980s and retreat (1980s to 2010. An increase in lake water concentrations of strong acid anions (SAA; 104–149 μeq l–1 was balanced by a decline in HCO3‾ (13–62 μeq l–1 and an increase in base cations (BC; 42–72 μeq l–1, H+ (0-18 μeq l–1, and Alin+ (0–26 μeq l–1. The carbonate buffering system was depleted in three lakes. In contrast, lake water concentrations of SAA, BC, H+, and Alin+ decreased by 57–82, 28–42, 0–11, and 0–22 μeq l–1, respectively, the carbonate buffering system was re-established, and HCO3‾ increased by 1–21 μeq l–1 during the chemical reversal from atmospheric acidification (by 2000. The MAGIC7 model forecasts a slight continuation in this reversal for the next decade and new steady-state conditions thereafter. Gran alkalinity should come back to 1950s levels (0–71 μeq l–1 in all lakes after 2010. Partial recovery of the soil pool of exchangeable base cations can be expected in one catchment, while only conservation of the current conditions is

  15. Does mountain permafrost in Mongolia control water availability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Lucas; Kopp, Benjamin; Munkhjargal, Munkhdavaa

    2016-04-01

    In semi-arid Mongolia, continuous and discontinuous permafrost covers wide parts of the mountains, especially in the northwest of the country. Long-term analysis of annual discharge from rivers draining the mountainous parts shows high temporal variability, with some evidence of decreasing trends, accompanied by decreased intra-annual variability. Investigations show that annual precipitation features small changes while annual air temperature significantly increased over the last decades, with warming rates clearly outranging the global average. Widespread and drastic changes in land cover through forest fires in northern Mongolia might have an additional impact on water retention and the stability of permafrost. Hence, there is concern about an increased degradation of mountain permafrost and a possible impact on river discharge and water availability. Decreased water availability from the mountains would have strong socio-economic implications for the population living in the steppe belt downstream the mountains. Therefore, a monitoring program has been conducted in northern Mongolia that aims to improve the understanding of how climate change and forest fires are influencing mountain permafrost and water resources. The study region, Sugnugur valley, is located about 100 km north of Ulaanbaatar and includes the transition belt between the steppe, the boreal zone and the alpine tundra of the Khentii Mountains. Extensive measurements of soil temperatures, soil moisture, discharge and climatic parameters have been carried out along transects which stretch across the Sugnugur river valley and include steppe, boreal forest as well as burnt forest. First results indicate that the environmental conditions show drastic changes after forest fire, with reduced water retention in the headwaters. After forest fires, changing runoff processes above the permafrost table have been observed, where water drains rapidly along preferential flow paths. This eventually leads to

  16. Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain controversy. Special report No. 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schluter, C.M.; Szymanski, J.S.

    1993-08-01

    In an attempt to resolve the controversial issue of tectonic and hydrologic stability of the Yucca Mountain region, the National Academy of Sciences established a Panel on Coupled Hydrologic/Tectonic/HydrothermaI Systems. The Panel has recently released it`s findings in a report entitled Ground Water at Yucca Mountain: How High Can It Rise? The representation of data and the scientific validity of this report was the subject of comprehensive evaluations and reviews which has led to correspondence between Dr. Charles Archarnbeau and Dr. Frank Press, the President of the National Academy of Sciences. All such correspondence prior to April 9, 1993 is covered by TRAC Special Report No. 5, {open_quotes}Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain Controversy.{close_quotes} The present report represents a continuation of the dialog between Dr. Archambeau and Dr. Press; specifically the letter from Dr. Press to Dr. Archambeau dated April 9, 1993 and Archambeau`s response to Press, dated August 19, 1993. In addition to the correspondence between Press and Archambeau, a series of recent reports by other investigators, referred to in the correspondence from Archambeau, are included in this report and document new data and inferences of importance for resolution of the question of suitability of the Yucca Mountain site as a high level nuclear waste repository. These reports also demonstrate that other scientists, not previously associated with the government`s program at Yucca Mountain or the National Academy review of an aspect of that program, have arrived at conclusions that are different than those stated by the Academy review and DOE program scientists.

  17. Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain controversy. Special report No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to resolve the controversial issue of tectonic and hydrologic stability of the Yucca Mountain region, the National Academy of Sciences established a Panel on Coupled Hydrologic/Tectonic/HydrothermaI Systems. The Panel has recently released it's findings in a report entitled Ground Water at Yucca Mountain: How High Can It Rise? The representation of data and the scientific validity of this report was the subject of comprehensive evaluations and reviews which has led to correspondence between Dr. Charles Archarnbeau and Dr. Frank Press, the President of the National Academy of Sciences. All such correspondence prior to April 9, 1993 is covered by TRAC Special Report No. 5, open-quotes Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain Controversy.close quotes The present report represents a continuation of the dialog between Dr. Archambeau and Dr. Press; specifically the letter from Dr. Press to Dr. Archambeau dated April 9, 1993 and Archambeau's response to Press, dated August 19, 1993. In addition to the correspondence between Press and Archambeau, a series of recent reports by other investigators, referred to in the correspondence from Archambeau, are included in this report and document new data and inferences of importance for resolution of the question of suitability of the Yucca Mountain site as a high level nuclear waste repository. These reports also demonstrate that other scientists, not previously associated with the government's program at Yucca Mountain or the National Academy review of an aspect of that program, have arrived at conclusions that are different than those stated by the Academy review and DOE program scientists

  18. The European and Global Dimension of Mountain Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Borsdorf

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Au cours du siècle dernier, les régions montagneuses et leur système complexe sont sortis de l’ombre. La volonté de protéger ces régions a suscité de nombreuses initiatives dans le monde entier, avec pour objectif d’agir au niveau international et politique, mais également d’unir les forces disponibles pour intensifier l’inter et la transdisciplinarité des travaux scientifiques. Les défis de la recherche sur les montagnes à l’avenir seront de réussir à impliquer plus efficacement les politiciens, les parties prenantes et les habitants des régions montagneuses afin d’atténuer la pression de la mondialisation pour parvenir à un développement régional durable dans les zones montagneuses. Dresser un panorama des institutions qui représentent les régions de montagne de la planète a ainsi l’intérêt de présenter les principales préoccupations de chacune d’entre elles ainsi que les domaines dans lesquels elles travaillent.Within the last century the awareness of mountain regions and their complex system has grown and the motivation to protect these regions has yielded numerous initiatives around the globe with the aim of acting internationally and politically as well as joining forces to intensify inter– and transdisciplinarity in scientific work. The challenges of mountain research in the future will be to involve politicians, stakeholders and the mountain population more effectively in order to mitigate the pressures of globalization towards a sustainable regional development within mountain regions. The significance of providing an overview of institutions representing mountainous regions around the globe lies in showing the main focus of the different institutions and the areas they work in.

  19. Mountains and energy transition. Status of use of renewable energies and challenges for their development in mountain areas - Renewable energies Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an overview of challenges related to the development of renewable energies in mountain areas (conservation of biodiversity and landscapes, main legal measures regarding biodiversity and landscapes), this report proposes an overview of the status and potentials of the different renewable energies (solar, wind, hydroelectricity, bio-energies, geothermal) in mountain areas. It proposes an assessment (strengths and weaknesses) and recommendations for solar, wind, hydroelectricity and bio energies in mountain areas

  20. Importance of mountain height and latitude for the altitudinal distribution limits of vascular plants in Scandinavia: are the mountains high enough?

    OpenAIRE

    Arvid Odland

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the present paper was to study regional differences in the altitudinal distribution limits of vascular plants in relation to mountain height and latitudinal position. Altitudinal limits from previously studied areas were compared with the altitudinal distribution limits given by Lid and Lid (2005) as a reference. Based on these comparisons, different trend lines were used to evaluate the effects of mountain height and thereby estimate how high a mountain must be for vascular p...

  1. Mountain permafrost, glacier thinning, and slope stability - a perspective from British Columbia (and Alaska)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertsema, Marten

    2016-04-01

    The association of landslides with thinning glaciers and mapped, or measured, mountain permafrost is increasing. Glacier thinning debuttresses slopes and promotes joint expansion. It is relatively easy to map. Permafrost, a thermal condition, is generally not visually detectible, and is difficult to map. Much mountain permafrost may have been overlooked in hazard analysis. Identifying, and characterizing mountain permafrost, and its influence on slope instability is crucial for hazard and risk analysis in mountainous terrain. Rock falls in mountains can be the initial event in process chains. They can transform into rock avalanches, debris flows or dam burst floods, travelling many kilometres, placing infrastructure and settlements at risk.

  2. Rocky Mountain snowpack chemistry network; history, methods, and the importance of monitoring mountain ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, George P.; Turk, John T.; Mast, M. Alisa; Clow, David W.; Campbell, Donald H.; Bailey, Zelda C.

