WorldWideScience

Sample records for carrier phase double

  1. Double-Carrier Phase-Disposition Pulse Width Modulation Method for Modular Multilevel Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Fayun; Luo, An; Li, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Modular multilevel converters (MMCs) have become one of the most attractive topologies for high-voltage and high-power applications. A double-carrier phase disposition pulse width modulation (DCPDPWM) method for MMCs is proposed in this paper. Only double triangular carriers with displacement ang......, the proposed method and theoretical analysis are verified by simulation and experimental results. View Full-Text...

  2. Nine-phase hex-tuple inverter for five-level output based on double carrier PWM technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, S.; Bhaskar, M.S.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2016-01-01

    This work articulates double carrier based five-level pulsewidth modulation for a nine-phase hex-tuple inverter AC drive. A set of standard three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) with slight modification is used for framing the ninephase AC drive. In particular VSI packed with one bidirectiona...

  3. Statistical characteristics of L1 carrier phase observations from four low-cost GPS receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederholm, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    Statistical properties of L1 carrier phase observations from four low-cost GPS receivers are investigated through a case study. The observations are collected on a zero baseline with a frequency of 1 Hz and processed with a double difference model. The carrier phase residuals from an ambiguity...

  4. Low-complexity Joint Sub-carrier Phase Noise Compensation for Digital Multi-carrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Barletta, Luca; Zibar, Darko

    2017-01-01

    Joint sub-carrier phase noise processing is proposed which recovers the SNR penalty related to decreased sub-carrier baudrate w.r.t. single carrier systems. The method enables digital sub-banding to be safely employed for nonlinear mitigation for modulation formats of up to 256-QAM.......Joint sub-carrier phase noise processing is proposed which recovers the SNR penalty related to decreased sub-carrier baudrate w.r.t. single carrier systems. The method enables digital sub-banding to be safely employed for nonlinear mitigation for modulation formats of up to 256-QAM....

  5. Automatic carrier acquisition system for phase-lock-loop receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Programmable oscillator and zero-beat detector acquires phase-lock of carrier by frequency scanning. Generation of high-level dc pulse at instant of zero crossing provides positive trigger for decision gate to stop search and close loop for phase-coherent tracking.

  6. Double acting stirling engine phase control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchowitz, David M.

    1983-01-01

    A mechanical device for effecting a phase change between the expansion and compression volumes of a double-acting Stirling engine uses helical elements which produce opposite rotation of a pair of crankpins when a control rod is moved, so the phase between two pairs of pistons is changed by +.psi. and the phase between the other two pairs of pistons is changed by -.psi.. The phase can change beyond .psi.=90.degree. at which regenerative braking and then reversal of engine rotation occurs.

  7. Research on calibration error of carrier phase against antenna arraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ke; Hou, Xiaomin

    2016-11-01

    It is the technical difficulty of uplink antenna arraying that signals from various quarters can not be automatically aligned at the target in deep space. The size of the far-field power combining gain is directly determined by the accuracy of carrier phase calibration. It is necessary to analyze the entire arraying system in order to improve the accuracy of the phase calibration. This paper analyzes the factors affecting the calibration error of carrier phase of uplink antenna arraying system including the error of phase measurement and equipment, the error of the uplink channel phase shift, the position error of ground antenna, calibration receiver and target spacecraft, the error of the atmospheric turbulence disturbance. Discuss the spatial and temporal autocorrelation model of atmospheric disturbances. Each antenna of the uplink antenna arraying is no common reference signal for continuous calibration. So it must be a system of the periodic calibration. Calibration is refered to communication of one or more spacecrafts in a certain period. Because the deep space targets are not automatically aligned to multiplexing received signal. Therefore the aligned signal should be done in advance on the ground. Data is shown that the error can be controlled within the range of demand by the use of existing technology to meet the accuracy of carrier phase calibration. The total error can be controlled within a reasonable range.

  8. Joint Carrier-Phase Synchronization and LDPC Decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marvin; Valles, Esteban

    2009-01-01

    A method has been proposed to increase the degree of synchronization of a radio receiver with the phase of a suppressed carrier signal modulated with a binary- phase-shift-keying (BPSK) or quaternary- phase-shift-keying (QPSK) signal representing a low-density parity-check (LDPC) code. This method is an extended version of the method described in Using LDPC Code Constraints to Aid Recovery of Symbol Timing (NPO-43112), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 10 (October 2008), page 54. Both methods and the receiver architectures in which they would be implemented belong to a class of timing- recovery methods and corresponding receiver architectures characterized as pilotless in that they do not require transmission and reception of pilot signals. The proposed method calls for the use of what is known in the art as soft decision feedback to remove the modulation from a replica of the incoming signal prior to feeding this replica to a phase-locked loop (PLL) or other carrier-tracking stage in the receiver. Soft decision feedback refers to suitably processed versions of intermediate results of iterative computations involved in the LDPC decoding process. Unlike a related prior method in which hard decision feedback (the final sequence of decoded symbols) is used to remove the modulation, the proposed method does not require estimation of the decoder error probability. In a basic digital implementation of the proposed method, the incoming signal (having carrier phase theta theta (sub c) plus noise would first be converted to inphase (I) and quadrature (Q) baseband signals by mixing it with I and Q signals at the carrier frequency [wc/(2 pi)] generated by a local oscillator. The resulting demodulated signals would be processed through one-symbol-period integrate and- dump filters, the outputs of which would be sampled and held, then multiplied by a soft-decision version of the baseband modulated signal. The resulting I and Q products consist of terms proportional to the cosine

  9. A joint recovery scheme for carrier frequency offset and carrier phase noise using extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linqian; Feng, Yiqiao; Zhang, Wenbo; Cui, Nan; Xu, Hengying; Tang, Xianfeng; Xi, Lixia; Zhang, Xiaoguang

    2017-07-01

    A joint carrier recovery scheme for polarization division multiplexing (PDM) coherent optical transmission system is proposed and demonstrated, in which the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is exploited to estimate and equalize the carrier frequency offset (CFO) and carrier phase noise (CPN) simultaneously. The proposed method is implemented and verified in the PDM-QPSK system and the PDM-16QAM system with the comparisons to conventional improved Mth-power (IMP) algorithm for CFO estimation, blind phase search (BPS) algorithm or Viterbi-Viterbi (V-V) algorithm for CPN recovery. It is demonstrated that the proposed scheme shows high CFO estimation accuracy, with absolute mean estimation error below 1.5 MHz. Meanwhile, the proposed method has the CFO tolerance of [±3 GHz] for PDM-QPSK system and [±0.9 GHz] for PDM-16QAM system. Compare with IMP/BPS and IMP/V-V, the proposed scheme can enhance the linewidth symbol duration product from 3 × 10-4 (IMP/BPS) and 2 × 10-4 (IMP/V-V) to 1 × 10-3 for PDM-QPSK, and from 1 × 10-4 (IMP/BPS) to 3 × 10-4 for PDM-16QAM, respectively, at the 1 dB optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalty. The proposed Kalman filter also shows a fast convergence with only 100 symbols and much lower computational complexity.

  10. Double antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay for staphylococcal enterotoxin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindroth, S.; Niskanen, A.

    1977-01-01

    A double antibody solid-phase (DASP) radioimmunoassay for staphylococcal enterotoxin A is described. In the assay the antigen-antibody complex is precipitated by anti-rabbit serum which is adsorbed onto a solid carrier (cellulose). The method is sensitive to 200 pg of enterotoxin. It was possible to detect a little as 2-5 ng of enterotoxin A/ml food extract from minced meat and sausage. Enterotoxins B and C were not found to inhibit the uptake of labled enterotoxin A at a level which might distort the results of the enterotoxin A assay. The DASP technique is sensitive, rapid, and easy to perform and thus compares favorably with other radioimmunoassays for enterotoxin. (orig.) [de

  11. Soft pair excitations and double-log divergences due to carrier interactions in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Cyprian; Levitov, L. S.

    2018-03-01

    Interactions between charge carriers in graphene lead to logarithmic renormalization of observables mimicking the behavior known in (3+1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (QED). Here we analyze soft electron-hole (e -h ) excitations generated as a result of fast charge dynamics, a direct analog of the signature QED effect—multiple soft photons produced by the QED vacuum shakeup. We show that such excitations are generated in photon absorption, when a photogenerated high-energy e -h pair cascades down in energy and gives rise to multiple soft e -h excitations. This fundamental process is manifested in a double-log divergence in the emission rate of soft pairs and a characteristic power-law divergence in their energy spectrum of the form 1/ω ln(ω/Δ ) . Strong carrier-carrier interactions make pair production a prominent pathway in the photoexcitation cascade.

  12. Carrier quenching in InGaP/GaAs double heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Nathan P., E-mail: nathan.p.wells@aero.org; Driskell, Travis U.; Hudson, Andrew I.; LaLumondiere, Stephen D.; Lotshaw, William T. [The Aerospace Corporation, Physical Sciences Laboratories, P.O. Box 92957, Los Angeles, California 90009 (United States); Forbes, David V.; Hubbard, Seth M. [NanoPower Research Labs, Rochester Institute of Technology, 156 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    Photoluminescence measurements on a series of GaAs double heterostructures demonstrate a rapid quenching of carriers in the GaAs layer at irradiance levels below 0.1 W/cm{sup 2} in samples with a GaAs-on-InGaP interface. These results indicate the existence of non-radiative defect centers at or near the GaAs-on-InGaP interface, consistent with previous reports showing the intermixing of In and P when free As impinges on the InGaP surface during growth. At low irradiance, these defect centers can lead to sub-ns carrier lifetimes. The defect centers involved in the rapid carrier quenching can be saturated at higher irradiance levels and allow carrier lifetimes to reach hundreds of nanoseconds. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a nearly three orders of magnitude decrease in carrier lifetime at low irradiance in a simple double heterostructure. Carrier quenching occurs at irradiance levels near the integrated Air Mass Zero (AM0) and Air Mass 1.5 (AM1.5) solar irradiance. Additionally, a lower energy photoluminescence band is observed both at room and cryogenic temperatures. The temperature and time dependence of the lower energy luminescence is consistent with the presence of an unintentional InGaAs or InGaAsP quantum well that forms due to compositional mixing at the GaAs-on-InGaP interface. Our results are of general interest to the photovoltaic community as InGaP is commonly used as a window layer in GaAs based solar cells.

  13. 77 FR 14012 - Eligible Telecommunications Carrier Designation for Participation in Mobility Fund Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ...; DA 12-271] Eligible Telecommunications Carrier Designation for Participation in Mobility Fund Phase I... Wireless Telecommunications and Wireline Competition Bureaus describe the process and requirements for applicants seeking Eligible Telecommunications Carrier (ETC) Designation from the Commission for...

  14. Carrier mobility and scattering lifetime in electric double-layer gated few-layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piatti, E.; Galasso, S.; Tortello, M.; Nair, J.R.; Gerbaldi, C. [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy); Bruna, M.; Borini, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), 10135 Torino (Italy); Daghero, D. [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy); Gonnelli, R.S., E-mail: renato.gonnelli@polito.it [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • We fabricated few-layer graphene FETs by mechanical exfoliation and standard microfabrication techniques. • We employed a Li-TFSI based ion gel to induce carrier densities as high as ≈6e14 e{sup −}/cm{sup 2} in the devices' channel. • We found a strong asymmetry in the sheet conductance and mobility doping dependences between electron and hole doping. • We combined the experimental results with ab initio DFT calculations to obtain the average scattering lifetime of the charge carriers. • We found that the increase in the carrier density and an unexpected increase in the density of charged scattering centers compete in determining the scattering lifetime. - Abstract: We fabricate electric double-layer field-effect transistor (EDL-FET) devices on mechanically exfoliated few-layer graphene. We exploit the large capacitance of a polymeric electrolyte to study the transport properties of three, four and five-layer samples under a large induced surface charge density both above and below the glass transition temperature of the polymer. We find that the carrier mobility shows a strong asymmetry between the hole and electron doping regime. We then employ ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations to determine the average scattering lifetime from the experimental data. We explain its peculiar dependence on the carrier density in terms of the specific properties of the electrolyte we used in our experiments.

  15. Modulated phase matching and high-order harmonic enhancement mediated by the carrier-envelope phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccio, Daniele; Serrat, Carles; Cela, Jose M.; Farres, Albert; Di Trapani, Paolo; Biegert, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The process of high-order harmonic generation in gases is numerically investigated in the presence of a few-cycle pulsed-Bessel-beam pump, featuring a periodic modulation in the peak intensity due to large carrier-envelope-phase mismatch. A two-decade enhancement in the conversion efficiency is observed and interpreted as the consequence of a mechanism known as a nonlinearly induced modulation in the phase mismatch.

  16. Simultaneous transmission of wired and wireless signals based on double sideband carrier suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitew, Mekuanint Agegnehu; Shiu, Run-Kai; Peng, Peng-Chun; Wang, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Yan-Ming

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated simultaneous transmission of wired and wireless signals based on double sideband optical carrier suppression. By properly adjusting the bias point of the dual-output mach-zehnder modulator (MZM), a central carrier in one output port and a pair of first-order sidebands in another output port are generated. The pair of first-order sidebands are fed into a second MZM to generate second-order order sidebands. A wired signal is embedded on the central carrier while a wireless signal is embedded on the second-order sidebands. Unlike other schemes, we did not use optical filter to separate the carrier from the optical sidebands. The measured bit error rate (BER) and eye-diagrams after a 25 km single-mode-fiber (SMF) transmission proved that the proposed scheme is successful for both wired and wireless signals transmission. Moreover, the power penalty at the BER of 10-9 is 0.3 and 0.7 dB for wired and wireless signals, respectively.

  17. The influence of carrier dynamics on double-state lasing in quantum dot lasers at variable temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. V.; Savelyev, A. V.; Zhukov, A. E.; Omelchenko, A. V.; Maximov, M. V.

    2014-12-01

    It is shown in analytical form that the carrier capture from the matrix as well as carrier dynamics in quantum dots plays an important role in double-state lasing phenomenon. In particular, the de-synchronization of hole and electron captures allows one to describe recently observed quenching of ground-state lasing, which takes place in quantum dot lasers operating in double-state lasing regime at high injection. From the other side, the detailed analysis of charge carrier dynamics in the single quantum dot enables one to describe the observed light-current characteristics and key temperature dependences.

  18. The influence of carrier dynamics on double-state lasing in quantum dot lasers at variable temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, V V; Savelyev, A V; Zhukov, A E; Omelchenko, A V; Maximov, M V

    2014-01-01

    It is shown in analytical form that the carrier capture from the matrix as well as carrier dynamics in quantum dots plays an important role in double-state lasing phenomenon. In particular, the de-synchronization of hole and electron captures allows one to describe recently observed quenching of ground-state lasing, which takes place in quantum dot lasers operating in double-state lasing regime at high injection. From the other side, the detailed analysis of charge carrier dynamics in the single quantum dot enables one to describe the observed light-current characteristics and key temperature dependences

  19. On the issues of probability distribution of GPS carrier phase observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X.; Mayer, M.; Heck, B.

    2009-04-01

    In common practice the observables related to Global Positioning System (GPS) are assumed to follow a Gauss-Laplace normal distribution. Actually, full knowledge of the observables' distribution is not required for parameter estimation by means of the least-squares algorithm based on the functional relation between observations and unknown parameters as well as the associated variance-covariance matrix. However, the probability distribution of GPS observations plays a key role in procedures for quality control (e.g. outlier and cycle slips detection, ambiguity resolution) and in reliability-related assessments of the estimation results. Under non-ideal observation conditions with respect to the factors impacting GPS data quality, for example multipath effects and atmospheric delays, the validity of the normal distribution postulate of GPS observations is in doubt. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the distribution properties of GPS carrier phase observations using double difference residuals. For this purpose 1-Hz observation data from the permanent SAPOS

  20. Carrier Phase GPS Navigation to the North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T.; Roberts, G. W.

    Over the last few years, on-the-fly integer ambiguity resolution for GPS has proven to be successful over short baselines (500 km. New techniques have been developed at the University of Nottingham to allow very long baseline integer ambiguity resolution, on-the-fly. A major problem with the use of carrier phase data is that posed by cycle slips. A technique for detecting and correcting cycle slips has been developed, and its use is discussed in this paper. The new technique has been proven through a series of trials, one of which included two flights to the North Pole, performing centimetric level positioning all the way to the pole. For many years, the GD Aero-Systems Course of the Air Warfare Centre based at RAF Cranwell executed a series of equipment flight trials to the North Pole, called the ARIES Flights. In May 1996, the authors were fortunate to take part in both flights, via Iceland and Greenland, to the North Pole. Based on reference stations at Thule Air Base, integer ambiguity resolution was accomplished, on-the-fly, and centimetric level navigation maintained throughout the flights. Earlier trials detailed in the paper demonstrate that the technique can resolve integer ambiguities on-the-fly within a few seconds over a baseline length of approximately 134 km, resulting in an accuracy of 12 cm. The majority of the residual error source for this being the ionosphere.

  1. Carrier phase synchronization system for improved amplitude modulation and television broadcast reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [Loudon, TN; Moore, James A [Powell, TN

    2009-09-08

    Systems and methods are described for carrier phase synchronization for improved AM and TV broadcast reception. A method includes synchronizing the phase of a carrier frequency of a broadcast signal with the phase of a remote reference frequency. An apparatus includes a receiver to detect the phase of a reference signal; a phase comparator coupled to the reference signal-phase receiver; a voltage controlled oscillator coupled to the phase comparator; and a phase-controlled radio frequency output coupled to the voltage controlled oscillator.

  2. Quantum Phase Spase Representation for Double Well Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Babyuk, Dmytro

    2002-01-01

    A behavior of quantum states (superposition of two lowest eigenstates, Gaussian wave packet) in phase space is studied for one and two dimensional double well potential. Two dimensional potential is constructed from double well potential coupled linearly and quadratically to harmonic potential. Quantum trajectories are compared with classical ones. Preferable tunneling path in phase space is found. An influence of energy of initial Gaussian wave packet and trajectory initial condition on tunn...

  3. Solid phase double-antibody radioimmunoassay procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niswender, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    The present invention is concerned with the radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure for assaying body fluid content of an antigenic substance which may either be an antigen itself or a hapten capable of being converted, such as by means of reaction with a protein, to an antigenic material. The present invention is concerned with a novel and improved modification of a double-antibody RIA technique in which there is a first antibody that is specific to the antigenic substance suspected to be present in a body fluid from which the assay is intended. The second antibody, however, is not specific to the antigenic substance or analyte, but is an antibody against the first antibody

  4. Slit and phase grating diffraction with a double crystal diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treimer, Wolfgang; Hilger, Andre; Strobl, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The lateral coherence properties of a neutron beam (λ=0.5248nm) in a double crystal diffractometer (DCD) were studied by means of single slit diffraction and by diffraction by different perfect Silicon phase gratings. Perfect agreements were found for the lateral coherence length measured with the slit and for the one determined by Silicon phase gratings, however, some peculiarities are still present

  5. New Modeling and Simulation Platform for Communications Systems:(I Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier AM Modulator DSB-SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Ahmed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to introduce a new platform for the implementation and simulation of communication systems. SCILAB/SCICOS is an open source software for conducting communication system related experiments, aiming to provide an experimentation platform for research on communication theories. Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier (DSB-SC Modulator is modeled and simulated using this platform.

  6. Comparison of single-entry and double-entry two-step couple screening for cystic fibrosis carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    tenKate, LP; Verheij, JBGM; Wildhagen, MF; Hilderink, HBM; Kooij, L; Verzijl, JG; Habbema, JDF

    1996-01-01

    Both single-entry two-step (SETS) couple screening and double-entry two-step (DETS) couple screening have been recommended as methods to screen for cystic fibrosis gene carriers. In this paper we compare the expected results from both types of screening. In general, DETS results in a higher

  7. Modeling and characterization of double resonant tunneling diodes for application as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehl, Zacharie; Suchet, Daniel; Julian, Anatole; Bernard, Cyril; Miyashita, Naoya; Gibelli, Francois; Okada, Yoshitaka; Guillemolles, Jean-Francois

    2017-02-01

    Double resonant tunneling barriers are considered for an application as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells. Experimental symmetric and asymmetric double resonant tunneling barriers are realized by molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by temperature dependent current-voltage measurements. The negative differential resistance signal is enhanced for asymmetric heterostructures, and remains unchanged between low- and room-temperatures. Within Tsu-Esaki description of the tunnel current, this observation can be explained by the voltage dependence of the tunnel transmission amplitude, which presents a resonance under finite bias for asymmetric structures. This effect is notably discussed with respect to series resistance. Different parameters related to the electronic transmission of the structure and the influence of these parameters on the current voltage characteristic are investigated, bringing insights on critical processes to optimize in double resonant tunneling barriers applied to hot carrier solar cells.

  8. Absolute carrier phase effects in the two-color excitation of dipolar molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Alex; Meath, W.J.; Kondo, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    The pump-probe excitation of a two-level dipolar (d≠0) molecule, where the pump frequency is tuned to the energy level separation while the probe frequency is extremely small, is examined theoretically as an example of absolute phase control of excitation processes. The state populations depend on the probe field's absolute carrier phase but are independent of the pump field's absolute carrier phase. Interestingly, the absolute phase effects occur for pulse durations much longer and field intensities much weaker than those required to see such effects in single pulse excitation

  9. Results on neutrinoless double beta decay from GERDA phase I

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    After motivating searches of double beta decay and lepton number violation details about the construction, operation and analysis of GERDA will be given. Results of the recently completed phase I of data taking will then be presented and interpreted. Finally an outlook on future plans will be given.

  10. WARP: a double phase argon programme for dark matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, N

    2006-01-01

    WARP (Wimp ARgon Programme) is a double phase Argon detector for Dark Matter search under construction at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. We present recent results obtained operating a prototype with a sensitive mass of 2.3 litres deep underground

  11. Carrier-envelope phase-stabilized attosecond pulses from asymmetric molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Pengfei; Lu Peixiang; Cao Wei; Li Yuhua; Wang Xinlin

    2007-01-01

    High-order harmonic generation from asymmetric molecules is investigated, and the concept of phase-stabilized infrared ultrashort laser pulses is extended to the extreme ultraviolet regime. It is shown that the ionization symmetry in consecutive half optical cycles is broken for asymmetric molecules, and both even and odd harmonics with comparable intensity are produced. In the time domain, only one attosecond pulse is generated in each cycle of the driving field, and the carrier-envelope phases of the attosecond pulses are equal. Consequently, a clean attosecond pulse train with the same carrier-envelope phase from pulse to pulse is obtained in the extreme ultraviolet regime

  12. Solid phase carrier for radioimmuno analyses, as well as its manufacture and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meriadec, B.; Roubertie, P.

    1979-01-01

    The solid phase carrier is in the form of a tablet containing freeze-dried protein-bonded gel, dicalcium phosphate and magnesium stearate. It is able to absorb 0.400 microlitre of an a solution containing antigen-antibody. When contacted with the solution, the tablet swells up and adapts to the shape of the column. The carrier is suitable for the TSH RIA test. (DG) [de

  13. Pfaff equation and Fourier analysis to phase extraction from an interferogram with carrier frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara-Cortez, Francisco; Meneses-Fabian, Cruz; Rodriguez-Zurita, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    In the phase extraction techniques, one of the steps most used is to calculate the phase unwrapping from the wrapped phase, which is generally obtained via the inverse tangent function. With the idea to avoid this process, in the present manuscript a method based in the solution of the Pfaff equations is proposed. It is shown that the Pfaff equation is formed with the phase gradient and an auxiliary vector. The phase gradient is obtained from an interference patron with carrier frequency by applying the Fourier transform method and the partial derivatives. In the present manuscript, mathematical analysis, numerical simulation, and the phase extraction of some experimental interferograms are shown.

  14. Carrier effect on separation efficiency of the column in reversed-phase partition chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszonicka, M.; Siekierski, S.

    1972-01-01

    Chromatographic columns were filled with carriers of diatomaceous earth type (Hyflo Super Cell, and Celite 545) of large pores, and two microporous silica gels respectively. These columns were used for the separation of europium and gadolinium by reversed-phase partition chromatography in the system: stationary phase-diethylhexylphosphoric acid (HDEHP) mobile phase-0.4 N nitric acid. In each case the separation of the above mentioned elements was achieved. The plate height that characterizes separation efficiency of the column, decreases with the decrease of particle diameter of the carrier. Best columns were obtained from carriers of large pores (Hyflo Super Cell and Celite 545) for which plate hights below 0.1 mm could be achieved. Columns filled with microporous silica gels showed plate heights of 0.2-0.3 mm. (author)

  15. Direct phase retrieval in double blind Fourier holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Oren; Leshem, Ben; Miao, Jianwei; Nadler, Boaz; Oron, Dan; Dudovich, Nirit

    2014-10-20

    Phase measurement is a long-standing challenge in a wide range of applications, from X-ray imaging to astrophysics and spectroscopy. While in some scenarios the phase is resolved by an interferometric measurement, in others it is reconstructed via numerical optimization, based on some a-priori knowledge about the signal. The latter commonly use iterative algorithms, and thus have to deal with their convergence, stagnation, and robustness to noise. Here we combine these two approaches and present a new scheme, termed double blind Fourier holography, providing an efficient solution to the phase problem in two dimensions, by solving a system of linear equations. We present and experimentally demonstrate our approach for the case of lens-less imaging.

  16. Uniqueness and nonuniqueness of the GNSS carrier-phase compass readings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, P.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    In this contribution we analyse the possible nonuniqueness in the least-squares solution of the GNSS carrier-phase compass model. It is shown that this lack of uniqueness may manifest itself in the fixed baseline estimator and therefore in the GNSS compass readings. We present the conditions under

  17. High accuracy positioning using carrier-phases with the opensource GPSTK software

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Hernández, Dagoberto José; Hernández Pajares, Manuel; Juan Zornoza, José Miguel; Sanz Subirana, Jaume

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to show how using a proper GNSS data management strategy, combined with the flexibility provided by the open source "GPS Toolkit" (GPSTk), it is possible to easily develop both simple code-based processing strategies as well as basic high accuracy carrier-phase positioning techniques like Precise Point Positioning (PPP

  18. Filtered Carrier Phase Estimator for High-Order QAM Optical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozental, Valery; Kong, Deming; Corcoran, Bill

    2018-01-01

    We investigate, using Monte Carlo simulations, the performance characteristics and limits of a low-complexity filtered carrier phase estimator (F-CPE) in terms of cycle slip occurrences and SNR penalties. In this work, the F-CPE algorithm has been extended to include modulation formats whose oute...

  19. Vertical blind phase search for low-complexity carrier phase recovery of offset-QAM Nyquist WDM transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianing; Fu, Songnian; Tang, Haoyuan; Xiang, Meng; Tang, Ming; Liu, Deming

    2017-01-01

    Low complexity carrier phase recovery (CPR) scheme based on vertical blind phase search (V-BPS) for M-ary offset quadrature amplitude modulation (OQAM) is proposed and numerically verified. After investigating the constellations of both even and odd samples with respect to the phase noise, we identify that the CPR can be realized by measuring the verticality of constellation with respect to different test phase angles. Then measurement without multiplication in the complex plane is found with low complexity. Furthermore, a two-stage configuration is put forward to further reduce the computational complexity (CC). Compared with our recently proposed modified blind phase search (M-BPS) algorithm, the proposed algorithm shows comparable tolerance of phase noise, but reduces the CC by a factor of 3.81 (or 3.05) in the form of multipliers (or adders), taking the CPR of 16-OQAM into account.

