WorldWideScience

Sample records for carriers by mode

  1. 41 CFR 109-40.303-3 - Most fuel efficient carrier/mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Most fuel efficient...-3 Most fuel efficient carrier/mode. When more than one mode, or more than one carrier within a mode... cost, the carrier/mode determined to be the most fuel efficient will be selected. In determining the...

  2. Carrier mode selective working point and side band imbalance in LIGO I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ambrosio, Erika; Kells, William

    2006-01-01

    In gravitational wave interferometers, the input laser beam is phase modulated to generate radio-frequency side bands that are used to lock the cavities. The mechanism is the following: the frequency of the side bands and the carrier is chosen in such a way that their response to small changes of the longitudinal degrees of freedom is different. This difference is therefore monitored and it serves as an error signal for controlling the optical cavity lengths, as they are linearly related to the set of observed phases between carrier and side bands. Among the others, one longitudinal degree of freedom is optimally sensitive to the space-time distortions propagating through the cosmos, as predicted by the general theory of relativity. The observation of the astrophysical signal relies on the measurement of that specific degree of freedom. The entire problem is more complex when the transverse degrees of freedom are taken into account, because the relative phase between the fields also depends on their overlap. In order to establish an unambiguous relation between length changes and phase measurements, there must be one circulating optical mode and the only difference between carrier and side bands must be their amplitude. We will show that the variability of the transverse degrees of freedom and their different actions on carrier and side band fields puts a severe limit on this assumption. Unless the system is made of perfect and perfectly matched optical cavities, it is never governed by one unique coherent state and any adjustment of the optical lengths results from a compromise between the lengths that are optimal for the carrier field and the side band ones. Such a compromise alters the correspondence between error signals and cavity lengths, calculated in the one-dimensional treatment. We assess the strength of this effect and relate it to the sensitivity of the instrument (which relies on the reconstruction of that correspondence) in realistic circumstances

  3. Multi Carrier Modulator for Switch-Mode Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Pfaffinger, Gerhard; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    While switch-mode audio power amplifiers allow compact implementations and high output power levels due to their high power efficiency, they are very well known for creating electromagnetic interference (EMI) with other electronic equipment, in particular radio receivers. Lowering the EMI of swit...

  4. Facilitated transport of hydrophilic salts by mixtures of anion and cation carriers and by ditopic carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrisstoffels, L.A.J.; de Jong, Feike; Reinhoudt, David; Sivelli, Stefano; Gazzola, Licia; Casnati, Alessandro; Ungaro, Rocco

    1999-01-01

    Anion transfer to the membrane phase affects the extraction efficiency of salt transport by cation carriers 1 and 3. Addition of anion receptors 5 or 6 to cation carriers 1, 3, or 4 in the membrane phase enhances the transport of salts under conditions in which the cation carriers alone do not

  5. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... forth in paragraph (c) of this section. In such cases the Board may determine in an adjudicatory... carrier shall not engage in joint public relations activities at points served by both carriers which tend... either carrier are performed in common with the other carrier or as part of a single system. In cases...

  6. Test on digital transmission by carrier relay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, Taka; Yasuda, Katsuhiko

    1988-09-01

    Though the analog system was applied to the carrier relay system, together with the transmission route, owned/operated by Chugoku Electric Power, accompanying the digitalization of microwave wireless communication, the method to apply the existing analog system signal station unit, to the digital transmission route, came to be required to be discussed. In case of that application, it is feared for a false signal output to be made, with the impossibility of detecting the bit error, characteristic on the digital transmission route. Therefore, by using the microwave wireless communication between Mihara transformation station and Onomichi control station, a transmission test was made on a signal station of phase wave comparison system. As a result, it was known that the false signal output, produced at the detection width of 2ms at present, could be prevented by fixing the detection width to be 1 or 0.5ms and that the lock time ratio could not be maintained at the detection width of 0.5ms. It was further known that the detection width of 1ms only satisfied the condition, which could be secured by the modification only in timer of the bit error detection at signal station. 1 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  7. Carrier-mediated transport of peptides by the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopicki, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Small peptide transport was characterized to determine if: (1) Multiple carriers are present in the luminal membrane of renal proximal tubular cells; (2) Carrier-mediated peptide transport is limited by size; and (3) Gentamicin inhibits carrier-mediated reabsorption of peptides. Uptake of glycyl-[ 3 H]proline (Gly-Pro) into renal brush border membrane vesicles demonstrated a dual affinity carrier system. Whether multiple carriers are present was further investigated by characterizing the uptake of [ 3 H]pyroglutamyl-histidine. To determine if carrier-mediated transport of peptides is limited by size of the molecule, uptake of the hydrolytically resistant tripeptide, [ 3 H]pryroglutamyl-histidyl-tryptophan (pGlu-His-Trp), and tetrapeptide, [ 3 H]pyroglutamyl-histidyl-tryptophyl-serine (pGlu-His-Trp-Ser) were assessed. These data indicate: multiple carriers exist on the luminal membrane of renal proximal tubular cells for the transport of dipeptides, and tripeptide pGlu-His-Trp and the tetrapeptide pGlu-His-Trp-Ser are not taken up by a carrier-mediated mechanism, suggesting that the carrier may be limited by the size of the substrate

  8. Inter-comb synchronization by mode-to-mode locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Byung Jae; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Two combs of fiber femtosecond lasers are synchronized through the optical frequency reference created by injection-locking of a diode laser to a single comb mode. Maintaining a mHz-level narrow linewidth, the optical frequency reference permits two combs to be stabilized by mode-to-mode locking with a relative stability of 1.52  ×  10-16 at 10 s with a frequency slip of 2.46 mHz. This inter-comb synchronization can be utilized for applications such as dual-comb spectroscopy or ultra-short pulse synthesis without extra narrow-linewidth lasers.

  9. Heat to electricity conversion by cold carrier emissive energy harvesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests a method to convert heat to electricity by the use of devices called cold carrier emissive energy harvesters (cold carrier EEHs). The working principle of such converters is explained and theoretical power densities and efficiencies are calculated for ideal devices. Cold carrier EEHs are based on the same device structure as hot carrier solar cells, but works in an opposite way. Whereas a hot carrier solar cell receives net radiation from the sun and converts some of this radiative heat flow into electricity, a cold carrier EEH sustains a net outflux of radiation to the surroundings while converting some of the energy supplied to it into electricity. It is shown that the most basic type of cold carrier EEHs have the same theoretical efficiency as the ideal emissive energy harvesters described earlier by Byrnes et al. In the present work, it is also shown that if the emission from the cold carrier EEH originates from electron transitions across an energy gap where a difference in the chemical potential of the electrons above and below the energy gap is sustained, power densities slightly higher than those given by Byrnes et al. can be achieved

  10. Acid extraction by supported liquid membranes containing basic carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.; Cianetti, C.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    The extraction of HNO 3 (nitric acid) from aqueous solutions by permeation through a number of supported liquid membranes containing basic carriers dissolved in diethylbenzene has been studied. The results have shown that the best permeations are obtained with long chain aliphatic amines (TLA, Primene JM-T) followed by TOPO (trioctylphosphine oxide) and then by other monofunctional and bifunctional organophosphorous basic carriers. The influence of an aliphatic diluent on the permeability of HNO 3 through a supported liquid membrane containing TLA as carrier was also investigated. In this case the permeability to HNO 3 decreases as a result of the lower diffusion coefficient of the acid-carrier complex in the more vicous aliphatic solvent. 4 figures

  11. Study of carrier concentration in single InP nanowires by luminescence and Hall measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, David; Hultin, Olof; Heurlin, Magnus; Storm, Kristian; Borgström, Magnus T; Samuelson, Lars; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The free electron carrier concentrations in single InP core–shell nanowires are determined by micro-photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence (CL) and Hall effect measurements. The results from luminescence measurements were obtained by solving the Fermi–Dirac integral, as well as by analyzing the peak full width at half maximum (FWHM). Furthermore, the platform used for Hall effect measurements, combined with spot mode CL spectroscopy, is used to determine the carrier concentrations at specific positions along single nanowires. The results obtained via luminescence measurements provide an accurate and rapid feedback technique for the epitaxial development of doping incorporation in nanowires. The technique has been employed on several series of samples in which growth parameters, such as V/III-ratio, temperature and dopant flows, were investigated in an optimization procedure. The correlation between the Hall effect and luminescence measurements for extracting the carrier concentration of different samples were in excellent agreement. (paper)

  12. Effective carrier sweepout in a silicon waveguide by a metal-semiconductor-metal structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Hu, Hao; Ou, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate effective carrier depletion by metal-semiconductor-metal junctions for a silicon waveguide. Photo-generated carriers are efficiently swept out by applying bias voltages, and a shortest carrier lifetime of only 55 ps is demonstrated.......We demonstrate effective carrier depletion by metal-semiconductor-metal junctions for a silicon waveguide. Photo-generated carriers are efficiently swept out by applying bias voltages, and a shortest carrier lifetime of only 55 ps is demonstrated....

  13. Development of accident event trees and evaluation of safety system failure modes for the nuclear ultra large crude carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewe, C.K.; Coffey, R.S.; Goodwin, E.F.; Maltese, J.G.; Pyatt, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    A method of applying the probabilistic accident event tree methodology to safety assessments of a nuclear powered Ultra Large Crude Carrier is presented. Also presented are the procedures by which an external accident initiating event, such as a ship collision, may be correlated with the probabilities of damage to the ship's safety systems and to their ultimate availabilities to perform required safety functions

  14. 49 CFR 1200.1 - Financial statements released by carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., except in reports to this Board, based on generally accepted accounting principles for which there is... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial statements released by carriers. 1200.1... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS GENERAL ACCOUNTING...

  15. Color center lasers passively mode locked by quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.N.; Soccolich, C.E.; Bar-Joseph, I.; Sauer, N.; Chang, T.Y.; Miller, B.I.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes how, using multiple quantum well (MQW) saturable absorbers, the authors passively mode locked a NaCl color center laser to produce 275 fs transform-limited, pedestal-free pulses with as high as 3.7 kW peak power. The pulses are tunable from λ = 1.59 to 1.7 μm by choosing MQW's with different bandgaps. They shortened the output pulses from the laser to 25 fs using the technique of soliton compression in a fiber. The steady-state operation of the laser requires the combination of a fast saturable absorber and gain saturation. In addition to the NaCl laser, they passively mode locked a Tl 0 (1):KCl color center laser and produced -- 22 ps pulses. Although the 275 fs pulses from the NaCl laser are Gaussian, when broadened, the pulses acquire an asymmetric spectrum because of carrier-induced refractive index changes

  16. Even nanomechanical modes transduced by integrated photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwood-Bachman, J. N.; Diao, Z.; Sauer, V. T. K.; Hiebert, W. K., E-mail: wayne.hiebert@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2E1 (Canada); National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton T6G 2M9 (Canada); Bachman, D. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2V4 (Canada)

    2016-02-08

    We demonstrate the actuation and detection of even flexural vibrational modes of a doubly clamped nanomechanical resonator using an integrated photonics transduction scheme. The doubly clamped beam is formed by releasing a straight section of an optical racetrack resonator from the underlying silicon dioxide layer, and a step is fabricated in the substrate beneath the beam. The step causes uneven force and responsivity distribution along the device length, permitting excitation and detection of even modes of vibration. This is achieved while retaining transduction capability for odd modes. The devices are actuated via optical force applied with a pump laser. The displacement sensitivities of the first through third modes, as obtained from the thermomechanical noise floor, are 228 fm Hz{sup −1/2}, 153 fm Hz{sup −1/2}, and 112 fm Hz{sup −1/2}, respectively. The excitation efficiency for these modes is compared and modeled based on integration of the uneven forces over the mode shapes. While the excitation efficiency for the first three modes is approximately the same when the step occurs at about 38% of the beam length, the ability to tune the modal efficiency of transduction by choosing the step position is discussed. The overall optical force on each mode is approximately 0.4 pN μm{sup −1} mW{sup −1}, for an applied optical power of 0.07 mW. We show a potential application that uses the resonant frequencies of the first two vibrational modes of a buckled beam to measure the stress in the silicon device layer, estimated to be 106 MPa. We anticipate that the observation of the second mode of vibration using our integrated photonics approach will be useful in future mass sensing experiments.

  17. A 3.96 GHz phase-locked loop for mode-1 MB-OFDM UWB hopping carrier generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Yongzheng; Li Weinan; Xia Lingli; Huang Yumei; Hong Zhiliang, E-mail: yumeihuang@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-07-15

    A fully integrated phase-locked loop (PLL) is presented for a single quadrature output frequency of 3.96 GHz. The proposed PLL can be applied to mode-1 MB-OFDM UWB hopping carrier generation. An adaptive frequency calibration loop is incorporated into the PLL. The capacitance area in the loop filter is largely reduced through a capacitor multiplier. Implemented in a CMOS process, this PLL draws 13.0 mA current from a single 1.2 V supply while occupying 0.55 mm{sup 2} die area. Measurement results show that the PLL achieves a phase noise of-70 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset and -113 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset. The integrated RMS jitter from 1 kHz to 10 MHz is 2.2 ps. The reference spur level is less than -68 dBc.

  18. A 3.96 GHz phase-locked loop for mode-1 MB-OFDM UWB hopping carrier generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yongzheng; Li Weinan; Xia Lingli; Huang Yumei; Hong Zhiliang

    2009-01-01

    A fully integrated phase-locked loop (PLL) is presented for a single quadrature output frequency of 3.96 GHz. The proposed PLL can be applied to mode-1 MB-OFDM UWB hopping carrier generation. An adaptive frequency calibration loop is incorporated into the PLL. The capacitance area in the loop filter is largely reduced through a capacitor multiplier. Implemented in a CMOS process, this PLL draws 13.0 mA current from a single 1.2 V supply while occupying 0.55 mm 2 die area. Measurement results show that the PLL achieves a phase noise of-70 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset and -113 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset. The integrated RMS jitter from 1 kHz to 10 MHz is 2.2 ps. The reference spur level is less than -68 dBc.

  19. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Van Zeeland, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

  20. 12-core x 3-mode Dense Space Division Multiplexed Transmission over 40 km Employing Multi-carrier Signals with Parallel MIMO Equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizuno, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Takara, H.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate dense SDM transmission of 20-WDM multi-carrier PDM-32QAM signals over a 40-km 12-core x 3-mode fiber with 247.9-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency. Parallel MIMO equalization enables 21-ns DMD compensation with 61 TDE taps per subcarrier....

  1. Ballooning mode stabilization by moderate sheared rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameiri, E.

    1996-01-01

    Sheared toroidal plasma rotation has been known for some time to have a stabilizing effect on the ballooning modes. A recent calculation showed that a large flow shear, with dΩ/dq of the order of the Alfven toroidal frequency, can stabilize the ballooning modes. This latest result is, in fact, not so optimistic. For observed flows with Mach number of order unity one gets dΩ/dq smaller by a factor O(√β) from the required level (if the flow shear length is of the same order as the magnetic shear length). Moreover, the calculation does not take into account a possibly large transient growth of the mode amplitude due to its Floquet structures We show here that, in fact, there is a general tendency of the ballooning mode to stabilize as soon as the flow shear dΩ/dq exceeds the (O√β smaller) open-quotes slowclose quotes magnetosonic wave frequency. Our analysis is perturbative, where the small parameter is related to the small coupling between the slow and Alfven waves-as is the case in a high aspect-ratio tokamak. (In the perturbation it is important to take the Hamiltonian nature of the governing equations into account.) Moreover, our results apply to the relevant transient growth of the mode amplitude

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic waves driven by p-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomenko, Elena; Santamaria, Irantzu Calvo

    2013-01-01

    Waves are observed at all layers of the solar atmosphere and the magnetic field plays a key role in their propagation. While deep down in the atmosphere the p-modes are almost entirely of acoustic nature, in the upper layers magnetic forces are dominating, leading to a large variety of new wave modes. Significant advances have been made recently in our understanding of the physics of waves interaction with magnetic structures, with the help of analytical theories, numerical simulations, as well as high-resolution observations. In this contribution, we review recent observational findings and current theoretical ideas in the field, with an emphasis on the following questions: (i) Peculiarities of the observed wave propagation in network, plage and facular regions; (ii) Role of the mode transformation and observational evidences of this process: (iii) Coupling of the photosphere, chromosphere, and above by means of waves propagating in magnetic structures.

  3. Optimization of territory control of the mail carrier by using Hungarian methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supian, S.; Wahyuni, S.; Nahar, J.; Subiyanto

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the territory control of the mail carrier from the central post office Bandung in delivering the package to the destination location was optimized by using Hungarian method. Sensitivity analysis against data changes that may occur was also conducted. The sampled data in this study are the territory control of 10 mail carriers who will be assigned to deliver mail package to 10 post office delivery centers in Bandung. The result of this research is the combination of territory control optimal from 10 mail carriers as follows: mail carrier 1 to Cikutra, mail carrier 2 to Ujung Berung, mail carrier 3 to Dayeuh Kolot, mail carrier 4 to Padalarang, mail carrier 5 to Situ Saeur, mail carrier 6 to Cipedes, mail carrier 7 to Cimahi, mail carrier 8 to Soreang, mail carrier 9 to Asia-Afrika, mail carrier 10 to Cikeruh. Based on this result, manager of the central post office Bandung can make optimal decisions to assign tasks to their mail carriers.

  4. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter improves symbol SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomalaza-Raez, Carlos A.; Hurd, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (SNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  5. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter can improve symbol SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, W. J.; Pomalaza-Raez, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (CNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  6. 49 CFR 1004.1 - Gifts, donations, and hospitality by carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gifts, donations, and hospitality by carriers. 1004.1 Section 1004.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... REGULATIONS § 1004.1 Gifts, donations, and hospitality by carriers. It is unlawful for any common carrier...

  7. Analytical procedure for experimental quantification of carrier concentration in semiconductor devices by using electric scanning probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Takaya; Matsumura, Koji; Itoh, Hiroshi; Fujita, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) is based on a contact-mode variant of atomic force microscopy, which is used for imaging two-dimensional carrier (electrons and holes) distributions in semiconductor devices. We introduced a method of quantification of the carrier concentration by experimentally deduced calibration curves, which were prepared for semiconductor materials such as silicon and silicon carbide. The analytical procedure was circulated to research organizations in a round-robin test. The effectiveness of the method was confirmed for practical analysis and for what is expected for industrial pre-standardization from the viewpoint of comparability among users. It was also applied to other electric scanning probe microscopy techniques such as scanning spreading resistance microscopy and scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy. Their depth profiles of carrier concentration were found to be in good agreement with those characterized by SCM. These results suggest that our proposed method will be compatible with future next-generation microscopy. (paper)

  8. Destabilization of TAE modes by particle anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, H.V.; Berk, H.L.

    1998-01-01

    Plasmas heated by ICRF produce energetic particle distribution functions which are sharply peaked in pitch-angle, and the authors show that at moderate toroidal mode numbers, this anisotropy is a competitive and even dominant instability drive when compared with the universal instability drive due to spatial gradient. The universal drive, acting along, destabilizes only co-propagating waves (i.e., waves propagating in the same toroidal direction as the diamagnetic flow of the energetic particles), but stabilizes counter-propagating waves (i.e., waves propagating in the opposite toroidal direction as the diamagnetic flow of the energetic particles). Nonetheless, the authors show that in a tokamak, it is possible that particle anisotropy can produce a larger linear growth rate for counter-propagating waves, and provide a mechanism for preferred destabilization of the counter-propagating TAE modes that are sometimes experimentally observed

  9. Yeast Mitochondrial ADP/ATP Carriers Are Monomeric in Detergents as Demonstrated by Differential Affinity Purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bamber, Lisa; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; Kunji, Edmund R.S.; Barber, L

    2007-01-01

    Most mitochondrial carriers carry out equimolar exchange of substrates and they are believed widely to exist as homo-dimers. Here we show by differential tagging that the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier AAC2 is a monomer in mild detergents. Carriers with and without six-histidine or

  10. 75 FR 48409 - Establishment of the Toxic by Inhalation Hazard Common Carrier Transportation Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... to the Board on issues related to the common carrier obligation with respect to the rail... advice on issues pertaining to the common carrier obligation with respect to the rail transportation of... Toxic by Inhalation Hazard Common Carrier Transportation Advisory Committee AGENCY: Surface...

  11. 49 CFR 1090.3 - Use of TOFC/COFC service by motor and water carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... authorized service. (b) Motor and water common carriers may use rail TOFC/COFC service only if their tariff... common or water contract carriers providing for the use of rail TOFC/COFC service shall set forth the... motor and water carriers. (a) Except as otherwise prohibited by these rules, motor and water common and...

  12. Slowest kinetic modes revealed by metabasin renormalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okushima, Teruaki; Niiyama, Tomoaki; Ikeda, Kensuke S.; Shimizu, Yasushi

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the slowest relaxations of complex systems, such as relaxation of glass-forming materials, diffusion in nanoclusters, and folding of biomolecules, is important for physics, chemistry, and biology. For a kinetic system, the relaxation modes are determined by diagonalizing its transition rate matrix. However, for realistic systems of interest, numerical diagonalization, as well as extracting physical understanding from the diagonalization results, is difficult due to the high dimensionality. Here, we develop an alternative and generally applicable method of extracting the long-time scale relaxation dynamics by combining the metabasin analysis of Okushima et al. [Phys. Rev. E 80, 036112 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevE.80.036112] and a Jacobi method. We test the method on an illustrative model of a four-funnel model, for which we obtain a renormalized kinematic equation of much lower dimension sufficient for determining slow relaxation modes precisely. The method is successfully applied to the vacancy transport problem in ionic nanoparticles [Niiyama et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 654, 52 (2016), 10.1016/j.cplett.2016.04.088], allowing a clear physical interpretation that the final relaxation consists of two successive, characteristic processes.

  13. Cholesterol-Containing Nuclease-Resistant siRNA Accumulates in Tumors in a Carrier-free Mode and Silences MDR1 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Chernikov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modifications are an effective way to improve the therapeutic properties of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, making them more resistant to degradation in serum and ensuring their delivery to target cells and tissues. Here, we studied the carrier-free biodistribution and biological activity of a nuclease-resistant anti-MDR1 cholesterol-siRNA conjugate in healthy and tumor-bearing severe combined immune deficiency (SCID mice. The attachment of cholesterol to siRNA provided its efficient accumulation in the liver and in tumors, and reduced its retention in the kidneys after intravenous and intraperitoneal injection. The major part of cholesterol-siRNA after intramuscular and subcutaneous injections remained in the injection place. Confocal microscopy data demonstrated that cholesterol-siRNA spread deep in the tissue and was present in the cytoplasm of almost all the liver and tumor cells. The reduction of P-glycoprotein level in human KB-8-5 xenograft overexpressing the MDR1 gene by 60% was observed at days 5–6 after injection. Then, its initial level recovered by the eighth day. The data showed that, regardless of the mode of administration (intravenous, intraperitoneal, or peritumoral, cholesterol-siMDR efficiently reduced the P-glycoprotein level in tumors. The designed anti-MDR1 conjugate has potential as an adjuvant therapeutic for the reversal of multiple drug resistance of cancer cells.

  14. Detection of hemophilia A carriers by use of frozen plasma samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.C.; Hardin, J.; Vaudreuil, C.

    1978-01-01

    The efficacy of using promptly frozen plasma samples in the diagnosis of the carrier state for hemophilia A was evaluated by simultaneous measurement of factor VIII activity and antigen in 20 normal women and 20 obligate carriers. Factor VIII antigen was measured by two methods, electroimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay. When the factor VIII activity and antigen data were evaluated by regression analysis, 94% of the carriers were correctly identified at the 95% confidence level

  15. PROMINENCE ACTIVATION BY CORONAL FAST MODE SHOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Takuya [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Asai, Ayumi [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Shibata, Kazunari, E-mail: takahashi@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    An X5.4 class flare occurred in active region NOAA11429 on 2012 March 7. The flare was associated with a very fast coronal mass ejection (CME) with a velocity of over 2500 km s{sup −1}. In the images taken with the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-B/COR1, a dome-like disturbance was seen to detach from an expanding CME bubble and propagated further. A Type-II radio burst was also observed at the same time. On the other hand, in extreme ultraviolet images obtained by the Solar Dynamic Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), the expanding dome-like structure and its footprint propagating to the north were observed. The footprint propagated with an average speed of about 670 km s{sup −1} and hit a prominence located at the north pole and activated it. During the activation, the prominence was strongly brightened. On the basis of some observational evidence, we concluded that the footprint in AIA images and the ones in COR1 images are the same, that is, the MHD fast mode shock front. With the help of a linear theory, the fast mode Mach number of the coronal shock is estimated to be between 1.11 and 1.29 using the initial velocity of the activated prominence. Also, the plasma compression ratio of the shock is enhanced to be between 1.18 and 2.11 in the prominence material, which we consider to be the reason for the strong brightening of the activated prominence. The applicability of linear theory to the shock problem is tested with a nonlinear MHD simulation.

  16. Frustration of Bragg reflection by cooperative dual-mode interference: a new mode of optical propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yariv, A

    1998-12-01

    A new optical mode of propagation is described, which is the natural eigenmode (supermode) of a fiber (or any optical waveguide) with two cospatial periodic gratings. The mode frustrates the backward Bragg scattering from the grating by destructive interference of its two constituent submodes (which are eigenmodes of a uniform waveguide). It can be used in a new type of spatial mode conversion in optical guides.

  17. 47 CFR 11.42 - Participation by communications common carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... may, without charge, connect: (1) An originating source from the nearest service area to a selected... Emergency Action Termination, the common carriers shall disconnect the originating source and the... charge, connect an originating source from the nearest exchange to a selected Test Center and then to any...

  18. Spread Spectrum Modulation by Using Asymmetric-Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Sera, Dezso

    2012-01-01

    is very effective and is independent from the modulation index. The flat motor current spectrum generates an acoustical noise close to the white noise, which improves the acoustical performance of the drive. The new carrier wave is easy to implement digitally, without employing any external circuits...

  19. Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-10-02

    A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

  20. Enhancement of charge carrier recombination efficiency by utilizing a hole-blocking interlayer in white OLEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qi; Yu Junsheng; Zhao Juan; Li Ming; Lu Zhiyun

    2013-01-01

    Charge carrier balance and recombination are essential factors relating to the performance of white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs). In this study, we discussed the contribution of charge carrier balance in the interlayer-based WOLEDs. By varying the interlayer thickness, the mechanisms of electroluminescent spectral alteration, energy transfer, and especially, charge carrier transport and balance in the devices were investigated and revealed in detail. With a 5 nm thick interlayer tailoring charge carrier transport and recombination, WOLEDs yielded a high power efficiency, current efficiency and external quantum efficiency of 36.1 lm W −1 , 47.1 cd A −1 and 18.3%, respectively. Additionally, single-carrier devices and quantitative analysis were subsequently carried out, demonstrating that the enhancement of carrier recombination efficiency corresponds to the optimization of device performance. (paper)

  1. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... involving animals during air transport. 234.13 Section 234.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... REPORTS § 234.13 Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport. (a) Any air... during air transport provided by the air carrier. (b) The report shall be made in the form and manner set...

  2. Estimation of metallic impurities in uranium by carrier distillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, A.G.; Godbole, S.V.; Deshkar, S.B.; Joshi, B.D.

    1976-01-01

    An emission spectrographic method has been standardised for the estimation of twenty-two metallic impurities in uranium using carrier-distillation technique. Silver chloride with a concentration of 5% has been used as the carrier and palladium and gallium are used as internal standards. Precision and accuracy determinations of the synthetic samples indicate 6-15% deviation for most of the elements. Using the method described here, five uranium reference samples received from C.E.A.-France were analysed. The detection limits obtained for Cd, Co and W are lower than those reported in the literature while limits for the remaining elements are comparable to the values reported. The method is suitable for the chemical quality control analysis of uranium used for the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) fuel. (author)

  3. Evaluation of local free carrier concentrations in individual heavily-doped GaN:Si micro-rods by micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajerani, M. S.; Khachadorian, S.; Schimpke, T.; Nenstiel, C.; Hartmann, J.; Ledig, J.; Avramescu, A.; Strassburg, M.; Hoffmann, A.; Waag, A.

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional III-nitride micro-structures are being developed as a promising candidate for the future opto-electrical devices. In this study, we demonstrate a quick and straight-forward method to locally evaluate free-carrier concentrations and a crystalline quality in individual GaN:Si micro-rods. By employing micro-Raman mapping and analyzing lower frequency branch of A1(LO)- and E1(LO)-phonon-plasmon-coupled modes (LPP-), the free carrier concentrations are determined in axial and planar configurations, respectively. Due to a gradual doping profile along the micro-rods, a highly spatially resolved mapping on the sidewall is exploited to reconstruct free carrier concentration profile along the GaN:Si micro-rods. Despite remarkably high free carrier concentrations above 1 × 1020 cm-3, the micro-rods reveal an excellent crystalline quality, without a doping-induced stress.

  4. Sterilization of Carriers by using Gamma Irradiation for Bio fertilizer Inoculum Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittabutr, Panlada; Teamtisong, Kamonluck; Pewlong, Wachiraporn; Teaumroong, Neuhg; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Boonkerd, Nantakorn

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Gamma irradiation has been widely used in sterilization process, which leads to improvement in the quality of the products. In the case of bio fertilizer inoculum, the sterilized carrier is also needed for producing high quality bio fertilizer. This study aimed at determining the factors, such as carrier materials, moistures, and packing sizes including packaging materials that may affect the sterilization efficiency by using gamma irradiation. All carrier materials, peat and compost, could be efficiently sterilized by irradiation. The carriers that have moisture content lower than 20% could be sterilized by irradiation at 15 kGy, while carrier with 30% moisture content must be sterilized by irradiation at 25 kGy. Higher irradiation dose was also necessary for sterilization of bigger carrier packing sizes. For, packaging materials, polyethylene bag appeared most durable after gamma irradiation even at high doses. However, contaminants could be detected in irradiated carrier after storage at room temperature for two months. It was hypothesized that these contaminants are spore forming microorganisms, which resist gamma irradiation. This hypothesis, as well as the quality of bio fertilizer produced from irradiated carrier, will be further evaluated

  5. Microstructure of atmospheric particles revealed by TXM and a new mode of influenza virus transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, L.M., E-mail: baoliangman@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhang, G.L., E-mail: zhangguilin@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Lei, Q.T.; Li, Y.; Li, X.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Hwu, Y.K. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Yi, J.M. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne 60439 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    For control of influenza, firstly it is important to find the real virus transmission media. Atmospheric aerosol particles are presumably one of the media. In this study, three typical atmospheric inhaled particles in Shanghai were studied by the synchrotron based transmission X-ray microscopes (TXM). Three dimensional microstructure of the particles reveals that there are many pores contained in, particularly the coal combustion fly particles which may be possible virus carrier. The particles can transport over long distance and cause long-range infections due to its light weight. We suggest a mode which is droplet combining with aerosol mode. By this mode the transmission of global and pandemic influenzas and infection between inland avian far from population and poultry or human living in cities along coast may be explained.

  6. Density Functional Theory Calculations of Activation Energies for Carrier Capture by Defects in Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modine, N. A.; Wright, A. F.; Lee, S. R.

    The rate of defect-induced carrier recombination is determined by both defect levels and carrier capture cross-sections. Density functional theory (DFT) has been widely and successfully used to predict defect levels, but only recently has work begun to focus on using DFT to determine carrier capture cross-sections. Lang and Henry developed the theory of carrier-capture by multiphonon emission in the 1970s and showed that carrier-capture cross-sections differ between defects primarily due to differences in their carrier capture activation energies. We present an approach to using DFT to calculate carrier capture activation energies that does not depend on an assumed configuration coordinate and that fully accounts for anharmonic effects, which can substantially modify carrier activation energies. We demonstrate our approach for intrinisic defects in GaAs and GaN and discuss how our results depend on the choice of exchange-correlation functional and the treatment of spin polarization. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Ultrafast Carrier Relaxation in InN Nanowires Grown by Reactive Vapor Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zervos Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have studied femtosecond carrier dynamics in InN nanowires grown by reactive vapor transport. Transient differential absorption measurements have been employed to investigate the relaxation dynamics of photogenerated carriers near and above the optical absorption edge of InN NWs where an interplay of state filling, photoinduced absorption, and band-gap renormalization have been observed. The interface between states filled by free carriers intrinsic to the InN NWs and empty states has been determined to be at 1.35 eV using CW optical transmission measurements. Transient absorption measurements determined the absorption edge at higher energy due to the additional injected photogenerated carriers following femtosecond pulse excitation. The non-degenerate white light pump-probe measurements revealed that relaxation of the photogenerated carriers occurs on a single picosecond timescale which appears to be carrier density dependent. This fast relaxation is attributed to the capture of the photogenerated carriers by defect/surface related states. Furthermore, intensity dependent measurements revealed fast energy transfer from the hot photogenerated carriers to the lattice with the onset of increased temperature occurring at approximately 2 ps after pulse excitation.

  8. Accelerated carrier recombination by grain boundary/edge defects in MBE grown transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Roy, Anupam; Rai, Amritesh; Movva, Hema C. P.; Meng, Xianghai; He, Feng; Banerjee, Sanjay K.; Wang, Yaguo

    2018-05-01

    Defect-carrier interaction in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) plays important roles in carrier relaxation dynamics and carrier transport, which determines the performance of electronic devices. With femtosecond laser time-resolved spectroscopy, we investigated the effect of grain boundary/edge defects on the ultrafast dynamics of photoexcited carrier in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown MoTe2 and MoSe2. We found that, comparing with exfoliated samples, the carrier recombination rate in MBE-grown samples accelerates by about 50 times. We attribute this striking difference to the existence of abundant grain boundary/edge defects in MBE-grown samples, which can serve as effective recombination centers for the photoexcited carriers. We also observed coherent acoustic phonons in both exfoliated and MBE-grown MoTe2, indicating strong electron-phonon coupling in this materials. Our measured sound velocity agrees well with the previously reported result of theoretical calculation. Our findings provide a useful reference for the fundamental parameters: carrier lifetime and sound velocity and reveal the undiscovered carrier recombination effect of grain boundary/edge defects, both of which will facilitate the defect engineering in TMD materials for high speed opto-electronics.

  9. Accelerated carrier recombination by grain boundary/edge defects in MBE grown transition metal dichalcogenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Defect-carrier interaction in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs plays important roles in carrier relaxation dynamics and carrier transport, which determines the performance of electronic devices. With femtosecond laser time-resolved spectroscopy, we investigated the effect of grain boundary/edge defects on the ultrafast dynamics of photoexcited carrier in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE-grown MoTe2 and MoSe2. We found that, comparing with exfoliated samples, the carrier recombination rate in MBE-grown samples accelerates by about 50 times. We attribute this striking difference to the existence of abundant grain boundary/edge defects in MBE-grown samples, which can serve as effective recombination centers for the photoexcited carriers. We also observed coherent acoustic phonons in both exfoliated and MBE-grown MoTe2, indicating strong electron-phonon coupling in this materials. Our measured sound velocity agrees well with the previously reported result of theoretical calculation. Our findings provide a useful reference for the fundamental parameters: carrier lifetime and sound velocity and reveal the undiscovered carrier recombination effect of grain boundary/edge defects, both of which will facilitate the defect engineering in TMD materials for high speed opto-electronics.

  10. [Norrie syndrome: identification of carriers by segregation analysis with flanking DNA markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, J; Uhlhaas, S; Neugebauer, M; Gal, A

    1989-01-01

    Norrie disease is an X-linked recessive disorder. Affected males present with congenital blindness. Additionally, hearing loss and psychotic behavior may occur at any time. Since carriers are clinically healthy, they can only be identified by genetic means. Daughters of carriers or sisters of affected males have an à priori 50% risk of being carriers themselves. Close linkage has been found between the Norrie disease locus (NDP) and the DNA locus DXS7 mapped to Xp11.3. For genetic counselling, this linkage relationship allows carriers of the disease to be identified in informative families. We describe a large pedigree with Norrie disease. Segregation analysis was carried out with DXS7 and a second flanking marker, DXS255, both linked to NDP. In this way, three females at risk were identified who had a high probability of being carriers for Norrie disease.

  11. Detection of carriers and genetic counseling in duchenne muscular dystrophy by ribosomal protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionasescu, V; Zellweger, H; Burmeister, L

    1976-11-01

    The in vitro protein synthesis by polyribosomes extracted from biopsied muscle (vastus lateralis) was studied in 47 known carriers, 87 possible carriers and in 60 normal females. A significant increase in specific activity of monomeric ribosomes, total polyribosomes and collagen synthesis was found in 46 (97.8 per cent) known carriers and 47 (54 per cent) possible carriers of Duchenne muscular dytrophy. The latter showed an increase in ribosomal protein synthesis in 10 (52.6 per cent) of 19 mothers of isolated cases, 31 (53.3 per cent) of 58 sisters, and 6 (60 per cent) of other female relatives. Serum creatine phosphokinase was increased in 30 (63.8 per cent) of 47 known carriers.

  12. Nonlinear saturation of the trapped-ion mode by mode coupling in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.; Tang, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    A study of the nonlinear saturation by mode coupling of the dissipative trapped-ion mode is presented in which both radial and poloidal variations are considered. The saturation mechanism consists of the nonlinear coupling via E x B convection of energy from linearly unstable modes to stable modes. Stabilization is provided at short poloidal wavelengths by Landau damping from trapped and circulating ions, at short radial wavelengths by effects associated with the finite ion banana excursions and at long wavelengths by ion collisions. A one-dimensional, nonlinear partial differential equation for the electrostatic potential derived in earlier work is extended to two dimensions and to third order in amplitude. Included systematically are kinetic effects, e.g., Landau damping and its spatial dependence due to magnetic shear. The stability and accessibility of equilibria are considered in detail for cases far from as well as close to marginal stability. In the first case three-wave interactions are found to be important when the spectrum of unstable modes is sufficiently narrow. In the latter case, it is found that for a single unstable mode, a four-wave interaction can provide the dominant saturation mechanism. Cross-field transport is calculated, and the scaling of results is considered for tokamak parameters

  13. Enhanced cytotoxicity of anticancer drug delivered by novel nanoscale polymeric carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoika, R.; Boiko, N.; Senkiv, Y.; Shlyakhtina, Y.; Panchuk, R.; Finiuk, N.; Filyak, Y.; Bilyy, R.; Kit, Y.; Skorohyd, N.; Klyuchivska, O.; Zaichenko, A.; Mitina, N.; Ryabceva, A.

    2013-04-01

    We compared in vitro action of highly toxic anticancer drug doxorubicin under its delivery to the mammalian tumor cells in free form and after encapsulation in novel bio-functionalized nanoscale polymeric carrier. Such encapsulation was found to enhance significantly drug uptake by the targeted cells, as well as its cytotoxic action. 10 times higher cytotoxicity of the carrier-immobilized doxorubicin comparing to its free form was demonstrated by direct cell counting, and 5 times higher cytotoxicity of encapsulated doxorubicin was shown by FACS analysis. The polymeric carrier itself did not possess significant toxicity in vitro or in vivo (laboratory mice). The carrier protected against negative side effects of doxorubicin in mice with experimental NK/Ly lymphoma. The life duration of tumor-bearing animals treated with doxorubicin-carrier complex was significantly longer than life duration in animals treated with free doxorubicin. Besides, the effective treatment dose of the carrier-delivered doxorubicin in tumor-bearing mice was 10 times lower than such dose of free doxorubicin. Thus, novel nanoscale polymers possess high potential as drug carrier.

  14. Enhanced cytotoxicity of anticancer drug delivered by novel nanoscale polymeric carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoika, R; Boiko, N; Panchuk, R; Filyak, Y; Senkiv, Y; Finiuk, N; Shlyakhtina, Y; Bilyy, R; Kit, Y; Skorohyd, N; Klyuchivska, O; Zaichenko, A; Mitina, N; Ryabceva, A

    2013-01-01

    We compared in vitro action of highly toxic anticancer drug doxorubicin under its delivery to the mammalian tumor cells in free form and after encapsulation in novel bio-functionalized nanoscale polymeric carrier. Such encapsulation was found to enhance significantly drug uptake by the targeted cells, as well as its cytotoxic action. 10 times higher cytotoxicity of the carrier-immobilized doxorubicin comparing to its free form was demonstrated by direct cell counting, and 5 times higher cytotoxicity of encapsulated doxorubicin was shown by FACS analysis. The polymeric carrier itself did not possess significant toxicity in vitro or in vivo (laboratory mice). The carrier protected against negative side effects of doxorubicin in mice with experimental NK/Ly lymphoma. The life duration of tumor-bearing animals treated with doxorubicin-carrier complex was significantly longer than life duration in animals treated with free doxorubicin. Besides, the effective treatment dose of the carrier-delivered doxorubicin in tumor-bearing mice was 10 times lower than such dose of free doxorubicin. Thus, novel nanoscale polymers possess high potential as drug carrier.

  15. Stellar evolution as seen by mixed modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosser Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of mixed modes in subgiants and red giants allows us to monitor stellar evolution from the main sequence to the asymptotic giant branch and draw seismic evolutionary tracks. Quantified asteroseismic definitions that characterize the change in the evolutionary stages have been defined. This seismic information can now be used for stellar modelling, especially for studying the energy transport in the helium burning core or for specifying the inner properties of stars all along their evolution. Modelling will also allow us to study stars identified in the helium subflash stage, high-mass stars either arriving or quitting the secondary clump, or stars that could be in the blue-loop stage.

  16. Population of collective modes in light scattering by many atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, William; Kaiser, Robin

    2017-05-01

    The interaction of light with an atomic sample containing a large number of particles gives rise to many collective (or cooperative) effects, such as multiple scattering, superradiance, and subradiance, even if the atomic density is low and the incident optical intensity weak (linear optics regime). Tracing over the degrees of freedom of the light field, the system can be well described by an effective atomic Hamiltonian, which contains the light-mediated dipole-dipole interaction between atoms. This long-range interaction is at the origin of the various collective effects, or of collective excitation modes of the system. Even though an analysis of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of these collective modes does allow distinguishing superradiant modes, for instance, from other collective modes, this is not sufficient to understand the dynamics of a driven system, as not all collective modes are significantly populated. Here, we study how the excitation parameters, i.e., the driving field, determines the population of the collective modes. We investigate in particular the role of the laser detuning from the atomic transition, and demonstrate a simple relation between the detuning and the steady-state population of the modes. This relation allows understanding several properties of cooperative scattering, such as why superradiance and subradiance become independent of the detuning at large enough detuning without vanishing, and why superradiance, but not subradiance, is suppressed near resonance. We also show that the spatial properties of the collective modes allow distinguishing diffusive modes, responsible for radiation trapping, from subradiant modes.

  17. Stochastic resonance in a single-mode laser driven by frequency modulated signal and coloured noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Guo-Xiang; Zhang Liang-Ying; Cao Li

    2009-01-01

    By adding frequency modulated signals to the intensity equation of gain-noise model of the single-mode laser driven by two coloured noises which are correlated, this paper uses the linear approximation method to calculate the power spectrum and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the laser intensity. The results show that the SNR appears typical stochastic resonance with the variation of intensity of the pump noise and quantum noise. As the amplitude of a modulated signal has effects on the SNR, it shows suppression, monotone increasing, stochastic resonance, and multiple stochastic resonance with the variation of the frequency of a carrier signal and modulated signal.

  18. Radionuclide carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carrier is described. It comprises a modified anionic starch derivative with 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of a reducing agent and 1 to 20% by weight of anionic substituents

  19. Carrier Transfer between InGaAs/GaAs Quantum Wells Separated by Thick Barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, Paola; Gurioli, M.; Colocci, M.

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the carrier transfer between two adjacent wells of different width separated by a 100 nm thick barrier. At low temperatures (T 30 K: the transfer strongly increases, denoting that the thermal escape out of the QW...

  20. 77 FR 55783 - Verification of Statements of Account Submitted by Cable Operators and Satellite Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... the Office by cable operators and satellite carriers. Initial comments are available for review on the... Program Suppliers represent copyright owners that produce and/or syndicate movies, programs, and specials...

  1. Cardiac Time Intervals by Tissue Doppler Imaging M-Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Mogelvang, Rasmus; de Knegt, Martina Chantal

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To define normal values of the cardiac time intervals obtained by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) M-mode through the mitral valve (MV). Furthermore, to evaluate the association of the myocardial performance index (MPI) obtained by TDI M-mode (MPITDI) and the conventional method of obtaining...

  2. Ultrafast carrier dynamics of titanic acid nanotubes investigated by transient absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhao, Hui; Pan, Lin Yun; Weng, Yu Xiang; Nakato, Yoshihiro; Tamai, Naoto

    2010-12-01

    Carrier dynamics of titanic acid nanotubes (phase of H2Ti2O5.H2O) deposited on a quartz plate was examined by visible/near-IR transient absorption spectroscopy with an ultraviolet excitation. The carrier dynamics of titanic acid nanotubes follows the fast trapping process which attributed to the intrinsic tubular structure, the relaxation of shallow trapped carriers and the recombination as a second-order kinetic process. Transient absorption of titanic acid nanotubes was dominated by the absorption of surface-trapped holes in visible region around 500 nm, which was proved by the faster decay dynamics in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol as a hole-scavenger. However, the slow relaxation of free carriers was much more pronounced in the TiO2 single crystals, as compared with the transient absorption spectra of titanic acid nanotubes under the similar excitation.

  3. A design of a mode converter for electron cyclotron heating by the method of normal mode expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Katsumichi; Kawashima, Hisato; Hata, Kenichiro; Yamamoto, Takumi

    1983-09-01

    Mode conversion of electromagnetic wave propagating in the over-size circular waveguide is attained by giving a periodical perturbation in the guide wall. Mode coupling equation is expressed by ''generalized telegraphist's equations'' which are derived from the Maxwell's equations using a normal mode expansion. A computer code to solve the coupling equations is developed and mode amplitude, conversion efficiency, etc. of a particular type of mode converter for the 60 GHz electron cyclotron heating are obtained. (author)

  4. Tuning carrier mobility of phosphorene nanoribbons by edge passivation and strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoou; Li, Qingfang; Xu, Bo; Wan, Bo; Yin, Jiang; Wan, X.G.

    2016-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we have studied the effects of different edge passivation groups on the carrier mobility of the phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs) and strain effect on the transport property in passivated PNRs. The numerical results show that the size-dependent carrier mobility of passivated PNRs is not very sensitive to the different passivation groups, such as hydrogen (H), fluorine (F) and chlorine (Cl), but strongly associated with the orientation of nanoribbons. Passivated armchair-PNR has much larger carrier mobility than passivated zigzag-PNR at the similar ribbon width. With increasing ribbon width, the electron mobility of passivated PNRs can be further enhanced. We also find that the anisotropy of carrier mobility in passivated PNRs can be reversed by applying tensile strain resulting from order switching of the conduction bands around Fermi level.

  5. Study on immobilized yeast cells with hydrophilic polymer carrier by radiation-induced copolymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhengkui; Zhang Bosen

    1993-01-01

    Various kinds of monomers 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) and methoxy polyethylene glycol methylacrylate (M-23G) are copolymerized by radiation technique at low temperature (-78 degree C) and several kinds of copolymer carriers were obtained. Yeast cells are immobilized through adhesion and multiplication of yeast cells themselves on these carriers. The ethanol productivity of immobilized yeast cells with these carriers was related to the monomer composition and water content of copolymer carriers and the optimum monomer composition was 20%:10% in poly (HEA-M23G). In this case, the ethanol productivity of immobilized yeast cells was 26 mg/(ml · h), which was 4 times as high as that of free cells. Effect of adding crosslinking reagent (4G) in lower monomer composition of poly(HEA-M23G) on the ethanol productivity of immobilized cells was better than that in higher one in this work

  6. Tuning carrier mobility of phosphorene nanoribbons by edge passivation and strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoou [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, College of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li, Qingfang, E-mail: qingfangli@nuist.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, College of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Xu, Bo, E-mail: xubonju@gmail.com [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wan, Bo [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, College of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yin, Jiang [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wan, X.G. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, College of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-02-05

    Using first-principles calculations, we have studied the effects of different edge passivation groups on the carrier mobility of the phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs) and strain effect on the transport property in passivated PNRs. The numerical results show that the size-dependent carrier mobility of passivated PNRs is not very sensitive to the different passivation groups, such as hydrogen (H), fluorine (F) and chlorine (Cl), but strongly associated with the orientation of nanoribbons. Passivated armchair-PNR has much larger carrier mobility than passivated zigzag-PNR at the similar ribbon width. With increasing ribbon width, the electron mobility of passivated PNRs can be further enhanced. We also find that the anisotropy of carrier mobility in passivated PNRs can be reversed by applying tensile strain resulting from order switching of the conduction bands around Fermi level.

  7. Passive harmonic mode locking by mode selection in Fabry-Perot diode lasers with patterned effective index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitauld, David; Osborne, Simon; O'Brien, Stephen

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate passive harmonic mode locking of a quantum-well laser diode designed to support a discrete comb of Fabry-Perot modes. Spectral filtering of the mode spectrum was achieved using a nonperiodic patterning of the cavity effective index. By selecting six modes spaced at twice the fundamental mode spacing, near-transform-limited pulsed output with 2 ps pulse duration was obtained at a repetition rate of 100 GHz.

  8. Improving Dry Powder Inhaler Performance by Surface Roughening of Lactose Carrier Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bernice Mei Jin; Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the impact of macro-scale carrier surface roughness on the performance of dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. Fluid-bed processing and roller compaction were explored as processing methods to increase the surface roughness (Ra) of lactose carrier particles. DPI formulations containing either (a) different concentrations of fine lactose at a fixed concentration of micronized drug (isoniazid) or (b) various concentrations of drug in the absence of fine lactose were prepared. The fine particle fraction (FPF) and aerodynamic particle size of micronized drug of all formulations were determined using the Next Generation Impactor. Fluid-bed processing resulted in a modest increase in the Ra from 562 to 907 nm while roller compaction led to significant increases in Ra > 1300 nm. The roller compacted carriers exhibited FPF > 35%, which were twice that of the smoothest carriers. The addition of up to 5%, w/w of fine lactose improved the FPF of smoother carriers by 60-200% whereas only lactose carrier particles by roller compaction was immensely beneficial to improving DPI performance, primarily due to increased surface roughness at the macro-scale.

  9. Seismic diagnosis from gravity modes strongly affected by rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Vincent; Mathis, Stéphane; Lignières, François; Ballot, Jérôme; Culpin, Pierre-Marie

    2017-10-01

    Most of the information we have about the internal rotation of stars comes from modes that are weakly affected by rotation, for example by using rotational splittings. In contrast, we present here a method, based on the asymptotic theory of Prat et al. (2016), which allows us to analyse the signature of rotation where its effect is the most important, that is in low-frequency gravity modes that are strongly affected by rotation. For such modes, we predict two spectral patterns that could be confronted to observed spectra and those computed using fully two-dimensional oscillation codes.

  10. Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein and Unusual Acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase Activities Are Differentially Influenced by Ferredoxin1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, David J.; Suh, Mi Chung; Ohlrogge, John B.

    2000-01-01

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturases function to position a single double bond into an acyl-ACP substrate and are best represented by the ubiquitous Δ9 18:0-ACP desaturase. Several variant acyl-ACP desaturases have also been identified from species that produce unusual monoenoic fatty acids. All known acyl-ACP desaturase enzymes use ferredoxin as the electron-donating cofactor, and in almost all previous studies the photosynthetic form of ferredoxin rather than the non-photosynthetic form has been used to assess activity. We have examined the influence of different forms of ferredoxin on acyl-ACP desaturases. Using combinations of in vitro acyl-ACP desaturase assays and [14C]malonyl-coenzyme A labeling studies, we have determined that heterotrophic ferredoxin isoforms support up to 20-fold higher unusual acyl-ACP desaturase activity in coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Thunbergia alata, and garden geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum) when compared with photosynthetic ferredoxin isoforms. Heterotrophic ferredoxin also increases activity of the ubiquitous Δ9 18:0-ACP desaturase 1.5- to 3.0-fold in both seed and leaf extracts. These results suggest that ferredoxin isoforms may specifically interact with acyl-ACP desaturases to achieve optimal enzyme activity and that heterotrophic isoforms of ferredoxin may be the in vivo electron donor for this reaction. PMID:11027717

  11. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein and unusual acyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase activities are differentially influenced by ferredoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D J; Suh, M C; Ohlrogge, J B

    2000-10-01

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturases function to position a single double bond into an acyl-ACP substrate and are best represented by the ubiquitous Delta9 18:0-ACP desaturase. Several variant acyl-ACP desaturases have also been identified from species that produce unusual monoenoic fatty acids. All known acyl-ACP desaturase enzymes use ferredoxin as the electron-donating cofactor, and in almost all previous studies the photosynthetic form of ferredoxin rather than the non-photosynthetic form has been used to assess activity. We have examined the influence of different forms of ferredoxin on acyl-ACP desaturases. Using combinations of in vitro acyl-ACP desaturase assays and [(14)C]malonyl-coenzyme A labeling studies, we have determined that heterotrophic ferredoxin isoforms support up to 20-fold higher unusual acyl-ACP desaturase activity in coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Thunbergia alata, and garden geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) when compared with photosynthetic ferredoxin isoforms. Heterotrophic ferredoxin also increases activity of the ubiquitous Delta9 18:0-ACP desaturase 1.5- to 3.0-fold in both seed and leaf extracts. These results suggest that ferredoxin isoforms may specifically interact with acyl-ACP desaturases to achieve optimal enzyme activity and that heterotrophic isoforms of ferredoxin may be the in vivo electron donor for this reaction.

  12. Accurate mode characterization of two-mode optical fibers by in-fiber acousto-optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcusa-Sáez, E; Díez, A; Andrés, M V

    2016-03-07

    Acousto-optic interaction in optical fibers is exploited for the accurate and broadband characterization of two-mode optical fibers. Coupling between LP 01 and LP 1m modes is produced in a broadband wavelength range. Difference in effective indices, group indices, and chromatic dispersions between the guided modes, are obtained from experimental measurements. Additionally, we show that the technique is suitable to investigate the fine modes structure of LP modes, and some other intriguing features related with modes' cut-off.

  13. NOx emission calculations for bulk carriers by using engine power probabilities as weighting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Wen; Hua, Jian; Hwang, Daw-Shang

    2017-10-01

    An important marine pollution issue identified by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) is NO x emissions; however, the stipulated method for determining the NO x certification value does not reflect the actual high emission factors of slow-speed two-stroke diesel engines over long-term slow steaming. In this study, an accurate method is presented for calculating the NO x emission factors and total amount of NO x emissions by using the actual power probabilities of the diesel engines in four types of bulk carriers. The proposed method is suitable for all types and purposes of diesel engines, is not restricted to any operating modes, and is highly accurate. Moreover, it is recommended that the IMO-stipulated certification value calculation method be modified accordingly to genuinely reduce the amount of NO x emissions. The successful achievement of this level of reduction will help improve the air quality, especially in coastal and port areas, and the health of local residents. As per the IMO, the NO x emission certification value of marine diesel engines having a rated power over 130 kW must be obtained using specified weighting factor (WF)-based calculation. However, this calculation fails to represent the current actual situation. Effective emission reductions of 6.91% (at sea) and 31.9% (in ports) were achieved using a mathematical model of power probability functions. Thus, we strongly recommend amending the certification value of NO x Technical Code 2008 (NTC 2008) by removing the WF constraints, such that the NO x emissions of diesel engines is lower than the Tier-limits at any load level to obtain genuine NO x emission reductions.

  14. Neoclassical tearing mode stabilization by ECCD in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giruzzi, G.; Zabiego, M.

    2001-01-01

    A dynamic model, based on a 3-D Fokker-Planck code coupled to the island evolution equations, is used to evaluate the feasibility of active control of Neoclassical Tearing modes by Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD) in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The parameters of the present version of ITER, i.e., RTO/RC ITER (IAM option) are used. Both m=3, n=2 and m=2, n=1 modes are considered. It is shown that an Electron Cyclotron wave system at 140 GHz, with toroidally steerable antennas, can stabilize both modes simultaneously if a power ≥30 MW is available

  15. Review of tearing mode stabilization by RF power in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giruzzi, G.; Zabiego, M.; Zohm, H.

    1999-01-01

    Control of tearing modes by means of heating and current drive inside the magnetic islands is one of the most important applications of RF power in tokamak reactors. The theoretical basis of this concept is reviewed, focusing on aspects related to RF-plasma interaction. Applications to the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes in ITER by Electron Cyclotron Current Drive are presented to illustrate the basic physical dependences. The most significant experimental results and prospects for future applications are also discussed

  16. Instantaneous Respiratory Estimation from Thoracic Impedance by Empirical Mode Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fu-Tai; Chan, Hsiao-Lung; Wang, Chun-Li; Jian, Hung-Ming; Lin, Sheng-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Impedance plethysmography provides a way to measure respiratory activity by sensing the change of thoracic impedance caused by inspiration and expiration. This measurement imposes little pressure on the body and uses the human body as the sensor, thereby reducing the need for adjustments as body position changes and making it suitable for long-term or ambulatory monitoring. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) can decompose a signal into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) that disclos...

  17. Excitation of internal kink modes by trapped energetic beam ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; White, R.B.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1983-10-01

    Energetic trapped particles are shown to have a destabilizing effect on the internal kink mode in tokamaks. The plasma pressure threshold for the mode is lowered by the particles. The growth rate is near the ideal magnetohydrodynamic value, but the frequency is comparable to the trapped particle precission frequency. A model for the instability cycle gives stability properties, associated particle losses, and neutron emissivity consistent with the fishbone events observed in PDX

  18. Production of chemical energy carriers by non-expendable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsch, J

    1976-01-01

    The different forms of energy (radiation, high-temperature heat and electricity) arising from non-expendable energy sources like solar energy can be used for the production of chemical energy-carriers. Possible methods are the splitting of water by means of photolysis, thermochemical cycles and electrolysis, as well as the storage of energy in closed loop chemical systems. These methods are described and efficiencies and costs of the production of these energy carriers are specified. Special problems of the long-distance transportation of hydrogen produced by solar energy are described and the resulting costs are estimated.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of spatial scale of carrier trapping at grain boundary by GHz-microwave dielectric loss spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W.; Tsutsui, Y.; Miyakai, T.; Sakurai, T.; Seki, S.