    2002-01-01

    Because regional-scale atmospheric deposition data in the Rocky Mountains are sparse, a program was designed by the U.S. Geological Survey to more thoroughly determine the quality of precipitation and to identify sources of atmospherically deposited pollution in a network of high-elevation sites. Depth-integrated samples of seasonal snowpacks at 52 sampling sites, in a network from New Mexico to Montana, were collected and analyzed each year since 1993. The results of the first 5 years (1993?97) of the program are discussed in this report. Spatial patterns in regional data have emerged from the geographically distributed chemical concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate that clearly indicate that concentrations of these acid precursors in less developed areas of the region are lower than concentrations in the heavily developed areas. Snowpacks in northern Colorado that lie adjacent to both the highly developed Denver metropolitan area to the east and coal-fired powerplants to the west had the highest overall concentrations of nitrate and sulfate in the network. Ammonium concentrations were highest in northwestern Wyoming and southern Montana.

  3. Carbon Dynamics in the Hyporheic Zone of a Headwater Mountain Stream in the Cascade Mountains, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondzell, S. M.; Corson-rikert, H.; Haggerty, R.; Dosch, N.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated carbon dynamics in the hyporheic zone of a steep, forested, headwater catchment in the Cascade Mountains of western Oregon, USA. Water samples were collected monthly from the stream and a well network between July and December 2013 and again in March 2014. Samples collected from the well network showed that DOC concentrations decreased, and that DIC concentrations increased, with median travel time through the hyporheic zone on all sample dates. Further, the magnitude of the observed increase in DIC was approximately 10-times too large to be explained by metabolism of stream-source DOC. We examined two alternative explanations: 1) that different source waters - either groundwater rich in DIC or lateral inputs of soil water rich in labile DOC that was subsequently metabolized to DIC - mixed with stream water and thereby accounted for the high concentrations of DIC observed in the hyporheic zone, or 2) that changes in the concentrations of DOC and DIC were best explained by in-situ biogeochemical processing of buried particulate organic matter. End-member mixing analyses showed that neither groundwater nor lateral inputs of soil water influenced carbon chemistry within the hyporheic zone. The analyses could not rule out leaching from the overlying unsaturated riparian soils as a potential source of DOC, but the rate of input from this source would have to be much smaller than the rate at which DOC was metabolized in the hyporheic zone because concentrations of DOC in the hyporheic zone were always lower than in the stream. Overall, our results suggest that particulate organic carbon, perhaps augmented with DOC leached from the overlying soils, is the primary source of organic carbon to the hyporheic zone. Further, these measurements suggest that riparian zones supply, via hyporheic exchange, a disproportionately large fraction of carbon to headwater streams and may therefore play an outsized role in the global carbon cycle.

  4. 76 FR 5303 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carrizo Springs, Glass Ranch Airport, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February.... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The..., Glass Ranch Airport, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...

  5. Landscape distribution characteristics of northern foothill belts of Tianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The foothill belts of Tianshan Mountains are about 280 km long and 60 km wide, and the study area extends from Kuitun city to Fukang city. They are transitional belts between mountains and plains, appearing in three rows of folds with different morphologies and their age becoming younger from south to north. Based on GIS and RS methods, and materials of the previous researchers, this paper deals with the genetics of the foothill belts and their landscape features resulting from folding by neotectonic movements, and also describes their length, width and slope by remote sensing image interpretation. The characteristics of the foothill belts are found to be very important for the surrounding environment by preventing groundwater from flowing into plains, changing groundwater, increasing flow of surface runoff, in addition to their roles in protecting the surrounding environment. The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth understanding of the foothill belts and influence on its surrounding environment.

  6. Biochar Soil Amendment Effects on Arsenic Availability to Mountain Brome ().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Daniel G; Rigby, April C; Baker, Leslie L; Coleman, Mark D; Koch, Iris

    2015-07-01

    Biochar is a renewable energy byproduct that shows promise for remediating contaminated mine sites. A common contaminant at mine sites is arsenic (As). In this study, the effects of biochar amendments to a mine-contaminated soil on As concentrations in mountain brome ( Nees ex Steud.) were investigated. In the biochar-amended soil, mountain brome had greater root biomass and decreased root and shoot As concentrations. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy results showed that arsenate [As(V)] is the predominant species in both the nonamended and biochar-amended soils. Soil extraction tests that measure phosphate and arsenate availability to plants failed to accurately predict plant tissue As concentrations, suggesting the arsenate bioavailability behavior in the soils is distinct from phosphate. Results from this study indicate that biochar will be a beneficial amendment to As-contaminated mine sites for remediation. PMID:26437113

  7. ECOLOGICAL SERIES OF SOIL ANIMALS IN DARLIDAI MOUNTAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The ecological series of soil animals under the broad-leaved and pine mixed forest in Darlidai Mountainwas studied. Seven sample plots were selected according to different altitude gradients, which belong to different vegeta-tion types. By investigating and analyzing soil animals in every sample plot it is found that there are 45 groups and 1956individuals, which are involved in 3 phylums, 7 classes, 16 orders, respectively. The altitude is a key factor which af-fects ecological series of soil animals. Both the groups and individuals of soil animals increase with altitude increasingunder certain conditions, which contrastes with ordinary cases, resulting from special micro-climate in studied area. Thegroups and individuls of soil animals are the most under the broad-leaved and pine forest on the top of the mountain, andthe least under Picea-Abies forest in the foot of the mountain.

  8. Distribution and nutrient limitations of heterotrophic bacteria from Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbiota have been recovered from diverse deep subsurface environments, including rock strata similar to those found in Yucca Mountain. Microbial processes have been shown to accelerate the corrosion of structural materials, alter rock substrates through biogeochemical cycling and production of metabolites, and may influence the transport of radionuclides. A deep subsurface geological repository has been proposed for the long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste and this presents a challenge to model the long-term stability of a such a facility, with regards to microbial abundance, distribution and activity. The aims of this research were to (1) gather background data concerning the numbers and distribution of bacteria indigenous to Yucca Mountain, (2) determine nutrient limitations of indigenous bacteria, and (3) collect isolates for further investigation. The information gleaned will be crucial to the determination of the impact of microbiota on repository integrity

  9. Numerical Simulation on Stratified Flow over an Isolated Mountain Ridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling; Shigeo Kimura

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of stratified flow over an isolated mountain ridge have been investigated numerically. The two-dimensional model equations, based on the time-dependent Reynolds averaged NavierStokes equations, are solved numerically using an implicit time integration in a fitted body grid arrangement to simulate stratified flow over an isolated ideally bell-shaped mountain. The simulation results are in good agreement with the existing corresponding analytical and approximate solutions. It is shown that for atmospheric conditions where non-hydrostatic effects become dominant, the model is able to reproduce typical flow features. The dispersion characteristics of gaseous pollutants in the stratified flow have also been studied. The dispersion patterns for two typical atmospheric conditions are compared. The results show that the presence of a gravity wave causes vertical stratification of the pollutant concentration and affects the diffusive characteristics of the pollutants.

  10. METARHYOLITES OF VRANICA MOUNTAIN IN PALEOZOIC OF CENTRAL BOSNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Majer

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Metharyolites of Vranica mountain are roks of emphasized porphyritic texture containing phenocrysts of quartz, K.feldspar and very rarely albite. The groundmass is microcrystallinic, characterized by finegrained phengite, biotite and area consisting of granophyric intergrowths of quartz and feldspar. Accessory minerals are ilmenite, rutila, apatite, zircon and chlorite. Metarhyolites are peraulminous rocks (PI=1.-4.1 having dominantly potassium character (K2O/Na2O=1,3-13,8. Incompatible elements are enriched relative to the normalizing chondrite composition, pointing to the crustal origin of metarhyolite magma. Although phengites typically occur in high pressure rocks, it seems that phengites of metarhyolites of Vranica mountain belong to the seldom group of phengites occurring in the low to medium pressure rocks (the paper is published in Croatian.