  20. Carrier-envelope phase stabilization and control using a transmission grating compressor and an AOPDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, Lorenzo; Chen, Xiaowei; Trisorio, Alexandre; Jullien, Aurélie; Assion, Andreas; Tempea, Gabriel; Forget, Nicolas; Oksenhendler, Thomas; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo

    2009-05-01

    Carrier-envelope phase (CEP) stabilization of a femtosecond chirped-pulse amplification system featuring a compact transmission grating compressor is demonstrated. The system includes two amplification stages and routinely generates phase-stable (approximately 250 mrad rms) 2 mJ, 25 fs pulses at 1 kHz. Minimizing the optical pathway in the compressor enables phase stabilization without feedback control of the grating separation or beam pointing. We also demonstrate for the first time to the best of our knowledge, out-of-loop control of the CEP using an acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter inside the laser chain.

  1. Neutrinoless double beta decay in GERDA Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macolino, C.

    2014-01-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76 Ge and it is installed in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of INFN, Italy. The GERDA experiment has completed the Phase I with a total collected exposure of 21.6 kg yr and a background index (BI) of the order of BI ≃ 10 −2 cts/(keVkg yr). No excess of events from 0νββ decay has been observed and a lower limit on the half-life on the 0νββ decay for 76 Ge has been estimated: T 0ν 1 /2 > 2.1·10 25 yr at 90% CL. The goal of GERDA Phase II is to reach the target sensitivity of T 0ν 1 /2 ≃ 1.4 · 10 26 yr, with an increased total mass of the enriched material and a reduced background level. In this paper the results from GERDA Phase I and the major improvements planned for Phase II are discussed.

  2. Thermal analysis of a double layer phase change material floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xing; Zhang Xiaosong

    2011-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) can be used to shift the cooling or heating load from the peak period to the off-peak period. In this paper, a new double layer phase change material (PCM) floor is put forward. The two layers of PCM have different melting temperature. The system is used to store heat or cold energy in the off-peak period and release them in the peak period during heating or cooling. According to the numerical model built in this paper, the thermal performances of the floor are analyzed. The results show that the optimal melting temperatures of PCMs exist. The fluctuations of the floor surface temperatures and the heat fluxes will be reduced and the system still can provide a certain amount of heat or cold energy after the heat pump or chiller has been turned off for a long time. Compared to the floor without PCM, the energy released by the floor with PCM in peak period will be increased by 41.1% and 37.9% during heating and cooling when the heat of fusion of PCM is 150 kJ/kg. - Highlights: → A new double layer phase change material floor is put forward. → The system is used to store heat or cold energy in the off-peak period and release them in the peak period during heating or cooling. → The optimal melting temperatures of PCMs in the system exist. → The heat and cold energy released by the floor with PCM in peak period can be increased by 41.1% and 37.9%.

  3. Tilt shift determinations with spatial-carrier phase-shift method in temporal phase-shift interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Yang; He, Jianguo; Ji, Fang; Wang, Baorui

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed to deal with tilt-shift errors in temporal phase-shift interferometry (PSI). In the algorithm, the tilt shifts are detected with the spatial-carrier phase-shift (SCPS) method and then the tilt shifts are applied as priori information to the least-squares fittings of phase retrieval. The algorithm combines the best features of the SCPS and the temporal PSI. The algorithm could be applied to interferograms of arbitrary aperture without data extrapolation for the Fourier transform is not involved. Simulations and experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. The statistics of simulation results show a satisfied accuracy in detecting tilt-shift errors. Comparisons of the measurements with and without environmental vibration show that the proposed algorithm could compensate tilt-shift errors and retrieve wavefront phase accurately. The algorithm provides an approach to retrieve wavefront phase for the temporal PSI in vibrating environment. (paper)

  4. Search for neutrinoless double beta decay with GERDA phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knies, J.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Marissens, G.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Ransom, C.; Reissfelder, M.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Seitz, H.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-10-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (gerda) experiment, located at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in Italy, is one of the leading experiments for the search of 0νββ decay. In Phase II of the experiment 35.6 kg of enriched germanium detectors are operated. The application of active background rejection methods, such as a liquid argon scintillation light read-out and pulse shape discrimination of germanium detector signals, allowed to reduce the background index to the intended level of 10-3 cts/(keV.kg.yr). In the first five month of data taking 10.8 kg yr of exposure were accumulated. No signal has been found and together with data from Phase I a new limit for the neutrinoless double beta decay half-life of 76Ge of 5.3 . 1025 yr at 90% C.L. was established in June 2016. Phase II data taking is ongoing and will allow the exploration of half-lifes in the 1026 yr regime. The current status of data taking and an update on the background index are presented.

  5. Searching Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay with GERDA Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Comellato, T.; D’Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Giordano, M.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hahne, C.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hiller, R.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, P.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kermaidic, Y.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Marissens, G.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Ransom, C.; Reissfelder, M.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Sala, E.; Salamida, F.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schweisshelm, B.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Schütz, A.-K.; Seitz, H.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zschocke, A.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    An observation of neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay would allow to shed light onto the nature of neutrinos. GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) aims to discover this process in a background-free search using 76Ge. The experiment is located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Italy. Bare, isotopically enriched, high purity germanium detectors are operated in liquid argon. GERDA follows a staged approach. In Phase II 35.6 kg of enriched germanium detectors are operated since December 2015. The application of active background rejection methods, such as a liquid argon scintillation light read-out and pulse shape discrimination of germanium detector signals, allows to reduce the background index to the intended level of 10‑3 cts/(keVṡkgṡyr). No evidence for the 0νββ decay has been found in 23.2 kgṡyr of Phase II data, and together with data from Phase I the up-to-date most stringent half-life limit for this process in 76Ge has been established, at a median sensitivity of 5.8ṡ1025yr the 90% C.L. lower limit is 8.0ṡ1025yr.

  6. Key-space analysis of double random phase encryption technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, David S.; Gopinathan, Unnikrishnan; Naughton, Thomas J.; Sheridan, John T.

    2007-09-01

    We perform a numerical analysis on the double random phase encryption/decryption technique. The key-space of an encryption technique is the set of possible keys that can be used to encode data using that technique. In the case of a strong encryption scheme, many keys must be tried in any brute-force attack on that technique. Traditionally, designers of optical image encryption systems demonstrate only how a small number of arbitrary keys cannot decrypt a chosen encrypted image in their system. However, this type of demonstration does not discuss the properties of the key-space nor refute the feasibility of an efficient brute-force attack. To clarify these issues we present a key-space analysis of the technique. For a range of problem instances we plot the distribution of decryption errors in the key-space indicating the lack of feasibility of a simple brute-force attack.

  7. Phase transitions, double-scaling limit, and topological strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, Nicola; Griguolo, Luca; Pasquetti, Sara; Marino, Marcos; Seminara, Domenico

    2007-01-01

    Topological strings on Calabi-Yau manifolds are known to undergo phase transitions at small distances. We study this issue in the case of perturbative topological strings on local Calabi-Yau threefolds given by a bundle over a two-sphere. This theory can be regarded as a q-deformation of Hurwitz theory, and it has a conjectural nonperturbative description in terms of q-deformed 2D Yang-Mills theory. We solve the planar model and find a phase transition at small radius in the universality class of 2D gravity. We give strong evidence that there is a double-scaled theory at the critical point whose all-genus free energy is governed by the Painleve I equation. We compare the critical behavior of the perturbative theory to the critical behavior of its nonperturbative description, which belongs to the universality class of 2D supergravity, and we comment on possible implications for nonperturbative 2D gravity. We also give evidence for a new open/closed duality relating these Calabi-Yau backgrounds to open strings with framing

  8. Security enhancement of double random phase encoding using rear-mounted phase masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junxin; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jinchang; Zhang, Li-bo

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a security enhancement for double random phase encoding (DRPE) by introducing a rear-mounted phase masking procedure is presented. Based on exhaustively studying the cryptanalysis achievements of DRPE and its variants, invalidation of the second lens, which plays a critical role in cryptanalyzing processes, is concluded. The improved system can exploit the security potential of the second lens and consequently strengthen the security of DRPE. Experimental results and security analyses are presented in detail to demonstrate the security potential of the proposed cryptosystem.

  9. Project Half Double: Current Results of Phase 1 and Phase 2, December 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Thorp Adland, Karoline; Zippora Klein, Judith Birte

    ’s competitiveness and play an important role in the battle for jobs and future welfare. The overall goal is to deliver “Projects in half the time with double the impact” where projects in half the time should be understood as half the time to impact (benefit realization, effect is achieved) and not as half the time...... of Project Half Double was initiated in June 2015. It is a two-phase project: phase 1 took place from June 2015 to June 2016 with seven pilot projects, and phase 2 is in progress from July 2016 to July 2018 with 10 pilot projects. The Half Double consortium: Implement Consulting Group is the project leader....... 2016, Svejvig et al. 2017). This report’s target group inludes practitioners in Danish industry and society in general. The editorial team from Aarhus University prepared the report from October 2017 to December 2017, which means that data about pilot projects from December 2017 is not included....

  10. Phase separation in strongly correlated electron systems with two types of charge carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, K.I.; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Sboychakov, A.O.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: A competition between the localization of the charge carriers due to Jahn-Teller distortions and the energy gain due to their delocalization in doped manganite and related magnetic oxides is analyzed based on a Kondo-lattice type model. The resulting effective Hamiltonian is, in fact, a generalization of the Falicov-Kimball model. We find that the number of itinerant charge carriers can be significantly lower than that implied by the doping level x. The phase diagram of the model in the T plane is constructed. The system exhibits magnetic ordered (antiferromagnetic, ferromagnetic, or canted) states as well the paramagnetic states with zero and nonzero density of the itinerant electrons. It is shown that a phase-separation is favorable in energy for a wide doping range. The characteristic size of inhomogeneities in a phase-separated state is of the order of several lattice constants. We also analyzed the two-band Hubbard model in the limit of strong on-site Coulomb repulsion. It was shown that such a system has a tendency to phase separation into the regions with different charge densities even in the absence of magnetic or any other ordering, if the ratio of the bandwidths is large enough. The work was supported by the European project CoMePhS and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 05-02-17600. (authors)

  11. Analytical Investigations on Carrier Phase Recovery in Dispersion-Unmanaged n-PSK Coherent Optical Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhua Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using coherent optical detection and digital signal processing, laser phase noise and equalization enhanced phase noise can be effectively mitigated using the feed-forward and feed-back carrier phase recovery approaches. In this paper, theoretical analyses of feed-back and feed-forward carrier phase recovery methods have been carried out in the long-haul high-speed n-level phase shift keying (n-PSK optical fiber communication systems, involving a one-tap normalized least-mean-square (LMS algorithm, a block-wise average algorithm, and a Viterbi-Viterbi algorithm. The analytical expressions for evaluating the estimated carrier phase and for predicting the bit-error-rate (BER performance (such as the BER floors have been presented and discussed in the n-PSK coherent optical transmission systems by considering both the laser phase noise and the equalization enhanced phase noise. The results indicate that the Viterbi-Viterbi carrier phase recovery algorithm outperforms the one-tap normalized LMS and the block-wise average algorithms for small phase noise variance (or effective phase noise variance, while the one-tap normalized LMS algorithm shows a better performance than the other two algorithms for large phase noise variance (or effective phase noise variance. In addition, the one-tap normalized LMS algorithm is more sensitive to the level of modulation formats.

  12. trans-Double Bond-Containing Liposomes as Potential Carriers for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Giacometti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of liposomes has been crucial for investigations in biomimetic chemical biology as a membrane model and in medicinal chemistry for drug delivery. Liposomes are made of phospholipids whose biophysical characteristics strongly depend on the type of fatty acid moiety, where natural unsaturated lipids always have the double bond geometry in the cis configuration. The influence of lipid double bond configuration had not been considered so far with respect to the competence of liposomes in delivery. We were interested in evaluating possible changes in the molecular properties induced by the conversion of the double bond from cis to trans geometry. Here we report on the effects of the addition of trans-phospholipids supplied in different amounts to other liposome constituents (cholesterol, neutral phospholipids and cationic surfactants, on the size, ζ-potential and stability of liposomal formulations and on their ability to encapsulate two dyes such as rhodamine B and fluorescein. From a biotechnological point of view, trans-containing liposomes proved to have different characteristics from those containing the cis analogues, and to influence the incorporation and release of the dyes. These results open new perspectives in the use of the unnatural lipid geometry, for the purpose of changing liposome behavior and/or of obtaining molecular interferences, also in view of synergic effects of cell toxicity, especially in antitumoral strategies.

  13. Bayesian Filtering for Phase Noise Characterization and Carrier Synchronization of up to 192 Gb/s PDM 64-QAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Carvalho, L.; Piels, Molly

    2014-01-01

    We show that phase noise estimation based on Bayesian filtering outperforms conventional time-domain approaches in the presence of moderate measurement noise. Additionally, carrier synchronization based on Bayesian filtering, in combination with expectation maximization, is demonstrated for the f...

  14. Temperature feedback control for long-term carrier-envelope phase locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zenghu [Manhattan, KS; Yun, Chenxia [Manhattan, KS; Chen, Shouyuan [Manhattan, KS; Wang, He [Manhattan, KS; Chini, Michael [Manhattan, KS

    2012-07-24

    A feedback control module for stabilizing a carrier-envelope phase of an output of a laser oscillator system comprises a first photodetector, a second photodetector, a phase stabilizer, an optical modulator, and a thermal control element. The first photodetector may generate a first feedback signal corresponding to a first portion of a laser beam from an oscillator. The second photodetector may generate a second feedback signal corresponding to a second portion of the laser beam filtered by a low-pass filter. The phase stabilizer may divide the frequency of the first feedback signal by a factor and generate an error signal corresponding to the difference between the frequency-divided first feedback signal and the second feedback signal. The optical modulator may modulate the laser beam within the oscillator corresponding to the error signal. The thermal control unit may change the temperature of the oscillator corresponding to a signal operable to control the optical modulator.

  15. The Effects of L2C Signal Tracking on High-Precision Carrier Phase GPS Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, H.; Blume, F.; Estey, L. H.; Borsa, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    In 2005, the L2C signal was introduced to improve the accuracy, tracking and redundancy of the GPS system for civilian users. The L2C signal also provides improved SNR data when compared with the L2P(Y) legacy signal, comparable to that of the L1 C/A-code, which allows for better tracking at lower elevations. With the recent launch of the first block II-F satellite (SVN62/PRN25), there are 8 healthy satellites broadcasting L2C signals, or 25% of the constellation. However, GNSS network operators such as the UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) have been hesitant to use the new signal as it is not well determined how tracking and logging L2C could affect the positions derived from L2 carrier phase measurements for a given receiver. The L2C carrier phase is in quadrature (90° out of phase) with the L2P(Y) phase that has been used by high-precision positioning software since the beginning of GPS. To complicate matters further, some receiver manufacturers (e.g. Trimble) correct for this when logging L2C phase while others (e.g. Topcon) do not. The L2C capability of receivers currently in widespread use in permanent networks can depend on firmware as well as hardware; in some cases receivers can simultaneously track L2C and L2P(Y) phases and some can track only one or the other, and the resulting observation files can depend on how individual operators configure the devices. In cases where both L2C and L2P(Y) are logged simultaneously, translation software (such as UNAVCO’s teqc) must be used carefully in order to select which L2 observation is written to RINEX (2.11) and used in positioning. Modifications were recently made to teqc to eliminate potential confusion in that part of the process; if L2C code observations appear in a RINEX (2.11) file produced by teqc, the L2 phase and S2 SNR observations were from the L2C carrier for those satellites. To date L2C analyses have been restricted to special applications such as snow depth and soil moisture using SNR data

  16. Preparation of bioconjugates by solid-phase conjugation to ion exchange matrix-adsorbed carrier proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, G.; Olsen, D.T.; Hansen, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    A solid-phase conjugation method utilizing carrier protein bound to an ion exchange matrix was developed. Ovalbumin was adsorbed to an anion exchange matrix using a batch procedure, and the immobilized protein was then derivatized with iodoacetic acid N-hydroxysuccinimid ester. The activated......, and immunization experiments with the eluted conjugates showed that the more substituted conjugates gave rise to the highest titers of glutathione antibodies. Direct immunization with the conjugates adsorbed to the ion exchange matrix was possible and gave rise to high titers of glutathione antibodies. Conjugates...... of ovalbumin and various peptides were prepared in a similar manner and used for production of peptide antisera by direct immunization with the conjugates bound to the ion exchanger. Advantages of the method are its solid-phase nature, allowing fast and efficient reactions and intermediate washings...

  17. Distributed optical fiber vibration sensing using phase-generated carrier demodulation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhihua; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Mingyu; Dai, Haolong; Zhang, Jingjing; Liu, Li; Zhang, Lijun; Jin, Xing; Wang, Gaifang; Qi, Guang

    2018-05-01

    A novel optical fiber-distributed vibration-sensing system is proposed, which is based on self-interference of Rayleigh backscattering with phase-generated carrier (PGC) demodulation algorithm. Pulsed lights are sent into the sensing fiber and the Rayleigh backscattering light from a certain position along the sensing fiber would interfere through an unbalanced Michelson interferometry to generate the interference light. An improved PGC demodulation algorithm is carried out to recover the phase information of the interference signal, which carries the sensing information. Three vibration events were applied simultaneously to different positions over 2000 m sensing fiber and demodulated correctly. The spatial resolution is 10 m, and the noise level of the Φ-OTDR system we proposed is about 10-3 rad/\\surd {Hz}, and the signal-to-noise ratio is about 30.34 dB.

  18. Colloidal polymer particles as catalyst carriers and phase transfer agents in multiphasic hydroformylation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral, D; Stehl, D; Bibouche, B; Yu, H; Mardoukh, J; Schomäcker, R; Klitzing, R von; Vogt, D

    2018-03-01

    Colloidal particles have been used to covalently bind ligands for the heterogenization of homogeneous catalysts. The replacement of the covalent bonds by electrostatic interactions between particles and the catalyst could preserve the selectivity of a truly homogeneous catalytic process. Functionalized polymer particles with trimethylammonium moieties, dispersed in water, with a hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic shell have been synthesized by emulsion polymerization and have been thoroughly characterized. The ability of the particles with different monomer compositions to act as catalyst carriers has been studied. Finally, the colloidal dispersions have been applied as phase transfer agents in the multiphasic rhodium-catalyzed hydroformylation of 1-octene. The hydrodynamic radius of the particles has been shown to be around 100 nm, and a core-shell structure could be observed by atomic force microscopy. The polymer particles were proven to act as carriers for the water-soluble hydroformylation catalyst, due to electrostatic interaction between the functionalized particles bearing ammonium groups and the sulfonated ligands of the catalyst. The particles were stable under the hydroformylation conditions and the aqueous catalyst phase could be recycled three times. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Liquid crystalline phase as a probe for crystal engineering of lactose: carrier for pulmonary drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sharvil S; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Paradkar, Anant R

    2015-02-20

    The current work was undertaken to assess suitability of liquid crystalline phase for engineering of lactose crystals and their utility as a carrier in dry powder inhalation formulations. Saturated lactose solution was poured in molten glyceryl monooleate which subsequently transformed into gel. The gel microstructure was analyzed by PPL microscopy and SAXS. Lactose particles recovered from gels after 48 h were analyzed for polymorphism using techniques such as FTIR, XRD, DSC and TGA. Particle size, morphology and aerosolisation properties of prepared lactose were analyzed using Anderson cascade impactor. In situ seeding followed by growth of lactose crystals took place in gels with cubic microstructure as revealed by PPL microscopy and SAXS. Elongated (size ∼ 71 μm) lactose particles with smooth surface containing mixture of α and β-lactose was recovered from gel, however percentage of α-lactose was more as compared to β-lactose. The aerosolisation parameters such as RD, ED, %FPF and % recovery of lactose recovered from gel (LPL) were found to be comparable to Respitose® ML001. Thus LC phase (cubic) can be used for engineering of lactose crystals so as to obtain particles with smooth surface, high elongation ratio and further they can be used as carrier in DPI formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Blind Estimation of the Phase and Carrier Frequency Offsets for LDPC-Coded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcke Sebastien

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We consider in this paper the problem of phase offset and Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO estimation for Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC coded systems. We propose new blind estimation techniques based on the calculation and minimization of functions of the Log-Likelihood Ratios (LLR of the syndrome elements obtained according to the parity check matrix of the error-correcting code. In the first part of this paper, we consider phase offset estimation for a Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK modulation and propose a novel estimation technique. Simulation results show that the proposed method is very effective and outperforms many existing algorithms. Then, we modify the estimation criterion so that it can work for higher-order modulations. One interesting feature of the proposed algorithm when applied to high-order modulations is that the phase offset of the channel can be blindly estimated without any ambiguity. In the second part of the paper, we consider the problem of CFO estimation and propose estimation techniques that are based on the same concept as the ones presented for the phase offset estimation. The Mean Squared Error (MSE and Bit Error Rate (BER curves show the efficiency of the proposed estimation techniques.

  1. Influence of photo-generated carriers on current spreading in double diode structures for electroluminescent cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radevici, Ivan; Tiira, Jonna; Sadi, Toufik; Oksanen, Jani

    2018-05-01

    Current crowding close to electrical contacts is a common challenge in all optoelectronic devices containing thin current spreading layers (CSLs). We analyze the effects of current spreading on the operation of the so-called double diode structure (DDS), consisting of a light emitting diode (LED) and a photodiode (PD) fabricated within the same epitaxial growth process, and providing an attractive platform for studying electroluminescent (EL) cooling under high bias conditions. We show that current spreading in the common n-type layer between the LED and the PD can be dramatically improved by the strong optical coupling between the diodes, as the coupling enables a photo-generated current through the PD. This reduces the current in the DDS CSL and enables the study of EL cooling using structures that are not limited by the conventional light extraction challenges encountered in normal LEDs. The current spreading in the structures is studied using optical imaging techniques, electrical measurements, simulations, as well as simple equivalent circuit models developed for this purpose. The improved current spreading leads further to a mutual dependence with the coupling efficiency, which is expected to facilitate the process of optimizing the DDS. We also report a new improved value of 63% for the DDS coupling quantum efficiency.

  2. High-power parametric amplification of 11.8-fs laser pulses with carrier-envelope phase control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinkstok, R.T.; Witte, S.; Hogervorst, W.; Eikema, K.S.E.

    2005-01-01

    Phase-stable parametric chirped-pulse amplification of ultrashort pulses from a carrier-envelope phase-stabilized mode-locked Ti:sapphire oscillator (11.0 fs) to 0.25 mJ/pulse at 1 kHz is demonstrated. Compression with a grating compressor and a LCD shaper yields near-Fourier-limited 11.8-fs pulses

  3. Optimized Carrier Based Multilevel Generated Modified Dual Three-Phase Open-Winding Inverter for Medium Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel carrier based multilevel modulation for modified dual three-phase open-winding inverter applicable for low-voltage/high-current applications. A standard three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) is connected across the open-winding of both ends of the motor. Each VSI i...

  4. Performance requirements for the double-shell tank system: Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claghorn, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    This document establishes performance requirements for the double-shell tank system. These requirements, in turn, will be incorporated in the System Specification for the Double-Shell Tank System (Grenard and Claghorn 1998). This version of the document establishes requirements that are applicable to the first phase (Phase 1) of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission described in the TWRS Mission Analysis Report (Acree 1998). It does not specify requirements for either the Phase 2 mission or the double-shell tank system closure period

  5. Precise orbit determination of the Sentinel-3A altimetry satellite using ambiguity-fixed GPS carrier phase observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenbruck, Oliver; Hackel, Stefan; Jäggi, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    The Sentinel-3 mission takes routine measurements of sea surface heights and depends crucially on accurate and precise knowledge of the spacecraft. Orbit determination with a targeted uncertainty of less than 2 cm in radial direction is supported through an onboard Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, a Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite instrument, and a complementary laser retroreflector for satellite laser ranging. Within this study, the potential of ambiguity fixing for GPS-only precise orbit determination (POD) of the Sentinel-3 spacecraft is assessed. A refined strategy for carrier phase generation out of low-level measurements is employed to cope with half-cycle ambiguities in the tracking of the Sentinel-3 GPS receiver that have so far inhibited ambiguity-fixed POD solutions. Rather than explicitly fixing double-difference phase ambiguities with respect to a network of terrestrial reference stations, a single-receiver ambiguity resolution concept is employed that builds on dedicated GPS orbit, clock, and wide-lane bias products provided by the CNES/CLS (Centre National d'Études Spatiales/Collecte Localisation Satellites) analysis center of the International GNSS Service. Compared to float ambiguity solutions, a notably improved precision can be inferred from laser ranging residuals. These decrease from roughly 9 mm down to 5 mm standard deviation for high-grade stations on average over low and high elevations. Furthermore, the ambiguity-fixed orbits offer a substantially improved cross-track accuracy and help to identify lateral offsets in the GPS antenna or center-of-mass (CoM) location. With respect to altimetry, the improved orbit precision also benefits the global consistency of sea surface measurements. However, modeling of the absolute height continues to rely on proper dynamical models for the spacecraft motion as well as ground calibrations for the relative position of the altimeter reference point and the CoM.

  6. Cooperative Transmission in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Carrier Frequency Offsets: A Double-Differential Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the rapidly increasing mobility of sensor nodes, mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSNs would be subject to multiple carrier frequency offsets (MCFOs, which result in time-varying channels and drastically degrade the network performance. To enhance the performance of such MWSNs, we propose a relay selection (RS based double-differential (DD cooperative transmission scheme, termed RSDDCT, in which the best relay sensor node is selected to forward the source sensor node’s signals to the destination sensor node with the detect-and-forward (DetF protocol. Assuming a Rayleigh fading environment, first, exact closed-form expressions for the outage probability and average bit error rate (BER of the RSDDCT scheme are derived. Then, simple and informative asymptotic outage probability and average BER expressions at the large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR regime are presented, which reveal that the RSDDCT scheme can achieve full diversity. Furthermore, the optimum power allocation strategy in terms of minimizing the average BER is investigated, and simple analytical solutions are obtained. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed RSDDCT scheme can achieve excellent performance over fading channels in the presence of unknown random MCFOs. It is also shown that the proposed optimum power allocation strategy offers substantial average BER performance improvement over the equal power allocation strategy.

  7. Development of Real-Time Precise Positioning Algorithm Using GPS L1 Carrier Phase Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ho Joh

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed Real-time Phase DAta Processor(RPDAP for GPS L1 carrier. And also, we tested the RPDAP's positioning accuracy compared with results of real time kinematic(RTK positioning. While quality of the conventional L1 RTK positioning highly depend on receiving condition, the RPDAP can gives more stable positioning result because of different set of common GPS satellites, which searched by elevation mask angle and signal strength. In this paper, we demonstrated characteristics of the RPDAP compared with the L1 RTK technique. And we discussed several improvement ways to apply the RPDAP to precise real-time positioning using low-cost GPS receiver. With correcting the discussed weak points in near future, the RPDAP will be used in the field of precise real-time application, such as precise car navigation and precise personal location services.

  8. A novel five-level optimized carrier multilevel PWM quad-inverter six-phase AC drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanjeevikumar, P.; Blaabjerg, F.; Wheeler, Pat

    2016-01-01

    A novel single carrier pulse-width modulation (PWM) for a new quad-inverter configuration for multilevel six-phase asymmetrical open-winding ac converter is proposed in this article. Modularity of the circuit consist of four standard two-level voltage source inverters (VSIs) with slight modificat......A novel single carrier pulse-width modulation (PWM) for a new quad-inverter configuration for multilevel six-phase asymmetrical open-winding ac converter is proposed in this article. Modularity of the circuit consist of four standard two-level voltage source inverters (VSIs) with slight...... modifications, i.e. one additional bi-direction switch (MOSFET/IGBT) in each phase and a link to neutral with two capacitors to generate increased output levels. Furthermore, original optimal single carrier zero-shifted five-level modulation (SCZSFM) algorithm is developed for each VSI to behave as equivalent...