    2017-11-01

    Charge carrier mobility is an important primary parameter for the electronic conductive materials, and the intrinsic limit of the mobility has been hardly access by conventional direct-current evaluation methods. In the present study, intra-grain hole mobility of pentacene thin films was estimated quantitatively using microwave-based dielectric loss spectroscopy (time-resolved microwave conductivity measurement) in alternating current mode of charge carrier local motion. Metal-insulator-semiconductor devices were prepared with different insulating polymers or substrate temperature upon vacuum deposition of the pentacene layer, which afforded totally four different grain-size conditions of pentacene layers. Under the condition where the local motion was determined by interfacial traps at the pentacene grain boundaries (grain-grain interfaces), the observed hole mobilities were plotted against the grain sizes, giving an excellent correlation fit successfully by a parabolic function representative of the boarder length. Consequently, the intra-grain mobility and trap-release time of holes were estimated as 15 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 9.4 ps.

  20. Enhanced piezoelectric operation of NiO/GaN heterojunction generator by suppressed internal carrier screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Dae Kyung; Kang, Jin-Ho; Ryu, Sang-Wan; Ha, Jun-Seok

    2017-01-01

    A NiO/GaN heterojunction piezoelectric generator was fabricated, and the improvement in device performance was analyzed. The electrical properties of NiO were varied by regulating the gas environment during sputtering. An optimized NiO layer was adopted for high piezoelectric voltage generation. Internal carrier screening was revealed to be the dominant mechanism degrading the piezoelectric performance, necessitating the suppression of carrier screening. The highly resistive NiO layer was advantageous in the suppression of carrier transport across the junction that screened the piezoelectric field. The maximum piezoelectric voltage and current density values obtained were 7.55 V and 1.14 µ A cm −2 , respectively. The power obtained was sufficient to operate a light-emitting diode combined with a charging circuit. (paper)

  1. A study of ethanol production of yeast cells immobilized with polymer carrier produced by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhaoxin; Fujimura, Takashi

    1993-01-01

    Polymer carriers, poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate(HEA)-methoxy polyethylene glycol methylacrylate (M-23G)) and poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate(HEA)-glycidyl methylacrylate (GMA)) used for the immobilization of yeast cells were prepared by radiation polymerization at low temperature. Yeast cells were immobilized through adhesion and multiplication of yeast cells. The ethanol productivity of immobilized yeast cells with these carriers was related to the monomer composition of polymers and the optimum monomer composition was 20%:10% in poly(HEA-M-23G) and 17%:6% in poly(HEA-GMA). In this case, the ethanol productivity of immobilized yeast cells was about 4 times that of cells in free system. The relationship between the activity of immobilized yeast cells and the water content of the polymer carrier were also discussed. (author)

  2. Enabling Anticancer Therapeutics by Nanoparticle Carriers: The Delivery of Paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Yan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anticancer drugs, such as paclitaxel (PTX, are indispensable for the treatment of a variety of malignancies. However, the application of most drugs is greatly limited by the low water solubility, poor permeability, or high efflux from cells. Nanoparticles have been widely investigated to enable drug delivery due to their low toxicity, sustained drug release, molecular targeting, and additional therapeutic and imaging functions. This review takes paclitaxel as an example and compares different nanoparticle-based delivery systems for their effectiveness in cancer chemotherapy.

  3. Guidelines for carriers (by road) in Canada and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has provided this booklet for the purpose of simplifying, for the carrier, the complexity of the regulations that relate to the transportation of type 'A' and type 'B' packages of radioactive materials by road, in Canada. The carrier should make every effort to become familiar with the pertinent regulations and should take all measures necessary to ensure that the regulations are complied with. In particular, he should familiarize himself with the 'emergency procedures'. This booklet is not intended to be an official interpretation or restatement of the regulations

  4. Probability density of tunneled carrier states near heterojunctions calculated numerically by the scattering method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Myers, Samuel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Modine, Normand A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The energy-dependent probability density of tunneled carrier states for arbitrarily specified longitudinal potential-energy profiles in planar bipolar devices is numerically computed using the scattering method. Results agree accurately with a previous treatment based on solution of the localized eigenvalue problem, where computation times are much greater. These developments enable quantitative treatment of tunneling-assisted recombination in irradiated heterojunction bipolar transistors, where band offsets may enhance the tunneling effect by orders of magnitude. The calculations also reveal the density of non-tunneled carrier states in spatially varying potentials, and thereby test the common approximation of uniform- bulk values for such densities.

  5. 77 FR 67613 - Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor Carrier Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Internet, you may view the docket online by visiting the Docket Management Facility in Room W12-140 on the... occurred in Sherman, Texas, highlighting the danger posed by motor carriers and other persons who avoid... authority registration for failing to disclose, among other things, common management or control with any...

  6. Study of charge-carrier relaxation in a disordered organic semiconductor by simulating impedance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesta, M.; Cottaar, J.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy is a very sensitive probe of nonstationary charge transport governed by charge-carrier relaxation in devices of disordered organic semiconductors. We simulate impedance spectroscopy measurements of hole-only devices of a polyfluorene-based disordered organic semiconductor by

  7. Monoclonal antibody fragment removal mediated by mixed mode resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Ellen; Aspelund, Matthew; Bartnik, Frank; Berge, Mark; Coughlin, Kelly; Kambarami, Mutsa; Spencer, David; Yan, Huiming; Wang, William

    2017-05-26

    Efforts to increase monoclonal antibody expression in cell culture can result in the presence of fragmented species requiring removal in downstream processing. Capto adhere, HEA Hypercel, and PPA Hypercel anion exchange/hydrophobic interaction mixed mode resins were evaluated for their fragment removal capabilities and found to separate large hinge IgG1 antibody fragment (LHF) from monomer. Removal of greater than 75% of LHF population occurred at pH 8 and low conductivity. The mechanism of fragment removal was investigated in two series of experiments. The first experimental series consisted of comparison to chromatographic behavior on corresponding single mode resins. Both single mode anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction resins failed to separate LHF. The second experimental series studied the impact of phase modifiers, ethylene glycol, urea, and arginine on the mixed mode mediated removal. The addition of ethylene glycol decreased LHF removal by half. Further decreases in LHF separation were seen upon incubation with urea and arginine. Therefore, it was discovered that the purification is the result of a mixed mode phenomena dominated by hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding effects. The site of interaction between the LHF and mixed mode resin was determined by chemical labeling of lysine residues with sulfo-NHS acetate. The labeling identified the antibody hinge and light chain regions as mediating the fragment separation. Sequence analysis showed that under separation conditions, a hydrophobic proline patch and hydrogen bonding serine and threonine residues mediate the hinge interaction with the Capto adhere ligand. Additionally, a case study is presented detailing the optimization of fragment removal using Capto adhere resin to achieve purity and yield targets in a manufacturing facility. This study demonstrated that mixed mode resins can be readily integrated into commercial antibody platform processes when additional chromatographic abilities

  8. Self-rated health assessed by web versus mail modes in a mixed mode survey: the digital divide effect and the genuine survey mode effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Mahn; Shin, Eunjung; Johnson, Timothy P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate differences in self-rated health (SRH) between web and mail questionnaires in a mixed mode survey and to provide a model that explains those differences. A total of 15,200 mail respondents and 17,829 web respondents from the 2008 US National Health Survey conducted by the Gallup Panel. Respondents were recruited using random digit dialing and assigned to one of the two survey modes (web or mail). Respondents with household Internet connection and frequent Internet usage were invited to complete the survey through the web mode. Respondents who had no Internet connection or who used the Internet infrequently were invited to the mail mode. Thus, respondents with better Internet access used the web mode. Respondents completed a questionnaire that asked about SRH status, objective health conditions, health behaviors, and other socioeconomic variables. Statistical associations were analyzed with ordered Logit and negative binomial models. Web respondents reported better SRH than mail respondents. This difference is in part reflective of variability in objective health status between these two groups, and in part attributable to the effects of survey mode. These results maintained with age controlled. The alignment between survey mode selection, Internet access, and health disparities, as well as genuine survey mode characteristics, leads to web-mail differences in SRH. Unless the digital divide and its influences on survey mode selection are resolved and differential genuine mode effects are fully comprehended, we recommend that both modes be simultaneously used on a complementary basis.

  9. Gas-workers not wonts by only carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirman, K.

    2003-01-01

    Paper deals with the own production of the co-owner of the Slovensky plynarensky podnik, a. s. (SPP). Gas de France mines gas in North Sea shelf. Algeria and Egypt should become the important source in next years. Ruhrgas also mines in North Sea. It owns 6.5% part in Gazprom. Ruhrgaz is interested in gas production directly in Russian Federation. Preliminary discussions are going hand in hand with Lukoil and Sevmorneftegaz companies. Lukoil supposes that possible attendance of Ruhrgas should help to get necessary capital of 1.5 billions Euro. Ruhrgaz is interested in gigantic Shtokmanovskoe deposit in Barents Sea shelf of Sevmorneftegaz Company. Total capital costs are estimated to 18 billions USD. But one of the problems remaining is closed statute of this part of Russian Arctic. Gazprom is also interested in new sources. Gazprom signed contract with Turkmenistan. Gazprom will purchase two trillions m 3 of gas until 2028 in accordance with it. In present time the export to Europe represents 135 billions m 3 annually, but according to signed long-term contracts this capacity will increase up to 180 billions m 3 after 2008. Because the domestic Russian mining is descending or stagnating, Gazprom is unable to start exploitation of new gigantic deposits in Yamal, company is forced to cover threatening deficit of gas by deliveries from Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. So the possible competition of these countries is simultaneously eliminated in international markets. (Author)

  10. Edge Plasma Boundary Layer Generated By Kink Modes in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the structure of the electric current generated by external kink modes at the plasma edge using the ideally conducting plasma model. It is found that the edge current layer is created by both wall touching and free boundary kink modes. Near marginal stability, the total edge current has a universal expression as a result of partial compensation of the (delta)-functional surface current by the bulk current at the edge. The resolution of an apparent paradox with the pressure balance across the plasma boundary in the presence of the surface currents is provided.

  11. Treatment of cyanide wastewater by bulk liquid membrane using tricaprylamine as a carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoping; Xue, Juanqin; Liu, Nina; Yu, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    The transport of cyanide from wastewater through a bulk liquid membrane (BLM) containing tricaprylamine (TOA) as a carrier was studied. The effect of cyanide concentration in the feed solution, TOA concentration in the organic phase, the stirring speed, NaOH concentration in the stripping solution and temperature on cyanide transport was determined through BLM. Mass transfer of cyanide through BLM was analyzed by following the kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions, and the kinetic parameters (k(1), k(2), R(m)(max), t(max), J(a)(max), J(d)(max)) were also calculated. Apparently, increase in membrane entrance (k(1)) and exit rate (k(2)) constants was accompanied by a rise in temperature. The values of activation energies were obtained as 35.6 kJ/mol and 18.2 kJ/mol for removal and recovery, respectively. These values showed that both removal and recovery steps in cyanide transport is controlled by the rate of the chemical complexation reaction. The optimal reaction conditions were determined by BLM using trioctylamine as the carrier: feed phase: pH 4, carrier TOA possession ratio in organic phase: 2% (V/V), stripping phase concentration of NaOH: 1% (W/V), reaction time: 60 min, stirring speed: 250 r/min. Under the above conditions, the removal rate was up to 92.96%. The experiments demonstrated that TOA was a good carrier for cyanide transport through BLM in this study.

  12. 20 CFR 726.207 - Discharge by the carrier of obligations and duties of operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discharge by the carrier of obligations and duties of operator. 726.207 Section 726.207 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS...

  13. 14 CFR 249.20 - Preservation of records by certificated air carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS PRESERVATION OF AIR CARRIER RECORDS Preservation of Records by...) Papers forming a part of, or necessary to explain, journal entries; entry numbers Do. 3. Voucher... receivable or payable, detailed journals and ledgers or their equivalents, together with supporting papers Do...

  14. 14 CFR 399.12 - Negotiation by air carriers for landing rights in foreign countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negotiation by air carriers for landing rights in foreign countries. 399.12 Section 399.12 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Operating Authority § 399.12...

  15. Measurement of Minority-Carrier Lifetime in Silicon Solar Cells by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This manuscript describes the measurement of minority - carrier lifetime of silicon solar cells, at room temperature, by photoconductive decay method. The Holobeam, Model 655 Double-Pulsed Holographic system, is used as the light source. This consists of a Q-switched, pulsed ruby laser oscillator with two ruby laser ...

  16. Effective lifetime of minority carriers in black silicon nano-textured by cones and pyramids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onyshchenko, V.F.; Karachevtseva, L.A.; Lytvynenko, O.O.

    2017-01-01

    We calculated the dependence of effective lifetime of minority carriers in black silicon nano-textured by cones and pyramids on the diameter of the cone base, the side of the pyramid base, the height of cone and pyramid. The numerical calculation shows that n-type polished plate of single crystal...

  17. Carrier multiplication and its reduction by photodoping in colloidal InAs quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, J. J. H.; Hendry, E.; Milder, M.T.W.; Fanciulli, R.; Savolainen, J.; Herek, J.L.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829137; Ruhman, S.; Mocatta, D.; Oron, D.; Aharoni, A.; Banin, U.; Bonn, M.

    2007-01-01

    Carrier (exciton) multiplication in colloidal InAs/CdSe/ZnSe core-shell quantum dots (QDs) is investigated using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, time-resolved transient absorption, and quasi-continuous wave excitation spectroscopy. For excitation by high-energy photons (~2.7 times the band gap

  18. Evaluation of adenohypophyseal reserve in patients carrier of hypophyseal adenoma treated by trans-sphenoidal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drubscky, A.T.

    1980-01-01

    Fifteen patients carrier hypophyseal adenomas, with ages varying between 16 to 53 years were studied. The patients presented sella changes to the conventional plane radiographies and were submited a surgery treatment, with acess to hypophysis by the trans-sphenoidal way. (author)

  19. Identification of mitochondrial carriers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by transport assay of reconstituted recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Ferdinando; Agrimi, Gennaro; Blanco, Emanuela; Castegna, Alessandra; Di Noia, Maria A; Iacobazzi, Vito; Lasorsa, Francesco M; Marobbio, Carlo M T; Palmieri, Luigi; Scarcia, Pasquale; Todisco, Simona; Vozza, Angelo; Walker, John

    2006-01-01

    The inner membranes of mitochondria contain a family of carrier proteins that are responsible for the transport in and out of the mitochondrial matrix of substrates, products, co-factors and biosynthetic precursors that are essential for the function and activities of the organelle. This family of proteins is characterized by containing three tandem homologous sequence repeats of approximately 100 amino acids, each folded into two transmembrane alpha-helices linked by an extensive polar loop. Each repeat contains a characteristic conserved sequence. These features have been used to determine the extent of the family in genome sequences. The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains 34 members of the family. The identity of five of them was known before the determination of the genome sequence, but the functions of the remaining family members were not. This review describes how the functions of 15 of these previously unknown transport proteins have been determined by a strategy that consists of expressing the genes in Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, reconstituting the gene products into liposomes and establishing their functions by transport assay. Genetic and biochemical evidence as well as phylogenetic considerations have guided the choice of substrates that were tested in the transport assays. The physiological roles of these carriers have been verified by genetic experiments. Various pieces of evidence point to the functions of six additional members of the family, but these proposals await confirmation by transport assay. The sequences of many of the newly identified yeast carriers have been used to characterize orthologs in other species, and in man five diseases are presently known to be caused by defects in specific mitochondrial carrier genes. The roles of eight yeast mitochondrial carriers remain to be established.

  20. High efficiency confinement mode by electron cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funahashi, Akimasa

    1987-01-01

    In the medium size nuclear fusion experiment facility JFT-2M in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the research on the high efficiency plasma confinement mode has been advanced, and in the experiment in June, 1987, the formation of a high efficiency confinement mode was successfully controlled by electron cyclotron heating, for the first time in the world. This result further advanced the control of the formation of a high efficiency plasma confinement mode and the elucidation of the physical mechanism of that mode, and promoted the research and development of the plasma heating by electron cyclotron heating. In this paper, the recent results of the research on a high efficiency confinement mode at the JFT-2M are reported, and the role of the JFT-2M and the experiment on the improvement of core plasma performance are outlined. Now the plasma temperature exceeding 100 million deg C has been attained in large tokamaks, and in medium size facilities, the various measures for improving confinement performance are to be brought forth and their scientific basis is elucidated to assist large facilities. The JFT-2M started the operation in April, 1983, and has accumulated the results smoothly since then. (Kako, I.)

  1. Customized shaping of vibration modes by acoustic metamaterial synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiawen; Li, Shilong; Tang, J.

    2018-04-01

    Acoustic metamaterials have attractive potential in elastic wave guiding and attenuation over specific frequency ranges. The vast majority of related investigations are on transient waves. In this research we focus on stationary wave manipulation, i.e., shaping of vibration modes. Periodically arranged piezoelectric transducers shunted with inductive circuits are integrated to a beam structure to form a finite-length metamaterial beam. We demonstrate for the first time that, under a given operating frequency of interest, we can facilitate a metamaterial design such that this frequency becomes a natural frequency of the integrated system. Moreover, the vibration mode corresponding to this natural frequency can be customized and shaped to realize tailored/localized response distribution. This is fundamentally different from previous practices of utilizing geometry modification and/or feedback control to achieve mode tailoring. The metamaterial design is built upon the combinatorial effects of the bandgap feature and the effective resonant cavity feature, both attributed to the dynamic characteristics of the metamaterial beam. Analytical investigations based on unit-cell dynamics and modal analysis of the metamaterial beam are presented to reveal the underlying mechanism. Case illustrations are validated by finite element analyses. Owing to the online tunability of circuitry integrated, the proposed mode shaping technique can be online adjusted to fit specific requirements. The customized shaping of vibration modes by acoustic metamaterial synthesis has potential applications in vibration suppression, sensing enhancement and energy harvesting.

  2. Increase of Carrier-to-Noise Ratio in GPS Receivers Caused by Continuous-Wave Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of personal private devices (PPDs is drawing greater attention to the effects of continuous-wave interference (CWI on the performance of global positioning system (GPS receivers. The effective carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N0, an essential index of GNSS receiver performance, is studied in this paper. Receiver tracking performance deteriorates in the presence of interference. Hence, the effective C/N0, which measures tracking performance, decreases. However, simulations and bench tests have shown that the effective C/N0 may increase in the presence of CWI. The reason is that a sinusoidal signal is induced by the CWI in the correlator and may be tracked by the carrier tracking loop. Thus, the effective carrier power depends on the power of the signal induced by the CWI, and the effective C/N0 increases with the power of the CWI. The filtering of the CWI in the carrier tracking loop correlator and its effect on the phase locked loop (PLL tracking performance are analyzed. A mathematical model of the effect of the CWI on the effective C/N0 is derived. Simulation results show that the proposed model is more accurate than existing models, especially when the jam-to-signal ratio (JSR is greater than 30 dBc.

  3. Solubility and dissolution enhancement of flurbiprofen by solid dispersion using hydrophilic carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar Daravath

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The intent of the current work is to study the effect of polyethylene glycol 8000 and polyethylene glycol 10000 as hydrophilic carriers on dissolution behaviour of flurbiprofen. In the present study, solvent evaporation method was used to prepare flurbiprofen solid dispersions and evaluated for physico-chemical properties, drug-carrier compatibility studies and dissolution behaviour of drug. Solubility studies showed more solubility in higher pH values and formulations SD4 and SD8 were selected to prepare the fast dissolving tablets. FTIR and DSC study showed no interaction and drug was dispersed molecularly in hydrophilic carrier. XRD studies revealed that there was change in the crystallinity of the drug. The results of In vitro studies showed SD8 formulation confer significant improvement (p<0.05 in drug release, Q20 was 99.08±1.35% compared to conventional and marketed tablets (47.31±0.74% and 56.86±1.91%. The mean dissolution time (MDT was reduced to 8.79 min compared to conventional and marketed tablets (25.76 and 22.22 min. indicating faster drug release. The DE (% dissolution efficiency was increased by 2.5 folds (61.63% compared to conventional tablets (23.71%. From the results, it is evident that polyethylene glycol solid dispersions in less carrier ratio may enhance the solubility and there by improve the dissolution rate of flurbiprofen.

  4. 47 CFR 54.418 - Digital Television Transition Notices by Eligible Telecommunications Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Carriers. (a) Eligible telecommunications carriers (ETCs) that receive federal universal service funds..., brochure). (d) ETCs that receive federal universal service funds shall provide information on the DTV...

  5. Charge Carrier Generation Followed by Triplet State Formation, Annihilation, and Carrier Recreation in PBDTTT-C:PC 60 BM Photovoltaic Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Gehrig, Dominik W.

    2015-05-22

    Triplet state formation after photoexcitation of low-bandgap polymer:fullerene blends has recently been demonstrated, however, the precise mechanism and its impact on solar cell performance is still under debate. Here, we study exciton dissociation, charge carrier generation and triplet state formation in low-bandgap polymer PBDTTT-C:PC60BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic blends by a combination of fs-µs broadband Vis-NIR transient absorption (TA) pump-probe spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) data analysis. We found sub-ps exciton dissociation and charge generation followed by sub-ns triplet state creation. The carrier dynamics and triplet state dynamics exhibited a very pronounced intensity dependence indicating non-geminate recombination of free carriers is the origin of triplet formation in these blends. Triplets were found to be the dominant state present on the nanosecond timescale. Surprisingly, the carrier population increased again on the ns-µs timescale. We attribute this to triplet-triplet annihilation and the formation of higher energy excited states that subsequently underwent charge transfer. This unique dip and recovery of the charge population is a clear indication that triplets are formed by non-geminate recombination, as such a kinetic is incompatible with a monomolecular triplet state formation process.

  6. Charge Carrier Generation Followed by Triplet State Formation, Annihilation, and Carrier Recreation in PBDTTT-C:PC 60 BM Photovoltaic Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Gehrig, Dominik W.; Howard, Ian A.; Laquai, Fré dé ric

    2015-01-01

    Triplet state formation after photoexcitation of low-bandgap polymer:fullerene blends has recently been demonstrated, however, the precise mechanism and its impact on solar cell performance is still under debate. Here, we study exciton dissociation, charge carrier generation and triplet state formation in low-bandgap polymer PBDTTT-C:PC60BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic blends by a combination of fs-µs broadband Vis-NIR transient absorption (TA) pump-probe spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) data analysis. We found sub-ps exciton dissociation and charge generation followed by sub-ns triplet state creation. The carrier dynamics and triplet state dynamics exhibited a very pronounced intensity dependence indicating non-geminate recombination of free carriers is the origin of triplet formation in these blends. Triplets were found to be the dominant state present on the nanosecond timescale. Surprisingly, the carrier population increased again on the ns-µs timescale. We attribute this to triplet-triplet annihilation and the formation of higher energy excited states that subsequently underwent charge transfer. This unique dip and recovery of the charge population is a clear indication that triplets are formed by non-geminate recombination, as such a kinetic is incompatible with a monomolecular triplet state formation process.

  7. The Kinetics of Carrier Transport Inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter

    1962-01-01

    The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing with the subst......The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing...... with the substrate for the enzyme or the carrier or for both, competing with the carrier for the enzyme, or non-competitive) and in the ability of penetrating the membrane. Experiments are reported on the inhibition of glucose and fructose transport across the human red cell membrane by phlorizine, phloretine...... and polyphloretinephosphate. The results of the analysis for these inhibitors indicate a substrate competitive mode of action. The effect of reversing the transport direction by interchanging the substrate concentration has been treated for the case of a non-penetrating substrate competitive inhibitor in the external medium...

  8. Extremely confined gap surface-plasmon modes excited by electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Stenger, Nicolas; Pors, Anders Lambertus

    2014-01-01

    High-spatial and energy resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) can be used for detailed characterization of localized and propagating surface-plasmon excitations in metal nanostructures, giving insight into fundamental physical phenomena and various plasmonic effects. Here, applying...... EELS to ultra-sharp convex grooves in gold, we directly probe extremely confined gap surface-plasmon (GSP) modes excited by swift electrons in nanometre-wide gaps. We reveal the resonance behaviour associated with the excitation of the antisymmetric GSP mode for extremely small gap widths, down to ~5...... mode exploited in plasmonic waveguides with extreme light confinement is a very important factor that should be taken into account in the design of nanoplasmonic circuits and devices....

  9. Transition to H-mode by energetic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae.

    1992-07-01

    Effect of the electron loss due to the toroidal ripple on an H-mode transition is studied. When energetic electrons exist in tokamaks, e.g., in the case of the current drive by lower hybrid (LH) waves, the edge electric field can show the bifurcation to the more positive value. In this state, both the electron loss and ion loss (such as loss cone loss) are reduced. The criterion for the transition is derived. Comparison with H-mode in JT-60 LH plasma shows a qualitative agreement. (author)

  10. Single-mode Laser by Parity-time Symmetry Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-21

    solenoid -like Pds5B that reside in direct proximity to Wapl and the Smc3-Scc1 in- teraction interface (fig. S13), implying that Wapl and Pds5 control the...accepted 26 September 2014 10.1126/science.1256904 REPORTS ◥ OPTICS Single-mode laser by parity-time symmetry breaking Liang Feng,1* Zi Jing Wong,1...Ren-Min Ma,1* Yuan Wang,1,2 Xiang Zhang1,2† Effective manipulation of cavity resonant modes is crucial for emission control in laser physics and

  11. Mode-by-mode summation for the zero point electromagnetic energy of an infinite cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, K.A.; Nesterenko, A.V.; Nesterenko, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Using the mode-by-mode summation technique the zero point energy of the electromagnetic field is calculated for the boundary conditions given on the surface of an infinite solid cylinder. It is assumed that the dielectric and magnetic characteristics of the material which makes up the cylinder (var-epsilon 1 ,μ 1 ) and of that which makes up the surroundings (var-epsilon 2 ,μ 2 ) obey the relation var-epsilon 1 μ 1 =var-epsilon 2 μ 2 . With this assumption all the divergences cancel. The divergences are regulated by making use of zeta function techniques. Numerical calculations are carried out for a dilute dielectric-diamagnetic cylinder and for a perfectly conducting cylindrical shell. The Casimir energy in the first case vanishes, and in the second is in a complete agreement with that obtained by DeRaad and Milton who employed a Green close-quote s function technique with an ultraviolet regulator. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  12. Suppression of an acoustic mode by an elastic mode of a liquid-filled spherical shell resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonzaga, Joel B; Raymond, Jason L; Mobley, Joel; Gaitan, D Felipe

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the suppression of an approximately radial (radially symmetric) acoustic mode by an elastic mode of a water-filled, spherical shell resonator. The resonator, which has a 1-in. wall thickness and a 9.5-in. outer diameter, was externally driven by a small transducer bolted to the external wall. Experiments showed that for the range of drive frequencies (19.7-20.6 kHz) and sound speeds in water (1520-1570 m/s) considered in this paper, a nonradial (radially nonsymmetric) mode was also excited, in addition to the radial mode. Furthermore, as the sound speed in the liquid was changed, the resonance frequency of the nonradial mode crossed with that of the radial one and the amplitude of the latter was greatly reduced near the crossing point. The crossing of the eigenfrequency curves of these two modes was also predicted theoretically. Further calculations demonstrated that while the radial mode is an acoustic one associated with the interior fluid, the nonradial mode is an elastic one associated with the shell. Thus, the suppression of the radial acoustic mode is apparently caused by the overlapping with the nonradial elastic mode near the crossing point.

  13. Detection of Babesia bovis carrier cattle by using polymerase chain reaction amplification of parasite DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrimal, Y; Goff, W L; Jasmer, D P

    1992-01-01

    Carrier cattle infected with Babesia bovis are difficult to detect because of the low numbers of parasites that occur in peripheral blood. However, diagnosis of low-level infections with the parasite is important for evaluating the efficacies of vaccines and in transmission and epidemiological studies. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify a portion of the apocytochrome b gene from the parasite and tested the ability of this method to detect carrier cattle. The target sequence is associated with a 7.4-kb DNA element in undigested B. bovis genomic DNA (as shown previously), and the amplified product was detected by Southern and dot blot hybridization. The assay was specific for B. bovis, since no amplification was detected with Babesia bigemina, Trypanosoma brucei, Anaplasma marginale, or leukocyte DNA. The target sequence was amplified in DNA from B. bovis Mexico, Texas, and Australia S and L strains, demonstrating the applicability of the method to strains from different geographic regions. The sensitivity of the method ranged from 1 to 10 infected erythrocytes extracted from 0.5 ml of blood. This sensitivity was about 1,000 times greater than that from the use of unamplified parasite DNA. By the PCR method, six B. bovis carrier cattle were detected 86% of the time (range, 66 to 100%) when they were tested 11 times, while with microscopic examination of thick blood smears, the same carrier cattle were detected only 36% of the time (range, 17 to 66%). The method provides a useful diagnostic tool for detecting B. bovis carrier cattle, and the sensitivity is significantly improved over that of current methods. The results also suggest that characteristics of the apocytchrome b gene may make this a valuable target DNA for PCR-based detection of other hemoparasites. Images PMID:1624551

  14. Geometry of the isotropic oscillator driven by the conformal mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galajinsky, Anton [Tomsk Polytechnic University, School of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2018-01-15

    Geometrization of a Lagrangian conservative system typically amounts to reformulating its equations of motion as the geodesic equations in a properly chosen curved spacetime. The conventional methods include the Jacobi metric and the Eisenhart lift. In this work, a modification of the Eisenhart lift is proposed which describes the isotropic oscillator in arbitrary dimension driven by the one-dimensional conformal mode. (orig.)

  15. Study of hot carrier relaxation in quantum wells by subpicosecond Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dai-sik; Yu, P.Y.

    1990-03-01

    Relaxation of hot carriers excited by subpicosecond laser pulses has been studied by Raman scattering in GaAs/AlAs multiple quantum wells with well widths varying between 100 and 1000 Angstrom. The hot phonon population observed by Raman scattering is found to decrease with the well width despite the fact that the hot electron temperature remains constant. The results are explained in terms of confinement of both electrons and optical phonons in quantum wells

  16. Stabilization of kinetic internal kink mode by ion diamagnetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitou, H.; Kuramoto, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Yagi, M.; Tokuda, S.; Matsumoto, T.

    2000-04-01

    Ion diamagnetic effects on the m=1 (poloidal mode number) and n=1 (toroidal mode number) kinetic internal kink mode are studied numerically by the three-field gyro-reduced-MHD code in the cylindrical coordinates, GRM3F-CY. In the derivation of the gryo-reduced-MHD model including the ion diamagnetic effects, finite gyroradius effects of ions are added to the gyrokinetic Poisson equation (quasi-neutral condition) and the convection term of the conservation law of the ion density. It is found that the long wavelength approximation, ksub(perpendicular) ρ ti ti is the thermal ion gyroradius, fails to reproduce the correct dispersion relation; the formulation valid even for ksub(perpendicular) ρ ti >> 1 is necessary. The results of numerical calculation coincide with the theory for |ω *e |+|ω *i | 0 , where the growth rate reduces as the density gradient increases. Here ω *e and ω *i are electron and ion diamagnetic angular frequencies estimated at the rational surface of q=1 (q is a safety factor), respectively, and γ 0 is the growth rate for the uniform density. Very weak instability, however, is observed for |ω *e |+|ω *i | 0 , where the theory predicts the complete stabilization. This residual instability appears since the region with the density gradient is limited in the radial direction and the stabilization by the outgoing drift-wave like mode becomes incomplete. (author)

  17. Observation of energetic particle mode by using microwave reflectometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuzawa, T.; Kawahata, K.; Sakakibara, S.; Toi, K.; Osakabe, M.; Yamamoto, S.

    2006-01-01

    Two heterodyne reflectometer systems are utilized for the fluctuation measurement in the Large Helical Device (LHD). By using the extraordinary polarized wave, we can measure the corresponding value to the combined fluctuation with the electron density and the magnetic field in the plasma core region even if the radial electron density profile is flat. E-band system has three channels of fixed frequencies of 78, 72, 65 GHz. The system is very convenient to observe magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) phenomena such as energetic particle driven Alfven eigenmodes, even if the system works as an interferometer mode. The detailed behaviour of the energetic particle mode is studied when low-n MHD burst is occurred. It seems to be caused that the spatial distribution of high energy particle is changed by such a MHD-burst. Also to know the radial distribution of MHD mode, frequency swept R-band reflectometer is applied for the first time. It seems to be successfully detected the energetic particle mode and toroidal Alfven eigenmode. (author)

  18. Generation of Z mode radiation by diffuse auroral electron precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Lyons, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    The generation of Z mode waves by diffuse auroral electron precipitation is investigated assuming that a loss cone exists in the upgoing portion of the distribution due to electron interactions with the atmosphere. The waves are generated at frequencies above, but very near, the local electron cyclotron frequency omega(e) and at wave normal angles larger than 90 deg. In agreement with Hewitt et al. (1983), the group velocity is directed downward in regions where the ratio of the upper hybrid frequency omega(pe) to Omega(e) is less than 0.5, so that Z mode waves excited above a satellite propagate toward it and away from the upper hybrid resonance. Z mode waves are excited in a frequency band between Omega(e) and about 1.02 Omega(e), and with maximum growth rates of about 0.001 Omega(e). The amplification length is about 100 km, which allows Z mode waves to grow to the intensities observed by high-altitude satellites.

  19. Preparation and characterization of etoricoxib solid dispersions using lipid carriers by spray drying technique

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Bhaskar; Shimpi, Shyam; Paradkar, Anant

    2005-01-01

    The basic objectives of this study were to prepare and characterize solid dispersions of poorly water-soluble drug etoricoxib using lipid carriers by spray drying technique. The properties of solid dispersions were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hotstage microscopy (HSM), radiograph powder diffraction (XRPD), and dissolution studies. The absence of etoricoxib peaks in XRPD profiles of solid dispersions ...

  20. IMPROVEMENT OF SOLUBILITY OF BADLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUG (IBUPROFEN) BY USING SURFACTANTS AND CARRIERS

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Zakaria Faruki*, Rishikesh, Elizabeth Razzaque, Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Although there was a great interest in solid dispersion systems during the past four decades to increase dissolution rate and bioavailability of badly water-soluble drugs, their profitable use has been very limited, primarily because of manufacturing difficulties and stability problems. In this study solid solutions of drugs were generally produced by fusion method. The drug along with the excipients (surfactants and carriers) was heated first and then hardened by cooling to room te...

  1. Increased carrier lifetimes in epitaxial silicon layers on buried silicon nitride produced by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorupa, W.; Kreissig, U.; Hensel, E.; Bartsch, H.

    1984-01-01

    Carrier lifetimes were measured in epitaxial silicon layers deposited on buried silicon nitride produced by high-dose nitrogen implantation at 330 keV. The values were in the range 20-200 μs. The results are remarkable taking into account the high density of crystal defects in the epitaxial layers. Comparing with other SOI technologies the measured lifetimes are higher by 1-2 orders of magnitude. (author)

  2. The 2-oxoglutarate carrier promotes liver cancer by sustaining mitochondrial GSH despite cholesterol loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Baulies

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells exhibit mitochondrial cholesterol (mt-cholesterol accumulation, which contributes to cell death resistance by antagonizing mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM permeabilization. Hepatocellular mt-cholesterol loading, however, promotes steatohepatitis, an advanced stage of chronic liver disease that precedes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, by depleting mitochondrial GSH (mGSH due to a cholesterol-mediated impairment in mGSH transport. Whether and how HCC cells overcome the restriction of mGSH transport imposed by mt-cholesterol loading to support mGSH uptake remains unknown. Although the transport of mGSH is not fully understood, SLC25A10 (dicarboxylate carrier, DIC and SLC25A11 (2-oxoglutarate carrier, OGC have been involved in mGSH transport, and therefore we examined their expression and role in HCC. Unexpectedly, HCC cells and liver explants from patients with HCC exhibit divergent expression of these mitochondrial carriers, with selective OGC upregulation, which contributes to mGSH maintenance. OGC but not DIC downregulation by siRNA depleted mGSH levels and sensitized HCC cells to hypoxia-induced ROS generation and cell death as well as impaired cell growth in three-dimensional multicellular HCC spheroids, effects that were reversible upon mGSH replenishment by GSH ethyl ester, a membrane permeable GSH precursor. We also show that OGC regulates mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis. Moreover, OGC silencing promoted hypoxia-induced cardiolipin peroxidation, which reversed the inhibition of cholesterol on the permeabilization of MOM-like liposomes induced by Bax or Bak. Genetic OGC knockdown reduced the ability of tumor-initiating stem-like cells to induce liver cancer. These findings underscore the selective overexpression of OGC as an adaptive mechanism of HCC to provide adequate mGSH levels in the face of mt-cholesterol loading and suggest that OGC may be a novel therapeutic target for HCC treatment. Keywords: Cholesterol

  3. Recombination of charge carriers on radiation-induced defects in silicon doped by transition metals impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Kazakevich, L A

    2003-01-01

    It has been studied the peculiarities of recombination of nonequilibrium charge carriers on radiation-induced defects in received according to Czochralski method p-silicon (p approx 3 - 20 Ohm centre dot cm), doped by one of the impurities of transition metals of the IV-th group of periodic table (titanium, zirconium, hafnium). Experimental results are obtained out of the analysis of temperature and injection dependence of the life time of charge carriers. The results are explained taking into consideration the influences of elastic stress fields created by the aggregates of transition metals atoms on space distribution over the crystal of oxygen and carbon background impurities as well as on the migration of movable radiation-induced defects during irradiation. (authors).

  4. Immobilization of Gibberella fujikuroi cells with carriers modified by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhaoxin; Xie Zhongchuan; Wei Qijiang

    1994-01-01

    Gibberella fujikuroi cells were immobilized on modified carriers (gauze) by using the radiation polymerization technique. The mycelium was firmly adhered to the surface of fibril covered with hydrophobic polymer, poly (diethylene glycol dimethyl acrylate) and hydrophobic-hydrophilic copolymer poly (diethylene glycol dimethyl acrylate-sodium acrylate), but it was not immobilized onto the polyethylene net, which has a similar network structure to that of the modified carrier. The weight of immobilized cells was affected by covered polymer. Gibberellic acid productivity in immobilized cells was similar to that of free cells, and the immobilized cells was of good stability. A optimum culture condition for gibberellic acid production was at pH 5.5 and under 20 ∼ 30 degree C

  5. Tissue lesion created by HIFU in continuous scanning mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingbo; Liu, Zhenbo; Zhang, Dong

    2012-09-01

    The lesion formation was numerically and experimentally investigated by the continuous scanning mode. Simulations were presented based on the combination of Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetov (KZK) equation and bio-heat equation. Measurements were performed on porcine liver tissues using a 1.01 MHz single-element focused transducer at various acoustic powers, confirmed the predicted results. Controlling of the peak temperature and lesion by the scanning speed may be exploited for improvement of efficiency in HIFU therapy.

  6. Optimization of LDL targeted nanostructured lipid carriers of 5-FU by a full factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sare Andalib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC are a mixture of solid and liquid lipids or oils as colloidal carrier systems that lead to an imperfect matrix structure with high ability for loading water soluble drugs. The aim of this study was to find the best proportion of liquid and solid lipids of different types for optimization of the production of LDL targeted NLCs used in carrying 5-Fu by the emulsification-solvent evaporation method. Materials and Methods: The influence of the lipid type, cholesterol or cholesteryl stearate for targeting LDL receptors, oil type (oleic acid or octanol, lipid and oil% on particle size, surface charge, drug loading efficiency, and drug released percent from the NLCs were studied by a full factorial design. Results: The NLCs prepared by 54.5% cholesterol and 25% of oleic acid, showed optimum results with particle size of 105.8 nm, relatively high zeta potential of −25 mV, drug loading efficiency of 38% and release efficiency of about 40%. Scanning electron microscopy of nanoparticles confirmed the results of dynamic light scattering method used in measuring the particle size of NLCs. Conclusions: The optimization method by a full factorial statistical design is a useful optimization method for production of nanostructured lipid carriers.

  7. Optimization of LDL targeted nanostructured lipid carriers of 5-FU by a full factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andalib, Sare; Varshosaz, Jaleh; Hassanzadeh, Farshid; Sadeghi, Hojjat

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) are a mixture of solid and liquid lipids or oils as colloidal carrier systems that lead to an imperfect matrix structure with high ability for loading water soluble drugs. The aim of this study was to find the best proportion of liquid and solid lipids of different types for optimization of the production of LDL targeted NLCs used in carrying 5-Fu by the emulsification-solvent evaporation method. The influence of the lipid type, cholesterol or cholesteryl stearate for targeting LDL receptors, oil type (oleic acid or octanol), lipid and oil% on particle size, surface charge, drug loading efficiency, and drug released percent from the NLCs were studied by a full factorial design. The NLCs prepared by 54.5% cholesterol and 25% of oleic acid, showed optimum results with particle size of 105.8 nm, relatively high zeta potential of -25 mV, drug loading efficiency of 38% and release efficiency of about 40%. Scanning electron microscopy of nanoparticles confirmed the results of dynamic light scattering method used in measuring the particle size of NLCs. The optimization method by a full factorial statistical design is a useful optimization method for production of nanostructured lipid carriers.

  8. Assessment of the heat carrier movement in the primary coolant circuit by its own momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadalev, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We model the heat carrier flow alteration after the circulation pump(s) stop. • The general mathematical model used is described in details. • The model is adapted and applied to a particular example research reactor. • Assessment is presented in detail, step by step with references. • The information provided is enough to apply calculations to another facility. - Abstract: In the presented paper is considered the approach to an assessment of the heat carrier flow alteration in the primary water–water reactor coolant circuit after the circulation pump(s) stop. This topic is highly relevant trough advanced and increased nuclear safety requirements because such a process is observed in case of black-out accident or damaged pump(s). The general mathematical model used is described; enabling preparation of this evaluation adapted and applied to a particular example facility namely a pool type research reactor. The factors influencing to the heat carrier movement by its own momentum are examined. The evaluation measures and includes the factors influencing the heat carrier flow rate from the moment the pump(s) stops down to a negligible value. Assessment is presented in detail, step by step and where needed with references to specific data and/or formulae from reference books to allow repetition of the calculations and/or apply to another facility. The calculations are presented utilizing all necessary data according to the design and technological documentation. No account is given to the pressure of the natural circulation caused by the residual heat generation in the fuel after the reactor scram system extinction of the fission reaction

  9. Embryonic Lethality of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 1 Deficient Mouse Can Be Rescued by a Ketogenic Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderperre, Beno?t; Herzig, S?bastien; Krznar, Petra; H?rl, Manuel; Ammar, Zeinab; Montessuit, Sylvie; Pierredon, Sandra; Zamboni, Nicola; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial import of pyruvate by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is a central step which links cytosolic and mitochondrial intermediary metabolism. To investigate the role of the MPC in mammalian physiology and development, we generated a mouse strain with complete loss of MPC1 expression. This resulted in embryonic lethality at around E13.5. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from mutant mice displayed defective pyruvate-driven respiration as well as perturbed metabolic p...

  10. Access to residual carrier concentration in ZnO nanowires by calibrated scanning spreading resistance microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L., E-mail: lin.wang@insa-lyon.fr; Brémond, G. [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon (INL), Université de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5270, INSA Lyon, Bat. Blaise Pascal, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Chauveau, J. M. [Centre de Recherche sur l' Hétéro-Epitaxie et ses Applications (CRHEA), CNRS UPR10, rue Bernard Grégory 06560 Valbonne Sophia Antipolis (France); Physics Department, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS), Parc Valrose, 06103 Nice (France); Brenier, R. [Institut Lumière Matière (ILM), Université de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5306, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Sallet, V.; Jomard, F.; Sartel, C. [Groupe d' Étude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS-Université de Versailles St Quentin en Yvelines, Université Paris-Saclay, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France)

    2016-03-28

    Scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) was performed on non-intentionally doped (nid) ZnO nanowires (NWs) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition in order to measure their residual carrier concentration. For this purpose, an SSRM calibration profile has been developed on homoepitaxial ZnO:Ga multilayer staircase structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The Ga density measured by SIMS varies in the 1.7 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} to 3 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3} range. From measurements on such Ga doped multi-layers, a monotonic decrease in SSRM resistance with increasing Ga density was established, indicating SSRM being a well-adapted technique for two dimensional dopant/carrier profiling on ZnO at nanoscale. Finally, relevant SSRM signal contrasts were detected on nid ZnO NWs, and the residual carrier concentration is estimated in the 1–3 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3} range, in agreement with the result from four-probe measurements.

  11. The Coselle CNG carrier : a new way to ship natural gas by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenning, D.

    1999-01-01

    Coselle CNG carriers represent an emerging technology option for water-borne natural gas transportation. The idea behind the Coselle is to create a large but compact CNG storage system using pipe coiled into a carousel. The system promises to significantly improve the economics of shipping natural gas over short sea routes. This would unlock many gas reserves which are stranded because of the high costs associated with shipping natural gas by conventional tankers. The innovative patented technology for Coselle CNG carriers was described in this paper. The completed work on the technology is sufficient to allow a pilot project to proceed before the next step of commercialization of the technology. The technology can be applied in the Mediterranean Sea, the Caribbean Sea, the Arabian Sea, Sakhalin Island, Canada's east coast, Deepwater offshore Brazil and Gulf of Mexico, and West Africa. 4 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  12. Monitoring Biological Modes in a Bioreactor Process by Computer Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Semcheddine

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the general framework of fermentation system modeling and monitoring, focusing on the fermentation of Escherichia coli. Our main objective is to develop an algorithm for the online detection of acetate production during the culture of recombinant proteins. The analysis the fermentation process shows that it behaves like a hybrid dynamic system with commutation (since it can be represented by 5 nonlinear models. We present a strategy of fault detection based on residual generation for detecting the different actual biological modes. The residual generation is based on nonlinear analytical redundancy relations. The simulation results show that the several modes that are occulted during the bacteria cultivation can be detected by residuals using a nonlinear dynamic model and a reduced instrumentation.

  13. Theoretic base of Edge Local Mode triggering by vertical displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z. T. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); College of Physics Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); He, Z. X.; Wang, Z. H. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wu, N.; Tang, C. J. [College of Physics Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Vertical instability is studied with R-dependent displacement. For Solovev's configuration, the stability boundary of the vertical instability is calculated. The pressure gradient is a destabilizing factor which is contrary to Rebhan's result. Equilibrium parallel current density, j{sub //}, at plasma boundary is a drive of the vertical instability similar to Peeling-ballooning modes; however, the vertical instability cannot be stabilized by the magnetic shear which tends towards infinity near the separatrix. The induced current observed in the Edge Local Mode (ELM) triggering experiment by vertical modulation is derived. The theory provides some theoretic explanation for the mitigation of type-I ELMS on ASDEX Upgrade. The principle could be also used for ITER.

  14. Cardiac pathologies in female carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelhorn, Juliane; Schemuth, Haemi; Nensa, Felix; Nassenstein, Kai; Forsting, Michael; Schlosser, Thomas; Schoenecker, Anne; Neudorf, Ulrich; Schara, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common and severe dystrophinopathy. DMD carriers rarely present with clinical symptoms, but may suffer from cardiac involvement. Because echocardiographic findings are inconsistent and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) data are limited, this study sought to investigate asymptomatic carriers for cardiac abnormalities using CMRI. Fifteen genetically confirmed DMD carriers (age, 32.3 ± 10.2 years) were prospectively examined on a 1.5T MR system. Cine, T2, and late-gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) images were acquired, and were evaluated in consensus by two experienced readers. Left ventricular (LV) parameters were analysed semiautomatically, normalized to BSA. Normalized LV end-diastolic volume was increased in 7 % (73.7 ± 16.8 ml/m 2 ; range, 48-116 ml/m 2 ) and normalized LV end-systolic volume in 20 % (31.5 ± 13.3 ml/m 2 ; range, 15-74 ml/m 2 ). EF was reduced in 33 % (58.4 ± 7.6 %; range, 37-69 %) and normalized LV myocardial mass in 80 % (40.5 ± 6.8 g/m 2 ; range, 31-55 g/m 2 ). In 80 %, regional myocardial thinning was detected in more than one segment. In 13 % and 40 %, apical-lateral accentuation of LV non-compaction was present. LGE was found in 60 % (midmyocardial inferolateral accentuation). Given the high frequency of cardiac pathologies detected by CMRI, regular cardiac risk assessment is advisable for DMD carriers. Besides clinical examination, CMRI is an excellent tool for this purpose. (orig.)

  15. Cardiac pathologies in female carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelhorn, Juliane; Schemuth, Haemi; Nensa, Felix; Nassenstein, Kai; Forsting, Michael; Schlosser, Thomas [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Schoenecker, Anne; Neudorf, Ulrich [University Hospital Essen, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Essen (Germany); Schara, Ulrike [University Hospital Essen, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Essen (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common and severe dystrophinopathy. DMD carriers rarely present with clinical symptoms, but may suffer from cardiac involvement. Because echocardiographic findings are inconsistent and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) data are limited, this study sought to investigate asymptomatic carriers for cardiac abnormalities using CMRI. Fifteen genetically confirmed DMD carriers (age, 32.3 ± 10.2 years) were prospectively examined on a 1.5T MR system. Cine, T2, and late-gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) images were acquired, and were evaluated in consensus by two experienced readers. Left ventricular (LV) parameters were analysed semiautomatically, normalized to BSA. Normalized LV end-diastolic volume was increased in 7 % (73.7 ± 16.8 ml/m{sup 2}; range, 48-116 ml/m{sup 2}) and normalized LV end-systolic volume in 20 % (31.5 ± 13.3 ml/m{sup 2}; range, 15-74 ml/m{sup 2}). EF was reduced in 33 % (58.4 ± 7.6 %; range, 37-69 %) and normalized LV myocardial mass in 80 % (40.5 ± 6.8 g/m{sup 2}; range, 31-55 g/m{sup 2}). In 80 %, regional myocardial thinning was detected in more than one segment. In 13 % and 40 %, apical-lateral accentuation of LV non-compaction was present. LGE was found in 60 % (midmyocardial inferolateral accentuation). Given the high frequency of cardiac pathologies detected by CMRI, regular cardiac risk assessment is advisable for DMD carriers. Besides clinical examination, CMRI is an excellent tool for this purpose. (orig.)

  16. Ultrafast Carrier Trapping of a Metal-Doped Titanium Dioxide Semiconductor Revealed by Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jingya; Yang, Yang; Khan, Jafar I.; Alarousu, Erkki; Guo, Zaibing; Zhang, Xixiang; Zhang, Qiang; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2014-01-01

    We explored for the first time the ultrafast carrier trapping of a metal-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) semiconductor using broad-band transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy with 120 fs temporal resolution. Titanium dioxide was successfully doped layer-by-layer with two metal ions, namely tungsten and cobalt. The time-resolved data demonstrate clearly that the carrier trapping time decreases progressively as the doping concentration increases. A global-fitting procedure for the carrier trapping suggests the appearance of two time components: a fast one that is directly associated with carrier trapping to the defect state in the vicinity of the conduction band and a slow one that is attributed to carrier trapping to the deep-level state from the conduction band. With a relatively long doping deposition time on the order of 30 s, a carrier lifetime of about 1 ps is obtained. To confirm that the measured ultrafast carrier dynamics are associated with electron trapping by metal doping, we explored the carrier dynamics of undoped TiO2. The findings reported here may be useful for the implementation of high-speed optoelectronic applications and fast switching devices.

  17. Ultrafast Carrier Trapping of a Metal-Doped Titanium Dioxide Semiconductor Revealed by Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jingya

    2014-06-11

    We explored for the first time the ultrafast carrier trapping of a metal-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) semiconductor using broad-band transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy with 120 fs temporal resolution. Titanium dioxide was successfully doped layer-by-layer with two metal ions, namely tungsten and cobalt. The time-resolved data demonstrate clearly that the carrier trapping time decreases progressively as the doping concentration increases. A global-fitting procedure for the carrier trapping suggests the appearance of two time components: a fast one that is directly associated with carrier trapping to the defect state in the vicinity of the conduction band and a slow one that is attributed to carrier trapping to the deep-level state from the conduction band. With a relatively long doping deposition time on the order of 30 s, a carrier lifetime of about 1 ps is obtained. To confirm that the measured ultrafast carrier dynamics are associated with electron trapping by metal doping, we explored the carrier dynamics of undoped TiO2. The findings reported here may be useful for the implementation of high-speed optoelectronic applications and fast switching devices.

  18. Characterisation of spray dried soy sauce powders made by adding crystalline carbohydrates to drying carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Weibiao

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to reduce stickiness and caking of spray dried soy sauce powders by introducing a new crystalline structure into powder particles. To perform this task, soy sauce powders were formulated by using mixtures of cellulose and maltodextrin or mixtures of waxy starch and maltodextrin as drying carriers, with a fixed carrier addition rate of 30% (w/v) in the feed solution. The microstructure, crystallinity, solubility as well as stickiness and caking strength of all the different powders were analysed and compared. Incorporating crystalline carbohydrates in the drying carrier could significantly reduce the stickiness and caking strength of the powders when the ratio of crystalline carbohydrates to maltodextrin was above 1:5 and 1:2, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results showed that adding cellulose or waxy starch could induce the crystallinity of powders. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrated that the native starch added to the soy sauce powders did not fully gelatinize during spray drying. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of Solid sustainable Energy Carriers from biomass by means of TORrefaction (SECTOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Janet; Bienert, Kathrin [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme; Zwart, Robin; Kiel, Jaap; Englisch, Martin; Wojcik, Magdalena

    2012-07-01

    SECTOR is a large-scale European project with a strong consortium of over 20 partners from industry and science. The project is focussed on the further development of torrefaction-based technologies for the production of solid bioenergy carriers up to pilot-plant scale and beyond, and on supporting the market introduction of torrefaction-based bioenergy carriers as a commodity renewable solid fuel. The torrefaction of biomass materials is considered to be a very promising technology for the promotion of the large-scale implementation of bioenergy. During torrefaction biomass is heated up in the absence of oxygen to a temperature of 250-320 C. By combining torrefaction with pelletisation or briquetting, biomass materials can be converted into a high-energy-density commodity solid fuel or bioenergy carrier with improved behaviour in (long-distance) transport, handling and storage, and also with superior properties in many major end-use applications. Torrefaction has the potential to provide a significant contribution to an enlarged raw material portfolio for biomass fuel production inside Europe by including both agricultural and forestry biomass. In this way, the SECTOR project is expected to shorten the time-to-market of torrefaction technology and to promote market introduction within stringent sustainability boundary conditions. The European Union provides funding for this project within the Seventh Framework Programme. The project has a duration of 42 months and started in January 2012. (orig.)

  20. Enhanced transfection by antioxidative polymeric gene carrier that reduces polyplex-mediated cellular oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Sang; Kim, Nak Won; Lee, Kyuri; Kim, Hongtae; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2013-06-01

    To test the hypothesis in which polyplex-induced oxidative stress may affect overall transfection efficiency, an antioxidative transfection system minimizing cellular oxidative stress was designed for enhanced transfection. An amphiphilic copolymer (PEI-PLGA) was synthesized and used as a micelle-type gene carrier containing hydrophobic antioxidant, α-tocopherol. Cellular oxidative stress and the change of mitochondrial membrane potential after transfection was measured by using a fluorescent probe (H₂DCFDA) and lipophilic cationic probe (JC-1), respectively. Transfection efficiency was determined by measuring a reporter gene (luciferase) expression level. The initial transfection study with conventional PEI/plasmid DNA polyplex showed significant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The PEI-PLGA copolymer successfully carried out the simultaneous delivery of α-tocopherol and plasmid DNA (PEI-PLGA/Toco/pDNA polyplex) into cells, resulting in a significant reduction in cellular ROS generation after transfection and helped to maintain the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ). In addition, the transfection efficiency was dramatically increased using the antioxidative transfection system. This work showed that oxidative stress would be one of the important factors that should be considered in designing non-viral gene carriers and suggested a possible way to reduce the carrier-mediated oxidative stress, which consequently leads to enhanced transfection.

  1. Destabilization of the electron Bernstein modes by runaway electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchcock, D.A.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the electromagnetic finite k/sub parallel/ electron Bernstein mode can be destabilized by the runaway electron distribution which results from the quasilinear action of the magnetized plasma oscillation. This mechanism is shown to yield growth rates of the order of 10 8 sec -1 and is suggested as a mechanism for the enchanced cyclotron harmonic emission in the presence of runaway electrons

  2. Immobilization of yeast cells with ionic hydrogel carriers by adhesion-multiplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaoxin, L; Fujimura, T

    2000-12-01

    The mixture of an ionic monomer, 2-acrylamido 2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (TBAS), and a series of poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (nG) monomers were copolymerized with 60Co gamma-rays, and the produced ionic hydrogel polymers were used for immobilization of yeast cells. The cells were adhered onto the surface of the hydrogel polymers and intruded into the interior of the polymers with growing. The immobilized yeast cells with these hydrogel polymers had higher ethanol productivity than that of free cells. The yield of ethanol with poly(TBAS-14G) carrier was the highest and increased by 3.5 times compared to the free cells. It was found that the ethanol yield increased with the increase of glycol number in poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate. The state of the immobilized cells was observed with microscope, and it was also found that the difference in the ethanol productivity is mainly due to the difference in the internal structure and properties of polymer carrier, such as surface charge, hydrophilicity, and swelling ability of polymer carrier.