  11. Late glacial to modern climate near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate plays an important role in evaluating the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. Present-day global atmospheric circulation patterns are responsible for the semi-arid climate in the southwestern USA that result in limited winter precipitation and hot, relatively dry summers. Changes in global circulation may produce dramatic climate change resulting in colder average annual air temperatures and much higher average annual precipitation. Preliminary estimates from fossil plant and animal records suggest that during the last glacial (14 to 25 ka) mean annual precipitation may have been as much as five times modern, while mean annual temperatures were 8-10 degrees C lower than today. Such conditions may have been responsible for past percolation through the mountain recorded by the secondary carbonate and silica fracture mineralization within the unsaturated zone

  12. Nature Reserve and Ecotourism Development in China's Wuzhishan Mountain Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Genzong; Qiu Penghua; Tang Shaoxia

    2007-01-01

    As the protected areas of land and coastal environment,nature reserves are designed to address how to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity, the quest for economic and social development and the maintenance of cultural values. This paper establishes a framework for nature reserve development that seeks to incorporate ecotourism into its strategies. The overall purpose was to identify the information needs required for a comprehensive nature reserve that incorporates ecotourism related values. It also illustrates the utility of this framework in the context of the Wuzhishan Mountain Region of China. A literature review, the first phase of a visionary strategy and a subsequent gap analysis for available management information were undertaken in order to achieve this paper's purpose. Finally, recommendations are presented for integrating ecotourism into nature reserve development in the Wuzhishan Mountain Region

  13. Climate change velocity underestimates climate change exposure in mountainous regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Parks, Sean A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change velocity is a vector depiction of the rate of climate displacement used for assessing climate change impacts. Interpreting velocity requires an assumption that climate trajectory length is proportional to climate change exposure; longer paths suggest greater exposure. However, distance is an imperfect measure of exposure because it does not quantify the extent to which trajectories traverse areas of dissimilar climate. Here we calculate velocity and minimum cumulative exposure (MCE) in degrees Celsius along climate trajectories for North America. We find that velocity is weakly related to MCE; each metric identifies contrasting areas of vulnerability to climate change. Notably, velocity underestimates exposure in mountainous regions where climate trajectories traverse dissimilar climates, resulting in high MCE. In contrast, in flat regions velocity is high where MCE is low, as these areas have negligible climatic resistance to movement. Our results suggest that mountainous regions are more climatically isolated than previously reported. PMID:27476545

  14. DEGRADATION MODES OF ALLOY 22 IN YUCCA MOUNTAIN REPOSITORY CONDITIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear waste package design for Yucca Mountain (Nevada, USA), in its current configuration, consists of a double wall cylindrical container fabricated using a highly corrosion resistant Ni-based Alloy 22 for the outer barrier and type 316 stainless steel for the inner structural vessel. A mailbox-shaped drip shield fabricated primarily using Ti Grade 7 will cover the waste packages. The environmental degradation of the relevant materials have been extensively studied and modeled for over ten years. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art understanding of the degradation modes of Alloy 22 (N06022) due to its interaction with the predicted in-drift mountain conditions including temperature and types of electrolytes. Subjects discussed include thermal aging and phase stability, dry oxidation, general and localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen induced cracking

  15. Modelling the Long-term Periglacial Imprint on Mountain Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Egholm, David Lundbek; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou;

    -term evolution of mountains in cold climates. We focus upon two periglacial processes: 1) production of regolith from bedrock via frost-weathering, and 2) transport of sediment via frost creep. First, we propose a mechanistic model that quantifies the influence of temperature and sediment cover on process rates....... For an array of mean annual air temperature and sediment cover thickness, we integrate the heat equation through annual cycles and record the intervals when conditions are optimal for frost-weathering and frost creep. Second, we incorporate these results into a landscape evolution model to explore the long......-term feedbacks among climate, weathering intensity, sediment transport and the evolution of mountain topography. Our results suggest that periglacial processes can produce effectively smooth topography at a rate that varies with climate. The observed smoothing closely simulates the morphology of high...

  16. Bioclimate analysis of Mountain Bjelašnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šušnjar Sanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main task of this paper was to assess weather suitability on Bjelasnica Mountain for optimal function of a human organism. Also, this paper represents weather classification for certain types of recreation and sport's activities. For the purpose of bioclimate analyses it has been used Model “MENEX”. This paper deals with the assessment of heat exchange between man and its environment. Research is based on a meteorological data from 2000 to 2010. The aim of a research was to determine periods in year on mountain Bjelasnica with optimal climate conditions for recreation and living but also to define periods with mostly unsuitable weather conditions, except for healthy and well adapted persons and specific type of activities.

  17. Climate change velocity underestimates climate change exposure in mountainous regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Parks, Sean A

    2016-01-01

    Climate change velocity is a vector depiction of the rate of climate displacement used for assessing climate change impacts. Interpreting velocity requires an assumption that climate trajectory length is proportional to climate change exposure; longer paths suggest greater exposure. However, distance is an imperfect measure of exposure because it does not quantify the extent to which trajectories traverse areas of dissimilar climate. Here we calculate velocity and minimum cumulative exposure (MCE) in degrees Celsius along climate trajectories for North America. We find that velocity is weakly related to MCE; each metric identifies contrasting areas of vulnerability to climate change. Notably, velocity underestimates exposure in mountainous regions where climate trajectories traverse dissimilar climates, resulting in high MCE. In contrast, in flat regions velocity is high where MCE is low, as these areas have negligible climatic resistance to movement. Our results suggest that mountainous regions are more climatically isolated than previously reported. PMID:27476545

  18. Mountain pine beetle impacts on vegetation and carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawbaker, Todd J.; Briggs, Jennifer S.; Caldwell, Megan K.; Stitt, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In the Southern Rocky Mountains, an epidemic outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB) has caused levels of tree mortality unprecedented in recorded history. The impacts of this mortality on vegetation composition, forest structure, and carbon stocks have only recently received attention, although the impacts of other disturbances such as fires and land-use/land-cover change are much better known. This study, initiated in 2010, aims to increase our understanding of MPB outbreaks and their impacts. We have integrated field-collected data with vegetation simulation models to assess and quantify how long-term patterns of vegetation and carbon stocks have and may change in response to MPB outbreaks and other disturbances.

  19. Climate change velocity underestimates climate change exposure in mountainous regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Parks, Sean A.

    2016-08-01

    Climate change velocity is a vector depiction of the rate of climate displacement used for assessing climate change impacts. Interpreting velocity requires an assumption that climate trajectory length is proportional to climate change exposure; longer paths suggest greater exposure. However, distance is an imperfect measure of exposure because it does not quantify the extent to which trajectories traverse areas of dissimilar climate. Here we calculate velocity and minimum cumulative exposure (MCE) in degrees Celsius along climate trajectories for North America. We find that velocity is weakly related to MCE; each metric identifies contrasting areas of vulnerability to climate change. Notably, velocity underestimates exposure in mountainous regions where climate trajectories traverse dissimilar climates, resulting in high MCE. In contrast, in flat regions velocity is high where MCE is low, as these areas have negligible climatic resistance to movement. Our results suggest that mountainous regions are more climatically isolated than previously reported.

  20. Turkish Children's Drawing of Nature in a Certain Way: Range of Mountains in the Back, the Sun, Couple of Clouds, a River Rising from the Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Riza

    2012-01-01

    This study reveals that Turkish kindergarten through 8th Grade (K-8) students draw nature pictures in a certain way; range of mountains in the background, a sun, a couple of clouds, a river rising from the mountains. There are similarities in the K-8 students' nature drawings in the way these nature items are organized on a drawing paper. We…

  1. Echoes from Si gang lih: Burao Yilu's 'Moon Mountain'

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Bender (Preface)

    2011-01-01

    Wa poet Burao Yilu's utilization of myth, ritual, and folk customs in representing the Wa ethnic group in the poem 'Moon Mountain' is discussed. Negative stereotypes of the Wa, an indigenous people of southwestern Yunnan Province, China, include the now forbidden practice of headhunting. By referencing the origin myth 'Si gang lih' and evoking images of ancient cliff paintings, rituals, and agricultural practices, Burao offers a nuanced view of Wa culture while affirming deep-rooted aspects o...

  2. Trapping of Organochlorine Compounds in High Mountain Lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Grimalt, Joan O; Pilar Fernandez; Vilanova, Rosa M.

    2001-01-01

    High mountain areas have recently been observed to be polluted by organochlorine compounds (OC) despite their isolation. These persistent pollutants arrive at these remote regions through atmospheric transport. However, the mechanisms involving the accumulation of these compounds from the atmospheric pool to the lacustrine systems still need to be elucidated. These mechanisms must be related to the processes involving the transfer of these pollutant from low to high latitudes[1] as described ...

  3. Some Edible Mushrooms of Kop Mountain (Erzurum-Bayburt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Keleş

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted on macrofungi collected from Kop Mountain (Erzurum-Bayburt between the years of 2010 and 2011. The colorful photographs of macrofungi in the natural habitat were taken and their morphological and ecological features were determined and the information on macrofungi given by local people was recorded. According to the field and laboratory studies; 44 edible macrofungi taxa belonging to 14 families and 5 ordos located in Pezizomycetes and Agaricomycetes classes were identified.

  4. The Caledonian mountains. Northern Europe, and their changing ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Sonesson, M.

    1998-01-01

    With the exception of solar conditions, the climate of the Caledonian Mountains, Northern Europe, is influenced more by the nearness to the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf Stream than by altitude and latitude. The length of the photoperiod during the growing season increases with latitude, although the total solar influx decreases. Heaths composed of species with a boreal distribution are particularly characteristic at low altitudes and latitudes, whereas species with an arctic and arctic-alpine ...

  5. Educational routes in tourism of Novohradské hory mountains

    OpenAIRE

    CVACHOVÁ, Klára

    2011-01-01

    The chief aim of this bachelor work is to asses current situation to usage of educational routes in tourism of Novohradské hory mountains. The first aim is to construct dokumentation of educational routes in choice area. On educational routes was executed the personal research.The second aim is to asses the relation of current visitors to educational routes in certain area. We came by nformation about relation of visitors through the questionaire.The last aim introduces identification of them...