  9. Probing exotic phases of interacting two-dimensional carriers using one-dimensional density modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueed, M. A.

    In this Thesis, we present low-temperature magnetotransport studies of two-dimensional (2D) electron and hole systems confined to GaAs quantum wells and subjected to a one-dimensional, periodic density modulation. The modulation is achieved through the piezo-electric effect in GaAs as we fabricate a periodic, strain-inducing superlattice on the sample surface. Under varying perpendicular magnetic field, whenever the carriers' cyclotron orbit becomes commensurate with the modulation period, the magnetoresistance exhibits a minimum value. The resulting oscillations, known as the commensurability oscillations, directly measure the carriers' Fermi wave vector. Imposing a density modulation thus allows us to study the Fermi contour properties of 2D electrons and holes near zero field, and composite fermions (CFs) near the half filling of the lowest Landau level, i.e., filling factor nu=1/2. The application of a parallel magnetic field (B||) also features extensively in the Thesis. First, we use commensurability oscillations to capture the B||-induced deformation and the eventual splitting of the Fermi contour of 2D electrons. We also deduce the scattering time anisotropy of hole-flux CFs whose Fermi contour is rendered anisotropic by B||. Moreover, we study the anisotropic (warped) Fermi contour of 2D holes and hole-flux CFs in wide quantum well samples at B||=0. The results provide evidence that CFs inherit Fermi contour properties from their zero-field counterparts. We further investigate the fate of CFs near the bilayer quantum Hall states at nu=1 and 1/2 induced by a large B||. We observe that the commensurability features of CFs near nu=1 are consistent with half the total carrier density, implying that CFs prefer to stay in separate layers and show a two-component behavior. In contrast, close to nu=1/2, CFs appear single-layer-like (single-component) as their commensurability features correspond to the total density. This finding sheds light on the different

  10. Long term carrier envelope phase stabilization of a grating based high power femtosecond laser using the direct locking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hwan; Lee, Youg Soo; Park, Juyun; Nam, Chang Hee; Yu, Tae Jun

    2008-01-01

    The carrier envelope phase (CEP)stabilization of femtosecond laser pulses has been intensively investigated for ultrafast science as well as for frequency metrology. In the case of few cycle pulses stabilization and control of the CEP is an important issue, since the electric field profile changes with CEP variation. We have developed the direct locking method to stabilize the CEP for the investigation of attosecond physics. The direct locking method uses the beating signal itself, measured using an f to 2f interferometer, as an error signal to a feedback loop. The direct locking method quenches the beating signal so that the CEP variation between successive pulses become zero and every pulses from the oscillator ts identical. Due to the direct use of the beating signal, the signal processing is simple and complex equipment, used in the case of the phase locked loop (PLL)method operating in the frequency domain, are not required. For long term stability, we have proposed and implemented a double feedback technique, and achieved CEP stabilization of the oscillator for 24 hours, as shown in Fig. 1. This long term CEP stabilization was achieved without realignment of any optical components. The CEP stabilization for a whole day is a clear demonstration of the robustness of the direct locking method. The amplification of CEP stabilized laser pulses induces additional CEP variation. Even though the CEP of an oscillator is stabilized, the CEP drift is generated again during amplification due to external perturbations, such as pumping power fluctuation and beam pointing fluctuation. To measure the CEP drift of the amplified pulses, a spectral interferometer (SI)was employed. The CEP drift obtained from SI was used as the error signal of another feedback loop installed in the amplifier chain. To compensate for the large CEP drift induced during amplification, the grating separation of the pulse compressor was adjusted. Figure 2 shows the result of CEP stabilization of

  11. Double-phase Tc-99m tetrofosmin parathyroid scan in hyperparathyroidism: comparison with ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Soo; Kim, Sang Yoon; Zeon, Seok Kil; Won, Kyoung Sook

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the utility of double-phase Tc-99m Tetrofosmin(TF) parathyroid scan in the detection of pathologic lesions of primary hyperparathyroidism, and comparison with the ultrasonography(US). The double phase TF parathyroid scan of the anterior neck including upper mediastinum with 800 MBq TF were acquired at ten minutes (early phase) and at two hours (delayed phase) after radiopharmaceutical injection, in 24 consecutive patients under the clinical impression of primary hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcaemia. The images were evaluated for abnormal focal areas of increased tracer localization in the anterior neck and superior mediastinum in early phase, and visualization of parathyroid gland radioactivity after wash-out of the thyroid gland radioactivity in delayed phase. US of the anterior neck including upper mediastinum was performed by a diagnostic radiologist in 24 consecutive patients, within one week before or after the scan. The findings of double phase TF parathyroid scan and US were compared with the pathologic results. Ten of 24 patients were surgically explored and pathologic results showed eight adenomas and two hyperplasia. The double phase TF parathyroid scan showed positive findings in seven patients of eight adenomas and one patient of two hyperplasia patients. US image showed positive findings in six patients of eight adenomas and no positive findings of two hyperplasia. The sensitivity of the double phase TF scan for detection of the causes of the primary hyperparathyroidism was 80% and US was 60%. The double phase Tc-99m Tetrofosmin parathyroid scan showed higher sensitivity in detection of the pathologic lesions of primary hyperparathyroidism than ultrasonography

  12. A unified triangle carrier based PWM strategy for three-phase N-level diode clamped inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kai; Xie, Chuan; Wei, Min

    2017-01-01

    The triangle carrier based pulse width modulation (TCB-PWM) can be functionally equivalent to space vector base PWM (SVB-PWM). For multi-level inverter, it is very difficult to realize the SVB-PWM because its vector space is very complex. In this paper, a unified TCB-PWM strategy for three-phase ...

  13. In-phased second harmonic wave array generation with intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosawa, Kenichi; Shohda, Fumio; Yanagisawa, Takayuki; Kannari, Fumihiko

    2015-03-23

    The Talbot cavity is one promising method to synchronize the phase of a laser array. However, it does not achieve the lowest array mode with the same phase but the highest array mode with the anti-phase between every two adjacent lasers, which is called out-phase locking. Consequently, their far-field images exhibit 2-peak profiles. We propose intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling. By placing a nonlinear crystal in a Talbot cavity, the Talbot cavity generates an out-phased fundamental wave array, which is converted into an in-phase-locked second harmonic wave array at the nonlinear crystal. We demonstrate numerical calculations and experiments on intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling and obtain an in-phase-locked second harmonic wave array for a Nd:YVO₄ array laser.

  14. Electrical system for pulse-width modulated control of a power inverter using phase-shifted carrier signals and related operating methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welchko, Brian A [Torrance, CA

    2012-02-14

    Systems and methods are provided for pulse-width modulated control of power inverter using phase-shifted carrier signals. An electrical system comprises an energy source and a motor. The motor has a first set of windings and a second set of windings, which are electrically isolated from each other. An inverter module is coupled between the energy source and the motor and comprises a first set of phase legs coupled to the first set of windings and a second set of phase legs coupled to the second set of windings. A controller is coupled to the inverter module and is configured to achieve a desired power flow between the energy source and the motor by modulating the first set of phase legs using a first carrier signal and modulating the second set of phase legs using a second carrier signal. The second carrier signal is phase-shifted relative to the first carrier signal.

  15. Structures and Phase Transitions in Ordered Double Perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Brendan; Zhou, Qingdi; Cheah, Melina

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The basic perovskite structure is ubiquitous in the study of metal oxides, yet very few oxides actually adopt the archetypal cubic structure. The perovskite structure is based on corner sharing octahedra and in most cases cooperative rotations of successive octahedra lower the symmetry of the perovskite structure. Solid State Chemists have been fascinated by these distortions for many years, not only for their intrinsic interest but also to understand how these distortions control the electronic and magnetic properties of perovskite oxides. In this presentation we will describe the use of high-resolution powder diffraction methods to unravel the temperature and composition dependence of the structures in two series of double perovskites, Sr 1-x A x NiWO 6 (A = Ba, Ca) where there is essentially complete ordering of Ni and W cations and in Sr 1-x Ca x CrNbO 6 where there is extensive disorder of the Cr and Nb cations. (authors)

  16. Limit on the radiative neutrinoless double electron capture of {sup 36}Ar from GERDA Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M.; Balata, M.; D' Andrea, V.; Di Vacri, A.; Junker, M.; Laubenstein, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, Assergi (Italy); Allardt, M.; Domula, A.; Lehnert, B.; Schneider, B.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Bakalyarov, A.M.; Belyaev, S.T.; Lebedev, V.I.; Zhukov, S.V. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Barabanov, I.; Bezrukov, L.; Doroshkevich, E.; Fedorova, O.; Gurentsov, V.; Kazalov, V.; Kuzminov, V.V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Moseev, P.; Selivanenko, O.; Veresnikova, A.; Yanovich, E. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Barros, N. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Kish, A.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Walter, M. [Physik Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauer, C.; Hakenmueller, J.; Heisel, M.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Kihm, T.; Kirsch, A.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Salathe, M.; Schreiner, J.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stepaniuk, M.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Bellotti, E. [Universita Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Belogurov, S.; Kornoukhov, V.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics NRC ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Bettini, A.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Sada, C.; Sturm, K. von [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy); INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Bode, T.; Csathy, J.J.; Lazzaro, A.; Schoenert, S.; Wiesinger, C. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Borowicz, D. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Kochetov, O.; Nemchenok, I.; Rumyantseva, N.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zinatulina, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Caldwell, A.; Gooch, C.; Kneissl, R.; Liao, H.Y.; Majorovits, B.; Palioselitis, D.; Schulz, O.; Vanhoefer, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Cattadori, C.; Salamida, F. [INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Chernogorov, A.; Demidova, E.V.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Vasenko, A.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics NRC ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Falkenstein, R.; Freund, K.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schuetz, A.K. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Frodyma, N.; Misiaszek, M.; Panas, K.; Pelczar, K.; Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Gangapshev, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gusev, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Hemmer, S.; Lippi, I.; Stanco, L. [INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Hult, M.; Lutter, G. [European Commission, JRC-Geel, Geel (Belgium); Inzhechik, L.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Klimenko, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); International University for Nature, Society and Man ' ' Dubna' ' , Dubna (Russian Federation); Lubashevskiy, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Macolino, C. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, Assergi (Italy); LAL, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Pandola, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN Milano (Italy); Shirchenko, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Collaboration: GERDA collaboration

    2016-12-15

    Neutrinoless double electron capture is a process that, if detected, would give evidence of lepton number violation and the Majorana nature of neutrinos. A search for neutrinoless double electron capture of {sup 36}Ar has been performed with germanium detectors installed in liquid argon using data from Phase I of the GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory of INFN, Italy. No signal was observed and an experimental lower limit on the half-life of the radiative neutrinoless double electron capture of {sup 36}Ar was established: T{sub 1/2} > 3.6 x 10{sup 21} years at 90% CI. (orig.)

  17. Limit on the radiative neutrinoless double electron capture of ^{36}Ar from GERDA Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Vacri, A.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stepaniuk, M.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wilsenach, H.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-12-01

    Neutrinoless double electron capture is a process that, if detected, would give evidence of lepton number violation and the Majorana nature of neutrinos. A search for neutrinoless double electron capture of ^{36}Ar has been performed with germanium detectors installed in liquid argon using data from Phase I of the GERmanium Detector Array ( Gerda) experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory of INFN, Italy. No signal was observed and an experimental lower limit on the half-life of the radiative neutrinoless double electron capture of ^{36}Ar was established: T_{1/2} > 3.6 × 10^{21} years at 90% CI.

  18. Simultaneous transmission for an encrypted image and a double random-phase encryption key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Sheng; Zhou, Xin; Li, Da-Hai; Zhou, Ding-Fu

    2007-06-01

    We propose a method to simultaneously transmit double random-phase encryption key and an encrypted image by making use of the fact that an acceptable decryption result can be obtained when only partial data of the encrypted image have been taken in the decryption process. First, the original image data are encoded as an encrypted image by a double random-phase encryption technique. Second, a double random-phase encryption key is encoded as an encoded key by the Rivest-Shamir-Adelman (RSA) public-key encryption algorithm. Then the amplitude of the encrypted image is modulated by the encoded key to form what we call an encoded image. Finally, the encoded image that carries both the encrypted image and the encoded key is delivered to the receiver. Based on such a method, the receiver can have an acceptable result and secure transmission can be guaranteed by the RSA cipher system.

  19. Double-effect absorption heat pump, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, F. B.; Cremean, S. P.; Jatana, S. C.; Johnson, R. A.; Malcosky, N. D.

    1987-06-01

    The RD&D program has resulted in design, development and testing of a packaged prototype double-effect generator cycle absorption gas heat pump for the residential and small commercial markets. The 3RT heat pump prototype has demonstrated a COPc of 0.82 and a COPh of 1.65 at ARI rating conditions. The heat pump prototype includes a solid state control system with built-in diagnostics. The absorbent/refrigerant solution thermophysical properties were completely characterized. Commercially available materials of construction were identified for all heat pump components. A corrosion inhibitor was identified and tested in both static and dynamic environments. The safety of the heat pump was analyzed by using two analytical approaches. Pioneer Engineering estimated the factory standard cost to produce the 3RT heat pump at $1,700 at a quantity of 50,000 units/year. One United States patent was allowed covering the heat pump technology, and two divisional applications and three Continuation-in-Park Applications were filed with the U.S.P.T.O. Corresponding patent coverage was applied for in Canada, the EEC, Australia, and Japan. Testing of the prototype heat pump is continuing, as are life tests of multiple pump concepts amd long-term dynamic corrosion tests. Continued development and commercialization of gas absorption heat pumps based on the technology are recommended.

  20. Toward Continuous GPS Carrier-Phase Time Transfer: Eliminating the Time Discontinuity at an Anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jian; Levine, Judah; Weiss, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The wide application of Global Positioning System (GPS) carrier-phase (CP) time transfer is limited by the problem of boundary discontinuity (BD). The discontinuity has two categories. One is "day boundary discontinuity," which has been studied extensively and can be solved by multiple methods [1-8]. The other category of discontinuity, called "anomaly boundary discontinuity (anomaly-BD)," comes from a GPS data anomaly. The anomaly can be a data gap (i.e., missing data), a GPS measurement error (i.e., bad data), or a cycle slip. Initial study of the anomaly-BD shows that we can fix the discontinuity if the anomaly lasts no more than 20 min, using the polynomial curve-fitting strategy to repair the anomaly [9]. However, sometimes, the data anomaly lasts longer than 20 min. Thus, a better curve-fitting strategy is in need. Besides, a cycle slip, as another type of data anomaly, can occur and lead to an anomaly-BD. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a new strategy, i.e., the satellite-clock-aided curve fitting strategy with the function of cycle slip detection. Basically, this new strategy applies the satellite clock correction to the GPS data. After that, we do the polynomial curve fitting for the code and phase data, as before. Our study shows that the phase-data residual is only ~3 mm for all GPS satellites. The new strategy also detects and finds the number of cycle slips by searching the minimum curve-fitting residual. Extensive examples show that this new strategy enables us to repair up to a 40-min GPS data anomaly, regardless of whether the anomaly is due to a data gap, a cycle slip, or a combination of the two. We also find that interference of the GPS signal, known as "jamming", can possibly lead to a time-transfer error, and that this new strategy can compensate for jamming outages. Thus, the new strategy can eliminate the impact of jamming on time transfer. As a whole, we greatly improve the robustness of the GPS CP time transfer.

  1. A review on the inter-frequency biases of GLONASS carrier-phase data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jianghui; Zhao, Qile; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2017-03-01

    GLONASS ambiguity resolution (AR) between inhomogeneous stations requires correction of inter-frequency phase biases (IFPBs) (a "station" here is an integral ensemble of a receiver, an antenna, firmware, etc.). It has been elucidated that IFPBs as a linear function of channel numbers are not physical in nature, but actually originate in differential code-phase biases (DCPBs). Although IFPBs have been prevalently recognized, an unanswered question is whether IFPBs and DCPBs are equivalent in enabling GLONASS AR. Besides, general strategies for the DCPB estimation across a large network of heterogeneous stations are still under investigation within the GNSS community, such as whether one DCPB per receiver type (rather than individual stations) suffices, as tentatively suggested by the IGS (International GNSS Service), and what accuracy we are able to and ought to achieve for DCPB products. In this study, we review the concept of DCPBs and point out that IFPBs are only approximate derivations from DCPBs, and are potentially problematic if carrier-phase hardware biases differ by up to several millimeters across frequency channels. We further stress the station and observable specific properties of DCPBs which cannot be thoughtlessly ignored as conducted conventionally. With 212 days of data from 200 European stations, we estimated DCPBs per stations by resolving ionosphere-free ambiguities of ˜ 5.3 cm wavelengths, and compared them to the presumed truth benchmarks computed directly with L1 and L2 data on ultra-short baselines. On average, the accuracy of our DCPB products is around 0.7 ns in RMS. According to this uncertainty estimates, we could unambiguously confirm that DCPBs can typically differ substantially by up to 30 ns among receivers of identical types and over 10 ns across different observables. In contrast, a DCPB error of more than 6 ns will decrease the fixing rate of ionosphere-free ambiguities by over 20 %, due to their smallest frequency spacing and

  2. Fractional Fourier domain optical image hiding using phase retrieval algorithm based on iterative nonlinear double random phase encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2014-09-22

    We present a novel image hiding method based on phase retrieval algorithm under the framework of nonlinear double random phase encoding in fractional Fourier domain. Two phase-only masks (POMs) are efficiently determined by using the phase retrieval algorithm, in which two cascaded phase-truncated fractional Fourier transforms (FrFTs) are involved. No undesired information disclosure, post-processing of the POMs or digital inverse computation appears in our proposed method. In order to achieve the reduction in key transmission, a modified image hiding method based on the modified phase retrieval algorithm and logistic map is further proposed in this paper, in which the fractional orders and the parameters with respect to the logistic map are regarded as encryption keys. Numerical results have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  3. Design Research on Three-Phase PWM Rectifier Based on Double Closed Loop Control Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Ya LIU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the high frequency of three-phase voltage source PWM rectifier, this paper established a mathematical model of three phase current inner ring and outer ring voltage, and put forward the setting method of three phase double closed loop control. Finally, it was verified through simulation. The experimental results show that Three-phase output of DC voltage is stable with the operation of regulating systems, the current flowing into the grid tends to be sinusoidal and power factor is close to 1, which greatly reduce the interference of harmonics on the grid, thus improve grid operation.

  4. A Comparison of Phase-Shift Self- Oscillating and Carrier-based PWM Modulation for Embedded Audio Amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Huffenus , Alexandre; Pillonnet , Gaël; Abouchi , Nacer; Goutti , Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper compares two modulation schemes for Class-D amplifiers: Phase-Shift Self-Oscillating (PSSO) and Carrier-Based Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). Theoretical analysis (modulation, frequency of oscillation, bandwidth…), design procedure, and IC silicon evaluation will be shown for mono and stereo operation (on the same silicon die) on both structures. The design of both architectures will use as many identical building blocks as possible, to provide a fair, "all el...

  5. A double parameters measurement of steam-water two-phase flow with single orifice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Shuoping; Tong Yunxian; Yu Meiying

    1992-08-01

    A double parameters measurement of steam-water two-phase flow with single orifice is described. An on-line measurement device based on micro-computer has been developed. The measured r.m.s error of steam quality is less than 6.5% and the measured relative r.m.s. error of mass flow rate is less than 9%

  6. Carrier density control of magnetism and Berry phases in doped EuTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Kaveh; Gui, Zhigang; Porter, Zach; Lynn, Jeffrey W.; Xu, Zhijun; Wilson, Stephen D.; Janotti, Anderson; Stemmer, Susanne

    2018-05-01

    In materials with broken time-reversal symmetry, the Berry curvature acts as a reciprocal space magnetic field on the conduction electrons and is a significant contribution to the magnetotransport properties, including the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect. Here, we report neutron diffraction, transport, and magnetization measurements of thin films of doped EuTiO3, an itinerant magnetic material, as a function of carrier density and magnetic field. These films are itinerant antiferromagnets at all doping concentrations. At low carrier densities, the magnetoresistance indicates a metamagnetic transition, which is absent at high carrier densities (>6 × 1020 cm-3). Strikingly, the crossover coincides with a sign change in the spontaneous Hall effects, indicating a sign change in the Berry curvature. We discuss the results in the context of the band structure topology and its coupling to the magnetic texture.

  7. Application of the Double-Tangent Construction of Coexisting Phases to Any Type of Phase Equilibrium for Binary Systems Modeled with the Gamma-Phi Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaubert, Jean-Noël; Privat, Romain

    2014-01-01

    The double-tangent construction of coexisting phases is an elegant approach to visualize all the multiphase binary systems that satisfy the equality of chemical potentials and to select the stable state. In this paper, we show how to perform the double-tangent construction of coexisting phases for binary systems modeled with the gamma-phi…

  8. Optical double-image cryptography based on diffractive imaging with a laterally-translated phase grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Sheppard, Colin J R

    2011-10-10

    In this paper, we propose a method using structured-illumination-based diffractive imaging with a laterally-translated phase grating for optical double-image cryptography. An optical cryptosystem is designed, and multiple random phase-only masks are placed in the optical path. When a phase grating is laterally translated just before the plaintexts, several diffraction intensity patterns (i.e., ciphertexts) can be correspondingly obtained. During image decryption, an iterative retrieval algorithm is developed to extract plaintexts from the ciphertexts. In addition, security and advantages of the proposed method are analyzed. Feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical simulation results. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  9. Optical image transformation and encryption by phase-retrieval-based double random-phase encoding and compressive ghost imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Sheng; Yang, Yangrui; Liu, Xuemei; Zhou, Xin; Wei, Zhenzhuo

    2018-01-01

    An optical image transformation and encryption scheme is proposed based on double random-phase encoding (DRPE) and compressive ghost imaging (CGI) techniques. In this scheme, a secret image is first transformed into a binary image with the phase-retrieval-based DRPE technique, and then encoded by a series of random amplitude patterns according to the ghost imaging (GI) principle. Compressive sensing, corrosion and expansion operations are implemented to retrieve the secret image in the decryption process. This encryption scheme takes the advantage of complementary capabilities offered by the phase-retrieval-based DRPE and GI-based encryption techniques. That is the phase-retrieval-based DRPE is used to overcome the blurring defect of the decrypted image in the GI-based encryption, and the CGI not only reduces the data amount of the ciphertext, but also enhances the security of DRPE. Computer simulation results are presented to verify the performance of the proposed encryption scheme.

  10. Double carriers pulse DLTS for the characterization of electron-hole recombination process in GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzazi, Boussairi; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2011-01-01

    A nitrogen-related electron trap (E1), located approximately 0.33 eV from the conduction band minimum of GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy, was confirmed by investigating the dependence of its density with N concentration. This level exhibits a high capture cross section compared with that of native defects in GaAs. Its density increases significantly with N concentration, persists following post-thermal annealing, and was found to be quasi-uniformly distributed. These results indicate that E1 is a stable defect that is formed during growth to compensate for the tensile strain caused by N. Furthermore, E1 was confirmed to act as a recombination center by comparing its activation energy with that of the recombination current in the depletion region of the alloy. However, this technique cannot characterize the electron-hole (e-h) recombination process. For that, double carrier pulse deep level transient spectroscopy is used to confirm the non-radiative e-h recombination process through E1, to estimate the capture cross section of holes, and to evaluate the energy of multi-phonon emission. Furthermore, a configuration coordinate diagram is modeled based on the physical parameters of E1. -- Research Highlights: → Double carrier pulse DLTS method confirms the existence of SRH center. → The recombination center in GaAsN depends on nitrogen concentration. → Minority carrier lifetime in GaAsN is less than 1 ns. → A non-radiative recombination center exits in GaAsN.

  11. A Convergent Solid-Phase Synthesis of Actinomycin Analogues - Towards Implementation of Double-Combinatorial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, Glenn; Nielsen, John

    1996-01-01

    The actinomycin antibiotics bind to nucleic acids via both intercalation and hydrogen bonding. We found this 'double-action attack' mechanism very attractive in our search for a novel class of nucleic acid binders. A highly convergent, solid-phase synthetic strategy has been developed for a class...... with the requirements for combinatorial synthesis and furthermore, the final segment condensation allows, for the first time, double-combinatorial chemistry to be performed where two combinatorial libraries can be reacted with each other. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  12. Active phase double crystal monochromator for JET (diagnostic system KS1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelfinger, C.; Fink, J.; Fussmann, G.; Krause, H.; Roehr, H.; Schilling, H.B.; Schumacher, U.; Becker, P.; Siegert, H.; Abel, P.; Keul, J.

    1984-03-01

    The determination of the impurity concentrations in JET plasmas by absolute radiation measurements in a wide spectral range can be done with a double crystal monochromator device in parallel mode, which is able to operate during all experimental phases of JET. The report describes the engineering design and tests for a double crystal monochromator that fulfills the conditions of parallel orientation of the two crystals during fast wavelength scan, of shielding against neutrons and gamma rays by its folded optical pathway and of sufficient spectral resolution for line profile measurements. (orig.)

  13. Determination of monoamine neurotransmitters in human urine by carrier-mediated liquid-phase microextraction based on solidification of stripping phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liwei; Chen, Yibang; Chen, Yejun; Ma, Ming; Tan, Yueming; Tang, Hao; Chen, Bo

    2015-11-01

    A novel method was developed for the analysis of monoamine neurotransmitters (MNTs) in human urine by carrier-mediated liquid-phase microextraction based on solidification of stripping phase method (CM-LPME-SSP) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD). By adding an appropriate carrier in organic phase, simultaneous extraction of hydrophilic analytes, MNTs, with high enrichment factors (22.6-36.1 folds) and excellent sample cleanup was achieved. A new strategy, solidifying the aqueous stripping phase in the back-extraction process, was developed to facilitate the collection of the stripping phase as small as a few microliters. Combined with HPLC-ECD analysis, the linear ranges of the established method were 0.015-2.0 μg/mL for NE, E, DA, and 0.020-2.0 μg/mL for 5-HT. The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 5.5-10.8 ng/mL and 15-20 ng/mL, respectively. The relative recoveries were in the range of 87-108%, with intraday and interday relative standard deviations lower than 13%. This method was successfully applied to analysis of MNTs in real urine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A bandwidth independent linear method for detection of carrier envelope phase drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerbe, M.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Most of the femtosecond-scale physical phenomena can be experimentally investigated by using carrier-envelope phase (CEP) stabilized laser pulses only. The usual method of CEP stabilization requires laser pulses with a bandwidth of one octave broad at least. If the spectrum of the fundamental pulse itself is not sufficiently broad, then its bandwidth has to be broadened by use of any nonlinear method. Spectrally and spatially resolved interferometry (SSRI) has been proven to be a powerful technique for dispersion measurement of various materials and optical elements. It typically consists of a two-beam interferometer equipped with an imaging spectrograph. The interference pattern is imaged onto the input slit of the spectrograph, so that spatially (along the slit) and spectrally resolved interference fringes are formed on the 2D detector (CCD camera) inserted at the output plane of the spectrograph. In this paper we show that the visibility of the spectrally and spatially resolved interference fringes depends strongly on the CEP drift of subsequent pulses from a pulse train. When the pulses are CEP stabilized then the visibility has a definite extremum. To introduce the operation principle, let's assume a black box in the sample are of the interferometer illuminated by train of CEP-stabilized laser pulses. This imaginary black box would change only the CEP of the subsequent pulses by Δ ψ but leaves their dispersion relative to the reference pulse, i.e. the pulse propagating in the other arm of the interferometer, unchanged. The spatial position of the interference fringes depends on Δ ψ . If the subsequent fringes are formed by pulses with different CEP, the spatial position of each interference fringe changes. The detector, i.e. the CCD chip of the imaging spectrograph is slow, so that it actually captures many subsequent interference patterns, on top of each other. As a result, the visibility of the resulted and captured

  15. Measurement of local two-phase flow parameters of nanofluids using conductivity double-sensor probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu Sun; Chang, Soon Heung

    2011-04-04

    A two-phase flow experiment using air and water-based γ-Al2O3 nanofluid was conducted to observe the basic hydraulic phenomenon of nanofluids. The local two-phase flow parameters were measured with a conductivity double-sensor two-phase void meter. The void fraction, interfacial velocity, interfacial area concentration, and mean bubble diameter were evaluated, and all of those results using the nanofluid were compared with the corresponding results for pure water. The void fraction distribution was flattened in the nanofluid case more than it was in the pure water case. The higher interfacial area concentration resulted in a smaller mean bubble diameter in the case of the nanofluid. This was the first attempt to measure the local two-phase flow parameters of nanofluids using a conductivity double-sensor two-phase void meter. Throughout this experimental study, the differences in the internal two-phase flow structure of the nanofluid were identified. In addition, the heat transfer enhancement of the nanofluid can be resulted from the increase of the interfacial area concentration which means the available area of the heat and mass transfer.