  3. A systematic analysis of online marketing materials used by providers of expanded carrier screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokoshvili, Davit; Borry, Pascal; Vears, Danya F

    2017-12-14

    PurposeExpanded carrier screening (ECS) for a large number of recessive disorders is available to prospective parents through commercial providers. This study aimed to analyze the content of marketing materials on ECS providers' websites.MethodsTo identify providers of ECS tests, we undertook a comprehensive online search, reviewed recent academic literature on commercial carrier screening, and consulted with colleagues familiar with the current ECS landscape. The identified websites were archived in April 2017, and inductive content analysis was performed on website text, brochures and educational materials, and video transcripts.ResultsWe identified 18 ECS providers, including 16 commercial genetic testing companies. Providers typically described ECS as an important family planning tool. The content differed in both the tone used to promote ECS and the accuracy and completeness of the test information provided. We found that most providers offered complimentary genetic counseling to their consumers, although this was often optional, limited to the posttest context, and, in some cases, appeared to be available only to test-positive individuals.ConclusionThe quality of ECS providers' websites could be improved by offering more complete and accurate information about ECS and their tests. Providers should also ensure that all carrier couples receive posttest genetic counseling to inform their subsequent reproductive decision making.Genet Med advance online publication, 14 December 2017; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.222.

  4. Geodesic acoustic modes excited by finite beta drift waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Nikhil Kumar; Guzdar, P.N.; Kleva, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a mode-coupling analysis for the nonlinear excitation of the geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in tokamak plasmas by finite beta drift waves. The finite beta effects give rise to a strong stabilizing influence on the parametric excitation process. The dominant finite beta...... effect is the combination of the Maxwell stress, which has a tendency to cancel the primary drive from the Reynolds stress, and the finite beta modification of the drift waves. The zonal magnetic field is also excited at the GAM frequency. However, it does not contribute to the overall stability...... of the three-wave process for parameters of relevance to the edge region of tokamaks....

  5. Nonlinear excitation of geodesic acoustic modes by drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, N.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K.; Guzdar, P. N.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, two mode-coupling analyses for the nonlinear excitation of the geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in tokamak plasmas by drift waves are presented. The first approach is a coherent parametric process, which leads to a three-wave resonant interaction. This investigation allows for the drift waves and the GAMs to have comparable scales. The second approach uses the wave-kinetic equations for the drift waves, which then couples to the GAMs. This requires that the GAM scale length be large compared to the wave packet associated with the drift waves. The resonance conditions for these two cases lead to specific predictions of the radial wave number of the excited GAMs

  6. Neoclassical tearing mode seeding by coupling with infernal modes in low-shear tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, A.; Graves, J. P.; Brunetti, D.; Cooper, W. A.; Halpern, F. D.; Luciani, J.-F.; Lütjens, H.

    2016-09-01

    A numerical and an analytical study of the triggering of resistive MHD modes in tokamak plasmas with low magnetic shear core is presented. Flat q profiles give rise to fast growing pressure driven MHD modes, such as infernal modes. It has been shown that infernal modes drive fast growing islands on neighbouring rational surfaces. Numerical simulations of such instabilities in a MAST-like configuration are performed with the initial value stability code XTOR-2F in the resistive frame. The evolution of magnetic islands are computed from XTOR-2F simulations and an analytical model is developed based on Rutherford’s theory in combination with a model of resistive infernal modes. The parameter {{Δ }\\prime} is extended from the linear phase to the non-linear phase. Additionally, the destabilising contribution due to a helically perturbed bootstrap current is considered. Comparing the numerical XTOR-2F simulations to the model, we find that coupling has a strong destabilising effect on (neoclassical) tearing modes and is able to seed 2/1 magnetic islands in situations when the standard NTM theory predicts stability.

  7. The Carrier's Liability for Damage Caused by Delay in International Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Bin

    2003-01-01

    Delay in the air transport occurs when passengers, baggage or cargo do not arrive at their destination at the time indicated in the contract of carriage. The causes of delay in the carriage of passengers are booking errors or double booking, delayed departure of aircraft, incorrect information regarding the time of departure, failure to land at the scheduled destination and changes in flight schedule or addition of extra landing stops. Delay in the carriage of baggage or cargo may have different causes: no reservation, lack of space, failure to load the baggage or cargo at the right place, or to deliver the covering documents at the right place. The Montreal Convention of 1999 Article 19 provides that 'The carrier is liable for damage occasioned by delay in the carriage by air of passengers, baggage or cargo. Nevertheless, the carder shall not be liable for damage occasioned by delay if it proves that it and its servants and agents took all measures that could reasonably be required to avoid the damage or that it was impossible for it or them to take such measures'. The Montreal Convention Article 22 provides liability limits of the carrier in case of delay for passengers and their baggage and for cargo. In the carriage of persons, the liability of the carrier for each passenger is limited to 4,150 SDR. In the carriage of baggage, the liability of the carrier is limited to 1,000 SDR for each passenger unless a special declaration as to the value of the baggage has been made. In the carriage of cargo, the liability of the carrier is limited to 17 SDR per kilogram unless a special declaration as to the value of the cargo has been made. The Montreal Convention Article 19 has shortcomings: it is silent on the duration of the liability for carriage,andit does not make any distinction between persons and good. It does not give any indication concerning the circumstances to be taken into account in cases of delay, and about the length of delay. In conclusion, it is

  8. Lattice modes of hexamethylbenzene studied by inelastic neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stride, J.A. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France)], E-mail: stride@ill.fr; Adams, J.M. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Johnson, M.R. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2005-10-31

    The combination of inelastic neutron scattering and detailed ab initio calculations has been used to arrive at accurate assignments of the low energy lattice mode region of hexamethylbenzene (HMB) across the low temperature first order phase transition at 117.5 K. This was also extended well into the mid-infrared spectral region and a good agreement was found between observed and calculated frequencies, which were also confirmed with isotopically substituted d-HMB. At low temperature, the lattice region is dominated by the methyl group torsions around 15 and 20 meV, which soften dramatically on passing into the higher temperature phase. The lowest energy methyl torsion corresponds to a coherent gear wheel motion, observed here for the first time and predicted in previous numerical studies of HMB. The three acoustic phonons lie to lower energy, centered around 6-7 meV, whilst the three optic phonons are very close in energy to the lowest methyl torsions. Other assignments are found to be in accord with literature values and so an unambiguous assignment of all spectral modes has been obtained for the first time. We conclude that due to the behaviour of the lattice modes either side of the phase transition, its nature is predominantly that of a thermally activated dynamic order-disorder transition.

  9. Lattice modes of hexamethylbenzene studied by inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stride, J.A.; Adams, J.M.; Johnson, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    The combination of inelastic neutron scattering and detailed ab initio calculations has been used to arrive at accurate assignments of the low energy lattice mode region of hexamethylbenzene (HMB) across the low temperature first order phase transition at 117.5 K. This was also extended well into the mid-infrared spectral region and a good agreement was found between observed and calculated frequencies, which were also confirmed with isotopically substituted d-HMB. At low temperature, the lattice region is dominated by the methyl group torsions around 15 and 20 meV, which soften dramatically on passing into the higher temperature phase. The lowest energy methyl torsion corresponds to a coherent gear wheel motion, observed here for the first time and predicted in previous numerical studies of HMB. The three acoustic phonons lie to lower energy, centered around 6-7 meV, whilst the three optic phonons are very close in energy to the lowest methyl torsions. Other assignments are found to be in accord with literature values and so an unambiguous assignment of all spectral modes has been obtained for the first time. We conclude that due to the behaviour of the lattice modes either side of the phase transition, its nature is predominantly that of a thermally activated dynamic order-disorder transition

  10. Information report presented in application of article 145 of the regulation by the commission of national defense and armed forces about the propulsion system of the second aircraft carrier; Rapport d'information depose en application de l'article 145 du reglement par la commission de la defense nationale et des forces armees sur le mode de propulsion du second porte-avions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    In the framework of the project of launching of a sister-ship to the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier, this report makes an objective analysis of the different possible propulsion systems that can be considered for this battle ship according to different criteria: 1 - two possible energy sources and four possible configurations of aircraft carrier considered: alternative between nuclear propulsion and conventional propulsion, the two nuclear ships eventualities, the hypothesis of an entirely French-made classical propulsion ship, the opportunity of a French-British cooperation for a conventional aircraft carrier project; 2 - decision criteria: operational need, cost, industrial and technological stakes, constraints linked with daily ship and crew life; 3 - propulsion systems alternative: conventional propulsion and reinforcement of the European defense policy, nuclear propulsion for an operational superiority and for a complementarity with the Charles de Gaulle. (J.S.)

  11. Shear flows induced by nonlinear evolution of double tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengxiong; Kishimoto, Y.; Li, J. Q.; Wang Xiaogang; Dong, J. Q.

    2008-01-01

    Shear flows induced by nonlinear evolution of double tearing modes are investigated in a resistive magnetohydrodynamic model with slab geometry. It is found that intensive and thin poloidal shear flow layers are generated in the magnetic island region driven by coupled reconnection process at both rational surfaces. The structure of the flow layers keeps evolving after the merging of magnetic separatrices and forms a few narrow vortices along the open field lines in the final stage of magnetic reconnection. The effects of the distance between both rational surfaces and the initial magnetic shear on the nonlinear evolution of the plasma flows are also taken into consideration and the relevant mechanism is discussed

  12. Measurement of vibration mode shape by using Hilbert transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Min Sig

    2001-01-01

    This paper concerns on modal analysis of mechanical structures by using a continuous scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. In modal analysis the Hilbert transform based approach is superior to the Fourier transform based approach because of its fine accuracy and its flexible experimental settings. In this paper the Hilbert transform based approach is extended to measure area mode shape data of a structure by simply modifying the scanning pattern ranging the entire surface of the structure. The effectiveness of this proposed method is illustrated along with results of numerical simulation for a rectangular plate

  13. Estimation of free carrier concentrations in high-quality heavily doped GaN:Si micro-rods by photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajerani, M. S.; Khachadorian, S.; Nenstiel, C.; Schimpke, T.; Avramescu, A.; Strassburg, M.; Hoffmann, A.; Waag, A.

    2016-03-01

    The controlled growth of highly n-doped GaN micro rods is one of the major challenges in the fabrication of recently developed three-dimensional (3D) core-shell light emitting diodes (LEDs). In such structures with a large active area, higher electrical conductivity is needed to achieve higher current density. In this contribution, we introduce high quality heavily-doped GaN:Si micro-rods which are key elements of the newly developed 3D core-shell LEDs. These structures were grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) using selective area growth (SAG). We employed spatially resolved micro-Raman and micro-photoluminescence (PL) in order to directly determine a free-carrier concentration profile in individual GaN micro-rods. By Raman spectroscopy, we analyze the low-frequency branch of the longitudinal optical (LO)-phonon-plasmon coupled modes and estimate free carrier concentrations from ≍ 2.4 × 1019 cm-3 up to ≍ 1.5 × 1020 cm-3. Furthermore, free carrier concentrations are determined by estimating Fermi energy level from the near band edge emission measured by low-temperature PL. The results from both methods reveal a good consistency.

  14. Analysis of carrier transport and carrier trapping in organic diodes with polyimide-6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene double-layer by charge modulation spectroscopy and optical second harmonic generation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Eunju, E-mail: elim@dankook.ac.kr, E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Institute of Nanosensor and Biotechnology, Dankook University, Jukjeon-dong, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Taguchi, Dai, E-mail: elim@dankook.ac.kr, E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: elim@dankook.ac.kr, E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2014-08-18

    We studied the carrier transport and carrier trapping in indium tin oxide/polyimide (PI)/6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene)/Au diodes by using charge modulation spectroscopy (CMS) and time-resolved electric field induced optical second harmonic generation (TR-EFISHG) measurements. TR-EFISHG directly probes the spatial carrier behaviors in the diodes, and CMS is useful in explaining the carrier motion with respect to energy. The results clearly indicate that the injected carriers move across TIPS-pentacene thorough the molecular energy states of TIPS-pentacene and accumulate at the PI/TIPS-pentacene interface. However, some carriers are trapped in the PI layers. These findings take into account the capacitance-voltage and current-voltage characteristics of the diodes.

  15. Two-Dimensional Edge Detection by Guided Mode Resonant Metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Amirhossein; Tavakol, Mohammad Reza; Karimi-Khoozani, Parisa; Khavasi, Amin

    2018-05-01

    In this letter, a new approach to perform edge detection is presented using an all-dielectric CMOS-compatible metasurface. The design is based on guided-mode resonance which provides a high quality factor resonance to make the edge detection experimentally realizable. The proposed structure that is easy to fabricate, can be exploited for detection of edges in two dimensions due to its symmetry. Also, the trade-off between gain and resolution of edge detection is discussed which can be adjusted by appropriate design parameters. The proposed edge detector has also the potential to be used in ultrafast analog computing and image processing.

  16. Medical ethics: enhanced or undermined by modes of payment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, Peter; Janus, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    In the medical literature [1, 2, 7], the view prevails that any change away from fee-for-service (FFS) jeopardizes medical ethics, defined as motivational preference in this article. The objective of this contribution is to test this hypothesis by first developing two theoretical models of behavior, building on the pioneering works of Ellis and McGuire [4] and Pauly and Redisch [11]. Medical ethics is reflected by a parameter α, which indicates how much importance the physician attributes to patient well-being relative to his or her own income. Accordingly, a weakening of ethical orientation amounts to a fall in the value of α. While traditional economic theory takes preferences as predetermined, more recent contributions view them as endogenous (see, e.g., Frey and Oberholzer-Gee [5]). The model variant based on Ellis and McGuire [4] depicts the behavior of a physician in private practice, while the one based on Pauly and Redisch [11] applies to providers who share resources such as in hospital or group practice. Two changes in the mode of payment are analyzed, one from FFS to prospective payment (PP), the other to pay-for-performance (P4P). One set of predictions relates physician effort to a change in the mode of payment; another, physician effort to a change in α, the parameter reflecting ethics. Using these two relationships, a change in ethics can observationally be related to a change in the mode of payment. The predictions derived from the models are pitted against several case studies from diverse countries. A shift from FFS to PP is predicted to give rise to a negative observed relationship between the medical ethics of physicians in private practice under a wide variety of circumstances, more so than a shift to P4P, which can even be seen as enhancing medical ethics, provided physician effort has a sufficiently high marginal effectiveness in terms of patient well-being. This prediction is confirmed to a considerable degree by circumstantial evidence

  17. Dynamic modelling of tearing mode stabilization by RF current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giruzzi, G.; Zabiego, M.; Gianakon, T.A.; Garbet, X.; Bernabei, S.

    1998-01-01

    The theory of tearing mode stabilization in toroidal plasmas by RF-driven currents that are modulated in phase with the island rotation is investigated. A time scale analysis of the phenomena involved indicates that transient effects, such as finite time response of the driven currents, island rotation during the power pulses, and the inductive response of the plasma, are intrinsically important. A dynamic model of such effects is developed, based on a 3-D Fokker-Planck code coupled to both the electric field diffusion and the island evolution equations. Extensive applications to both Electron Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid current drive in ITER are presented. (author)

  18. Instantaneous Respiratory Estimation from Thoracic Impedance by Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Tai Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Impedance plethysmography provides a way to measure respiratory activity by sensing the change of thoracic impedance caused by inspiration and expiration. This measurement imposes little pressure on the body and uses the human body as the sensor, thereby reducing the need for adjustments as body position changes and making it suitable for long-term or ambulatory monitoring. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD can decompose a signal into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs that disclose nonstationary components as well as stationary components and, similarly, capture respiratory episodes from thoracic impedance. However, upper-body movements usually produce motion artifacts that are not easily removed by digital filtering. Moreover, large motion artifacts disable the EMD to decompose respiratory components. In this paper, motion artifacts are detected and replaced by the data mirrored from the prior and the posterior before EMD processing. A novel intrinsic respiratory reconstruction index that considers both global and local properties of IMFs is proposed to define respiration-related IMFs for respiration reconstruction and instantaneous respiratory estimation. Based on the experiments performing a series of static and dynamic physical activates, our results showed the proposed method had higher cross correlations between respiratory frequencies estimated from thoracic impedance and those from oronasal airflow based on small window size compared to the Fourier transform-based method.

  19. Instantaneous Respiratory Estimation from Thoracic Impedance by Empirical Mode Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Tai; Chan, Hsiao-Lung; Wang, Chun-Li; Jian, Hung-Ming; Lin, Sheng-Hsiung

    2015-07-07

    Impedance plethysmography provides a way to measure respiratory activity by sensing the change of thoracic impedance caused by inspiration and expiration. This measurement imposes little pressure on the body and uses the human body as the sensor, thereby reducing the need for adjustments as body position changes and making it suitable for long-term or ambulatory monitoring. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) can decompose a signal into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) that disclose nonstationary components as well as stationary components and, similarly, capture respiratory episodes from thoracic impedance. However, upper-body movements usually produce motion artifacts that are not easily removed by digital filtering. Moreover, large motion artifacts disable the EMD to decompose respiratory components. In this paper, motion artifacts are detected and replaced by the data mirrored from the prior and the posterior before EMD processing. A novel intrinsic respiratory reconstruction index that considers both global and local properties of IMFs is proposed to define respiration-related IMFs for respiration reconstruction and instantaneous respiratory estimation. Based on the experiments performing a series of static and dynamic physical activates, our results showed the proposed method had higher cross correlations between respiratory frequencies estimated from thoracic impedance and those from oronasal airflow based on small window size compared to the Fourier transform-based method.

  20. Towards high charge carrier mobilities by rational design of organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrienko, Denis; Ruehle, Victor; Baumeier, Bjoern; Vehoff, Thorsten; Lukyanov, Alexander; Kremer, Kurt [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany); Marcon, Valentina [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Kirkpatrick, James; Nelson, Jenny [Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Lennartz, Christian [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The role of material morphology on charge carrier mobility in partially disordered organic semiconductors is discussed for several classes of materials: derivatives of hexabenzocoronenens, perylenediimides, triangularly-shaped polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and Alq{sub 3}. Simulations are performed using a package developed by Imperial College, London and Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (votca.org). This package combines several techniques into one scheme: quantum chemical methods for the calculation of molecular electronic structures and reorganization energies; molecular dynamics and systematic coarse-graining approaches for simulation of self-assembly and relative positions and orientations of molecules on large scales; kinetic Monte Carlo and master equation for studies of charge transport.

  1. Equipment to fabricate a masking layer on a carrier by means of soft X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.I.; Spears, D.L.; Stern, E.

    1978-01-01

    The equipment is to improve the pattern multiplication technique for producing e.g. microminiature current rings. It uses soft X-radiation (2 to 20 A) from an Al anticathode. The mask consists of a Si layer penetrable by X-rays and an opaque pattern layer of Au to limit the mask pattern. Polymethyl metacrylate is suitable as sensitive layer for X-radiation, which is coated on a carrier. The sensitive layer can be prepared from methyl isobutyl ketone and isopropyl alcohol. (ORU/ORU) [de

  2. Influence of different carrier gases on the properties of ZnO films grown by MOCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang, Jinzhong

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available ZnO films were grown on sapphire (001 substrate by atmospheric MOCVD using diethyl zinc and tertiary butanol precursors. The influence of different carrier gases (H2 and He on the properties was analyzed by their structural (XRD, microstructural (SEM and compositional (SIMS characterization. The intensity of the strongest diffraction peak from ZnO (002 plane was increased by about 2 orders of magnitude when He is used as carrier gas, indicating the significant enhancement in crystallinity. The surface of the samples grown using H2 and He carrier gases was composed of leaf-like and spherical grains respectively. Hydrogen [H] content in the film grown using H2 is higher than that using He, indicating that the [H] was influenced by the H2 carrier gas. Ultraviolet emission dominates the low temperature PL spectra. The emission from ZnO films grown using He show higher optical quality and more emission centers.

    Se depositaron películas de ZnO sobre sustratos de zafiro (001 utilizando dietil zinc y butanol terciario como precursores. La influencia de los diferentes gases portadores (H2 y He sobre las propiedades se estudió mediante la caracterización estructural (XRD, microestructural (SEM y composicional (SIMS. La intensidad del pico de difracción más importante del plano (002 del ZnO aumentó en dos órdenes de magnitud cuando se utiliza He como gas portador indicando un incremento significativo de la cristalinidad. La superficie de las muestras crecidas utilizando H2 y He está formada por granos en forma de hoja y de forma esférica respectivamente. El contenido en hidrógeno (H en la película es mayor cuando se utiliza H2 que cuando se utiliza He, indicando que la cantidad de hidrógeno está influenciada por el H2 del gas portador. La emisión ultravioleta domina el espectro PL de baja temperatura. La emisión de las películas de ZnO utilizando

  3. Transverse instability excited by rf deflecting modes for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.; Yao, C.Y.

    1979-11-01

    We have looked at the possible transverse instability effects which are caused by the deflecting modes of the rf cavities in PEP. The results are obtained by applying the expression of the instability damping rate. We have assumed that there equal bunches equally spaced in PEP. We have worked out the equivalent for a single bunch beam. The effect of chromaticity ξ is included as a frequency shift in the bunch mode spectra. We rewrite this result in terms of the transverse wake field instead of the impedance. We include an application of the Sacherer formalism to the case of resistive wall. The resulting expression of the damping rate contains two terms. The first term corresponds to the effect of the short wake fields; it agrees with the result of the head-tail instability as derived by Sands. A numerical estimate of this resistive-wall head tail case for PEP is given. It re-confirms that the resistive wall instability is not a serious problem for PEP. The second term gives the effect of long wake fields and it agrees with the result of Courant and Sessler. 10 refs., 2 figs

  4. Narrow-band modulation of semiconductor lasers at millimeter wave frequencies (7100 GHz) by mode locking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.Y.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the possibility of mode locking a semiconductor laser at millimeter wave frequencies approaching and beyond 100 GHz which was investigated theoretically and experimentally. It is found that there are no fundamental theoretical limitations in mode locking at frequencies below 100 GHz. AT these high frequencies, only a few modes are locked and the output usually takes the form of a deep sinusoidal modulation which is synchronized in phase with the externally applied modulation at the intermodal heat frequency. This can be regarded for practical purposes as a highly efficient means of directly modulating an optical carrier over a narrow band at millimeter wave frequencies. Both active and passive mode locking are theoretically possible. Experimentally, predictions on active mode locking have been verified in prior publications up to 40 GHz. For passive mode locking, evidence consistent with passive mode locking was observed in an inhomogeneously pumped GaAIAs laser at a frequency of approximately 70 GHz. A large differential gain-absorption ratio such as that present in an inhomogeneously pumped single quantum well laser is necessary for pushing the passive mode-locking frequency beyond 100 GHz

  5. Morphology and genomic hallmarks of breast tumours developed by ATM deleterious variant carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Anne-Laure; Mebirouk, Noura; Fuhrmann, Laetitia; Bataillon, Guillaume; Cavaciuti, Eve; Le Gal, Dorothée; Girard, Elodie; Popova, Tatiana; La Rosa, Philippe; Beauvallet, Juana; Eon-Marchais, Séverine; Dondon, Marie-Gabrielle; d'Enghien, Catherine Dubois; Laugé, Anthony; Chemlali, Walid; Raynal, Virginie; Labbé, Martine; Bièche, Ivan; Baulande, Sylvain; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Berthet, Pascaline; Caron, Olivier; Buecher, Bruno; Faivre, Laurence; Fresnay, Marc; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gesta, Paul; Janin, Nicolas; Lejeune, Sophie; Maugard, Christine; Moutton, Sébastien; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Zattara, Hélène; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Gladieff, Laurence; Coupier, Isabelle; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hall, Janet; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Andrieu, Nadine; Lesueur, Fabienne

    2018-04-17

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene is a moderate-risk breast cancer susceptibility gene; germline loss-of-function variants are found in up to 3% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families who undergo genetic testing. So far, no clear histopathological and molecular features of breast tumours occurring in ATM deleterious variant carriers have been described, but identification of an ATM-associated tumour signature may help in patient management. To characterise hallmarks of ATM-associated tumours, we performed systematic pathology review of tumours from 21 participants from ataxia-telangiectasia families and 18 participants from HBOC families, as well as copy number profiling on a subset of 23 tumours. Morphology of ATM-associated tumours was compared with that of 599 patients with no BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations from a hospital-based series, as well as with data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Absolute copy number and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) profiles were obtained from the OncoScan SNP array. In addition, we performed whole-genome sequencing on four tumours from ATM loss-of-function variant carriers with available frozen material. We found that ATM-associated tumours belong mostly to the luminal B subtype, are tetraploid and show LOH at the ATM locus at 11q22-23. Unlike tumours in which BRCA1 or BRCA2 is inactivated, tumours arising in ATM deleterious variant carriers are not associated with increased large-scale genomic instability as measured by the large-scale state transitions signature. Losses at 13q14.11-q14.3, 17p13.2-p12, 21p11.2-p11.1 and 22q11.23 were observed. Somatic alterations at these loci may therefore represent biomarkers for ATM testing and harbour driver mutations in potentially 'druggable' genes that would allow patients to be directed towards tailored therapeutic strategies. Although ATM is involved in the DNA damage response, ATM-associated tumours are distinct from BRCA1-associated tumours in terms of morphological

  6. Hydrogen as an energy carrier and its production by nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The impact of power generation on environment is becoming an ever increasing concern in decision making when considering the energy options and power systems required by a country in order to sustain its economic growth and development. Hydrogen is a strong emerging candidate with a significant role as a clean, environmentally benign and safe to handle major energy carrier in the future. Its enhanced utilization in distributed power generation as well as in propulsion systems for mobile applications will help to significantly mitigate the strong negative effects on the environment. It ia also the nuclear power that will be of utmost importance in the energy supply of many countries over the next decades. The development of new, innovative reactor concepts utilizing passive safety features for process heat and electricity generation are considered by many to play a substantial role in the world`s energy future in helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This report produced by IAEA documents past and current activities in Member States in the development of hydrogen production as an energy carrier and its corresponding production through the use of nuclear power. It provides an introduction to nuclear technology as a means of producing hydrogen or other upgraded fuels and to the energy carries hydrogen and its main fields of application. Emphasis is placed on high-temperature reactor technology which can achieve the simultaneous generation of electricity and the production of high-temperature process heat Refs, figs, tabs

  7. Hydrogen as an energy carrier and its production by nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The impact of power generation on environment is becoming an ever increasing concern in decision making when considering the energy options and power systems required by a country in order to sustain its economic growth and development. Hydrogen is a strong emerging candidate with a significant role as a clean, environmentally benign and safe to handle major energy carrier in the future. Its enhanced utilization in distributed power generation as well as in propulsion systems for mobile applications will help to significantly mitigate the strong negative effects on the environment. It ia also the nuclear power that will be of utmost importance in the energy supply of many countries over the next decades. The development of new, innovative reactor concepts utilizing passive safety features for process heat and electricity generation are considered by many to play a substantial role in the world's energy future in helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This report produced by IAEA documents past and current activities in Member States in the development of hydrogen production as an energy carrier and its corresponding production through the use of nuclear power. It provides an introduction to nuclear technology as a means of producing hydrogen or other upgraded fuels and to the energy carries hydrogen and its main fields of application. Emphasis is placed on high-temperature reactor technology which can achieve the simultaneous generation of electricity and the production of high-temperature process heat

  8. Nutrient capture and recycling by periphyton attached to modified agrowaste carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Juanjuan; Liu, Xuemei; Wu, Chenxi; Wu, Yonghong

    2016-04-01

    The reuse of periphytic biofilm from traditional wastewater treatment (i.e., active sludge process) is inefficient to recycle nutrients due to low accumulation of nutrients. Then, in this study, peanut shell (PS), rice husk (RH), decomposed peanut shell (DPS), acidified rice husks (ARH), and a commonly used carrier-ceramsite (C, as the control)-were used to support the growth of periphyton. Results showed that DPS and ARH supported significantly higher periphyton biomass and metabolic versatility than PS and RH, respectively, due to the increased presence of positive groups. The total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) captured by periphyton were enhanced by 600-657 and 833-3255 % for DPS, and 461-1808 and 21-308 % for ARH, respectively. The removal of nutrients from simulated eutrophic surface waters using periphyton attached to DPS was improved by 24-47 % for TP, 12-048 % for TN, and 15-78 % for nitrate compared to the control. The results indicate that the periphyton attached to modified agrowaste was capable of efficiently entrapping and storing N and P from eutrophic water. This study also implies that the mixture of periphyton and the modified agrowaste carriers are promising raw materials of biofertilizer.

  9. PID Controller of Sprayer Chassis by Sliding Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the straight line drive coordinated control problem of the four-wheel independent drive sprayer chassis, the dynamic model of sprayer chassis and electromagnetic proportional valve controlled hydraulic motor model are established. The additional yaw moment is designed to rectify the deviation with sliding mode variable structure control. PID control strategy is used to calculate the control voltage adjustment of the electromagnetic proportional valve. The simulation results show that the accumulative deviation of the chassis is 0.2 m out of 100 m when the coordinated control strategy is adopted on different adhesive coefficient pavement, which is much smaller than the value without control. The test results of test prototype show that the yaw acceleration of the chassis can be as low as −0.0132 m/s2 on different adhesive coefficient pavement with coordinated control, which is smaller than the value without control, and the straight line drive requirements are met. It is feasible to combine sliding mode variable structure with PID control and use the electromagnetic proportional control technology in the straight line drive coordinated control of sprayer chassis by adding the yaw moment to rectify the deviation of chassis based on the yaw acceleration detection.

  10. Destabilization of low mode number Alfven modes in a tokamak by energetic or alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.T.; Sigmar, D.J.; Whitson, J.C.

    1980-12-01

    With the inclusion of finite Larmor radius effects in the shear Alfven eigenmode equation, the continuous Alfven spectrum, which has been extensively discussed in ideal magnetohydrodynamics, is removed. Neutrally stable, discrete radial eigenmodes appear in the absence of sources of free energy and dissipation. Alpha (or energetic) particle toroidal drifts destabilize these modes, provided the particles are faster than the Alfven speed. Although the electron Landu resonance contributes to damping, a stability study of the parametric variation of the energy and the density scale length of the energetic particles shows that modes with low radial mode numbers remain unstable in most cases. Since the alpha particles are concentrated in the center of the plasma, this drift-type instability suggests anomalous helium ash diffusion. Indeed, it is shown that stochasticity of alpha orbits due to the overlapping of radially neighboring Alfven resonances is induced at low amplitudes, e/sub i//sup approx./phi/T/sub i/ greater than or equal to 0.05, implying a diffusion coefficient D/sub r//sup α/ greater than or equal to 4.4 x 10 3 cm 2 /s

  11. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority......, submarines, aircraft and helicopters, is not likely to be fully operational and war-capable until 2020, given the fact that China is starting from a clean sheet of paper. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Russia and India are currently building or have made decisions to build new...

  12. Improvement of curcuminoid bioaccessibility from turmeric by a nanostructured lipid carrier system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Jin; Garcia, Coralia V; Shin, Gye Hwa; Kim, Jun Tae

    2018-06-15

    Turmeric contains curcumin and its analogues, which show anticancer and antiinflammatory effects; however, curcuminoids are lipophilic and are poorly absorbed by the human body. Nanostructured lipid carriers for encapsulating whole turmeric powder were successfully produced by ultrasonication, and their physicochemical properties and stability in simulated gastric and intestinal media were evaluated. The turmeric nanostructured lipid carriers (TNLCs) exhibited a round shape, small diameter (282 ± 7.19 nm), adequate zeta potential (-22.75 ± 1.20 mV), and high encapsulation efficiency (93.3 ± 0.01%). The TNLCs were able to protect the encapsulated curcuminoids under acidic gastric conditions, and effectively released 95 ± 2.51% of the curcuminoids in the simulated intestinal medium, demonstrating their suitability for controlled release. The in vitro bioaccessibility of the encapsulated curcuminoids was 75 ± 1.24%, representing more than a fourfold increase compared to that of free turmeric. Therefore, the proposed TNLCs are a promising delivery system for increasing the bioaccessibility of curcuminoids from turmeric. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Parameters influencing the introduction of plasmid DNA into cells by the use of synthetic amphiphiles as a carrier system

    OpenAIRE

    van der Woude, Irene; Willy Visser, H.; ter Beest, Martin B.A.; Wagenaar, Anno; Ruiters, Marcel H.J.; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Hoekstra, Dick

    1995-01-01

    Parameters that affect cellular transfection as accomplished by introducing DNA via carriers composed of cationic synthetic amphiphiles, have been investigated with the aim to obtain insight into the mechanism of DNA translocation. Such insight may be exploited in optimizing carrier properties of synthetic amphiphiles for molecules other than nucleic acids. In the present work, the interaction of vesicles composed of the cationic amphiphile dioleyloxy-propyl-trimethylammonium chloride (DOTMA)...

  14. PROPERTIES OF OSCILLATION MODES IN SUBGIANT STARS OBSERVED BY KEPLER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benomar, O.; Bedding, T. R.; Stello, D.; White, T. R.; Kuehn, C. A. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Mosser, B.; Belkacem, K. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS UMR 8109, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 Place J. Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Garcia, R. A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot (France); IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Deheuvels, S. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, CNRS, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Christensen-Dalsgaard, J. [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2013-04-20

    Mixed modes seen in evolved stars carry information on their deeper layers that can place stringent constraints on their physics and on their global properties (mass, age, etc.). In this study, we present a method to identify and measure all oscillatory mode characteristics (frequency, height, width). Analyzing four subgiant stars, we present the first measure of the effect of the degree of mixture on the l = 1 mixed mode characteristics. We also show that some stars have measurable l = 2 mixed modes and discuss the interest of their measure to constrain the deeper layers of stars.

  15. Data Bank 28IM(FF) - T-100 International Market Data, U.S. Air Carriers Traffic and Capacity Data - 3 Year Restricted (includes foreign point and foreign point by U.S. Carrier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This CD presents data reported by U.S. carriers. These data are releasable after a 3 year confidentiality period and include U.S. Air Carrier foreign point to foreign point traffic. These data are often referred to as either "market" or on-flight ori...

  16. Data Bank 28IM(FF) - T-100 International Market Data, U.S. Air Carriers Traffic and Capacity Data (World Area Code) - 3 Year Restricted (includes foreign point and foreign Point by U.S. Carrier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This CD presents data reported by U.S. carriers. These data are releasable after a 3 year confidentiality period and include U.S. Air Carrier foreign point to foreign point traffic. These data are often referred to as either "market" or on-flight ori...

  17. Enhanced bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by immobilized bacteria with plant residue and biochar as carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baoliang; Yuan, Miaoxin; Qian, Linbo [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Environmental Science; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou (China)

    2012-10-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are largely accumulated in soils in China. The immobilized-microorganism technique (IMT) is a potential approach for abating soil contamination with PAHs. However, few studies about the application of IMT to contaminated soil remediation were reported. Due to recalcitrance to decomposition, biochar application to soil may enhance soil carbon sequestration, but few studies on the application of biochars to remediation of contaminated soil were reported. In this study, we illustrated enhanced bioremediation of soil having a long history of PAH contamination by IMT using plant residues and biochars as carriers. Two PAH-degrading bacteria, Pseudomonas putida and an unidentified indigenous bacterium, were selected for IMT. The extractability and biodegradation of 15 PAHs in solution and an actual PAH-contaminated soil amended with immobilized-bacteria materials were investigated under different incubation periods. The effects of carriers and the molecular weight of PAHs on bioremediation efficiency were determined to illustrate their different bio-dissipation mechanisms of PAHs in soil. The IMT can considerably enhance the removal of PAHs. Carriers impose different effects on PAH bio-dissipation by amended soil with immobilized-bacteria, which can directly degrade the carrier-associated PAHs. The removal of PAHs from soil depended on PAH molecular weight and carrier types. Enhanced bio-dissipation by IMT was much stronger for 4- and 5-ring PAHs than for 3- and 6-ring ones in soil. Only P400 biochar-immobilized bacteria enhanced bio-dissipation of all PAHs in contaminated soil after a 90-day incubation. Biochar can promote bioremediation of contaminated soil as microbial carriers of IMT. It is vital to select an appropriate biochar as an immobilized carrier to stimulate biodegradation. It is feasible to use adsorption carriers with high sorptive capabilities to concentrate PAHs as well as microorganisms and thereby enhance

  18. Current measurements by Faraday rotation in single mode optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, G.I.; Jahoda, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    Development of techniques for measuring magnetic fields and currents by Faraday rotation in single-mode optical fibers has continued. We summarize the results of attempts to measure the toroidal plasma current in the ZT-40 Reversed-Field-Pinch using multi-turn fiber coils. The fiber response is reproducible and in accord with theory, but the amount and distribution of the stress-induced birefringence in this case are such that prediction of the sensor response at low currents is difficult if not impossible. The low-current difficulty can be overcome by twisting the fiber to induce a circular birefringence bias. We report the results of auxiliary experiments with a fiber that has been twisted with 15 turns per meter and then re-coated to lock the twist in place

  19. Ferritin glycosylated by chitosan as a novel EGCG nano-carrier: Structure, stability, and absorption analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Liu, Yuqian; Gao, Yunjing; Wang, Yongjin; Blanchard, Chris; Zhou, Zhongkai

    2017-12-01

    Ferritin is a shell-like carrier protein with an 8nm diameter cavity which endows a natural space to encapsulate food and drug components. In this work, phytoferritin was unprecedentedly glycosylated by chitosan to fabricate ferritin-chitosan Maillard reaction products (FCMPs) (grafting degree of 26.17%, 24h, 55°C). Results indicated that the amide I and II bands of ferritin were altered due to the chitosan grafting, whereas the ferritin spherical structure were retained. Simulated digestion analysis showed that the FCMPs were more resistant to pepsin and trypsin digestion as compared with ferritin alone. Furthermore, FCMPs were employed as carrier to encapsulate epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) molecules with an encapsulation ratio of 12.87% (w/w), and the resulting FCMPs-EGCG complexes showed a slow release of EGCG in simulated gastrointestinal tract. Interestingly, different types of food components displayed different effects in EGCG release behavior from the FCMPs, wherein proanthocyanidin, milk and soy protein inhibited the EGCG release. In addition, the absorption of EGCG encapsulated in FCMPs in Caco-2 monolayer model was significantly improved as compared with free EGCG. This work provides a novel nano-vehicle for fabricating core-shell systems in food and drug delivery domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Kinetic energy dependence of carrier diffusion in a GaAs epilayer studied by wavelength selective PL imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. [University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Providence High School, Charlotte, NC 28270 (United States); Su, L.Q.; Kon, J. [University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Gfroerer, T. [Davidson College, Davidson, NC 28035 (United States); Wanlass, M.W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Zhang, Y., E-mail: yong.zhang@uncc.edu [University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) imaging has been shown to be an efficient technique for investigating carrier diffusion in semiconductors. In the past, the measurement was typically carried out by measuring at one wavelength (e.g., at the band gap) or simply the whole emission band. At room temperature in a semiconductor like GaAs, the band-to-band PL emission may occur in a spectral range over 200 meV, vastly exceeding the average thermal energy of about 26 meV. To investigate the potential dependence of the carrier diffusion on the carrier kinetic energy, we performed wavelength selective PL imaging on a GaAs double hetero-structure in a spectral range from about 70 meV above to 50 meV below the bandgap, extracting the carrier diffusion lengths at different PL wavelengths by fitting the imaging data to a theoretical model. The results clearly show that the locally generated carriers of different kinetic energies mostly diffuse together, maintaining the same thermal distribution throughout the diffusion process. Potential effects related to carrier density, self-absorption, lateral wave-guiding, and local heating are also discussed.

  1. Evaluation of gamma irradiation and heat treatment by autoclaving in the preparation of microorganism-free carriers for biofertilizer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phua Choo Kwai Hoe; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid

    2009-01-01

    Biofertilizer has been identified as an alternative or complementary to chemical fertilizers to increase soil fertility and crop production in sustainable farming. Biofertilizers are products containing living cells of different types of known microorganisms that may increase crop productivity through N 2 fixation, phosphate solubilization or stimulation of plant growth by synthesising phytohormones. A good biofertilizer product needs a good carrier or substrate. A good carrier should be free from microbial contamination and can optimise the growth of the biofertilizer microorganisms. Compost is commonly used as carrier or substrate for biofertilizer microorganisms. In the present study, compost produced by Nuclear Malaysia using the Natural Farming method was used as carrier for several biofertilizer products. Gamma irradiation and autoclave were used to produce sterile carrier for biofertilizer. The effectiveness for both methods was evaluated. Gamma irradiation at a dose of 50 kGy and autoclaving at 121 degree C for 60 minutes were found effective to produce sterile carriers for biofertilizer products.(Author)

  2. Characterizing delamination of fibre composites by mixed mode cohesive laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, Torben K.

    2009-01-01

    A novel method is used for the determination of mixed mode cohesive laws and bridging laws for the characterisation of crack bridging in composites. The approach is based on an application of the J integral. The obtained cohesive laws were found to possess high peak stress values. Mixed mode...

  3. Asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons by dark mode coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, X.

    2016-02-19

    Control over surface plasmons (SPs) is essential in a variety of cutting-edge applications, such as highly integrated photonic signal processing systems, deep-subwavelength lasing, high-resolution imaging, and ultrasensitive biomedical detection. Recently, asymmetric excitation of SPs has attracted enormous interest. In free space, the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials has been widely investigated to uniquely manipulate the electromagnetic waves. In the near field, we show that the dark mode coupling mechanism of the classical EIT effect enables an exotic and straightforward excitation of SPs in a metasurface system. This leads to not only resonant excitation of asymmetric SPs but also controllable exotic SP focusing by the use of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. Our experimental findings manifest the potential of developing plasmonic metadevices with unique functionalities.

  4. Asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons by dark mode coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, X.; Xu, Q.; Li, Q.; Xu, Y.; Gu, J.; Tian, Z.; Ouyang, C.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, J.; Zhang, W.

    2016-01-01

    Control over surface plasmons (SPs) is essential in a variety of cutting-edge applications, such as highly integrated photonic signal processing systems, deep-subwavelength lasing, high-resolution imaging, and ultrasensitive biomedical detection. Recently, asymmetric excitation of SPs has attracted enormous interest. In free space, the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials has been widely investigated to uniquely manipulate the electromagnetic waves. In the near field, we show that the dark mode coupling mechanism of the classical EIT effect enables an exotic and straightforward excitation of SPs in a metasurface system. This leads to not only resonant excitation of asymmetric SPs but also controllable exotic SP focusing by the use of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. Our experimental findings manifest the potential of developing plasmonic metadevices with unique functionalities.

  5. Growth modes of pentacene films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisz, G.; Kuzma, M.; Virt, I.; Sagan, P.; Rudyj, I.

    2011-01-01

    Thin pentacene films were deposited on KCl and ITO/glass substrates by the pulsed laser deposition method (PLD) using a YAG:Nd 3+ laser with a second harmonic (λ = 532 nm). We compared the structure of the layer on differently oriented substrates with respect to the pentacene plasma plume - vertical and parallel orientation. The structure of the layers formed was examined using SEM, RHEED and THEED methods. The lattice parameters of the layer deposited on KCl were determined from THEED pattern (a = 5.928 A, b 7.874 A, c = 14,98 A, α = 76.54 o , β 75.17 o , γ = 89.20 o ). The preferred direction [11-bar 0] of the layer growth on KCl substrate was addressed. The effect of the substrate orientation results in a different growth mode of the layers.

  6. Heating tokamaks by parametric decay of intense extraordinary mode radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, G.B.; Perkins, F.W.

    1979-08-01

    Intense electron beam technology has developed coherent, very high power (350 megawatts) microwave sources at frequencies which are a modest fraction of the electron cyclotron frequency in tokamaks. Propagation into a plasma occurs via the extraordinary mode which is subject to parametric decay instabilities in the density range ω/sub o/ 2 2 < ω/sub o/(ω/sub o/ + Ω/sub e/). For an incident wave focused onto a hot spot by a dish antenna of radius rho, the effective threshold power P/sub o/ required to induced effective parametric heating is P/sub o/ approx. = 10 MW x/rho Ω/sub e//ω/sub o/ (T/sub e//1 keV)/sup 3/2/ where x denotes the distance to the hot spot

  7. Preparation and characterization of biodegradable magnetic carriers by single emulsion-solvent evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xianqiao [Departments of Neurology and Surgery (Neurosurgery), University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Kaminski, Michael D. [Chemical Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Riffle, Judy S. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Chen Haitao [Departments of Neurology and Surgery (Neurosurgery), University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Torno, Michael [Departments of Neurology and Surgery (Neurosurgery), University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Finck, Martha R. [Chemical Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Taylor, LaToyia [Departments of Neurology and Surgery (Neurosurgery), University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Rosengart, Axel J. [Departments of Neurology and Surgery (Neurosurgery), University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)]. E-mail: arosenga@uchicago.edu

    2007-04-15

    This paper describes a single emulsion-solvent evaporation protocol to prepare PEGylated biodegradable/biocompatible magnetic carriers by utilizing hydrophobic magnetite and a mixture of poly(D,L lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(lactic acid-block-polyethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) (26:1 by mass) polymers. We characterized the magnetic microspheres in terms of morphology, composite microstructure, size and size distribution, and magnetic properties. Results show that the preparation produces magnetic microspheres with a good spherical morphology, small size (mean diameter of 1.2-1.5 {mu}m) by means of large size distributions, and magnetizations up to 20-30 emu/g of microspheres.

  8. Preparation of carrier-free 67Ga, by irradiation of natural zinc with protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, L.; Silva, C.P.G. da; Barbosa, M.F. de.

    1983-02-01

    A method for the preparation of carrier-free 67 Ga is described. Natural zinc plates were irradiated with protons. After a decay period of four days, the irradiated targets were dissolved in concentrated hydrochloric acid and the solution percolated through a glass column containing a cationic resin. 67 Ga was eluted with 3,5 N HCl; the eluted solution was evaporated to dryness, taken up in 3,8% sodium citrate solution and sterilized. Sterility tests were carried out according to the requirements of the U.S. Pharmacopeia. Chemical purity of 67 Ga citrate was determined by spot tests and by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The radioactive purity was verified by gamma spectrometry. The product was endovenously injected into Wistar rats with experimental abcesses, and in a patient with adrenal neuroblastoma. The results shown a high accumulation of 67 Ga in soft tissue tumors. (Author) [pt

  9. Preparation and characterization of biodegradable magnetic carriers by single emulsion-solvent evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xianqiao; Kaminski, Michael D.; Riffle, Judy S.; Chen Haitao; Torno, Michael; Finck, Martha R.; Taylor, LaToyia; Rosengart, Axel J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a single emulsion-solvent evaporation protocol to prepare PEGylated biodegradable/biocompatible magnetic carriers by utilizing hydrophobic magnetite and a mixture of poly(D,L lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(lactic acid-block-polyethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) (26:1 by mass) polymers. We characterized the magnetic microspheres in terms of morphology, composite microstructure, size and size distribution, and magnetic properties. Results show that the preparation produces magnetic microspheres with a good spherical morphology, small size (mean diameter of 1.2-1.5 μm) by means of large size distributions, and magnetizations up to 20-30 emu/g of microspheres

  10. Switching the mode of sucrose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletti Luiz C

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overflow metabolism is an undesirable characteristic of aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during biomass-directed processes. It results from elevated sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. Fed-batch culture, where sucrose consumption rates are controlled by the external addition of sugar aiming at its low concentrations in the fermentor, is the classical bioprocessing alternative to prevent sugar fermentation by yeasts. However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high (e.g. 20 g/L initial sugar concentrations. In this study, a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase activity was engineered to transport sucrose into the cells through a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity, and the growth kinetics and biomass yields on sucrose analyzed using simple batch cultures. Results We have deleted from the genome of a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase the high-affinity sucrose-H+ symporter encoded by the AGT1 gene. This strain could still grow efficiently on sucrose due to a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity mediated by the MALx1 maltose permeases, and its further intracellular hydrolysis by cytoplasmic maltases. Although sucrose consumption by this engineered yeast strain was slower than with the parental yeast strain, the cells grew efficiently on sucrose due to an increased respiration of the carbon source. Consequently, this engineered yeast strain produced less ethanol and 1.5 to 2 times more biomass when cultivated in simple batch mode using 20 g/L sucrose as the carbon source. Conclusion Higher cell densities during batch cultures on 20 g/L sucrose were achieved by using a S. cerevisiae strain engineered in the sucrose uptake system. Such result was accomplished by

  11. Switching the mode of sucrose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badotti, Fernanda; Dário, Marcelo G; Alves, Sergio L; Cordioli, Maria Luiza A; Miletti, Luiz C; de Araujo, Pedro S; Stambuk, Boris U

    2008-02-27

    Overflow metabolism is an undesirable characteristic of aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during biomass-directed processes. It results from elevated sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. Fed-batch culture, where sucrose consumption rates are controlled by the external addition of sugar aiming at its low concentrations in the fermentor, is the classical bioprocessing alternative to prevent sugar fermentation by yeasts. However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high (e.g. 20 g/L) initial sugar concentrations. In this study, a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase activity was engineered to transport sucrose into the cells through a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity, and the growth kinetics and biomass yields on sucrose analyzed using simple batch cultures. We have deleted from the genome of a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase the high-affinity sucrose-H+ symporter encoded by the AGT1 gene. This strain could still grow efficiently on sucrose due to a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity mediated by the MALx1 maltose permeases, and its further intracellular hydrolysis by cytoplasmic maltases. Although sucrose consumption by this engineered yeast strain was slower than with the parental yeast strain, the cells grew efficiently on sucrose due to an increased respiration of the carbon source. Consequently, this engineered yeast strain produced less ethanol and 1.5 to 2 times more biomass when cultivated in simple batch mode using 20 g/L sucrose as the carbon source. Higher cell densities during batch cultures on 20 g/L sucrose were achieved by using a S. cerevisiae strain engineered in the sucrose uptake system. Such result was accomplished by effectively reducing sucrose uptake by the yeast cells

  12. Motor carrier industry profile study : financial and operating performance profiles by industry segment, 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    This report profiles the motor carrier industry and its significant operating segments. It is one of a series of reports analyzing various aspects of the motor carrier industry. Other reports in the series focus on the safety performance of the indus...

  13. Reduced folate carrier polymorphism determines methotrexate uptake by B cells and CD4+ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baslund, B; Gregers, J; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2008-01-01

    To examine if polymorphism 80G --> A in the Reduced Folate Carrier (RFC) affects uptake of MTX in B- and CD4+ T-cells.......To examine if polymorphism 80G --> A in the Reduced Folate Carrier (RFC) affects uptake of MTX in B- and CD4+ T-cells....

  14. Rate of Foot-and mouth Disease Virus Transmission by Carriers Quantified from Experimental Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Upon infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) a considerable number of animals become carriers of the virus. These carriers are considered to be a risk for new outbreaks, but the rate at which these animals can transmit the infection has not been quantified. An analysis was carried out

  15. Curcumin drug delivery by vanillin-chitosan coated with calcium ferrite hybrid nanoparticles as carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Sriram; Palanisamy, Uma Maheswari; Kadhar Mohamed, Meera Sheriffa Begum; Gangasalam, Arthanareeswaran; Maria, Gover Antoniraj; Kandasamy, Ruckmani

    2018-04-30

    The aim of the present investigation is the development, optimization and characterization of curcumin-loaded hybrid nanoparticles of vanillin-chitosan coated with super paramagnetic calcium ferrite. The functionally modified vanillin-chitosan was prepared by the Schiff base reaction to enhance the hydrophobic drug encapsulation efficiency. Calcium ferrite (CFNP) nano particles were added to the vanillin modified chitosan to improve the biocompatibility. The vanillin-chitosan-CFNP, hybrid nanoparticle carrier was obtained by ionic gelation method. Characterizations of the hybrid materials were performed by XRD, FTIR, 1 H NMR, TGA, AFM and SEM techniques to ensure the modifications on the chitosan material. Taguchi method was applied to optimize the drug (curcumin) encapsulation efficiency by varying the drug to chitosan-vanillin, CFNP to chitosan-vanillin and TPP (sodium tripolyphospate) to chitosan-vanillin ratios. The maximum encapsulation efficiency was obtained as 98.3% under the conditions of 0.1, 0.75 and 1.0 for the drug to chitosan-vanillin, CFNP to chitosan-vanillin and TPP to chitosan-vanillin ratios, respectively. The curcumin release was performed at various pH, initial drug loading concentrations and magnetic fields. The drug release mechanism was predicted by fitting the experimental kinetic data with various drug release models. The drug release profiles showed the best fit with Higuchi model under the most of conditions. The drug release mechanism followed both non-Fickian diffusion and case II transport mechanism for chitosan, however the non-Fickian diffusion mechanism was followed for the vanillin modified chitosan. The biocompatibility of the hybrid material was tested using L929 fibroblast cells. The cytotoxicity test was performed against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line to check the anticancer property of the hybrid nano carrier with the curcumin drug. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvement of dissolution and hypoglycemic efficacy of glimepiride by different carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Elham A; Meshali, Mahasen M; Foda, Abdel Monem M; Borg, Thanaa M

    2012-09-01

    Effects of tromethamine (Tris), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-K25), and low molecular weight chitosan (LM-CH) on dissolution and therapeutic efficacy of glimepiride (Gmp) were investigated using physical mixtures (PMs), coground mixtures, coprecipitates (Coppts) or kneaded mixtures (KMs), and compared with drug alone. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning colorimetry, and X-ray diffractometry were performed to identify any physicochemical interaction with Gmp. Surface morphology was examined via scanning electron microscopy. The results of Gmp in vitro dissolution revealed that it was greatly enhanced by Coppt with Tris or PVP-K25 and KM with LM-CH at a drug to carrier ratio of 1:8. Gmp amorphization by PVP-K25 and LM-CH was a major factor in increasing Gmp dissolution. Being basic, Tris might increase the pH of the microdiffusion layer around Gmp particles improving its dissolution. Formation of water-soluble complexes suggested by solubility study may also explain the enhanced dissolution. Capsules were prepared from Coppts and KM 1:8 drug to carrier binary systems and also with Tris PMs. In vivo, the hypoglycemic efficacy of Gmp capsules in rabbits increased by 1.63-, 1.50-, and 1.46-fold for 1:8 Coppts with Tris or PVP-K25 and KM with LM-CH respectively, compared with Gmp alone. Surprisingly, the response to Tris PM 1:20 capsules was 1.52-fold revealing statistically insignificant difference to that of Tris Coppt 1:8 (1.63 fold). As a conclusion, dissolution enhancement and hypoglycemic potentiation by 1:20 PM of Gmp/Tris, being simple and easy to prepare, may enable development of a reduced-dose and fast-release oral dosage form of Gmp.

  17. Interlayer electron-hole pair multiplication by hot carriers in atomic layer semiconductor heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Fatemeh; Grossnickle, Max; Su, Shanshan; Lake, Roger; Aji, Vivek; Gabor, Nathaniel

    Two-dimensional heterostructures composed of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides provide the opportunity to design novel devices for the study of electron-hole pair multiplication. We report on highly efficient multiplication of interlayer electron-hole pairs at the interface of a tungsten diselenide / molybdenum diselenide heterostructure. Electronic transport measurements of the interlayer current-voltage characteristics indicate that layer-indirect electron-hole pairs are generated by hot electron impact excitation. Our findings, which demonstrate an efficient energy relaxation pathway that competes with electron thermalization losses, make 2D semiconductor heterostructures viable for a new class of hot-carrier energy harvesting devices that exploit layer-indirect electron-hole excitations. SHINES, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  18. Detection of Theileria annulata in blood samples of carrier cattle by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Oliveira, C; van der Weide, M; Habela, M A; Jacquiet, P; Jongejan, F

    1995-01-01

    We report the detection of Theileria annulata, the causative agent of tropical theileriosis, by PCR in blood samples obtained from carrier cattle. The assay employs primers specific for the gene encoding the 30-kDa major merozoite surface antigen of T. annulata. A 721-bp fragment was amplified from blood samples taken monthly from calves experimentally infected with one of four different stocks of T. annulata originating in either Mauritania, Portugal, Spain, or Turkey. At the end of the experiment, five animals carried the infection for 12 months and two animals remained infected for 15 months. DNAs from six other Theileria species, T. parva, T. mutans, T. sergenti, T. buffeli, T. velifera, and T. taurotragi, were not amplified. Moreover, DNAs from four other hemoparasites (Anaplasma centrale, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis, and Babesia bigemina) were also not amplified. As a control, primers derived from the small subunit rRNA gene of Theileria spp. amplified a 1.1-kb DNA fragment from all Theileria species examined but not from the other four hemoparasites. As few as two to three parasites per microliter of infected blood in a 50-microliters sample volume were detected by Southern or microplate hybridization with a T. annulata-specific cDNA probe. In addition, 92 field samples obtained from cattle in Spain were tested; 22% were positive in blood smears, 40% were positive by immunofluorescent antibody test, and 75% were positive for T. annulata by PCR. The method provides a useful diagnostic tool for detecting T. annulata carrier cattle. PMID:8567902

  19. Hyper-resistivity produced by tearing mode turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    Tearing mode turbulence produces a hyper-resistivity or effective anomalous electron viscosity. The hyper-resistivity is calculated for the mean magnetic field quasilinearly, and for long-wavelength modes using the direct interaction approximation. The hyper-resistivity accounts for current relaxation in reversed-field pinch experiments, and gives a magnetic fluctuation sealing of S -1 /sup // 3 . It causes enhanced tearing mode growth rates in the turbulent phase of tokamak disruptions. In astrophysics, it limits magnetic energy growth due to the dynamo effect, and may explain rapid reconnection phenomena such as solar flares

  20. Improve the teaching quality by two-way education mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Shi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Teaching activities contain teaching and learning, and both teachers and students have to work hard to improve the quality of teaching. This essay introduced the basic conception of “two-way and five-ring” mode first, and expatiated on the structure of this mode. The author used her own experiences to combine the teaching mode with the real situation of military school, emphasized teaching itself and talked about some spe-cific plans. This will give a certain extend help in improving the quality of teaching in military school.

  1. Whistler-mode signals: Group delay by cross correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, N.R.

    1975-01-01

    Group travel times of 18.6 kHz whistler-mode signals from NLK, Seattle, to Wellington, New Zealand, are now being measured using the normal FSK transmissions. This is done using a mini-computer programmed to perform real-time cross correlations between two receivers: one receiver gets its signal from a whip aerial on which the ground wave (subionospheric mode) dominates, while the other gets its signal from a loop oriented for minimum ground wave. Group travel time can thus be measured continuously while there are whistler-mode signals present. Delays of 0.2--0.8 seconds have been found

  2. Regulation of electron temperature gradient turbulence by zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahi, Y.; Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Tsutsui, H.; Tsuji-Iio, S.