  6. ARISK PHENOMENA IN THE SILVANIA MOUNTAINS, INTUITIVE AND GENETIC REFLEXES

    OpenAIRE

    CAMELIA BOGDAN; I. MAC

    2014-01-01

    Risk phenomena in the Silvania Mountains, intuitive and genetic reflexes. In the contemporary period, the scientific research under the auspices of the global development has experienced a real quantitative and qualitative revolution. Theoretically and methodologically, the widespread promotion of the “concept of discontinuity” in terms of content, significances, manifestation, implications is observed, which has become a new imperative of the nowadays geography. The phenomena of discontinuit...

  7. Variance in the reproductive success of dominant male mountain gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Andrew M; Gray, Maryke; Uwingeli, Prosper; Mburanumwe, Innocent; Kagoda, Edwin; Robbins, Martha M

    2014-10-01

    Using 30 years of demographic data from 15 groups, this study estimates how harem size, female fertility, and offspring survival may contribute to variance in the siring rates of dominant male mountain gorillas throughout the Virunga Volcano Region. As predicted for polygynous species, differences in harem size were the greatest source of variance in the siring rate, whereas differences in female fertility and offspring survival were relatively minor. Harem size was positively correlated with offspring survival, even after removing all known and suspected cases of infanticide, so the correlation does not seem to reflect differences in the ability of males to protect their offspring. Harem size was not significantly correlated with female fertility, which is consistent with the hypothesis that mountain gorillas have minimal feeding competition. Harem size, offspring survival, and siring rates were not significantly correlated with the proportion of dominant tenures that occurred in multimale groups versus one-male groups; even though infanticide is less likely when those tenures end in multimale groups than one-male groups. In contrast with the relatively small contribution of offspring survival to variance in the siring rates of this study, offspring survival is a major source of variance in the male reproductive success of western gorillas, which have greater predation risks and significantly higher rates of infanticide. If differences in offspring protection are less important among male mountain gorillas than western gorillas, then the relative importance of other factors may be greater for mountain gorillas. Thus, our study illustrates how variance in male reproductive success and its components can differ between closely related species. PMID:24818867

  8. Mapping plant functional types over broad mountainous regions

    OpenAIRE

    Danlu Cai; Yanning Guan; Shan Guo; Chunyan Zhang; Klaus Fraedrich

    2014-01-01

    Research on global climate change requires plant functional type (PFT) products. Although several PFT mapping procedures for remote sensing imagery are being used, none of them appears to be specifically designed to map and evaluate PFTs over broad mountainous areas which are highly relevant regions to identify and analyze the response of natural ecosystems. We present a methodology for generating soft classifications of PFTs from remotely sensed time series that are based on a hierarchical s...

  9. LACTIC ACID MICROFLORA OF BULGARIAN MILK PRODUCTS FROM MOUNTAIN REGIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva, P.; Georgieva, R.; D. Nikolova; Danova, S.

    2009-01-01

    International audience This study aimed to isolate and characterize viable lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from the most popular in Bulgaria fermented milk products. Different samples from home-made cheeses, yoghurt and katak, from ecological regions of Stara Planina, Rila and Rodopi mountains were collected. A total of 25 LAB cultures (coci and rods) were isolated and polyphasic taxonomic characterization was performed. Eight of the strains from yoghurt were phenotypically similar to Lactobaci...

  10. Modeling Phloem Temperatures Relative to Mountain Pine Beetle Phenology

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Matthew Jared

    2011-01-01

    We explore a variety of methods to estimate phloem temperatures from ambient air temperatures suitable for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. A model's ability to induce the same phenology generated from observed phloem temperatures measures its effectiveness rather than a simple reconstruction of phloem temperatures. From a model's phenology results we are able to ascertain whether the model produces a similar amount of developmental energy exhibited by observed phloem temper...

  11. Mountain permafrost: development and challenges of a young research field

    OpenAIRE

    Haeberli, W.; Noetzli, J.; Arenson, L; R. Delaloye; Gärtner-Roer, I.; Gruber, S.; Isaksen, K; C. Kneisel; M. Krautblatter; Phillips, M

    2011-01-01

    An overview is given of the relatively short history, important issues and primary challenges of research on permafrost in cold mountain regions. The systematic application of diverse approaches and technologies contributes to a rapidly growing knowledge base about the existence, characteristics and evolution in time of perennially frozen ground at high altitudes and on steep slopes. These approaches and technologies include (1) drilling, borehole measurement, geophysical sounding, photogramm...

  12. Thermal stability of zeolitic tuff from Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bish, D.L.

    1990-04-01

    Thermal models of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, suggest that rocks near the proposed host rock will experience elevated temperatures for at least 1000 yrs. In order to assess the effects of elevated temperatures on zeolites clinoptilolite and mordenite were investigated using a combination of high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analysis, and long-term heating experiments. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Fire Environment Mechanism of Lightning Fire for Daxing an Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Lightning fire is one of natural fires; its mechanism is very complex and difficult to control. Daxing'an Mountain is the main region that lightning fires occur in China. Research on lightning fires indicates that special fuel, dry-storm weather and high altitude form the lightning fire environment. Lightning fires have close relation with lights. When lightning occurs, especially dry-lightning which brings little precipitation with surface temperature growing and fuel dehydrating, these often lead to l...

  14. Design of ropeways of the mountain recreational centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseva Anna Victorovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ropeways are an eco-friendly and economically viable transport used for transportation of passengers and shipment. Ropeways are widely applied during construction in the conditions of a mountainous relief. The state programs aimed at the development of mountain recreational centers (MRCs stipulate ropeways construction in accordance with the MRC situational plan. Safety and comfort of a ropeway are defined not only by its technical characteristics, but also by its linking to the relief, MRC facilities and infrastructure. The article describes the main design stages of a ropeway starting from the concept, a choice of its axis, determination of capacity, type of a ropeway, requirements to the track before the design of drop-off/pick-up zones. For each design stage the explanations, which reflect real work specifics, are provided, together with the technical characteristics for calculations and solution samples. The concept defines the functional purpose of a ropeway: ski slopes/ tourist zones/ recreation areas; the season of ropeway operation, the scheme of communications with the MRC objects, the capacity of reception base, the minimum distance from the bottom stations to residential complexes. The critical decisions of axis and track design are carried out by a coalition of designer-planners, expert designers and ropeway technologists. The ropeway, which performs transport function, unites all the objects of the mountain recreational center into a single complex. The optimum placement of a ropeway deals with the questions of comfort, safety and profitability, therefore greatly contributing to the quality of the whole ropeway project. During the MRC development one should consider the questions of infrastructure expansion, year-round ropeway operation and increasing ski tracks capacity, which will demand ropeway modernization and/ or changes in the situational plan of the mountain recreational center.

  15. The hydrological response of baseflow in fractured mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Millares, A.; M. J. Polo; M. A. Losada

    2009-01-01

    The study of baseflow in mountainous areas of basin headwaters, where the characteristics of the often fractured materials are very different to the standard issues concerning porous material applied in conventional hydrogeology, is an essential element in the characterization and quantification of water system resources. Their analysis through recession fragments provides information on the type of response of the sub-surface and subterranean systems and on the average relation between the s...

  16. Process identification of soil erosion in steep mountain regions

    OpenAIRE

    Konz, N.; D. Baenninger; Konz, M.; Nearing, M.; Alewell, C.

    2010-01-01

    Mountainous soil erosion processes were investigated in the Urseren Valley (Central Switzerland) by means of measurements and simulations. The quantification of soil erosion was performed on hill slope scale (2 center dot 20 m) for three different land use types: hayfields, pastures with dwarf shrubs and pastures without dwarf shrubs with three replicates each. Erosion rates during growing season were measured with sediment traps between June 2006 and November 2007. Long-term soil erosion rat...

  17. Firewood properties of some Indian mountain tree and shrub species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, B.P.; Tomar, J.M.S. [ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Agroforestry Div., Meghalaya (India)

    2002-10-01

    Quantitative analysis of 26 indigenous mountain fuelwood species of North-Eastern Himalayan region was carried out to identify trees with potential for fuelwood production. A fuelwood value index (FYI) was defined as calorific value x density/ash content. Betula nitida, Machilus bombycina, Itea macrophylla, Cryptomeria japonica, Gmelina arborea, Simingtonia populnea, Macaranga denticulata and Schima wallichii were shown to have promising firewood production. (Author)

  18. Pleistocene glaciation of the Mediterranean mountains, Quaternary Newsletter, 131

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, K. R., Woodward, J. C. and Hughes, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    There is extensive evidence of Pleistocene glaciation across many mountainous regions in the Mediterranean. Research into the glacial record began over a century ago, but the application of radiometric dating techniques over the last few decades has allowed us to develop more robust geochronologies. It is now established that ice caps and valley glaciers developed on multiple occasions during the Quaternary during Marine Isotope Stages 14, 12, 10, 8, 6, 5d-2 and the Younger Dryas. This review...

  19. Radiometric dating of sediment records in European mountain lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Peter G. APPLEBY

    2000-01-01

    Sediment cores from seven European mountain lakes collected as part of a study of palaeolimnogical records of climate change (the MOLAR project) were dated radiometrically by 210Pb. In spite of the remote locations, only one site recorded more or less uniform sediment accumulation throughout the past 150 years. At three further sites the 210Pb record indicated uniform sedimentation up until ca 1950 but significant increases since then. Stratigraphic dates based on records of fallout 137Cs and...