  16. Cortico-pontine theta carrier frequency phase shift across sleep/wake states following monoaminergic lesion in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Spasic, Sladjana; Petrovic, Jelena; Ciric, Jelena; Saponjic, Jelena

    2012-06-01

    This study was aimed to explore the sleep/wake states related cortico-pontine theta carrier frequency phase shift following a systemically induced chemical axotomy of the monoaminergic afferents within a brain of the freely moving rats. Our experiments were performed in 14 adult, male Sprague Dawley rats, chronically implanted for sleep recording. We recorded sleep during baseline condition, following sham injection (saline i.p. 1 ml/kg), and every week for 5 weeks following injection of the systemic neurotoxins (DSP-4 or PCA; 1 ml/kg, i.p.) for chemical axotomy of the locus coeruleus (LC) and dorsal raphe (DR) axon terminals. After sleep/wake states identification, FFT analysis was performed on 5 s epochs. Theta carrier frequency phase shift (∆Φ) was calculated for each epoch by averaging theta Fourier component phase shifts, and the ∆Φ values were plotted for each rat in control condition and 28 days following the monoaminergic lesions, as a time for permanently established DR or LC chemical axotomy. Calculated group averages have shown that ∆Φ increased between pons and cortex significantly in all sleep/wake states (Wake, NREM and REM) following the monoaminergic lesions, with respect to controls. Monoaminergic lesions established the pontine leading role in the brain theta oscillations during all sleep/wake states.

  17. Lipid Phases Eye View to Lipofection. Cationic Phosphatidylcholine Derivatives as Efficient DNA Carriers for Gene Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Rumiana Koynova

    2008-01-01

    Efficient delivery of genetic material to cells is needed for tasks of utmost importance in laboratory and clinic, such as gene transfection and gene silencing. Synthetic cationic lipids can be used as delivery vehicles for nucleic acids and are now considered the most promising non-viral gene carriers. They form complexes (lipoplexes) with the polyanionic nucleic acids. A critical obstacle for clinical application of the lipid-mediated DNA delivery (lipofection) is its unsatisfactory efficie...

  18. Key management of the double random-phase-encoding method using public-key encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2010-03-01

    Public-key encryption has been used to encode the key of the encryption process. In the proposed technique, an input image has been encrypted by using the double random-phase-encoding method using extended fractional Fourier transform. The key of the encryption process have been encoded by using the Rivest-Shamir-Adelman (RSA) public-key encryption algorithm. The encoded key has then been transmitted to the receiver side along with the encrypted image. In the decryption process, first the encoded key has been decrypted using the secret key and then the encrypted image has been decrypted by using the retrieved key parameters. The proposed technique has advantage over double random-phase-encoding method because the problem associated with the transmission of the key has been eliminated by using public-key encryption. Computer simulation has been carried out to validate the proposed technique.

  19. Thin Double-gap RPCs for the Phase-2 Upgrade of the CMS Muon System

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kyong Sei

    2017-01-01

    High-sensitive double-gap phenolic Resistive Plate Chambers are studied for the Phase-2 upgrade of the CMS muon system at high pseudorapidity $\\eta$. Whereas the present CMS RPCs have a gas gap thickness of 2 mm, we propose to use thinner gas gaps, which will improve the performance of these RPCs. To validate this proposal, we constructed double-gap RPCs with two different gap thicknesses of 1.2 and 1.4 mm using high-pressure laminated plates having a mean resistivity of about 5 $\\times$ 10$^{10}$ $\\Omega$-cm. This paper presents test results using cosmic muons and $^{137}$Cs gamma rays. The rate capabilities of these thin-gap RPCs measured with the gamma source exceed the maximum rate expected in the new high-$\\eta$ endcap RPCs planned for future Phase-2 runs of LHC.

  20. A novel attack method about double-random-phase-encoding-based image hiding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongsheng; Xiao, Zhijun; Zhu, Xianchen

    2018-03-01

    By using optical image processing techniques, a novel text encryption and hiding method applied by double-random phase-encoding technique is proposed in the paper. The first step is that the secret message is transformed into a 2-dimension array. The higher bits of the elements in the array are used to fill with the bit stream of the secret text, while the lower bits are stored specific values. Then, the transformed array is encoded by double random phase encoding technique. Last, the encoded array is embedded on a public host image to obtain the image embedded with hidden text. The performance of the proposed technique is tested via analytical modeling and test data stream. Experimental results show that the secret text can be recovered either accurately or almost accurately, while maintaining the quality of the host image embedded with hidden data by properly selecting the method of transforming the secret text into an array and the superimposition coefficient.

  1. Mott-insulating phases and magnetism of fermions in a double-well optical lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Qi; Das Sarma, S.

    2011-01-01

    We theoretically investigate, using nonperturbative strong correlation techniques, Mott-insulating phases and magnetic ordering of two-component fermions in a two-dimensional double-well optical lattice. At filling of two fermions per site, there are two types of Mott insulators, one of which is characterized by spin-1 antiferromagnetism below the Neel temperature. The superexchange interaction in this system is induced by the interplay between the interband interaction and the spin degree of freedom. A great advantage of the double-well optical lattice is that the magnetic quantum phase diagram and the Neel temperature can be easily controlled by tuning the orbital energy splitting of the two-level system. Particularly, the Neel temperature can be one order of magnitude larger than that in standard optical lattices, facilitating the experimental search for magnetic ordering in optical lattice systems.

  2. Single-Carrier Modulation for Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters in Three-Phase Transformerless Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Cavalcanti, Marcelo C.; Farias, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-01

    Modulation strategy is one of the most important issues for three-level neutral-point-clamped inverters in three-phase transformerless photovoltaic systems. A challenge for modulation is how to keep the common-mode voltages constant to reduce the leakage currents. A single-carrier modulation...... strategy is proposed. It has a very simple structure, and the common-mode voltages can be kept constant with no need of complex space-vector modulation or multicarrier pulsewidth modulation. Experimental results verify the theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of the presented method....

  3. Electrical system using phase-shifted carrier signals and related operating methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welchko, Brian A; Campbell, Jeremy B

    2012-09-18

    An automotive drive system and methods for making the same are provided. The system includes a three-phase motor and an inverter module. The three-phase motor includes a first set of windings each having a first magnetic polarity; and a second set of windings each having a second magnetic polarity that is opposite the first magnetic polarity. The first set of windings being electrically isolated from the second set of windings. The inverter module includes a first set of phase legs and a second set of phase legs. Each one of the first set of phase legs is coupled to a corresponding phase of the first set of windings, and each one of the second set of phase legs is coupled to a corresponding phase of the second set of windings.

  4. Observation of negative potential depression on double layer during a phase of current disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, H.; Matsuo, K.; Yagura, S.

    1984-01-01

    The negative potential depression with a depth of approximately electron temperature is observed on the low potential tail of the double layer just at the moment when the electron current passing through the layer is disrupted. The depression is confirmed to serve as an electron thermal barrier and form an ion hole from phase-space measurements of electrons and ions, respectively. The depth of the depression becomes maximum when the density around the depression becomes most inhomogeneous. (author)

  5. Information hiding based on double random-phase encoding and public-key cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yuan; Xin, Zhou; Alam, Mohammed S; Xi, Lu; Xiao-Feng, Li

    2009-03-02

    A novel information hiding method based on double random-phase encoding (DRPE) and Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) public-key cryptosystem is proposed. In the proposed technique, the inherent diffusion property of DRPE is cleverly utilized to make up the diffusion insufficiency of RSA public-key cryptography, while the RSA cryptosystem is utilized for simultaneous transmission of the cipher text and the two phase-masks, which is not possible under the DRPE technique. This technique combines the complementary advantages of the DPRE and RSA encryption techniques and brings security and convenience for efficient information transmission. Extensive numerical simulation results are presented to verify the performance of the proposed technique.

  6. Gas-liquid two-phase flows in double inlet cyclones for natural gas separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Wang, Shuli; Wen, Chuang

    2017-01-01

    The gas-liquid two-phase flow within a double inlet cyclone for natural gasseparation was numerically simulated using the discrete phase model. The numericalapproach was validated with the experimental data, and the comparison resultsagreed well with each other. The simulation results showed...... that the strong swirlingflow produced a high centrifugal force to remove the particles from the gas mixture.The larger particles moved downward on the internal surface and were removeddue to the outer vortex near the wall. Most of the tiny particles went into the innervortex zones and escaped from the up...

  7. A novel double quad-inverter configuration for multilevel twelve-phase open-winding converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick William

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a novel proposal of double quad-inverter configuration for multilevel twelve-phase open-winding ac converter. Modular power units are developed from reconfigured eight classical three-phase voltage source inverters (VSIs). Each VSI has one additional bi-directional switching...... numerical simulation software's (Matlab/PLECS) developments. Further, the results confirm the good agreement to the developed theoretical background. Proposed converter suits the need of low-voltage/high-current applications such as ac tractions and `More-Electric Aircraft' propulsion systems....

  8. Phase locking of a semiconductor double-quantum-dot single-atom maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.-Y.; Hartke, T. R.; Stehlik, J.; Petta, J. R.

    2017-11-01

    We experimentally study the phase stabilization of a semiconductor double-quantum-dot (DQD) single-atom maser by injection locking. A voltage-biased DQD serves as an electrically tunable microwave frequency gain medium. The statistics of the maser output field demonstrate that the maser can be phase locked to an external cavity drive, with a resulting phase noise L =-99 dBc/Hz at a frequency offset of 1.3 MHz. The injection locking range, and the phase of the maser output relative to the injection locking input tone are in good agreement with Adler's theory. Furthermore, the electrically tunable DQD energy level structure allows us to rapidly switch the gain medium on and off, resulting in an emission spectrum that resembles a frequency comb. The free running frequency comb linewidth is ≈8 kHz and can be improved to less than 1 Hz by operating the comb in the injection locked regime.

  9. Phase retrieval from reflective fringe patterns of double-sided transparent objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lei; Asundi, Anand Krishna

    2012-01-01

    ‘Ghosted’ fringe patterns simultaneously reflected from both the upper and lower sides of a transparent target in the fringe reflection technique are captured for transparent surface 3D shape measurement, but the phase retrieval from the captured ‘ghosted’ fringe patterns is still not solved. A novel method is proposed to solve this issue by using two sets of phase-shifted fringe patterns with slightly different frequencies. The nonlinear least-squares method is used to estimate the fringe phase and modulation from both front and rear interfaces. Several simulations are done to show the feasibility of the proposed method. The influence of fringe noise on the algorithm is studied as well, which indicates that the proposed method is able to retrieve the phase from double-sided reflective fringe patterns with fringe noise equivalent to that in practical measurements. The merits and limitations of the method are discussed and recommendations for future studies are made. (paper)

  10. Double-antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay: a simplified phase-separation procedure applied to various ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevaarwerk, G.J.M.; Boyle, D.A.; Hurst, C.J.; Anguish, I.; Uksik, P.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose was to develop a simplified and reliable method of separating free from antibody-bound ligand using a precipitating antibody linked to a cellulose derivative. Dose-response curves and control sera were set up in parallel for various pituitary and placental polypeptides, steroid hormones, insulin, glucagon, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, angiotensin I, calcitonin, gastrin, cyclic AMP, and digoxin. After first-antibody reactions had reached equilibrium, free and bound ligand were separated using a double-antibody solid-phase system in parallel with conventional methods, including dextran-coated charcoal, double-antibody precipitation, single-antibody solid phase, organic solvents, salt precipitation, and anion-exchange resins. The effect of variations in temperature, incubation time, protein content, pH, and amount of separating material added were studied. The results showed that separation was complete within 1 hr for small ligand molecules and within 2 hr for larger ones. Dose-response curves and control-sera results closely paralleled those obtained with conventional methods. The method was not affected by moderate variations in incubation variables. Nonspecific binding was less than 3% in all assays, while intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation were similar to those obtained with conventional phase-separation methods. It is concluded that the method is a simple and rapid alternative phase-separation system. It has the advantage of being free from common nonspecific intersample variations, and can be applied to any assay system based on rabbit or guinea pig antibodies without preliminay time- or reagent-consuming titration or adjustments to establish optimum phase-separating conditions

  11. Two-Stage n-PSK Partitioning Carrier Phase Recovery Scheme for Circular mQAM Coherent Optical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo Navarro, Jaime; Kakkar, Aditya; Pang, Xiaodan

    2016-01-01

    (ΔνTs) tolerance is achieved compared to the single-stage n-PSK partitioning scheme. Superior performance in the ΔνTs tolerance compared to the blind phase search algorithm is also reported. The relative improvements with respect to other CPR schemes are also validated experimentally for a 28-Gbaud C......A novel two-stage n-PSK partitioning carrier phase recovery (CPR) scheme for circular multilevel quadrature amplitude modulation (C-mQAM) constellations is presented. The first stage of the algorithm provides an initial rough estimation of the received constellation, which is utilized in the second...... stage for CPR. The performance of the proposed algorithm is studied through extensive simulations at the forward error correction bit error rate targets of 3.8 × 10−3 and 1 × 10−2 and is compared with different CPR algorithms. A significant improvement in the combined linewidth symbol duration product...

  12. Carrier mediated hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction combined with HPLC-UV for preconcentration and determination of some tetracycline antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Shahab; Yamini, Yadollah; Esrafili, Ali

    2009-02-01

    In the present study, a simple and efficient preconcentration method was developed using carrier mediated three phase liquid phase microextraction prior to HPLC-UV for simultaneous extraction and determination of trace amounts of highly hydrophilic tetracycline antibiotics including tetracycline (TCN), oxytetracycline (OTCN) and doxycycline (DCN) in bovine milk, human plasma and water samples. For extraction, 11.0 mL of the aqueous sample containing TCNs and 0.05 M Na(2)HPO(4) (9.10.995). Finally, applicability of the proposed method was successfully confirmed by extraction and determination of the drugs in water and plasma samples as well as in bovine milk samples with low and high fat contents. Comparing to the traditional methods, the proposed method exhibits high sensitivity and high preconcentration factors as well as good precision. The extraction setup is simple and due to active transport of analytes, high cleanup effect and good selectivity are obtained in extraction process.

  13. A 3.96 GHz phase-locked loop for mode-1 MB-OFDM UWB hopping carrier generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Yongzheng; Li Weinan; Xia Lingli; Huang Yumei; Hong Zhiliang, E-mail: yumeihuang@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-07-15

    A fully integrated phase-locked loop (PLL) is presented for a single quadrature output frequency of 3.96 GHz. The proposed PLL can be applied to mode-1 MB-OFDM UWB hopping carrier generation. An adaptive frequency calibration loop is incorporated into the PLL. The capacitance area in the loop filter is largely reduced through a capacitor multiplier. Implemented in a CMOS process, this PLL draws 13.0 mA current from a single 1.2 V supply while occupying 0.55 mm{sup 2} die area. Measurement results show that the PLL achieves a phase noise of-70 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset and -113 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset. The integrated RMS jitter from 1 kHz to 10 MHz is 2.2 ps. The reference spur level is less than -68 dBc.

  14. A 3.96 GHz phase-locked loop for mode-1 MB-OFDM UWB hopping carrier generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yongzheng; Li Weinan; Xia Lingli; Huang Yumei; Hong Zhiliang

    2009-01-01

    A fully integrated phase-locked loop (PLL) is presented for a single quadrature output frequency of 3.96 GHz. The proposed PLL can be applied to mode-1 MB-OFDM UWB hopping carrier generation. An adaptive frequency calibration loop is incorporated into the PLL. The capacitance area in the loop filter is largely reduced through a capacitor multiplier. Implemented in a CMOS process, this PLL draws 13.0 mA current from a single 1.2 V supply while occupying 0.55 mm 2 die area. Measurement results show that the PLL achieves a phase noise of-70 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset and -113 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset. The integrated RMS jitter from 1 kHz to 10 MHz is 2.2 ps. The reference spur level is less than -68 dBc.

  15. Automated solid-phase extraction of phenolic acids using layered double hydroxide-alumina-polymer disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Milad; Palomino Cabello, Carlos; Saraji, Mohammad; Manuel Estela, Jose; Cerdà, Víctor; Turnes Palomino, Gemma; Maya, Fernando

    2018-01-26

    The application of layered double hydroxide-Al 2 O 3 -polymer mixed-matrix disks for solid-phase extraction is reported for the first time. Al 2 O 3 is embedded in a polymer matrix followed by an in situ metal-exchange process to obtain a layered double hydroxide-Al 2 O 3 -polymer mixed-matrix disk with excellent flow-through properties. The extraction performance of the prepared disks is evaluated as a proof of concept for the automated extraction using sequential injection analysis of organic acids (p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid) following an anion-exchange mechanism. After the solid-phase extraction, phenolic acids were quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection using a core-shell silica-C18 stationary phase and isocratic elution (acetonitrile/0.5% acetic acid in pure water, 5:95, v/v). High sensitivity and reproducibility were obtained with limits of detection in the range of 0.12-0.25 μg/L (sample volume, 4 mL), and relative standard deviations between 2.9 and 3.4% (10 μg/L, n = 6). Enrichment factors of 34-39 were obtained. Layered double hydroxide-Al 2 O 3 -polymer mixed-matrix disks had an average lifetime of 50 extractions. Analyte recoveries ranged from 93 to 96% for grape juice and nonalcoholic beer samples. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Carrier phase estimation for coherent equalization of 43-Gb/s POLMUX-NRZ-DQPSK transmission with 10.7-Gb/s NRZ neighbours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den D.; Fludger, C.R.S.; Duthel, T.; Wuth, T.; Schmidt, E.D.; Schulien, C.; Gottwald, E.; Khoe, G.D.; Waardt, de H.

    2007-01-01

    We show the influence of 10.7-Gb/s NRZ neighbors on 43-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed NRZ-DQPSK transmission combined with digital coherent equalization. The impact of XPM induced phase noise is reduced with an optimized carrier phase estimation (CPE) algorithm.

  17. Phase II Upgrade of the GERDA Experiment for the Search of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorovits, B.

    Observation of neutrinoless double beta decay could answer the question regarding the Majorana or Dirac nature of neutrinos. The GERDA experiment utilizes HPGe detectors enriched with the isotope 76Ge to search for this process. Recently the GERDA collaboration has unblinded data of Phase I of the experiment. In order to further improve the sensitivity of the experiment, additionally to the coaxial detectors used, 30 BEGe detectors made from germanium enriched in 76Ge will be deployed in GERDA Phase II. BEGe detectors have superior PSD capability, thus the background can be further reduced. The liquid argon surrounding the detector array will be instrumented in order to reject background by detecting scintillation light induced in the liquid argon by radiation. After a short introduction the hardware preparations for GERDA Phase II as well as the processing and characterization of the 30 BEGe detectors are discussed.

  18. Choice of optical system is critical for the security of double random phase encryption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniraj, Inbarasan; Guo, Changliang; Malallah, Ra'ed; Cassidy, Derek; Zhao, Liang; Ryle, James P.; Healy, John J.; Sheridan, John T.

    2017-06-01

    The linear canonical transform (LCT) is used in modeling a coherent light-field propagation through first-order optical systems. Recently, a generic optical system, known as the quadratic phase encoding system (QPES), for encrypting a two-dimensional image has been reported. In such systems, two random phase keys and the individual LCT parameters (α,β,γ) serve as secret keys of the cryptosystem. It is important that such encryption systems also satisfy some dynamic security properties. We, therefore, examine such systems using two cryptographic evaluation methods, the avalanche effect and bit independence criterion, which indicate the degree of security of the cryptographic algorithms using QPES. We compared our simulation results with the conventional Fourier and the Fresnel transform-based double random phase encryption (DRPE) systems. The results show that the LCT-based DRPE has an excellent avalanche and bit independence characteristics compared to the conventional Fourier and Fresnel-based encryption systems.

  19. Medium effects and parity doubling of hyperons across the deconfinement phase transition*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarts Gert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the behaviour of hyperons with strangeness S = –1,–2,–3 in the hadronic and quark gluon plasma phases, with particular interest in parity doubling and its emergence as the temperature grows. This study uses our FASTSUM anisotropic Nf = 2+1 ensembles, with four temperatures below and four above the deconfinement transition temperature, Tc. The positive-parity groundstate masses are found to be largely temperature independent below Tc, whereas the negative-parity ones decrease considerably as the temperature increases. Close to the transition, the masses are almost degenerate, in line with the expectation from chiral symmetry restoration. This may be of interest for heavy-ion phenomenology. In particular we show an application of this effect to the Hadron Resonance Gas model. A clear signal of parity doubling is found above Tc in all hyperon channels, with the strength of the effect depending on the number of s-quarks in the baryons.

  20. On the radiative recombination and tunneling of charge carriers in SiGe/Si heterostructures with double quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablonsky, A. N., E-mail: yablonsk@ipmras.ru; Zhukavin, R. Kh.; Bekin, N. A.; Novikov, A. V.; Yurasov, D. V.; Shaleev, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    For SiGe/Si(001) epitaxial structures with two nonequivalent SiGe quantum wells separated by a thin Si barrier, the spectral and time characteristics of interband photoluminescence corresponding to the radiative recombination of excitons in quantum wells are studied. For a series of structures with two SiGe quantum wells different in width, the characteristic time of tunneling of charge carriers (holes) from the narrow quantum well, distinguished by a higher exciton recombination energy, to the wide quantum well is determined as a function of the Si barrier thickness. It is shown that the time of tunneling of holes between the Si{sub 0.8}5Ge{sub 0.15} layers with thicknesses of 3 and 9 nm steadily decreases from ~500 to <5 ns, as the Si barrier thickness is reduced from 16 to 8 nm. At intermediate Si barrier thicknesses, an increase in the photoluminescence signal from the wide quantum well is observed, with a characteristic time of the same order of magnitude as the luminescence decay time of the narrow quantum well. This supports the observation of the effect of the tunneling of holes from the narrow to the wide quantum well. A strong dependence of the tunneling time of holes on the Ge content in the SiGe layers at the same thickness of the Si barrier between quantum wells is observed, which is attributed to an increase in the effective Si barrier height.

  1. Development and testing of a new ray-tracing approach to GNSS carrier-phase multipath modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Lawrence; Cross, Paul

    2007-11-01

    Multipath is one of the most important error sources in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) carrier-phase-based precise relative positioning. Its theoretical maximum is a quarter of the carrier wavelength (about 4.8 cm for the Global Positioning System (GPS) L1 carrier) and, although it rarely reaches this size, it must clearly be mitigated if millimetre-accuracy positioning is to be achieved. In most static applications, this may be accomplished by averaging over a sufficiently long period of observation, but in kinematic applications, a modelling approach must be used. This paper is concerned with one such approach: the use of ray-tracing to reconstruct the error and therefore remove it. In order to apply such an approach, it is necessary to have a detailed understanding of the signal transmitted from the satellite, the reflection process, the antenna characteristics and the way that the reflected and direct signal are processed within the receiver. This paper reviews all of these and introduces a formal ray-tracing method for multipath estimation based on precise knowledge of the satellite reflector antenna geometry and of the reflector material and antenna characteristics. It is validated experimentally using GPS signals reflected from metal, water and a brick building, and is shown to be able to model most of the main multipath characteristics. The method will have important practical applications for correcting for multipath in well-constrained environments (such as at base stations for local area GPS networks, at International GNSS Service (IGS) reference stations, and on spacecraft), and it can be used to simulate realistic multipath errors for various performance analyses in high-precision positioning.

  2. Double point source W-phase inversion: Real-time implementation and automated model selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealy, Jennifer; Hayes, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and accurate characterization of an earthquake source is an extremely important and ever evolving field of research. Within this field, source inversion of the W-phase has recently been shown to be an effective technique, which can be efficiently implemented in real-time. An extension to the W-phase source inversion is presented in which two point sources are derived to better characterize complex earthquakes. A single source inversion followed by a double point source inversion with centroid locations fixed at the single source solution location can be efficiently run as part of earthquake monitoring network operational procedures. In order to determine the most appropriate solution, i.e., whether an earthquake is most appropriately described by a single source or a double source, an Akaike information criterion (AIC) test is performed. Analyses of all earthquakes of magnitude 7.5 and greater occurring since January 2000 were performed with extended analyses of the September 29, 2009 magnitude 8.1 Samoa earthquake and the April 19, 2014 magnitude 7.5 Papua New Guinea earthquake. The AIC test is shown to be able to accurately select the most appropriate model and the selected W-phase inversion is shown to yield reliable solutions that match published analyses of the same events.

  3. Structural phase transitions in the ordered double perovskite Sr2MnTeO6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega-San Martin, L; Chapman, J P; Hernandez-Bocanegra, E; Insausti, M; Arriortua, M I; Rojo, T

    2004-01-01

    The crystal structure of the ordered double perovskite Sr 2 MnTeO 6 has been refined at ambient temperature from high resolution neutron and x-ray powder diffraction data in the monoclinic space group P 12 1 /n 1 with a 5.7009(1) A, b = 5.6770(1) A, c = 8.0334(1) A and β = 90.085(1) deg. This represents a combination of in-phase (+) and out-of-phase (-) rotations of virtually undistorted MnO 6 and TeO 6 octahedra in the (-+) sense about the axes of the ideal cubic perovskite. High temperature x-ray powder diffraction shows three structural phase transitions at approximately 250, 550 and 675 deg. C, each corresponding to the disappearance of rotations about one of these axes. The first transition was analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and showed a thermal hysteresis with an enthalpy of 0.55 J g -1 . We propose the (P12 1 /n1 → I12/m1 → I4/m → Fm3barm) sequence of structural transitions which has not been previously reported for a double perovskite oxide

  4. Known-plaintext attack on the double phase encoding and its implementation with parallel hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hengzheng; Peng, Xiang; Liu, Haitao; Feng, Songlin; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2008-03-01

    A known-plaintext attack on the double phase encryption scheme implemented with parallel hardware is presented. The double random phase encoding (DRPE) is one of the most representative optical cryptosystems developed in mid of 90's and derives quite a few variants since then. Although the DRPE encryption system has a strong power resisting to a brute-force attack, the inherent architecture of DRPE leaves a hidden trouble due to its linearity nature. Recently the real security strength of this opto-cryptosystem has been doubted and analyzed from the cryptanalysis point of view. In this presentation, we demonstrate that the optical cryptosystems based on DRPE architecture are vulnerable to known-plain text attack. With this attack the two encryption keys in the DRPE can be accessed with the help of the phase retrieval technique. In our approach, we adopt hybrid input-output algorithm (HIO) to recover the random phase key in the object domain and then infer the key in frequency domain. Only a plaintext-ciphertext pair is sufficient to create vulnerability. Moreover this attack does not need to select particular plaintext. The phase retrieval technique based on HIO is an iterative process performing Fourier transforms, so it fits very much into the hardware implementation of the digital signal processor (DSP). We make use of the high performance DSP to accomplish the known-plaintext attack. Compared with the software implementation, the speed of the hardware implementation is much fast. The performance of this DSP-based cryptanalysis system is also evaluated.