    2014-05-01

    Turbulent transport caused by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes was investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that the ETG turbulence can be regulated by meso-scale zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes (TEMs), which are excited with much smaller growth rates than those of ETG modes. The zonal flows of which radial wavelengths are in between the ion and the electron banana widths are not shielded by trapped ions nor electrons, and hence they are effectively driven by the TEMs. It was also shown that an E × B shearing rate of the TEM-driven zonal flows is larger than or comparable to the growth rates of long-wavelength ETG modes and TEMs, which make a main contribution to the turbulent transport before excitation of the zonal flows.

  3. Phase diagram of interfacial growth modes by vapor deposition and its application for ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Da-Jun; Xiong, Xiang; Liu, Ming; Wang, Mu

    2017-09-01

    Interfacial growth from vapor has been extensively studied. However, a straightforward picture of the growth mode under different growth conditions is still lacking. In this paper, we develop a comprehensive interfacial growth theory based on the stochastic approach. Using a critical interisland separation, we construct a general phase diagram of the growth modes. It has been revealed that if the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier EES is smaller than a critical value, the interfacial growth proceeds in a layer-by-layer (LBL) mode at any deposition rate. However, if EES is larger than the critical value, LBL growth occurs only at very small or very large deposition rates relative to the intralayer hopping rate, and multilayer (ML) growth occurs at a moderate deposition rate. Experiments with zinc oxide growth by chemical vapor deposition have been designed to qualitatively demonstrate the theoretical model. By changing the flux of the carrier gas (nitrogen gas) in chemical vapor deposition, we realize LBL, ML, and then reentrance of LBL homoepitaxial growth of ZnO successively. Moreover, we find that surface kinetics of ZnO is suppressed by decreasing oxygen partial pressure by comparing the experimental observations and theoretical models, which is supported by our recent first-principles calculations. Since the influence of the substrate and the growth species on growth can approximately be represented by binding energy and surface kinetics, we suggest that the phase diagram is essential for interfacial growth of different materials by vapor deposition.

  4. Further characterization of cadmium uptake by rat liver sinusoidal plasma membrane vesicles as a carrier mediated process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastman, H.B.; Frazier, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Previously we have reported that cadmium (Cd) transport by rat hepatic sinusoidal plasma membrane vesicles (SPMV's) occurs by both carrier mediated process and simple diffusion. This study was undertaken in order to further characterize the carrier mediated component of Cd transport as a carrier mediated process. Efflux of Cd from SPMV's was measured by first loading the vesicles with 1 μM Cd, containing 109 Cd (Amersham, 0.25 mCi/ml, carrier free) as a tracer, and then diluting the vesicles 1 to 5 into efflux buffer containing 0.25 M sucrose, 150 mM NaCl and 50 mM Tris/HCl (pH 7.4). Under standard conditions, no efflux of Cd from the vesicles was observed. However, the presence of 4mM CdCl 2 or 4.0% BSA in the efflux buffer was able to release 109 Cd from the vesicles. When the vesicles were lysed with 0.1% Triton X-100, approximately 75% of the internalized Cd could be released from the vesicles. Efflux of Cd from the vesicles was also determined to be a temperature dependent process. At 0 C the efflux of Cd from the vesicles, in the presence of a 4 mM CdCl 2 or 4.0% BSA chase, was blocked. The specificity of the carrier mediated component of Cd transport for Cd was investigated by determining whether other metals could compete for Cd uptake. Zinc was a competitive inhibitor of the carrier mediated component of Cd uptake while calcium had no effect on Cd uptake. Using this system, we have demonstrated that one component of Cd transport exhibits the basic characteristics of a carrier mediated process: saturation, reversibility, specificity and temperature dependence

  5. Study of density fluctuation in L-mode and H-mode plasmas on JFT-2M by microwave reflectometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Kouji

    1997-08-01

    We propose the model which can explain the runaway phase. The model takes account of the scattered wave which is caused by the density fluctuation near the cut-off layer. We should take a new approach instead of the conventional phase measurement in order to derive the information of the density fluctuation from the data with the runaway phase. The complex spectrum and the rotary spectrum analyses are useful tools to analyze such data. The density fluctuation in L-mode and H-mode plasmas is discussed by using this new approach. We have observed that the reduction of the density fluctuation is localized in the edge region where the sheared electric field is produced. The fluctuations in the range of frequency lower than 100 kHz are mainly reduced. Two interesting features have been observed. One is the detection of the coherent mode around 100 kHz in H-mode. This mode appears about 10 ms after L to H transition. The timing corresponds to the formation of a steep density and temperature gradient in the edge region. The other is the enhancement of the fluctuations with the frequency higher than 300 kHz in H-mode in contrast to the reduction of the fluctuations with the frequency lower than 100 kHz. The Doppler shift is observed in the complex auto-power spectrum of the reflected wave when the plasma is actively moved. We have confirmed that the movement of the plasma is appropriately measured by using the low pass filter. The reflectometer can be used to measure the density profile by using a low pass filter even when the runaway phase phenomenon occurs. (author). 150 refs

  6. Improved Carrier Transport in Perovskite Solar Cells Probed by Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpetzoglou, Efthymis; Konidakis, Ioannis; Kakavelakis, George; Maksudov, Temur; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2017-12-20

    CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite thin films have been deposited on glass/indium tin oxide/hole transport layer (HTL) substrates, utilizing two different materials as the HTLs. In the first configuration, the super hydrophilic polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), known as PEDOT:PSS, was employed as the HTL material, whereas in the second case, the nonwetting poly(triarylamine) semiconductor polymer, known as PTAA, was used. It was found that when PTAA is used as the HTL material, the averaged power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the perovskite solar cells (PSCs) remarkably increases from 12.60 to 15.67%. To explore the mechanism behind this enhancement, the aforementioned perovskite/HTL arrangements were investigated by time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) performed under inert conditions. By means of TAS, the charge transfer, carrier trapping, and hole injection dynamics from the photoexcited perovskite layers to the HTL can be directly monitored via the characteristic bleaching profile of the perovskite at ∼750 nm. TAS studies revealed faster relaxation times and decay dynamics when the PTAA polymer is employed, which potentially account for the enhanced PCE observed. The TAS results are correlated with the structure and crystalline quality of the corresponding perovskite films, investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, micro-photoluminescence, and transmittance spectroscopy. It is concluded that TAS is a benchmark technique for the understanding of the carrier transport mechanisms in PSCs and constitutes a figure-of-merit tool toward their efficiency improvement.

  7. Measurements of hydrogen concentration in liquid sodium by using an inert gas carrier method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funada, T.; Nihei, I.; Yuhara, S.; Nakasuji, T.

    1979-01-01

    A technique was developed to measure the hydrogen level in liquid sodium using an inert gas carrier method. Hydrogen was extracted into an inert gas from sodium through a thin nickel membrane in the form of a helically wound tube. The amount of hydrogen in the inert gas was analyzed by gas chromatography. The present method is unique in that it can be used over the wide range of sodium temperatures (150 to 700 0 C) and has no problems associated with vacuum systems. The partial pressure of hydrogen in sodium was determined as a function of cold-trap temperature (T/sub c/). Sieverts' constant (K/sub s/) was determined as a function of sodium temperature (T). From Sieverts' constant, the solubility of hydrogen in sodium is calculated. It was found that other impurities in sodium, such as (O) and (OH), have little effect on the hydrogen pressure in the sodium loop

  8. Lifetime control of the minority carrier in PiN diodes by He+ ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Kojima, K.; Takao, K.; Okamoto, M.; Kawasaki, M.; Takatsuka, A.; Yatsuo, T.; Arai, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the first demonstration of the lifetime control of the minority carrier in 4H-SiC PiN diodes by He + ion implantation. In this work, we fabricated 4H-SiC PiN diodes with the epitaxial junction and the blocking voltage of 2.6 kV, precisely corresponding to the theoretical blocking voltage calculated from the doping concentration (4.0 x 10 15 /cm 2 ) and the thickness of the drift layer (16.5 μm). He + ion implantation was performed with the energy and the dose of 400 kV and 1.0 x 10 13 -2.0 x 10 14 /cm 2 , respectively. We observed no different characteristics in the blocking voltage (2.6kV) and leakage current ( + ion implantation. However, we confirmed the improvement of the current recovery characteristics in the diodes with He + ion implantation. (orig.)

  9. Sensitized charge carrier injection into organic crystals studied by isotope effects in weak magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bube, W.; Michel-Beyerle, M.E.; Haberkorn, R.; Steffens, E.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic field (H approximately 50 Oe) dependence of the rhodamine sensitized triplet exciton density in anthracene crystals is influenced by isotopic substitution. This confirms the hyperfine interaction as mechanism explaining the change of the spin multiplicity in the initially formed singlet state of the radical pair. The isotope effect occurs in the sensitizing dye ( 14 N/ 15 N) rather than at the molecular site of the injected charge within the crystal. This can be understood in terms of the high hopping frequency of the charge carriers as compared to the time constant of the hyperfine induced singlet-triplet transition. Since the dye molecules adsorb in an oriented fashion, the angular dependence of the magnetic field modulation of the triplet exciton density can be interpreted without assuming any additional interactions. (Auth.)

  10. Preparation of bioconjugates by solid-phase conjugation to ion exchange matrix-adsorbed carrier proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, G.; Olsen, D.T.; Hansen, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    A solid-phase conjugation method utilizing carrier protein bound to an ion exchange matrix was developed. Ovalbumin was adsorbed to an anion exchange matrix using a batch procedure, and the immobilized protein was then derivatized with iodoacetic acid N-hydroxysuccinimid ester. The activated......, and immunization experiments with the eluted conjugates showed that the more substituted conjugates gave rise to the highest titers of glutathione antibodies. Direct immunization with the conjugates adsorbed to the ion exchange matrix was possible and gave rise to high titers of glutathione antibodies. Conjugates...... of ovalbumin and various peptides were prepared in a similar manner and used for production of peptide antisera by direct immunization with the conjugates bound to the ion exchanger. Advantages of the method are its solid-phase nature, allowing fast and efficient reactions and intermediate washings...

  11. Preparation of carbon nanotubes/epoxy resin composites by using hollow glass beads as the carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, X.F.; Zhao, Y.K.; Zhang, D.; Chen, T.B.; Ma, L.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Hollow glass beads had been utilized as the carrier to assist dispersion of carbon nanotubes in epoxy resin. Hollow glass beads were firstly aminated with gamma-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane, sencondly reacted with carboxyl-functionalized carbon nanotubes via an amidation reaction and susequently mixed with epoxy resin and hardener. The experimental results showed that carbon nanotubes could be loaded on the surfaces of hollow glass beads and approximately a monolayer of carbon nanotubes was formed when the weight ratio of hollow glass beads to carbon nanotubes was 100:5. Moreover, the dispersity of carbon nanotubes in the matrix was improved as compared to the control samples prepared by using a conventional mixing method. (author)

  12. Electron heating and current drive by mode converted slow waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeski, R.; Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    An approach to obtaining efficient single pass mode conversion at high parallel wave number from the fast magnetosonic wave to the slow ion Bernstein wave, in a two-ion species tokamak plasma, is described. The intent is to produce localized electron heating or current drive via the mode converted slow wave. In particular, this technique can be adapted to off-axis current drive for current profile control. Modeling for the case of deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR is presented

  13. Electron heating and current drive by mode converted slow waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeski, R.; Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.

    1994-08-01

    An approach to obtaining efficient single pass mode conversion at high parallel wavenumber from the fast magnetosonic wave to the slow ion Bernstein wave, in a two ion species tokamak plasma, is described. The intent is to produce localized electron heating or current drive via the mode converted slow wave. In particular, this technique can be adapted to off-axis current drive for current profile control. Modelling for the case of deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR is presented

  14. Destabilization of contained interacting modes by fusion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, G.; Riconda, C.; Coppi, B.

    1996-01-01

    The instability related to the interaction between high-frequency open-quotes contained modesclose quotes and the fusion products population in a toroidal configuration is studied. Emphasis is placed on the dependence of the growth rate on finite Larmor radius effects of the fusion products, the characteristics of the particle distribution function, and factors, such as the magnetic drift velocity and bounce-averaging, related to the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field in a toroidal configuration. In particular, a sufficient degree of anisotropy in the energetic particle distribution is required in order to have a positive growth rate for realistic parameters. Only a small region of phase space is involved in the resonant interactions associated with the considered modes. We consider first the limit where the growth rate is larger than the bounce frequency (local approximation), that is the simplest case by which it is possible to identify the regions of phase space that are involved in the instability. Another evaluation of the growth rate is given in the case, that we consider realistic, where γ is comparable to the average bounce frequency of the interacting particles. We solve for γ by integrating the linearized Vlasov equation over the unperturbed particle orbits, and by reducing the integrals through saddle-point approximations

  15. Accretion mode of oceanic ridges governed by axial mechanical strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrant, A. L. R.; Mittelstaedt, E.; Davaille, A.; Pauchard, L.; Aubertin, A.; Auffray, L.; Pidoux, R.

    2018-04-01

    Oceanic spreading ridges exhibit structural changes as a function of spreading rate, mantle temperature and the balance of tectonic and magmatic accretion. The role that these or other processes have in governing the overall shape of oceanic ridges is unclear. Here, we use laboratory experiments to simulate ridge spreading in colloidal aqueous dispersions whose rheology evolves from purely viscous to elastic and brittle when placed in contact with a saline water solution. We find that ridge shape becomes increasingly linear with spreading rate until reaching a minimum tortuosity. This behaviour is predicted by the axial failure parameter ΠF, a dimensionless number describing the balance of brittle and plastic failure of axial lithosphere. Slow-spreading, fault-dominated and fast-spreading, fluid intrusion-dominated ridges on Earth and in the laboratory are separated by the same critical ΠF value, suggesting that the axial failure mode governs ridge geometry. Values of ΠF can also be calculated for different mantle temperatures and applied to other planets or the early Earth. For higher mantle temperatures during the Archaean, our results preclude the predicted formation of large tectonic plates at high spreading velocity.

  16. Intermittent bursts induced by double tearing mode reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lai; Wang, Zheng-Xiong

    2014-06-01

    Reversed magnetic shear (RMS) configuration is assumed to be the steady-state operation scenario for the future advanced tokamaks like International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. In this work, we numerically discover a phenomenon of violent intermittent bursts induced by self-organized double tearing mode (DTM) reconnection in the RMS configuration during the very long evolution, which may continuously lead to annular sawtooth crashes and thus badly impact the desired steady-state operation of the future advanced RMS tokamaks. The key process of the intermittent bursts in the off-axis region is similar to that of the typical sawtooth relaxation oscillation in the positive magnetic shear configuration. It is interestingly found that in the decay phase of the DTM reconnection, the zonal field significantly counteracts equilibrium field to make the magnetic shear between the two rational surfaces so weak that the residual self-generated vortices of the previous DTM burst are able to trigger a reverse DTM reconnection by curling the field lines.

  17. Intermittent bursts induced by double tearing mode reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Lai; Wang, Zheng-Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Reversed magnetic shear (RMS) configuration is assumed to be the steady-state operation scenario for the future advanced tokamaks like International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. In this work, we numerically discover a phenomenon of violent intermittent bursts induced by self-organized double tearing mode (DTM) reconnection in the RMS configuration during the very long evolution, which may continuously lead to annular sawtooth crashes and thus badly impact the desired steady-state operation of the future advanced RMS tokamaks. The key process of the intermittent bursts in the off-axis region is similar to that of the typical sawtooth relaxation oscillation in the positive magnetic shear configuration. It is interestingly found that in the decay phase of the DTM reconnection, the zonal field significantly counteracts equilibrium field to make the magnetic shear between the two rational surfaces so weak that the residual self-generated vortices of the previous DTM burst are able to trigger a reverse DTM reconnection by curling the field lines

  18. Intermittent bursts induced by double tearing mode reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Lai; Wang, Zheng-Xiong, E-mail: zxwang@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Beams of the Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-06-15

    Reversed magnetic shear (RMS) configuration is assumed to be the steady-state operation scenario for the future advanced tokamaks like International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. In this work, we numerically discover a phenomenon of violent intermittent bursts induced by self-organized double tearing mode (DTM) reconnection in the RMS configuration during the very long evolution, which may continuously lead to annular sawtooth crashes and thus badly impact the desired steady-state operation of the future advanced RMS tokamaks. The key process of the intermittent bursts in the off-axis region is similar to that of the typical sawtooth relaxation oscillation in the positive magnetic shear configuration. It is interestingly found that in the decay phase of the DTM reconnection, the zonal field significantly counteracts equilibrium field to make the magnetic shear between the two rational surfaces so weak that the residual self-generated vortices of the previous DTM burst are able to trigger a reverse DTM reconnection by curling the field lines.

  19. Controlling of carrier movement on gamma irradiator ISG-500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Suntoro

    2010-01-01

    Gamma irradiator ISG-500 is being designed. One of the design objects in the gamma irradiator is carrier movement and its controlling. Many possibilities of carrier movements can be implemented in the set-up design, such as using discrete or continuous mode. In this paper, selected discrete carriers movement and their controlling for the basic-design of the ISG-500 will be discussed. Nine stopper locations for nineteen carriers in operation will be controlled their carriers movement so that the movements have maximum positive transient load (increasing load) two carriers only. The controlling of the movement uses a train of pulses counting system as a one-dimension coordinate reference of a point on the rotated chain pulling the carrier. Every stopper location has a specific counting number in which will be used by the controlling system to let the carrier in the stopper location moving. By this movement, it is expected to prolong the life-time of the in use carrier mover motor. (author)

  20. Destabilization of low-n peeling modes by trapped energetic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, G. Z.; Wang, A. K.; Mou, Z. Z.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, PO Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Y. Q. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Matsunaga, G. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukouyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Okabayashi, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    The kinetic effect of trapped energetic particles (EPs), arising from perpendicular neutral beam injection, on the stable low-n peeling modes in tokamak plasmas is investigated, through numerical solution of the mode's dispersion relation derived from an energy principle. A resistive-wall peeling mode with m/n=6/1, with m and n being the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively, is destabilized by trapped EPs as the EPs' pressure exceeds a critical value β{sub c}{sup *}, which is sensitive to the pitch angle of trapped EPs. The dependence of β{sub c}{sup *} on the particle pitch angle is eventually determined by the bounce average of the mode eigenfunction. Peeling modes with higher m and n numbers can also be destabilized by trapped EPs. Depending on the wall distance, either a resistive-wall peeling mode or an ideal-kink peeling mode can be destabilized by EPs.

  1. Theory of inelastic multiphonon scattering and carrier capture by defects in semiconductors: Application to capture cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmparis, Georgios D.; Puzyrev, Yevgeniy S.; Zhang, X.-G.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2015-12-01

    Inelastic scattering and carrier capture by defects in semiconductors are the primary causes of hot-electron-mediated degradation of power devices, which holds up their commercial development. At the same time, carrier capture is a major issue in the performance of solar cells and light-emitting diodes. A theory of nonradiative (multiphonon) inelastic scattering by defects, however, is nonexistent, while the theory for carrier capture by defects has had a long and arduous history. Here we report the construction of a comprehensive theory of inelastic scattering by defects, with carrier capture being a special case. We distinguish between capture under thermal equilibrium conditions and capture under nonequilibrium conditions, e.g., in the presence of an electrical current or hot carriers where carriers undergo scattering by defects and are described by a mean free path. In the thermal-equilibrium case, capture is mediated by a nonadiabatic perturbation Hamiltonian, originally identified by Huang and Rhys and by Kubo, which is equal to linear electron-phonon coupling to first order. In the nonequilibrium case, we demonstrate that the primary capture mechanism is within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (adiabatic transitions), with coupling to the defect potential inducing Franck-Condon electronic transitions, followed by multiphonon dissipation of the transition energy, while the nonadiabatic terms are of secondary importance (they scale with the inverse of the mass of typical atoms in the defect complex). We report first-principles density-functional-theory calculations of the capture cross section for a prototype defect using the projector-augmented wave, which allows us to employ all-electron wave functions. We adopt a Monte Carlo scheme to sample multiphonon configurations and obtain converged results. The theory and the results represent a foundation upon which to build engineering-level models for hot-electron degradation of power devices and the performance

  2. Dynamic performance enhancement of microgrids by advanced sliding mode controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofla, Mohammadhassan Abdollahi [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Dept., University of Toledo, Ohio (United States); Gharehpetian, Gevorg B. [Electrical Engineering Dept., Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Dynamics are the most important problems in the microgrid operation. In the islanded microgrid, the mismatch of parallel operations of inverters during dynamics can result in the instability. This paper considers severe dynamics which can occur in the microgrid. Microgrid can have different configurations with different load and generation dynamics which are facing voltage disturbances. As a result, microgrid has many uncertainties and is placed in the distribution network where is full of voltage disturbances. Moreover, characteristics of the distribution network and distributed energy resources in the islanded mode make microgrid vulnerable and easily lead to instability. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the suitable mathematical modeling based on microgrid characteristics and to design properly inner controllers to enhance the dynamics of microgrid with uncertain and changing parameters. This paper provides a method for inner controllers of inverter-based distributed energy resources to have a suitable response for different dynamics. Parallel inverters in distribution networks were considered to be controlled by nonlinear robust voltage and current controllers. Theoretical prove beyond simulation results, reveal evidently the effectiveness of the proposed controller. (author)

  3. Mapping Charge Carrier Density in Organic Thin-Film Transistors by Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Lifetime Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leißner, Till; Jensen, Per Baunegaard With; Liu, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    The device performance of organic transistors is strongly influenced by the charge carrier distribution. A range of factors effect this distribution, including injection barriers at the metal-semiconductor interface, the morphology of the organic film, and charge traps at the dielectric/organic...... interface or at grain boundaries. In our comprehensive experimental and analytical work we demonstrate a method to characterize the charge carrier density in organic thin-film transistors using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. We developed a numerical model that describes the electrical...... and optical responses consistently. We determined the densities of free and trapped holes at the interface between the organic layer and the SiO2 gate dielectric by comparison to electrical measurements. Furthermore by applying fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy we determine the local charge carrier...

  4. Influence of Carrier Gas Composition on the Stress of Al₂O₃ Coatings Prepared by the Aerosol Deposition Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Michael; Exner, Jörg; Moos, Ralf

    2014-08-05

    Al₂O₃ films were prepared by the aerosol deposition method at room temperature using different carrier gas compositions. The layers were deposited on alumina substrates and the film stress of the layer was calculated by measuring the deformation of the substrate. It was shown that the film stress can be halved by using oxygen instead of nitrogen or helium as the carrier gas. The substrates were annealed at different temperature steps to gain information about the temperature dependence of the reduction of the implemented stress. Total relaxation of the stress can already be achieved at 300 °C. The XRD pattern shows crystallite growth and reduction of microstrain while annealing.

  5. 47 CFR 54.517 - Services provided by non-telecommunications carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section for eligible schools, libraries, and consortia including those entities. (b... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54...

  6. Identifying target processes for microbial electrosynthesis by elementary mode analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracke, Frauke; Krömer, Jens O

    2014-12-30

    Microbial electrosynthesis and electro fermentation are techniques that aim to optimize microbial production of chemicals and fuels by regulating the cellular redox balance via interaction with electrodes. While the concept is known for decades major knowledge gaps remain, which make it hard to evaluate its biotechnological potential. Here we present an in silico approach to identify beneficial production processes for electro fermentation by elementary mode analysis. Since the fundamentals of electron transport between electrodes and microbes have not been fully uncovered yet, we propose different options and discuss their impact on biomass and product yields. For the first time 20 different valuable products were screened for their potential to show increased yields during anaerobic electrically enhanced fermentation. Surprisingly we found that an increase in product formation by electrical enhancement is not necessarily dependent on the degree of reduction of the product but rather the metabolic pathway it is derived from. We present a variety of beneficial processes with product yield increases of maximal 36% in reductive and 84% in oxidative fermentations and final theoretical product yields up to 100%. This includes compounds that are already produced at industrial scale such as succinic acid, lysine and diaminopentane as well as potential novel bio-commodities such as isoprene, para-hydroxybenzoic acid and para-aminobenzoic acid. Furthermore, it is shown that the way of electron transport has major impact on achievable biomass and product yields. The coupling of electron transport to energy conservation could be identified as crucial for most processes. This study introduces a powerful tool to determine beneficial substrate and product combinations for electro-fermentation. It also highlights that the maximal yield achievable by bio electrochemical techniques depends strongly on the actual electron transport mechanisms. Therefore it is of great importance to

  7. Preparation of carrier-free 67Cu by the 68Zn(γ,p) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Kondo, K.

    1978-01-01

    The preparation of pure, carrier-free 67 Cu using the 68 Zn(γ, p) reaction with an isotopically enriched 68 Zn(98.97%) target is described. The production rates of 67 Cu and contaminants were determined as a function of the maximum bremsstrahlung energies between 30 and 60 MeV. The chemical separation of the carrier-free 67 Cu and the recovery of the 68 Zn target were also studied. (author)

  8. Singlet oxygen generation in O2 flow excited by RF discharge: I. Homogeneous discharge mode: α-mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braginskiy, O V; Vasilieva, A N; Klopovskiy, K S; Kovalev, A S; Lopaev, D V; Proshina, O V; Rakhimova, T V; Rakhimov, A T

    2005-01-01

    The production and transport dynamics of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) and O 2 (b 1 Σ g + ) molecules as well as O( 3 P) atoms has been studied in an O 2 flow excited by a 13.56 MHz RF discharge in a quartz tube at pressures of 1-20 Torr. It has been shown that the densities of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) and O( 3 P) are saturated with increasing energy input into the discharge. The maximum yield of singlet oxygen (SO) and the O 2 dissociation degree drops with pressure. It is demonstrated that depending on the energy input the RF discharge can exist in three modes: I-in the spatially homogeneous mode or α-mode; III-in the substantially inhomogeneous mode, when plasma jets are present outside the discharge; and II-in the transient mode between modes I and III. In this paper only the homogeneous mode of RF discharge in the O 2 flow is considered in detail. A self-consistent model of the α-mode is developed, that allows us to analyse elementary processes responsible for the production and loss of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) and O 2 (b 1 Σ g + ) molecules as well as O( 3 P) atoms in detail. To verify both the kinetic scheme of the model and the conclusions, some experiments have been carried out at lower flow velocities and higher pressures (≥10 Torr), when the stationary densities of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ), O 2 (b 1 Σ g + ) and O( 3 P) in the discharge area were established not by the escape of particles but by the losses due to the volumetric and surface reactions. The O 2 (b 1 Σ g + ) density under these conditions is determined by the balance of O 2 (b 1 Σ g + ) production by both direct electron impact and electronic excitation transfer from metastable O( 1 D) atoms and deactivation by oxygen atoms and tube walls, including quenching by ozone in the afterglow. The O( 3 P) density is determined by the balance between the production through O 2 dissociation by electron impact and heterogeneous loss at the wall recombination. The stationary density of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) is provided by the processes of O

  9. Detection of Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy Carriers in a Group of Iranian Families by Linkage Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardeen Ali Malayeri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the value of linkage analysis using six RFLP markers for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis in familial DMD/BMD cases and their family members for the first time in the Iranian population. We studied the dystrophin gene in 33 unrelated patients with clinical diagnosis of DMD or BMD. Subsequently, we determined the rate of heterozygosity for six intragenic RFLP markers in the mothers of patients with dystrophin gene deletions. Finally, we studied the efficiency of linkage analysis by using RFLP markers for carrier status detection of DMD/BMD. In 63.6% of the patients we found one or more deletions. The most common heterozygous RFLP marker with 57.1% heterozygosity was pERT87.15Taq1. More than 80% of mothers in two groups of familial or non-familial cases had at least two heterozygous markers. Family linkage analysis was informative in more than 80% of the cases, allowing for accurate carrier detection. We found that linkage analysis using these six RFLP markers for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis is a rapid, easy, reliable, and inexpensive method, suitable for most routine diagnostic services. The heterozygosity frequency of these markers is high enough in the Iranian population to allow carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis of DMD/BMD in more than 80% of familial cases in Iran.

  10. Enhanced Dissolution of a Porous Carrier-Containing Ternary Amorphous Solid Dispersion System Prepared by a Hot Melt Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Masataka; Jermain, Scott V; Williams, Robert O

    2018-01-01

    The focus of our study was to employ a solvent-free, thermal process to evaluate the use of a porous carrier in a drug-polymer-porous carrier ternary formulation containing a high drug load (e.g., ≥50% w/w). The purpose of the study was to improve the dissolution properties of the biopharmaceutical classification system class II drug, indomethacin, in the ternary formulation. The effect that the selected polymer has on properties of the formulation was studied, and the formulation characteristics of hypromellose (AF15), copovidone (VA64), and polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer was evaluated to understand differences in dissolution rates and drug adsorption onto the porous carrier. The ternary formulations were manufactured using a thermal technique that relied on heating and mixing, without the necessity of mechanical shear. All thermally processed granules that employed the porous carrier exhibited immediate release compared with crystalline indomethacin and physical mixtures. In addition, the ternary formulations maintained supersaturation compared with the binary formulations without polymer. The results of this study indicated that the thermally processed ternary formulations containing a porous carrier demonstrated a much improved dissolution profile in nonsink conditions. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nanovesicles released by Dictyostelium cells: a potential carrier for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavialle, Françoise; Deshayes, Sophie; Gonnet, Florence; Larquet, Eric; Kruglik, Sergei G; Boisset, Nicolas; Daniel, Régis; Alfsen, Annette; Tatischeff, Irène

    2009-10-01

    Nanovesicles released by Dictyostelium discoideum cells grown in the presence of the DNA-specific dye Hoechst 33342 have been previously shown to mediate the transfer of the dye into the nuclei of Hoechst-resistant cells. The present investigation extends this work by conducting experiments in the presence of hypericin, a fluorescent therapeutic photosensitizer assayed for antitumoral photodynamic therapy. Nanovesicles released by Dictyostelium cells exhibit an averaged diameter between 50 and 150 nm, as measured by transmission cryoelectron microscopy. A proteomic analysis reveals a predominance of actin and actin-related proteins. The detection of a lysosomal membrane protein (LIMP II) indicates that these vesicles are likely generated in the late endosomal compartment. The use of the hypericin-containing nanovesicles as nanodevices for in vitro drug delivery was investigated by fluorescence microscopy. The observed signal was almost exclusively located in the perinuclear area of two human cell lines, skin fibroblasts (HS68) and cervix carcinoma (HeLa) cells. Studies by confocal microscopy with specific markers of cell organelles, provided evidence that hypericin was accumulated in the Golgi apparatus. All these data shed a new light on in vitro drug delivery by using cell-released vesicles as carriers.

  12. Edge localized modes control by resonant magnetic perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardon, E.

    2007-10-01

    The present work is dedicated to one of the most promising methods of control of the ELMs (Edge Localized Modes), based on a system of coils producing Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs). Our main objectives are, on the one hand, to improve the physical understanding of the mechanisms at play, and on the other hand to propose a concrete design of ELMs control coils for ITER. In order to calculate and analyze the magnetic perturbations produced by a given set of coils, we have developed the ERGOS code. The first ERGOS calculation was for the DIII-D ELMs control coils, the I-coils. It showed that they produce magnetic islands chains which overlap at the edge of the plasma, resulting in the ergodization of the magnetic field. We have then used ERGOS for the modelling of the experiments on ELMs control using the error field correction coils at JET and MAST. In the case of JET, we have shown the existence of a correlation between the mitigation of the ELMs and the ergodization of the magnetic field at the edge, in agreement with the DIII-D result. In order to design the ELMs control coils for ITER we have used ERGOS intensively, taking the case of the DIII-D I-coils as a reference. Three candidate designs came out, which we presented at the ITER Design Review, in 2007. Recently, the ITER management decided to provide a budget for building ELMs control coils, the design of which remains to be chosen between two of the three options that we proposed. Finally, in order to understand better the non-linear magnetohydrodynamics phenomena taking place in ELMs control by RMPs, we performed numerical simulations, in particular with the JOREK code for a DIII-D case. The simulations reveal the existence of convection cells induced at the edge by the magnetic perturbations, and the possible screening of the RMPs in presence of rotation

  13. Transport profiles induced by radially localized modes in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beklemishev, A.D.; Horton, W.

    1991-04-01

    We describe a new approach to the calculation of turbulent transport coefficients for radially localized modes. The theory takes into account the nonuniformity of the distribution of rational (resonant) magnetic surfaces in minor radius. This distribution function is proportional to the density of available states of excitation. The resulting density of state correction qualitatively changes the radial profile of the transport coefficients, as compared to the usual local diffusivity formulae. The correction factor calculated for the η i -mode transport allows a much better agreement of χ i with the experimental data than previously achieved. 8 refs., 3 figs

  14. Inappropriate mode switching clarified by using a chest radiograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Marino, DO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An 80-year-old woman with a history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and atrioventricular node disease status post-dual chamber pacemaker placement was noted to have abnormal pacing episodes during a percutaneous coronary intervention. Pacemaker interrogation revealed a high number of short duration mode switching episodes. Representative electrograms demonstrated high frequency nonphysiologic recordings predominantly in the atrial lead. Intrinsic pacemaker malfunction was excluded. A chest radiograph showed excess atrial and ventricular lead slack in the right ventricular inflow. It was suspected that lead–lead interaction resulted in artifacts and oversensing, causing frequent short episodes of inappropriate mode switching.

  15. 47 CFR 54.316 - Rate comparability review and certification for areas served by non-rural carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Rates, Price Indices, and Expenditures for Telephone Service published by the Wireline Competition... areas served by non-rural carriers. 54.316 Section 54.316 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... High Cost Areas § 54.316 Rate comparability review and certification for areas served by non-rural...

  16. Acoustic one-way mode conversion and transmission by sonic crystal waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Shiliang; He, Hailong; He, Zhaojian; Deng, Ke; Zhao, Heping

    2016-09-01

    We proposed a scheme to achieve one-way acoustic propagation and even-odd mode switching in two mutually perpendicular sonic crystal waveguides connected by a resonant cavity. The even mode in the entrance waveguide is able to switch to the odd mode in the exit waveguide through a symmetry match between the cavity resonant modes and the waveguide modes. Conversely, the odd mode in the exit waveguide is unable to be converted into the even mode in the entrance waveguide as incident waves and eigenmodes are mismatched in their symmetries at the waveguide exit. This one-way mechanism can be applied to design an acoustic diode for acoustic integration devices and can be used as a convertor of the acoustic waveguide modes.

  17. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  18. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  19. Semiconductor and ceramic microstructure made by single mode fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlak, R; Tomczyk, M; Walczak, M; Domagalski, P

    2014-01-01

    In the paper the results of micromachining of 3D microstructures of microsystems made from silicon and alumina ceramic using a single mode fiber laser (1064 nm) are presented. The quality of obtained structures and its smallest dimensions with acceptable maintained quality were examined. The influence of variable parameters of laser processing with changing of mapping scale on geometrical features of structures was identified.

  20. Diffusion of intrinsic localized modes by attractor hopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, Matthias; Vazquez, Luis

    2003-01-01

    Propagating intrinsic localized modes exist in the damped-driven discrete sine-Gordon chain as attractors of the dynamics. The equations of motion of the system are augmented with Gaussian white noise in order to model the effects of temperature on the system. The noise induces random transitions between attracting configurations corresponding to opposite signs of the propagation velocity of the mode, which leads to a diffusive motion of the excitation. The Heun method is used to numerically generate the stochastic time-evolution of the configuration. We also present a theoretical model for the diffusion which contains two parameters, a transition probability θ and a delay time τ A . The mean value and the variance of the position of the intrinsic localized mode, obtained from simulations, can be fitted well with the predictions of our model, θ and τ A being used as parameters in the fit. After a transition period following the switching on of the noise, the variance shows a linear behaviour as a function of time and the mean value remains constant. An increase in the strength of the noise lowers the variance, leads to an increase in θ, a decrease in τ A and reduces the average distance a mode travels during the transition period

  1. Diffusion of intrinsic localized modes by attractor hopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, Matthias [Dpto FIsica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Biocomputacion y FIsica de Sistemas Complejos, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Vazquez, Luis [Dpto Matematica Aplicada, Facultad de Informatica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de AstrobiologIa (CSIC-INTA), 28850 Torrejon de Ardoz (Spain)

    2003-11-28

    Propagating intrinsic localized modes exist in the damped-driven discrete sine-Gordon chain as attractors of the dynamics. The equations of motion of the system are augmented with Gaussian white noise in order to model the effects of temperature on the system. The noise induces random transitions between attracting configurations corresponding to opposite signs of the propagation velocity of the mode, which leads to a diffusive motion of the excitation. The Heun method is used to numerically generate the stochastic time-evolution of the configuration. We also present a theoretical model for the diffusion which contains two parameters, a transition probability {theta} and a delay time {tau}{sub A}. The mean value and the variance of the position of the intrinsic localized mode, obtained from simulations, can be fitted well with the predictions of our model, {theta} and {tau}{sub A} being used as parameters in the fit. After a transition period following the switching on of the noise, the variance shows a linear behaviour as a function of time and the mean value remains constant. An increase in the strength of the noise lowers the variance, leads to an increase in {theta}, a decrease in {tau}{sub A} and reduces the average distance a mode travels during the transition period.

  2. The effects of free volumes on charge carrier transport in polysilanes probed by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Shu; Terashima, Y.; Kunimi, Y.; Kawamori, T.; Tashiro, M.; Honda, Y.; Tagawa, S.

    2003-01-01

    Free volume characteristics were investigated by positron annihilation technique in poly(n-alkylphenylsilane)s with a variety length of n-alkyl chains from methyl (C1) to n-dodecyl (C12). The average radius of free volume: R changes in two steps. An increase in R is observed with an elongation of n-alkyl side-groups from C1 to n-pentyl (C5), followed by an abrupt decrease in R between C5 and n-hexyl (C6), and a gradual increase by further elongation from C6 to C12. The sudden decrease in R at C5 and C6 gives a good interpretation to the reduction of inter-site hopping distances and their fluctuation for the charge carrier (hole) transport estimated by time-of-flight measurements. The values of free volume fraction in the polymers mainly reflect the density of the polymers; however, differences in the microscopic inter-molecular structure are also observed for poly(n-hexylphenylsilane) in the present study

  3. Boundary mode lubrication of articular cartilage by recombinant human lubricin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleghorn, Jason P; Jones, Aled R C; Flannery, Carl R; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2009-06-01

    Lubrication of cartilage involves a variety of physical and chemical factors, including lubricin, a synovial glycoprotein that has been shown to be a boundary lubricant. It is unclear how lubricin boundary lubricates a wide range of bearings from tissue to artificial surfaces, and if the mechanism is the same for both soluble and bound lubricin. In the current study, experiments were conducted to investigate the hypothesis that recombinant human lubricin (rh-lubricin) lubricates cartilage in a dose-dependent manner and that soluble and bound fractions of rh-lubricin both contribute to the lubrication process. An rh-lubricin dose response was observed with maximal lubrication achieved at concentrations of rh-lubricin greater than 50 microg/mL. A concentration-response variable-slope model was fit to the data, and indicated that rh-lubricin binding to cartilage was not first order. The pattern of decrease in equilibrium friction coefficient indicated that aggregation of rh-lubricin or steric arrangement may regulate boundary lubrication. rh-lubricin localized at the cartilage surface was found to lubricate a cartilage-glass interface in boundary mode, as did soluble rh-lubricin at high concentrations (150 microg/mL); however, the most effective lubrication occurred when both soluble and bound rh-lubricin were present at the interface. These findings point to two distinct mechanisms by which rh-lubricin lubricates, one mechanism involving lubricin bound to the tissue surface and the other involving lubricin in solution. Copyright 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society

  4. Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How accurate is carrier screening? No test is perfect. In a small number of cases, test results ... in which an egg is removed from a woman’s ovary, fertilized in a laboratory with the man’s ...

  5. Effect of mixture ratios and nitrogen carrier gas flow rates on the morphology of carbon nanotube structures grown by CVD

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malgas, GF

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by thermal Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) and investigates the effects of nitrogen carrier gas flow rates and mixture ratios on the morphology of CNTs on a silicon substrate by vaporizing...

  6. Hybrid Mesoporous Silica-Based Drug Carrier Nanostructures with Improved Degradability by Hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaohong; Hu, Xixue; Zhang, Cuimiao; Chen, Shizhu; Li, Zhenhua; Yang, Xinjian; Liu, Huifang; Jia, Guang; Liu, Dandan; Ge, Kun; Liang, Xing-Jie; Zhang, Jinchao

    2015-10-27

    Potential bioaccumulation is one of the biggest limitations for silica nanodrug delivery systems in cancer therapy. In this study, a mesoporous silica nanoparticles/hydroxyapatite (MSNs/HAP) hybrid drug carrier, which enhanced the biodegradability of silica, was developed by a one-step method. The morphology and structure of the nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, DLS, FT-IR, XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and XPS, and the drug loading and release behaviors were tested. TEM and ICP-OES results indicate that the degradability of the nanoparticles has been significantly improved by Ca(2+) escape from the skeleton in an acid environment. The MSNs/HAP sample exhibits a higher drug loading content of about 5 times that of MSNs. The biological experiment results show that the MSNs/HAP not only exhibits good biocompatibility and antitumor effect but also greatly reduces the side effects of free DOX. The as-synthesized hybrid nanoparticles may act as a promising drug delivery system due to their good biocompatibility, high drug loading efficiency, pH sensitivity, and excellent biodegradability.

  7. Shear flow generation and turbulence suppression by resistive ballooning and resistive interchange modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzdar, P.N.; Drake, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    The generation of shear flow by resistive ballooning modes and resistive interchange modes is compared and contrasted using a 3-D fluid code. The resistive ballooning modes give rise to poloidally asymmetric transport and hence drive poloidal rotation due to the Reynold's Stress as well as the anomalous Stringer/Winsor mechanism. On the other hand the resistive interchange mode can drive shear flow only through the Reynold's Stress. The studies show that if the self-consistent sheared flow is suppressed, the resistive ballooning modes give rise to a larger anomalous transport than produced by the resistive interchange modes. Furthermore the shear flow generated by the resistive ballooning modes is larger than that driven by the resistive interchange modes due to the combined effect of the dual mechanisms stated earlier. As a consequence strong suppression of the fluctuations as well as reduction of the transport occurs for resistive ballooning modes. On the other hand, for the resistive interchange modes the level of fluctuation as well as the anomalous transport is not reduced by the self consistent shear flow generated by the Reynold's Stress. This latter result is in agreement with some earlier 3-D simulation of resistive interchange modes

  8. Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics Measured by the Transient Change in the Reflectance of InP and GaAs Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klopf, John [Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers, Dresden (Germany)

    2005-10-31

    Advancements in microfabrication techniques and thin film growth have led to complex integrated photonic devices, also known as optoelectronics. The performance of these devices relies upon precise control of the band gap and optical characteristics of the thin film structures, as well as a fundamental understanding of the photoexcited carrier thermalization, relaxation, and recombination processes. An optical pump-probe technique has been developed to measure the transient behavior of these processes on a sub-picosecond timescale. This method relies upon the generation of hot carriers by theabsorption of an intense ultrashort laser pulse (~ 135 fs). The transient changes in reflectance due to the pump pulse excitation are monitored using a weaker probe pulse. Control of the relative time delay between the pump and probe pulses allows for temporal measurements with resolution limited only by the pulse width. The transient change in reflectance is the result of a transient change in the carrier distribution. Observation of the reflectance response of indium phosphide (InP) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) films on a sub-picosecond timescale allows for detailed examination of thermalization and relaxation processes of the excited carriers. Longer timescales (> 100 ps) are useful for correlating the transient reflectance response to slower processes such as the diffusion and recombination of the photoexcited carriers. This research investigates the transient hot carrier processes in several InP and GaAs based films similar to those commonly used in optoelectronics. This technique is especially important as it provides a non-destructive means of evaluating these materials; whereas much of the research performed in this field has relied upon the measurement of transient changes in the transmission of transparent films. The process of preparing films that are transparent renders them unusable in functioning devices. This research should not only extend the understanding of

  9. Nanostructured lipid carriers employing polyphenols as promising anticancer agents: Quality by design (QbD) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhise, Ketki; Kashaw, Sushil Kumar; Sau, Samaresh; Iyer, Arun K

    2017-06-30

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. There are several hurdles in cancer therapy because of side-effects which limits its usage. Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems have been tested against cancer in a range of scientific studies. In the recent years, advanced research on Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLCs) has garnered considerable attention owing to the advantages over their first-generation counterparts, Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN). NLCs facilitate efficient loading of poorly water soluble drugs with simple methods of drug loading. Recently, there is an increased interest in polyphenols because of the evidence of their promising role in prevention of cancer. Polyphenols are produced as secondary metabolites by plants. Their role in prevention of development of tumors through variety of mechanisms and reduction of tumor cell mass has been reported. This article aims to review the science behind development of NLCs and role of polyphenols as promising anticancer agents. Principles of Quality by Design (QbD) have also been explained which are used in formulation-development of many nanoparticles, including NLCs, as reported in literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hole traps in n-GaN detected by minority carrier transient spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuda, Yutaka; Yamada, Yujiro; Shibata, Tatsunari; Yamaguchi, Shintaro [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Aichi Institute of Technology, Yakusa, 470-0392 Toyota (Japan); Ueda, Hiroyuki; Uesugi, Tsutomu; Kachi, Tetsu [Toyota Central R and D Laboratories, Inc., Nagakute, 480-1192 Aichi (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Minority carrier transient spectroscopy (MCTS) has been applied for the detection of hole traps in n-GaN using Schottky diodes. MCTS using 355 nm light emitting diodes is performed under isothermal conditions in the temperature range 280 to 330 K for n-GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire. Isothermal MCTS spectra reveal the E{sub v} + 0.86 eV hole trap with the trap concentration of 1.1x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}. The E{sub v} + 0.86 eV hole trap has the higher concentration as compared to electron traps observed by deep level transient spectroscopy. Thus, the isothermal MCTS around room temperature provides a convenient way to evaluate the dominant trap in n-GaN. It is suggested that the E{sub v} + 0.86 eV hole trap is associated with the V{sub Ga}-related defect or carbon-related defect. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Physical control of carrier-mediated ion-transporters by entrainment of their turnover rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Mathis, Clausell; Fang, Zhihui; Mast, Jason; Hamidi, Karim; Kelly, Patrick; Eve, Max

    2012-02-01

    In the past, tremendous efforts have been made to physically activate carrier-mediated ion-transporters, such as Na/K pumps. However, the outcome is not significant. Recently, we developed a new technique which can effectively and efficiently control the pumping rate by introducing a concept of an electronic synchrotron accelerator to the biological system. The approach consists of two steps. First, a specially designed oscillating electric field is used to force or synchronize individual pump molecules to run at the same turnover rate and phase as the field oscillation frequency. Then, by gradually changing the field frequency and carefully keeping the pump synchronization we can entrain the pump molecules so that their pumping rate can be progressively modulated, either decelerated or accelerated, following the field frequency to a defined value. Based on theoretical analysis of the underlying mechanisms involved in the technique, computer simulation of the entrainment process, and intensive experimental studies we have realized significant activation of the Na/K pumping rate up to ten-folds quickly in less than ten seconds.

  12. Embryonic Lethality of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 1 Deficient Mouse Can Be Rescued by a Ketogenic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krznar, Petra; Hörl, Manuel; Ammar, Zeinab; Montessuit, Sylvie; Pierredon, Sandra; Zamboni, Nicola; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial import of pyruvate by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is a central step which links cytosolic and mitochondrial intermediary metabolism. To investigate the role of the MPC in mammalian physiology and development, we generated a mouse strain with complete loss of MPC1 expression. This resulted in embryonic lethality at around E13.5. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from mutant mice displayed defective pyruvate-driven respiration as well as perturbed metabolic profiles, and both defects could be restored by reexpression of MPC1. Labeling experiments using 13C-labeled glucose and glutamine demonstrated that MPC deficiency causes increased glutaminolysis and reduced contribution of glucose-derived pyruvate to the TCA cycle. Morphological defects were observed in mutant embryonic brains, together with major alterations of their metabolome including lactic acidosis, diminished TCA cycle intermediates, energy deficit and a perturbed balance of neurotransmitters. Strikingly, these changes were reversed when the pregnant dams were fed a ketogenic diet, which provides acetyl-CoA directly to the TCA cycle and bypasses the need for a functional MPC. This allowed the normal gestation and development of MPC deficient pups, even though they all died within a few minutes post-delivery. This study establishes the MPC as a key player in regulating the metabolic state necessary for embryonic development, neurotransmitter balance and post-natal survival. PMID:27176894

  13. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in bilayer graphene studied by broadband infrared pump-probe spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Thomas; da Como, Enrico; Niggebaum, Alexander; Feldmann, Jochen

    2010-03-01

    Recently, bilayer graphene gained a large interest because of its electrically tunable gap appearing in the middle infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. This feature is expected to open a number of applications of bilayer graphene in optoelectronics. In this communication we report on the first pump-probe experiment on a single bilayer flake with an unprecedented probe photon energy interval (0.25 -- 1.3 eV). Single flakes were prepared by mechanical exfoliation of graphite and transferred to calcium fluoride substrates. When illuminated with 800 nm (1.5 eV) pump pulses the induced change in transmission shows an ultrafast saturation of the interband transitions from 1.3 to 0.5 eV. In this energy range the saturation recovery occurs within 3 ps and is consistent with an ultrafast relaxation of hot carriers. Interestingly, we report on the observation of a resonance at 0.4 eV characterized by a longer dynamics. The results are discussed considering many-body interactions.

  14. Carrier-free labelling of urokinase with fluorine-18 by preserving the biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Platz, C.M.

    1982-03-01

    Fluorine-18 is particularly suitable for the regional location of clot formation using positron emission tomography. The radioisotope however cannot be directly incorporated in the urokinase as the enzyme is only stable in aqueous solution, F - sub(aq) is unreactive in protic solutions. 18 F-fluoroacetic acid was therefore selected as intermediate step for labelling urokinase. 18 F-fluoroacetic acid can be well activated by water-soluble [N-ethyl-N'-(dimethyl amino)propyl] carbodiimide and form a covalent bond as activated acid on the free amino groups of the urokinase. Different labelled preparations were thus investigated on the activity of the labelled enzyme. It could be shown in some cases that already after a slight drop of the total enzyme activity, all labelled urokinase molecules were biologically inactive. By changing the reaction conditions (pH value and reaction time) a method was found however in which not only was the enzyme activity of the preparation completely maintained but also that of the radiochemical yield corresponding radioactivity eluted with the bonding urokinase. The carrier-free labelling of urokinase starting with 18 F - was achieved with an overall radiochemical yield of 8 per cent for a synthesis time of 110 min. The method enables a sufficient amount of activity to be produced for the in-vivo application to the location of thrombus in patients. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Mode division multiplexing over 19-cell hollow-core photonic bandgap fibre by employing integrated mode multiplexer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Uden, van R.G.H.; Okonkwo, C.M.; Jung, Y.; Wheeler, N.V.; Fokoua, E.N.; Baddela, N.; Petrovich, M.N.; Poletti, F.; Richardson, D.J.; Raz, O.; Waardt, de H.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    A photonic integrated mode coupler based on silicon-on-insulator is employed for mode division multiplexing (MDM) over a 193 m 19-cell hollow-core photonic bandgap fibre (HC-PBGF) with a -3 dB bandwidth >120 nm. Robust MDM transmissions using LP01 and LP11 modes, and two degenerate LP11 modes (LP11a

  16. Postpartum urinary tract infection by mode of delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Tina Djernis; Krebs, Lone; Loekkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between postpartum urinary tract infection and intended mode of delivery as well as actual mode of delivery. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: All live births in Denmark between 2004 and 2010 (n=450 856). Births were classified...... was postpartum urinary tract infection (n=16 295) within 30 days post partum, defined as either a diagnosis of urinary tract infection in the National Patient Registry or redemption of urinary tract infection-specific antibiotics recorded in the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. RESULTS: We found that 4.......6% of women with intended caesarean delivery and 3.5% of women with intended vaginal delivery were treated for postpartum urinary tract infection.Women with intended caesarean delivery had a significantly increased risk of postpartum urinary tract infection compared with women with intended vaginal delivery...

  17. MHD [magnetohydrodynamic] modes driven by anomalous electron viscosity and their role in fast sawtooth crashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydemir, A.Y.

    1990-01-01

    We derive the dispersion relations for both small and large-Δ' modes (m ≥ 2, and m = 1 modes, respectively) driven by anomalous electron viscosity. Under the assumption that the anomalous kinematic electron viscosity is comparable to the anomalous electron thermal diffusivity, we find that the viscous mode typically has a higher growth rate than the corresponding resistive mode. We compare computational results in cylindrical and toroidal geometries with theory and present some nonlinear results for viscous m = 1 modes in both circular and D-shaped boundaries and discuss their possible rile in fast sawtooth crashes. 30 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. Epithelial and endothelial damage induced by mechanical ventilation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suki, Béla; Hubmayr, Rolf

    2014-02-01

    The adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common cause of respiratory failure with substantial impact on public health. Patients with ARDS generally require mechanical ventilation, which risks further lung damage. Recent improvements in ARDS outcomes have been attributed to reductions in deforming stress associated with lung protective mechanical ventilation modes and settings. The following review details the mechanics of the lung parenchyma at different spatial scales and the response of its resident cells to deforming stress in order to provide the biologic underpinnings of lung protective care. Although lung injury is typically viewed through the lens of altered barrier properties and mechanical ventilation-associated immune responses, in this review, we call attention to the importance of heterogeneity and the physical failure of the load bearing cell and tissue elements in the pathogenesis of ARDS. Specifically, we introduce a simple elastic network model to better understand the deformations of lung regions, intra-acinar alveoli and cells within a single alveolus, and consider the role of regional distension and interfacial stress-related injury for various ventilation modes. Heterogeneity of stiffness and intercellular and intracellular stress failure are fundamental components of ARDS and their development also depends on the ventilation mode.

  19. Effect of interface roughness on the carrier transport in germanium MOSFETs investigated by Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, Du; Xiao-Yan, Liu; Zhi-Liang, Xia; Jing-Feng, Yang; Ru-Qi, Han

    2010-01-01

    Interface roughness strongly influences the performance of germanium metal–organic–semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). In this paper, a 2D full-band Monte Carlo simulator is used to study the impact of interface roughness scattering on electron and hole transport properties in long- and short- channel Ge MOSFETs inversion layers. The carrier effective mobility in the channel of Ge MOSFETs and the in non-equilibrium transport properties are investigated. Results show that both electron and hole mobility are strongly influenced by interface roughness scattering. The output curves for 50 nm channel-length double gate n and p Ge MOSFET show that the drive currents of n- and p-Ge MOSFETs have significant improvement compared with that of Si n- and p-MOSFETs with smooth interface between channel and gate dielectric. The 82% and 96% drive current enhancement are obtained for the n- and p-MOSFETs with the completely smooth interface. However, the enhancement decreases sharply with the increase of interface roughness. With the very rough interface, the drive currents of Ge MOSFETs are even less than that of Si MOSFETs. Moreover, the significant velocity overshoot also has been found in Ge MOSFETs. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  20. Skin permeation of D-limonene-based nanoemulsions as a transdermal carrier prepared by ultrasonic emulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Chien; Chiang, Been-Huang; Huang, Da-Wei; Li, Po-Hsien

    2014-03-01

    Nanoemulsions can be used for transporting pharmaceutical phytochemicals in skin-care products because of their stability and rapid permeation properties. However, droplet size may be a critical factor aiding permeation through skin and transdermal delivery efficiency. We prepared D-limonene nanoemulsions with various droplet sizes by ultrasonic emulsification using mixed surfactants of sorbitane trioleate and polyoxyethylene (20) oleyl ether under different hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) values. Droplet size decreased with increasing HLB value. With HLB 12, the droplet size was 23 nm, and the encapsulated ratio peaked at 92.3%. Transmission electron microscopy revealed spherical droplets and the gray parts were D-limonene precipitation incorporated in spherical droplets of the emulsion system. Franz diffusion cell was used to evaluate the permeation of D-limonene nanoemulsion through rat abdominal skin; the permeation rate depended on droplet size. The emulsion with the lowest droplet size (54 nm) achieved the maximum permeation rate. The concentration of D-limonene in the skin was 40.11 μL/cm(2) at the end of 360 min. Histopathology revealed no distinct voids or empty spaces in the epidermal region of permeated rat skin, so the D-limonene nanoemulsion may be a safe carrier for transdermal drug delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Charge carrier mobility in thin films of organic semiconductors by the gated van der Pauw method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, Cedric; Kang, Enpu; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Borghs, Gustaaf; Heremans, Paul; Genoe, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Thin film transistors based on high-mobility organic semiconductors are prone to contact problems that complicate the interpretation of their electrical characteristics and the extraction of important material parameters such as the charge carrier mobility. Here we report on the gated van der Pauw method for the simple and accurate determination of the electrical characteristics of thin semiconducting films, independently from contact effects. We test our method on thin films of seven high-mobility organic semiconductors of both polarities: device fabrication is fully compatible with common transistor process flows and device measurements deliver consistent and precise values for the charge carrier mobility and threshold voltage in the high-charge carrier density regime that is representative of transistor operation. The gated van der Pauw method is broadly applicable to thin films of semiconductors and enables a simple and clean parameter extraction independent from contact effects. PMID:28397852

  2. Evaluation of the effects of a polyurethane carrier on the degradation of chlorinated anilines by Pseudomonas acidovorans CA50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loidl, M.; Stockinger, J.; Hinteregger, C.; Streichsbier, F.