  20. Prospective GIS modelling of land cover in Mediterranean mountain regions

    OpenAIRE

    Paegelow, Martin

    2003-01-01

    International audience; GIS includes among the variety of analytical functions those intended to spatial-temporal modelling and decision support. This paper focus on GIS methods and results of prospective land cover modelling applied to a mountain basin in Eastern Pyrenees (France). This research is a part of an international project between France and Spain focusing on development, validation and comparison of 3 different methods for environmental modelling (statistical approach by non linea...

  1. Yucca Mountain Project bibliography, January--June 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This update contains information on the Yucca Mountain Project that was added to the Energy Data Base (EDB) during the first six months of 1989. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. The update is categorized by principal project participant organizations, and items are arranged in chronological order according to publication date. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, meeting papers, and journal articles are included with sponsoring organization

  2. Phylogenetic Composition of Rocky Mountain Endolithic Microbial Ecosystems▿

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Jeffrey J.; Pace, Norman R.

    2007-01-01

    The endolithic environment, the pore space in rocks, is a ubiquitous microbial habitat. Photosynthesis-based endolithic communities inhabit the outer few millimeters to centimeters of rocks exposed to the surface. Such endolithic ecosystems have been proposed as simple, tractable models for understanding basic principles in microbial ecology. In order to test previously conceived hypotheses about endolithic ecosystems, we studied selected endolithic communities in the Rocky Mountain region of...

  3. Ecosystem Classification in the Central Rocky Mountains, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Kusbach, Antonin; Klinka, Karel; Van Miegroet, Helga; Long, James

    2009-01-01

    Currently there is no comprehensive terrestrial ecosystem classification for the Central Rocky Mountains of the United States. Fundamentals of the British Columbian biogeoclimatic classification system, together with elements of the Daubenmire habitat type, Mueggler community type, and the USDA Forest Service Terrestrial Ecological Unit Inventory approaches, were used to develop a classification of ecosystems in a montane-subalpine watershed (10,000 ha, 2,000 - 3,000 m elevation) in northern ...

  4. Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Community-Scale Solar Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Knight, Tawnie [Ute Mountain Ute Tribe

    2014-01-30

    Parametrix Inc. conducted a feasibility study for the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe to determine whether or not a community-scale solar farm would be feasible for the community. The important part of the study was to find where the best fit for the solar farm could be. In the end, a 3MW community-scale solar farm was found best fit with the location of two hayfield sites.

  5. Late Holocene vegetation history in Harghita Mountains (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Maria PANAIT

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present here the pollen analysis of two sequences originating from two peat bogs from Harghita Mountains. The vegetation record, which is supported by five 14C dates, starts in the Subboreal (age with the Carpinus optimum. During the Subatlantic (age the vegetation is dominated by Fagus. Indications of human impact (especially agricultural activities in the region occur at the beginning of the Subboreal (at ca. 4200 years BP

  6. Two World Cultural Heritage Villages on one Amazing Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAVA; LEE

    2004-01-01

    QU Xinghu, a park employee, lives in a small cottage near Yuping (JadeScreen) Pavilion on Huangshan(Yellow Mountain) in China’s Anhui Province. He looks after Huangshan’s most famous tree, the Guest Welcoming Pine, of which a huge iron picture hangs in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing.The Guest Welcoming Pine has been assigned guardians since the

  7. Quaternary glacial evolution in the Central Cantabrian Mountains (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, E.; González-Trueba, J. J.; Pellitero, R.; González-García, M.; Gómez-Lende, M.

    2013-08-01

    The glacial evolution of the Cantabrian Mountains is not well known. Previous studies have focused on the extent of the glacial maximum and the presence of younger features in several massifs. Recently, efforts have been made to date glacial periods, particularly the glacial maximum. This work presents a reconstruction of the glacial evolution in the Cantabrian Mountains, providing data on the environmental characteristics and timing of the different stages from the Quaternary glacial maximum to the Little Ice Age. The study area covers 3000 km2 between the 4°58'W and 3°34'W and includes eleven massifs of the central area of the Cantabrian Mountains. The selected sectors have an Atlantic and Atlantic-Mediterranean transitional climate and include the highest massifs (above 2600 m) and low-altitude glacierised massifs (lower than 2000 m). Glacial extent and evolution have been reconstructed on the basis of detailed geomorphological and morphostratigraphic mapping. The equilibrium line altitude (palaeo-ELA) has been estimated for the different stages of each tongue. The ELA has been assessed by the AAR and modified Kurowski methods and altitude methods have been considered. A numerical chronological framework is proposed using 17 AMS radiocarbon and one OSL data obtained in lake and bog deposits from three massifs. Four main glacial stages have been differentiated, between 38,000 BP and the Little Ice Age. They correspond to different cold environments, and the number of glacial stages varies from one to four among the different massifs. Conclusions are analysed in the context of the Quaternary glacial evolution of other Iberian mountains.

  8. One-dimensional models for mountain-river morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Sieben, a

    1996-01-01

    In this report, some classical and new simplifications in mathematical and numerical models for river morphology are compared for conditions representing rivers in mountainous areas (high values of Froude numbers and relatively large values of sediment transport rates). Options for simplification are summarized based on time scale of hydrographs and length scales of river geometry. This results in concepts based on quasi-steady and/or quasi-uniform flow assumptions. Additionally, the behaviou...

  9. Hydrogeologic Controls on Lake Level at Mountain Lake, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Roningen, Jeanne Marie

    2011-01-01

    Mountain Lake in Giles County, Virginia, has a documented history of severe natural lake-level changes involving groundwater seepage [Jansons, 2004] that extend over the past 4200 years [Cawley, 1999], and as of December 2010 the lake was about 2% full by volume. Situated in the Valley and Ridge physiographic province on the axis of a plunging anticline and straddling contacts between three upper Ordovician and lower Silurian formations, the lake is one of two natural lakes in Virginia. ...

  10. Effect of carbon dioxide in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, T C; Raichle, M E; Winterborn, M H;

    1988-01-01

    The effect of adding CO2 to inhaled air in six subjects with acute mountain sickness was investigated during a medical expedition to 5400 m.3% CO2 in ambient air increased ventilation and resulted in a rise in PaO2 of between 24% and 40%. There was a 9-28% increase in PaCO2 and a reduction of the...

  11. Ecohydrology of the Luquillo Mountains of Northeast Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatena, F. N.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal humid tropical mountains are major sources of sediment, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved fluxes to the ocean. They are also important sources of food, fiber, municipal and agricultural water. Unlike water-limited drylands their ecohydrology is influenced by excess water and a high frequency of natural and hydrologically induced disturbances. However, like water-limited drylands, the spatial distribution of water across the landscape can play a fundamental role on biogeochemical and ecological processes. This paper reviews the influence of water on the critical zones and ecohydrology of the Luquillo Mountains of Northeastern Puerto Rico. Over a horizontal distance of 10 to 20 km, Luquillo life zones change from subtropical dry conditions at the coast to cloud enshrouded mountain peaks where the vegetation is stunted, evapotranspiration is reduced, and cloud water interception adds to annual precipitation such that annual rainfall approaches annual runoff. Along this elevational gradient there are systematic changes in climate, vegetation structure and diversity, gross and net primary productivity, carbon storage, and hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles. At the scale of hillslopes within the elevational gradients, soil nutrients, soil moisture, and soil oxygen vary systematically from ridge tops to adjacent valleys and topographic position is correlated to landscape stability and vegetation composition and structure. At landscape scales, hurricanes are the major control on forest age and structure and their associated defoliation and biomass loss can have large influences on both hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, because of the rapid re-growth of hurricane disturbed forests, the fluxes of most hydrologic pathways return to pre-hurricane rates within a year. Biogeochemical can take years to decades to return to pre-hurricane conditions. This presentation reviews these relationships and the challenges and opportunities related to

  12. Agroecosystem Analysis of the Choke Mountain Watersheds, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu Ozdogan; Benjamin F. Zaitchik; Belay Simane

    2013-01-01

    Tropical highland regions are experiencing rapid climate change. In these regions the adaptation challenge is complicated by the fact that elevation contrasts and dissected topography produce diverse climatic conditions that are often accompanied by significant ecological and agricultural diversity within a relatively small region. Such is the case for the Choke Mountain watersheds, in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia. These watersheds extend from tropical alpine environments at over 4000 ...