  5. Results on neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge from GERDA Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palioselitis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment is searching for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76 Ge by operating bare germanium diodes in liquid argon. GERDA is located at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) in Italy. During Phase I, a total exposure of 21.6 kg yrand a background index of 0.01 cts/(keVkg yr) were reached. No signal was observed and a lower limit of T 0ν 1/2 > 2.1 · 10 25 yr(90% C.L.) is derived for the half life of the 0νββ decay of 76 Ge. (paper)

  6. Results on neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge from GERDA Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palioselitis, Dimitrios; GERDA Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment is searching for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge by operating bare germanium diodes in liquid argon. GERDA is located at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) in Italy. During Phase I, a total exposure of 21.6 kg yrand a background index of 0.01 cts/(keVkg yr) were reached. No signal was observed and a lower limit of T0ν1/2 > 2.1 · 1025 yr(90% C.L.) is derived for the half life of the 0νββ decay of 76Ge.

  7. Magnetic dipole self-organization of charge carriers in high-temperature superconductors and kinetics of phase transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Voronov, A V; Shuvalov, V V

    2001-01-01

    The phenomenological model, describing the magnetic dipole self-organization of charge carriers (formation of so-called stripe-structures and energy gap in the states spectrum), is designed for interpreting the data on the nonstationary nonlinear spectroscopy of the high-temperature superconductors. It is shown that after fast heating of the superconducting sample the kinetics of the subsequent phase transition depends on the initial temperature T. The destruction of the stripe-structures at low overheating T* < T < T sub m approx = (1.4-1.5)T*, whereby T sub c and T* approx = T sub c are the temperatures of transition into the superconducting state and formation of the stripe-structures occurs slowly (the times above 10 sup - sup 9 s) in spite of practically instantaneous disappearance of the superconductivity

  8. Carrier-envelope phase-dependent transmitted spectra in inversion-asymmetric media with permanent dipole moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Weifeng; Song Xiaohong; Zhang Chaojin; Xu Zhizhan

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the transmitted spectra of a few-cycle ultrashort pulse in an inversion-asymmetric medium with a permanent dipole moment (PDM). Our results show that even-order harmonics can be generated in this medium. Moreover, the generated even-order harmonics depend strongly on the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of initial incident few-cycle ultrashort pulses. Physical analysis of the re-emitted spectra of the medium reveals that the CEP-dependent spectral effect is originated from the inversion-asymmetric structure and the corresponding PDM effects: two-photon transition dominates in the nonlinear process and further induces the generations of the even-order harmonics. Furthermore, the orientation relation between the electric field peak of the pulse and the PDM results in even-order harmonic generations depending on the CEP.

  9. Performance of Liquid Phase Exfoliated Graphene As Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffstutler, Jacob; Wasala, Milinda; Richie, Julianna; Winchester, Andrew; Ghosh, Sujoy; Kar, Swastik; Talapatra, Saikat

    2014-03-01

    We will present the results of our investigations of electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) or supercapacitors (SC) fabricated using liquid-phase exfoliated graphene. Several electrolytes, such as aqueous potassium hydroxide KOH (6M), ionic 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF6], and ionic 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate[BMP][FAP] were used. These EDLC's show good performance compared to other carbon nanomaterials based EDLC's devices. We found that the liquid phase exfoliated graphene based devices possess specific capacitance values as high as 262 F/g, when used with ionic liquid electrolyte[BMP][FAP], with power densities (~ 454 W/kg) and energy densities (~ 0.38Wh/kg). Further, these devices indicated rapid charge transfer response even without the use of any binders or specially prepared current collectors. A detailed electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis in order to understand the phenomenon of charge storage in these materials will be presented.

  10. High accuracy amplitude and phase measurements based on a double heterodyne architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Danyang; Wang Guangwei; Pan Weimin

    2015-01-01

    In the digital low level RF (LLRF) system of a circular (particle) accelerator, the RF field signal is usually down converted to a fixed intermediate frequency (IF). The ratio of IF and sampling frequency determines the processing required, and differs in various LLRF systems. It is generally desirable to design a universally compatible architecture for different IFs with no change to the sampling frequency and algorithm. A new RF detection method based on a double heterodyne architecture for wide IF range has been developed, which achieves the high accuracy requirement of modern LLRF. In this paper, the relation of IF and phase error is systematically analyzed for the first time and verified by experiments. The effects of temperature drift for 16 h IF detection are inhibited by the amplitude and phase calibrations. (authors)

  11. Modelling of BLDCM with a double 3-phase stator winding and back EMF harmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdowski Piotr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the mathematical model of the brushless DC motor (BLDCM with a double 3-phase stator winding is analysed. Both the 3-phase windings are mutually displaced by 30 electrical degree. Special care has been sacrificed to influence of higher harmonics of induced electromotive forces (EMF on electromagnetic torque and zero sequence voltages that may be used for sensorless control. The mathematical model has been presented in natural variables and, after transformation to symmetrical components, in a vector form. This allows, from one side, for formulating the equivalent circuit suitable for circuit oriented simulators (e.g.: Spice, SimPowerSystems of Simulink and, from the other point of view, for analysis of higher harmonics influence on control possibilities. These considerations have been illustrated with some results of four quadrant operation obtainded due to simulation at automatic control.

  12. Carrier phase altimetry using Zeppelin based GNSS-R observations and water gauge reference data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmling, Maximilian; Schön, Steffen; Beckheinrich, Jamila; Beyerle, Georg; Ge, Maorong; Wickert, Jens

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of transmitters in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), like GPS, Galileo, Glonass or Compass, provide observations with an increasing coverage for positioning but also for remote sensing. A space based GNSS remote sensing application is radio occultation, a limb sounding method. Globally distributed vertical profiles of temperature, water vapour and electron density are provided operationally for weather forecast and ionospheric monitoring. Another application is GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) that is currently developed especially for ocean remote sensing. The high reflection coefficient of water is crucial for GNSS-R. This study presents a method that uses GNSS phase observations for lake altimetry with the potential for ocean application. Phase observations are deduced from a GORS (GNSS Occultaction Reflectometry Scatterometry) receiver in Master-Slave-Configuration. The Master sampling dedicated for direct signal acquisition is connected to an up-looking antenna with right hand circular polarization (RHCP). Two Slave samplings dedicated for acquisition of the reflected signals are connected to down-looking antennas with right- and left-hand circular polarization (RHCP and LHCP). Based on in-phase and quad-phase (I, Q) sample components, an altimetric phase residual is retrieved. This residual can be related to the height of the reflecting surface. An altimetric challenge arises from the unknown ambiguity of phase residuals that introduces a height bias. The presented study uses ancillary data deduced from water gauges to mitigate the ambiguity bias. Reference tracks are formed by linear surface height interpolation between the water gauge stations. At crossover points of reflection tracks with reference tracks a phase ambiguity estimate is determined for bias mitigation. For this study airborne GNSS measurements were conducted aboard a Zeppelin NT (New Technology) airship with a geodetic receiver for navigation and a GORS receiver for

  13. Efficient Text Encryption and Hiding with Double-Random Phase-Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Alam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a double-random phase-encoding technique-based text encryption and hiding method is proposed. First, the secret text is transformed into a 2-dimensional array and the higher bits of the elements in the transformed array are used to store the bit stream of the secret text, while the lower bits are filled with specific values. Then, the transformed array is encoded with double-random phase-encoding technique. Finally, the encoded array is superimposed on an expanded host image to obtain the image embedded with hidden data. The performance of the proposed technique, including the hiding capacity, the recovery accuracy of the secret text, and the quality of the image embedded with hidden data, is tested via analytical modeling and test data stream. Experimental results show that the secret text can be recovered either accurately or almost accurately, while maintaining the quality of the host image embedded with hidden data by properly selecting the method of transforming the secret text into an array and the superimposition coefficient. By using optical information processing techniques, the proposed method has been found to significantly improve the security of text information transmission, while ensuring hiding capacity at a prescribed level.

  14. Solid phase stability of a double-minimum interaction potential system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suematsu, Ayumi; Yoshimori, Akira; Saiki, Masafumi; Matsui, Jun; Odagaki, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We study phase stability of a system with double-minimum interaction potential in a wide range of parameters by a thermodynamic perturbation theory. The present double-minimum potential is the Lennard-Jones-Gauss potential, which has a Gaussian pocket as well as a standard Lennard-Jones minimum. As a function of the depth and position of the Gaussian pocket in the potential, we determine the coexistence pressure of crystals (fcc and bcc). We show that the fcc crystallizes even at zero pressure when the position of the Gaussian pocket is coincident with the first or third nearest neighbor site of the fcc crystal. The bcc crystal is more stable than the fcc crystal when the position of the Gaussian pocket is coincident with the second nearest neighbor sites of the bcc crystal. The stable crystal structure is determined by the position of the Gaussian pocket. These results show that we can control the stability of the solid phase by tuning the potential function

  15. Energy production from distillery wastewater using single and double-phase upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muyodi, F J; Rubindamayugi, M S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A Single-phase (SP) and Double-phase (DP) Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors treating distillery wastewater were operated in parallel. The DP UASB reactor showed better performance than the SP UASB reactor in terms of maximum methane production rate, methane content and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency. (au) 20 refs.

  16. Energy production from distillery wastewater using single and double-phase upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muyodi, F.J.; Rubindamayugi, M.S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    A Single-phase (SP) and Double-phase (DP) Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors treating distillery wastewater were operated in parallel. The DP UASB reactor showed better performance than the SP UASB reactor in terms of maximum methane production rate, methane content and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency. (au) 20 refs.

  17. Bubble splitting under gas–liquid–liquid three-phase flow in a double T-junction microchannel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yanyan; Yue, Jun; Zhao, Shuainan; Yao, Chaoqun; Chen, Guangwen

    Gas–aqueous liquid–oil three-phase flow was generated in a microchannel with a double T-junction. Under the squeezing of the dispersed aqueous phase at the second T-junction (T2), the splitting of bubbles generated from the first T-junction (T1) was investigated. During the bubble splitting process,

  18. A comparative study of microstructure and mechanical properties between friction stir welded single and double phase brass alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidarzadeh, A.; Saeid, T.

    2016-01-01

    This study was done in order to compare the microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded single and double phase brass alloys. The microstructure of the joints were examined using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, tensile test and fractography were applied to evaluate the mechanical properties of the joints. The results showed that the grain size of the stir zone in the double phase joint was smaller than that of the single phase alloy. In comparison with base metals, both of the joints contained high density of dislocations with a qualitatively similar texture. However, the dislocation density of the double phase joint was somewhat lower than that of the single phase one. Moreover, the joints had higher tensile strength, lower elongation and less ductile fracture compared to their base metals due to their finer grain size and higher dislocation density. The double phase joint had higher strength and lower elongation than single phase joint due to the effect of the second phase.

  19. Charge carrier recombination channels in the low-temperature phase of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrenfennig, Christian; Liu, Mingzhen; Snaith, Henry J.; Johnston, Michael B.; Herz, Laura M.

    2014-08-01

    The optoelectronic properties of the mixed hybrid lead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx have been subject to numerous recent studies related to its extraordinary capabilities as an absorber material in thin film solar cells. While the greatest part of the current research concentrates on the behavior of the perovskite at room temperature, the observed influence of phonon-coupling and excitonic effects on charge carrier dynamics suggests that low-temperature phenomena can give valuable additional insights into the underlying physics. Here, we present a temperature-dependent study of optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) emission of vapor-deposited CH3NH3PbI3-xClx exploring the nature of recombination channels in the room- and the low-temperature phase of the material. On cooling, we identify an up-shift of the absorption onset by about 0.1 eV at about 100 K, which is likely to correspond to the known tetragonal-to-orthorhombic transition of the pure halide CH3NH3PbI3. With further decreasing temperature, a second PL emission peak emerges in addition to the peak from the room-temperature phase. The transition on heating is found to occur at about 140 K, i.e., revealing significant hysteresis in the system. While PL decay lifetimes are found to be independent of temperature above the transition, significantly accelerated recombination is observed in the low-temperature phase. Our data suggest that small inclusions of domains adopting the room-temperature phase are responsible for this behavior rather than a spontaneous increase in the intrinsic rate constants. These observations show that even sparse lower-energy sites can have a strong impact on material performance, acting as charge recombination centres that may detrimentally affect photovoltaic performance but that may also prove useful for optoelectronic applications such as lasing by enhancing population inversion.

  20. Charge carrier recombination channels in the low-temperature phase of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wehrenfennig

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The optoelectronic properties of the mixed hybrid lead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3−xClx have been subject to numerous recent studies related to its extraordinary capabilities as an absorber material in thin film solar cells. While the greatest part of the current research concentrates on the behavior of the perovskite at room temperature, the observed influence of phonon-coupling and excitonic effects on charge carrier dynamics suggests that low-temperature phenomena can give valuable additional insights into the underlying physics. Here, we present a temperature-dependent study of optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL emission of vapor-deposited CH3NH3PbI3−xClx exploring the nature of recombination channels in the room- and the low-temperature phase of the material. On cooling, we identify an up-shift of the absorption onset by about 0.1 eV at about 100 K, which is likely to correspond to the known tetragonal-to-orthorhombic transition of the pure halide CH3NH3PbI3. With further decreasing temperature, a second PL emission peak emerges in addition to the peak from the room-temperature phase. The transition on heating is found to occur at about 140 K, i.e., revealing significant hysteresis in the system. While PL decay lifetimes are found to be independent of temperature above the transition, significantly accelerated recombination is observed in the low-temperature phase. Our data suggest that small inclusions of domains adopting the room-temperature phase are responsible for this behavior rather than a spontaneous increase in the intrinsic rate constants. These observations show that even sparse lower-energy sites can have a strong impact on material performance, acting as charge recombination centres that may detrimentally affect photovoltaic performance but that may also prove useful for optoelectronic applications such as lasing by enhancing population inversion.

  1. Experimental investigation of extended Kalman Filter combined with carrier phase recovery for 16-QAM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Tong; Li, Yan; Yu, Miao; Zhang, Yifan; Zhou, Honghang; Qiu, Jifang; Guo, Hongxiang; Hong, Xiaobin; Wu, Jian

    2018-02-01

    Performance of Extended Kalman Filter combined with the Viterbi-Viterbi phase estimation (VVPE-EKF) for joint phase noise mitigation and amplitude noise equalization is experimental demonstrated. Experimental results show that, for 11.2 Gbaud SP-16-QAM, the proposed VVPE-EKF achieves 0.9 dB required OSNR reduction at bit error ratio (BER) of 3.8e-3 compared to the VVPE. The result of maximum likelihood combined with VVPE (VVPE-ML) is only 0.3 dB. For 28 GBaud SP-16-QAM signal, VVPE-EKF achieves 3 dB required OSNR reduction at BER=3.8e-3 (7% HD-FEC threshold) compared to VVPE. And VVPE-ML can reduce the required OSNR for 1.7 dB compared to the VVPE. VVPE-EKF outperforms DD-EKF 3.7 dB and 0.7 dB for 11.2 GBaud and 28 GBaud system, respectively.

  2. Carrier-envelope phase effect on the asymmetric H2^+ dissociation in an ultrashort pulse using Floquet theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shuo; Esry, B. D.

    2010-03-01

    The tilted structure of the asymmetry pattern of H2^+dissociation as a function of carrier-envelope phase (CEP) and nuclear kinetic energy release (KER) at low energies (0 ˜3eV) has been seen both theoretically [1] and experimentally [2, 3]. We present a method to interpret this tilted structure using a Floquet-like theory [1]. In this formalism, it is convenient to rewrite the contribution of a given Floquet channel n to the KER spectrum in polar form with phase δn(E) , where E is the KER, which enables us to explain the tilt as a result of the interference between different channels. Our calculations demonstrate the dependence of the asymmetry pattern on wavelength, duration and CEP.[4pt] [1] J.J.Hua et al., J. Phys. B 42 085601 (2009)[0pt] [2] Manuel Kremer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103.213003 (2009)[0pt] [3] M.F.Kling et al., Mol. Phys. (2008)

  3. Two-Stage n-PSK Partitioning Carrier Phase Recovery Scheme for Circular mQAM Coherent Optical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Rodrigo Navarro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel two-stage n-PSK partitioning carrier phase recovery (CPR scheme for circular multilevel quadrature amplitude modulation (C-mQAM constellations is presented. The first stage of the algorithm provides an initial rough estimation of the received constellation, which is utilized in the second stage for CPR. The performance of the proposed algorithm is studied through extensive simulations at the forward error correction bit error rate targets of 3.8 × 10−3 and 1 × 10−2 and is compared with different CPR algorithms. A significant improvement in the combined linewidth symbol duration product (ΔνTs tolerance is achieved compared to the single-stage n-PSK partitioning scheme. Superior performance in the ΔνTs tolerance compared to the blind phase search algorithm is also reported. The relative improvements with respect to other CPR schemes are also validated experimentally for a 28-Gbaud C-16QAM back-to-back transmission system. The computational complexity of the proposed CPR scheme is studied, and reduction factors of 24.5 | 30.1 and 59.1 | 63.3 are achieved for C-16QAM and C-64QAM, respectively, compared to single-stage BPS in the form of multipliers | adders.

  4. Analysis of carrier transport and carrier trapping in organic diodes with polyimide-6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene double-layer by charge modulation spectroscopy and optical second harmonic generation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Eunju, E-mail: elim@dankook.ac.kr, E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Institute of Nanosensor and Biotechnology, Dankook University, Jukjeon-dong, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Taguchi, Dai, E-mail: elim@dankook.ac.kr, E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: elim@dankook.ac.kr, E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2014-08-18

    We studied the carrier transport and carrier trapping in indium tin oxide/polyimide (PI)/6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene)/Au diodes by using charge modulation spectroscopy (CMS) and time-resolved electric field induced optical second harmonic generation (TR-EFISHG) measurements. TR-EFISHG directly probes the spatial carrier behaviors in the diodes, and CMS is useful in explaining the carrier motion with respect to energy. The results clearly indicate that the injected carriers move across TIPS-pentacene thorough the molecular energy states of TIPS-pentacene and accumulate at the PI/TIPS-pentacene interface. However, some carriers are trapped in the PI layers. These findings take into account the capacitance-voltage and current-voltage characteristics of the diodes.

  5. Carrier doping into a superconducting BaPb0.7Bi0.3O3‑δ epitaxial film using an electric double-layer transistor structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, S.; Kakeya, I.

    2018-06-01

    Doping evolution of the unconventional superconducting properties in BaBiO3-based compounds has yet to be clarified in detail due to the significant change of the oxygen concentration accompanied by the chemical substitution. We suggest that the carrier concentration of an unconventional superconductor, BaPb0.7Bi0.3O3‑δ , is controllable without inducing chemical or structural changes using an electric double-layer transistor structure. The critical temperature is found to decrease systematically with increasing carrier concentration.

  6. Quantum double-well chain: Ground-state phases and applications to hydrogen-bonded materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Campbell, D.K.; Gubernatis, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Extrapolating the results of hybrid quantum Monte Carlo simulations to the zero temperature and infinite-chain-length limits, we calculate the ground-state phase diagram of a system of quantum particles on a chain of harmonically coupled, symmetric, quartic double-well potentials. We show that the ground state of this quantum chain depends on two parameters, formed from the ratios of the three natural energy scales in the problem. As a function of these two parameters, the quantum ground state can exhibit either broken symmetry, in which the expectation values of the particle's coordinate are all nonzero (as would be the case for a classical chain), or restored symmetry, in which the expectation values of the particle's coordinate are all zero (as would be the case for a single quantum particle). In addition to the phase diagram as a function of these two parameters, we calculate the ground-state energy, an order parameter related to the average position of the particle, and the susceptibility associated with this order parameter. Further, we present an approximate analytic estimate of the phase diagram and discuss possible physical applications of our results, emphasizing the behavior of hydrogen halides under pressure

  7. Limit on the radiative neutrinoless double electron capture of "3"6Ar from GERDA Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, M.; Balata, M.; D'Andrea, V.; Di Vacri, A.; Junker, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Allardt, M.; Domula, A.; Lehnert, B.; Schneider, B.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Zuber, K.; Bakalyarov, A.M.; Belyaev, S.T.; Lebedev, V.I.; Zhukov, S.V.; Barabanov, I.; Bezrukov, L.; Doroshkevich, E.; Fedorova, O.; Gurentsov, V.; Kazalov, V.; Kuzminov, V.V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Moseev, P.; Selivanenko, O.; Veresnikova, A.; Yanovich, E.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Kish, A.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Walter, M.; Bauer, C.; Hakenmueller, J.; Heisel, M.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Kihm, T.; Kirsch, A.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Salathe, M.; Schreiner, J.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stepaniuk, M.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Bettini, A.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Sada, C.; Sturm, K. von; Bode, T.; Csathy, J.J.; Lazzaro, A.; Schoenert, S.; Wiesinger, C.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Kochetov, O.; Nemchenok, I.; Rumyantseva, N.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zinatulina, D.; Caldwell, A.; Gooch, C.; Kneissl, R.; Liao, H.Y.; Majorovits, B.; Palioselitis, D.; Schulz, O.; Vanhoefer, L.; Cattadori, C.; Salamida, F.; Chernogorov, A.; Demidova, E.V.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Vasenko, A.A.; Falkenstein, R.; Freund, K.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schuetz, A.K.; Frodyma, N.; Misiaszek, M.; Panas, K.; Pelczar, K.; Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G.; Gangapshev, A.; Gusev, K.; Hemmer, S.; Lippi, I.; Stanco, L.; Hult, M.; Lutter, G.; Inzhechik, L.V.; Klimenko, A.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Macolino, C.; Pandola, L.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Shirchenko, M.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrinoless double electron capture is a process that, if detected, would give evidence of lepton number violation and the Majorana nature of neutrinos. A search for neutrinoless double electron capture of "3"6Ar has been performed with germanium detectors installed in liquid argon using data from Phase I of the GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory of INFN, Italy. No signal was observed and an experimental lower limit on the half-life of the radiative neutrinoless double electron capture of "3"6Ar was established: T_1_/_2 > 3.6 x 10"2"1 years at 90% CI. (orig.)

  8. Medium effects and parity doubling of hyperons across the deconfinement phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Gert; Allton, Chris; Boni, Davide De; Hands, Simon; Jäger, Benjamin; Praki, Chrisanthi; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar

    2018-03-01

    We analyse the behaviour of hyperons with strangeness S = -1,-2,-3 in the hadronic and quark gluon plasma phases, with particular interest in parity doubling and its emergence as the temperature grows. This study uses our FASTSUM anisotropic Nf = 2+1 ensembles, with four temperatures below and four above the deconfinement transition temperature, Tc. The positive-parity groundstate masses are found to be largely temperature independent below Tc, whereas the negative-parity ones decrease considerably as the temperature increases. Close to the transition, the masses are almost degenerate, in line with the expectation from chiral symmetry restoration. This may be of interest for heavy-ion phenomenology. In particular we show an application of this effect to the Hadron Resonance Gas model. A clear signal of parity doubling is found above Tc in all hyperon channels, with the strength of the effect depending on the number of s-quarks in the baryons. Presented at 35th International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory, 18-24 June 2017, Granada, Spain

  9. Analysis of double random phase encryption from a key-space perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, David S.; Situ, Guohai; Ryle, James; Gopinathan, Unnikrishnan; Naughton, Thomas J.; Sheridan, John T.

    2007-09-01

    The main advantage of the double random phase encryption technique is its physical implementation however to allow us to analyse its behaviour we perform the encryption/decryption numerically. A typically strong encryption scheme will have an extremely large key-space, which will make the probable success of any brute force attack on that algorithm miniscule. Traditionally, designers of optical image encryption systems only demonstrate how a small number of arbitrary keys cannot decrypt a chosen encrypted image in their system. We analyse this algorithm from a key-space perspective. The key-space of an encryption algorithm can be defined as the set of possible keys that can be used to encode data using that algorithm. For a range of problem instances we plot the distribution of decryption errors in the key-space indicating the lack of feasibility of a simple brute force attack.

  10. LBNO-DEMO (WA105): a large demonstrator of the Liquid Argon double phase TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk

    2015-01-01

    LBNO-DEMO (WA105) is a large demonstrator of the double phase liquid argon TPC intended to develop and test the main elements of the GLACIER-based design for the purpose of scaling it up to the 10–50 kton size needed for Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation studies. The crucial components of the design are: ultra-high argon purity in non-evacuable tank, long drifts, very high drift voltages, large area Micro Pattern Gas Detectors, and cold preamplifiers. The active volume of the demonstrator is 666 m3 (approximately 300t). WA105 is under construction at CERN and will be exposed to charged particle beams (0.5-20 GeV/c) in the North Area in 2018. The data will provide the necessary calibration of the detector performance and benchmark reconstruction algorithms. This project is a crucial milestone for the long baseline neutrino program, including projects like LBNO and DUNE.

  11. Phase sensitive distributed vibration sensing based on ultraweak fiber Bragg grating array using double-pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Xuping; Zhang, Lin; Yuan, Quan; Liu, Yu; Yan, Zhijun

    2017-08-01

    A distributed vibration sensing technique using double-optical-pulse based on phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry (ϕ-OTDR) and an ultraweak fiber Bragg grating (UWFBG) array is proposed for the first time. The single-mode sensing fiber is integrated with the UWFBG array that has uniform spatial interval and ultraweak reflectivity. The relatively high reflectivity of the UWFBG, compared with the Rayleigh scattering, gains a high signal-to-noise ratio for the signal, which can make the system achieve the maximum detectable frequency limited by the round-trip time of the probe pulse in fiber. A corresponding experimental ϕ-OTDR system with a 4.5 km sensing fiber integrated with the UWFBG array was setup for the evaluation of the system performance. Distributed vibration sensing is successfully realized with spatial resolution of 50 m. The sensing range of the vibration frequency can cover from 3 Hz to 9 kHz.

  12. Encoding plaintext by Fourier transform hologram in double random phase encoding using fingerprint keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Masafumi; Nakano, Kazuya; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2012-09-01

    It has been shown that biometric information can be used as a cipher key for binary data encryption by applying double random phase encoding. In such methods, binary data are encoded in a bit pattern image, and the decrypted image becomes a plain image when the key is genuine; otherwise, decrypted images become random images. In some cases, images decrypted by imposters may not be fully random, such that the blurred bit pattern can be partially observed. In this paper, we propose a novel bit coding method based on a Fourier transform hologram, which makes images decrypted by imposters more random. Computer experiments confirm that the method increases the randomness of images decrypted by imposters while keeping the false rejection rate as low as in the conventional method.