    1994-01-01

    A previously described model system for the treatment of harzardous chloroaniline-containing waste waters using immobilized bacterial cells in a bioreactor was enhanced in its degradation efficiency. This was achieved by the substitution of the calcium alginate beads by an inert polyurethane (PU)-carrier. The supply of chloroaniline-polluted waste waters with the PU-carrier (1.25% w/v) resulted in a distinct decrease of the pollutant concentrations in the solution due to the effects of adsorption. Nevertheless, the initially bound amounts of the chloroanilines, were also degraded, which was proved by the chloride balance. In comparative batch-degradation experiments with the Pseudomonas acidovorans strain CA50 with and without the addition of the PU-carrier (1.25% v/w), respectively, the advantages of the PU-supplied treatment system were demonstrated; among others a marked shortening of the degradation periods was achieved. The advantage of the PU-carrier was also shown by using a bubble reactor. In this connection, it is particularly worth mentioning, that high degradation rates can be achieved for a long time even for strongly persistent pollutants. (orig.)

  3. Manipulation of charge carrier injection into organic field-effect transistors by self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadi, Kamal; Gholamrezaie, Fatemeh; Smits, Edsger C. P.; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Boer, Bert

    2007-01-01

    Charge carrier injection into two semiconducting polymers is investigated in field-effect transistors using gold source and drain electrodes that are modified by self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols and perfluorinated alkanethiols. The presence of an interfacial dipole associated with the

  4. 76 FR 2744 - Disclosure of Code-Share Service by Air Carriers and Sellers of Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Disclosure of Code-Share Service by Air Carriers and Sellers of Air Transportation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Transportation..., their agents, and third party sellers of air transportation in view of recent amendments to 49 U.S.C...

  5. Recycling Gene Carrier with High Efficiency and Low Toxicity Mediated by L-Cystine-Bridged Bis(β-cyclodextrin)s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Hui; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ming; Yang, Yang; Chen, Jia-Tong; Liu, Yu

    2014-12-01

    Constructing safe and effective gene delivery carriers is becoming highly desirable for gene therapy. Herein, a series of supramolecular crosslinking system were prepared through host-guest binding of adamantyl-modified low molecular weight of polyethyleneimine with L-cystine-bridged bis(β-cyclodextrin)s and characterized by 1H NMR titration, electron microscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light-scattering, gel electrophoresis, flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that these nanometersized supramolecular crosslinking systems exhibited higher DNA transfection efficiencies and lower cytotoxicity than the commercial DNA carrier gold standard (25 kDa bPEI) for both normal cells and cancer cells, giving a very high DNA transfection efficiency up to 54% for 293T cells. Significantly, this type of supramolecular crosslinking system possesses a number of enzyme-responsive disulfide bonds, which can be cleaved by reductive enzyme to promote the DNA release but recovered by oxidative enzyme to make the carrier renewable. These results demonstrate that these supramolecular crosslinking systems can be used as promising gene carriers.

  6. Dynamical instability induced by the zero mode under symmetry breaking external perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2014-01-01

    A complex eigenvalue in the Bogoliubov–de Gennes equations for a stationary Bose-Einstein condensate in the ultracold atomic system indicates the dynamical instability of the system. We also have the modes with zero eigenvalues for the condensate, called the zero modes, which originate from the spontaneous breakdown of symmetries. Although the zero modes are suppressed in many theoretical analyses, we take account of them in this paper and argue that a zero mode can change into one with a pure imaginary eigenvalue by applying a symmetry breaking external perturbation potential. This emergence of a pure imaginary mode adds a new type of scenario of dynamical instability to that characterized by the complex eigenvalue of the usual excitation modes. For illustration, we deal with two one-dimensional homogeneous Bose–Einstein condensate systems with a single dark soliton under a respective perturbation potential, breaking the invariance under translation, to derive pure imaginary modes. - Highlights: • Zero modes are important but ignored in many theories for the cold atomic system. • We discuss the zero mode under symmetry breaking potential in this system. • We consider the zero mode of translational invariance for a single dark soliton. • We show that it turns into an anomalous or pure imaginary mode

  7. Modeling and visualization of carrier motion in organic films by optical second harmonic generation and Maxwell-displacement current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Manaka, Takaaki; Taguchi, Dai

    2015-09-01

    The probing and modeling of carrier motions in materials as well as in electronic devices is a fundamental research subject in science and electronics. According to the Maxwell electromagnetic field theory, carriers are a source of electric field. Therefore, by probing the dielectric polarization caused by the electric field arising from moving carriers and dipoles, we can find a way to visualize the carrier motions in materials and in devices. The techniques used here are an electrical Maxwell-displacement current (MDC) measurement and a novel optical method based on the electric field induced optical second harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement. The MDC measurement probes changes of induced charge on electrodes, while the EFISHG probes nonlinear polarization induced in organic active layers due to the coupling of electron clouds of molecules and electro-magnetic waves of an incident laser beam in the presence of a DC field caused by electrons and holes. Both measurements allow us to probe dynamical carrier motions in solids through the detection of dielectric polarization phenomena originated from dipolar motions and electron transport. In this topical review, on the basis of Maxwell’s electro-magnetism theory of 1873, which stems from Faraday’s idea, the concept for probing electron and hole transport in solids by using the EFISHG is discussed in comparison with the conventional time of flight (TOF) measurement. We then visualize carrier transit in organic devices, i.e. organic field effect transistors, organic light emitting diodes, organic solar cells, and others. We also show that visualizing an EFISHG microscopic image is a novel way for characterizing anisotropic carrier transport in organic thin films. We also discuss the concept of the detection of rotational dipolar motions in monolayers by means of the MDC measurement, which is capable of probing the change of dielectric spontaneous polarization formed by dipoles in organic monolayers. Finally we

  8. Transcellular movement of hydroxyurea is mediated by specific solute carrier transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Aisha L.; Franke, Ryan M.; Sparreboom, Alex; Ware, Russell E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hydroxyurea has proven laboratory and clinical therapeutic benefits for sickle cell anemia (SCA) and other diseases, yet many questions remain regarding its in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. Previous reports suggest that hydroxyurea passively diffuses across cells, but its observed rapid absorption and distribution are more consistent with facilitated or active transport. We investigated the potential role of solute carrier (SLC) transporters in cellular uptake and accumulation of hydroxyurea. Materials and Methods Passive diffusion of hydroxyurea across cell membranes was determined using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay. SLC transporter screens were conducted using in vitro intracellular drug accumulation and transcellular transport assays in cell lines and oocytes overexpressing SLC transporters. Gene expression of SLC transporters was measured by real-time PCR in human tissues and cell lines. Results Hydroxyurea had minimal diffusion across a lipid bilayer but was a substrate for 5 different SLC transporters belonging to the OCTN and OATP families of transporters and urea transporters A and B. Further characterization of hydroxyurea transport revealed that cellular uptake by OATP1B3 is time and temperature dependent and inhibited by known substrates of OATP1B3. Urea transporters A and B are expressed differentially in human tissues and erythroid cells, and transport hydroxyurea bidirectionally via facilitated diffusion. Conclusions These studies provide new insight into drug transport proteins that may be involved in the in vivo absorption, cellular distribution, and elimination of hydroxyurea. Elucidation of hydroxyurea transcellular movement should improve our understanding of its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and may help explain some of the inter-patient drug variability observed in patients with SCA. PMID:21256917

  9. 78 FR 78257 - Verification of Statements of Account Submitted by Cable Operators and Satellite Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... royalty fees with the Office in order to use the statutory licenses that allow for the retransmission of... royalty fees that cable operators and satellite carriers file with the Office. See 17 U.S.C. 111(d)(6... new process to allow copyright owners to audit the SOAs and associated royalty payments. The Office...

  10. 77 FR 53779 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Involving Animals During Air Transport AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of Transportation... period of an NPRM on the reporting of incidents involving animals during air transport that was published... animal during air transport. The NPRM proposed to: (1) Expand the reporting requirement to U.S. carriers...

  11. Orbital angular momentum mode of Gaussian beam induced by atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mingjian; Guo, Lixin; Li, Jiangting; Yan, Xu; Dong, Kangjun

    2018-02-01

    Superposition theory of the spiral harmonics is employed to numerical study the transmission property of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode of Gaussian beam induced by atmospheric turbulence. Results show that Gauss beam does not carry OAM at the source, but various OAM modes appear after affected by atmospheric turbulence. With the increase of atmospheric turbulence strength, the smaller order OAM modes appear firstly, followed by larger order OAM modes. The beam spreading of Gauss beams in the atmosphere enhance with the increasing topological charge of the OAM modes caused by atmospheric turbulence. The mode probability density of the OAM generated by atmospheric turbulence decreases, and peak position gradually deviate from the Gauss beam spot center with the increase of the topological charge. Our results may be useful for improving the performance of long distance laser digital spiral imaging system.

  12. Lock threshold deterioration induced by antenna vibration and signal coupling effects in hypersonic vehicle carrier tracking system of Ka band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congying ZHU

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The envelope of a hypersonic vehicle is affected by severe fluctuating pressure, which causes the airborne antenna to vibrate slightly. This vibration mixes with the transmitted signals and thus introduces additional multiplicative phase noise. Antenna vibration and signal coupling effects as well as their influence on the lock threshold of the hypersonic vehicle carrier tracking system of the Ka band are investigated in this study. A vibration model is initially established to obtain phase noise in consideration of the inherent relationship between vibration displacement and electromagnetic wavelength. An analytical model of the Phase-Locked Loop (PLL, which is widely used in carrier tracking systems, is established. The coupling effects on carrier tracking performance are investigated and quantitatively analyzed by imposing the multiplicative phase noise on the PLL model. Simulation results show that the phase noise presents a Gaussian distribution and is similar to vibration displacement variation. A large standard deviation in vibration displacement exerts a significant effect on the lock threshold. A critical standard deviation is observed in the PLL of Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK and Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK signals. The effect on QPSK signals is more severe than that on BPSK signals. The maximum tolerable standard deviations normalized by the wavelength of the carrier are 0.04 and 0.02 for BPSK and QPSK signals, respectively. With these critical standard deviations, lock thresholds are increased from −12 and −4 dB to 3 and −2 dB, respectively. Keywords: Antenna vibration, Carrier tracking performance, Lock threshold, Phase locked loop, Tracking Telemetry and Command (TT&C signals

  13. MODAL ANALYSIS OF CARRIER SYSTEM FOR HEAVY HORIZONTAL MULTIFUNCTION MACHINING CENTER BY FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Vasilevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to reveal and analyze resonance modes of a large-scale milling-drilling-boring machine. The machine has a movable column with vertical slot occupied by a symmetrical carriage with horizontal ram. Static rigidity of the machine is relatively low due to its large dimensions. So it is necessary to assess possible vibration activity. Virtual and operational trials of the machine have been carried out simultaneously. Modeling has been executed with the help of a finite element method (FEM. The FEM-model takes into account not only rigidity of machine structures but also flexibility of bearings, feed drive systems and guides. Modal FEM-analysis has revealed eight resonance modes that embrace the whole machine tool. They form a frequency interval from 12 to 75 Hz which is undesirable for machining. Three closely located resonances (31-37 Hz are considered as the most dangerous ones. They represent various combinations of three simple motions: vertical oscillations of a carriage, horizontal vibrations of a ram and column torsion. Reliability of FEM- estimations has been proved by in-situ vibration measurements.An effect for stabilization of resonance modes has been detected while making variations in design parameters of the machine tool. For example, a virtual replacement of cast iron for steel in machine structures practically does not have any effect on resonance frequencies. Rigidity increase in some parts (e.g. a ram has also a small effect on a resonance pattern. On the other hand, resonance stability makes it possible to avoid them while selecting a spindle rotation frequency.It is recommended to set double feed drives for all axes. A pair of vertical screws prevents a “pecking” resonance of the carriage at frequency of 54 Hz. It is necessary to foresee an operation of a main drive of such heavy machine tool in the above resonance interval with the spindle frequency of more than 75 Hz. For this purpose it is necessary

  14. Atomic nuclei decay modes by spontaneous emission of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poenaru, D.N.; Ivascu, M.; Sandulescu, A.

    1984-01-01

    The great majority of the known nuclei, including the so-called stable nuclides, are in fact metastable with respect to several modes of spontaneous superasymmetric splitting. If the lifetime against these processes is larger than 10 30 s, the phenomenon is not detectable with available experimental techniques, hence one can admit stability from the practical point of view. A model extended from the fission theory of alpha decay allows one to estimate the lifetimes and the branching ratios relatively to the alpha decay for these natural radioactivities. From a huge amount of systematical calculations it is concluded that the process should proceed with maximum intensity in the trans-lead nuclei, where the minimum lifetime is obtained for parent nuclei - heavy clusters leading to a magic ( 208 Pb) or almost daughter nucleus. More than 140 nuclides with atomic number smaller than 25 are possible candidates to be emitted from heavy nuclei, with half-life n the 10 10 -10 30 s range. The shell structure and pairing effects are clearly manifested in these new decay modes

  15. Generating broadband vortex modes in ring-core fiber by using a plasmonic q-plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jingfu; Li, Yan; Han, Yanhua; Deng, Duo; Su, Xiaoya; Song, He; Gao, Jianmin; Qu, Shiliang

    2017-08-15

    A mode convertor was proposed and investigated for generating vortex modes in a ring-core fiber based on a plasmonic q-plate (PQP), which is composed of specially organized L-shaped resonator (LSR) arrays. A multicore fiber was used to transmit fundamental modes, and the LSR arrays were used to modulate phases of these fundamental modes. Behind the PQP, the transmitted fundamental modes with gradient phase distribution can be considered as the incident lights for generating broadband vortex modes in the ring-core fiber filter. The topological charges of generated vortex modes can be various by using an optical PQP with different q, and the chirality of the generated vortex mode can be controlled by the sign of q and handedness of the incident circularly polarized light. The operation bandwidth is 800 nm in the range of 1200-2000 nm, which covers six communication bands from the O band to the U band. The separation of vortex modes also was addressed by using a dual ring-core fiber. The mode convertor is of potential interest for connecting a traditional network and vortex communication network.

  16. Immune Thrombocytopenia Resolved by Eltrombopag in a Carrier of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scaramucci

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin mimetic peptide, may provide excellent clinical efficacy in steroid-refractory patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP [1,2]. Eltrombopag is generally well tolerated. However, its use in the particular setting of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and history of acute hemolytic anemia (AHA has not been reported so far. A 51-year-old female was diagnosed as having ITP in September 2014. She was not taking any medication and her past history was negative, apart from having been diagnosed a carrier (heterozygous of G6PD deficiency (Mediterranean variant after a familial screening by molecular and biochemical methods. She presented with only slightly reduced (about 50% enzyme level, belonging to World Health Organization-defined class 3 [3,4]. In the following years, the patient experienced some episodes of AHA, which were managed at outside institutions; in particular, a severe episode of AHA, probably triggered by urinary infection and antibiotics [5], had complicated her second and last delivery. The hemolytic episodes were selflimiting and resolved without sequelae. No other causes of hemolysis were documented. When the case came to our attention, a diagnosis of ITP was made; hemolytic parameters were normal, although the G6PD enzyme concentration was not measured. Oral prednisone (1 mg/kg was given with only a transient benefit. The patient was then a candidate for elective splenectomy. However, given her extremely low platelet count, she was started in October 2014 on eltrombopag at 50 mg/day as a bridge to splenectomy. Given that, to the best of our knowledge, the use of this drug has never been reported in the particular setting of G6PD deficiency, the patient was constantly monitored. A prompt platelet increase (178x109/L was observed 1 week after the start of treatment. After she achieved the target platelet count, the dose of eltrombopag was tapered to the lowest effective dose. The patient

  17. Pulmonary Capillary Hemorrhage Induced by Different Imaging Modes of Diagnostic Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas L; Dong, Zhihong; Dou, Chunyan; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    2018-05-01

    The induction of pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) is a well-established non-thermal biological effect of pulsed ultrasound in animal models. Typically, research has been done using laboratory pulsed ultrasound systems with a fixed beam and, recently, by B-mode diagnostic ultrasound. In this study, a GE Vivid 7 Dimension ultrasound machine with 10 L linear array probe was used at 6.6 MHz to explore the relative PCH efficacy of B-mode imaging, M-mode (fixed beam), color angio mode Doppler imaging and pulsed Doppler mode (fixed beam). Anesthetized rats were scanned in a warmed water bath, and thresholds were determined by scanning at different power steps, 2 dB apart, in different groups of six rats. Exposures were performed for 5 min, except for a 15-s M-mode group. Peak rarefactional pressure amplitude thresholds were 1.5 MPa for B-mode and 1.1 MPa for angio Doppler mode. For the non-scanned modes, thresholds were 1.1 MPa for M-mode and 0.6 MPa for pulsed Doppler mode with its relatively high duty cycle (7.7 × 10 -3 vs. 0.27 × 10 -3 for M-mode). Reducing the duration of M-mode to 15 s (from 300 s) did not significantly reduce PCH (area, volume or depth) for some power settings, but the threshold was increased to 1.4 MPa. Pulmonary sonographers should be aware of this unique adverse bio-effect of diagnostic ultrasound and should consider reduced on-screen mechanical index settings for potentially vulnerable patients. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Baseline projections of transportation energy consumption by mode: 1981 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, M; Bunch, J; Vyas, A; Kaplan, M; Knorr, R; Mendiratta, V; Saricks, C

    1982-04-01

    A comprehensive set of activity and energy-demand projections for each of the major transportation modes and submodes is presented. Projections are developed for a business-as-usual scenario, which provides a benchmark for assessing the effects of potential conservation strategies. This baseline scenario assumes a continuation of present trends, including fuel-efficiency improvements likely to result from current efforts of vehicle manufacturers. Because of anticipated changes in fuel efficiency, fuel price, modal shifts, and a lower-than-historic rate of economic growth, projected growth rates in transportation activity and energy consumption depart from historic patterns. The text discusses the factors responsible for this departure, documents the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the modal projections, and compares the projections with other efforts.

  19. Demultiplexing of photonic temporal modes by a linear system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuang; Shen, H. Z.; Yi, X. X.

    2018-03-01

    Temporally and spatially overlapping but field-orthogonal photonic temporal modes (TMs) that intrinsically span a high-dimensional Hilbert space are recently suggested as a promising means of encoding information on photons. Presently, the realization of photonic TM technology, particularly to retrieve the information it carries, i.e., demultiplexing of photonic TMs, is mostly dependent on nonlinear medium and frequency conversion. Meanwhile, its miniaturization, simplification, and optimization remain the focus of research. In this paper, we propose a scheme of TM demultiplexing using linear systems consisting of resonators with linear couplings. Specifically, we examine a unidirectional array of identical resonators with short environment correlations. For both situations with and without tunable couplers, propagation formulas are derived to demonstrate photonic TM demultiplexing capabilities. The proposed scheme, being entirely feasible with current technologies, might find potential applications in quantum information processing.

  20. Neural Network Prediction of Disruptions Caused by Locked Modes on J-TEXT Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yonghua; Jin Xuesong; Chen Zhenzhen; Zhuang Ge

    2013-01-01

    Prediction of disruptions caused by locked modes using the Back-Propagation (BP) neural network is completed on J-TEXT tokamak. The network, which is based on the BP neural network, uses Mirnov coils and locked mode coils signals as input data, and outputs a signal including information of prediction of locked mode. The rate of successful prediction of locked modes is more than 90%. For intrinsic locked mode disruptions, the network can give a prewarning signal about 1 ms ahead of the locking-time. For the disruption caused by resonant magnetic perturbation (RMPs) locked modes, the network can give a prewarning signal about 10 ms ahead of the locking-time

  1. Analysis of magnetic damping problem by the coupled mode superposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Tomoyoshi; Niho, Tomoya

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe the coupled mode superposition method for the magnetic damping problem, which is produced by the coupled effect between the deformation and the induced eddy current of the structures for future fusion reactors and magnetically levitated vehicles. The formulation of the coupled mode superposition method is based on the matrix equation for the eddy current and the structure using the coupled mode vectors. Symmetric form of the coupled matrix equation is obtained. Coupled problems of a thin plate are solved to verify the formulation and the computer code. These problems are solved efficiently by this method using only a few coupled modes. Consideration of the coupled mode vectors shows that the coupled effects are included completely in each coupled mode. (author)

  2. Plasmon transmutation: inducing new modes in nanoclusters by adding dielectric nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fangfang; Ye, Jian; Liu, Na; Van Dorpe, Pol; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2012-09-12

    Planar clusters of coupled plasmonic nanoparticles support nanoscale electromagnetic "hot spots" and coherent effects, such as Fano resonances, with unique near and far field signatures, currently of prime interest for sensing applications. Here we show that plasmonic cluster properties can be substantially modified by the addition of individual, discrete dielectric nanoparticles at specific locations on the cluster, introducing new plasmon modes, or transmuting existing plasmon modes to new ones, in the resulting metallodielectric nanocomplex. Depositing a single carbon nanoparticle in the junction between a pair of adjacent nanodisks induces a metal-dielectric-metal quadrupolar plasmon mode. In a ten-membered cluster, placement of several carbon nanoparticles in junctions between multiple adjacent nanoparticles introduces a collective magnetic plasmon mode into the Fano dip, giving rise to an additional subradiant mode in the metallodielectric nanocluster response. These examples illustrate that adding dielectric nanoparticles to metallic nanoclusters expands the number and types of plasmon modes supported by these new mixed-media nanoscale assemblies.

  3. Hyaluronan microgel as a potential carrier for protein sustained delivery by tailoring the crosslink network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Chunhong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhao, Jianhao, E-mail: jhzhao@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Tu, Mei; Zeng, Rong; Rong, Jianhua [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) microgels with different crosslink network, i.e. HGPs-1, HGPs-1.5, HGPs-3, HGPs-6 and HGPs-15, were synthesized using divinyl sulfone (DVS) as the crosslinker in an inverse microemulsion system for controlling the sustained delivery of bovine serum albumin (BSA). With increasing the crosslinker content, the average particle size slightly increased from 1.9 ± 0.3 μm to 3.6 ± 0.5 μm by dynamic laser scattering analysis. However, the crosslinker content had no significant effect on the morphology of HA microgels by scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis proved more sulfur participated in the crosslink reaction when raising the crosslinker amount. The water swelling test confirmed the increasing crosslink density with the crosslinker content by calculating the average molecular weight between two crosslink points to be 8.25 ± 2.51 × 10{sup 5}, 1.26 ± 0.43 × 10{sup 5}, 0.96 ± 0.09 × 10{sup 5}, 0.64 ± 0.03 × 10{sup 5}, and 0.11 ± 0.01 × 10{sup 5} respectively. The degradation of HA microgels by hyaluronidase slowed down by enhancing the crosslink density, only about 5% of HGPs-15 was degraded as opposed to over 90% for HGPs-1. BSA loading had no obvious influence on the surface morphology of HA microgels but seemed to induce their aggregation. The increase of crosslink density decreased the BSA loading capacity but facilitated its long-term sustained delivery. When the molar ratio of DVS to repeating unit of HA reached 3 or higher, similar delivery profiles were obtained. Among all these HA microgels, HGPs-3 was the optimal carrier for BSA sustained delivery in this system because it possessed both high BSA loading capacity and long-term delivery profile simultaneously. - Highlights: • HA microgels with different crosslink densities were prepared. • The crosslinker content had little effect on the morphology and size of HA microgels. • The crosslink density

  4. Ingestion and fragmentation of plastic carrier bags by the amphipod Orchestia gammarellus: Effects of plastic type and fouling load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, D J; Bréchon, A L; Thompson, R C

    2018-02-01

    Inappropriate disposal of plastic debris has led to the contamination of marine habitats worldwide. This debris can be ingested by organisms; however, the extent to which chewing and gut transit modifies plastic debris is unclear. Detritivores, such as amphipods, ingest and shred natural organic matter and are fundamental to its breakdown. Here we examine ingestion and shredding of plastic carrier bags by Orchestia gammarellus. A laboratory experiment showed these amphipods shredded plastic carrier bags, generating numerous microplastic fragments (average diameter 488.59μm). The presence of a biofilm significantly increased the amount of shredding, but plastic type (conventional, degradable and biodegradable) had no effect. Subsequent field observations confirmed similar shredding occurred on the strandline. Rates of shredding will vary according to amphipod density; however, our data indicates that shredding by organisms could substantially accelerate the formation microplastics in the environment. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimization of Sour Cherry Juice Spray Drying as
Affected by Carrier Material and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    Summary Response surface methodology was applied for optimization of the sour cherry Marasca juice spray drying process with 20, 30 and 40% of carriers maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) value of 4–7 and 13–17 and gum arabic, at three drying temperatures: 150, 175 and 200 °C. Increase in carrier mass per volume ratio resulted in lower moisture content and powder hygroscopicity, higher bulk density, solubility and product yield. Higher temperatures decreased the moisture content and bulk density of powders. Temperature of 200 °C and 27% of maltodextrin with 4–7 DE were found to be the most suitable for production of sour cherry Marasca powder. PMID:28115901

  6. Modulated phase matching and high-order harmonic enhancement mediated by the carrier-envelope phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccio, Daniele; Serrat, Carles; Cela, Jose M.; Farres, Albert; Di Trapani, Paolo; Biegert, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The process of high-order harmonic generation in gases is numerically investigated in the presence of a few-cycle pulsed-Bessel-beam pump, featuring a periodic modulation in the peak intensity due to large carrier-envelope-phase mismatch. A two-decade enhancement in the conversion efficiency is observed and interpreted as the consequence of a mechanism known as a nonlinearly induced modulation in the phase mismatch.

  7. Contribution to the spectrographic determination of impurities in uranium by the carrier distillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, C.

    1967-01-01

    The carrier distillation method for the determination of impurities in uranium has been modified in order to get a greater sensitivity. Electrodes 9.5 mm. diam. with a crater 7 mm. diam. and 10 mm. deep have been used, being the weigh of charge 300 mg.. The elements considered were: Al, As, B, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Si, Sn, Ti and V, over the range 0.01 to 30 ppm. (Author) 13 refs

  8. Improved cytotoxicity of paclitaxel loaded in nanosized lipid carriers by intracellular delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Jing, E-mail: joemj1005@163.com, E-mail: miaojing@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang University, Department of Pharmacy, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine (China); Du, Yongzhong; Yuan, Hong [Zhejiang University, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences (China); Zhang, Xingguo; Li, Qian; Rao, Yuefeng [Zhejiang University, Department of Pharmacy, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine (China); Zhao, Mengdan [Zhejiang University, Women’s Hospital, College of Medicine (China); Hu, Fuqiang, E-mail: hufq@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang University, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences (China)

    2015-01-15

    Nanosized lipid carriers (NLC) can improve the limited drug-loading (DL) capacity and drug expulsion during storage, and adjust the drug release profile of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). In this study, Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded NLC were prepared by solvent diffusion method using monostearin as solid lipid and oleic acid (OA) as liquid lipid matrix. The blank NLC with different OA content (the size range was from 89.5 ± 7.4 to 160.2 ± 34.6 nm) showed smaller size than the blank SLN (the size was 272.7 ± 43.6 nm), while the PTX-loaded NLC (the size range was from 481.3 ± 29.8 to 561.7 ± 38.3 nm) showed little bigger size, higher DL capacity, and faster drug in vitro release rate comparing with SLN (the size was 437.3 ± 68.2 nm). The 50 % cellular growth inhibitions (IC{sub 50}) of PTX-loaded NLC with 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt % OA were 0.92 ± 0.06, 0.69 ± 0.04, 0.25 ± 0.02, and 0.12 ± 0.02 µg mL{sup −1}, respectively, while the IC{sub 50} of Taxol{sup TM} was 1.72 ± 0.09 µg mL{sup −1}. For analyzing cellular drug effect, cellular uptakes of fluorescent NLC and intracellular drug concentration were investigated. As the incorporation of OA into solid lipid matrix could accelerate both the cellular uptake and the PTX delivery, loaded by NLC, the cytotoxicity of PTX could be enhanced, and further enhanced by increasing OA content in NLC.

  9. Improved cytotoxicity of paclitaxel loaded in nanosized lipid carriers by intracellular delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Jing; Du, Yongzhong; Yuan, Hong; Zhang, Xingguo; Li, Qian; Rao, Yuefeng; Zhao, Mengdan; Hu, Fuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Nanosized lipid carriers (NLC) can improve the limited drug-loading (DL) capacity and drug expulsion during storage, and adjust the drug release profile of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). In this study, Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded NLC were prepared by solvent diffusion method using monostearin as solid lipid and oleic acid (OA) as liquid lipid matrix. The blank NLC with different OA content (the size range was from 89.5 ± 7.4 to 160.2 ± 34.6 nm) showed smaller size than the blank SLN (the size was 272.7 ± 43.6 nm), while the PTX-loaded NLC (the size range was from 481.3 ± 29.8 to 561.7 ± 38.3 nm) showed little bigger size, higher DL capacity, and faster drug in vitro release rate comparing with SLN (the size was 437.3 ± 68.2 nm). The 50 % cellular growth inhibitions (IC 50 ) of PTX-loaded NLC with 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt % OA were 0.92 ± 0.06, 0.69 ± 0.04, 0.25 ± 0.02, and 0.12 ± 0.02 µg mL −1 , respectively, while the IC 50 of Taxol TM was 1.72 ± 0.09 µg mL −1 . For analyzing cellular drug effect, cellular uptakes of fluorescent NLC and intracellular drug concentration were investigated. As the incorporation of OA into solid lipid matrix could accelerate both the cellular uptake and the PTX delivery, loaded by NLC, the cytotoxicity of PTX could be enhanced, and further enhanced by increasing OA content in NLC

  10. Analysis of thermoelectric properties of amorphous InGaZnO thin film by controlling carrier concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Fujimoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO thin films optimized by adjusting the carrier concentration. The a-IGZO films were produced under various oxygen flow ratios. The Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductivity were measured from 100 to 400 K. We found that the power factor (PF at 300 K had a maximum value of 82 × 10−6 W/mK2, where the carrier density was 7.7 × 1019 cm−3. Moreover, the obtained data was analyzed by fitting the percolation model. Theoretical analysis revealed that the Fermi level was located approximately above the potential barrier when the PF became maximal. The thermoelectric properties were controlled by the relationship between the position of Fermi level and the height of potential energy barriers.

  11. Influence of Carrier Gas Composition on the Stress of Al2O3 Coatings Prepared by the Aerosol Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schubert

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Al2O3 films were prepared by the aerosol deposition method at room temperature using different carrier gas compositions. The layers were deposited on alumina substrates and the film stress of the layer was calculated by measuring the deformation of the substrate. It was shown that the film stress can be halved by using oxygen instead of nitrogen or helium as the carrier gas. The substrates were annealed at different temperature steps to gain information about the temperature dependence of the reduction of the implemented stress. Total relaxation of the stress can already be achieved at 300 °C. The XRD pattern shows crystallite growth and reduction of microstrain while annealing.

  12. Computation of mode eigenfunctions in graded-index optical fibers by the propagating beam method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feit, M.D.; Fleck, J.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The propagating beam method utilizes discrete Fourier transforms for generating configuration-space solutions to optical waveguide problems without reference to modes. The propagating beam method can also give a complete description of the field in terms of modes by a Fourier analysis with respect to axial distance of the computed fields. Earlier work dealt with the accurate determination of mode propagation constants and group delays. In this paper the method is extended to the computation of mode eigenfunctions. The method is efficient, allowing generation of a large number of eigenfunctions from a single propagation run. Computations for parabolic-index profiles show excellent agreement between analytic and numerically generated eigenfunctions

  13. Development of IPRO-ZONE to Determine Component Failure Modes Affected by a Fire Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Han, Sang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    A Fire PSA requires a PSA analyst to select internal initiating events and to determine component failure modes for fire occurrence event of each fire compartment. The component failure modes caused by a fire depend on the several factors. These factors are whether components and their relating equipment and cables are located at fire initiation and propagation compartments or not, fire effects on control and power cables for components and their relating equipment, designed failure modes of component, success criteria in a PSA model, etc. Up to the present, a PSA analyst has been manually determining component failure modes based on criteria mentioned above. This task is one of the difficult works required for fire PSA expertise. In addition, since it requires much information, a fire PSA analyst may have difficulty in maintaining consistency for determining the component failure modes and documentation for them. After determining the component failure modes, internal PSA basic events corresponding to the component failure modes are selected and fire events are modeled for the selected basic events if required. KAERI has been developing the IPRO-ZONE (interface program for constructing zone effect table) to determine component failure modes affected by a fire, to select the internal PSA basic events, and to generate fire events to be modeled. In this paper, we introduce the overview of the IPRO-ZONE and approaches for determining component failure modes implemented in the IPRO-ZONE

  14. Carrier transfer and magneto-transport in single modulation-doped V-grooved quantum wire modified by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S.H.; Chen Zhanghai; Wang, F.Z.; Shen, S.C.; Tan, H.H.; Fu, L.; Fraser, M.; Jagadish, C.

    2006-01-01

    A single Al 0.5 Ga 0.5 As/GaAs V-grooved quantum wire modified by selective ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing was investigated by using spatially resolved micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy and magneto-resistance measurements. The results of spatially resolved photoluminescence indicate that the ion-implantation-induced quantum well intermixing significantly raises the electronic sub-band energies in the side quantum wells (SQWs) and vertical quantum wells, and a more efficient accumulation of electrons in the quantum wires is achieved. Processes of real space carrier transfer from the SQW to the quantum wire was experimentally observed, and showed the blocking effect of carrier transfer due to the existence of the necking quantum well region. Furthermore, magneto-transport investigation on the ion-implanted quantum wire samples shows the quasi-one-dimensional intrinsic motion of electrons, which is important for the design and the optimization of one-dimensional electronic devices

  15. Thermal transport contributed by the torsional phonons in cylindrical nanowires: Role of evanescent modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Zhong-Xiang; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Li-Fu; Fan, Dian-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Thermal transport contributed by the torsional phonons in cylindrical nanowires is investigated by using the isotropic elastic continuum theory. The numerical calculations for both the concavity-shaped and convexity-shaped cylindrical structures are made to reveal the role of the evanescent modes. Results show that the evanescent modes play an important role in influencing the thermal transport in such structures. For the concavity-shaped cylindrical nanowire, the evanescent modes can enhance the thermal conductance by about 20 percent, while for the convexity-shaped cylindrical nanowire, the evanescent modes can suppress the thermal conductance by 6 percent. It is also shown that the influence of the evanescent modes on the thermal conductance is strongly related to the attenuation length of the evanescent modes. A brief analysis of these results is given. - Highlights: • The evanescent modes play an important role in influencing thermal transport contributed by torsional phonons in cylindrical nanowires. • For the concavity-shaped cylindrical nanowire, the evanescent modes can enhance the thermal conductance by about 20 percent, while for the convexity-shaped cylindrical nanowire, they can suppress the thermal conductance by 6 percent.

  16. Thermal transport contributed by the torsional phonons in cylindrical nanowires: Role of evanescent modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Zhong-Xiang [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science Technology, International Collaborative Laboratory of 2D Materials for Optoelectronic Science & Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Hunan Institute of Technology, Hengyang 421002 (China); Zhang, Yong [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Hunan Institute of Technology, Hengyang 421002 (China); Zhang, Li-Fu, E-mail: zhanglifu68@hotmail.com [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science Technology, International Collaborative Laboratory of 2D Materials for Optoelectronic Science & Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Fan, Dian-Yuan [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science Technology, International Collaborative Laboratory of 2D Materials for Optoelectronic Science & Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2017-05-03

    Thermal transport contributed by the torsional phonons in cylindrical nanowires is investigated by using the isotropic elastic continuum theory. The numerical calculations for both the concavity-shaped and convexity-shaped cylindrical structures are made to reveal the role of the evanescent modes. Results show that the evanescent modes play an important role in influencing the thermal transport in such structures. For the concavity-shaped cylindrical nanowire, the evanescent modes can enhance the thermal conductance by about 20 percent, while for the convexity-shaped cylindrical nanowire, the evanescent modes can suppress the thermal conductance by 6 percent. It is also shown that the influence of the evanescent modes on the thermal conductance is strongly related to the attenuation length of the evanescent modes. A brief analysis of these results is given. - Highlights: • The evanescent modes play an important role in influencing thermal transport contributed by torsional phonons in cylindrical nanowires. • For the concavity-shaped cylindrical nanowire, the evanescent modes can enhance the thermal conductance by about 20 percent, while for the convexity-shaped cylindrical nanowire, they can suppress the thermal conductance by 6 percent.

  17. 47 CFR 63.11 - Notification by and prior approval for U.S. international carriers that are or propose to become...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) EXTENSION OF... before consummation of either of the following types of transactions: (1) Acquisition by the authorized... the authorized carrier demonstrates in the post-notification that it qualifies for non-dominant...

  18. Distribution of energy carriers and resulting CO2 emission caused by the use of energy in Norwegian buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enlid, Elin; Tokle, Trude

    1999-03-01

    This report calculates the primary energy used in heating and management of buildings in Norway and distributes it according to user category and energy carrier. It also calculates the emission of carbon dioxide caused by this energy use. The total amount of energy used for heating and management of buildings in Norway in 1997 was 84 TWh. The corresponding emission of carbon dioxide was 10.5 mill tonnes, about 25% of the total domestic emission of carbon dioxide, including transport

  19. Acceleration of FDTD mode solver by high-performance computing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lin; Xi, Yanping; Huang, Wei-Ping

    2010-06-21

    A two-dimensional (2D) compact finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) mode solver is developed based on wave equation formalism in combination with the matrix pencil method (MPM). The method is validated for calculation of both real guided and complex leaky modes of typical optical waveguides against the bench-mark finite-difference (FD) eigen mode solver. By taking advantage of the inherent parallel nature of the FDTD algorithm, the mode solver is implemented on graphics processing units (GPUs) using the compute unified device architecture (CUDA). It is demonstrated that the high-performance computing technique leads to significant acceleration of the FDTD mode solver with more than 30 times improvement in computational efficiency in comparison with the conventional FDTD mode solver running on CPU of a standard desktop computer. The computational efficiency of the accelerated FDTD method is in the same order of magnitude of the standard finite-difference eigen mode solver and yet require much less memory (e.g., less than 10%). Therefore, the new method may serve as an efficient, accurate and robust tool for mode calculation of optical waveguides even when the conventional eigen value mode solvers are no longer applicable due to memory limitation.

  20. Improvement of carrier transport and luminous efficiency of organic light emitting diodes by introducing a co-deposited active layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, Naoki; Murata, Masaya; Kashiwabara, Keiichiro; Kurata, Kazunori, E-mail: ohtani@mail.doshisha.ac.j [Department of Electronics, Doshisha University, 3-1 Tatara-Miyakodani, Kyotanabe-shi, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    We evaluated carrier transport and luminous efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) whose active regions consist of a single co-deposited layer. One organic material is a hole transport material N,N'-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), while the other is an electron transport/emissive material Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)-aluminum (Alq3). It was found that the luminous efficiency strongly depends on the thickness and the ratio of the TPD:Alq3 co-deposited layer. This indicates that the carrier balance in the active region can be improved by changing the co-deposited layers. In addition, we performed the dye-doping method to clarify the recombination region. As a result, we found that the radiative recombination is caused in the whole TPD:Alq3 co-deposited layer.

  1. Adhesion force imaging in air and liquid by adhesion mode atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Kees; Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, Constant A.; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1994-01-01

    A new imaging mode for the atomic force microscope(AFM), yielding images mapping the adhesion force between tip and sample, is introduced. The adhesion mode AFM takes a force curve at each pixel by ramping a piezoactuator, moving the silicon‐nitride tip up and down towards the sample. During the

  2. Mode transition in bubbly Taylor-Couette flow measured by PTV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K; Tasaka, Y; Murai, Y; Takeda, T

    2009-01-01

    The drag acting to the inner cylinder in Taylor-Couette flow system can be reduced by bubble injection. In this research, relationship between drag reduction and change of vortical structure in a Taylor-Couette flow is investigated by Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). The velocity vector field in the r-z cross section and the bubble concentration in the front view (z-θ plane) are measured. This paper describes the change of vortical structures with bubbles, and the mode transition that is sensitively affected by the bubbles is discussed. The bubbles accumulate in the three parts relative to vortex position by the interaction between bubbles and vortices. The status of bubble's distribution is different depending on position. This difference affects mode transition as its trigger significantly. The presence of bubbles affects the transition from toroidal mode to spiral mode but does not induce the transition from spiral mode to toroidal mode. Further we found that Taylor vortex bifurcates and a pair of vortices coalesces when the flow switches between spiral mode and toroidal mode.

  3. Charge carrier transport and collection enhancement of copper indium diselenide photoactive nanoparticle-ink by laser crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nian, Qiong; Cheng, Gary J., E-mail: gjcheng@purdue.edu [Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States); School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States); Zhang, Martin Y. [School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States); Wang, Yuefeng [Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States); School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States); Das, Suprem R.; Bhat, Venkataprasad S. [Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States); Huang, Fuqiang [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2014-09-15

    There has been increasing needs for cost-effective and high performance thin film deposition techniques for photovoltaics. Among all deposition techniques, roll-to-roll printing of nanomaterials has been a promising method. However, the printed thin film contains many internal imperfections, which reduce the charge-collection performance. Here, direct pulse laser crystallization (DPLC) of photoactive nanoparticles-inks is studied to meet this challenge. In this study, copper indium selenite (CIS) nanoparticle-inks is applied as an example. Enhanced crystallinity, densified structure in the thin film is resulted after DLPC under optimal conditions. It is found that the decreased film internal imperfections after DPLC results in reducing scattering and multi-trapping effects. Both of them contribute to better charge-collection performance of CIS absorber material by increasing extended state mobility and carrier lifetime, when carrier transport and kinetics are coupled. Charge carrier transport was characterized after DPLC, showing mobility increased by 2 orders of magnitude. Photocurrent under AM1.5 illumination was measured and shown 10 times enhancement of integrated power density after DPLC, which may lead to higher efficiency in photo-electric energy conversion.

  4. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production for fuel cells by using bio-ethanol steam reforming: Effect of carrier gas addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Liliana; Kafarov, Viatcheslav

    Omitting the influence of the addition of carrier gas to the reaction system for hydrogen production by bio-ethanol steam reforming can lead to wrong conclusions, especially when it is going to be made to scale. The effect of carrier gas addition to produce hydrogen using bio-ethanol steam reforming to feed fuel cells was evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations in equilibrium conditions were made, however the analysis derived from them can also be applied to kinetic conditions. These calculations were made by using the Aspen-HYSYS software at atmospheric pressure and different values of temperature, water/ethanol molar ratios, and inert (argon)/(water/ethanol) molar ratios. The addition of inert carrier gas modifies the concentrations of the reaction products in comparison to those obtained without its presence. This behavior occurs because most of the reactions which take place in bio-ethanol steam reforming have a positive difference of moles. This fact enhances the system sensitivity to inert concentration at low and moderated temperatures (<700 °C). At high values of temperature, the inert addition does not influence the composition of the reaction products because of the predominant effect of inverse WGS reaction.

  5. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production for fuel cells by using bio-ethanol steam reforming: Effect of carrier gas addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Liliana; Kafarov, Viatcheslav [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Escuela de Ingenieria Quimica, Bucaramanga 678 (Colombia)

    2009-07-01

    Omitting the influence of the addition of carrier gas to the reaction system for hydrogen production by bio-ethanol steam reforming can lead to wrong conclusions, especially when it is going to be made to scale. The effect of carrier gas addition to produce hydrogen using bio-ethanol steam reforming to feed fuel cells was evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations in equilibrium conditions were made, however the analysis derived from them can also be applied to kinetic conditions. These calculations were made by using the Aspen-HYSYS software at atmospheric pressure and different values of temperature, water/ethanol molar ratios, and inert (argon)/(water/ethanol) molar ratios. The addition of inert carrier gas modifies the concentrations of the reaction products in comparison to those obtained without its presence. This behavior occurs because most of the reactions which take place in bio-ethanol steam reforming have a positive difference of moles. This fact enhances the system sensitivity to inert concentration at low and moderated temperatures (<700 C). At high values of temperature, the inert addition does not influence the composition of the reaction products because of the predominant effect of inverse WGS reaction. (author)

  6. Enhanced piezoelectric output of NiO/nanoporous GaN by suppression of internal carrier screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Aadil; Jeong, Dae Kyung; Johar, Muhammad Ali; Kang, Jin-Ho; Ha, Jun-Seok; Key Lee, June; Ryu, Sang-Wan

    2018-06-01

    The efficiency of piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs) significantly depends on the free carrier concentration of semiconductors. In the presence of a mechanical stress, piezoelectric charges are generated at both ends of the PNG, which are rapidly screened by the free carriers. The screening effect rapidly decreases the piezoelectric output within fractions of a second. In this study, the piezoelectric outputs of bulk- and nanoporous GaN-based heterojunction PNGs are compared. GaN thin films were epitaxially grown on sapphire substrates using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Nanoporous GaN was fabricated using electrochemical etching, depleted of free carriers owing to the surface Fermi-level pinning. A highly resistive NiO thin film was deposited on bulk- and nanoporous GaN using radio frequency magnetron sputter. The NiO/nanoporous GaN PNG (NPNG) under a periodic compressive stress of 4 MPa exhibited an output voltage and current of 0.32 V and 1.48 μA cm‑2, respectively. The output voltage and current of the NiO/thin film-GaN PNG (TPNG) were three and five times smaller than those of the NPNG, respectively. Therefore, the high-resistivity of NiO and nanoporous GaN depleted by the Fermi-level pinning are advantageous and provide a better piezoelectric performance of the NPNG, compared with that of the TPNG.

  7. Tay-Sachs Carrier Screening by Enzyme and Molecular Analyses in the New York City Minority Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Nikita; Lazarin, Gabriel A; Spiegel, Erica; Berentsen, Kathleen; Brennan, Kelly; Giordano, Jessica; Haque, Imran S; Wapner, Ronald

    2016-09-01

    Carrier screening for Tay-Sachs disease is performed by sequence analysis of the HEXA gene and/or hexosaminidase A enzymatic activity testing. Enzymatic analysis (EA) has been suggested as the optimal carrier screening method, especially in non-Ashkenazi Jewish (non-AJ) individuals, but its utilization and efficacy have not been fully evaluated in the general population. This study assesses the reliability of EA in comparison with HEXA sequence analysis in non-AJ populations. Five hundred eight Hispanic and African American patients (516 samples) had EA of their leukocytes performed and 12 of these patients who tested positive by EA ("carriers") had subsequent HEXA gene sequencing performed. Of the 508 patients, 25 (4.9%) were EA positive and 40 (7.9%) were inconclusive. Of the 12 patients who were sequenced, 11 did not carry a pathogenic variant and one carried a likely deleterious mutation (NM_000520.4(HEXA):c.1510C>T). High inconclusive rates and poor correlation between positive/inconclusive enzyme results and identification of pathogenic mutations suggest that ethnic-specific recalibration of reference ranges for EA may be necessary. Alternatively, HEXA gene sequencing could be performed.

  8. Enhanced splicing correction effect by an oligo-aspartic acid-PNA conjugate and cationic carrier complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yun Mi; Kim, Myung Hee; Yu, Gwang Sig; Um, Bong Ho; Park, Hee Kyung; Lee, Hyun-il; Lee, Kang Taek; Suh, Yung Doug; Choi, Joon Sig

    2014-02-10

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are synthetic structural analogues of DNA and RNA. They recognize specific cellular nucleic acid sequences and form stable complexes with complementary DNA or RNA. Here, we designed an oligo-aspartic acid-PNA conjugate and showed its enhanced delivery into cells with high gene correction efficiency using conventional cationic carriers, such as polyethylenimine (PEI) and Lipofectamine 2000. The negatively charged oligo-aspartic acid-PNA (Asp(n)-PNA) formed complexes with PEI and Lipofectamine, and the resulting Asp(n)-PNA/PEI and Asp(n)-PNA/Lipofectamine complexes were introduced into cells. We observed significantly enhanced cellular uptake of Asp(n)-PNA by cationic carriers and detected an active splicing correction effect even at nanomolar concentrations. We found that the splicing correction efficiency of the complex depended on the kind of the cationic carriers and on the number of repeating aspartic acid units. By enhancing the cellular uptake efficiency of PNAs, these results may provide a novel platform technology of PNAs as bioactive substances for their biological and therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Change in carrier type in high-k gate carbon nanotube field-effect transistors by interface fixed charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, N; Ohno, Y; Kitamura, T; Kishimoto, S; Mizutani, T

    2010-01-01

    We study the phenomenon of change in carrier type in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) caused by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of a HfO 2 gate insulator. When a HfO 2 layer is deposited on a CNFET, the type of carrier changes from p-type to n-type. The so-obtained n-type device has good performance and stability in air. The conductivity of such a device with a channel length of 0.7 μm is 11% of the quantum conductance 4e 2 /h. The contact resistance for electron current is estimated to be 14 kΩ. The n-type conduction of this CNFET is maintained for more than 100 days. The change in carrier type is attributed to positive fixed charges introduced at the interface between the HfO 2 and SiO 2 layers. We also propose a novel technique to control the type of conduction by utilizing interface fixed charges; this technique is compatible with Si CMOS process technology.

  10. Zonal Flows Driven by Small-Scale Drift-Alfven Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dehui; Zhou Deng

    2011-01-01

    Generation of zonal flows by small-scale drift-Alfven modes is investigated by adopting the approach of parametric instability with the electron polarization drift included. The zonal mode can be excited by primary modes propagating at both electron and ion diamagnetic drift directions in contrast to the assertion in previous studies that only primary modes propagating in the ion diamagnetic drift directions can drive zonal instabilities. Generally, the growth rate of the driven zonal mode is in the same order as that in previous study. However, different from the previous work, the growth rate is no longer proportional to the difference between the diamagnetic drift frequencies of electrons and ions. (magnetically confined plasma)

  11. On the preparation of precursors and carriers of nanoparticles by water jet technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sitek, Libor; Foldyna, Josef; Martinec, Petr; Klich, Jiří; Mašláň, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2012), s. 465-474 ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MPO FR-TI3/733 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA205/08/0869; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M6198959201 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : carriers of nano particles * particle disintegration * precursors of nano particles * water jet Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.601, year: 2012 http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=129050

  12. LTE UE Energy Saving by Applying Carrier Aggregation in a HetNet Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Wang, Hua; Mogensen, Preben

    2013-01-01

    In this work it is examined if downlink Carrier Aggregation (CA) can be used to save UE energy. A dual-receiver LTE release 10 UE is compared with a single-receiver LTE release 8 UE. The models are based on scaling of an existing LTE release 8 UE power model. The energy consumption of the UEs...... is examined in a Heterogeneous Network scenario consisting of macro and small cells. The unexpected conclusion is that CA UEs can save energy, compared to LTE release 8 UEs, if they, depending on cell load, experience a throughput gain of 20%. However if the UE throughput is unaltered the energy consumption...

  13. Modelling of charge carrier transport in conjugated polymers doped by polar additives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Toman, Petr; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Bartkowiak, W.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2009), s. 797-812 ISSN 0137-1339. [International Conference on Electrical and Related Properties of Organic Solids /11./. Piechowice, 13.07.2008-17.07.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/0285; GA AV ČR KAN400720701; GA MŠk MEB050815 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conjugated polymers * charge carrier transport * molecular electronics Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.384, year: 2009

  14. Is there any exposure from a mobile phone in stand-by mode?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mild, Kjell Hansson; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have been using a GSM mobile phone in stand-by mode as the source for exposure, and they claimed that this caused effects on for instance sleep and testicular function. In stand-by mode the phone is only active in periodic location updates, and this occurs with a frequency set by ...... by the net operator. Typical updates occur with 2-5 h in between, and between these updates the phone is to be considered as a passive radio receiver with no microwave emission. Thus, the exposure in stand-by mode can be considered negligible....

  15. Charge-carrier selective electrodes for organic bulk heterojunction solar cell by contact-printed siloxane oligomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hyun-Sik; Khang, Dahl-Young

    2015-01-01

    ‘Smart’ (or selective) electrode for charge carriers, both electrons and holes, in organic bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells using insertion layers made of hydrophobically-recovered and contact-printed siloxane oligomers between electrodes and active material has been demonstrated. The siloxane oligomer insertion layer has been formed at a given interface simply by conformally-contacting a cured slab of polydimethylsiloxane stamp for less than 100 s. All the devices, either siloxane oligomer printed at one interface only or printed at both interfaces, showed efficiency enhancement when compared to non-printed ones. The possible mechanism that is responsible for the observed efficiency enhancement has been discussed based on the point of optimum symmetry and photocurrent analysis. Besides its simplicity and large-area applicability, the demonstrated contact-printing technique does not involve any vacuum or wet processing steps and thus can be very useful for the roll-based, continuous production scheme for organic BHJ solar cells. - Highlights: • Carrier-selective insertion layer in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells • Simple contact-printing of siloxane oligomers improves cell efficiency. • Printed siloxane layer reduces carrier recombination at electrode surfaces. • Siloxane insertion layer works equally well at both electrode surfaces. • Patterned PDMS stamp shortens the printing time within 100 s

  16. Dendritic cell targeted liposomes–protamine–DNA complexes mediated by synthetic mannosylated cholestrol as a potential carrier for DNA vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pan; Chen Simu; Jiang Yuhong; Jiang Jiayu; Zhang Zhirong; Sun Xun

    2013-01-01

    To construct mannosylated liposomes/protamine/DNA (LPD) carriers for DNA vaccine targeting to dendritic cells (DCs), a mannosylated cholesterol derivative (Man-C6-Chol) was synthesized via simple ester linkage and amide bonds. Then, the Man-C6-Chol was applied to LPD formulation as a synthetic ligand. The physicochemical properties of mannosylated LPD (Man-LPD) were first evaluated, including the size and zeta potential, morphology and the ability to protect DNA against DNase I degradation. Man-LPD showed a small size with a stable viral-like structure. In comparison to non-mannose liposomes/LPD (Man-free liposomes/LPD), mannosylated liposomes/LPD (Man-liposomes/Man-LPD) exhibited higher efficiency in both intracellular uptake (2.3-fold) and transfection (4.5-fold) in vitro. Subsequent MTT assays indicated that the LPD carriers had low toxicity on the tested cells. Afterwards, the investigation into the maturation activation on primary bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) showed that both Man-LPD and Man-free LPD induced remarkable up-regulation of CD80, CD86 and CD40 on BMDCs. Inspired by these studies, we can conclude that the synthetic mannosylated LPD targeting to DCs was a potential carrier for DNA vaccine. (paper)

  17. Destabilization of a peeling-ballooning mode by a toroidal rotation in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiba, N.; Hirota, M.; Tokuda, S.; Furukawa, M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: From the viewpoint of the heat load on the divertor, Type-I edge localized mode (ELM) needs to be suppressed or the amplitude of this ELM needs to be reduced. In JT-60U, some experimental results showed that the ELM frequency depends on the toroidal rotation, and the rapid rotation in the counter direction of the plasma current changes from Type-I ELM to Grassy ELM, whose frequency is high and the amplitude is small. Recent experimental and theoretical/numerical studies in a static system have identified that both Type-I and Grassy ELMs are considered ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes destabilizing near the plasma surface, called peeling-ballooning modes. To investigate the mechanism of the change of ELM frequency by a toroidal rotation, theoretical and numerical analyses are important for understanding the toroidal rotation effects on the peeling-ballooning mode. Previous works about the toroidal rotation effect on the edge MHD stability have illustrated that the toroidal rotation with shear can destabilize low/intermediate-n (<50) modes but can stabilize high-n modes, where n is the toroidal mode number. The stabilization of the high-n mode can be understood qualitatively in analogy with the infinite-n ballooning mode case. However, the destabilizing mechanism of the low/intermediate-n mode is not still clarified, and to understand the stability property related to ELM suppression/mitigation, it is important to clarify this destabilizing mechanism. In this paper, we investigate numerically the destabilizing effect of a toroidal rotation on the peeling-ballooning mode with a newly developed code MINERVA, which solves the Frieman-Rotenberg equation. Particularly, we pay attention to the effect of the centrifuged force on not only equilibrium but also change of equation of motion. (author)

  18. Evaluation of mode purity of ordinary and extraordinary modes by fixed elliptically polarized wave for ECH and ECCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saigusa, Mikio

    1991-08-01

    Mode separation ratio from an arbitrary elliptically polarized electromagnetic wave to an ordinary and an extraordinary modes on a plasma surface for oblique launch is evaluated quantitatively for designing an electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) antenna. An optimized elliptical polarization for the wide range of injection angles and magnetic fields is firstly investigated for ECCD and ECH experiments. (author)

  19. Detection of wild animals as carriers of Leptospira by PCR in the Pantanal biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Anahi S; Narduche, Lorena; Martins, Gabriel; Schabib Péres, Igor A H F; Zimmermann, Namor P; Juliano, Raquel S; Pellegrin, Aiesca O; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2016-11-01

    Leptospiral infection is widespread in wildlife. In this context, wild ecosystems in tropical countries hold a vast biodiversity, including several species that may act as potential reservoirs of leptospires. The Pantanal biome presents highly favorable environmental conditions for the occurrence of leptospirosis, such as high temperatures, constant flooding, and high biodiversity. The purpose of this study was to detect wild animals as carriers of Leptospira sp. using direct methods (PCR and culture) in the Pantanal biome, Brazil. A total of 35 animals were studied, namely Cerdocyon thous, Nasua nasua, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, and Sus scrofa species. Blood for serology (MAT) and urine for bacteriological culturing and PCR was sampled. The most prevalent serogroups were Javanica and Djasiman. Additionally, 40.6% of these animals presented PCR positive reactions. Seroreactivity associated with the high frequency of leptospiral carriers among the different studied species suggests a high level of exposure of the studied animals to pathogenic Leptospira strains. Our results are still limited and the actual role of the studied animals in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in the Pantanal region remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Exciton versus Free Carrier Photogeneration in Organometal Trihalide Perovskites Probed by Broadband Ultrafast Polarization Memory Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, ChuanXiang; Zhang, Chuang; Zhai, Yaxin; Mielczarek, Kamil; Wang, Weiwei; Ma, Wanli; Zakhidov, Anvar; Vardeny, Z. Valy

    2015-03-01

    We studied the ultrafast transient response of photoexcitations in two hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite films used for high efficiency photovoltaic cells, namely, CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbI1.1Br1.9 using polarized broadband pump-probe spectroscopy in the spectral range of 0.3-2.7 eV with 300 fs time resolution. For CH3NH3PbI3 with above-gap excitation we found both photogenerated carriers and excitons, but only carriers are photogenerated with below-gap excitation. In contrast, mainly excitons are photogenerated in CH3NH3PbI1.1Br1.9 . Surprisingly, we also discovered in CH3NH3PbI3 , but not in CH3NH3PbI1.1Br1.9 , transient photoinduced polarization memory for both excitons and photocarriers, which is also reflected in the steady state photoluminescence. From the polarization memory dynamics we obtained the excitons diffusion constant in CH3NH3PbI3 , D ≈0.01 cm2 s-1 .