  13. The uplifting process of the Bogda Mountain during the Cenozoic and its tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZongXiu; LI Tao; ZHANG Jin; LIU YongQing; MA ZongJin

    2008-01-01

    Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China The Tianshan Mountains have undergone its initial orogeny, extension adjusting and re-orogeny since the Late Paleozoic. The re-orogeny and uplifting process of the orogeny in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are two of most important events in the geological evolution of Euro-Asian continent, which resulted in the formation of the present range-and-basin pattern in topography of the Tianshan Mountains and its adjacent areas. Thermochronology results by the method of fission-track dating of apatite suggest three obvious uplifting stages of the Bogad Mountain Chain re-orogeny during the Cenozoic, i.e. 5.6-19 Ma, 20-30 Ma, and 42-47 Ma. The strongest uplifting stage of the mountain is the second one at 20-30 Ma, when the mountain uplifted as a whole, and the beginning of re-orogeny was no less than 65Ma. Furthermore, our studies also show that the uplifting types of the mountain are variable in the different time periods, including uplifting of mountain as a whole and differential uplifting. The apparently diversified uplifting processes of the mountain chain are characterized by the migration (or transformation) of the uplifting direction of the mountain from west to east and from north to south, and the main process of mountain extending is from north to south.

  14. The uplifting process of the Bogda Mountain during the Cenozoic and its tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Tianshan Mountains have undergone its initial orogeny, extension adjusting and re-orogeny since the Late Paleozoic. The re-orogeny and uplifting process of the orogeny in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are two of most important events in the geological evolution of Euro-Asian continent, which resulted in the formation of the present range-and-basin pattern in topography of the Tianshan Mountains and its adjacent areas. Thermochronology results by the method of fission-track dating of apatite suggest three obvious uplifting stages of the Bogad Mountain Chain re-orogeny during the Cenozoic, i.e. 5.6-19 Ma, 20-30 Ma, and 42-47 Ma. The strongest uplifting stage of the mountain is the second one at 20 -30 Ma, when the mountain uplifted as a whole, and the beginning of re-orogeny was no less than 65 Ma. Furthermore, our studies also show that the uplifting types of the mountain are variable in the dif-ferent time periods, including uplifting of mountain as a whole and differential uplifting. The apparently diversified uplifting processes of the mountain chain are characterized by the migration (or transfor-mation) of the uplifting direction of the mountain from west to east and from north to south, and the main process of mountain extending is from north to south.

  15. Geomorphic control on the δ15N of mountain forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Hilton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mountain forests are subject to high rates of physical erosion which can export particulate nitrogen from ecosystems. However, the impact of geomorphic processes on nitrogen budgets remains poorly constrained. We have used the elemental and isotopic composition of soil and plant organic matter to investigate nitrogen cycling in the mountain forest of Taiwan, from 24 sites with distinct geomorphic (topographic slope and climatic (precipitation, temperature characteristics. The organic carbon to nitrogen ratio of soil organic matter decreased with soil 14C age, providing constraint on average rates of nitrogen loss using a mass balance model. Model predictions suggest that present day estimates of nitrogen deposition exceed contemporary and historic nitrogen losses. We found ∼6‰ variability in the stable isotopic composition (δ15N of soil and plants which was not related to soil 14C age or climatic conditions. Instead, δ15N was significantly, negatively correlated with topographic slope. Using the mass balance model, we demonstrate that the correlation can be explained by an increase in nitrogen loss by non-fractioning pathways on steeper slopes, where physical erosion most effectively removes particulate nitrogen. Published data from forests on steep slopes are consistent with the correlation. Based on our dataset and these observations, we hypothesise that variable physical erosion rates can significantly influence soil δ15N, and suggest particulate nitrogen export is a major, yet underappreciated, loss term in the nitrogen budget of mountain forests.

  16. Soil Organic Carbon Responses to Forest Expansion on Mountain Grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guidi, Claudia

    Grassland abandonment followed by progressive forest expansion is the dominant land-use change in the European Alps. Contrasting trends in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks have been reported for mountainous regions following forest expansion on grasslands. Moreover, its effects on SOC properties ...... grasslands, which can be explained by lower accumulation of binding agents of microbial origin. This can have implications for the accumulation of atmospheric CO2 in soil and for the susceptibility of SOC to external disturbances such as management and environmental changes.......Grassland abandonment followed by progressive forest expansion is the dominant land-use change in the European Alps. Contrasting trends in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks have been reported for mountainous regions following forest expansion on grasslands. Moreover, its effects on SOC properties...... involved into long-term stability are largely unknown. The aim of this PhD thesis was to explore changes in: (i) SOC stocks; (ii) physical SOC fractions; and (iii) labile soil carbon components following forest expansion on mountain grasslands. A land-use gradient located in the Southern Alps (Italy...

  17. Carbon Storage in Mountain Land Use Systems in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narit Yimyam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of forested land for agriculture has obvious detrimental effects on its ecological functions, but these effects are not uniform. Mountain land use systems are diverse, encompassing managed forests and cultivated land. This study examined land use systems in 3 mountain villages in northern Thailand with different patterns of cultivation and evaluated the amount of carbon they have accumulated. Land use and management by individual farmers and communities were determined by interviews, field verification, and mapping. Biomass carbon in trees was determined nondestructively, and carbon in ground cover, litter, and soil organic matter was determined by chemical analysis of replicated samples. The 3 villages, with access to land ranging from 1.3 to 6.3 ha per capita, managed largely pristine headwater forests for security of water supply and made a living from crop production supplemented by harvests of timber, firewood, and other forest products from managed community forests. Cultivated land varied in composition and management among the villages, from shifting cultivation with fallow periods of different lengths to permanent cultivation of food and commercial crops. Per capita carbon storage in the villages well exceeded average per capita carbon dioxide emissions in Thailand, with most of the carbon stored in the forests. This has important implications for programs that offer incentives to mountain villages to maintain or enhance their carbon storage, such as the United Nations’ REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation program.

  18. Numerical studies of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer model (TGIF -- Thermal Gradient Induced Flow) of two-dimensional, steady-state rock-gas flow driven by temperature and humidity differences is described. The model solves for the ''fresh-water head,'' a concept that has been used in models of variable-density water flow but has not previously been applied to gas flow. With this approach, the model can accurately simulate the flows driven by small differences in temperature. The unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are being studied as a potential site for a repository for high-level nuclear waste. Using the TGIF model, preliminary calculations of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain are made for four east-west cross-sections through the mountain. Calculations are made for three repository temperatures and for several assumptions about a possible semi-confining layer above the repository. The gas-flow simulations are then used to calculate travel-time distributions for air and for radioactive carbon-14 dioxide from the repository to the ground surface

  19. Acidification reversal in low mountain range streams of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucker, Carina; von Wilpert, Klaus; Puhlmann, Heike

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluates the acidification status and trends in streams of forested mountain ranges in Germany in consequence of reduced anthropogenic deposition since the mid 1980s. The analysis is based on water quality data for 86 long-term monitored streams in the Ore Mountains, the Bavarian Forest, the Fichtelgebirge, the Harz Mountains, the Spessart, the Black Forest, the Thuringian Forest, and the Rheinisches Schiefergebirge of Germany and the Vosges of France. Within the observation period, which starts for the individual streams between 1980 and 2001 and ends between 1990 and 2009, trends in chemical water quality were calculated with the Seasonal Mann Kendall Test. About 87% of the streams show significant (p streams) and subsequently decreased base cation concentrations in the stream water (for calcium significant in 58% and magnesium 49% of the streams). Reaction products of acidification such as aluminum (significant for 50%) or manganese (significant for 69%) also decreased. Nitrate (52% with significant decrease) and chloride (38% with significant increase) have less pronounced trends and more variable spatial patterns. For the quotient of acidification, which is the ratio of the sum of base cations and the sum of acid anions, no clear trend is observed: in 44% of the monitored streams values significantly decreased and in 23% values significantly increased. A notable observation is the increasing DOC concentration, which is significant for 55% of the observed streams.

  20. Species and distribution of mountain bamboos in Shennongjia, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhao-hua; ZHAOBen-yuan; ZHUZhao-quan

    2003-01-01

    Inventory recorded 4 genera and 11 spacies of mountain bamboss in Shennongjia,Central China.Of these,4 species (Phyllostachys nigra var.henonis,Ph,heteroclada,Ph.nidularia and Ph.Bambuskoides) beiong to the monopodial bamboo,4 species(lndocalamus latifolius,I.longiauritus,l.wilsoni and l.tessellatus)to the amphipodial barnboo,and 3 species(Fargesia spathaces,F.munelae and Yushania contusa)to the sympodial bamboo.Monopoodial bamboos grow on the gentle slopes below 1800m asl,occurring from the subtropical belt to the temperate belt in the vertical climatic spectrum of the mountain;Sympodial bamboos occur in higher elevations,ranging from the warm temperate(1200m),across the mediate temperate and cold temperate,to the mountaintops of the frigid temperate belt(3100m).Amphipodial bamboos occur in all climate types except the frigid temperate belt.three dominant species,F.spathacea,F.murielae and Y.confusa,currently cover 12%,9% and 3% of the mountain ranges in Shannongjia,respectively.