  13. Encoding plaintext by Fourier transform hologram in double random phase encoding using fingerprint keys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Masafumi; Nakano, Kazuya; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that biometric information can be used as a cipher key for binary data encryption by applying double random phase encoding. In such methods, binary data are encoded in a bit pattern image, and the decrypted image becomes a plain image when the key is genuine; otherwise, decrypted images become random images. In some cases, images decrypted by imposters may not be fully random, such that the blurred bit pattern can be partially observed. In this paper, we propose a novel bit coding method based on a Fourier transform hologram, which makes images decrypted by imposters more random. Computer experiments confirm that the method increases the randomness of images decrypted by imposters while keeping the false rejection rate as low as in the conventional method. (paper)

  14. Phase transitions and magnetization of the mixed-spin Ising–Heisenberg double sawtooth frustrated ladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arian Zad, Hamid; Ananikian, Nerses

    2018-04-01

    The mixed spin-(1,1/2) Ising–Heisenberg double sawtooth ladder containing a mixture of both spin-1 and spin-1/2 nodal atoms, and the spin-1/2 interstitial dimers are approximately solved by the transfer-matrix method. Here, we study in detail the ground-state phase diagrams, also influences of the bilinear exchange coupling on the rungs and cyclic four-spin exchange interaction in square plaquette of each block on the magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of the suggested ladder at low temperature. Such a double sawtooth ladder may be found in a Shastry-Sutherland lattice-type. In spite of the spin ordering of odd and even blocks being different from each other, due to the commutation relation between all different block Hamiltonians, phase diagrams, magnetization behavior and thermodynamic properties of the model are the same for odd and even blocks. We show that at low temperature, both exchange couplings can change the quality and quantity of the magnetization plateaus versus the magnetic field changes. Specially, we find a new magnetization plateau M/Ms= 5/6 for this model. Besides, we examine the magnetic susceptibility and specific heat of the model in detail. It is proven that behaviors of the magnetization and the magnetic susceptibility coincide at low temperature. The specific heat displays diverse temperature dependencies, which include a Schottky-type peak at a special temperature interval. We observe that with increase of the bilinear exchange coupling on the rungs, second peak temperature dependence grows.

  15. Lesion localization in patients with hyperparathyroidism using double-phase Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jung Woo; Ryu, Jin Sook; Kim, Jae Seung; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Hong, Seung Mo; Gong, Gyung Yub; Hong, Suk Joon; Lee, Hee Kyung

    1999-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of double-phase Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with hyperparathyroidism. We also evaluated the relationship between Tc-99m MIBI uptake and oxyphil cell contents in parathyroid glands. The subjects were 28 parathyroid glands of 10 patients who underwent Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy and parathyroidectomy for clinically suspected hyperparathyroidism. Early and delayed pinhole images were obtained at 15 minutes and 2 hours after injection of Tc-99m MIBI, and SPECT images were followed. The weight and oxyphil cell contents of parathyroid tissue were obtained from pathologic specimen, and the scintigraphic findings were compared with histopathology. In surgical histopathology, 6 parathyroid adenomas and 9 parathyroid hyperplasias were confirmed. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of early and delayed images were 46.7% (7/15), 76.9% (10/13), 70% (7/10) and 66.7% (10/15), 92.3% (12/13), 90.9% (10/11), respectively. SPECT image detected an additional small hyperplasia. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of combined interpretation of early and delayed images with SPECT were 73.3% (11/15), 100% (13/13), 100% (11/11). The sensitivity was 100% (6/6) for adenoma, whereas that was 55.5% (5/9) for hyperplasia. Both adenomas and hyperplasias showed significantly increased oxyphil cell contents compared with normal parathyroid glands (p<0.0001), but the oxyphil cell content and weight were not significantly different between adenomas and hyperplasias. Double-phase Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy with SPECT is useful for lesion localization in patients with hyperparathyroidism. Although both adenoma and hyperplasia have increased oxyphil cell content, the sensitivity is high in adenoma, but low in hyperplasia

  16. The optimum operating conditions of the phased double-rotor facility at the ET-RR-1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naguib, K.; Habib, N.; Wahba, M.; Kilany, M.; Adib, M. [National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt). Reactor and Neutron Physics Dept.

    1997-02-07

    A pulsed neutron polyenergetic thermal beam at ET-RR-1 is produced by a phased double-rotor facility. One of the rotors has two diametrically opposite curved slots, while the second is designed to operate as a rotating collimator. The dimensions of the phased rotating collimator are selected to match the curved slot rotor. The calculated collimator transmissions at different operating conditions are found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones. The optimum operating conditions of the double-rotor facility are deduced. The calculations were carried out using a computer program RCOL. The RCOL was designed in FORTRAN-77 to operate on PCs. (author).

  17. The optimum operating conditions of the phased double-rotor facility at the ET-RR-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, K.; Habib, N.; Wahba, M.; Kilany, M.; Adib, M.

    1997-01-01

    A pulsed neutron polyenergetic thermal beam at ET-RR-1 is produced by a phased double-rotor facility. One of the rotors has two diametrically opposite curved slots, while the second is designed to operate as a rotating collimator. The dimensions of the phased rotating collimator are selected to match the curved slot rotor. The calculated collimator transmissions at different operating conditions are found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones. The optimum operating conditions of the double-rotor facility are deduced. The calculations were carried out using a computer program RCOL. The RCOL was designed in FORTRAN-77 to operate on PCs. (author)

  18. The Impact of Donor-Acceptor Phase Separation on the Charge Carrier Dynamics in pBTTT:PCBM Photovoltaic Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Gehrig, Dominik W.

    2015-04-07

    The effect of donor–acceptor phase separation, controlled by the donor–acceptor mixing ratio, on the charge generation and recombination dynamics in pBTTT-C14:PC70BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic blends is presented. Transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy spanning the dynamic range from pico- to microseconds in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions reveals that in a 1:1 blend exciton dissociation is ultrafast; however, charges cannot entirely escape their mutual Coulomb attraction and thus predominantly recombine geminately on a sub-ns timescale. In contrast, a polymer:fullerene mixing ratio of 1:4 facilitates the formation of spatially separated, that is free, charges and reduces substantially the fraction of geminate charge recombination, in turn leading to much more efficient photovoltaic devices. This illustrates that spatially extended donor or acceptor domains are required for the separation of charges on an ultrafast timescale (<100 fs), indicating that they are not only important for efficient charge transport and extraction, but also critically influence the initial stages of free charge carrier formation.

  19. The Impact of Donor-Acceptor Phase Separation on the Charge Carrier Dynamics in pBTTT:PCBM Photovoltaic Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Gehrig, Dominik W.; Howard, Ian A.; Sweetnam, Sean; Burke, Timothy M.; McGehee, Michael D.; Laquai, Fré dé ric

    2015-01-01

    The effect of donor–acceptor phase separation, controlled by the donor–acceptor mixing ratio, on the charge generation and recombination dynamics in pBTTT-C14:PC70BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic blends is presented. Transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy spanning the dynamic range from pico- to microseconds in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions reveals that in a 1:1 blend exciton dissociation is ultrafast; however, charges cannot entirely escape their mutual Coulomb attraction and thus predominantly recombine geminately on a sub-ns timescale. In contrast, a polymer:fullerene mixing ratio of 1:4 facilitates the formation of spatially separated, that is free, charges and reduces substantially the fraction of geminate charge recombination, in turn leading to much more efficient photovoltaic devices. This illustrates that spatially extended donor or acceptor domains are required for the separation of charges on an ultrafast timescale (<100 fs), indicating that they are not only important for efficient charge transport and extraction, but also critically influence the initial stages of free charge carrier formation.

  20. Microscopic search for the carrier phase Q of the trapped planetary noble gases in Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, R. D.; Mrowiec, A.; Kooyman, P. J.; Matsubara, K.; Heymann, D.

    2002-10-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy micrographs of acid-resistant residues of the Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano meteorites show a great variety of carbon structures: curved and frequently twisted and intertwined graphene sheets, abundant carbon black-like particles, and hollow "sacs". It is suggested that perhaps all of these are carriers for the planetary Q-noble gases in these meteorites. Most of these materials are pyrocarbons that probably formed by the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons either in a gas phase, or on hot surfaces of minerals. An attempt was made to analyze for argon with particle-induced x-ray emission in 143 spots of grains of floating and suspended matter from freeze-dry cycles of an Allende bulk sample in water, and floating "black balls" from sonication in water of samples from the Allende meteorite. The chemical compositions of these particles were obtained, but x-ray signals at the wavelength of argon were obtained on only a few spots.

  1. Results on Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay from Gerda Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macolino, Carla

    2014-12-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, is designed to search for neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge and it is installed in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of INFN, Italy. In this review, the detection principle and detector setup of GERDA are described. Also, the main physics results by GERDA Phase I, are discussed. They include the measurement of the half-life of 2νββ decay, the background decomposition of the energy spectrum and the techniques for the discrimination of the background, based on the pulse shape of the signal. In the last part of this review, the estimation of a limit on the half-life of 0νββ (T0ν 1/2>2.1ḑot 1025 yr at 90% C.L.) and the comparison with previous results are discussed. GERDA data from Phase I strongly disfavor the recent claim of 0νββ discovery, based on data from the Heidelberg-Moscow experiment.

  2. A multispectral photon-counting double random phase encoding scheme for image authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H

    2014-05-20

    In this paper, we propose a new method for color image-based authentication that combines multispectral photon-counting imaging (MPCI) and double random phase encoding (DRPE) schemes. The sparsely distributed information from MPCI and the stationary white noise signal from DRPE make intruder attacks difficult. In this authentication method, the original multispectral RGB color image is down-sampled into a Bayer image. The three types of color samples (red, green and blue color) in the Bayer image are encrypted with DRPE and the amplitude part of the resulting image is photon counted. The corresponding phase information that has nonzero amplitude after photon counting is then kept for decryption. Experimental results show that the retrieved images from the proposed method do not visually resemble their original counterparts. Nevertheless, the original color image can be efficiently verified with statistical nonlinear correlations. Our experimental results also show that different interpolation algorithms applied to Bayer images result in different verification effects for multispectral RGB color images.

  3. A Multispectral Photon-Counting Double Random Phase Encoding Scheme for Image Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faliu Yi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new method for color image-based authentication that combines multispectral photon-counting imaging (MPCI and double random phase encoding (DRPE schemes. The sparsely distributed information from MPCI and the stationary white noise signal from DRPE make intruder attacks difficult. In this authentication method, the original multispectral RGB color image is down-sampled into a Bayer image. The three types of color samples (red, green and blue color in the Bayer image are encrypted with DRPE and the amplitude part of the resulting image is photon counted. The corresponding phase information that has nonzero amplitude after photon counting is then kept for decryption. Experimental results show that the retrieved images from the proposed method do not visually resemble their original counterparts. Nevertheless, the original color image can be efficiently verified with statistical nonlinear correlations. Our experimental results also show that different interpolation algorithms applied to Bayer images result in different verification effects for multispectral RGB color images.

  4. Local Preparation and Evaluation of Double - antibody Liquid Phase Radioimmunoassay System for Detection of Human Testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafik, H.M.; Sallam, Kh.M.; Ebeid, N.H.; Elshaer, M.R.; Elshae, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Preparation, evaluation and optimization of testosterone radioimmunoassay (RIA) system using liquid phase double antibody is considered to be the main objective. Three primary components were prepared and characterized to obtain valid and accurate system. These components were polyclonal testosterone antibody, the "1"2"5I-testosterone tracer and set of testosterone standards. The production of polyclonal testosterone antibody was undertaken by immunizing two groups of females white New-Zealand rabbits with testosterone-3-(O-carboxy methyloxime): BSA as immunogen through primary immunization and five boosters. Both R 1 and R 4 gave anti-serum has a high immuno reactivity. The preparation of "1"2"5I-testosterone tracer was carried out using three different conjugates (testosterone-3-TME, testosterone-3-histamine and testosterone-3-BSA) by electrophilic substitution mechanism using chloramine-T as oxidizing agent. Tracers were characterized in terms of radiochemical yield %, radiochemical purity %, specific activity and immuno reactivity. A set of testosterone standards were prepared using highly purified testosterone antigen. Optimization and validation tests of the local liquid phase RIA system were carried out. In conclusion, the results showed that, the local testosterone RIA system is sensitive, specific and accurate with significant cost reduction in comparison with commertial kit and extended use of the method for routine investigation of variety of diseases especially hypogonadism and associated male infertility

  5. Search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of {sup 76}Ge: GERDA Phase II commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bode, Tobias [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    After successful completion of Phase I the Gerda (Germanium Detector Array) experiment underwent a major upgrade of the experimental apparatus. These upgrades include additional 20 kg of custom-made detectors with improved background rejection capabilities, accompanied by improved front-end electronics and an active liquid argon scintillation light veto. A sensitivity on the neutrinoless double beta decay half-life (T{sub 1/2}{sup 0ν}) of 10{sup 26} yr should be reached after a few years of data taking (Phase II). First results of Phase II commissioning and latest results from Phase I analyses are presented in this talk.

  6. Nonlinear propagation analysis of few-optical-cycle pulses for subfemtosecond compression and carrier envelope phase effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Yo; Nagasawa, Minoru; Ohtani, Morimasa; Yamashita, Mikio

    2005-01-01

    is demonstrated that the carrier envelope phase (CEP) causes the difference on the temporal electric-field profile and the intensity spectrum for the initial peak power of the order of megawatts. At the propagation distance longer than the coherence length for third-order harmonics, the difference grows in the spectral components around the third-order and higher-order harmonics. The CEP can be a sensitive marker to monitor the evolution of nonlinear optical process by a few-optical-cycle electric-field wave-packet source

  7. Efficacy of double arterial phase dynamic magnetic resonance imaging with the sensitivity encoding technique versus dynamic multidetector-row helical computed tomography for detecting hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumano, Seishi; Okada, Masahiro; Murakami, Takamichi; Uemura, Masahiko; Haraikawa, Toyoaki; Hirata, Masaaki; Kikuchi, Keiichi; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Kim, Tonsok

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of double arterial phase dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the sensitivity encoding technique (SENSE dynamic MRI) for detection of hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in comparison with double arterial phase dynamic multidetector-row helical computed tomography (dynamic MDCT). A total of 28 patients with 66 hypervascular HCCs underwent both double arterial SENSE dynamic MRI and dynamic MDCT. The diagnosis of HCC was based on surgical resection (n=7), biopsy (n=10), or a combination of CT during arterial portography (CTAP), CT during hepatic arteriography (CTA), and/or the 6-month follow-up CT (n=49). Based on alternative-free response receiving operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the diagnostic performance for detecting HCC was compared between double arterial phase SENSE dynamic MRI and double arterial phase dynamic MDCT. The mean sensitivity, positive predictive value, and mean A Z values for hypervascular HCCs were 72%, 80%, and 0.79, respectively, for SENSE dynamic MRI and 66%, 92%, and 0.78, respectively, for dynamic MDCT. The mean sensitivity for double arterial phase SENSE dynamic MRI was higher than that for double arterial phase dynamic MDCT, but the difference was not statistically significant. Double arterial phase SENSE dynamic MRI is as valuable as double arterial phase dynamic MDCT for detecting hypervascular HCCs. (author)

  8. Double-beta decay with majoron emission in GERDA Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Sabine

    2015-07-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay with emission of one or two majorons (0 νββχ( χ)) is predicted by several beyond-Standard-Model theories. This article reviews the results of a search for 0 νββχ( χ) of 76Ge using data from the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment, located underground at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy. The analysis comprised data with an exposure of 20.3 kg·yr from the first phase of the experiment. No indication of contributions to the observed energy spectra was detected for any of the majoron models. The lower limit on the half-life for the ordinary majoron model (spectral index n = 1 was determined to be T {1/2/0 νβ } > 4.2 · 1023 yr (90% quantile). This limit and the limits derived for the other majoron modes constitute the most stringent limits on 0 νββχ( χ) decay of 76Ge measured to date.

  9. Three-phase double-arc plasma for spectrochemical analysis of environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, M M; Ghatass, Z F; Shalaby, E A; Kotb, M M; El-Raey, M

    2000-12-01

    A new instrument, which uses a three-phase current to support a double-arc argon plasma torch for evaporation, atomization and excitation of solid or powder samples, is described. The sampling arc is ignited between the first and second electrode while the excitation arc is ignited between the second and third electrode. Aerosol generated from the sample (first electrode) is swept by argon gas, through a hole in the second electrode (carbon tubing electrode), into the excitation plasma. A tangential stream of argon gas is introduced through an inlet orifice as a coolant gas for the second electrode. This gas stream forces the excitation arc discharge to rotate reproducibly around the electrode surface. Discharge rotation increases the stability of the excitation plasma. Spectroscopic measurements are made directly in the current-carrying region of the excitation arc. An evaluation of each parameter influencing the device performance was performed. Analytical calibration curves were obtained for Fe, Al, K, and Pb. Finally, the present technique was applied for the analysis of environmental samples. The present method appears to have significant, low cost analytical utility for environmental measurements.

  10. Phase shift PWM with double two-switch bridge for high power capacitor charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karandikar, U.S.; Singh, Yashpal; Thakurta, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Pulse power supply systems working at higher voltage and high repetition rate demands for higher power from capacitor chargers. Capacitor charging requirement become more challenging in such cases. In pulse power circuits, energy storage capacitor should be charged to its desired voltage before the next switching occurs. It is discharged within a small time, delivering large pulse power. A capacitor charger has to work with wide load variation repeatedly. Many schemes are used for this purpose. The proposed scheme aims at reducing stresses on switches by reducing peak current and their evils. A high voltage power supply is designed for capacitor charging. The proposed scheme is based on a Phase-Shifted PWM without using any extra component to achieve soft switching. Indirect constant average current capacitor charging is achieved with a simple control scheme. A double two-switch bridge is proposed to enhance reliability. Power supply has been developed to charge a capacitor of 50 μF to 2.5 kV at 25 Hz. (author)

  11. Biometrics based key management of double random phase encoding scheme using error control codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an optical security system has been proposed in which key of the double random phase encoding technique is linked to the biometrics of the user to make it user specific. The error in recognition due to the biometric variation is corrected by encoding the key using the BCH code. A user specific shuffling key is used to increase the separation between genuine and impostor Hamming distance distribution. This shuffling key is then further secured using the RSA public key encryption to enhance the security of the system. XOR operation is performed between the encoded key and the feature vector obtained from the biometrics. The RSA encoded shuffling key and the data obtained from the XOR operation are stored into a token. The main advantage of the present technique is that the key retrieval is possible only in the simultaneous presence of the token and the biometrics of the user which not only authenticates the presence of the original input but also secures the key of the system. Computational experiments showed the effectiveness of the proposed technique for key retrieval in the decryption process by using the live biometrics of the user.

  12. Steganographic optical image encryption system based on reversible data hiding and double random phase encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2013-02-01

    This study presents a steganographic optical image encryption system based on reversible data hiding and double random phase encoding (DRPE) techniques. Conventional optical image encryption systems can securely transmit valuable images using an encryption method for possible application in optical transmission systems. The steganographic optical image encryption system based on the DRPE technique has been investigated to hide secret data in encrypted images. However, the DRPE techniques vulnerable to attacks and many of the data hiding methods in the DRPE system can distort the decrypted images. The proposed system, based on reversible data hiding, uses a JBIG2 compression scheme to achieve lossless decrypted image quality and perform a prior encryption process. Thus, the DRPE technique enables a more secured optical encryption process. The proposed method extracts and compresses the bit planes of the original image using the lossless JBIG2 technique. The secret data are embedded in the remaining storage space. The RSA algorithm can cipher the compressed binary bits and secret data for advanced security. Experimental results show that the proposed system achieves a high data embedding capacity and lossless reconstruction of the original images.

  13. Enhancing Security of Double Random Phase Encoding Based on Random S-Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girija, R.; Singh, Hukum

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel asymmetric cryptosystem for double random phase encoding (DRPE) using random S-Box. While utilising S-Box separately is not reliable and DRPE does not support non-linearity, so, our system unites the effectiveness of S-Box with an asymmetric system of DRPE (through Fourier transform). The uniqueness of proposed cryptosystem lies on employing high sensitivity dynamic S-Box for our DRPE system. The randomness and scalability achieved due to applied technique is an additional feature of the proposed solution. The firmness of random S-Box is investigated in terms of performance parameters such as non-linearity, strict avalanche criterion, bit independence criterion, linear and differential approximation probabilities etc. S-Boxes convey nonlinearity to cryptosystems which is a significant parameter and very essential for DRPE. The strength of proposed cryptosystem has been analysed using various parameters such as MSE, PSNR, correlation coefficient analysis, noise analysis, SVD analysis, etc. Experimental results are conferred in detail to exhibit proposed cryptosystem is highly secure.

  14. Double-phase parathyroid 99Tcm-MIBI scintigraphy in secondary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Xu Zhaoqiang; Hu Jianmin; Chang Guojun; Yao Weixuan; Li Yongjun; Chen Jianwei

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of double-phase parathyroid 99 Tc m -MIBI scintigraphy in secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHP) following chronic renal failure. Methods: 99 Tc m -MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy was performed on 20 SHP patients. All images were analyzed with parathyroid/thyroid ratio (PT/T) and parathyroid index (PTI). 3 patients underwent parathyroidectomy and ectopic autografting. Results: 8 patients were 99 Tc m -MIBI-positive. 9 parathyroid glands removed from 3 patients were histopathologically diagnosed as parathyroid hyperplasia. 8 of the 9 were scintigraphy positive with the sensitivity of 88.9%, the localization of the parathyroids with scanning before operation was accurate. It was found that there were 3 types of MIBI washout in hyperplastic parathyroids. Conclusions: 99 Tc m -MIBI scintigraphy is valuable in localization of parathyroids in SHP, especially of hyperfunctioning glands. Special attention should be paid to the fact that there are different types of MIBI washout in hyperplastic glands, otherwise some abnormal glands might be missed

  15. Solid-Phase Synthesis of Small Molecule Libraries using Double Combinatorial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Jensen, Flemming R.

    1997-01-01

    The first synthesis of a combinatorial library using double combinatorial chemistry is presented. Coupling of unprotected Fmoc-tyrosine to the solid support was followed by Mitsunobu O-alkylation. Introduction of a diacid linker yields a system in which the double combinatorial step can be demons......The first synthesis of a combinatorial library using double combinatorial chemistry is presented. Coupling of unprotected Fmoc-tyrosine to the solid support was followed by Mitsunobu O-alkylation. Introduction of a diacid linker yields a system in which the double combinatorial step can...

  16. Analysis of carrier behavior in C60/P(VDF-TrFE) double-layer capacitor by using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xiaojin; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2013-01-01

    By using displacement current measurement (DCM) and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we studied the carrier behavior in the indium-tin oxide (ITO)/Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE))/C60/Au(or Al) capacitors. Two DCM peaks appeared asymmetrically at around −35.5 V and +30.0 V in the dark. Correspondingly, the EFISHG response from the C60 layer was observed, but the peak positions were different with respect to DCM ones. The results show that the spontaneous polarization of the ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) polymeric layer directly affects the electric field in the C60 layer, and thus governs the carrier motion in this layer. As a result, the C60 layer serves like an insulator in the dark, while electrons and holes are captured and released at the interface in response to the turn-over of spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric layer. On the other hand, under white light illumination, C60 layer serves like a conductor due to the increase of photogenerated mobile carriers, and these carriers dominate the carrier motions therein. Our findings here will be helpful for analyzing carrier behaviors in organic electronic devices using ferroelectric polymers

  17. Analysis of carrier behavior in C60/P(VDF-TrFE) double-layer capacitor by using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaojin [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2013-12-21

    By using displacement current measurement (DCM) and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we studied the carrier behavior in the indium-tin oxide (ITO)/Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE))/C60/Au(or Al) capacitors. Two DCM peaks appeared asymmetrically at around −35.5 V and +30.0 V in the dark. Correspondingly, the EFISHG response from the C60 layer was observed, but the peak positions were different with respect to DCM ones. The results show that the spontaneous polarization of the ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) polymeric layer directly affects the electric field in the C60 layer, and thus governs the carrier motion in this layer. As a result, the C60 layer serves like an insulator in the dark, while electrons and holes are captured and released at the interface in response to the turn-over of spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric layer. On the other hand, under white light illumination, C60 layer serves like a conductor due to the increase of photogenerated mobile carriers, and these carriers dominate the carrier motions therein. Our findings here will be helpful for analyzing carrier behaviors in organic electronic devices using ferroelectric polymers.

  18. Solid-Phase Synthesis of Small Molecule Libraries using Double Combinatorial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Jensen, Flemming R.

    1997-01-01

    The first synthesis of a combinatorial library using double combinatorial chemistry is presented. Coupling of unprotected Fmoc-tyrosine to the solid support was followed by Mitsunobu O-alkylation. Introduction of a diacid linker yields a system in which the double combinatorial step can be demons...

  19. Photonics-based microwave frequency measurement using a double-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation and an InP integrated ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño, Javier S; Muñoz, Pascual

    2013-11-01

    A photonic system capable of estimating the unknown frequency of a CW microwave tone is presented. The core of the system is a complementary optical filter monolithically integrated in InP, consisting of a ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a second-order elliptic response. By simultaneously measuring the different optical powers produced by a double-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation at the outputs of the photonic integrated circuit, an amplitude comparison function that depends on the input tone frequency is obtained. Using this technique, a frequency measurement range of 10 GHz (5-15 GHz) with a root mean square value of frequency error lower than 200 MHz is experimentally demonstrated. Moreover, simulations showing the impact of a residual optical carrier on system performance are also provided.

  20. Precision improving of double beam shadow moiré interferometer by phase shifting interferometry for the stress of flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Ting; Chen, Hsi-Chao; Lin, Ssu-Fan; Lin, Ke-Ming; Syue, Hong-Ye

    2012-09-01

    While tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) has been extensively applied in flexible electronics, the problem of the residual stress has many obstacles to overcome. This study investigated the residual stress of flexible electronics by the double beam shadow moiré interferometer, and focused on the precision improvement with phase shifting interferometry (PSI). According to the out-of-plane displacement equation, the theoretical error depends on the grating pitch and the angle between incident light and CCD. The angle error could be reduced to 0.03% by the angle shift of 10° as a result of the double beam interferometer was a symmetrical system. But the experimental error of the double beam moiré interferometer still reached to 2.2% by the noise of the vibration and interferograms. In order to improve the measurement precision, PSI was introduced to the double shadow moiré interferometer. Wavefront phase was reconstructed by the five interferograms with the Hariharan algorithm. The measurement results of standard cylinder indicating the error could be reduced from 2.2% to less than 1% with PSI. The deformation of flexible electronic could be reconstructed fast and calculated the residual stress with the Stoney correction formula. This shadow moiré interferometer with PSI could improve the precision of residual stress for flexible electronics.