  1. An overview on the delivery of antitumor drug doxorubicin by carrier proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, D; Bérubé, G; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2016-07-01

    Serum proteins play an increasing role as drug carriers in the clinical settings. In this review, we have compared the binding modalities of anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) to three model carrier proteins, human serum albumin (HSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and milk beta-lactoglobulin (β-LG) in order to determine the potential application of these model proteins in DOX delivery. Molecular modeling studies showed stronger binding of DOX with HSA than BSA and β-LG with the free binding energies of -10.75 (DOX-HSA), -9.31 (DOX-BSA) and -8.12kcal/mol (DOX-β-LG). Extensive H-boding network stabilizes DOX-protein conjugation and played a major role in drug-protein complex formation. DOX complexation induced major alterations of HSA and BSA conformations, while did not alter β-LG secondary structure. The literature review shows that these proteins can potentially be used for delivery of DOX in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Suppression of tunnel modes of hydrogen in α-Mn by elastic stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, V.E.; Fedotov, V.K.; Glazkov, V.P.; Somenkov, V.A.; Kozlenko, D.P.; Savenko, B.N.

    2002-01-01

    By means of inelastic incoherent scattering of neutrons one investigated into behavior of hydrogen tunnel mode in MnH 0.04 and MnH 0.07 under high pressure values in sapphire anvils. Peak of inelastic scattering relevant to hydrogen tunnelling in a two-hole potential was determined to vanish at 0.8 GPa pressure under quasi-hydrostatic mode and to survive with no visible changes under standard hydrostatics. The detected effect of suppression of tunnel modes by inhomogeneous elastic stresses is explained by interruption of levels in neighboring holes by static shifts [ru

  3. Antiphospholipid antibodies detected by line immunoassay differentiate among patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, with infections and asymptomatic carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggenbuck, Dirk; Borghi, Maria Orietta; Somma, Valentina; Büttner, Thomas; Schierack, Peter; Hanack, Katja; Grossi, Claudia; Bodio, Caterina; Macor, Paolo; von Landenberg, Philipp; Boccellato, Francesco; Mahler, Michael; Meroni, Pier Luigi

    2016-05-21

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) can be detected in asymptomatic carriers and infectious patients. The aim was to investigate whether a novel line immunoassay (LIA) differentiates between antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and asymptomatic aPL+ carriers or patients with infectious diseases (infectious diseases controls (IDC)). Sixty-one patients with APS (56 primary, 22/56 with obstetric events only, and 5 secondary), 146 controls including 24 aPL+ asymptomatic carriers and 73 IDC were tested on a novel hydrophobic solid phase coated with cardiolipin (CL), phosphatic acid, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, beta2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI), prothrombin, and annexin V. Samples were also tested by anti-CL and anti-β2GPI ELISAs and for lupus anticoagulant activity. Human monoclonal antibodies (humoAbs) against human β2GPI or PL alone were tested on the same LIA substrates in the absence or presence of human serum, purified human β2GPI or after CL-micelle absorption. Comparison of LIA with the aPL-classification assays revealed good agreement for IgG/IgM aß2GPI and aCL. Anti-CL and anti-ß2GPI IgG/IgM reactivity assessed by LIA was significantly higher in patients with APS versus healthy controls and IDCs, as detected by ELISA. IgG binding to CL and ß2GPI in the LIA was significantly lower in aPL+ carriers and Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (VDRL) + samples than in patients with APS. HumoAb against domain 1 recognized β2GPI bound to the LIA-matrix and in anionic phospholipid (PL) complexes. Absorption with CL micelles abolished the reactivity of a PL-specific humoAb but did not affect the binding of anti-β2GPI humoAbs. The LIA and ELISA have good agreement in detecting aPL in APS, but the LIA differentiates patients with APS from infectious patients and asymptomatic carriers, likely through the exposure of domain 1.

  4. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should

  5. Controlled higher-order transverse mode conversion from a fiber laser by polarization manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Yi, Qian; Yang, Lingling; Zhao, Chujun; Wen, Shuangchun

    2018-02-01

    We report a vectorial fiber laser with controlled transverse mode conversion by intra-cavity polarization manipulation. By combining a q-plate and two quarter-wave plates (QWPs), we can generate a switchable polarization state output represented by the higher-order Poincaré sphere (l = +1, l = -1), and distinguish the fourfold degenerate LP11 mode. The four transverse vector modes can be obtained and switched in a flexible way, and the slope efficiency of the fiber laser can reach up to 39.4%. This compactness, high efficiency, and switchable operation potential will benefit a range of applications, such as materials processing, particle manipulation, etc.

  6. [Feasibility investigation of hydrogen instead of helium as carrier gas in the determination of five organophosphorus pesticides by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenxue; Zhou, Shixue

    2015-01-01

    Helium is almost the only choosable carrier gas used in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A mixed standard solution of five organophosphorus pesticides was analyzed by using GC-MS, and hydrogen or helium as carrier gas, so as to study the feasibility of hydrogen instead of helium as carrier gas for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides. Combining a mass spectrum database built by ourselves, the results were deconvolved and identified by Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution & Identification System (AMDIS32), a software belonging to the workstation of the instrument. Then, the statistical software, IBM SPSS Statistics 19.0 was used for the clustering analysis of the data. The results indicated that when hydrogen was used as carrier gas, the peaks of the pesticides detected were slightly earlier than those when helium used as carrier gas, but the resolutions of the chromatographic peaks were lower, and the fraction good indices (Frac. Good) were lower, too. When hydrogen was used as carrier gas, the signals of the pesticides were unstable, the measuring accuracies of the pesticides were reduced too, and even more, some compounds were undetectable. Therefore, considering the measuring accuracy, the signal stability, and the safety, etc., hydrogen should be cautiously used as carrier gas in the determination of organophosphorus pesticides by GC-MS.

  7. Optimal Scheduling of a Multi-Carrier Energy Hub Supplemented By Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a management model for optimal scheduling of a multi-carrier energy hub. In the proposed hub, three types of assets are considered: dispersed generating systems (DGs) such as micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) units, storage devices such as battery-based electrical storage...... systems (ESSs), and heating/cooling devices such as electrical heater, heat-pumps and absorption chillers. The optimal scheduling and management of the examined energy hub assets in line with electrical transactions with distribution network is modeled as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem....... In this regard, optimal operating points of DG units as well as ESSs are calculated based on a cost-effective strategy. Degradation cost of ESSs is also taken into consideration for short-term scheduling. Simulation results demonstrate that including well-planned energy storage options together with optimal...

  8. 29 CFR 1201.1 - Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carrier. 1201.1 Section 1201.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD DEFINITIONS § 1201.1 Carrier. The term carrier includes any express company, sleeping car company, carrier by railroad, subject to the Interstate Commerce Act...

  9. Zonal flow excitation by Shukla-Varma modes in a nonuniform dusty magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Stenflo, L.

    2002-01-01

    The nonlinear coupling between the Shukla-Varma (SV) modes and the zonal flows in a nonuniform dusty magnetoplasma is considered. By using a two-fluid model and the guiding center particle drifts, a pair of coupled mode equations is obtained. The latter are Fourier analyzed to obtain a nonlinear dispersion relation, which exhibits the excitation of zonal flows by the ponderomotive force of the SV modes. The increment of the parametrically excited zonal flows is presented. The relevance of our investigation to laboratory and space plasmas is discussed

  10. Driving of the solar p-modes by radiative pumping in the upper photosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Emslie, A. G.; Moore, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that one viable driver of the solar p-modes is radiative pumping in the upper photosphere where the opacity is dominated by the negative hydrogen ion. This new option is suggested by the similar magnitudes of two energy flows that have been evaluated by independent empirical methods. The similarity indicates that the p-modes are radiatively pumped in the upper photosphere and therefore provide the required nonradiative cooling.

  11. Mode conversions by a discontinuous junction of two helix loaded waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, J.Y.; Ahn, S.; Ganquly, A.K.; Uhm, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    For various reasons, it is desirable to vary the primary propagating mode from one section of the waveguide to another. We choose the base structure to be the sheath helix loaded waveguide. Specifically, we join two physically different helix loaded waveguides axisymmetrically, thereby providing the required discontinuities at the junction (Z = 0). The helix loaded waveguide is more advantageous to the simple waveguide in that the helix mode that exists uniquely in the helix waveguide in addition to the usual fast wave hybrid modes, is without cutoff and thus behaves like a transmission line. In order to obtain the mode conversion rates, we expand the waves in the both sides of the junction with its own eigenmodes including the evanescent modes, and by matching fields at the junction (Z = 0) obtain the matrix equation for the coefficients for the eigenmodes in both sides. By choosing the propagating incident wave (Z = 0) the resulting outgoing waves in the other end (Z > 0) will be computed from the matrix equation. A computer program is devised to solve the suitably truncated matrix equation, and the numerical examples for the mode conversion rates with the parameter variations will be presented. The relevant physical parameters to yield discontinuities at the junction are the radii of the outer conductor and the helix wire and the pitch angle of the helix. Special emphases are on the conversion rates from the helix mode (Z 0) for the application to the tapered gyrotron amplifier

  12. Statistical analysis of mirror mode waves in sheath regions driven by interplanetary coronal mass ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Lahti, Matti M.; Kilpua, Emilia K. J.; Dimmock, Andrew P.; Osmane, Adnane; Pulkkinen, Tuija; Souček, Jan

    2018-05-01

    We present a comprehensive statistical analysis of mirror mode waves and the properties of their plasma surroundings in sheath regions driven by interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME). We have constructed a semi-automated method to identify mirror modes from the magnetic field data. We analyze 91 ICME sheath regions from January 1997 to April 2015 using data from the Wind spacecraft. The results imply that similarly to planetary magnetosheaths, mirror modes are also common structures in ICME sheaths. However, they occur almost exclusively as dip-like structures and in mirror stable plasma. We observe mirror modes throughout the sheath, from the bow shock to the ICME leading edge, but their amplitudes are largest closest to the shock. We also find that the shock strength (measured by Alfvén Mach number) is the most important parameter in controlling the occurrence of mirror modes. Our findings suggest that in ICME sheaths the dominant source of free energy for mirror mode generation is the shock compression. We also suggest that mirror modes that are found deeper in the sheath are remnants from earlier times of the sheath evolution, generated also in the vicinity of the shock.

  13. Biotin uptake by mouse and human pancreatic beta cells/islets: a regulated, lipopolysaccharide-sensitive carrier-mediated process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Sekar, Thillai V.

    2014-01-01

    Biotin is essential for the normal function of pancreatic beta cells. These cells obtain biotin from their surroundings via transport across their cell membrane. Little is known about the uptake mechanism involved, how it is regulated, and how it is affected by internal and external factors. We addressed these issues using the mouse-derived pancreatic beta-TC-6 cells and freshly isolated mouse and human primary pancreatic beta cells as models. The results showed biotin uptake by pancreatic beta-TC-6 cells occurs via a Na+-dependent, carrier-mediated process, that is sensitive to desthiobiotin, as well as to pantothenic acid and lipoate; the process is also saturable as a function of concentration (apparent Km = 22.24 ± 5.5 μM). These cells express the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT), whose knockdown (with doxycycline-inducible shRNA) led to a sever inhibition in biotin uptake. Similarly, uptake of biotin by mouse and human primary pancreatic islets is Na+-dependent and carrier-mediated, and both cell types express SMVT. Biotin uptake by pancreatic beta-TC-6 cells is also adaptively regulated (via transcriptional mechanism) by extracellular substrate level. Chronic treatment of pancreatic beta-TC-6 cells with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) leads to inhibition in biotin uptake. This inhibition is mediated via a Toll-Like receptor 4-mediated process and involves a decrease in membrane expression of SMVT. These findings show, for the first time, that pancreatic beta cells/islets take up biotin via a specific and regulated carrier-mediated process, and that the process is sensitive to the effect of LPS. PMID:24904078

  14. Linear Plasma Oscillation Described by Superposition of Normal Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1974-01-01

    The existence of steady‐state solutions to the linearized ion and electron Vlasov equation is demonstrated for longitudinal waves in an initially stable plasma. The evolution of an arbitrary initial perturbation can be described by superposition of these solutions. Some common approximations...

  15. Stabilization of thin shell modes by a rotating secondary wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimblett, C.G.

    1989-01-01

    A simple model is developed to investigate if and under what circumstances the thin shell instabilities of a Reverse Field Pinch can be stabilized by a rotating secondary wall. The principles may be applicable to reactor designs that utilize a flowing liquid blanket (author)

  16. Induction of antigen-specific immunity by pH-sensitive carbonate apatite as a potent vaccine carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebishima, Takehisa; Tada, Seiichi; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Akaike, Toshihiro; Ito, Yoshihiro; Aida, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► To develop effective vaccine, we examined the effects of CO 3 Ap as an antigen carrier. ► OVA contained in CO 3 Ap was taken up by BMDCs more effectively than free OVA. ► OVA-immunized splenocytes was activated by OVA contained in CO 3 Ap effectively. ► OVA contained in CO 3 Ap induced strong OVA-specific immune responses to C57BL/6 mice. ► CO 3 Ap is promising antigen carrier for the achievement of effective vaccine. -- Abstract: The ability of carbonate apatite (CO 3 Ap) to enhance antigen-specific immunity was examined in vitro and in vivo to investigate its utility as a vaccine carrier. Murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells took up ovalbumin (OVA) containing CO 3 Ap more effectively than free OVA. Interestingly, mice immunized with OVA-containing CO 3 Ap produced OVA-specific antibodies more effectively than mice immunized with free OVA. Furthermore, immunization of C57BL/6 mice with OVA-containing CO 3 Ap induced the proliferation and antigen-specific production of IFN-γ by splenocytes more strongly than immunization with free OVA. Moreover, no significant differences were detected in the induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, an immune reaction involving an antigen-specific, cell-mediated immune response between OVA-containing CO 3 Ap and OVA-containing alumina salt (Alum), suggesting that CO 3 Ap induced cell-mediated immune response to the same degree as Alum, which is commonly used for clinical applications. This study is the first to demonstrate the induction of antigen-specific immune responses in vivo by CO 3 Ap.

  17. Analysis of Coherent Phonon Signals by Sparsity-promoting Dynamic Mode Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Shin; Aihara, Shingo; Tokuda, Satoru; Iwamitsu, Kazunori; Mizoguchi, Kohji; Akai, Ichiro; Okada, Masato

    2018-05-01

    We propose a method to decompose normal modes in a coherent phonon (CP) signal by sparsity-promoting dynamic mode decomposition. While the CP signals can be modeled as the sum of finite number of damped oscillators, the conventional method such as Fourier transform adopts continuous bases in a frequency domain. Thus, the uncertainty of frequency appears and it is difficult to estimate the initial phase. Moreover, measurement artifacts are imposed on the CP signal and deforms the Fourier spectrum. In contrast, the proposed method can separate the signal from the artifact precisely and can successfully estimate physical properties of the normal modes.

  18. Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maysonnave, J; Maussang, K; Freeman, J R; Jukam, N; Madéo, J; Cavalié, P; Rungsawang, R; Khanna, S P; Linfield, E H; Davies, A G; Beere, H E; Ritchie, D A; Dhillon, S S; Tignon, J

    2012-09-10

    A novel scheme to achieve mode-locking of a multimode laser is demonstrated. Traditional methods to produce ultrashort laser pulses are based on modulating the cavity gain or losses at the cavity roundtrip frequency, favoring the pulsed emission. Here, we rather directly act on the phases of the modes, resulting in constructive interference for the appropriated phase relationship. This was performed on a terahertz quantum cascade laser by multimode injection seeding with an external terahertz pulse, resulting in phase mode-locked terahertz laser pulses of 9 ps duration, characterized unambiguously in the time domain.

  19. Nonlocal analysis of the excitation of the geodesic acoustic mode by drift waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzdar, P.N.; Kleva, R.G.; Chakrabarti, N.

    2009-01-01

    The geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) are typically observed in the edge region of toroidal plasmas. Drift waves have been identified as a possible cause of excitation of GAMs by a resonant three wave parametric process. A nonlocal theory of excitation of these modes in inhomogeneous plasmas typical...... of the edge region of tokamaks is presented in this paper. The continuum GAM modes with coupling to the drift waves can create discrete "global" unstable eigenmodes localized in the edge "pedestal" region of the plasma. Multiple resonantly driven unstable radial eigenmodes can coexist on the edge pedestal....

  20. Becoming stronger by becoming weaker: the hunger strike as a mode of doing politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsson, Carl Sebastian; Danyi, Endre

    2018-01-01

    immigrants, we aim to achieve three things. First, we foreground physical bodies as political entities caught up in multiple modes of doing politics. Second, we show how such modes relate to one another, reinforcing citizenship, activism and party politics as specific performances of agency associated...... with liberal democracy. Finally, we argue that the Brussels hunger strike also challenges these performances by failing to meet certain expectations about what it is to be political/act politically. As the European refugee crisis is generating louder and louder voices, hunger strikes sensitise us to modes...

  1. Neoclassical effects on the stabilization of tearing mode by current modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoqing, E-mail: inkyang@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Wang, Shaojie; Yang, Weihong [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China)

    2014-02-15

    The neoclassical effects on the stabilization of tearing modes by current modulation have been investigated. Neoclassical effects enhance the resistivity and reduce the resistive diffusion time of the modulation current. Therefore, the oscillating current can penetrate deeper into the plasma. With an oscillating loop voltage, the plasma oscillates radially at the Ware-pinch velocity. These neoclassical effects improve the efficiency of tearing mode stabilization by the current modulation.

  2. Defect modes in silver-doped photonic crystals made by holography using dichromated gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Rui; Chen, Shujing; Ren, Zhi; Wang, Zhaona; Liu, Dahe

    2012-10-01

    The defect mode in silver-doped photonic crystals is investigated. 1D and 3D photonic crystals were made by holography using dichromated gelatin mixed with silver nitrate. By controlling the concentration of the silver nitrate, the defect mode was observed in the bandgaps of the holographic photonic crystals. The numerical simulations were made, and the results showed the consistency with the experimental observations.

  3. Seismic analysis of structures of nuclear power plants by Lanczos mode superposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, A.L.G.A.; Alves, J.L.D.; Landau, L.; Lima, E.C.P. de; Ebecken, N.F.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Lanczos Mode Superposition Method is applied in the seismic analysis of nuclear power plants. The coordinate transformation matrix is generated by the Lanczos algorithm. It is shown that, through a convenient choice of the starting vector of the algorithm, modes with participation factors are automatically selected. It is performed the Response Spectra analysis of a typical reactor building. The obtained results are compared with those determined by the classical aproach stressing the remarkable computer effectiveness of the proposed methodology. (Author) [pt

  4. Two independent modes of chromatin organization revealed by cohesin removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Wibke; Abdennur, Nezar; Goloborodko, Anton; Pekowska, Aleksandra; Fudenberg, Geoffrey; Loe-Mie, Yann; Fonseca, Nuno A; Huber, Wolfgang; H Haering, Christian; Mirny, Leonid; Spitz, Francois

    2017-11-02

    Imaging and chromosome conformation capture studies have revealed several layers of chromosome organization, including segregation into megabase-sized active and inactive compartments, and partitioning into sub-megabase domains (TADs). It remains unclear, however, how these layers of organization form, interact with one another and influence genome function. Here we show that deletion of the cohesin-loading factor Nipbl in mouse liver leads to a marked reorganization of chromosomal folding. TADs and associated Hi-C peaks vanish globally, even in the absence of transcriptional changes. By contrast, compartmental segregation is preserved and even reinforced. Strikingly, the disappearance of TADs unmasks a finer compartment structure that accurately reflects the underlying epigenetic landscape. These observations demonstrate that the three-dimensional organization of the genome results from the interplay of two independent mechanisms: cohesin-independent segregation of the genome into fine-scale compartments, defined by chromatin state; and cohesin-dependent formation of TADs, possibly by loop extrusion, which helps to guide distant enhancers to their target genes.

  5. Shear Alfven wave excitation by direct antenna coupling and fast wave resonant mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    Antenna coupling to the shear Alfven wave by both direct excitation and fast wave resonant mode conversion is modelled analytically for a plasma with a one dimensional linear density gradient. We demonstrate the existence of a shear Alfven mode excited directly by the antenna. For localised antennas, this mode propagates as a guided beam along the steady magnetic field lines intersecting the antenna. Shear Alfven wave excitation by resonant mode conversion of a fast wave near the Alfven resonance layer is also demonstrated and we prove that energy is conserved in this process. We compare the efficiency of these two mechanisms of shear Alfven wave excitation and present a simple analytical formula giving the ratio of the coupled powers. Finally, we discuss the interpretation of some experimental results. 45 refs., 7 figs

  6. Formation of dominant mode by evolution in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Chikara; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2018-04-01

    A reduction in high-dimensional phenotypic states to a few degrees of freedom is essential to understand biological systems. Here, we show evolutionary robustness causes such reduction which restricts possible phenotypic changes in response to a variety of environmental conditions. First, global protein expression changes in Escherichia coli after various environmental perturbations were shown to be proportional across components, across different types of environmental conditions. To examine if such dimension reduction is a result of evolution, we analyzed a cell model—with a huge number of components, that reproduces itself via a catalytic reaction network—and confirmed that common proportionality in the concentrations of all components is shaped through evolutionary processes. We found that the changes in concentration across all components in response to environmental and evolutionary changes are constrained to the changes along a one-dimensional major axis, within a huge-dimensional state space. On the basis of these observations, we propose a theory in which such constraints in phenotypic changes are achieved both by evolutionary robustness and plasticity and formulate this proposition in terms of dynamical systems. Accordingly, broad experimental and numerical results on phenotypic changes caused by evolution and adaptation are coherently explained.

  7. Preparation of Polysaccharide-Based Microspheres by a Water-in-Oil Emulsion Solvent Diffusion Method for Drug Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yodthong Baimark

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide-based microspheres of chitosan, starch, and alginate were prepared by the water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method for use as drug carriers. Blue dextran was used as a water-soluble biomacromolecular drug model. Scanning electron microscopy showed sizes of the resultant microspheres that were approximately 100 μm or less. They were spherical in shape with a rough surface and good dispersibility. Microsphere matrices were shown as a sponge. Drug loading efficiencies of all the microspheres were higher than 80%, which suggested that this method has potential to prepare polysaccharide-based microspheres containing a biomacromolecular drug model for drug delivery applications.

  8. Theoretical study on the cage-like nanostructures formed by amino acids and their potential applications as drug carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Pei Pei; Fan, Jian Fen; Lin, Hui Fang; Zhao, Xin; Si, Xia Lan

    2017-12-01

    The cage-like octamer, decamer and dodecamer constructed from aspartic acid monomers have been studied to explore their potential applications as drug carriers using the density functional theory. The calculation results indicate that these stable cage-like oligomers are mainly connected by the -C=O…HOOC- and -HN…HOOC- H-bonds and still keep stability and good drum-shaped topologies after the incorporation of 5-fluorouracil, paraldehyde and C24, respectively. The self-assembled cage-like oligomers may be applied to the preparation of new biological materials and the design of drug delivery systems.

  9. Immunization of mice by Hollow Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles as carriers of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 ORF2 Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Hui-Chen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 is a primary etiological agent of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, which is a disease of increasing importance to the pig industry worldwide. Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs have gained increasing interest for use in vaccines. Methods To study the potential of HMSNs for use as a protein delivery system or vaccine carriers. HMSNs were synthesized by a sol–gel/emulsion(oil-in-water/ethanol method, purified PCV2 GST-ORF2-E protein was loaded into HMSNs, and the resulting HMSN/protein mixture was injected into mice. The uptake and release profiles of protein by HMSNs in vitro were investigated. PCV2 GST-ORF2-E specific antibodies and secretion of IFN-γ were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, spleen lymphocyte proliferation was measured by the MTS method, and the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ were determined by flow cytometry. Results HMSNs were found to yield better binding capacities and delivery profiles of proteins; the specific immune response induced by PCV2 GST-ORF2-E was maintained for a relatively long period of time after immunization with the HMSN/protein complex. Conclusion The findings suggest that HMSNs are good protein carriers and have high potential for use in future applications in therapeutic drug delivery.

  10. Mechanical detection and mode shape imaging of vibrational modes of micro and nanomechanical resonators by dynamic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulo, A S; GarcIa-Sanchez, D; Perez-Murano, F; Bachtold, A; Black, J; Bokor, J; Esplandiu, M J; Aguasca, A

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method based on the use of higher order bending modes of the cantilever of a dynamic force microscope to characterize vibrations of micro and nanomechanical resonators at arbitrarily large resonance frequencies. Our method consists on using a particular cantilever eigenmode for standard feedback control in amplitude modulation operation while another mode is used for detecting and imaging the resonator vibration. In addition, the resonating sample device is driven at or near its resonance frequency with a signal modulated in amplitude at a frequency that matches the resonance of the cantilever eigenmode used for vibration detection. In consequence, this cantilever mode is excited with an amplitude proportional to the resonator vibration, which is detected with an external lock-in amplifier. We show two different application examples of this method. In the first one, acoustic wave vibrations of a film bulk acoustic resonator around 1.6 GHz are imaged. In the second example, bending modes of carbon nanotube resonators up to 3.1 GHz are characterized. In both cases, the method provides subnanometer-scale sensitivity and the capability of providing otherwise inaccessible information about mechanical resonance frequencies, vibration amplitude values and mode shapes

  11. ELM triggering by energetic particle driven mode in wall-stabilized high-β plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, G.; Aiba, N.; Shinohara, K.; Asakura, N.; Isayama, A.; Oyama, N.

    2013-01-01

    In the JT-60U high-β plasmas above the no-wall β limit, a triggering of an edge localized mode (ELM) by an energetic particle (EP)-driven mode has been observed. This EP-driven mode is thought to be driven by trapped EPs and it has been named EP-driven wall mode (EWM) on JT-60U (Matsunaga et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 045001). When the EWM appears in an ELMy H-mode phase, ELM crashes are reproducibly synchronized with the EWM bursts. The EWM-triggered ELM has a higher repetition frequency and less energy loss than those of the natural ELM. In order to trigger an ELM by the EP-driven mode, some conditions are thought to be needed, thus an EWM with large amplitude and growth rate, and marginal edge stability. In the scrape-off layer region, several measurements indicate an ion loss induced by the EWM. The ion transport is considered as the EP transport through the edge region. From these observations, the EP contributions to edge stability are discussed as one of the ELM triggering mechanisms. (paper)

  12. An attempt at MHD mode control by feedback modulation of L.H. driven current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlange, F.; Vallet, J.C

    1986-01-01

    MHD activity in Tokamak discharges with lower hybrid current drive has distinct features which can be used to stabilize tearing modes. A way of reducing the m=2 tearing mode was recently proposed, consisting in driving more current at the 0 point of the islands than at the X point, by means of amplitude modulated lower hybrid waves. The way it was tested in Petula is presented here

  13. Probabilistic teleportation scheme of two-mode entangled photon states by using linear optic element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Shao-hua

    2003-01-01

    A scheme for teleporting two-mode entangled photon states with the successful probability 33.3% is proposed. In the scheme, the teleporte d qubit is two-mode photon entangled states, and two pairs of EPR pair are used as quantum channel between a sender and a receiver. This procedure is achieved by using two 50/50 symmetric beam splitters and four photon number detectors wit h the help of classical information.

  14. Anomalous vibrational modes in acetanilide as studied by inelastic neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthes, Mariette; Eckert, Juegen; Johnson, Susanna W.; Moret, Jacques; Swanson, Basil I.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    1992-10-01

    A study of the anomalous modes in acetanilide and five deuterated derivatives by incoherent inelastic neutron scattering is reported. These data show that the dynamics of the amide and methyl groups influence each other. In addition, the anomalous temperature behaviour of the NH out-of-plane bending mode is confirmed. These observations suggest that the self-trapping mechanism in ACN may be more complex than hitherto assumed.

  15. Investigation of carriers of lustrous carbon at high temperatures by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eichholz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Lustrous carbon is very important in processes of iron casting in green sand. Lustrous carbon (pirografit is a microcrystalline carbon form, which evolves from a gaseous phase. In the case of applying additions, generating lustrous carbon, for sands with bentonite, there is always a danger of emitting – due to a high temperature of liquid cast iron and a humidity - compounds hazardous for a human health. There can be: CO, SO2, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (the so-called: BTEX as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs. In order to asses the selected mixtures: bentonite – carrier of lustrous carbon, in which a coal dust fraction was limited, thethermogravimetric analysis and the analysis of evolving gases were performed. Examinations were carried out in the ApplictaionsLaboratory NITZSCH-Gerätebau GmbH ,Selb/Bavaria, Germany. The NETZSCH TG 209 F1 Iris® thermal analyzer coupled to the BRUKER Optics FTIR TENSOR(TM was used to measure.

  16. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, K.; Nakano, I.

    1989-01-01

    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.)

  17. Expanded carrier screening: what determines intended participation and can this be influenced by message framing and narrative information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorwinden, Jan S; Buitenhuis, Anne H; Birnie, Erwin; Lucassen, Anneke M; Verkerk, Marian A; van Langen, Irene M; Plantinga, Mirjam; Ranchor, Adelita V

    2017-06-01

    Next-generation sequencing enabled us to create a population-based expanded carrier screening (ECS) test that simultaneously tests for 50 serious autosomal recessive diseases. Before offering this test universally, we wanted to know what factors are related to intended participation and how the general public can be informed about the test without being influenced in their intention to participate. We studied this by measuring to what extent 'message framing' and 'narrative information' can influence people's intended participation. Data were collected by means of an online survey of 504 potential users, and the factors examined were based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour and on previous research on intended participation in preconception carrier screening. Message framing was manipulated by explaining the risk of couple carriership in different ways, while narrative information was provided to only half of the respondents. The factors most positively related to intended participation were perceiving benefits of the screening, having a positive attitude towards the screening, having no religion, having an actual child wish and experiencing the choice to participate as easy. Perceived benefits and a positive attitude were most influential factors by far. Message framing and narrative information had no significant effect on intended participation, reinforcing that message framing and narrative information can help to inform the general public about ECS without influencing their intended participation. Future research should study if the importance of perceived benefits and a positive attitude can be replicated when other factors are included and when actual participation is measured instead of intended participation.

  18. Light-induced enhancement of the minority carrier lifetime in boron-doped Czochralski silicon passivated by doped silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hongzhe; Chen, Chao; Pan, Miao; Sun, Yiling; Yang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The phosphorus-doped SiN x with negative fixed charge was deposited by PECVD. • The increase of lifetime was observed on P-doped SiN x passivated Si under illumination. • The enhancement of lifetime was caused by the increase of negative fixed charges. - Abstract: This study reports a doubling of the effective minority carrier lifetime under light soaking conditions, observed in a boron-doped p-type Czochralski grown silicon wafer passivated by a phosphorus-doped silicon nitride thin film. The analysis of capacitance–voltage curves revealed that the fixed charge in this phosphorus-doped silicon nitride film was negative, which was unlike the well-known positive fixed charges observed in traditional undoped silicon nitride. The analysis results revealed that the enhancement phenomenon of minority carrier lifetime was caused by the abrupt increase in the density of negative fixed charge (from 7.2 × 10 11 to 1.2 × 10 12 cm −2 ) after light soaking.

  19. System reliability analysis using dominant failure modes identified by selective searching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Seok; Ok, Seung-Yong; Song, Junho; Koh, Hyun-Moo

    2013-01-01

    The failure of a redundant structural system is often described by innumerable system failure modes such as combinations or sequences of local failures. An efficient approach is proposed to identify dominant failure modes in the space of random variables, and then perform system reliability analysis to compute the system failure probability. To identify dominant failure modes in the decreasing order of their contributions to the system failure probability, a new simulation-based selective searching technique is developed using a genetic algorithm. The system failure probability is computed by a multi-scale matrix-based system reliability (MSR) method. Lower-scale MSR analyses evaluate the probabilities of the identified failure modes and their statistical dependence. A higher-scale MSR analysis evaluates the system failure probability based on the results of the lower-scale analyses. Three illustrative examples demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the approach through comparison with existing methods and Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the proposed method skillfully identifies the dominant failure modes, including those neglected by existing approaches. The multi-scale MSR method accurately evaluates the system failure probability with statistical dependence fully considered. The decoupling between the failure mode identification and the system reliability evaluation allows for effective applications to larger structural systems

  20. Edge transport and mode structure of a QCM-like fluctuation driven by the Shoelace antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfinopoulos, T.; LaBombard, B.; Brunner, D.; Terry, J. L.; Baek, S. G.; Ennever, P.; Edlund, E.; Han, W.; Burke, W. M.; Wolfe, S. M.; Irby, J. H.; Hughes, J. W.; Fitzgerald, E. W.; Granetz, R. S.; Greenwald, M. J.; Leccacorvi, R.; Marmar, E. S.; Pierson, S. Z.; Porkolab, M.; Vieira, R. F.; Wukitch, S. J.; The Alcator C-Mod Team

    2018-05-01

    The Shoelace antenna was built to drive edge fluctuations in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, matching the wavenumber (k\\perp≈1.5 cm‑1) and frequency (30≲ f ≲ 200 kHz) of the quasi-coherent mode (QCM), which is responsible for regulating transport across the plasma boundary in the steady-state, ELM-free Enhanced D α (EDA) H-mode. Initial experiments in 2012 demonstrated that the antenna drove a resonant response in the edge plasma in steady-state EDA and transient, non-ELMy H-modes, but transport measurements were unavailable. In 2016, the Shoelace antenna was relocated to enable direct measurements of driven transport by a reciprocating Mirror Langmuir Probe, while also making available gas puff imaging and reflectometer data to provide additional radial localization of the driven fluctuation. This new data suggests a  ∼4 mm-wide mode layer centered on or just outside the separatrix. Fluctuations coherent with the antenna produced a radial electron flux with {Γ_e}/{n_e}∼4 m s‑1 in EDA H-mode, smaller than but comparable to the QCM level. But in transient ELM-free H-mode, {Γ_e}/{n_e} was an order of magnitude smaller, and driven fluctuations reduced by a factor of ≳ 3. The driven mode is quantitatively similar to the intrinsic QCM across measured spectral quantities, except that it is more coherent and weaker. This work informs the prospect of achieving control of edge transport by direct coupling to edge modes, as well as the use of such active coupling for diagnostic purposes.

  1. Toroidally asymmetric particle transport caused by phase-locking of MHD modes in RFX-mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzini, R.; Terranova, D.; Auriemma, F.; Cavazzana, R.; Innocente, P.; Martini, S.; Serianni, G.; Zuin, M.

    2007-01-01

    The particle and energy transport in reversed field pinch experiments is affected by the locking in phase of the tearing modes, also dubbed dynamo modes, that sustain the magnetic configuration. In standard RFP pulses many m = 1 and m = 0 resonant modes have a relatively large amplitude (a spectrum dubbed MH for multiple helicity). The locking in phase of m = 1 tearing modes produces a helical deformation (locked mode (LM)) of the magnetic surfaces in a region of approximately 40 toroidal degrees. The region of the LM is characterized by a strong plasma-wall interaction and by high losses of energy and particles that account for a significant fraction of the input power and of the total particle outflux. The locking in phase of m = 0 modes modifies the plasma radius, shrinking and enlarging the plasma cross section in two wide toroidal regions of about 100 0 . The purpose of this paper is to investigate to what extent the locking in phase of m = 0 modes introduces toroidal asymmetries in the transport properties of the plasma. This study has been carried out investigating the shape of the density profile in the RFX-mod experiment. The analyses show that the profile exhibits a dependence on the toroidal angle, which is related to the deformation of the plasma column due to the locking in phase of m = 0 modes: the least steep density gradients at the edge are found in the region where the plasma column is shrunk, entailing that in this region the particle transport is enhanced. An analogous asymmetry also characterizes the density and magnetic fluctuations at the edge, which are enhanced in the same toroidal region where the particle transport also is enhanced. This result can be considered the first experimental evidence of an instability localized where the plasma column is shrunk

  2. Pitch Angle Scattering of Upgoing Electron Beams in Jupiter's Polar Regions by Whistler Mode Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, S. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Clark, G.; Mauk, B. H.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Levin, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    The Juno spacecraft's Jupiter Energetic-particle Detector Instrument has observed field-aligned, unidirectional (upgoing) electron beams throughout most of Jupiter's entire polar cap region. The Waves instrument detected intense broadband whistler mode emissions occurring in the same region. In this paper, we investigate the pitch angle scattering of the upgoing electron beams due to interactions with the whistler mode waves. Profiles of intensity versus pitch angle for electron beams ranging from 2.53 to 7.22 Jovian radii show inconsistencies with the expected adiabatic invariant motion of the electrons. It is believed that the observed whistler mode waves perturb the electron motion and scatter them away from the magnetic field line. The diffusion equation has been solved by using diffusion coefficients which depend on the magnetic intensity of the whistler mode waves.

  3. Generation of the vorticity mode by sound in a Bingham plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelomova, Anna; Wojda, Pawel

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates interaction between acoustic and non-acoustic modes, such as vorticity mode, in some class of a non-newtonian fluid called Bingham plastic. The instantaneous equations describing interaction between different modes are derived. The attention is paid to the nonlinear effects in the field of intense sound. The resulting equations which describe dynamics of both sound and the vorticity mode apply to both periodic and aperiodic sound of any waveform. They use only instantaneous quantities and do not imply averaging over the sound period. The theory is illustrated by an example of acoustic force of vorticity induced in the field of a Gaussian sound beam. Some unusual peculiarities in both sound and the vorticity induced in its field as compared to a newtonian fluid, are discovered.

  4. Viral Transmission Dynamics at Single-Cell Resolution Reveal Transiently Immune Subpopulations Caused by a Carrier State Association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Cenens

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the complex transmission dynamics of a bacterial virus (temperate phage P22 throughout a population of its host (Salmonella Typhimurium at single cell resolution revealed the unexpected existence of a transiently immune subpopulation of host cells that emerged from peculiarities preceding the process of lysogenization. More specifically, an infection event ultimately leading to a lysogen first yielded a phage carrier cell harboring a polarly tethered P22 episome. Upon subsequent division, the daughter cell inheriting this episome became lysogenized by an integration event yielding a prophage, while the other daughter cell became P22-free. However, since the phage carrier cell was shown to overproduce immunity factors that are cytoplasmically inherited by the P22-free daughter cell and further passed down to its siblings, a transiently resistant subpopulation was generated that upon dilution of these immunity factors again became susceptible to P22 infection. The iterative emergence and infection of transiently resistant subpopulations suggests a new bet-hedging strategy by which viruses could manage to sustain both vertical and horizontal transmission routes throughout an infected population without compromising a stable co-existence with their host.

  5. Design of colon targeting drug delivery systems using natural polymeric carriers and their evaluation by gamma scintigraphy technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, P.S.; Sawarkar, S.P.; Deshpande, S.G.; Bajaj, A.N.

    2004-01-01

    Of late, there has been a great awareness in the concept of drug targeting and delivery to a specific site (organ, tissue or cell) in the body to maximize therapeutic effect and reduce toxicity. The various approaches of site-specific drug delivery are implantable pumps, adhesive patches impregnated with drugs, vesicle enclosed drugs and drug carriers. Colonic drug delivery is intended for local and systemic treatment in the diseases of colon like inflammatory bowel conditions. Several approaches using viz. pro-drugs, biodegradable polymers and pH sensitive polymer coatings have been used to achieve colonic delivery. Natural polysaccarides like guar gum and pectin are promising candidates because they are susceptible to degradation by colonic bacteria and thus can release the entrapped drug in the colonic region. These indigenous natural polymers are cheaply and readily available. They comprise of polygalactouronic acid and refractory to host enzymes present in the upper gastrointestinal tract and are degraded by the enzymes produced by the colonic microflora. They were evaluated as a colonic carrier using 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA) as a model drug. After successful in vitro testing, gamma scintigraphy technique was used to assess in-vivo behavior of the colon specific drug delivery after a coat of Guar gum and Pectin

  6. Numerical simulations of semi-armor-piercing warhead penetrating aircraft carrier target

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Sangqaing; Cai Xinghui; Wang Guoliang; Gao Yunliang; Lu Jiangren

    2015-01-01

    FEM models of semi-armor-piercing warhead penetrating aircraft carrier deck are established, which are validated by related experimental data. Base on the models, the process of semi-armor-piercing warhead penetrating aircraft carrier deck with different incidence angles and attack angles are carried out. The results show that incidence angles have no remarkable influence on penetration capability of the projectile under the circumstance of zero attack angle. Ductility reaming damage mode and...

  7. Carrier Distortion in Hysteretic Self-Oscillating Class-D Audio Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Kofod; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    An important distortion mechanism in hysteretic self-oscillating (SO) class-D (switch mode) power amplifiers-–carrier distortion-–is analyzed and an optimization method is proposed. This mechanism is an issue in any power amplifier application where a high degree of proportionality between input...... and output is required, such as in audio power amplifiers or xDSL drivers. From an average-mode point of view, carrier distortion is shown to be caused by nonlinear variation of the hysteretic comparator input average voltage with the output average voltage. This easily causes total harmonic distortion...... figures in excess of 0.1–0.2%, inadequate for high-quality audio applications. Carrier distortion is shown to be minimized when the feedback system is designed to provide a triangular carrier (sliding) signal at the input of a hysteretic comparator. The proposed optimization method is experimentally...

  8. Synchronous oscillation prior to disruption caused by kink modes in HL-2A tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, M.; Hu, D.; Wang, X. G.; Shi, Z. B.; Xu, Y.; Chen, W.; Ding, X. T.; Zhong, W. L.; Dong, Y. B.; Ji, X. Q.; Zhang, Y. P.; Gao, J. M.; Li, J. X.; Yang, Z. C.; Li, Y. G.; Liu, Y.

    2015-08-01

    A class of evident MHD activities prior to major disruption has been observed during recent radiation induced disruptions of the HL-2A tokamak discharges. It can be named SOD, synchronous oscillations prior to disruption, characterized by synchronous oscillation of electron cyclotron emission (ECE), core soft x-ray, Mirnov coil, and {{D}α} radiation signals at the divertor plate. The SOD activity is mostly observed in a parametric regime where the poloidal beta is low enough before disruption, typically corresponding to those radiation-induced disruptions. It has been found that the m/n = 2/1 mode is dominant during the SODs, and consequently it is the drop of the mode frequency and the final mode locking that lead to thermal quench. The mode frequency before the mode locking corresponds to the toroidal rotation frequency of the edge plasma. It is also found that during SODs, the location of the q = 2 surface is moving outward, and most of the plasma current is enclosed within the surface. This demonstrates that the current channel lies inside the rational surface during SOD, and thus the resistive kink mode is unstable. Further analysis of the electron temperature perturbation structure shows that the plasma is indeed dominated by the resistive kink mode, with kink-like perturbation in the core plasma region. It suggests that it is the nonlinear growth of the m/n = 2/1 resistive kink mode and its higher order harmonics, rather than the spontaneous overlapping of multiple neighboring islands, that ultimately triggered the disruption.

  9. Dynamics Evolution Investigation of Mack Mode Instability in a Hypersonic Boundary Layer by Bicoherence Spectrum Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian; Jiang, Nan

    2012-07-01

    The instability of a hypersonic boundary layer on a cone is investigated by bicoherence spectrum analysis. The experiment is conducted at Mach number 6 in a hypersonic wind tunnel. The time series signals of instantaneous fluctuating surface-thermal-flux are measured by Pt-thin-film thermocouple temperature sensors mounted at 28 stations on the cone surface along streamwise direction to investigate the development of the unstable disturbances. The bicoherence spectrum analysis based on wavelet transform is employed to investigate the nonlinear interactions of the instability of Mack modes in hypersonic laminar boundary layer transition. The results show that wavelet bicoherence is a powerful tool in studying the unstable mode nonlinear interaction of hypersonic laminar-turbulent transition. The first mode instability gives rise to frequency shifts to higher unstable modes at the early stage of hypersonic laminar-turbulent transition. The modulations subsequently lead to the second mode instability occurrence. The second mode instability governs the last stage of instability and final breakdown to turbulence with multi-scale disturbances growth.

  10. Dynamics Evolution Investigation of Mack Mode Instability in a Hypersonic Boundary Layer by Bicoherence Spectrum Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jian; Jiang Nan

    2012-01-01

    The instability of a hypersonic boundary layer on a cone is investigated by bicoherence spectrum analysis. The experiment is conducted at Mach number 6 in a hypersonic wind tunnel. The time series signals of instantaneous fluctuating surface-thermal-flux are measured by Pt-thin-film thermocouple temperature sensors mounted at 28 stations on the cone surface along streamwise direction to investigate the development of the unstable disturbances. The bicoherence spectrum analysis based on wavelet transform is employed to investigate the nonlinear interactions of the instability of Mack modes in hypersonic laminar boundary layer transition. The results show that wavelet bicoherence is a powerful tool in studying the unstable mode nonlinear interaction of hypersonic laminar-turbulent transition. The first mode instability gives rise to frequency shifts to higher unstable modes at the early stage of hypersonic laminar-turbulent transition. The modulations subsequently lead to the second mode instability occurrence. The second mode instability governs the last stage of instability and final breakdown to turbulence with multi-scale disturbances growth. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  11. Incompressible Modes Excited by Supersonic Shear in Boundary Layers: Acoustic CFS Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, Mikhail A., E-mail: mbelyaev@berkeley.edu [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We present an instability for exciting incompressible modes (e.g., gravity or Rossby modes) at the surface of a star accreting through a boundary layer. The instability excites a stellar mode by sourcing an acoustic wave in the disk at the boundary layer, which carries a flux of energy and angular momentum with the opposite sign as the energy and angular momentum density of the stellar mode. We call this instability the acoustic Chandrasekhar–Friedman–Schutz (CFS) instability, because of the direct analogy to the CFS instability for exciting modes on a rotating star by emission of energy in the form of gravitational waves. However, the acoustic CFS instability differs from its gravitational wave counterpart in that the fluid medium in which the acoustic wave propagates (i.e., the accretion disk) typically rotates faster than the star in which the incompressible mode is sourced. For this reason, the instability can operate even for a non-rotating star in the presence of an accretion disk. We discuss applications of our results to high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations in accreting black hole and neutron star systems and dwarf nova oscillations in cataclysmic variables.

  12. Characterization of naproxen-loaded solid SMEDDSs prepared by spray drying: the effect of the polysaccharide carrier and naproxen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čerpnjak, Katja; Zvonar, Alenka; Vrečer, Franc; Gašperlin, Mirjana

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to prepare solid SMEDDS (sSMEDDS) particles produced by spray-drying using maltodextrin (MD), hypromellose (HPMC), and a combination of the two as a solid carrier. Naproxen (NPX) as the model drug was dissolved (at 6% concentration) or partially suspended (at 18% concentration) in a liquid SMEDDS composed of Miglyol(®) 812, Peceol™, Gelucire(®) 44/14, and Solutol(®) HS 15. Among the sSMEDDSs tested, the MD-based sSMEDDSs (with a granular, smooth-surfaced, microspherical appearance) preserved the self-microemulsifying properties of liquid SMEDDSs and exhibited dissolution profiles similar to those of liquid SMEDDSs, irrespective of the concentration of NPX. In contrast, HPMC-based sSMEDDSs (irregular-shaped microparticles) exhibited slightly prolonged release times due to the polymeric nature of the carrier. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and Raman mapping analysis confirmed molecularly dissolved NPX (at 6% of drug loading), whereas at 18% NPX loading drug is partially molecularly dissolved and partially in the crystalline state. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Carrier density modulation by structural distortions at modified LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoofs, Frank; Vickers, Mary E; Egilmez, Mehmet; Fix, Thomas; Kleibeuker, Josée E; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L; Blamire, Mark G; Carpenter, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the fundamental conduction mechanism of LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 (LAO/STO) interfaces, heterostructures were modified with a single unit cell interface layer of either an isovalent titanate ATiO 3 (A = Ca, Sr, Sn, Ba) or a rare earth modified Sr 0.5 RE 0.5 TiO 3 (RE = La, Nd, Sm, Dy) between the LAO and the STO. A strong coupling between the lattice strain induced in the LAO layer by the interfacial layers and the sheet carrier density in the STO substrate is observed. The observed crystal distortion of the LAO is large and it is suggested that it couples into the sub-surface STO, causing oxygen octahedral rotation and deformation. We propose that the ‘structural reconstruction’ which occurs in the STO surface as a result of the stress in the LAO is the enabling trigger for two-dimensional conduction at the LAO/STO interface by locally changing the band structure and releasing trapped carriers. (paper)

  14. Temperature effects on biohydrogen production in a granular sludge bed induced by activated carbon carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kuo-Shing [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung tai Institute of Health Sciences and Technology, Taichung (China); Lin, Ping-Jei [Department of Chemical Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2006-03-15

    Temperature effects on H{sub 2} production performance of a novel carrier-induced granular sludge bed (CIGSB) reactor were investigated. Using sucrose-based synthetic wastewater as the feed, the CIGSB system was operated at 30-45 {sup 0}C to identify the optimal working temperature. It was found that H{sub 2} production was the most efficient at 40 {sup 0}C, especially when it was operated at a low hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 0.5h. The overall maximal hydrogen production rate and yield were 7.66l/h/l and 3.88mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose, respectively, both of them occurred at 40 {sup 0}C. The biomass content tended to decrease as the temperature was increased, suggesting that granular sludge formation may be inhibited at high temperatures. However, increasing temperature gave better specific H{sub 2} production rate, signifying that the average cellular activity for H{sub 2} production may be enhanced as the temperature was increased. The H{sub 2} yield and gas phase H{sub 2} content did not vary considerably regardless of changes in temperature and HRT. This reflects that the CIGSB was a relatively stable H{sub 2}-producing system. The major soluble products from hydrogen fermentation were butyric acid and acetic acid, accounting for 46+-3% and 28+-2% of total soluble microbial products (SMP), respectively. Thus, the dominant H{sub 2} producers in the mixed culture belonged to acidogenic bacteria that underwent butyrate-type fermentation. (author)

  15. Conformation and activity alteration of horseradish peroxidase induced by the interaction with gene carrier polyethyleneimines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Aimin; Wei, Bangzhi; Mo, Junyong; Wang, Yajing; Ma, Lin

    2018-01-01

    Polyethyleneimine (PEI) has long been considered as "golden standard" for polymeric gene delivery carriers. However the molecular basis of the cytotoxicity of PEI is poorly understood. Little is known about the effects of PEI on the structure and functions of biomacromolecules. In this work, fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism spectroscopy were conducted to investigate the influence of PEI of average molecular weight 25, 10 and 1.8 kDa (denoted as PEI25k, PEI10k and PEI1.8k) on the conformation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and its catalytic efficiency. Zeta-potential measurement and isothermal titration calorimetry were used to reveal the mechanism of the interaction between PEIs and HRP. PEIs were found to bind onto the surface of HRP predominantly via hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond or van der Waals interaction. The complex formation between HRP and PEI induced a more compact conformation of the enzyme and an increased hydrophobicity of the microenvironment surrounding heme pocket. The conformational change of HRP had little impact on the affinity towards H2O2 and phenol. However, the increase in the non-planarity of porphyrin ring in the heme group led to an increase in the exposure degree of the active center and thus an enhancement of catalytic efficiency of HRP in the presence of high molecular weight PEIs (PEI25k and PEI10k). The polymer size played an important role in PEI-HRP interaction. PEI of low molecular weight (PEI1.8k) was less efficient to alter the conformation and catalytic activity of HRP in aqueous solutions.

  16. In vitro evaluation of aerosol delivery by different nebulization modes in pediatric and adult mechanical ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gwo-Hwa; Lin, Hui-Ling; Fink, James B; Chen, Yen-Hey; Wang, Wei-Jhen; Chiu, Yu-Chun; Kao, Yu-Yao; Liu, Chia-Jung

    2014-10-01

    Aerosol delivery through mechanical ventilation is influenced by the type of aerosol generator, pattern of nebulization, and a patient's breathing pattern. This study compares the efficiency of pneumatic nebulization modes provided by a ventilator with adult and pediatric in vitro lung models. Three pneumatic nebulization modes (inspiratory intermittent [IIM], continuous [CM], and expiratory intermittent [EIM]) provided by the Galileo Gold ventilator delivered medical aerosol to collection filters distal to an endotracheal tube with adult and pediatric test lungs. A unit dose of 5 mg/2.5 mL albuterol was diluted into 4 mL with distilled water and added to a jet nebulizer. The nebulizer was placed proximal to the ventilator, 15 cm from the inlet of the heated humidifier chamber with a T-piece and corrugated aerosol tubing and powered by gas from the ventilator in each of the 3 modes. Time for nebulization was recorded in minutes. Albuterol samples collected in the inhalation filter, nebulizer, T-piece, and corrugated tubing were eluted with distilled water and analyzed with a spectrophotometer. The inhaled drug, as a percentage of total dose in both lung models, was 5.1-7.5%, without statistical significance among the 3 modes. Median nebulization times for IIM, CM, and EIM were 38.9, 14.3, and 17.7 min, respectively, and nebulization time for the 3 modes significantly differed (P ventilator was not dependent on nebulization mode during simulated pediatric and adult conventional mechanical ventilation. Use of expiratory intermittent mode and continuous nebulization should be considered to reduce treatment time. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  17. Improvement of dissolution behavior of poorly water soluble drugs by biodegradable polymeric submicron carriers containing sparingly methylated β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhavi, Dilesh J; Khan, Shagufta; Yeole, Pramod G

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop submicron carriers of two drugs that are practically insoluble in water, i.e. meloxicam and aceclofenac, to improve their dissolution behavior. The phase solubility of the drugs was studied using different concentrations of sparingly methylated β-cyclodextrin, Kleptose(®) Crysmeβ (Crysmeb), in the presence and absence of 0.2 % w/v water-soluble chitosan. Drug-loaded submicron particles (SMPs) were prepared using chitosan chlorhydrate and Crysmeb by the ionotropic gelation method. The SMPs were characterized in terms of powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, size determination, process yield, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, surface morphology and in vitro release. The drug loading in the SMPs was enhanced in the presence of Crysmeb. The in vitro drug release was found to be enhanced with SMPs prepared using higher concentrations of Crysmeb. These results indicate that SMPs formed from chitosan chlorhydrate and Crysmeb are promising submicron carriers for enhancing the dissolution of meloxicam and aceclofenac.

  18. Determination of Component Failure Modes for a Fire PSA by Using Decision Trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Han, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jae Won

    2007-01-01

    KAERI developed the method, called a mapping technique, for the quantification of external events PSA models with one top model for an internal events PSA. The mapping technique can be implemented by the construction of mapping tables. The mapping tables include initiating events and transfer events of fire, and internal PSA basic events affected by a fire. This year, KAERI is making mapping tables for the one top model for Ulchin Unit 3 and 4 fire PSA with previously conducted Fire PSA results for Ulchin Unit 3 and 4. A Fire PSA requires a PSA analyst to determine component failure modes affected by a fire. The component failure modes caused by a fire depend on several factors. These several factors are whether components are located at fire initiation and propagation areas or not, fire effects on control and power cables for components, designed failure modes of components, success criteria in a PSA model, etc. Thus, it is not easy to manually determine component failure modes caused by a fire. In this paper, we propose the use of decision trees for the determination of component failure modes affected by a fire and the selection of internal PSA basic events. Section 2 presents the procedure for previously performed the Ulchin Unit 3 and 4 fire PSA and mapping technique. Section 3 presents the process for identification of basic events and decision trees. Section 4 presents the concluding remarks

  19. Stability aspects of plasmas penetrated by neutral gas with respect to velocity driven modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, D.

    1978-08-01

    A study of the stability properties of dense partially ionized plasmas immersed in strong magnetic fields with respect to velocity driven modes are presented. First we consider modes driven by mass motion perpendicular to the lines of force and the unperturbed density and temperature gradients. The presence of a third fluid, neutral gas, gives under certain conditions rise to unstable modes. This type of instability arises independently or whether the applied electric field transverse to the lines of force, driving the mass motion, being parallel or antiparallel to the unperturbed density and temperature gradient. The presence of neutral gas also corresponds to stabilizing effects which, in certain parameter regions, result in a quenching of this instability. It is shown that modes driven by velocity shear perpendicular to the lines of force are effectively stabilized by viscous and resistive effects. These effects are in certain parameter ranges strongly enhanced on account of plasma-neutral gas interaction effects. In collisionless plasmas, modes driven by velocity shear parallel to the lines of force are stabilized by compressibility effects parallel to the magnetic field and by finite Larmor radius effects. (author)

  20. Discovery of Highly Selective and Nanomolar Carbamate-Based Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors by Rational Investigation into Their Inhibition Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatzky, Edgar; Wehle, Sarah; Kling, Beata; Wendrich, Jan; Bringmann, Gerhard; Sotriffer, Christoph A; Heilmann, Jörg; Decker, Michael

    2016-03-10

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is a promising target for the treatment of later stage cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. A set of pseudo-irreversible BChE inhibitors with high selectivity over hAChE was synthesized based on carbamates attached to tetrahydroquinazoline scaffolds with the 2-thiophenyl compound 2p as the most potent inhibitor of eqBChE (KC = 14.3 nM) and also of hBChE (KC = 19.7 nM). The inhibitors transfer the carbamate moiety onto the active site under release of the phenolic tetrahydroquinazoline scaffolds that themselves act as neuroprotectants. By combination of kinetic data with molecular docking studies, a plausible binding model was probed describing how the tetrahydroquinazoline scaffold guides the carbamate into a close position to the active site. The model explains the influence of the carrier scaffold onto the affinity of an inhibitor just before carbamate transfer. This strategy can be used to utilize the binding mode of other carbamate-based inhibitors.