  1. Development of stochastic indicator models of lithology, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robey, T.H. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Indicator geostatistical techniques have been used to produce a number of fully three-dimensional stochastic simulations of large-scale lithologic categories at the Yucca Mountain site. Each realization reproduces the available drill hole data used to condition the simulation. Information is propagated away from each point of observation in accordance with a mathematical model of spatial continuity inferred through soft data taken from published geologic cross sections. Variations among the simulated models collectively represent uncertainty in the lithology at unsampled locations. These stochastic models succeed in capturing many major features of welded-nonwelded lithologic framework of Yucca Mountain. However, contacts between welded and nonwelded rock types for individual simulations appear more complex than suggested by field observation, and a number of probable numerical artifacts exist in these models. Many of the apparent discrepancies between the simulated models and the general geology of Yucca Mountain represent characterization uncertainty, and can be traced to the sparse site data used to condition the simulations. Several vertical stratigraphic columns have been extracted from the three-dimensional stochastic models for use in simplified total-system performance assessment exercises. Simple, manual adjustments are required to eliminate the more obvious simulation artifacts and to impose a secondary set of deterministic geologic features on the overall stratigraphic framework provided by the indictor models.

  2. Groundwater chemistry at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of groundwater at Yucca Mountain and vicinity has been reviewed and compared with the chemistry of water from the Nevada Test Site and surrounding areas such as the Amargosa Desert and Oasis Valley. Sodium is the primary cation and carbonate is the primary anion in water from the saturated zone of the tuffaceous aquifer at Yucca Mountain. Other major cations present are calcium, potassium, and magnesium; other major anions are sulfate and chloride, with lesser quantities of fluoride and nitrate. Aqueous silica is also present. The primary purpose of this review was to survey water-composition data and look for relations among the compositional variables that could provide insight into the processes that control the composition and would ultimately affect radionuclide transport. The following conclusions were inferred from the review. Major cation concentrations are controlled by rock dissolution and mineral precipitation reactions as well as by cation exchange with existing minerals. Aqueous carbonate initially comes from atmospheric and soil-zone carbon dioxide, but there is evidence at Yucca Mountain that carbon dioxide in the gas phase of the unsaturated zone supplies additional carbonate to saturated-zone water in the tuffaceous aquifer as mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions raise the pH of the water. This combination is effectively mineral dissolution and precipitation in a system that is open with respect to carbon dioxide. A carbon model for this process is discussed

  3. Thermal environment analysis of mountainous towns based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亚锋; 李百战; 王志浩; 杨玉兰

    2009-01-01

    Outdoor thermal environment prediction and evaluation system was established based on a geographic information system. The system uses digital elevation model data and satellite imagery of mountainous towns. The system can conveniently provide a three-dimensional view of a town as well as predict the urbanization rate and urban heat island intensity. In addition,the system also permits quick inquiry and analysis of the temperature field,moisture field,and wind field tendency and current conditions of towns. The system was tested using the town of Yunyang,Chongqing Municipality,China,as a case study. The system was used to analyze and predict the climate comfort of the entire town and the outdoor thermal environment comfort of certain town districts,squares and streets. The results are in accordance with the measured data. This outdoor thermal environment prediction and evaluation method thus can provide a feasible reference for the general plan of mountainous town and promote the sustainable development of mountainous towns.

  4. Paleomagnetic contributions to the Klamath Mountains terrane puzzle-a new piece from the Ironside Mountain batholith, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, Edward A.; Gromme, C. Sherman; Irwin, W. Porter

    2013-01-01

    We obtained paleomagnetic samples from six sites within the Middle Jurassic Ironside Mountain batholith (~170 Ma), which constitutes the structurally lowest part of the Western Hayfork terrane, in the Klamath Mountains province of northern California and southern Oregon. Structural attitudes measured in the coeval Hayfork Bally Meta-andesite were used to correct paleomagnetic data from the batholith. Comparing the corrected paleomagnetic pole with a 170-Ma reference pole for North America indicates 73.5° ± 10.6° of clockwise rotation relative to the craton. Nearly one-half of this rotation may have occurred before the terrane accreted to the composite Klamath province at ~168 Ma. No latitudinal displacement of the batholith was detected.

  5. Magmatic carbon dioxide emissions at Mammoth Mountain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Neil, John M.; Howle, James F.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) of magmatic origin is seeping out of the ground in unusual quantities at several locations around the flanks of Mammoth Mountain, a dormant volcano in Eastern California. The most recent volcanic activity on Mammoth Mountain was steam eruptions about 600 years ago, but seismic swarms and long-period earthquakes over the past decade are evidence of an active magmatic system at depth. The CO2 emission probably began in 1990 but was not recognized until 1994. Seismic swarms and minor ground deformation during 1989, believed to be results of a shallow intrusion of magma beneath Mammoth Mountain, probably triggered the release of CO2, which persists in 1998. The CO2 gas is at ambient temperatures and emanates diffusely from the soil surface rather than flowing from distinct vents. The CO2 has collected in the soil by displacing air in the pore spaces and reaches concentrations of greater than 95 percent by volume in places. The total area affected by high CO2 concentrations and high CO2 flux from the soil surface was estimated at 60 hectares in 1997. Coniferous forest covering about 40 hectares has been killed by high CO2 concentrations in the root zone. In more than 300 soil-gas samples collected from depths of 0.5 to 2 m in 1995, CO2 concentrations ranged from background levels (less than 1 percent) to greater than 95 percent by volume. At 250 locations, CO2 flux was measured using a closed chamber in 1996; values, in grams per square meter per day, ranged from background (less than 25) to more than 30,000. On the basis of these data, the total emission of magmatic CO2 in 1996 is estimated to be about 530 megagrams per day. Concentrations of CO2 exceeding Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards have been measured in pits dug in soil and snow, in poorly ventilated buildings, and in below-ground valve-boxes around Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations greater than 10 percent in poorly ventilated spaces are not uncommon on some parts

  6. Water Resources by 2100 in Mountains with Declining Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniston, M.

    2015-12-01

    Future shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns, and changes in the behavior of snow and ice - and possibly the quasi-disappearance of glaciers - in many mountain regions will change the quantity, seasonality, and possibly also the quality of water originating in mountains and uplands. As a result, changing water availability will affect both upland and populated lowland areas. Economic sectors such as agriculture, tourism or hydropower may enter into rivalries if water is no longer available in sufficient quantities or at the right time of the year. The challenge is thus to estimate as accurately as possible future changes in order to prepare the way for appropriate adaptation strategies and improved water governance. The European ACQWA project, coordinated by the author, aimed to assess the vulnerability of water resources in mountain regions such as the European Alps, the Central Chilean Andes, and the mountains of Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan) where declining snow and ice are likely to strongly affect hydrological regimes in a warmer climate. Based on RCM (Regional Climate Model) simulations, a suite of cryosphere, biosphere and economic models were then used to quantify the environmental, economic and social impacts of changing water resources in order to assess how robust current water governance strategies are and what adaptations may be needed to alleviate the most negative impacts of climate change on water resources and water use. Hydrological systems will respond in quantity and seasonality to changing precipitation patterns and to the timing of snow-melt in the studied mountain regions, with a greater risk of flooding during the spring and droughts in summer and fall. The direct and indirect impacts of a warming climate will affect key economic sectors such as tourism, hydropower, agriculture and the insurance industry that will be confronted to more frequent natural disasters. The results from the ACQWA project suggest that there is a need for a

  7. Spatial Correlation between Type of Mountain Area and Land Use Degree in Guizhou Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuluan Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A scientific definition of the type of mountain area and an exploration of the spatial correlation between different types of mountain areas and regional land use at the county level are important for reasonable land resource utilization and regional sustainable development. Here, a geographic information system was used to analyze digital elevation model data and to define the extent of mountainous land and types of mountain areas in Guizhou province. Exploratory spatial data analysis was used to study the spatial coupling relation between the type of mountain area and land use degree in Guizhou province at the county level. The results were as follows: (1 Guizhou province has a high proportion of mountainous land, with a ratio of mountainous land to non-mountainous land of 88:11. The county-level administrative units in Guizhou province were exclusively mountainous, consisting of eight semi mountainous counties, nine quasi mountainous counties, 35 apparently mountainous counties, 13 type I completely mountainous counties, and 23 type II completely mountainous counties; (2 The land use degree at the county level in Guizhou province have remarkable spatial differentiation characteristics. Counties with a high cultivation coefficient are mainly located in the western area along the line between Yinjiang county and Anlong county in west Guizhou province. Counties with a large proportion of construction land or a high integrated index of land use degree are mainly distributed in the economically developed area of central Guizhou province, including parts of the counties (districts/cities administrated by Guiyang, Zunyi, Liupanshui, Anshun, Duyun, and Kaili; (3 County-level administrative units with relatively flat topography and a low proportion of mountainous land have a large proportion of construction land and a large degree of regional land exploitation. However, the extent of cultivation of county-level administrative units under similar

  8. Mountains, glaciers, and mines—The geological story of the Blue River valley, Colorado, and its surrounding mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl; Bryant, Bruce; Shroba, Ralph R.