  1. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in Model Nuclear Waste Glasses: A Solid-State Double-Resonance NMR Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau, Ch.; Michaelis, V.K.; Kroeker, S. [Univ Manitoba, Dept Chem, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Schuller, S. [CEA Valrho Marcoule, LDMC, SECM, DTCD, DEN, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2010-07-01

    Double-resonance nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are used in addition to single-resonance NMR experiments to probe the degree of mixing between network-forming cations Si and B, along with the modifier cations Cs{sup +} and Na{sup +} in two molybdenum-bearing model nuclear waste glasses. The double-resonance experiments involving {sup 29}Si in natural abundance are made possible by the implementation of a CPMG pulse-train during the acquisition period of the usual REDOR experiments. For the glass with lower Mo content, the NMR results show a high degree of Si-B mixing, as well as an homogeneous distribution of the cations within the borosilicate network, characteristic of a non-phase-separated glass. For the higher-Mo glass, a decrease of B-Si(Q{sup 4}) mixing is observed, indicating phase separation. {sup 23}Na and {sup 133}Cs NMR results show that although the Cs{sup +} cations, which do not seem to be influenced by the molybdenum content, are spread within the borate network, there is a clustering of the Na{sup +} cations, very likely around the molybdate units. The segregation of a Mo-rich region with Na{sup +} cations appears to shift the bulk borosilicate glass composition toward the metastable liquid liquid immiscibility region and induce additional phase separation. Although no crystallization is observed in the present case, this liquid liquid phase separation is likely to be the first stage of crystallization that can occur at higher Mo loadings or be driven by heat treatment. From this study emerges a consistent picture of the nature and extent of such phase separation phenomena in Mo-bearing glasses, and demonstrates the potential of double-resonance NMR methods for the investigation of phase separation in amorphous materials. (authors)

  2. The effect of carrier gas flow rate and source cell temperature on low pressure organic vapor phase deposition simulation by direct simulation Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takao; Ueda, Noriaki

    2013-01-01

    The process of low pressure organic vapor phase deposition (LP-OVPD) controls the growth of amorphous organic thin films, where the source gases (Alq3 molecule, etc.) are introduced into a hot wall reactor via an injection barrel using an inert carrier gas (N2 molecule). It is possible to control well the following substrate properties such as dopant concentration, deposition rate, and thickness uniformity of the thin film. In this paper, we present LP-OVPD simulation results using direct simulation Monte Carlo-Neutrals (Particle-PLUS neutral module) which is commercial software adopting direct simulation Monte Carlo method. By estimating properly the evaporation rate with experimental vaporization enthalpies, the calculated deposition rates on the substrate agree well with the experimental results that depend on carrier gas flow rate and source cell temperature. PMID:23674843

  3. The effect of carrier gas flow rate and source cell temperature on low pressure organic vapor phase deposition simulation by direct simulation Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takao; Ueda, Noriaki

    2013-04-01

    The process of low pressure organic vapor phase deposition (LP-OVPD) controls the growth of amorphous organic thin films, where the source gases (Alq3 molecule, etc.) are introduced into a hot wall reactor via an injection barrel using an inert carrier gas (N2 molecule). It is possible to control well the following substrate properties such as dopant concentration, deposition rate, and thickness uniformity of the thin film. In this paper, we present LP-OVPD simulation results using direct simulation Monte Carlo-Neutrals (Particle-PLUS neutral module) which is commercial software adopting direct simulation Monte Carlo method. By estimating properly the evaporation rate with experimental vaporization enthalpies, the calculated deposition rates on the substrate agree well with the experimental results that depend on carrier gas flow rate and source cell temperature.

  4. Phase control of squeezed state in double electromagnetically induced transparency system with a loop-transition structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Zhou, Yusheng; Wang, Yong; Ling, Qiang; Chen, Bing; Dou, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Weiqing; Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Junxiang

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically study the squeezed probe light passing through a double electromagnetically induced transparency (DEIT) system, in which a microwave field and two coupling lights drive a loop transition. It is shown that the output squeezing can be maintained in both two transparency windows of DEIT, and it can also be manipulated by the relative phase of the three driving fields. The influence of the intensity of applied fields and the optical depth of atoms on the squeezing is also investigated. This study offers possibilities to manipulate the squeezing propagation in atomic media by the phase of electromagnetic fields.

  5. Contribution of 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy by double phase in the exploration of hyperparathyroidism. Report of 20 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghfir, I.; Ben Rais, N.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction 99m Tc-sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy is a means of functional imaging allowing the exploration of hyperparathyroidism. The aim of our study is to demonstrate the utility of double-phase 99m Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy in the exploration of the secreting abnormal parathyroid gland. Materials and methods We report, through this work, the observation of 20 patients followed for a biologically ascertained hyperparathyroidism and explored, for the majority of them, by ultrasonography and/or computed tomography. All our patients benefited from a double-phase 99m Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy. Results On the 20 studied cases, the sex-ratio was equal to 1, two patients exhibited three high uptake foci at the 99m Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy, six exhibited two foci, twelve exhibited one parathyroid focus. In our series, 80% of patients exhibited secondary hyperparathyroidism and 20% exhibited a primary hyperparathyroidism. The pathologic exam revealed four cases of parathyroid adenoma and 16 parathyroid cases of hyperplasia. Discussion The double-phase 99m Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy contributes to the orientation and the improvement of the surgical attitude of the hyperparathyroidism, insofar as it could affirm the multiplicity of some adenomas, the diffuse form of some hyperplasia, and especially ectopic localization of the abnormal parathyroid gland

  6. Dynamics of a photorefractive response and competition of nonlinear processes in self-pumping double phase-conjugate mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogaddam, Mehran Wahdani; Shuvalov, Vladimir V

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of formation of a nonlinear response of a double phase-conjugate (PC) BaTiO 3 mirror is calculated. It is shown that because of competition between processes of different types (related to the presence of several PC channels, the local and nonlocal components of the photorefractive nonlinearity), the transient and dynamic lasing regimes for this mirror can be substantially different. It is found that the development of lasing begins with the successive formation and phasing of dynamic holograms of two different types (two PC channels). It is shown that even under optimal conditions, the lasing regime is not stationary due to competition between processes of different types, and the parameters of output fields fluctuate in time in a nontrivial way (due to the presence of the in-phase and out-of-phase components). Several scenarios of transition to the dynamic chaos are described. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  7. Accelerated safety analyses - structural analyses Phase I - structural sensitivity evaluation of single- and double-shell waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1994-11-01

    Accelerated Safety Analyses - Phase I (ASA-Phase I) have been conducted to assess the appropriateness of existing tank farm operational controls and/or limits as now stipulated in the Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs) and Operating Specification Documents, and to establish a technical basis for the waste tank operating safety envelope. Structural sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the response of the different waste tank configurations to variations in loading conditions, uncertainties in loading parameters, and uncertainties in material characteristics. Extensive documentation of the sensitivity analyses conducted and results obtained are provided in the detailed ASA-Phase I report, Structural Sensitivity Evaluation of Single- and Double-Shell Waste Tanks for Accelerated Safety Analysis - Phase I. This document provides a summary of the accelerated safety analyses sensitivity evaluations and the resulting findings

  8. Double-phase 18F-FDG PET-CT for determination of pulmonary tuberculoma activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Yong-Ki; Lee, Jung Sub; Jeong, Yeon Joo; Jun, Sungmin; Nam, Hyun Yul; Kim, Ju Sung

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential role of double phase acquisition of 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for the differentiation of active pulmonary tuberculoma. A total of 25 consecutive patients with pulmonary tuberculoma were enrolled. PET/CT imaging was performed 60 (range 53-71) and 120 min (range 109-131) after injection of 18 F-FDG. The intensity of 18 F-FDG uptake by pulmonary lesions was assessed visually, and the intensity was scored with a four-point scale (grade 1: absent, grade 2: faint, grade 3: moderate, grade 4: intense). Active tuberculoma shows statistically significant higher values in maximal standardized uptake values SUV maxE (active = 2.3 ± 0.75, inactive 0.79 ± 0.15), SUV maxD (active = 2.48 ± 0.79, inactive = 0.75 ± 0.13), and %ΔSUV max (active = 8.07 ± 7.77%, inactive = -3.83 ± 6.59) than those of inactive tuberculoma. When greater than or equal to visual grade 2 was used as the cutoff value, the sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 81.8%. When SUV maxE 1.05 was used as the cutoff point, the sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 100%. When SUV maxD 0.97 was used as the cutoff value, the sensitivity and specificity were 92.8 and 100%. When %ΔSUV max 6.59 was used as the cutoff value, the sensitivity and specificity were 71.4 and 100%. The %ΔSUV max was the potent predictor by logistic regression analysis. The ΔSUV max is a potential predictor for activity of pulmonary tuberculoma. However, the diagnostic performances were similar between visual and quantitative analyses. The visual assessment may be sufficient for determination of pulmonary tuberculoma activity. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and improve statistical accuracy. (orig.)

  9. The corrosion mechanism of the sintered (Ce, Nd)-Fe-B magnets prepared by double main phase and single main phase approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoning; Zhu, Minggang; Zhou, Dong; Song, Liwei; Guo, Zhaohui; Li, Jia; Li, Wei

    2018-05-01

    The sintered (Ce, Nd)-Fe-B magnets were produced widely by Double Main Phase (DMP) method in China as the magnetic properties of the DMP magnets are superior to those of single main phase (SMP) magnets with the same nominal composition. In this work, the microstructure and corrosion mechanism of the sintered (Ce0.2Nd0.8)30FebalB (wt.%) magnets prepared by DMP and SMP method were studied in detail. Compared to SMP magnets, the DMP magnets have more positive corrosion potential, lower corrosion current density, larger electron transfer resistance, and lower mass loss of the free corrosion experiment in 0.5mol/l Na2SO4 aqueous solution. All of the results show that the DMP magnets have better corrosion resistance than SMP magnets. The back scattered electron images show that the crystalline grains of the DMP magnets are sphericity with a smooth surface while the SMP ones have plenty of edges and corners. Besides, the distribution of Ce/Nd is much more uneven in both magnetic phase and rare earth (Re)-rich phase of the DMP magnets than those of SMP magnets. After corrosion, DMP magnets show eroded magnetic phase and intact Re-rich phase, which indicate that galvanic corrosion of the Re-rich phase acting as the cathode appears.

  10. Double random phase spread spectrum spread space technique for secure parallel optical multiplexing with individual encryption key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennelly, B. M.; Javidi, B.; Sheridan, J. T.

    2005-09-01

    A number of methods have been recently proposed in the literature for the encryption of 2-D information using linear optical systems. In particular the double random phase encoding system has received widespread attention. This system uses two Random Phase Keys (RPK) positioned in the input spatial domain and the spatial frequency domain and if these random phases are described by statistically independent white noises then the encrypted image can be shown to be a white noise. Decryption only requires knowledge of the RPK in the frequency domain. The RPK may be implemented using a Spatial Light Modulators (SLM). In this paper we propose and investigate the use of SLMs for secure optical multiplexing. We show that in this case it is possible to encrypt multiple images in parallel and multiplex them for transmission or storage. The signal energy is effectively spread in the spatial frequency domain. As expected the number of images that can be multiplexed together and recovered without loss is proportional to the ratio of the input image and the SLM resolution. Many more images may be multiplexed with some loss in recovery. Furthermore each individual encryption is more robust than traditional double random phase encoding since decryption requires knowledge of both RPK and a lowpass filter in order to despread the spectrum and decrypt the image. Numerical simulations are presented and discussed.

  11. Flattened optical frequency-locked multi-carrier generation by cascading one DML and one phase modulator driven by different RF frequency clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Zhang, Junwen; Chi, Nan

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme for flattened optical frequency-locked multi-carrier generation based on one directly modulated laser (DML) and one phase modulator (PM) in cascade driven by different sinusoidal radio-frequency (RF) clocks. We experimentally demonstrate that when the clock frequencies for the cascaded DML and the PM are respectively 12.5 GHz and 25 GHz, over 24 optical subcarriers can be generated with 12.5-GHz frequency spacing and amplitude fluctuation less than 3 dB. Furthermore, the number of generated optical subcarriers can be further increased when we increase the driving power for the DML. (letter)

  12. Structural dependences of localization and recombination of photogenerated carriers in the top GaInP Subcells of GaInP/GaAs double-junction tandem solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhuo; Ning, Jiqiang; Su, Zhicheng; Xu, Shijie; Xing, Zheng; Wang, Rongxin; Lu, Shulong; Dong, Jianrong; Zhang, Baoshun; Yang, Hui

    2015-01-14

    In high-efficiency GaInP/GaAs double-junction tandem solar cells, GaInP layers play a central role in determining the performance of the solar cells. Therefore, gaining a deeper understanding of the optoelectronic processes in GaInP layers is crucial for improving the energy conversion efficiency of GaInP-based photovoltaic devices. In this work, we firmly show strong dependences of localization and recombination of photogenerated carriers in the top GaInP subcells in the GaInP/GaAs double-junction tandem solar cells on the substrate misorientation angle with excitation intensity- and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL). The entire solar cell structures including GaInP layers were grown with metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on GaAs substrates with misorientation angles of 2° (denoted as Sample 2°) and 7° (Sample 7°) off (100) toward (111)B. The PL spectral features of the two top GaInP subcells, as well as their excitation-power and temperature dependences exhibit remarkable variation on the misorientation angle. In Sample 2°, the dominant localization mechanism and luminescence channels are due to the energy potential minima caused by highly ordered atomic domains; In Sample 7°, the main localization and radiative recombination of photogenerated carriers occur in the atomically disordered regions. Our results reveal a more precise picture on the localization and recombination mechanisms of photogenerated carriers in the top GaInP subcells, which could be the crucial factors in controlling the optoelectronic efficiency of the GaInP-based multijunction photovoltaic devices.

  13. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG CARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Posavec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. Enhanced Cross-Phase Modulation Based on a Double Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Four-Level Tripod Atomic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shujing; Yang Xudong; Cao Xuemin; Zhang Chunhong; Xie Changde; Wang Hai

    2008-01-01

    We report experimental observations on the simultaneous electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effects for probe and trigger fields (double EIT) as well as the enhanced cross-phase modulation (XPM) between the two fields in a four-level tripod EIT system of the D1 line of 87 Rb atoms. The XPM coefficients (larger than 2x10 -5 cm 2 /W) and the accompanying transmissions (higher than 60%) are measured at a slight detuning of the probe field from the exact EIT-resonance condition. The system and enhanced cross-Kerr nonlinearities presented here can be applied to quantum information processes

  15. Three phase dynamic CT with double spiral CT: utility of determination of stomach cancer stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Min Ha; Kim, Hong In; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Ki Yeol; Cho, June Il; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of three phases of spiral CT in the diagnosis of stomach cancer. Between August 1994 and March 1995, thirty eight patients with stomach cancer, demonstrated on spiral CT, underwent surgery. Twenty-eight cases were advanced and ten were early. There were 27 men, and 11 women, and their average age was 52.8 years old (33-77). After ingestion of 600-700ml of water, 120-140ml of nonionic contrast material was injected intravenously. Spiral CT scanning was performed in 10mm slice thickness and of 10mm/sec table speed. Three phase image were obtained at 25sec (arterial phase), 60-65sec (venous phase) and 4min (equilibrium phase) after the start of bolus injection. On each phase, CT findings were compared with pathologic results, and tumor detectibility, depth of tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis was analysed. Thirty of the 38 carcinomas (79%) were detected on the arterial phase, 33 (81%) on the venous phase and 30 (79%) on the equilibrium phase. Depth of tumor invasion was measured accurately in 27 of 38 cases (71%) : T1-4/10 (40%), T2-8/11 (73%), T3-13/15 (87%), T4-2/2 (100%). We overstaged one case of T1 as T2 and two cases of T2 as T3, and understaged one case of T2 as T1 and two cases of T3 as T2. Among the 16 enlarged lymph nodes larger than 8mm, 13 cases were positive on pathologic examination and the sensitivity was 65%. With three-phase spiral CT scanning, we obtained 71% accuracy of depth of tumor invasion. The venous phase is most useful for tumor detection and for determining depth of tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis

  16. Results on neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge from phase I of the GERDA experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M; Allardt, M; Andreotti, E; Bakalyarov, A M; Balata, M; Barabanov, I; Barnabé Heider, M; Barros, N; Baudis, L; Bauer, C; Becerici-Schmidt, N; Bellotti, E; Belogurov, S; Belyaev, S T; Benato, G; Bettini, A; Bezrukov, L; Bode, T; Brudanin, V; Brugnera, R; Budjáš, D; Caldwell, A; Cattadori, C; Chernogorov, A; Cossavella, F; Demidova, E V; Domula, A; Egorov, V; Falkenstein, R; Ferella, A; Freund, K; Frodyma, N; Gangapshev, A; Garfagnini, A; Gotti, C; Grabmayr, P; Gurentsov, V; Gusev, K; Guthikonda, K K; Hampel, W; Hegai, A; Heisel, M; Hemmer, S; Heusser, G; Hofmann, W; Hult, M; Inzhechik, L V; Ioannucci, L; Janicskó Csáthy, J; Jochum, J; Junker, M; Kihm, T; Kirpichnikov, I V; Kirsch, A; Klimenko, A; Knöpfle, K T; Kochetov, O; Kornoukhov, V N; Kuzminov, V V; Laubenstein, M; Lazzaro, A; Lebedev, V I; Lehnert, B; Liao, H Y; Lindner, M; Lippi, I; Liu, X; Lubashevskiy, A; Lubsandorzhiev, B; Lutter, G; Macolino, C; Machado, A A; Majorovits, B; Maneschg, W; Misiaszek, M; Nemchenok, I; Nisi, S; O'Shaughnessy, C; Pandola, L; Pelczar, K; Pessina, G; Pullia, A; Riboldi, S; Rumyantseva, N; Sada, C; Salathe, M; Schmitt, C; Schreiner, J; Schulz, O; Schwingenheuer, B; Schönert, S; Shevchik, E; Shirchenko, M; Simgen, H; Smolnikov, A; Stanco, L; Strecker, H; Tarka, M; Ur, C A; Vasenko, A A; Volynets, O; von Sturm, K; Wagner, V; Walter, M; Wegmann, A; Wester, T; Wojcik, M; Yanovich, E; Zavarise, P; Zhitnikov, I; Zhukov, S V; Zinatulina, D; Zuber, K; Zuzel, G

    2013-09-20

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a process that violates lepton number conservation. It is predicted to occur in extensions of the standard model of particle physics. This Letter reports the results from phase I of the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy) searching for neutrinoless double beta decay of the isotope (76)Ge. Data considered in the present analysis have been collected between November 2011 and May 2013 with a total exposure of 21.6 kg yr. A blind analysis is performed. The background index is about 1 × 10(-2) counts/(keV kg yr) after pulse shape discrimination. No signal is observed and a lower limit is derived for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay of (76)Ge, T(1/2)(0ν) >2.1 × 10(25) yr (90% C.L.). The combination with the results from the previous experiments with (76)Ge yields T(1/2)(0ν)>3.0 × 10(25) yr (90% C.L.).

  17. Results on Neutrinoless Double-β Decay of Ge76 from Phase I of the GERDA Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barnabé Heider, M.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Cossavella, F.; Demidova, E. V.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Ferella, A.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hampel, W.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Liu, X.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Machado, A. A.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Misiaszek, M.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pessina, G.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Strecker, H.; Tarka, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vasenko, A. A.; Volynets, O.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2013-09-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a process that violates lepton number conservation. It is predicted to occur in extensions of the standard model of particle physics. This Letter reports the results from phase I of the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy) searching for neutrinoless double beta decay of the isotope Ge76. Data considered in the present analysis have been collected between November 2011 and May 2013 with a total exposure of 21.6 kg yr. A blind analysis is performed. The background index is about 1×10-2counts/(keVkgyr) after pulse shape discrimination. No signal is observed and a lower limit is derived for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay of Ge76, T1/20ν>2.1×1025yr (90% C.L.). The combination with the results from the previous experiments with Ge76 yields T1/20ν>3.0×1025yr (90% C.L.).

  18. Frequency doubling in poled polymers using anomalous dispersion phase-matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, T.C.; Singer, K.D. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Cahill, P.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The authors report on a second harmonic generation in a poled polymer waveguide using anomalous dispersion phase-matching. Blue light ({lambda} = 407 nm) was produced by phase-matching the lowest order fundamental and harmonic modes over a distance of 32 {micro}m. The experimental conversion efficiency was {eta} = 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}, in agreement with theory. Additionally, they discuss a method of enhancing the conversion efficiency for second harmonic generation using anomalous dispersion phase-matching to optimize Cerenkov second harmonic generation. The modeling shows that a combination of phase-matching techniques creates larger conversion efficiencies and reduces critical fabrication requirements of the individual phase-matching techniques.

  19. Structural phase transition and magnetic properties of double perovskites Ba2CaMO6 (M=W, Re, Os)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Kazuhiro; Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio

    2006-01-01

    Structures and magnetic properties for double perovskites Ba 2 CaMO 6 (M=W, Re, Os) were investigated. Both Ba 2 CaReO 6 and Ba 2 CaWO 6 show structural phase transitions at low temperatures. For Ba 2 CaReO 6 , the second order transition from cubic Fm3-bar m to tetragonal I4/m has been observed near 120K. For Ba 2 CaWO 6 , the space group of the crystal structure is I4/m at 295K and the transition to monoclinic I2/m has been observed between 220K. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show that Ba 2 CaReO 6 (S=1/2) and Ba 2 CaOsO 6 (S=1) transform to an antiferromagnetic state below 15.4 and 51K, respectively. Anomalies corresponding to their structural phase transition and magnetic transition have been also observed through specific heat measurements

  20. Research on out-phase oscillation in a nuclear-coupled parallel double-channel boiling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Linglan; Zhang Hong; Liu Yu; Zang Xi'nian

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic system code is coupled with the TDOT-T 3D neutron kinetic code by PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). A parallel double-channel boiling system is built by the coupled code and the instability boundary of out-of-phase oscillation in the system is obtained. The effects of axis power distribution and neutron feedback on the out-of-phase oscillation are analyzed in details. It is found that there are type-Ⅰ and type-Ⅱ density wave oscillation regions when the axial power peak is located at upstream of the heating section. At relatively lower values of fuel time constant, the neutron feedback always delays both types of density wave oscillations. (authors)

  1. Carrier phases for iodine in the Allende meteorite and their associated 129Xer/127I ratios: A laser microprobe study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschbaum, C.

    1988-01-01

    A new mass spectrometer of high sensitivity coupled to a laser microprobe sample extraction system was used to determine the 129 Xe r /I ratios of minerals which carry 129 Xe r in the Allende meteorite. In sodalite-rich fine-grained inclusions Ok correlates with Cl verifying that sodalite carries the majority of I. One sample heated above the decomposition point of sodalite had a small amount of residual I indicating the presence of at least one other carrier. The Cl/I ratio of the matrix was different from that of the fine-grained inclusions and the 129 Xe r correlates with trapped Xe. This implies either a different Cl/I ratio for sodalite in the matrix or a different carrier for I in matrix. In melilite from one coarse-grained inclusion, I is variable and correlates with both Xe and, surprisingly, 131 Xe produced from Ba during the irradiation. In coarse-grained inclusions with Cl-rich alteration products in cracks, most of the 129 Xe r is found in those cracks. A residual amount of 129 Xe r is present in melilite samples which show no Cl-rich alteration products, and is a trace impurity in the melilite. The 129 Xe r / 127 I ratio of sodalite from the fine-grained inclusions, and matrix is similar--between 1.25 and 1.35 x 10 -4 . This implies an age for these samples within 2 million years of a Bjurbole chondrule included in the irradiation as a standard. The 129 Xe r / 127 I ratio of a sample of a fine-grained inclusion heated to 1,100 degree C is 2.4 x 10 -4 or 16 million years before the Bjurbole chondrule. A coarse-grained inclusion on the other hand showed a 129 Xe r / 127 I ratio of 3.15 x 10 -5 or 35 million years after the Bjurbole chondrule

  2. Phase-Image Encryption Based on 3D-Lorenz Chaotic System and Double Random Phase Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neha; Saini, Indu; Yadav, AK; Singh, Phool

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, an encryption scheme for phase-images based on 3D-Lorenz chaotic system in Fourier domain under the 4f optical system is presented. The encryption scheme uses a random amplitude mask in the spatial domain and a random phase mask in the frequency domain. Its inputs are phase-images, which are relatively more secure as compared to the intensity images because of non-linearity. The proposed scheme further derives its strength from the use of 3D-Lorenz transform in the frequency domain. Although the experimental setup for optical realization of the proposed scheme has been provided, the results presented here are based on simulations on MATLAB. It has been validated for grayscale images, and is found to be sensitive to the encryption parameters of the Lorenz system. The attacks analysis shows that the key-space is large enough to resist brute-force attack, and the scheme is also resistant to the noise and occlusion attacks. Statistical analysis and the analysis based on correlation distribution of adjacent pixels have been performed to test the efficacy of the encryption scheme. The results have indicated that the proposed encryption scheme possesses a high level of security.

  3. Independently variable phase and stroke control for a double acting Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchowitz, David M.

    1983-01-01

    A phase and stroke control apparatus for the pistons of a Stirling engine includes a ring on the end of each piston rod in which a pair of eccentrics is arranged in series, torque transmitting relationship. The outer eccentric is rotatably mounted in the ring and is rotated by the orbiting ring; the inner eccentric is mounted on an output shaft. The two eccentrics are mounted for rotation together within the ring during normal operation. A device is provided for rotating one eccentric with respect to another to change the effective eccentricity of the pair of eccentrics. A separately controlled phase adjustment is provided to null the phase change introduced by the change in the orientation of the outer eccentric, and also to enable the phase of the pistons to be changed independently of the stroke change.

  4. Oxygen and minority carrier lifetimes in N-and P-type AL0.2GA0.8AS grown by metal organics vapor phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahraman, Khaled; Leroux, M.; Gibart, P.; Zaidi, M.A.; Bremond, G.; Guillot, G.

    2000-01-01

    author.The minority carrier lifetimes in Al x Ga 1-x As grown by Metal-Organics Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) is generally lower than in GaAs. This is believed to be due to oxygen incorporation in the layers. We describe a study of radiative and non radiative minority carriers lifetimes in n-and p-type Al 0.2 Ga 0.8 As as a function of growth parameters, in correlation with oxygen concentration measurements and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) studies. Long non radiative lifetimes and low oxygen contents are achieved using temperature growth. A main minority hole lifetime killer appears to be 0.4 eV deep O related electron trap detected by DLTS at concentrations three orders of magnitude lower than the atomic oxygen one. Record lifetimes in MOVPE grown n-and p-type Al 0.2 Ga 0.8 As are obtained. An Al 0.85 Ga 0.15 As/Al 0.2 Ga 0.8 As surface recombination velocity lower than 4.5x10 3 cm.s -1 is measured

  5. Double exchange model on triangular lattice: Non-coplanar spin configuration and phase transition near quarter filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, G.P., E-mail: bugubird_zhang@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872 (China); Zhang, Jian [3M Company, 3M Corporate Headquarters, 3M Center, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States); Zhang, Qi-Li [Data Center for High Energy Density Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhou, Jiang-Tao [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Shangguan, M.H. [Department of Physics, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Unconventional anomalous Hall effect in frustrated pyrochlore oxides is originated from spin chirality of non-coplanar localized spins, which can also be induced by the competition between ferromagnetic (FM) double exchange interaction J{sub H} and antiferromagnetic superexchange interaction J{sub AF}. Here truncated polynomial expansion method and Monte Carlo simulation are adopted to investigate the above model on two-dimensional triangular lattice. We discuss the influence of the range of FM-type spin–spin correlation and strong electron–spin correlation on the truncation error of spin–spin correlation near quarter filling. Two peaks of the probability distribution of spin–spin correlation in non-coplanar spin configuration clearly show that non-coplanar spin configuration is an intermediate phase between FM and 120° spin phase. Near quarter filling, there is a phase transition from FM into non-coplanar and further into 120° spin phase when J{sub AF} continually increases. Finally the effect of temperature on the magnetic structure is discussed.