  1. Single-molecule electronics: Cooling individual vibrational modes by the tunneling current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykkebo, Jacob; Romano, Giuseppe; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro; Solomon, Gemma C

    2016-03-21

    Electronic devices composed of single molecules constitute the ultimate limit in the continued downscaling of electronic components. A key challenge for single-molecule electronics is to control the temperature of these junctions. Controlling heating and cooling effects in individual vibrational modes can, in principle, be utilized to increase stability of single-molecule junctions under bias, to pump energy into particular vibrational modes to perform current-induced reactions, or to increase the resolution in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy by controlling the life-times of phonons in a molecule by suppressing absorption and external dissipation processes. Under bias the current and the molecule exchange energy, which typically results in heating of the molecule. However, the opposite process is also possible, where energy is extracted from the molecule by the tunneling current. Designing a molecular "heat sink" where a particular vibrational mode funnels heat out of the molecule and into the leads would be very desirable. It is even possible to imagine how the vibrational energy of the other vibrational modes could be funneled into the "cooling mode," given the right molecular design. Previous efforts to understand heating and cooling mechanisms in single molecule junctions have primarily been concerned with small models, where it is unclear which molecular systems they correspond to. In this paper, our focus is on suppressing heating and obtaining current-induced cooling in certain vibrational modes. Strategies for cooling vibrational modes in single-molecule junctions are presented, together with atomistic calculations based on those strategies. Cooling and reduced heating are observed for two different cooling schemes in calculations of atomistic single-molecule junctions.

  2. STEM mode in the SEM for the analysis of cellular sections prepared by ultramicrotome sectioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondow, N; Harrington, J; Brydson, R; Brown, A

    2012-01-01

    The use of the dual imaging capabilities of a scanning electron microscope fitted with a transmitted electron detector is highlighted in the analysis of samples with importance in the field of nanotoxicology. Cellular uptake of nanomaterials is often examined by transmission electron microscopy of thin sections prepared by ultramicrotome sectioning. Examination by SEM allows for the detection of artefacts caused by sample preparation (eg. nanomaterial pull-out) and the complementary STEM mode permits study of the interaction between nanomaterials and cells. Thin sections of two nanomaterials of importance in nanotoxicology (cadmium selenide quantum dots and single walled carbon nanotubes) are examined using STEM mode in the SEM.

  3. Nonspecific DNA Binding and Bending by HUαβ: Interfaces of the Three Binding Modes Characterized by Salt Dependent Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Junseock; Shkel, Irina; Saecker, Ruth M.; Record, M. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Previous ITC and FRET studies demonstrated that Escherichia coli HUαβ binds nonspecifically to duplex DNA in three different binding modes: a tighter-binding 34 bp mode which interacts with DNA in large (>34 bp) gaps between bound proteins, reversibly bending it 140° and thereby increasing its flexibility, and two weaker, modestly cooperative small-site-size modes (10 bp, 6 bp) useful for filling gaps between bound proteins shorter than 34 bp. Here we use ITC to determine the thermodynamics of these binding modes as a function of salt concentration, and deduce that DNA in the 34 bp mode is bent around but not wrapped on the body of HU, in contrast to specific binding of IHF. Analyses of binding isotherms (8, 15, 34 bp DNA) and initial binding heats (34, 38, 160 bp DNA) reveal that all three modes have similar log-log salt concentration derivatives of the binding constants (Ski) even though their binding site sizes differ greatly; most probable values of Ski on 34 bp or larger DNA are − 7.5 ± 0.5. From the similarity of Ski values, we conclude that binding interfaces of all three modes involve the same region of the arms and saddle of HU. All modes are entropy-driven, as expected for nonspecific binding driven by the polyelectrolyte effect. The bent-DNA 34 bp mode is most endothermic, presumably because of the cost of HU-induced DNA bending, while the 6 bp mode is modestly exothermic at all salt concentrations examined. Structural models consistent with the observed Ski values are proposed. PMID:21513716

  4. Positive predictive values by mammographic density and screening mode in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshina, Nataliia; Ursin, Giske; Roman, Marta; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Hofvind, Solveig

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the probability of breast cancer among women recalled due to abnormal findings on the screening mammograms (PPV-1) and among women who underwent an invasive procedure (PPV-2) by mammographic density (MD), screening mode and age. We used information about 28,826 recall examinations from 26,951 subsequently screened women in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program, 1996-2010. The radiologists who performed the recall examinations subjectively classified MD on the mammograms into three categories: fatty (70%). Screening mode was defined as screen-film mammography (SFM) and full-field digital mammography (FFDM). We examined trends of PPVs by MD, screening mode and age. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratio (OR) of screen-detected breast cancer associated with MD among women recalled, adjusting for screening mode and age. PPV-1 and PPV-2 decreased by increasing MD, regardless of screening mode (p for trend breasts. Among women recalled, the adjusted OR of breast cancer decreased with increasing MD. Compared with women with fatty breasts, the OR was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.84-0.96) for those with medium dense breasts and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.76-0.95) for those with dense breasts. PPVs decreased by increasing MD. Fewer women needed to be recalled or undergo an invasive procedure to detect one breast cancer among those with fatty versus dense breasts in the screening program in Norway, 1996-2010. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of carrier behavior in C60/P(VDF-TrFE) double-layer capacitor by using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xiaojin; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2013-01-01

    By using displacement current measurement (DCM) and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we studied the carrier behavior in the indium-tin oxide (ITO)/Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE))/C60/Au(or Al) capacitors. Two DCM peaks appeared asymmetrically at around −35.5 V and +30.0 V in the dark. Correspondingly, the EFISHG response from the C60 layer was observed, but the peak positions were different with respect to DCM ones. The results show that the spontaneous polarization of the ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) polymeric layer directly affects the electric field in the C60 layer, and thus governs the carrier motion in this layer. As a result, the C60 layer serves like an insulator in the dark, while electrons and holes are captured and released at the interface in response to the turn-over of spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric layer. On the other hand, under white light illumination, C60 layer serves like a conductor due to the increase of photogenerated mobile carriers, and these carriers dominate the carrier motions therein. Our findings here will be helpful for analyzing carrier behaviors in organic electronic devices using ferroelectric polymers

  6. Analysis of carrier behavior in C60/P(VDF-TrFE) double-layer capacitor by using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaojin [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2013-12-21

    By using displacement current measurement (DCM) and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we studied the carrier behavior in the indium-tin oxide (ITO)/Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE))/C60/Au(or Al) capacitors. Two DCM peaks appeared asymmetrically at around −35.5 V and +30.0 V in the dark. Correspondingly, the EFISHG response from the C60 layer was observed, but the peak positions were different with respect to DCM ones. The results show that the spontaneous polarization of the ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) polymeric layer directly affects the electric field in the C60 layer, and thus governs the carrier motion in this layer. As a result, the C60 layer serves like an insulator in the dark, while electrons and holes are captured and released at the interface in response to the turn-over of spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric layer. On the other hand, under white light illumination, C60 layer serves like a conductor due to the increase of photogenerated mobile carriers, and these carriers dominate the carrier motions therein. Our findings here will be helpful for analyzing carrier behaviors in organic electronic devices using ferroelectric polymers.

  7. Split resonance modes of a AuBRC plasmonic nanosystem caused by the coupling effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Yuan; Kan, Caixia; Xu, Haiying; Wang, Changshun

    2016-01-01

    A plasmonic nanosystem can give rise to particular optical responses due to a coupling effect. In this work, we investigate the optical properties and field distributions of a novel ‘matrioska’ nanocavity structure composed of a Au nanorod (AuNR) within a nanobox (AuNB) via finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. This nanocavity can be fabricated by a two-step wet-chemical method. The multiple SPR modes of optical spectrum for nanocavity are caused by the strong interaction between the AuNR-core and AuNB-shell when the incident light is perpendicular or parallel to the long axis of the Au box/rod nanocavity (AuBRC). The SPR modes are known as the dipole–dipole bonding resonance mode in the lower-energy region and the antibonding resonance mode in the higher-energy region. It is proposed that AuBRC can escape the orientation confinement of AuNR because the multiple modes occur and provide a potential application for the enhancement of the photoluminescence signal. Additionally, the SPR modes red-shift with increasing the offset of the AuNR-core, whereas the SPR mode dramatically blue-shifts when the conductive coupling is formed. The intense ‘hot-spot’ could be induced within a small interaction region in the conductive coupled system. The SPR line-shape of high quality would also be promoted. The SPR is highly sensitive to the medium, which is promising in the sensing and detecting devices. (paper)

  8. Photoeffect on the p-n silicon junction under conditions of interband heating of carriers by light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianov, A V; Valov, P M; Sukhanov, V L; Tuchkevich, V V; Shmidt, N M [AN SSSR, Leningrad. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.

    1980-05-01

    Photoeffect on the p-n silicon junction conditioned by interband heating of carriers by the CO/sub 2/-laser light has been studied experimentally at room temperature and under nonstationary conditions. Photoelectromotive force (p.e.m.f.) with the sign opposite to the value p.e.m.f. appears in the case of direct displacement of p-n structures. The p.e.m.f. value increases with the increase of direct desplacement. Photoelectrons are shown to make the main contribution into the mechanism of p.e.m.f. formation. Lateral p.e.m.f. connected with spreading currents in the direction parallel to the surface of the p-n junction appears in the p-n structure base. It has been found out that structures with highly alloyed emitter at reverse displacement operates under standard photodiod conditions, that is due to the semiconductor lattice heating by CO/sub 2/-laser irradiation.

  9. Photoeffect on the p-n silicon junction under conditions of interband heating of carriers by light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.V.; Valov, P.M.; Sukhanov, V.L.; Tuchkevich, V.V.; Shmidt, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    Photoeffect on the p-n silicon junction conditioned by interband heating of carriers by the CO 2 -laser light has been studied experimentally at room temperature and under nonstationary conditions. Photoelectromotive force (p.e.m.f.) with the sign opposite to the value p.e.m.f. appears in the case of direct displacement of p-n structures. The p.e.m.f. value increases with the increase of direct desplacement. Photoelectrons are shown to make the main contribution into the mechanism of p.e.m.f. formation. Lateral p.e.m.f. connected with spreading currents in the direction parallel to the surface of the p-n junction appears in the p-n structure base. It has been found out that structures with highly alloyed emitter at reverse displacement operates under standard photodiod conditions, that is due to the semiconductor lattice heating by CO 2 -laser irradiation

  10. Revealing spatio-spectral electroencephalographic dynamics of musical mode and tempo perception by independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Pin; Duann, Jeng-Ren; Feng, Wenfeng; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-02-28

    Music conveys emotion by manipulating musical structures, particularly musical mode- and tempo-impact. The neural correlates of musical mode and tempo perception revealed by electroencephalography (EEG) have not been adequately addressed in the literature. This study used independent component analysis (ICA) to systematically assess spatio-spectral EEG dynamics associated with the changes of musical mode and tempo. Empirical results showed that music with major mode augmented delta-band activity over the right sensorimotor cortex, suppressed theta activity over the superior parietal cortex, and moderately suppressed beta activity over the medial frontal cortex, compared to minor-mode music, whereas fast-tempo music engaged significant alpha suppression over the right sensorimotor cortex. The resultant EEG brain sources were comparable with previous studies obtained by other neuroimaging modalities, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). In conjunction with advanced dry and mobile EEG technology, the EEG results might facilitate the translation from laboratory-oriented research to real-life applications for music therapy, training and entertainment in naturalistic environments.

  11. Evidence of conversion from Z-mode waves to the electromagnetic L-O mode waves at the plasmapause detected by JIKIKEN (EXOS-B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Hiroshi; Morioka, Akira

    1982-01-01

    JIKIKEN satellite that has the initial perigee and apogee of 250 km and 30,050 km, respectively, and has an inclination of -31 0 has passed through critical regions where the AKR spectra were carved out by the plasma surounding the satellite, at least five times during a period from January 31, 1979, to June 21, 1980. On all these occasions the usual type of AKR spectra are disclosed to show cutoff phenomena at the local Z-cutoff frequency indicating a continuation crossing over the local X-cutoff frequency from the high frequency side down to the Z mode wave frequency range rather than to be cut at the local X-cutoff frequency; i.e., the AKR waves consist of the spectra that continuously cover the frequency range corresponding to Z-mode and L-O mode waves when the observation is made near the source region. The most posible mechanism that can give cinsistent interpretations to this spectra characteristics is the mode conversion theory; i.e., the plasma waves generated in the form of the hybrid mode waves in the source regions is converted into the Z-mode wave which propagates towards dense plasma regions where the wave frequency coincides with the local plasma frequency and a part of the energy of Z-mode waves is transported to the L-O mode waves that can escape towards outer space. This conversion mechanism gives also a self-consistent interpretation of previously presented evidences reported as the cutoff phenomena of AKR near the local electron cyclotron frequency, using the mechanism of the propagation of the Z-mode waves. There is no confliction between the conversion mechanism of the AKR generation and the previous polarization observation carried out by the Voyager spacecrafts because there remains wide variety of the selection of the source region that are pertinent to give the possiblity of the LH polarization waves as the results of the conversion of the radiation waves from the Z-mode to the L-O mode in the northern polar regions. (author)

  12. A model for particle and heat losses by type I edge localized modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokar, M Z; Gupta, A; Kalupin, D; Singh, R

    2007-01-01

    A model to estimate the particle and energy losses caused in tokamaks by type I edge localized modes (ELMs) is proposed. This model is based on the assumption that the increase in transport by ELM is due to flows along magnetic field lines perturbed by ballooning-peeling MHD modes. The model reproduces well the experimentally found variation of losses with the plasma collisionality ν*, namely, the weak dependence of the particle loss and significant reduction of the energy loss with increasing ν*. It is argued that the electron parallel heat conductivity is dominating in the energy loss at not very large ν*

  13. Control of fibre laser mode-locking by narrow-band Bragg gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laegsgaard, J

    2008-01-01

    The use of narrow-band high-reflectivity fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) as end mirrors in a fibre laser cavity with passive mode-locking provided by a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) is investigated numerically. The FBG is found to control the energy range of stable mode-locking, which may be shifted far outside the regime of SESAM saturation by a suitable choice of FBG and cavity length. The pulse shape is controlled by the combined effects of FBG dispersion and self-phase modulation in the fibres, and a few ps pulses can be obtained with standard uniform FBGs

  14. Collector modulation in high-voltage bipolar transistor in the saturation mode: Analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, A. P.; Gert, A. V.; Levinshtein, M. E.; Yuferev, V. S.

    2018-04-01

    A simple analytical model is developed, capable of replacing the numerical solution of a system of nonlinear partial differential equations by solving a simple algebraic equation when analyzing the collector resistance modulation of a bipolar transistor in the saturation mode. In this approach, the leakage of the base current into the emitter and the recombination of non-equilibrium carriers in the base are taken into account. The data obtained are in good agreement with the results of numerical calculations and make it possible to describe both the motion of the front of the minority carriers and the steady state distribution of minority carriers across the collector in the saturation mode.

  15. Global MHD modes excited by energetic ions in heliotron/torsatron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, K.; Takechi, M.; Takagi, S.

    1999-01-01

    In the CHS heliotron/torsatron, fishbone instabilities (FBs) and toroidal Alfven eigenmodes(TAEs) are observed for the first time, in NBI heated plasmas where small beam driven current is induced. Pulsed increase in energetic ion loss flux is detected by an escaping ion probe during the m=3/n=2 FBs(m,n:poloidal and toroidal mode numbers). The sawtooth crash is often induced by the m=2/n=1 FBs. The current driven internal kink mode and pressure driven interchange modes are thought to be relevant MHD instabilities to FBs. TAEs with n=1 and n=2 are identified, and localized near the plasma core region where fairly low magnetic shear would be realized by the small net plasma current. So far, the observed TAEs do not lead to enhanced loss of energetic ions because of low magnetic fluctuation level. (author)

  16. Global MHD modes excited by energetic ions in heliotron/torsatron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, K.; Takechi, M.; Takagi, S.

    2001-01-01

    In the CHS heliotron/torsatron, fishbone instabilities (FBs) and toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) are observed for the first time, in NBI heated plasmas where small beam driven current is induced. Pulsed increase in energetic ion loss flux is detected by an escaping ion probe during the m=3/n=2 FBs (m,n: poloidal and toroidal mode numbers). The sawtooth crash is often induced by the m=2/n=1 FBs. The current driven internal kink mode and pressure driven interchange modes are thought to be relevant MHD instabilities to FBs. TAEs with n=1 and n=2 are identified, and localized near the plasma core region where fairly low magnetic shear would be realized by the small net plasma current. So far, the observed TAEs do not lead to enhanced loss of energetic ions because of low magnetic fluctuation level. (author)

  17. Mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser oscillators pumped by wavelength-multiplexed laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Naoto; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kannari, Fumihiko

    2018-05-01

    We directly pumped a Ti:sapphire laser by combining 478 and 520 nm laser diodes to prevent the effect of absorption loss induced by the pump laser of shorter wavelengths (∼450 nm). We obtain a continuous-wave output power of 660 mW at a total incident pump power of 3.15 W. We demonstrate mode locking using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror, and 126 fs pulses were obtained at a repetition rate of 192 MHz. At the maximum pump power, the average output power is 315 mW. Shorter mode-locked pulses of 42 and 48 fs were respectively achieved by Kerr-lens mode locking with average output powers of 280 and 360 mW at a repetition rate of 117 MHz.

  18. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in Br.sup.+./sup.-bombarded InP studied by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Hynek; Fekete, Ladislav; Kadlec, Filip; Kužel, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 23 (2008), 235206/1-235206/7 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : InP * carrier lifetime * carrier mobility * ultrafast * ion-bombardment * terahertz Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008

  19. Molecular Pathogenesis of EBV Susceptibility in XLP as Revealed by Analysis of Female Carriers with Heterozygous Expression of SAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palendira, Umaimainthan; Low, Carol; Chan, Anna; Hislop, Andrew D.; Ho, Edwin; Phan, Tri Giang; Deenick, Elissa; Cook, Matthew C.; Riminton, D. Sean; Choo, Sharon; Loh, Richard; Alvaro, Frank; Booth, Claire; Gaspar, H. Bobby; Moretta, Alessandro; Khanna, Rajiv; Rickinson, Alan B.; Tangye, Stuart G.

    2011-01-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP+ and SAP− cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8+ T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP+ and SAP− populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP+. The preferential recruitment of SAP+ cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8+ T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP− clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP− CD8+ T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited. PMID:22069374

  20. Molecular pathogenesis of EBV susceptibility in XLP as revealed by analysis of female carriers with heterozygous expression of SAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umaimainthan Palendira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP(+ and SAP(- cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8(+ T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP(+ and SAP(- populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP(+. The preferential recruitment of SAP(+ cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8(+ T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP(- clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP(- CD8(+ T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited.

  1. Nanostructuring of conduction channels in (In,Ga)As-InP heterostructures: Overcoming carrier generation caused by Ar ion milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortelano, V.; Weidlich, H.; Semtsiv, M. P.; Masselink, W. T.; Ramsteiner, M.; Jahn, U.; Biermann, K.; Takagaki, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Nanometer-sized channels are fabricated in (In,Ga)As-InP heterostructures using Ar ion milling. The ion milling causes spontaneous creation of nanowires, and moreover, electrical conduction of the surface as carriers is generated by sputtering-induced defects. We demonstrate a method to restore electrical isolation in the etched area that is compatible with the presence of the nanochannels. We remove the heavily damaged surface layer using a diluted HCl solution and subsequently recover the crystalline order in the moderately damaged part by annealing. We optimize the HCl concentration to make the removal stop on its own before reaching the conduction channel part. The lateral depletion in the channels is shown to be almost absent.

  2. Classifications within molecular subtypes enables identification of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers by RNA tumor profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Kruse, Torben A; Tan, Qihua

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are detected in less than one third of families with a strong history of breast cancer. It is therefore expected that mutations still remain undetected by currently used screening methods. In addition, a growing number of BRCA1/2 sequence variants...... of unclear pathogen significance are found in the families, constituting an increasing clinical challenge. New methods are therefore needed to improve the detection rate and aid the interpretation of the clinically uncertain variants. In this study we analyzed a series of 33 BRCA1, 22 BRCA2, and 128 sporadic...... tumors by RNA profiling to investigate the classification potential of RNA profiles to predict BRCA1/2 mutation status. We found that breast tumors from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers display characteristic RNA expression patterns, allowing them to be distinguished from sporadic tumors. The majority...

  3. Fourier domain optical coherence tomography achieves full range complex imaging in vivo by introducing a carrier frequency during scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruikang K

    2007-01-01

    The author describes a Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) system that is capable of full range complex imaging in vivo. This is achieved by introducing a constant carrier frequency into the OCT spectral interferograms at the time when imaging is performed. The complex functions of the spatial interferograms formed by each single wavelength are constructed before performing the Fourier transformation to localize the scatters within a sample. Two algorithms, based on Fourier filtering and Hilbert transformation, respectively, are described to achieve the full range complex FDOCT imaging. It is shown that the Hilbert transformation approach delivers better performance than the Fourier filtering method does in terms of tolerating the sample movement in vivo. The author finally demonstrates experimentally the system and algorithms for true in vivo imaging at a rate of 20 000 axial scans per second

  4. Design and experiments of a linear piezoelectric motor driven by a single mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Yao, Zhiyuan; Li, Xiang; Fu, Qianwei

    2016-11-01

    In this contribution, we propose a novel linear piezoelectric motor with a compact stator that is driven by a single mode. The linear piezoelectric motor can realize bidirectional motion by changing the vibration modes of the stator. Finite element analysis is performed to determine the required vibration mode of the stator and obtain the optimal stator structure and dimensions. Furthermore, the trajectories of the driving foot are analyzed with and without consideration of the mechanical contact with the slider. It is shown that the trajectory of the driving foot is an oblique line when disregarding the contact, and the trajectory becomes an oblique ellipse while taking into account the contact. Finally, a prototype of the motor is fabricated based on the results of finite element analysis. The optimization results show that the motor reaches its maximum thrust force of 4.0 kg, maximum thrust-weight ratio of 33.3, maximum unloaded velocity of 385 mm/s under the excitation of Mode-B, and maximum unloaded velocity of 315 mm/s under the excitation of Mode-L.

  5. Hot carrier degradation in semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers with a variety of tools to address the challenges posed by hot carrier degradation, one of today’s most complicated reliability issues in semiconductor devices.  Coverage includes an explanation of carrier transport within devices and book-keeping of how they acquire energy (“become hot”), interaction of an ensemble of colder and hotter carriers with defect precursors, which eventually leads to the creation of a defect, and a description of how these defects interact with the device, degrading its performance. • Describes the intricacies of hot carrier degradation in modern semiconductor technologies; • Covers the entire hot carrier degradation phenomenon, including topics such as characterization, carrier transport, carrier-defect interaction, technological impact, circuit impact, etc.; • Enables detailed understanding of carrier transport, interaction of the carrier ensemble with the defect precursors, and an accurate assessment of how the newly created defects imp...

  6. More efficient second harmonic generation of whispering gallery modes by selective out-coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Trainor, Luke S.; Sedlmeir, Florian; Peuntinger, Christian; Schwefel, Harald G. L.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate second harmonic generation (SHG) in an $x$-cut congruent lithium niobate (LN) whispering gallery mode resonator. We first show theoretically that independent control of the coupling of the pump and signal modes is optimal for high conversion rates. A scheme based on our earlier work in Ref. [1] is then implemented experimentally to verify this. Thereby we are able to improve on the efficiency of SHG by more than an order of magnitude by selectively out-coupling using a LN prism...

  7. Reducing the memory requirement in reverse mode automatic differentiation by solving TBR flow equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumann, U.

    2002-01-01

    The fast computation of gradients in reverse mode Automatic Differentiation (AD) requires the generation of adjoint versions of every statement in the original code. Due to the resulting reversal of the control flow certain intermediate values have to be made available in reverse order to compute the local partial derivatives. This can be achieved by storing these values or by recomputing them when they become required. In any case one is interested in minimizing the size of this set. Following an extensive introduction of the ''To-Be-Recorded'' (TBR) problem the authors present flow equations for propagating the TBR status of variables in the context of reverse mode AD of structured programs

  8. Elucidating antimalarial drug targets/mode-of-action by application of system biology technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Becker, J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available targets/mode-of-action by application of systems biology technologies J BECKER, L MTWISHA, B CRAMPTON AND D MANCAMA CSIR Biosciences, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa Email: JBecker@csir.co.za – www.csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Malaria is one... The objective of this study was to use systems biology tools to unravel the drug target/mode-of-action (MoA) of an antimalarial drug (cyclohexylamine) with a known drug target/MoA, by analysing differential expression profiles of drug treated vs untreated...

  9. Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser pumped by a single laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylov, D. A.; Esaulkov, M. N.; Kuritsyn, I. I.; Mavritskiy, A. O.; Perminov, B. E.; Konyashchenko, A. V.; Murzina, T. V.; Maydykovskiy, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    The performance of a Ti:sapphire laser pumped by a single 461 nm laser diode is presented for both the continuous-wave and the mode-locked regimes of operation. We introduce a simple astigmatism correction scheme for the laser diode beam consisting of two cylindrical lenses affecting the pump beam along the fast axis of the laser diode, which provides the mode-matching between the nearly square-shaped pump beam and the cavity mode. The resulting efficiency of the suggested Ti:Sapphire oscillator pumped by such a laser diode is analyzed for the Ti:sapphire crystals of 3 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm in length. We demonstrate that such a system provides the generation of ultrashort pulses up to 15 fs in duration with the repetition rate of 87 MHz, the average power being 170 mW.

  10. Formation of whispering gallery modes by scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by two cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, Arnold, E-mail: qulaser@gmail.com [Kuang-Chi Institute of Advanced Technology, Shenzhen, 518057 (China); Kostikov, Alexander [Donbass State Engineering Academy, 84303, Kramatorsk, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2017-03-26

    We report the effect of scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by two cylinders on whispering gallery mode (WGM) formation in a cylinder. WGM can occur because of the presence of additional cylinder scatterers at specific location, while WGMs can only form in a single cylinder for specific cylinder radius and/or wavelength values, the matching accuracy required would be much greater than that required in our model for the additional cylinders locations. Analysis of the general solution to the problem showed that the effect can be explained by the interference of waves scattered by additional cylinders and incident on the main cylinder. - Highlights: • We consider scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by two cylinders. • WGMs occur because of the presence of additional cylinder at specific location. • The accuracy for the locations is much less than required for specific values of single cylinder. • The interference of waves scattered by additional cylinders and incident on the main is responsible for the effect.

  11. Taeniasis caused by Taenia saginata in Gianyar town and Taenia solium in Karangasem villages of Bali, Indonesia, 2011-2016: How to detect tapeworm carriers, anamnesis or microscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swastika, Kadek; Wandra, Toni; Dharmawan, Nyoman Sadra; Sudarmaja, I Made; Saragih, John Master; Diarthini, Luh Putu Eka; Ariwati, Luh; Damayanti, Putu Ayu Asri; Laksemi, Dewa Ayu Agus Sri; Kapti, Nengah; Sutisna, Putu; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira

    2017-10-01

    From January 2011 until September 2016, screening of taeniasis carriers was carried out in a town in Gianyar District (Taenia saginata) and in villages which consisted of several Banjars (the smallest community units) on the eastern slope of Mt. Agung, Karangasem District (Taenia solium) in Bali, Indonesia. Fecal samples from all community members who chose to participate were examined microscopically for detection of taeniid eggs each person completedwith a questionnaire to determine if they had seen whitish, noodle-like proglottids (anamnesis) in their feces. Members with egg positive feces, and those with anamnesis, were treated with niclosamide (Yomesan ® , Bayer). A total of 39T. saginata tapeworm carriers were confirmed in Gianyar after deworming based on anamnesis (100%, 39/39). Only three of them (3/39, 7.7%) and 3/173 participants (1.7%) were identified by fecal microscopy. In contrast, 20T. solium carriers including one migrated to Gianyar were confirmed from 12 patients with eggs in their feces and from another 8 persons of 12 persons suspected to be infected due anamnesis only (8/12,66.7%) in Karangasem. The majority of carriers (12/20, 60.0%) identified by microscopy included 4 (33.3%) and 8 (66.7%) carriers confirmed microscopically with and without anamnesis, respectively. The prevalence rate was 12/1090 (1.10%) of participants. The results indicate that anamnesis is reliable for detection of T. saginata carriers, whereas it is not so reliable for detection of T. solium taeniasis (8/12, 66.7%) and that microscopy is more informative than anamnesis for T. solium. Eggs were detected more frequently in T. solium carriers (4/12, 33.3%) than in patients infected with T. saginata (3/39, 7.7%). T. solium carriers have so far been confirmed from nine of 13 Banjars examined in Karangasem. This study reveals that anamnesis is highly useful for screening of T. saginata carriers, whereas microscopy is a more valuable tool for detection of T. solium carriers

  12. Analytical modelling of resistive wall mode stabilization by rotation in toroidal tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, C J; Gimblett, C G; Hastie, R J

    2011-01-01

    Stabilization of the resitive wall mode (RWM) may allow fusion power to be doubled for a given magnetic field in advanced tokamak operation. Experimental evidence from DIII-D and other machines suggests that plasma rotation can stabilize the RWM. Several authors (Finn 1995 Phys. Plasmas 2 3782, Bondeson and Xie 1997 Phys. Plasmas 4 2081) have constructed analytical cylindrical models for the RWM, but these do not deal with toroidal effects. The framework of Connor et al (1988 Phys. Fluids 31 577) is used to develop ideal plasma analytic models with toroidicity included. Stepped pressure profiles and careful ordering of terms are used to simplify the analysis. First, a current driven kink mode model is developed and a dispersion relation for arbitrary current profile is calculated. Second, the external pressure driven kink mode is similarly investigated as the most important RWM arises from this mode. Using this latter model it is found that the RWM is stabilized by Alfven continuum damping with rotation levels similar to those seen in experiments. An expression for the stability of the external kink mode for more general current profiles and a resistive wall is derived in the appendix.

  13. Identification of surface species by vibrational normal mode analysis. A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Jian; Genest, Alexander; Rösch, Notker

    2017-10-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is an important experimental tool for identifying molecular species adsorbed on a metal surface that can be used in situ. Often vibrational modes in such IR spectra of surface species are assigned and identified by comparison with vibrational spectra of related (molecular) compounds of known structure, e. g., an organometallic cluster analogue. To check the validity of this strategy, we carried out a computational study where we compared the normal modes of three C2Hx species (x = 3, 4) in two types of systems, as adsorbates on the Pt(111) surface and as ligands in an organometallic cluster compound. The results of our DFT calculations reproduce the experimental observed frequencies with deviations of at most 50 cm-1. However, the frequencies of the C2Hx species in both types of systems have to be interpreted with due caution if the coordination mode is unknown. The comparative identification strategy works satisfactorily when the coordination mode of the molecular species (ethylidyne) is similar on the surface and in the metal cluster. However, large shifts are encountered when the molecular species (vinyl) exhibits different coordination modes on both types of substrates.

  14. Proton acceleration by RF TE{sub 11} mode in a cylindrical cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobajima, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Ohnishi, Masami; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Masuda, Kai [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Energy

    1997-03-01

    We found that protons are accelerated significantly by RF TE{sub 11} mode in a cylindrical cavity. In this method, protons get the perpendicular kinetic energy, so we thought it might be a compact accelerator, and studied the feasibility by numerical simulation. (author)

  15. Visual working memory in deaf children with diverse communication modes: improvement by differential outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Crespo, Ginesa; Daza, María Teresa; Méndez-López, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Although visual functions have been proposed to be enhanced in deaf individuals, empirical studies have not yet established clear evidence on this issue. The present study aimed to determine whether deaf children with diverse communication modes had superior visual memory and whether their performance was improved by the use of differential outcomes. Severely or profoundly deaf children who employed spoken Spanish, Spanish Sign Language (SSL), and both spoken Spanish and SSL modes of communication were tested in a delayed matching-to-sample task for visual working memory assessment. Hearing controls were used to compare performance. Participants were tested in two conditions, differential outcome and non-differential outcome conditions. Deaf groups with either oral or SSL modes of communication completed the task with less accuracy than bilingual and control hearing children. In addition, the performances of all groups improved through the use of differential outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An actively mode-locked Ho: YAG solid laser pumped by a Tm: YLF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, B Q; Cui, Z; Wang, J; Duan, X M; Dai, T Y; Du, Y Q; Yuan, J H; Liu, W

    2015-01-01

    A continuous wave mode-locked (CWML) Ho: YAG laser based on an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) pumped by a 1.9 μm Tm: YLF laser is demonstrated. This is the first time a report on an active CWML Ho: YAG laser has been published. A maximum output power of 1.04 W at 2097.25 nm in the CWML regime is obtained at a pump power of 13.2 W, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 13.3%. The mode-locked pulse repetition frequency is 82.76 MHz and the single pulse energy is 12.57 nJ. The mode-locked pulse width is 102 ps measured through a no-background second harmonic autocorrelation with KTP as the nonlinear crystal. Furthermore, the M 2 factor is calculated to be 1.146. (letter)

  17. Stable Single-Mode Operation of Distributed Feedback Quantum Cascade Laser by Optimized Reflectivity Facet Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Bo; Zhang, Jin-Chuan; Cheng, Feng-Min; Zhao, Yue; Zhuo, Ning; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Shu-Man; Liu, Feng-Qi; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2018-02-01

    In this work, quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based on strain compensation combined with two-phonon resonance design are presented. Distributed feedback (DFB) laser emitting at 4.76 μm was fabricated through a standard buried first-order grating and buried heterostructure (BH) processing. Stable single-mode emission is achieved under all injection currents and temperature conditions without any mode hop by the optimized antireflection (AR) coating on the front facet. The AR coating consists of a double layer dielectric of Al2O3 and Ge. For a 2-mm laser cavity, the maximum output power of the AR-coated DFB-QCL was more than 170 mW at 20 °C with a high wall-plug efficiency (WPE) of 4.7% in a continuous-wave (CW) mode.

  18. Engineering non-linear resonator mode interactions in circuit QED by continuous driving: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Wolfgang; Reagor, Matthew; Heeres, Reinier; Ofek, Nissim; Chou, Kevin; Blumoff, Jacob; Leghtas, Zaki; Touzard, Steven; Sliwa, Katrina; Holland, Eric; Krastanov, Stefan; Frunzio, Luigi; Devoret, Michel; Jiang, Liang; Schoelkopf, Robert

    2015-03-01

    High-Q microwave resonators show great promise for storing and manipulating quantum states in circuit QED. Using resonator modes as such a resource in quantum information processing applications requires the ability to manipulate the state of a resonator efficiently. Further, one must engineer appropriate coupling channels without spoiling the coherence properties of the resonator. We present an architecture that combines millisecond lifetimes for photonic quantum states stored in a linear resonator with fast measurement provided by a low-Q readout resonator. We demonstrate experimentally how a continuous drive on a transmon can be utilized to generate highly non-classical photonic states inside the high-Q resonator via effective nonlinear resonator mode interactions. Our approach opens new avenues for using modes of long-lived linear resonators in the circuit QED platform for quantum information processing tasks.

  19. Avoidance of Tearing Mode Locking and Disruption with Electro-Magnetic Torque Introduced by Feedback-based Mode Rotation Control in DIII-D and RFX-mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabayashi, M. [PPPL; Zanca, P. [Euratom-ENEA; Strait, E. J. [General Atomics

    2014-09-01

    Disruptions caused by tearing modes (TMs) are considered to be one of the most critical roadblocks to achieving reliable, steady-state operation of tokamak fusion reactors. Here we have demonstrated a very promising scheme to avoid such disruptions by utilizing the electro-magnetic (EM) torque produced with 3D coils that are available in many tokamaks. In this scheme, the EM torque to the modes is created by a toroidal phase shift between the externally-applied field and the excited TM fields, compensating for the mode momentum loss due to the interaction with the resistive wall and uncorrected error fields. Fine control of torque balance is provided by a feedback scheme. We have explored this approach in two vastly different devices and plasma conditions: DIII-D and RFX-mod operated in tokamak mode. In DIII-D, the plasma target was high βN plasmas in a non-circular divertor tokamak. In RFX-mod, the plasma was ohmically-heated plasma with ultralow safety factor in a circular limiter discharge of active feedback coils outside the thick resistive shell. The DIII-D and RFX-mod experiments showed remarkable consistency with theoretical predictions of torque balance. The application to ignition-oriented devices such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) would expand the horizon of its operational regime. The internal 3D coil set currently under consideration for edge localized mode suppression in ITER would be well suited to this purpose.

  20. Two-dimensional effects in the problem of tearing modes control by electron cyclotron current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comisso, L.; Lazzaro, E.

    2010-01-01

    The design of means to counteract robustly the classical and neoclassical tearing modes in a tokamak by localized injection of an external control current requires an ever growing understanding of the physical process, beyond the Rutherford-type zero-dimensional models. Here a set of extended magnetohydrodynamic nonlinear equations for four continuum fields is used to investigate the two-dimensional effects in the response of the reconnecting modes to specific inputs of the localized external current. New information is gained on the space- and time-dependent effects of the external action on the two-dimensional structure of magnetic islands, which is very important to formulate applicable control strategies.

  1. An algorithm of α-and γ-mode eigenvalue calculations by Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    2003-01-01

    A new algorithm for Monte Carlo calculation was developed to obtain α- and γ-mode eigenvalues. The α is a prompt neutron time decay constant measured in subcritical experiments, and the γ is a spatial decay constant measured in an exponential method for determining the subcriticality. This algorithm can be implemented into existing Monte Carlo eigenvalue calculation codes with minimum modifications. The algorithm was implemented into MCNP code and the performance of calculating the both mode eigenvalues were verified through comparison of the calculated eigenvalues with the ones obtained by fixed source calculations. (author)

  2. Measurement of multiple α-modes at the Delphi subcritical assembly by neutron noise techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szieberth, Máté; Klujber, Gergely; Kloosterman, Jan Leen; Haas, Dick de

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Neutron noise measurements were performed at the Delphi subcritical assembly. • Bias in the fitted prompt decay constant was observed due to higher modes. • Spatial dependence of the higher mode was surveyed. • Effect of two different source distributions was investigated. • An estimation of the prompt decay constant is given for the Delphi. - Abstract: The paper presents the results and evaluations of a comprehensive set of neutron noise measurements on the Delphi subcritical assembly of the Delft University of Technology. The measurements investigated the effect of different source distributions (inherent spontaneous fission and 252 Cf) and the position of the detectors applied (both radially and vertically). The evaluation of the measured data has been performed by the variance-to-mean (VTM, Feynman-α), the autocorrelation (ACF, Rossi-α) and the cross-correlation (CCF) methods. The values obtained for the prompt decay constant show a strong bias, which depends both on the detector position and on the source distribution. This is due to the presence of higher modes in the system. It has been observed that the α value fitted is higher when the detector is close to the boundary of the core or to the 252 Cf point-source. The higher alpha-modes have also been observed by fitting functions describing two alpha-modes. The successful set of measurements also provides a good basis for further theoretical investigations including the Monte Carlo simulation of the noise measurements and the calculation of the alpha-modes in the Delphi subcritical assembly

  3. Joint sub-carrier pairing and resource allocation for cognitive networks with adaptive relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza; Bader, F.; Shaat, M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    Relayed transmission in a cognitive radio (CR) environment could be used to increase the coverage and capacity of communication system that benefits already from the efficient management of the spectrum developed by CR. Furthermore, there are many types of cooperative communications, including decode-and-forward (DAF) and amplify-and-forward (AAF). In this paper, these techniques are combined in an adaptive mode to benefit from its forwarding advantages; this mode is called adaptive relaying protocol (ARP). Moreover, this work focuses on the joint power allocation in a cognitive radio system in a cooperative mode that operates ARP in multi-carrier mode. The multi-carrier scenario is used in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) mode, and the problem is formulated to maximize the end-to-end rate by searching the best power allocation at the transmitters. This work includes, besides the ARP model, a sub-carrier pairing strategy that allows the relays to switch to the best sub-carrier pairs to increase the throughput. The optimization problem is formulated and solved under the interference and power budget constraints using the sub-gradient algorithm. The simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed adaptive relaying protocol in comparison to other relaying techniques. The results show also the consequence of the choice of the pairing strategy. 2013 Stolojescu-Crisan and Isar; licensee Springer.

  4. Joint sub-carrier pairing and resource allocation for cognitive networks with adaptive relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2013-11-09

    Relayed transmission in a cognitive radio (CR) environment could be used to increase the coverage and capacity of communication system that benefits already from the efficient management of the spectrum developed by CR. Furthermore, there are many types of cooperative communications, including decode-and-forward (DAF) and amplify-and-forward (AAF). In this paper, these techniques are combined in an adaptive mode to benefit from its forwarding advantages; this mode is called adaptive relaying protocol (ARP). Moreover, this work focuses on the joint power allocation in a cognitive radio system in a cooperative mode that operates ARP in multi-carrier mode. The multi-carrier scenario is used in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) mode, and the problem is formulated to maximize the end-to-end rate by searching the best power allocation at the transmitters. This work includes, besides the ARP model, a sub-carrier pairing strategy that allows the relays to switch to the best sub-carrier pairs to increase the throughput. The optimization problem is formulated and solved under the interference and power budget constraints using the sub-gradient algorithm. The simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed adaptive relaying protocol in comparison to other relaying techniques. The results show also the consequence of the choice of the pairing strategy. 2013 Stolojescu-Crisan and Isar; licensee Springer.

  5. A Mathematical Model for Simulating Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated by Heavy Metals using Bio-Carriers with Dead Baccilus sp. B1 and Polysulfone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, H.; Wang, S.; Lee, M.

    2010-12-01

    The remediation of groundwater contaminated by heavy metals, organic contaminants, etc. using various types of bio-carriers has been widely studied as a novel technology in the literature. In this study, a series of batch experiments were conducted to investigated the fundamental characteristics in the removal process using bio-carriers (beads) with dead Bacillus sp. B1 and polysulfone. Through equilibrium and kinetic sorption experiments, sorption efficiencies for lead and copper under various conditions such as pH, temperature, contaminant concentration, etc. were examined and sorption parameters including maximum sorption capacities were obtained for model applications. Experimental data showed that equilibrium sorption patterns for Pb2+and Cu2+on bio-carrier beads follows Langmuir sorption isotherm and that the sorption dynamics can be described with a pseudo-second-order kinetics. One dimensional advective-dispersive-reactive transport model was also developed for simulating and analyzing the remediation processes. The HSDM (homogeneous surface diffusion model) were incorporated in the model to take into account the mass transfer and sorption mechanisms around/inside the bio-carrier beads. Applying the proposed model, numerical column experiments were carried out and the simulation results reasonably described temporal and spatial distribution of Pb2+and Cu2+in a fixed-bed flow-through sorption column. Experimental and numerical results showed that the main mechanism of the bio-carrier to remove heavy metals is the sorption on/inside of the bio-carriers and the bio-carriers can function as excellent biosorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from groundwater.

  6. Reduction of radiation exposure in PET examinations by data acquisition in the 3D mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, G.; Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum; Adam, L.E.; Zaers, J.; Trojan, H.; Doll, J.; Bellemann, M.E.; Fachhochschule Jena; Nosske, D.

    1999-01-01

    Aim: Modern volume PET systems offer the possibility to measure without the shadowing effect of interplane septa (2D mode) and thus to detect coincident events between detectors on distant rings (3D mode). It was the aim of the present paper to characterize the count rate behaviour of a latest-generation whole-body PET system in the 2D and 3D mode as well as to discuss the consequences for the radiation hygiene of PET examinations with 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18-F-FDG). Methods: All experiments were performed with the PET system ECAT EXACT HR + . For 2D data acquisition, a collimator of thin tungsten septa was positioned in the field-of-view. The count rate behaviour of the scanner was evaluated in the 2D and 3D mode over a wide range of F-18 activity concentrations following the NEMA protocol. Moreover, PET images of the EEC whole-body phantom with different inserts were acquired in the 2D and 3D mode over a period of 15 min each. For the 3D measurement, the activity concentrations of the F-18 solution were only half of those used for the 2D measurement. Results: For the circular NEMA phantom (diameter=19.4 cm, length=19,0 cm), we observed an increase of the system sensitivity in the 3D mode by a factor of about 5 with respect to the 2D mode (27.7 vs. 5.7 cps/Bq/ml). The evaluation of the activity distributions of the EEC phantom reconstructed from the 3D data set revealed a superior image quality compared to the corresponding 2D images despite the fact that the activity concentrations were only half as high. Conclusion: By using the 3D data acquisition mode, it is possible to markedly reduce the amount of activity to be applied to the patient and nevertheless to improve image quality. In our experience, it is sufficient to administer an activity of 150-200 MBq for whole-body examinations with F-18-FDG, which results in an effective equivalent dose of 3 or 4 mSv, respectively. (orig.) [de

  7. Tuning the Electronic Properties, Effective Mass and Carrier Mobility of MoS2 Monolayer by Strain Engineering: First-Principle Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuc, Huynh V.; Hieu, Nguyen N.; Hoi, Bui D.; Hieu, Nguyen V.; Thu, Tran V.; Hung, Nguyen M.; Ilyasov, Victor V.; Poklonski, Nikolai A.; Nguyen, Chuong V.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the electronic properties, effective masses, and carrier mobility of monolayer MoS_2 using density functional theory calculations. The carrier mobility was considered by means of ab initio calculations using the Boltzmann transport equation coupled with deformation potential theory. The effects of mechanical biaxial strain on the electronic properties, effective mass, and carrier mobility of monolayer MoS_2 were also investigated. It is demonstrated that the electronic properties, such as band structure and density of state, of monolayer MoS_2 are very sensitive to biaxial strain, leading to a direct-indirect transition in semiconductor monolayer MoS_2. Moreover, we found that the carrier mobility and effective mass can be enhanced significantly by biaxial strain and by lowering temperature. The electron mobility increases over 12 times with a biaxial strain of 10%, while the carrier mobility gradually decreases with increasing temperature. These results are very useful for the future nanotechnology, and they make monolayer MoS_2 a promising candidate for application in nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices.

  8. Enhancement of solubility and bioavailability of ambrisentan by solid dispersion using Daucus carota as a drug carrier: formulation, characterization, in vitro, and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmane, Subhash; Deshmane, Snehal; Shelke, Santosh; Biyani, Kailash

    2018-06-01

    Ambrisentan is an US FDA approved drug, it is the second oral endothelin A receptor antagonist known for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, but its oral administration is limited due to its poor water solubility. Hence, the objective of the investigation was focused on enhancement of solubility and bioavailability of ambrisentan by solid dispersion technique using natural Daucus carota extract as drug carrier. Drug carrier was evaluated for solubility, swelling index, viscosity, angle of repose, hydration capacity, and acute toxicity test (LD 50 ). Ambrisentan was studied for the saturation solubility, phase solubility, and Gibbs free energy change. Compatibility of drug and the natural carrier was confirmed by DSC, FTIR, and XRD. Solid dispersions were evaluated for drug content, solubility, morphology, in vitro, and in vivo study. Screening of the natural carrier showed the desirable properties like water solubility, less swelling index, less viscosity, and acute toxicity study revealed no any clinical symptoms of toxicity. Drug and carrier interaction study confirmed the compatibility to consider its use in the formulation. Formed particles were found to be spherical with smooth surface. In vitro studies revealed higher drug release from the solid dispersion than that of the physical mixture. Bioavailability study confirms the increased absorption and bioavailability by oral administration of solid dispersion. Hence, it can be concluded that the natural Daucus carota extract can be the better alternative source for the preparation of solid dispersion and/or other dosage forms for improving solubility and bioavailability.

  9. CIE L*a*b*: comparison of digital images obtained photographically by manual and automatic modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Takatsui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the color alterations performed by the CIE L*a*b* system in the digital imaging of shade guide tabs, which were obtained photographically according to the automatic and manual modes. This study also sought to examine the observers' agreement in quantifying the coordinates. Four Vita Lumin Vaccum shade guide tabs were used: A3.5, B1, B3 and C4. An EOS Canon digital camera was used to record the digital images of the shade tabs, and the images were processed using Adobe Photoshop software. A total of 80 observations (five replicates of each shade according to two observers in two modes, specifically, automatic and manual were obtained, leading to color values of L*, a* and b*. The color difference (ΔE between the modes was calculated and classified as either clinically acceptable or unacceptable. The results indicated that there was agreement between the two observers in obtaining the L*, a* and b* values related to all guides. However, the B1, B3, and C4 shade tabs had ΔE values classified as clinically acceptable (ΔE = 0.44, ΔE = 2.04 and ΔE = 2.69, respectively. The A3.5 shade tab had a ΔE value classified as clinically unacceptable (ΔE = 4.17, as it presented higher values for luminosity in the automatic mode (L* = 54.0 than in the manual mode (L* = 50.6. It was concluded that the B1, B3 and C4 shade tabs can be used at any of the modes in digital camera (manual or automatic, which was a different finding from that observed for the A3.5 shade tab.

  10. Oscillation mode frequencies of 61 main-sequence and subgiant stars observed by Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appourchaux, T.; Chaplin, W. J.; García, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Solar-like oscillations have been observed by Kepler and CoRoT in several solar-type stars, thereby providing a way to probe the stars using asteroseismology Aims. We provide the mode frequencies of the oscillations of various stars required to perform a comparison with those obtained from stella...

  11. Oscillation mode linewidths of main-sequence and subgiant stars observed by Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appourchaux, T.; Benomar, O.; Gruberbauer, M.

    2012-01-01

    Solar-like oscillations have been observed by {{\\it Kepler}} and CoRoT in several solar-type stars. We study the variations of stellar p-mode linewidth as a function of effective temperature. Time series of 9 months of Kepler data have been used. The power spectra of 42 cool main-sequence stars a...

  12. B-mode contamination by synchrotron emission from 3-yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carretti, E.; Bernardi, G.; Cortiglioni, S.

    2006-01-01

    We study the contamination of the B-mode of the cosmic microwave background polarization (CMBP) by Galactic synchrotron in the lowest emission regions of the sky. The 22.8-GHz polarization map of the 3-yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data release is used to identify and analyse such

  13. Visual Working Memory in Deaf Children with Diverse Communication Modes: Improvement by Differential Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Crespo, Ginesa; Daza, Maria Teresa; Mendez-Lopez, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Although visual functions have been proposed to be enhanced in deaf individuals, empirical studies have not yet established clear evidence on this issue. The present study aimed to determine whether deaf children with diverse communication modes had superior visual memory and whether their performance was improved by the use of differential…

  14. Tuning the transmission lineshape of a photonic crystal slab guided-resonance mode by polarization control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ningfeng; Martínez, Luis Javier; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2013-09-09

    We demonstrate a system consisting of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab and two polarizers which has a tunable transmission lineshape. The lineshape can be tuned from a symmetric Lorentzian to a highly asymmetric Fano lineshape by rotating the output polarizer. We use temporal coupled mode theory to explain the measurement results. The theory also predicts tunable phase shift and group delay.

  15. Transition to chaos for ballooning modes stabilized by finite Larmor radius effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, J; Wilhelmsson, H [Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Goeteborg (Sweden). Institutionen foer Elektromagnetisk Faeltteori

    1983-08-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of interacting ballooning modes, stabilized by finite Larmor radius effects is analyzed in terms of a set of equations, which exhibit stochastic properties. These are explicitly shown to depend on the balance between shear and driving pressure force. The onset of bifurcations and chaotic behaviour are directly identified with certain values of parameters characterizing the physical system.

  16. Angular momentum transport by heat-driven g-modes in slowly pulsating B stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, R. H. D.; Goldstein, J.; Zweibel, E. G.

    2018-03-01

    Motivated by recent interest in the phenomenon of waves transport in massive stars, we examine whether the heat-driven gravity (g) modes excited in slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars can significantly modify the stars' internal rotation. We develop a formalism for the differential torque exerted by g modes, and implement this formalism using the GYRE oscillation code and the MESASTAR stellar evolution code. Focusing first on a 4.21M⊙ model, we simulate 1 000 yr of stellar evolution under the combined effects of the torque due to a single unstable prograde g mode (with an amplitude chosen on the basis of observational constraints), and diffusive angular momentum transport due to convection, overshooting, and rotational instabilities. We find that the g mode rapidly extracts angular momentum from the surface layers, depositing it deeper in the stellar interior. The angular momentum transport is so efficient that by the end of the simulation, the initially non-rotating surface layers are spun in the retrograde direction to ≈ 30 per cent of the critical rate. However, the additional inclusion of magnetic stresses in our simulations almost completely inhibits this spin-up. Expanding our simulations to cover the whole instability strip, we show that the same general behaviour is seen in all SPB stars. After providing some caveats to contextualize our results, we hypothesize that the observed slower surface rotation of SPB stars (as compared to other B-type stars) may be the direct consequence of the angular momentum transport that our simulations demonstrate.

  17. Research and implementation of role-playing teaching mode supported by gamification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xu; Zhang, Zhenglei; Sun, Lei

    2017-08-01

    The paper designs a Role-playing Teaching Mode Supported by Gamification to stimulate the interest of learners. In the process of creating the teaching mode, the factors of incentive factors, teaching mode and course selection are the most important factors gained by investigate and research. Then under the guidance of the three factors, a leaning framework of role-playing teaching mode which is called Gamification Learning Framework (GM1.0) is determined. In the design of GM1.0, First, collect problem cases which students interested in and select three courses which are Algorithm Design, Data Structure and Program Design. Then, extract the knowledge points of the three courses and merge into the problem cases to form game maps. Last, Learners gain a role-playing actor to join games with the support of game maps and finish selected tasks reaching a higher task level by upgrade checkpoints, experience promotions and award medals changing. After that, learners’ enthusiasm for learning can be stimulated and the innovation abilities can also be improved gradually.

  18. Flapping modes of three filaments placed side by side in a free stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang-Bao; Luo, Haoxiang; Zhu, Luoding; Lu, Xi-Yun

    2010-11-01

    Flexible filaments flapping in a surrounding flow are useful models for understanding the flow-induced vibration and mimicking the schooling behavior of fish. In the present work, the coupled modes of three identical filaments in a side-by- side arrangement are studied using the linear stability analysis and also an immersed boundary--lattice Boltzmann method for low Reynolds numbers (Re on order of 100). The numerical simulations show that the system dynamics exhibits several patterns that depend on the spacing between the filaments. Among these patterns, three can be predicted by the linear analysis and have been reported before. These modes are: (1) the three filaments all flap in phase; (2) the two outer filaments are out of phase while the middle one is stable; (3) the two outer filaments are in phase while the middle one is out of phase. The simulations also identified two additional modes: (1) the outer two filaments are out of phase while the middle one flaps at a frequency reduced by half; (2) the outer two filaments are out of phase while the middle one flaps at a slightly different frequency. In addition to the vibratory modes, the drag force and the flapping amplitude are also computed, and the implication of the result will be discussed.

  19. Immobilization of yeast cells on hydrogel carriers obtained by radiation-induced polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzhao Xin; Carenza, M.; Kaetsu, Isao; Kumakura, Minoru; Yoshida, Masaru; Fujimura, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    Polymer hydrogels were obtained by radiation-induced copolymerization at -78 o C of aqueous solutions of acrylic and methacrylic esters. The matrices were characterized by equilibrium water content measurements, by optical microscopy observations and by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Yeast cells were immobilized on these hydrogels and the ethanol productivity by batch fermentation was determined. Matrix hydrophilicity and porosity were found to deeply influence the adhesion of yeast cells and, hence, the ethanol productivity. The latter as well as other physico-chemical properties were also affected by the presence of a crosslinking agent added in small amounts to the polymerizating mixture. (author)

  20. Tuning of optical mode magnetic resonance in CoZr/Ru/CoZr synthetic antiferromagnetic trilayers by oblique sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqiang; Wang, Fenglong; Cao, Cuimei; Li, Pingping; Yao, Jinli; Jiang, Changjun

    2018-04-01

    CoZr/Ru/CoZr synthetic antiferromagnetic trilayers with strong antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling were fabricated by an oblique sputtering method that induced in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. A microstrip method using a vector network analyzer was applied to investigate the magnetic resonance modes of the trilayers, including the acoustic modes (AMs) and the optical modes (OMs). At zero magnetic field, the CoZr/Ru/CoZr trilayers showed OMs with resonance frequencies of up to 7.1 GHz. By increasing the applied external magnetic field, the magnetic resonance mode can be tuned to various OMs, mixed modes, and AMs. Additionally, the magnetic resonance mode showed an angular dependence between the magnetization and the microwave field, which showed similar switching of the magnetic modes with variation of the angle. Our results provide important information that will be helpful in the design of multifunctional microwave devices.