    2016-01-01

    This report describes, in a nontechnical style, the geologic history and mining activity in the Blue River region of Colorado, which includes all of Summit County. The geologic story begins with the formation of ancient basement rocks, as old as about 1700 million years, and continues with the deposition of sedimentary rocks on a vast erosional surface beginning in the Cambrian Period (about 530 million years ago). This deposition was interrupted by uplift of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains during the late Paleozoic Era (about 300 million years ago). The present Rocky Mountains began to rise at the close of the Mesozoic Era (about 65 million years ago). A few tens of millions years ago, rifting began to form the Blue River valley; a major fault along the east side of the Gore Range dropped the east side down, forming the present valley. The valley once was filled by sediments and volcanic rocks that are now largely eroded. During the last few hundred-thousand years, at least two periods of glaciation sculpted the mountains bordering the valley and glaciers extended down the Blue River valley as far south as present Dillon Reservoir. Discovery of deposits of gold, silver, copper, and zinc in the late 1800s, particularly in the Breckenridge region, brought an influx of early settlers. The world-class molybdenum deposit at Climax, mined since the First World War, reopened in 2012 after a period of closure.

  9. Mountains, glaciers, and mines—The geological story of the Blue River valley, Colorado, and its surrounding mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl; Bryant, Bruce; Shroba, Ralph R.

    2016-02-10

    This report describes, in a nontechnical style, the geologic history and mining activity in the Blue River region of Colorado, which includes all of Summit County. The geologic story begins with the formation of ancient basement rocks, as old as about 1700 million years, and continues with the deposition of sedimentary rocks on a vast erosional surface beginning in the Cambrian Period (about 530 million years ago). This deposition was interrupted by uplift of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains during the late Paleozoic Era (about 300 million years ago). The present Rocky Mountains began to rise at the close of the Mesozoic Era (about 65 million years ago). A few tens of millions years ago, rifting began to form the Blue River valley; a major fault along the east side of the Gore Range dropped the east side down, forming the present valley. The valley once was filled by sediments and volcanic rocks that are now largely eroded. During the last few hundred-thousand years, at least two periods of glaciation sculpted the mountains bordering the valley and glaciers extended down the Blue River valley as far south as present Dillon Reservoir. Discovery of deposits of gold, silver, copper, and zinc in the late 1800s, particularly in the Breckenridge region, brought an influx of early settlers. The world-class molybdenum deposit at Climax, mined since the First World War, reopened in 2012 after a period of closure.

  10. Nitrification and denitrification as sources of gaseous nitrogen emission from different forest soils in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The contributions of nitrification and denitrification to N2O and N2 emissions from four forest soils on northern slop of Changbai Mountain were measured with acetylene inhibition methods. In incubation experiments, 0.06% and 3% C2H2 were used to inhibit nitrification and denitrification in these soils, respectively. Both nitrification and denitification existed in these soils except tundra soil, where only denitrification was found. The annually averaged rates of nitrification and denitrification in mountain dark brown forest soil were much higher than that in other three soils. In mountain brown coniferous soil, contributions of different processes to gaseous nitrogen emissions were Denitrification N2O > Nitrification N2O > Denitrification N2. The same sequence exists in mountain soddy soil as that in the mountain brown coniferous soil. The sequence in mountain tundra soil was Denitrification N2O > Denitrification N2.

  11. Thermal structure research on cenozoic in Songliao basin and Daxinganling Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal history simulation of Apatite Fission Track shows the thermal structure history in Cenozoic and the relationship between Songliao Basin and Daxinganling Mountain. Uplift of Daxinganling reveals its act character; its velocity shows 5 decreasing phases and 4 increasing ones. Although basin evolvement is quite complex, it behaved as three uplifts and two sedimentations. It is considered here that the relationship between Songliao Basin and Daxinganling includes three styles and 4 phases, that is, basin uplifted with mountain during 65.5-50 Ma; basin subsided while mountain uplifted slowly and basin uplifted rapidly while mountain uplifted rapidly during 50-36 Ma; basin subsided slowly while mountain uplifted slowly and basin subsided rapidly while mountain uplifted rapidly during 36-5.83 Ma; the latest phase was the same with the first one. (authors)

  12. Studies on the Exploration of Constructing Towns in Mountainous Areas in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin; HAN

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is an inevitable trend and an important force for the development in Yunnan,but the urbanization process was delayed by the mountainous and fragile environment conditions. Reform and innovation is very necessary to solve the contradiction between limited supply and unlimited demands on land resources. A preliminary analysis was made on the exploration of constructing mountainous towns in Yunnan Province,and suggestions were put forward on scientific sustainable construction in mountainous towns.

  13. Acute Mountain Sickness among overnight hotel guests: prevalence, symptoms and signs

    OpenAIRE

    Halabchi F "; Mazaheri R

    2008-01-01

    "nBackground: Altitude diseases, the most frequent of which is acute mountain sickness (AMS), are among the most common and serious problems that recreational and professional mountain athletes may encounter. If left undiagnosed, they may lead to lethal consequences. In a cross sectional study, we investigate the prevalence of AMS disorder among the overnight guests of a mountain resort hotel. "nMethods: Overnight guests staying at Hotel Tochal (elevation 3545 m), near Tehran, Iran,...

  14. Potentials for development of spa tourism in region of Cer Mountain: Western Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of their particularities, thermal and mineral springs at the foothill of Cer Mountain deserve special analysis. This is the reason we wrote this article, aiming to take reader's attention to the touristic potentials of the spa zone of Cer Mountain and possibilities for its perspective development. From the medical and excursion-recreational tourism point of view, there is a possibility for combining the spa tourism with the complementary values of Cer Mountain.

  15. The fate of glacierized mountain systems in a +4oC world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, J.; Harrison, S.

    2012-12-01

    Mountain landscapes are sensitive to climate change because glaciers, alpine permafrost and mountain ecosystems exist at or near to their temperature and precipitation limits. Most records worldwide show mountain glaciers and alpine permafrost are in retreat, particularly on mid- and low-latitude mountains, and are expected to retreat dramatically in a + 4oC world. GCMs show that global warming will produce significant albedo- and ecosystem-driven changes in heat balance over glacierized mountains which will accelerate the rate of warming and associated land surface changes. Such climate amplification will facilitate glacier retreat and permafrost warming, destabilizing rock slopes, liberating loose sediments and increasing the potential for geohazards. We argue that retreat of mountain glaciers and permafrost over the next decades will lead to a directional change in the dominant geomorphic process domain, from glacial/periglacial to paraglacial. Under + 4oC warming, a significant portion of glacierized mountains worldwide will become dominated by paraglacial processes, characterized by increased meltwater production, land surface instability, and sediment yield into mountain catchments. Mountain geohazards triggered by the onset of widespread paraglacial relaxation and more variable climatic regimes will be significant geomorphic processes and of relevance to planning and adaption in mountain regions. On medium time scales (50-100 years), decreased glacier-fed water supply will become the most significant issue, affecting large agricultural regions in precipitation-limited continental interiors. The nonlinear response of land surface processes to climate forcing means that mountain geohazards and patterns of glacier-fed water supply have low predictability. This is particularly where downscaled GCMs are too coarse to provide well-constrained inputs into land surface models. As such, the fate of glacierized mountains is a modeling, geomorphic and management

  16. Type Locality for the Great Blue Limestone in the Bingham Nappe, Oquirrh Mountains, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    United States Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    The Great Blue Limestone was named originally by Spurr (1895) from exposures near the Mercur mining district in the Oquirrh Mountains, Utah. The formation was described in greater detail by Gilluly (1932) in the Ophir mining district. Neither formally established a type locality for this formation in the Oquirrh Mountains. However, the formation has since been correlated broadly with similar sedimentary rocks elsewhere in the adjoining Rocky Mountains and Great Basin regions. For the reco...

  17. Dataset of Phenology of Mediterranean high-mountain meadows flora (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Jesús Pérez-Luque; Cristina Patricia Sánchez-Rojas; Regino Zamora; Ramón Pérez-Pérez; Francisco Javier Bonet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain) hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles) harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems...

  18. Dataset of Phenology of Mediterranean high-mountain meadows flora (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Sánchez-Rojas, Cristina Patricia; Zamora, Regino; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón; Bonet, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain) hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles) harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems in two p...

  19. Evaluation and reasonable exploitation on the natural view resources of Lushan Mountain scenic spot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Haihui; FAN Jinping; ZHUO Lihuan

    2007-01-01

    The paper carried on the classified and rating evaluation primarily on natural landscape resources in Lushan Mountain.According to the evaluation, exploiting and utilizing the situation of scenic spot natural landscape resources, some reasonable advices were given on further exploiting Lushan Mountain natural scenic spot, expecting that it could supply some theoretical references for the natural landscape resources sustainable development in Lushan Mountain in the future.

  20. Mountain weather and climate: a general overview and a focus on climatic change in the Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Beniston, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Meteorological and climatic processes in mountain regions play a key role in many environmental systems, in particular the quantity and quality of water that influences both aquatic ecosystems and economic systems often far beyond the boundaries of the mountains themselves. This paper will provide a general overview of some of the particular characteristics of mountain weather and climate, to highlight some of the unique atmospheric features that are associated with regions of complex topogra...