  1. Enhancement of oscillation characteristics of a gyrotron by a built-in quasi-optical mode converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kenichi; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Komuro, Mitsuo

    1994-01-01

    Oscillation characteristics are analyzed experimentally and numerically by using two gyrotrons with a power level of 500 kW, a conventional tube and a tube with a built-in quasi-optical mode converter. Both tubes have a 120 GHz, TE 12,2 cavity of the same geometry and a single disk alumina window. The quasi-optical mode converter consists of an α-cut launcher and five mirrors. In the conventional tube, reflection of the competing mode at the output window prevents the main mode from oscillating stably in the operation region predicted by the design. Mode selectivity of the quasi-optical mode converter removes the influence of the reflection on the oscillation. Consequently, the experimental results in the tube with the quasi-optical mode converter are in good agreement with the design values. (author)

  2. Hot carrier injection degradation under dynamic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiao-Hua; Cao Yan-Rong; Hao Yue; Zhang Yue

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied hot carrier injection (HCI) under alternant stress. Under different stress modes, different degradations are obtained from the experiment results. The different alternate stresses can reduce or enhance the HC effect, which mainly depends on the latter condition of the stress cycle. In the stress mode A (DC stress with electron injection), the degradation keeps increasing. In the stress modes B (DC stress and then stress with the smallest gate injection) and C (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under V g = 0 V and V d = 1.8 V), recovery appears in the second stress period. And in the stress mode D (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under V g = −1.8 V and V d = 1.8 V), as the traps filled in by holes can be smaller or greater than the generated interface states, the continued degradation or recovery in different stress periods can be obtained. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  3. Anomalous ion thermal transport in hot ion plasmas by the ion temperature gradient mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies); Coppi, B. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Research Lab. of Electronics)

    1992-01-01

    Experiments show that the observed radial profiles of the ion thermal conductivity {chi}{sub i} have the opposite shapes with those obtained from the ion temperature gradient mode ({eta}{sub i} mode) turbulence model by the traditional mixing length estimate. In this work, this radial profile problem is reconsidered with an electromagnetic study of the linear stability of the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode and a new rule for choosing the mixing length. It is first shown that the electromagnetic effect gives a significant stabilizing effect on the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode, and that the observed reduction of {chi}{sub i}(r) in the core region can be explained by this electromagnetic effect. Secondly, in view of earlier numerical simulations showing the transfer of fluctuation energy to larger scales that those for the fastest growth rate, as well as fluctuation measurements indicating longer radial correlation lengths, a new mixing length formula is proposed to explain the radial increase of the {chi}{sub i}. It is shown the new formula fits well the observed {chi}{sub i}(r) profiles in two TFTR supershot discharges and also gives the scaling law in the current and the magnetic field which agrees better with experiment than the conventional formula.

  4. Anomalous ion thermal transport in hot ion plasmas by the ion temperature gradient mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Coppi, B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Research Lab. of Electronics

    1992-08-01

    Experiments show that the observed radial profiles of the ion thermal conductivity {chi}{sub i} have the opposite shapes with those obtained from the ion temperature gradient mode ({eta}{sub i} mode) turbulence model by the traditional mixing length estimate. In this work, this radial profile problem is reconsidered with an electromagnetic study of the linear stability of the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode and a new rule for choosing the mixing length. It is first shown that the electromagnetic effect gives a significant stabilizing effect on the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode, and that the observed reduction of {chi}{sub i}(r) in the core region can be explained by this electromagnetic effect. Secondly, in view of earlier numerical simulations showing the transfer of fluctuation energy to larger scales that those for the fastest growth rate, as well as fluctuation measurements indicating longer radial correlation lengths, a new mixing length formula is proposed to explain the radial increase of the {chi}{sub i}. It is shown the new formula fits well the observed {chi}{sub i}(r) profiles in two TFTR supershot discharges and also gives the scaling law in the current and the magnetic field which agrees better with experiment than the conventional formula.

  5. Anomalous ion thermal transport in hot ion plasmas by the ion temperature gradient mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W.; Coppi, B.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments show that the observed radial profiles of the ion thermal conductivity χ i have the opposite shapes with those obtained from the ion temperature gradient mode (η i mode) turbulence model by the traditional mixing length estimate. In this work, this radial profile problem is reconsidered with an electromagnetic study of the linear stability of the toroidal η i mode and a new rule for choosing the mixing length. It is first shown that the electromagnetic effect gives a significant stabilizing effect on the toroidal η i mode, and that the observed reduction of χ i (r) in the core region can be explained by this electromagnetic effect. Secondly, in view of earlier numerical simulations showing the transfer of fluctuation energy to larger scales that those for the fastest growth rate, as well as fluctuation measurements indicating longer radial correlation lengths, a new mixing length formula is proposed to explain the radial increase of the χ i . It is shown the new formula fits well the observed χ i (r) profiles in two TFTR supershot discharges and also gives the scaling law in the current and the magnetic field which agrees better with experiment than the conventional formula

  6. Quasi-parallel whistler mode waves observed by THEMIS during near-earth dipolarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Contel, O.; Roux, A.; Jacquey, C.; Robert, P.; Berthomier, M.; Chust, T.; Grison, B.; Angelopoulos, V.; Sibeck, D.; Chaston, C. C.; Cully, C. M.; Ergun, B.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, U.; McFadden, J.; Carlson, C.; Larson, D.; Bonnell, J. W.; Mende, S.; Russell, C. T.; Donovan, E.; Mann, I.; Singer, H.

    2009-06-01

    We report on quasi-parallel whistler emissions detected by the near-earth satellites of the THEMIS mission before, during, and after local dipolarization. These emissions are associated with an electron temperature anisotropy α=T⊥e/T||e>1 consistent with the linear theory of whistler mode anisotropy instability. When the whistler mode emissions are observed the measured electron anisotropy varies inversely with β||e (the ratio of the electron parallel pressure to the magnetic pressure) as predicted by Gary and Wang (1996). Narrow band whistler emissions correspond to the small α existing before dipolarization whereas the broad band emissions correspond to large α observed during and after dipolarization. The energy in the whistler mode is leaving the current sheet and is propagating along the background magnetic field, towards the Earth. A simple time-independent description based on the Liouville's theorem indicates that the electron temperature anisotropy decreases with the distance along the magnetic field from the equator. Once this variation of α is taken into account, the linear theory predicts an equatorial origin for the whistler mode. The linear theory is also consistent with the observed bandwidth of wave emissions. Yet, the anisotropy required to be fully consistent with the observations is somewhat larger than the measured one. Although the discrepancy remains within the instrumental error bars, this could be due to time-dependent effects which have been neglected. The possible role of the whistler waves in the substorm process is discussed.

  7. Quasi-parallel whistler mode waves observed by THEMIS during near-earth dipolarizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Le Contel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on quasi-parallel whistler emissions detected by the near-earth satellites of the THEMIS mission before, during, and after local dipolarization. These emissions are associated with an electron temperature anisotropy α=T⊥e/T||e>1 consistent with the linear theory of whistler mode anisotropy instability. When the whistler mode emissions are observed the measured electron anisotropy varies inversely with β||e (the ratio of the electron parallel pressure to the magnetic pressure as predicted by Gary and Wang (1996. Narrow band whistler emissions correspond to the small α existing before dipolarization whereas the broad band emissions correspond to large α observed during and after dipolarization. The energy in the whistler mode is leaving the current sheet and is propagating along the background magnetic field, towards the Earth. A simple time-independent description based on the Liouville's theorem indicates that the electron temperature anisotropy decreases with the distance along the magnetic field from the equator. Once this variation of α is taken into account, the linear theory predicts an equatorial origin for the whistler mode. The linear theory is also consistent with the observed bandwidth of wave emissions. Yet, the anisotropy required to be fully consistent with the observations is somewhat larger than the measured one. Although the discrepancy remains within the instrumental error bars, this could be due to time-dependent effects which have been neglected. The possible role of the whistler waves in the substorm process is discussed.

  8. Experimental verification of the fission chamber gamma signal suppression by the Campbelling mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeeren, L.; Weber, M. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Oriol, L.; Breaud, S.; Filliatre, P.; Geslot, B.; Jammes, C. [CEA, Centre de Cadarache, F-13109 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Normand, S.; Lescop, B. [CEA, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2009-07-01

    For the on-line monitoring of high fast neutron fluxes in the presence of a strong thermal neutron component, SCK-CEN and CEA are jointly developing a Fast Neutron Detector System, based on {sup 242}Pu fission chambers as sensors and including dedicated electronics and data processing systems. Irradiation tests in the BR2 reactor of {sup 242}Pu fission chambers operating in current mode showed that in typical MTR (Materials Test Reactors) conditions the fission chamber currents are dominated by the gamma contribution. In order to reduce the gamma contribution to the signal, it was proposed to use the fission chambers in Campbelling mode. An irradiation experiment in the BR2 reactor with a {sup 242}Pu and a {sup 235}U fission chamber, both equipped with a suitable cable for measurements in Campbelling mode, proved the effectiveness of the suppression of the gamma-induced signal component by the Campbelling mode: gamma contribution reduction factors of 26 for the {sup 235}U fission chamber and more than 80 for the {sup 242}Pu fission chamber were obtained. The experimental data also prove that photofission contributions are negligibly small. Consequently, in typical MTR conditions the gamma contribution to the fission chamber Campbelling signal can be neglected. (authors)

  9. Experimental Verification of the Fission Chamber Gamma Signal Suppression by the Campbelling Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeeren, L.; Weber, M.; Oriol, L.; Breaud, S.; Filliatre, P.; Geslot, B.; Jammes, C.; Normand, S.; Lescop, B.

    2011-01-01

    For the on-line monitoring of high fast neutron fluxes in the presence of a strong thermal neutron component, SCK-CEN and CEA are jointly developing a Fast Neutron Detector System, based on 242 Pu fission chambers as sensors and including dedicated electronics and data processing systems. Irradiation tests in the BR2 reactor of 242 Pu fission chambers operating in current mode showed that in typical MTR conditions the fission chamber currents are dominated by the gamma contribution. In order to reduce the gamma contribution to the signal, it was proposed to use the fission chambers in Campbelling mode. An irradiation experiment in the BR2 reactor with a 242 Pu and a 235 U fission chamber, both equipped with a suitable cable for measurements in Campbelling mode, proved the effectiveness of the suppression of the gamma-induced signal component by the Campbelling mode: gamma contribution reduction factors of 26 for the 235 U fission chamber and more than 80 for the 242 Pu fission chamber were obtained. The experimental data also prove that photofission contributions are negligibly small. Consequently, in typical MTR conditions the gamma contribution to the fission chamber Campbelling signal can be neglected. (authors)

  10. Impact of quantum–classical correspondence on entanglement enhancement by single-mode squeezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Sijo K.; Chew, Lock Yue; Sanjuán, Miguel A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Quantum entanglement between two field modes can be achieved through the collective squeezing of the two respective modes. If single-mode squeezing is performed prior to such a two-mode squeezing, an enhancement of entanglement production can happen. Interestingly, the occurrence of this enhancement can be implicitly linked to the local classical dynamical behavior via the paradigm of quantum–classical correspondence. In particular, the entanglement generated through quantum chaos is found to be hardly enhanced by prior squeezing, since it is bounded by the saturation value of the maximally entangled Schmidt state with fixed energy. These results illustrate that entanglement enhancement via initial squeezing can serve as a useful indicator of quantum chaotic behaviour. - Highlights: • Continuous-variable entanglement is explored in the Pullen–Edmonds Hamiltonian. • The local phase-space structure and the entanglement enhancement are related. • Entanglement enhancement via squeezing is smaller for the chaotic orbit. • Entanglement enhancement via squeezing is higher for the regular orbit. • The magnitude of the entanglement enhancement serves as a quantum-chaos indicator

  11. Shear flow generation by Reynolds stress and suppression of resistive g-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, H.; Horton, W.

    1993-08-01

    Suppression of resistive g-mode turbulence by background shear flow generated from a small external flow source and amplified by the fluctuation-induced Reynolds stress is demonstrated and analyzed. The model leads to a paradigm for the low-to-high (L-H) confinement mode transition. To demonstrate the L-H transition model, single-helicity nonlinear fluid simulations using the vorticity equation for the electrostatic potential, the pressure fluctuation equation and the background poloidal flow equation are used in the sheared slab configuration. The relative efficiency of the external flow and the Reynolds stress for producing shear flow depends on the poloidal flow damping parameter ν which is given by neoclassical theory. For large ν, the external flow is a dominant contribution to the total background poloidal shear flow and its strength predicted by the neoclassical theory is not enough to suppress the turbulence significantly. In contrast, for small ν, we show that the fluctuations drive a Reynolds stress that becomes large and suddenly, at some critical point in time, shear flow much larger than the external flow is generated and leads to an abrupt, order unity reduction of the turbulent transport just like that of the L-H transition in tokamak experiments. It is also found that, even in the case of no external flow, the shear flow generation due to the Reynolds stress occurs through the nonlinear interaction of the resistive g-modes and reduces the transport. To supplement the numerical solutions we derive the Landau equation for the mode amplitude of the resistive g-mode taking into account the fluctuation-induced shear flow and analyze the opposite action of the Reynolds stress in the resistive g turbulence compared with the classical shear flow Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) driven turbulence

  12. Continuous versus step-by-step scanning mode of a novel 3D scanner for CyberKnife measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Kafi, M Abdullah; Mwidu, Umar; Moftah, Belal

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the continuous versus step-by-step scanning mode of a commercial circular 3D scanner for commissioning measurements of a robotic stereotactic radiosurgery system. The 3D scanner was used for profile measurements in step-by-step and continuous modes with the intent of comparing the two scanning modes for consistency. The profile measurements of in-plane, cross-plane, 15 degree, and 105 degree were performed for both fixed cones and Iris collimators at depth of maximum dose and at 10 cm depth. For CyberKnife field size, penumbra, flatness and symmetry analysis, it was observed that the measurements with continuous mode, which can be up to 6 times faster than step-by-step mode, are comparable and produce scans nearly identical to step-by-step mode. When compared with centered step-by-step mode data, a fully processed continuous mode data gives rise to maximum of 0.50% and 0.60% symmetry and flatness difference respectfully for all the fixed cones and Iris collimators studied. - Highlights: • D scanner for CyberKnife beam data measurements. • Beam data analysis for continuous and step-by-step scan modes. • Faster continuous scanning data are comparable to step-by-step mode scan data.

  13. Controlling the efficiency of spin injection into graphene by carrier drift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jozsa, C.; Popinciuc, M.; Tombros, N.; Jonkman, H. T.; van Wees, B. J.

    Electrical spin injection from ferromagnetic metals into graphene is hindered by the impedance mismatch between the two materials. This problem can be reduced by the introduction of a thin tunnel barrier at the interface. We present room-temperature nonlocal spin valve measurements in

  14. Evaluation of carrier collection probability in bifacial interdigitated-back-contact crystalline silicon solar cells by the internal quantum efficiency mapping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Tomihisa; Tanahashi, Katsuto; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Shirasawa, Katsuhiko; Takato, Hidetaka

    2018-04-01

    Bifacial interdigitated-back-contact (IBC) silicon solar cells with a high bifaciality of 0.91 were fabricated. Screen printing and firing technology were used to reduce the production cost. For the first time, the relationship between the rear side structure and carrier collection probability was evaluated using internal quantum efficiency (IQE) mapping. The measurement results showed that the screen-printed electrode and back surface field (BSF) area led to low IQE. The low carrier collection probability by BSF area can be explained by electrical shading effects. Thus, it is clear that the IQE mapping system is useful to evaluate the IBC cell.

  15. Hydrogen as an energy carrier in substituting petroleum. Demonstration project: automobiles driven by nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donne, M.D.; Dorner, S.; Kessler, G.; Schretzmann, K.

    1983-01-01

    The substitution of oil in motor vehicles by means of coal upgrading is paid by a consumption of primary energy and the persistence of a high environmental impact as noise and off-gases. Alternative systems, based on electric traction by electricity from H 2 -fuel cells have a high development potential. The Karlsruhe Nuclear Center has endeavoured to demonstrate the feasibility of this traction system. In particular an assessment of the efficiency and costs of the H 2 -fuel cell for vehicle traction is given. The paper discusses the various possibilities of on-board H 2 storage. Finally the work being presently performed in Karlsruhe is briefly described. (author)

  16. Reducing dephasing in coupled quantum dot-cavity systems by engineering the carrier wavefunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Anders; Nielsen, Per Kær; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate theoretically how photon-assisted dephasing by the electron-phonon interaction in a coupled cavity-quantum dot system can be significantly reduced for specific QD-cavity detunings. Our starting point is a recently published theory,1 which considers longitudinal acoustic phonons......, described by a non-Markovian model, interacting with a coupled quantum dot-cavity system. The reduction of phonon-induced dephasing is obtained by placing the cavity-quantum dot system inside an infinite slab, assuming spherical electronic wavefunctions. Based on our calculations, we expect this to have...

  17. Scaling Mode Shapes in Output-Only Structure by a Mass-Change-Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mass-change-based method based on output-only data for the rescaling of mode shapes in operational modal analysis (OMA is introduced. The mass distribution matrix, which is defined as a diagonal matrix whose diagonal elements represent the ratios among the diagonal elements of the mass matrix, is calculated using the unscaled mode shapes. Based on the theory of null space, the mass distribution vector or mass distribution matrix is obtained. A small mass with calibrated weight is added to a certain location of the structure, and then the mass distribution vector of the modified structure is estimated. The mass matrix is identified according to the difference of the mass distribution vectors between the original and modified structures. Additionally, the universal set of modes is unnecessary when calculating the mass distribution matrix, indicating that modal truncation is allowed in the proposed method. The mass-scaled mode shapes estimated in OMA according to the proposed method are compared with those obtained by experimental modal analysis. A simulation is employed to validate the feasibility of the method. Finally, the method is tested on output-only data from an experiment on a five-storey structure, and the results confirm the effectiveness of the method.

  18. Simulation of operation modes of isochronous cyclotron by a new interactive method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taraszkiewicz, R.; Talach, M.; Sulikowski, J.; Doruch, H.; Norys, T.; Sroka, A.; Kiyan, I.N.; )

    2007-01-01

    Operation mode simulation methods are based on selection of trim coil currents in the isochronous cyclotron for formation of the required magnetic field at a certain level of the main coil current. The traditional current selection method is based on finding a solution for all trim coils simultaneously. After setting the calculated operation mode, it is usually necessary to perform a control measurement of the magnetic field map and to repeat the calculation for a more accurate solution. The new current selection method is based on successively finding solutions for each particular trim coil. The trim coils are taken one by one in reverse order from the edge to the center of the isochronous cyclotron. The new operation mode simulation method is based on the new current selection method. The new method, as against the traditional one, includes iterative calculation of the kinetic energy at the extraction radius. A series of experiments on proton beam formation within the range of working acceleration radii at extraction energies from 32 to 59 MeV, which were carried out at the AIC144 multipurpose isochronous cyclotron (designed mainly for the eye melanoma treatment and production of radioisotopes) at the INP PAS (Cracow), showed that the new method makes unnecessary any control measurements of magnetic fields for getting the desired operation mode, which indicates a high accuracy of the calculation. (authors)

  19. The Sr-90 waste treatment by using sodium carbonat as a carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suroto.

    1978-01-01

    The coprecipitation processes of the Sr-90 wastes, with the lime-soda treatment, that followed by the mechanism of isomorph substitution, have shown a good performance in pH 7-8. Excess of natrium carbonate in the lime-soda treatment caused the decrease of the decontamination factor. This research shows that the coprecipitation by calcite-phosphate was better than the lime-soda treatment. (author)

  20. 78 FR 27137 - Verification of Statements of Account Submitted by Cable Operators and Satellite Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Statements of Account. They agreed that the verification should be conducted by a certified public accountant... Public Accountants (``AICPA'') or the State Board of Accountancy that licensed the auditor while the... professional association for certified public accountants. In any event, it seems unlikely that the copyright...

  1. 77 FR 38747 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Parts 234 and 235 [Docket No. DOT-OST... AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of proposed..., regardless of whether the cat or dog is transported as a pet by its owner or as part of a commercial shipment...

  2. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 129 - Application for Operations Specifications by Foreign Air Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Operations. State whether the operation proposed is day or night, visual flight rules, instrument flight...). Sec. IV. Communications facilities. List all communication facilities to be used by the applicant in... English language to a degree necessary to enable them to properly communicate with Airport Traffic Control...

  3. Dielectric and Carrier Transport Properties of Silicone Rubber Degraded by Gamma Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daomin Min

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Silicone rubber (SiR is used as an insulating material for cables installed in a nuclear power plant. Gamma rays irradiated SiR sheets for various periods at temperatures of 145 and 185 °C, and the resultant changes were analyzed by examining complex permittivity spectra and surface potential decay characteristics. Three different processes, namely, instantaneous polarization, electrode polarization due to the accumulation of ions to form double charge layers at dielectric/electrode interfaces, and DC conduction caused by directional hopping of ions, contribute to the complex permittivity. By fitting the spectra to theoretical equations, we can obtain the dielectric constant at high frequencies, concentration and diffusion coefficient of ions and DC conductivity for the pristine and degraded samples. The instantaneous polarization becomes active with an increase of dose and ageing temperature. The thermal expansion coefficient estimated from the temperature dependence of dielectric constant at high frequencies becomes smaller with an increase in dose, which is in good agreement with the experimental results of the swelling ratio. Additionally, trap distributions are calculated from surface potential decay measurements and analyzed to explain the variation in conductivity. Trap energy increases firstly, and then decreases with an increase in dose, leading to a similar change in DC conductivity. It is concluded that generations of both oxidative products and mobile ions, as well as the occurrence of chain scission and crosslinking are simultaneously induced by gamma rays.

  4. Diagnosis of Fault Modes Masked by Control Loops with an Application to Autonomous Hovercraft Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis A. Raptis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a methodology for the design, testing and assessment of incipient failure detection techniques for failing components/systems of an autonomous vehicle masked or hidden by feedback control loops. It is recognized that the optimum operation of critical assets (aircraft, autonomous systems, etc. may be compromised by feedback control loops by masking severe fault modes while compensating for typical disturbances. Detrimental consequences of such occurrences include the inability to detect expeditiously and accurately incipient failures, loss of control and inefficient operation of assets in the form of fuel overconsumption and adverse environmental impact. We pursue a systems engineering process to design, construct and test an autonomous hovercraft instrumented appropriately for improved autonomy. Hidden fault modes are detected with performance guarantees by invoking a Bayesian estimation approach called particle filtering. Simulation and experimental studies are employed to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methods.

  5. Excitation of contained modes by high energy nuclei and correlated cyclotron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.; Penn, G.; Riconda, C.

    1997-01-01

    In experiments with fusing plasmas, enhanced radiation emission at the harmonics of the cyclotron frequency of fusion reaction products has been observed. A theory is presented that explains key features of these observations and indicates the possibility of extracting significant information about the fusion product population distribution, both in velocity space and over the plasma cross section. The considered model is consistent in particular with the fact that, in DT plasmas, the radiation peaks occur at frequencies corresponding to harmonics of the α particles cyclotron frequency Ω a evaluated at the outer edge of the plasma column, and that a transition to a open-quotes continuumclose quotes spectrum at high frequencies (ω approx-gt 7Ω α ) can be identified. In this model, the radiation is the result of the excitation of radially open-quotes containedclose quotes modes which are driven unstable by the fusion products. The modes considered to be responsible for the discrete part of the spectrum are spatially localized near the plasma edge. The radial containment, which is associated mainly with the inhomogeneity of the plasma density, is in fact a fundamental characteristic since only contained modes can grow out of a relatively weak mode-particle interaction and justify the detected emission power levels. The contained mode is a solution to a set of macroscopic equations, in which the electron motion is tied to that of the magnetic field (Hall effect). The growth rate has been evaluated considering the particle orbits in a toroidal confinement configuration and modelling the distribution function of the interacting particles with the energy at birth before slowing down occurs. The growth rate depends linearly on the α-particle density and can be larger than, or of the order of, the bounce frequency of the magnetically trapped α-particles, which can have a resonant interaction with the mode. According to the theoretical model presented, the discrete

  6. Ultra-high carrier mobility InSb film by rapid thermal annealing on glass substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charith Jayanada Koswaththage

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available InSb films were deposited on both mica and glass substrates using thermal evaporation and subjected to FA or RTA. Crystallinity, composition and electrical properties were investigated. High Hall electron mobility as high as 25,000 cm2/(Vs was obtained with the capped InSb film by keeping the In:Sb ratio after RTA at 520°C for 30 sec or more without adopting epitaxial growth on glass.

  7. Towards understanding edge localised mode mitigation by resonant magnetic perturbations in MAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, I. T.; Kirk, A.; Ham, C. J.; Harrison, J. R.; Liu, Y. Q.; Saarelma, S.; Scannell, R.; Thornton, A. J.; Team, MAST [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Becoulet, M.; Orain, F. [Association Euratom/CEA, CEA Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108, St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Cooper, W. A. [CRPP, Association EURATOM/Confédération Suisse, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Pamela, S. [IIFS-PIIM. Aix Marseille Université—CNRS, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2013-05-15

    Type-I Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) have been mitigated in MAST through the application of n=3,4, and 6 resonant magnetic perturbations. For each toroidal mode number of the non-axisymmetric applied fields, the frequency of the ELMs has been increased significantly, and the peak heat flux on the divertor plates reduced commensurately. This increase in ELM frequency occurs despite a significant drop in the edge pressure gradient, which would be expected to stabilise the peeling-ballooning modes thought to be responsible for type-I ELMs. Various mechanisms which could cause a destabilisation of the peeling-ballooning modes are presented, including pedestal widening, plasma rotation braking, three dimensional corrugation of the plasma boundary, and the existence of radially extended lobe structures near to the X-point. This leads to a model aimed at resolving the apparent dichotomy of ELM control, which is to say ELM suppression occurring due to the pedestal pressure reduction below the peeling-ballooning stability boundary, whilst the reduction in pressure can also lead to ELM mitigation, which is ostensibly a destabilisation of peeling-ballooning modes. In the case of ELM mitigation, the pedestal broadening, 3d corrugation, or lobes near the X-point degrade ballooning stability so much that the pedestal recovers rapidly to cross the new stability boundary at lower pressure more frequently, whilst in the case of suppression, the plasma parameters are such that the particle transport reduces the edge pressure below the stability boundary, which is only mildly affected by negligible rotation braking, small edge corrugation or short, broad lobe structures.

  8. Corrosion testing on crude oil tankers and other product carriers by means of acoustic emission (AE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Gerald [TUV Austria, Deutschstrasse 10, 1230 Wien (Austria); Tscheliesnig, Peter [TUV Austria, Deutschstrasse 10, 1230 Wien (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    In the last decades a lot of maritime disasters with crude oil tankers occurred (e.g. Exxon- Valdez, Erika, Prestige). Every accident led to extreme pollution with horrible consequences not only for the environment but also for the life of the inhabitants of the affected coasts. Although most of these accidents were caused by human errors, the material degradation of the ship hull due to corrosion played an important role. Acoustic emission (AE) is already used to detect and discriminate the stage of corrosion of structures located on land. A consortium consisting of experienced partners from the fields of ship building and classification as well as from AE testing and equipment manufacturing started to investigate the feasibility of this testing technique for its application on oil tankers. The aim of the research project funded by the European Commission is to develop an on-line corrosion monitoring technique based on a permanent installation of AE sensors as well as a spot testing technique during stops in harbors or at anchorages using mobile equipment. Since the project was started, a lot of lab tests as well as background measurements were done on different types of tankers up to a size of 35.000 dead weight tons (DWT). The gathered data were evaluated with a frequency domain based pattern recognition system and it was possible to distinguish the AE signals related to corrosion from those signals, which were emitted by the structure due to the harsh environment on sea (background noise). Together with the oncoming developments of the AE equipment and the improvement of the data base, this project will lead to an important breakthrough for the safe shipping of hazardous products like crude oil. (authors)

  9. Carrier transport assisted by dopants in doped poly(N-vinylcarbozole) light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xiaohong [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Bejing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Liu Ming [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Bejing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Xu Zheng [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Bejing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Hou Yanbing [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Bejing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Teng Feng [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Bejing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Xu Xurong [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Bejing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2004-04-07

    We have investigated the transient electroluminescence (EL) onset of the double-layer light-emitting devices made from poly(N-vinylcarbozole) (PVK) doped with 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6(1, 1, 7, 7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) and tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline) aluminium (Alq{sub 3}). For the double-layered device in which PVK was doped with 0.1 wt% DCJTB, the EL onset of PVK lags that of DCJTB and Alq{sub 3}, while the EL onset of DCJTB and Alq{sub 3} is simultaneous. However, the EL emission of the double-layered device of PVK/Alq{sub 3} originates only from Alq{sub 3}. The results show that DCJTB dopants can not only help to tunnel electrons from Alq{sub 3} zone to PVK but can also assist electrons transfer in PVK under high electric field by hopping between DCJTB molecules or from DCJTB to PVK sites at a low doping concentration of 0.1 wt%. When the DCJTB doping concentration is 4.0 wt%, the EL onset of Alq{sub 3} lags that of DCJTB. The difference in the EL onsets of DCJTB, Alq{sub 3} and PVK is attributed to the slow build-up of the internal space charge in the vicinity of the interface between PVK and Alq{sub 3}. The electron potential difference of the interface between Alq{sub 3} and PVK doped by DCJTB can be adjusted by changing the DCJTB doping concentration in double-layer devices.

  10. Cardiac Time Intervals Measured by Tissue Doppler Imaging M-mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Schnohr, Peter

    2016-01-01

    function was evaluated in 1915 participants by using both conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). The cardiac time intervals, including the isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), isovolumic contraction time (IVCT), and ejection time (ET), were obtained by TDI M-mode through the mitral......). Additionally, they displayed a significant dose-response relationship, between increasing severity of elevated blood pressure and increasing left ventricular mass index (P

  11. Study of the Bulk Charge Carrier Dynamics in Anatase and Rutile TiO2 Single Crystals by Femtosecond Time Resolved Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Maity, Partha

    2018-04-02

    Understanding of the fundamentals behind charge carriers of photo-catalytic materials are still illusive hindering progress in our quest for renewable energy. TiO2 anatase and rutile are the most understood phases in photo-catalysis and serve as the best model for fundamental studies. Their ultrafast charge carrier dynamics especially on TiO2 anatase single crystal (the most active phase) are unresolved. Here femtosecond time resolved spectroscopy (TRS) was carried out to explore the dynamics of photo-excited charge carriers’ recombination in anatase single crystal, for the first time using pump fluence effects, and compares it to that of the rutile single crystal. A significant difference in charge carrier recombination rates between both crystals is observed. We found that the time constants for carrier recombination are two orders of magnitude slower for anatase (101) when compared to those of rutile (110). Moreover, bulk defects introduced by reduction of the samples via annealing in ultra-high vacuum resulted in faster recombination rates for both polymorphs. Both states (fresh and reduced) probed by pump fluence dependence measurements revealed that the major recombination channel in fresh and reduced anatase and reduced rutile is the first-order Shockley–Reed mediated. However, for fresh rutile, third-body Auger recombination was observed, attributed to the presence of higher density of intrinsic charge carriers. At all excitation wavelengths and fluence investigated, anatase (101) single crystal show longer charge carrier lifetime when compared to rutile (110) single. This may explain the superiority of the anatase phase for the electron transfer H+ reduction to molecular hydrogen.

  12. Transient transition from free carrier metallic state to exciton insulating state in GaAs by ultrafast photoexcitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, X. C.; Song, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Xiu; Gu, Peng; Liu, Shi-Bing; Li, Fan; Meng, Jian-Qiao; Duan, Yu-Xia; Liu, H. Y.

    2018-03-01

    We present systematic studies of the transient dynamics of GaAs by ultrafast time-resolved reflectivity. In photoexcited non-equilibrium states, we found a sign reverse in reflectivity change ΔR/R, from positive around room temperature to negative at cryogenic temperatures. The former corresponds to a free carrier metallic state, while the latter is attributed to an exciton insulating state, in which the transient electronic properties is mostly dominated by excitons, resulting in a transient metal–insulator transition (MIT). Two transition temperatures (T 1 and T 2) are well identified by analyzing the intensity change of the transient reflectivity. We found that photoexcited MIT starts emerging at T 1 as high as ∼ 230 K, in terms of a dip feature at 0.4 ps, and becomes stabilized below T 2 that is up to ∼ 180 K, associated with a negative constant after 40 ps. Our results address a phase diagram that provides a framework for the inducing of MIT through temperature and photoexcitation, and may shed light on the understanding of light-semiconductor interaction and exciton physics.

  13. Magnetic microparticles post-synthetically coated by hyaluronic acid as an enhanced carrier for microfluidic bioanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holubova, Lucie; Knotek, Petr; Palarcik, Jiri; Cadkova, Michaela; Belina, Petr; Vlcek, Milan; Korecka, Lucie; Bilkova, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Iron oxide based particles functionalized by bioactive molecules have been utilized extensively in biotechnology and biomedicine. Despite their already proven advantages, instability under changing reaction conditions, non-specific sorption of biomolecules on the particles' surfaces, and iron oxide leakage from the naked particles can greatly limit their application. As confirmed many times, surface treatment with an appropriate stabilizer helps to minimize these disadvantages. In this work, we describe enhanced post-synthetic surface modification of superparamagnetic microparticles varying in materials and size using hyaluronic acid (HA) in various chain lengths. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, phase analysis light scattering and laser diffraction are the methods used for characterization of HA-coated particles. The zeta potential and thickness of HA-layer of HA-coated Dynabeads M270 Amine were − 50 mV and 85 nm, respectively, and of HA-coated p(GMA-MOEAA)-NH 2 were − 38 mV and 140 nm, respectively. The electrochemical analysis confirmed the zero leakage of magnetic material and no reactivity of particles with hydrogen peroxide. The rate of non-specific sorption of bovine serum albumin was reduced up to 50% of the naked ones. The coating efficiency and suitability of biopolymer-based microparticles for magnetically active microfluidic devices were confirmed. - Highlights: • Post-synthetic surface modification of magnetic microparticles by hyaluronic acid • Hyaluronic acid — polymer of unique physicochemical and biological characteristics • Panel of particle characterization methods was introduced. • HA-coated microparticles gain characteristics suited for microfluidic bioanalysis

  14. Increasing minority carrier lifetime in as-grown multicrystalline silicon by low temperature internal gettering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Amin, M., E-mail: m.al-amin@warwick.ac.uk; Murphy, J. D., E-mail: john.d.murphy@warwick.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-21

    We report a systematic study into the effects of long low temperature (≤500 °C) annealing on the lifetime and interstitial iron distributions in as-grown multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) from different ingot height positions. Samples are characterised in terms of dislocation density, and lifetime and interstitial iron concentration measurements are made at every stage using a temporary room temperature iodine-ethanol surface passivation scheme. Our measurement procedure allows these properties to be monitored during processing in a pseudo in situ way. Sufficient annealing at 300 °C and 400 °C increases lifetime in all cases studied, and annealing at 500 °C was only found to improve relatively poor wafers from the top and bottom of the block. We demonstrate that lifetime in poor as-grown wafers can be improved substantially by a low cost process in the absence of any bulk passivation which might result from a dielectric surface film. Substantial improvements are found in bottom wafers, for which annealing at 400 °C for 35 h increases lifetime from 5.5 μs to 38.7 μs. The lifetime of top wafers is improved from 12.1 μs to 23.8 μs under the same conditions. A correlation between interstitial iron concentration reduction and lifetime improvement is found in these cases. Surprisingly, although the interstitial iron concentration exceeds the expected solubility values, low temperature annealing seems to result in an initial increase in interstitial iron concentration, and any subsequent decay is a complex process driven not only by diffusion of interstitial iron.

  15. Stepping Stone Mechanism: Carrier-Free Long-Range Magnetism Mediated by Magnetized Cation States in Quintuple Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chunkai; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yiou; Tse, Kinfai; Deng, Bei; Zhang, Jingzhao; Zhu, Junyi

    2018-01-01

    The long-range magnetism observed in group-V tellurides quintuple layers is the only working example of carrier-free dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), whereas the physical mechanism is unclear, except the speculation on the band topology enhanced van Vleck paramagnetism. Based on DFT calculations, we find a stable long-range ferromagnetic order in a single quintuple layer of Cr-doped Bi2Te3 or Sb2Te3, with the dopant separation more than 9 Å. This configuration is the global energy minimum among all configurations. Different from the conventional super exchange theory, the magnetism is facilitated by the lone pair derived anti-bonding states near the cations. Such anti-bonding states work as stepping stones merged in the electron sea and conduct magnetism. Further, spin orbit coupling induced band inversion is found to be insignificant in the magnetism. Therefore, our findings directly dismiss the common misbelief that band topology is the only factor that enhances the magnetism. We further demonstrate that removal of the lone pair derived states destroys the long-range magnetism. This novel mechanism sheds light on the fundamental understanding of long-range magnetism and may lead to discoveries of new classes of DMS. Supported by Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) under Grant No 4053084, University Grants Committee of Hong Kong under Grant No 24300814, and the Start-up Funding of CUHK.

  16. Large modulation of carrier transport by grain-boundary molecular packing and microstructure in organic thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Rivnay, Jonathan

    2009-11-08

    Solution-processable organic semiconductors are central to developing viable printed electronics, and performance comparable to that of amorphous silicon has been reported for films grown from soluble semiconductors. However, the seemingly desirable formation of large crystalline domains introduces grain boundaries, resulting in substantial device-to-device performance variations. Indeed, for films where the grain-boundary structure is random, a few unfavourable grain boundaries may dominate device performance. Here we isolate the effects of molecular-level structure at grain boundaries by engineering the microstructure of the high-performance n-type perylenediimide semiconductor PDI8-CN 2 and analyse their consequences for charge transport. A combination of advanced X-ray scattering, first-principles computation and transistor characterization applied to PDI8-CN 2 films reveals that grain-boundary orientation modulates carrier mobility by approximately two orders of magnitude. For PDI8-CN 2 we show that the molecular packing motif (that is, herringbone versus slip-stacked) plays a decisive part in grain-boundary-induced transport anisotropy. The results of this study provide important guidelines for designing device-optimized molecular semiconductors. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  17. Suppression of the release of arsenic from arsenopyrite by carrier-microencapsulation using Ti-catechol complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ilhwan; Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar; Magaribuchi, Kagehiro; Seno, Kensuke; Ito, Mayumi; Hiroyoshi, Naoki

    2018-02-15

    Arsenopyrite is the most common arsenic-bearing sulfide mineral in nature, and its weathering contributes to acid mine drainage (AMD) formation and the release of toxic arsenic (As). To mitigate this problem, carrier-microencapsulation (CME) using titanium (Ti)-catechol complex (i.e., Ti-based CME) was investigated to passivate arsenopyrite by forming a protective coating. Ti 4+ ion dissolved in sulfuric acid and catechol were used to successfully synthesize Ti(IV) tris-catecholate complex, [Ti(Cat) 3 ] 2- , which was stable in the pH range of 5-12. Electrochemical studies on the redox properties of this complex indicate that its oxidative decomposition was a one-step, irreversible process. The leaching of As from arsenopyrite was suppressed by CME treatment using the synthesized Ti-catechol complex. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) indicate that this suppression was primarily due to the formation of an anatase (β-TiO 2 )-containing coating. Based on these results, a detailed 4-step mechanism to explain the decomposition of [Ti(Cat) 3 ] 2- and formation of TiO 2 coating in Ti-based CME is proposed: (1) adsorption, (2) partial oxidation-intermediate formation, (3) non electrochemical dissociation, and (4) hydrolysis-precipitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Addressing the efficiency roll-off in a fluorescent OLED by facile electron transport layer doping and carrier confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, Anjaly; M, Manuraj; Unni, K. N. Narayanan

    2018-05-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) often face the issue of decreasing power efficiency with increasing brightness. Loss of charge carrier balance is one of the factors contributing to the efficiency roll-off. We demonstrate that by using a combination of doped electron transport layer (ETL) and a specially chosen electron blocking layer (EBL) having high hole mobility, this efficiency roll-off can be effectively suppressed. A tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) based OLED has been fabricated with 2,3,6,7-Tetrahydro-1,1,7,7,-tetramethyl-1H, 5H,11H-10-(2-benzothiazolyl) quinolizino-[9,9a, 1n gh]coumarin (C545T) as the emissive dopant. Bulk doping of the ETL with lithium fluoride (LiF) was optimized to increase the luminous intensity as well as the current efficiency. An EBL with high hole mobility introduced between the EML and the hole transport layer (HTL) improved the performance drastically, and the device brightness at 9 V got improved by a factor of 2.5 compared to that of the control device. While increasing the brightness from 100 cd/m2 to 1000 cd/m2, the power efficiency drop was 47% for the control device whereas only a drop of 15% was observed for the modified device. The possible mechanisms for the enhanced performance are discussed.

  19. Carrier Localization in GaN/AlN Quantum Dots As Revealed by Three-Dimensional Multimicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Lorenzo; Moyon, Florian; Hernàndez-Maldonado, David; Blum, Ivan; Houard, Jonathan; Lefebvre, Williams; Vurpillot, François; Das, Aparna; Monroy, Eva; Rigutti, Lorenzo

    2017-07-12

    The localization of carrier states in GaN/AlN self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) is studied by correlative multimicroscopy relying on microphotoluminescence, electron tomography, and atom probe tomography (APT). Optically active field emission tip specimens were prepared by focused ion beam from an epitaxial film containing a stack of quantum dot layers and analyzed with different techniques applied subsequently on the same tip. The transition energies of single QDs were calculated in the framework of a 6-bands k.p model on the basis of APT and scanning transmission electron microscopy characterization showing that a good agreement between experimental and calculated energies can be obtained, overcoming the limitations of both techniques. The results indicate that holes effectively localize at interface fluctuations at the bottom of the QD, decreasing the extent of the wave function and the band-to-band transition energy. They also represent an important step toward the correlation of the three-dimensional atomic scale structural information with the optical properties of single light emitters based on quantum confinement.

  20. Enhanced carrier collection efficiency and reduced quantum state absorption by electron doping in self-assembled quantum dot solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tian, E-mail: tianlee@umd.edu, E-mail: dage@ece.umd.edu; Dagenais, Mario, E-mail: tianlee@umd.edu, E-mail: dage@ece.umd.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lu, Haofeng; Fu, Lan; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2015-02-02

    Reduced quantum dot (QD) absorption due to state filling effects and enhanced electron transport in doped QDs are demonstrated to play a key role in solar energy conversion. Reduced QD state absorption with increased n-doping is observed in the self-assembled In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As/GaAs QDs from high resolution below-bandgap external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurement, which is a direct consequence of the Pauli exclusion principle. We also show that besides partial filling of the quantum states, electron-doping produces negatively charged QDs that exert a repulsive Coulomb force on the mobile electrons, thus altering the electron trajectory and reducing the probability of electron capture, leading to an improved collection efficiency of photo-generated carriers, as indicated by an absolute above-bandgap EQE measurement. The resulting redistribution of the mobile electron in the planar direction is further validated by the observed photoluminescence intensity dependence on doping.

  1. Shear flow generation by Reynolds stress and suppression of resistive g modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, H.; Horton, W.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have investigated suppression of the resistive g mode turbulence by background shear flow produced by the external source and by the fluctuation-induced Reynolds stress. For that purpose, the authors used the model consisting of the equations describing the electrostatic potential φ≡(φ 0 +φ) and the pressure fluctuation p of the resistive g mode, and the equation for the background poloidal flow. They have done the single-helicity nonlinear simulations using the model equations in the sheared slab configuration. They find that, in the nonlinear turbulent regime, significant suppression of the turbulent transport is realized only when the shear flow v' E exceeds that which makes the fastest-growing linear modes marginally stable. With the shear flow which decreases the fastest linear growth rates by about a half, the turbulent transport in the saturated state is about the same as in the case of no shear flow. As seen from the equation for the background flow v E , the relative efficiency of the external flow and the Reynolds stress for producing shear flow depends on the parameter ν. For large ν, the external flow is a dominant contribution to the total background poloidal shear flow although its strength predicted by the neoclassical theory is not enough to suppress the turbulence significantly. On the other hand, for small ν, they observe that, as the fluctuations grow, the Reynolds stress becomes large and suddenly at some critical point in time shear flow much larger than the external one is generated and leads to the significant reduction of the turbulent transport just like that of the L-H transition in tokamak experiments. It is remarkable that the Reynolds stress due to the resistive g mode fluctuations works not as a conventional viscosity term weakening the shear flow but as a negative viscosity term enhancing it

  2. Stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes by electron cyclotron current drive in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isayama, A.; Oyama, N.; Urano, H.; Suzuki, T.; Takechi, M.; Hayashi, N.; Nagasaki, K.; Kamada, Y.; Ide, S.; Ozeki, T.

    2007-01-01

    Results of active control of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) by electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) in JT-60U are described. Growth of an NTM with poloidal mode number m = 3 and toroidal mode number n = 2 has been suppressed by ECCD inside the sawtooth inversion radius in the co-direction, showing the possibility of the coexistence of sawtooth oscillations and a small-amplitude m/n = 3/2 NTM without large confinement degradation. Stabilization of an m/n = 2/1 NTM by ECCD at the mode rational surface has been demonstrated with a small ratio of the current density driven by the electron cyclotron (EC) wave to the local bootstrap current density (∼ 0.5). In addition, dependence of the stabilization effect on ECCD location has been investigated in detail. It has been found that an m/n = 2/1 NTM can be completely stabilized with the misalignment of the ECCD location less than about half of the full island width, and that the m/n = 2/1 NTM is destabilized with the misalignment comparable to the full island width. Time-dependent, self-consistent simulation of magnetic island evolution using the TOPICS code has shown that the stabilization and destabilization of an m/n = 2/1 NTM are well reproduced with the same set of coefficients of the modified Rutherford equation. The TOPICS simulation has also clarified that EC wave power required for complete stabilization can be significantly reduced by narrowing the ECCD deposition width

  3. Microwave measurements of energy lost to longitudinal modes by single electron bunches traversing periodic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.W.; Loew, G.A.; Weaver, J.N.; Wilson, P.B.

    1981-10-01

    In the design of future linear colliders, it will be important to minimize the loss of beam energy due to the excitation of higher-order modes in the accelerator structure by single bunches of electrons or positrons. This loss is not only detrimental in itself but also gives rise to energy spectrum widening and transverse emittance growth. Microwave measurements made on disk-loaded and alternating-spoke structures to determine the loss to the longitudinal modes are described. In these measurements the Gaussian bunch is simulated by a current pulse of the same shape transmitted through the structure on an axial center conductor. Results to date are presented for the total longitudinal loss parameter per period K in volts per picocoulomb

  4. Crack Tip Flipping under Mode I Tearing: Investigated by X-Ray Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Gundlach, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    The fracture surface morphology that results from mode I tearing of ductile plate metals depends heavily on both the elastic-plastic material properties and the microstructure. Severe tunneling of the advancing crack tip (resulting in cup-cup, or bath-tub like fracture surfaces) can take place...... in a range of materials, often of low strength, while tearing of high strength metals typically progress by the shear band failure mechanism (slanting). In reality, however, most fracture surfaces display a mixture of morphologies. For example, slant crack propagation can be accompanied by large shear lips...... near the outer free plate surface or a complete shear band switch - seemingly distributed randomly on the fracture surface. The occasionally observed shear band switch of mode I slant cracks, related to ductile plate tearing, is far from random as the crack can flip systematically from one side...

  5. Chemical reactions of water molecules on Ru(0001) induced by selective excitation of vibrational modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugarza, Aitor; Shimizu, Tomoko K.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-05-07

    Tunneling electrons in a scanning tunneling microscope were used to excite specific vibrational quantum states of adsorbed water and hydroxyl molecules on a Ru(0 0 0 1) surface. The excited molecules relaxed by transfer of energy to lower energy modes, resulting in diffusion, dissociation, desorption, and surface-tip transfer processes. Diffusion of H{sub 2}O molecules could be induced by excitation of the O-H stretch vibration mode at 445 meV. Isolated molecules required excitation of one single quantum while molecules bonded to a C atom required at least two quanta. Dissociation of single H{sub 2}O molecules into H and OH required electron energies of 1 eV or higher while dissociation of OH required at least 2 eV electrons. In contrast, water molecules forming part of a cluster could be dissociated with electron energies of 0.5 eV.

  6. Study of non-static behavior of tauσ-modes by (p,n) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimura, M.; Izumoto, T.; Ko, C.M.; Siemens, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    The nuclear response function of tauσ-modes are investigated in the wide range of the energy-momentum plane (ω,q). The opalescence phenomena associated with the pion condensation is clearly seen at q asymptotically equals 2.2 μ (μ being the pion mass) and rather low ω in the response function of the normal nuclear matter if the Migdal parameter g' >= 0.5. To investigate such behavior of the nuclear response to the tauσ-modes, 90 Zr(p,n) reaction to the continuum states is analyzed by DWBA. The response functions of the finite nucleus are constructed by the local density approximation from those of the nuclear matter. It is found that the finiteness and the distorted wave effects smear the enhancement (the opalescence phenomena) considerably, but it would still be seen if q' >= 0.4. (author)

  7. Optical Splitters Based on Self-Imaging Effect in Multi-Mode Waveguide Made by Ion Exchange in Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Barkman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Design and modeling of single mode optical multi-mode interference structures with graded refractive index is reported. Several samples of planar optical channel waveguides were obtained by Ag+, Na+ and K+, Na+ one step thermal ion exchange process in molten salt on GIL49 glass substrate and new special optical glass for ion exchange technology. Waveguide properties were measured by optical mode spectroscopy. Obtained data were used for further design and modeling of single mode channel waveguide and subsequently for the design of 1 to 3 multimode interference power splitter in order to improve simulation accuracy. Designs were developed by utilizing finite difference beam propagation method.

  8. Ordinary mode auroral kilometric radiation fine structure observed by DE 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.F.; Mellott, M.M.; Huff, R.L.; Gurnett, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The fine structure observed with intense right-hand extraordinary (R-X) mode auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) has received major theoretical attention. Data from the Dynamics Explorer 1 plasma wave instrument indicate that left-hand ordinary (L-O) mode AKR posses similar fine structure. Several theories have been proposed to explain the fine structure of the R-X mode AKR. In order to account for the L-O mode fine structure, these theories will have to be modified to produce the L-O mode directly or will have to rely on mode conversion processes from the R-X to the L-O mode

  9. Flattened optical frequency-locked multi-carrier generation by cascading one DML and one phase modulator driven by different RF frequency clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Zhang, Junwen; Chi, Nan

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme for flattened optical frequency-locked multi-carrier generation based on one directly modulated laser (DML) and one phase modulator (PM) in cascade driven by different sinusoidal radio-frequency (RF) clocks. We experimentally demonstrate that when the clock frequencies for the cascaded DML and the PM are respectively 12.5 GHz and 25 GHz, over 24 optical subcarriers can be generated with 12.5-GHz frequency spacing and amplitude fluctuation less than 3 dB. Furthermore, the number of generated optical subcarriers can be further increased when we increase the driving power for the DML. (letter)

  10. Mode-Locking in Broad-Area Semiconductor Lasers Enhanced by Picosecond-Pulse Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, J; Fischer, I; Elsasser, W; Gehrig, E; Hess, O

    2004-01-01

    We present combined experimental and theoretical investigations of the picosecond emission dynamics of broad-area semiconductor lasers (BALs). We enhance the weak longitudinal self-mode-locking that is inherent to BALs by injecting a single optical 50-ps pulse, which triggers the output of a distinct regular train of 13-ps pulses. Modeling based on multimode Maxwell-Bloch equations illustrates how the dynamic interaction of the injected pulse with the internal laser field efficiently couples ...

  11. Probabilistic evaluation of multiple failures for steam generators tubes by common mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, M.; Pierrey, J.L.; Dussarte, D.

    1987-11-01

    The reactor safety can be affected when systems or components are subject to phenomena conducting at a wear nontake in account in the conception. This paper presents a methodology which takes in account the non simultaneous failures resulting of this situation. To illustrate this purpose, we give an evaluation of risk of multiple failures for steam generators tubes by common mode (stress corrosion) when the reactor is in normal operation [fr

  12. Excitation of the shear horizontal mode in a monolayer by inelastic helium atom scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruch, L. W.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    2005-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of a low-energy atomic helium beam (HAS) by a physisorbed monolayer is treated in the one-phonon approximation using a time-dependent wave,packet formulation. The calculations show that modes with shear horizontal polarization can be excited near high symmetry azimuths....... The diffraction and inelastic processes arise from a strong coupling of the incident atom to the target and the calculated results show large departures from expectations based on analogies to inelastic thermal neutron scattering....

  13. Entangling optical and microwave cavity modes by means of a nanomechanical resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzanjeh, Sh. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jerib, 81746-73441 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Science and Technology, Physics Division, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino, Macerata (Italy); Vitali, D.; Tombesi, P. [School of Science and Technology, Physics Division, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino, Macerata (Italy); Milburn, G. J. [Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Physical Sciences, University of Queensland, Saint Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    We propose a scheme that is able to generate stationary continuous-variable entanglement between an optical and a microwave cavity mode by means of their common interaction with a nanomechanical resonator. We show that when both cavities are intensely driven, one can generate bipartite entanglement between any pair of the tripartite system, and that, due to entanglement sharing, optical-microwave entanglement is efficiently generated at the expense of microwave-mechanical and optomechanical entanglement.

  14. Entangling optical and microwave cavity modes by means of a nanomechanical resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzanjeh, Sh.; Vitali, D.; Tombesi, P.; Milburn, G. J.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme that is able to generate stationary continuous-variable entanglement between an optical and a microwave cavity mode by means of their common interaction with a nanomechanical resonator. We show that when both cavities are intensely driven, one can generate bipartite entanglement between any pair of the tripartite system, and that, due to entanglement sharing, optical-microwave entanglement is efficiently generated at the expense of microwave-mechanical and optomechanical entanglement.

  15. Measuring the nanomechanical properties of cancer cells by digital pulsed force mode imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, Othmar; Holzwarth, Michael; Beil, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that the digital pulsed force mode data can distinguish two cancer cell lines (HeLa, Panc) by their mechanical properties. The live cells were imaged in buffer solution. The digital pulsed force mode measured 175 force-distance curves per second which, due to the speed of the measurement, were distorted by the viscous drag in the buffer. We show that this drag force causes a sinusoidal addition to the force-distance curves. By subtracting the viscous drag effect one obtains standard force-distance curves. The force-distance curves are then evaluated to extract key data on the curves, such as adhesion energies, local stiffness or the width of the hysteresis loop. These data are then correlated to classify the force-distance curves. We show examples based on the width of the hysteresis loop and the adhesion energies. Outliers in this classification scheme are points where, potentially, interesting new physics or different physics might happen. Based on classification schemes adapted to experimental settings, we propose that the digital pulsed force mode is a tool to evaluate the time evolution of the mechanical response of cells

  16. Measuring the nanomechanical properties of cancer cells by digital pulsed force mode imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti, Othmar; Holzwarth, Michael [Institute of Experimental Physics, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Beil, Michael [Department of Internal Medicine, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)], E-mail: othmar.marti@uni-ulm.de, E-mail: michael.holzwarth@uni-ulm.de, E-mail: michael.beil@uni-ulm.de

    2008-09-24

    In this paper, we demonstrate that the digital pulsed force mode data can distinguish two cancer cell lines (HeLa, Panc) by their mechanical properties. The live cells were imaged in buffer solution. The digital pulsed force mode measured 175 force-distance curves per second which, due to the speed of the measurement, were distorted by the viscous drag in the buffer. We show that this drag force causes a sinusoidal addition to the force-distance curves. By subtracting the viscous drag effect one obtains standard force-distance curves. The force-distance curves are then evaluated to extract key data on the curves, such as adhesion energies, local stiffness or the width of the hysteresis loop. These data are then correlated to classify the force-distance curves. We show examples based on the width of the hysteresis loop and the adhesion energies. Outliers in this classification scheme are points where, potentially, interesting new physics or different physics might happen. Based on classification schemes adapted to experimental settings, we propose that the digital pulsed force mode is a tool to evaluate the time evolution of the mechanical response of cells.

  17. Design of a high power TM01 mode launcher optimized for manufacturing by milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dal Forno, Massimo [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Recent research on high-gradient rf acceleration found that hard metals, such as hard copper and hard copper-silver, have lower breakdown rate than soft metals. Traditional high-gradient accelerating structures are manufactured with parts joined by high-temperature brazing. The high temperature used in brazing makes the metal soft; therefore, this process cannot be used to manufacture structures out of hard metal alloys. In order to build the structure with hard metals, the components must be designed for joining without high-temperature brazing. One method is to build the accelerating structures out of two halves, and join them by using a low-temperature technique, at the symmetry plane along the beam axis. The structure has input and output rf power couplers. We use a TM01 mode launcher as a rf power coupler, which was introduced during the Next Linear Collider (NLC) work. The part of the mode launcher will be built in each half of the structure. This paper presents a novel geometry of a mode launcher, optimized for manufacturing by milling. The coupler was designed for the CERN CLIC working frequency f = 11.9942 GHz; the same geometry can be scaled to any other frequency.

  18. Strong electron dissipation by a mode converted ion hybrid (Bernstein) wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Ram, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    The fast wave approximation, extended to include the effects of electron dissipation, is used to calculate the power mode converted to the ion hybrid (Bernstein) wave in the vicinity of the ion hybrid resonance. The power absorbed from the fast wave by ion cyclotron damping and by electron Landau and transit time damping (including cross terms) is also calculated. The fast wave equation is solved for either the Budden configuration of a cut-off-resonance pair or the triplet configuration of cut-off-resonance-cut-off. The fraction mode converted is compared for the triplet case and the Budden multi-pass situation. The electron damping rate of the ion hybrid wave is obtained from the local dispersion relation and a ray tracing code is used to calculate the damping of the mode converted ion hybrid wave by the electrons as it propagates away from the resonance. Quantitative results for a range of conditions relevant to JET, TFTR and ITER are given. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Fiber laser with combined feedback of core and cladding modes assisted by an intracavity long-period grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Rodriguez, D; Cruz, J L; Díez, A; Andrés, M V

    2011-05-15

    We present a fiber laser made in a single piece of conventional doped-core fiber that operates by combined feedback of the fundamental core mode LP((0,1)) and the high-order cladding mode LP((0,10)). The laser is an all-fiber structure that uses two fiber Bragg gratings and a long-period grating to select the modes circulating in the cavity; the laser emits at the coupling wavelength between the core mode LP((0,1)) and the counterpropagating cladding mode LP((0,10)) in the Bragg gratings. This work demonstrates the feasibility of high-order mode fiber lasers assisted by long-period gratings. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  20. Medium optimization for nuclease P1 production by Penicillium citrinum in solid-state fermentation using polyurethane foam as inert carrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Knol, W.; Smits, J.P.; Bol, J.

    1996-01-01

    A solid-state fermentation system, using polyurethane foam as an inert carrier, was used for the production of nuclease P1 by Penicillium citrinum. Optimization of nuclease P1 production was carried out using a synthetic liquid medium. After a two-step medium optimization using a fractional