  6. DNA double strand breaks in the acute phase after synchrotron pencilbeam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Palomo, C; Trippel, M; Schroll, C; Nikkhah, G; Schültke, E; Bräuer-Krisch, E; Requardt, H; Bartzsch, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. At the biomedical beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), we have established a method to study pencilbeam irradiation in-vivoin small animal models. The pencilbeam irradiation technique is based on the principle of microbeam irradiation, a concept of spatially fractionated high-dose irradiation. Using γH2AX as marker, we followed the development of DNA double strand breaks over 48 hrs after whole brain irradiation with the pencilbeam technique. Method. Almost square pencilbeams with an individual size of 51 × 50 μm were produced with an MSC collimator using a step and shoot approach, while the animals were moved vertically through the beam. The center-to-center distance (ctc) was 400 μm, with a peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR) of about 400. Five groups of healthy adult mice received peak irradiation doses of either 330 Gy or 2,460 Gy and valley doses of 0.82 Gy and 6.15 Gy, respectively. Animals were sacrificed at 2, 12 and 48 hrs after irradiation. Results. DNA double strand breaks are observed in the path of the pencilbeam. The size of the damaged volume undergoes changes within the first 48 hours after irradiation. Conclusions. The extent of DNA damage caused by pencilbeam irradiation, as assessed by H2AX antibody staining, is dose- dependent

  7. Simple analytical expressions for the analysis of the phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency in a double-Λ atomic scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijević, J; Arsenović, D

    2012-01-01

    We study a double-Λ atomic scheme that interacts with four laser light beams so that a closed loop of radiation-induced transitions is formed. When specific relations for field phases, frequencies and amplitudes are satisfied, coherent superpositions (the so-called ‘dark states’) can be formed in a double-Λ, which leads to the well-known effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). If the interaction scheme in a double-Λ system is such that a closed loop is formed, the relative phase of the laser light fields becomes very important. We analyze here the effect of the lasers' relative phase on the EIT in double-Λ configuration of levels. The theoretical study of interactions of lasers with a double-Λ atomic scheme is commonly conducted by solving the optical Bloch equations (OBEs). We use here a perturbative method for solving OBEs, where the interaction of lasers with double-Λ is considered a perturbation. An advantage of the perturbative method is that it generally produces simpler solutions, and analytical expressions can be obtained. We present analytical expressions for the lower-order corrections of the EIT signal. Our results show that the EIT by the perturbative method can be approximated by the sum of products of complex Lorentzians. Through these expressions, we see in what way the relative phase affects the overall EIT profile. (paper)

  8. Surface Disinfectants for Burn Units Evaluated by a New Double Method, Using Microorganisms Recently Isolated From Patients, on a Surface Germ-Carrier Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herruzo, Rafael; Vizcaino, Maria Jose; Herruzo, Irene; Sanchez, Manuel

    Assessment methods of surface disinfection based on international standards (Environmental Protection Agency, European Norms, etc) do not correspond to hospital reality. New evaluation methods of surfaces disinfection are proposed to choose the most suitable disinfectant to act against clinically relevant microorganisms detected on the surfaces of burn units. 1) "Immediate effect": 6 products were compared using a glass germ-carrier and 20 recently isolated microorganisms from different patients in the intensive care units. Disinfectants were applied with microfiber cloths. Log10 reductions were calculated for colony forming units produced after 15 minutes of disinfectant application. 2) "Residual effect": the glass germ-carriers were previously impregnated with one of the studied disinfectants. After a 30-minute wait period, they were then contaminated with 1 microorganism (from the 20 above-mentioned). After 15 minutes, the disinfectant was inhibited and the log10 reduction of colony forming units was assessed. The immediate effect (disinfection and microorganism dragging and transferring from the surface to the cloth) produced complete elimination of the inoculums for all products used except one (a diluted quaternary ammonium). The average residual effect found on the 20 microorganisms was moderate: 2 to 3 log10 colony forming unit reduction with chlorine dioxide or 0.5% chlorhexidine (and lower with the other products), obtaining surfaces refractory to recontamination, at least, during 30 minutes. Two tests should be performed before advising surface disinfectant: 1) direct effect and 2) residual efficacy. These characteristics should be considered when a new surface disinfectant is chosen. Chlorine dioxide has a similar or better direct effect than sodium hypochlorite and a similar residual effect than chlorhexidine.

  9. Gas chromatography of indium in macroscopic and carrier-free amounts using quartz and gold as stationary phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serov, A.; Eichler, R.; Tuerler, A.; Wittwer, D.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. fuer Radiochemie und Umweltchemie; Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. fuer Chemie und Biochemie; Dressler, R.; Piguet, D.; Voegele, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. fuer Radiochemie und Umweltchemie

    2011-07-01

    The chemical investigation of E113 is likely to become soon feasible. The determination of chemical properties of carrier-free amounts of the lighter homologues of element 113, especially indium and thallium, allows designing experimental set-ups and selecting experimental conditions suitable for performing these studies. Here, we present investigations of the interaction of indium species with quartz and gold surfaces. Deposition temperatures as well as enthalpies of adsorption were determined for indium T{sub dep} = 739 {+-} 20 C (-{delta}H{sub ads}(In) = 227 {+-} 10 kJ mol{sup -1}) and for indium hydroxide T{sub dep} = 250 {+-} 20 C (-{delta}H{sub ads}(InOH)= 124 {+-}10 kJ mol{sup -1}) respectively, on quartz. In case of adsorption of indium on a gold surface only a lower limit of the deposition temperature was established T{sub dep} > 980 C (-{delta}H{sub ads}(In) {>=} 315 {+-} 10 kJ mol{sup -1}). Investigations of macroscopic amounts of indium in thermosublimation experiments at similar experimental conditions were instrumental to establish a tentative speciation of the observed indium species. (orig.)

  10. Asymmetry in the momentum distribution of H+p from dissociative ionization of H2 controlled by the carrier-envelope phase of a few-cycle pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shuo; Anis, Fatima; Esry, B. D.

    2010-03-01

    We present theoretical results on the interaction of H2 with an ultrashort linearly polarized laser pulse of 6 fs duration. We investigate the carrier-envelope phase effects of this ultrashort laser pulse on the asymmetry of the momentum distribution of H+p along the laser polarization direction. To do so, we model the H2 ionization by launching a coherent wavepacket on H2^+ potential curves at each field maximum, and then propagate wavepackets in time on H2^+ Born-Oppenheimer potential curves coupled by the laser. Nuclear rotation and vibration are both included in the Schrödinger equation for H2^+ . Our results will be compared to a recent experimental measurement [1]. We will also compare our results to calculations neglecting rotation and discuss the limitations of such a model.[4pt] [1] Manuel Kremer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103.213003 (2009)

  11. Vapor phase epitaxial growth of FeS sub 2 pyrite and evaluation of the carrier collection in liquid-junction solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennaoui, A.; Schlichthoerl, G.; Fiechter, S.; Tributsch, H. (Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Abt. Solare Energetik und Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    Photoactive epitaxial layers of FeS{sub 2} were grown using bromine as a transport agent and a simple closed ampoule technique. The substrates used were (100)-oriented slices of natural pyrite 1 mm thick. A vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism was elucidated by means of optical microscopy. Macrosteps, terrace surfaces and protuberances are often accompanied with the presence of liquid FeBr{sub 3} droplets. In the absence of a liquid phase growth hillocks are found. Localized photovoltaic response for the evaluation of carrier collection using a scanning laser spot system has been used to effectively locate and characterize non-uniformities present in the epitaxial thin films. (orig.).

  12. Linear and non-linear carrier-envelope phase difference effects in interactions of ultra-short laser pulses with a metal nano-layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varro, S.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. On the basis of classical electrodynamics the reflection and transmission of an ultra-short laser pulse impinging on a metal nano-layer have been analysed. The thickness of the layer was assumed to be of the order of 2-10 nm, and the metallic electrons were represented by a surface current density at the plane boundary of a dielectric substrate. It has been shown that in the scattered fields a non-oscillatory wake-field appears following the main pulse with an exponential decay and with a definite sign of the electric and magnetic fields. The characteristic time of these wake-fields is inversely proportional to the square of the plasma frequency and to the thickness of the metal nano-layer, and can be of order or larger then the original pulse duration. The magnitude of these wake-fields is proportional with the incoming field strength - so this is a linear effect - and the definite sign of them is governed by the cosine of the carrier-envelope phase difference of the incoming ultrashort laser pulse. As a consequence, when we let such a wake-field excite the electrons of a secondary target - say a plasma, a metal surface or a gas - we obtain 100 percent modulation depth in the electron signal in a given direction. This scheme can perhaps serve as a basis for the construction of a robust linear carrier-envelope phase difference mater. At relativistic laser intensities the target becomes a plasma layer generated, e.g. by the rising part of the incoming laser pulse. An approximate analytic solution has been given for the system of the coupled Maxwell-Lorentz equations describing the dynamics of the surface current (representing the plasma electrons) and the composite radiation field. With the help of these solutions the Fourier components of the reflected and transmitted radiation have been calculated. The nonlinearities stemming from the relativistic kinematics lead to the appearance of higher-order harmonics in the scattered

  13. Tunable high-order-sideband generation and carrier-envelope-phase-dependent effects via microwave fields in hybrid electro-optomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Liu-Gang; Guo, Ling-Xia; Xiong, Hao; Wu, Ying

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the high-order-sideband generation (HSG) in a hybrid cavity electro-photomechanical system in which an optical cavity is driven by two optical fields (a monochromatic pump field and a nanosecond Gaussian probe pulse with huge numbers of wave cycles), and at the same time a microwave cavity is driven by a monochromatic ac voltage bias. We show that even if the input powers of two driven optical fields are comparatively low the HSG spectra can be induced and enhanced, and the sideband plateau is extended remarkably with the power of the ac voltage bias increasing. It is also shown that the driven ac voltage bias has profound effects on the carrier-envelope-phase-dependent effects of the HSG in the hybrid cavity electro-photomechanical system. Our research may provide an effective way to control the HSG of optical fields by using microwave fields in cavity optomechanics systems.

  14. Double-phase liquid membrane extraction for the analysis of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Marsin Sanagi; Nurul Auni Zainal Abidin; Heng, See Hong; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    A simple and solvent minimized sample preparation technique based on two-phase hollow fiber-protected liquid-phase micro extraction was investigated for HPLC analysis of selected pesticides in water samples. Four pesticides (procymidon, methidathion, quinalphos, and vinclozolin) were considered as target analysts. Parameters such as extraction solvent, salt concentration, stirring speed, extraction time, and pH value were optimized using spiked deionised water samples. The analysts were extracted from 12 mL water samples through organic solvent (n-hexane and isooctane) immobilized in the pores of a porous polypropylene hollow fiber into 50 μL acceptor phase present inside the hollow fiber. Excellent separations of analytes were obtained on C18 column using acetonitrile-water ratio of 55:45 v/v at elevated flow rate of 0.8 mL/ min. (author)

  15. Self-phase modulation of a single-cycle terahertz pulse by nonlinear free-carrier response in a semiconductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the self-phase modulation (SPM) of a single-cycle terahertz pulse in a semiconductor, using bulk n-GaAs as a model system. The SPM arises from the heating of free electrons in the electric field of the terahertz pulse, leading to an ultrafast reduction of the plasma frequency...

  16. The performance of GPS time and frequency transfer: comment on ‘A detailed comparison of two continuous GPS carrier-phase time transfer techniques’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Gérard; Defraigne, Pascale

    2016-06-01

    The paper ‘A detailed comparison of two continuous GPS carrier-phase time transfer techniques’ (Yao et al 2015 Metrologia 52 666) presents the revised RINEX-shift (RRS) method, a technique using ‘classical precise point positioning (PPP)’ solutions on sliding batches and aiming at providing continuous time links. The authors claim the superiority of the RRS technique with respect to ‘classical PPP’ in terms of frequency stability and solving for discontinuities due to data gaps. It is shown here that these conclusions do not rely on physical principles, and are erroneous as they are driven by misinterpreted or corrupted PPP solutions. Using state-of-the-art PPP computation on the same data sets used in Yao et al’s paper (2015 Metrologia 52 666), we show that the stability of RRS is at best similar to that of ‘classical PPP’ (within statistical uncertainties). Furthermore, the RRS method of removing discontinuities in case of data gaps by interpolating the phase data should not be applied systematically as it can cause erroneous clock solutions when the data gaps are associated with a true phase discontinuity.

  17. The cone phase of liquid crystals: Triangular lattice of double-tilt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (figure 3) and analyse the mechanism which stabilizes it. Liquid crystals are soft ... There is no change in the smectic layer spacing along .... with the case of blue phases of cubic symmetry where the pitch of the helix provides a natural length ...

  18. A Two-Phase Model for Trade Matching and Price Setting in Double Auction Water Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Zheng, Hang; Zhao, Jianshi; Liu, Yicheng; Tang, Pingzhong; Yang, Y. C. Ethan; Wang, Zhongjing

    2018-04-01

    Delivery in water markets is generally operated by agencies through channel systems, which imposes physical and institutional market constraints. Many water markets allow water users to post selling and buying requests on a board. However, water users may not be able to choose efficiently when the information (including the constraints) becomes complex. This study proposes an innovative two-phase model to address this problem based on practical experience in China. The first phase seeks and determines the optimal assignment that maximizes the incremental improvement of the system's social welfare according to the bids and asks in the water market. The second phase sets appropriate prices under constraints. Applying this model to China's Xiying Irrigation District shows that it can improve social welfare more than the current "pool exchange" method can. Within the second phase, we evaluate three objective functions (minimum variance, threshold-based balance, and two-sided balance), which represent different managerial goals. The threshold-based balance function should be preferred by most users, while the two-sided balance should be preferred by players who post extreme prices.

  19. Radionuclide carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carrier is described. It comprises a modified anionic starch derivative with 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of a reducing agent and 1 to 20% by weight of anionic substituents

  20. Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How accurate is carrier screening? No test is perfect. In a small number of cases, test results ... in which an egg is removed from a woman’s ovary, fertilized in a laboratory with the man’s ...

  1. Phase, current, absorbance, and photoluminescence of double and triple metal ion-doped synthetic and salmon DNA thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopade, Prathamesh; Reddy Dugasani, Sreekantha; Reddy Kesama, Mallikarjuna; Yoo, Sanghyun; Gnapareddy, Bramaramba; Lee, Yun Woo; Jeon, Sohee; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Park, Sung Ha

    2017-10-01

    We fabricated synthetic double-crossover (DX) DNA lattices and natural salmon DNA (SDNA) thin films, doped with 3 combinations of double divalent metal ions (M2+)-doped groups (Co2+-Ni2+, Cu2+-Co2+, and Cu2+-Ni2+) and single combination of a triple M2+-doped group (Cu2+-Ni2+-Co2+) at various concentrations of M2+ ([M2+]). We evaluated the optimum concentration of M2+ ([M2+]O) (the phase of M2+-doped DX DNA lattices changed from crystalline (up to ([M2+]O) to amorphous (above [M2+]O)) and measured the current, absorbance, and photoluminescent characteristics of multiple M2+-doped SDNA thin films. Phase transitions (visualized in phase diagrams theoretically as well as experimentally) from crystalline to amorphous for double (Co2+-Ni2+, Cu2+-Co2+, and Cu2+-Ni2+) and triple (Cu2+-Ni2+-Co2+) dopings occurred between 0.8 mM and 1.0 mM of Ni2+ at a fixed 0.5 mM of Co2+, between 0.6 mM and 0.8 mM of Co2+ at a fixed 3.0 mM of Cu2+, between 0.6 mM and 0.8 mM of Ni2+ at a fixed 3.0 mM of Cu2+, and between 0.6 mM and 0.8 mM of Co2+ at fixed 2.0 mM of Cu2+ and 0.8 mM of Ni2+, respectively. The overall behavior of the current and photoluminescence showed increments as increasing [M2+] up to [M2+]O, then decrements with further increasing [M2+]. On the other hand, absorbance at 260 nm showed the opposite behavior. Multiple M2+-doped DNA thin films can be used in specific devices and sensors with enhanced optoelectric characteristics and tunable multi-functionalities.

  2. Nanostructured Double Hydrophobic Poly(Styrene-b-Methyl Methacrylate) Block Copolymer Membrane Manufactured Via Phase Inversion Technique

    KAUST Repository

    Karunakaran, Madhavan; Shevate, Rahul; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the formation of nanostructured double hydrophobic poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) block copolymer membranes via state-of-the-art phase inversion technique. The nanostructured membrane morphologies are tuned by different solvent and block copolymer compositions. The membrane morphology has been investigated using FESEM, AFM and TEM. Morphological investigation shows the formation of both cylindrical and lamellar structures on the top surface of the block copolymer membranes. The PS-b-PMMA having an equal block length (PS160K-b-PMMA160K) exhibits both cylindrical and lamellar structures on the top layer of the asymmetric membrane. All membranes fabricated from PS160K-b-PMMA160K shows an incomplete pore formation in both cylindrical and lamellar morphologies during the phase inversion process. However, PS-b-PMMA (PS135K-b-PMMA19.5K) block copolymer having a short PMMA block allowed us to produce open pore structures with ordered hexagonal cylindrical pores during the phase inversion process. The resulting PS-b-PMMA nanostructured block copolymer membranes have pure water flux from 105-820 l/m2.h.bar and 95% retention of PEG50K

  3. Nanostructured Double Hydrophobic Poly(Styrene-b-Methyl Methacrylate) Block Copolymer Membrane Manufactured Via Phase Inversion Technique

    KAUST Repository

    Karunakaran, Madhavan

    2016-03-11

    In this paper, we demonstrate the formation of nanostructured double hydrophobic poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) block copolymer membranes via state-of-the-art phase inversion technique. The nanostructured membrane morphologies are tuned by different solvent and block copolymer compositions. The membrane morphology has been investigated using FESEM, AFM and TEM. Morphological investigation shows the formation of both cylindrical and lamellar structures on the top surface of the block copolymer membranes. The PS-b-PMMA having an equal block length (PS160K-b-PMMA160K) exhibits both cylindrical and lamellar structures on the top layer of the asymmetric membrane. All membranes fabricated from PS160K-b-PMMA160K shows an incomplete pore formation in both cylindrical and lamellar morphologies during the phase inversion process. However, PS-b-PMMA (PS135K-b-PMMA19.5K) block copolymer having a short PMMA block allowed us to produce open pore structures with ordered hexagonal cylindrical pores during the phase inversion process. The resulting PS-b-PMMA nanostructured block copolymer membranes have pure water flux from 105-820 l/m2.h.bar and 95% retention of PEG50K

  4. Glassy dielectric response in Tb2NiMnO6 double perovskite with similarities to a Griffiths phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhalil, Hariharan; Nair, Harikrishnan S.; Bhat, H. L.; Elizabeth, Suja

    2013-12-01

    Results of frequency-dependent and temperature-dependent dielectric measurements performed on the double-perovskite Tb2NiMnO6 are presented. The real (\\epsilon_1 (f,T)) and imaginary (\\epsilon_2 (f,T)) parts of dielectric permittivity show three plateaus suggesting dielectric relaxation originating from the bulk, grain boundaries and the sample-electrode interfaces, respectively. The \\epsilon_1 (f,T) and \\epsilon_2 (f,T) are successfully simulated by a RC circuit model. The complex plane of impedance, Z'\\text{-}Z'' , is simulated using a series network with a resistor R and a constant phase element. Through the analysis of \\epsilon (f,T) using the modified Debye model, two different relaxation time regimes separated by a characteristic temperature, T^* , are identified. The temperature variation of R and C corresponding to the bulk and the parameter α from modified Debye fit lend support to this hypothesis. Interestingly, the T^* compares with the Griffiths temperature for this compound observed in magnetic measurements. Though these results cannot be interpreted as magnetoelectric coupling, the relationship between lattice and magnetism is markedly clear. We assume that the observed features have their origin in the polar nanoregions which originate from the inherent cationic defect structure of double perovskites.

  5. S-Matrix theory of laser-induced nonsequential double ionization: from electron-electron dynamics to absolute-phase diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueira de Morisson Faria, C.; Sanpera, A.; Lewenstein, M.; Schomerus, H.; Liu, X.; Becker, W.

    2005-01-01

    studies, in which a systematic analysis of the influence of the initial bound states of both electrons, and of the spatial extension of the electronic wave function, on the NSDI momentum distributions, has been performed. Such studies have shown that the best agreement with experiments should occur for highly localized bound states and an effective short-range interaction. In the above-stated studies, the external laser field has been approximated by a monochromatic wave. This is a reasonable assumption if the laser pulses in question are relatively long. For few-cycle pulses, however, one expects a very different behavior and, in particular, that the so-called absolute phase, i.e., the phase difference between the pulse envelope and its carrier oscillation, influences the momentum distributions in question. Within this context, we have shown that the differential momentum distributions are highly asymmetric and either concentrated in the first or the third quadrant of the (p 1II , p 2II ) plane. Around a critical value of the absolute phase, the distributions shift from one region to the other. Such a behavior can be explained in terms of the trajectories of an electron recombining inelastically with its parent ion, and the critical phase can be traced to a change in the dominant set of trajectories. This effect is present both in a classical and a quantum-mechanical framework, with the difference that, in the quantum-mechanical case, the distributions start to shift at a slightly smaller phase. This is due to the fact that, if NSDI is classically forbidden, the quantum mechanical distributions are exponentially decaying, whereas their classical counterparts vanish. This behavior is more extreme than those observed for other high-intensity phenomena, such as above-threshold ionization or high-harmonic generation, so that NSDI is an efficient tool for absolute-phase measurements. Refs. 3 (author)

  6. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) CARRIERS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Posavec; Katarina Simon; Matija Malnar

    2010-01-01

    Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 L...

  7. High amplitude phase resetting in rev-erbalpha/per1 double mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Jud

    Full Text Available Over time, organisms developed various strategies to adapt to their environment. Circadian clocks are thought to have evolved to adjust to the predictable rhythms of the light-dark cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth around its own axis. The rhythms these clocks generate persist even in the absence of environmental cues with a period of about 24 hours. To tick in time, they continuously synchronize themselves to the prevailing photoperiod by appropriate phase shifts. In this study, we disrupted two molecular components of the mammalian circadian oscillator, Rev-Erbalpha and Period1 (Per1. We found that mice lacking these genes displayed robust circadian rhythms with significantly shorter periods under constant darkness conditions. Strikingly, they showed high amplitude resetting in response to a brief light pulse at the end of their subjective night phase, which is rare in mammals. Surprisingly, Cry1, a clock component not inducible by light in mammals, became slightly inducible in these mice. Taken together, Rev-Erbalpha and Per1 may be part of a mechanism preventing drastic phase shifts in mammals.

  8. Cryptanalysis and improvement of an optical image encryption scheme using a chaotic Baker map and double random phase encoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jun-Xin; Fu, Chong; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Li-Bo; Zhang, Yushu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the security of an enhanced double random phase encoding (DRPE) image encryption scheme (2013 J. Lightwave Technol. 31 2533). The original system employs a chaotic Baker map prior to DRPE to provide more protection to the plain image and hence promote the security level of DRPE, as claimed. However, cryptanalysis shows that this scheme is vulnerable to a chosen-plaintext attack, and the ciphertext can be precisely recovered. The corresponding improvement is subsequently reported upon the basic premise that no extra equipment or computational complexity is required. The simulation results and security analyses prove its effectiveness and security. The proposed achievements are suitable for all cryptosystems under permutation and, following that, the DRPE architecture, and we hope that our work can motivate the further research on optical image encryption. (paper)

  9. Cryptanalysis and improvement of an optical image encryption scheme using a chaotic Baker map and double random phase encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Xin; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Fu, Chong; Zhang, Li-Bo; Zhang, Yushu

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the security of an enhanced double random phase encoding (DRPE) image encryption scheme (2013 J. Lightwave Technol. 31 2533). The original system employs a chaotic Baker map prior to DRPE to provide more protection to the plain image and hence promote the security level of DRPE, as claimed. However, cryptanalysis shows that this scheme is vulnerable to a chosen-plaintext attack, and the ciphertext can be precisely recovered. The corresponding improvement is subsequently reported upon the basic premise that no extra equipment or computational complexity is required. The simulation results and security analyses prove its effectiveness and security. The proposed achievements are suitable for all cryptosystems under permutation and, following that, the DRPE architecture, and we hope that our work can motivate the further research on optical image encryption.

  10. Information verification cryptosystem using one-time keys based on double random phase encoding and public-key cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Yuan, Lin; Chi, Yingying; Ma, Jing

    2016-08-01

    A novel image encryption system based on double random phase encoding (DRPE) and RSA public-key algorithm is proposed. The main characteristic of the system is that each encryption process produces a new decryption key (even for the same plaintext), thus the encryption system conforms to the feature of the one-time pad (OTP) cryptography. The other characteristic of the system is the use of fingerprint key. Only with the rightful authorization will the true decryption be obtained, otherwise the decryption will result in noisy images. So the proposed system can be used to determine whether the ciphertext is falsified by attackers. In addition, the system conforms to the basic agreement of asymmetric cryptosystem (ACS) due to the combination with the RSA public-key algorithm. The simulation results show that the encryption scheme has high robustness against the existing attacks.

  11. Improved Limit on Neutrinoless Double-β Decay of ^{76}Ge from GERDA Phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M; Bakalyarov, A M; Balata, M; Barabanov, I; Baudis, L; Bauer, C; Bellotti, E; Belogurov, S; Bettini, A; Bezrukov, L; Biernat, J; Bode, T; Borowicz, D; Brudanin, V; Brugnera, R; Caldwell, A; Cattadori, C; Chernogorov, A; Comellato, T; D'Andrea, V; Demidova, E V; Di Marco, N; Domula, A; Doroshkevich, E; Egorov, V; Falkenstein, R; Gangapshev, A; Garfagnini, A; Grabmayr, P; Gurentsov, V; Gusev, K; Hakenmüller, J; Hegai, A; Heisel, M; Hemmer, S; Hiller, R; Hofmann, W; Hult, M; Inzhechik, L V; Janicskó Csáthy, J; Jochum, J; Junker, M; Kazalov, V; Kermaidic, Y; Kihm, T; Kirpichnikov, I V; Kirsch, A; Kish, A; Klimenko, A; Kneißl, R; Knöpfle, K T; Kochetov, O; Kornoukhov, V N; Kuzminov, V V; Laubenstein, M; Lazzaro, A; Lindner, M; Lippi, I; Lubashevskiy, A; Lubsandorzhiev, B; Lutter, G; Macolino, C; Majorovits, B; Maneschg, W; Miloradovic, M; Mingazheva, R; Misiaszek, M; Moseev, P; Nemchenok, I; Panas, K; Pandola, L; Pelczar, K; Pertoldi, L; Pullia, A; Ransom, C; Riboldi, S; Rumyantseva, N; Sada, C; Salamida, F; Schmitt, C; Schneider, B; Schönert, S; Schütz, A-K; Schulz, O; Schwingenheuer, B; Selivanenko, O; Shevchik, E; Shirchenko, M; Simgen, H; Smolnikov, A; Stanco, L; Vanhoefer, L; Vasenko, A A; Veresnikova, A; von Sturm, K; Wagner, V; Wegmann, A; Wester, T; Wiesinger, C; Wojcik, M; Yanovich, E; Zhitnikov, I; Zhukov, S V; Zinatulina, D; Zschocke, A; Zsigmond, A J; Zuber, K; Zuzel, G

    2018-03-30

    The GERDA experiment searches for the lepton-number-violating neutrinoless double-β decay of ^{76}Ge (^{76}Ge→^{76}Se+2e^{-}) operating bare Ge diodes with an enriched ^{76}Ge fraction in liquid argon. The exposure for broad-energy germanium type (BEGe) detectors is increased threefold with respect to our previous data release. The BEGe detectors feature an excellent background suppression from the analysis of the time profile of the detector signals. In the analysis window a background level of 1.0_{-0.4}^{+0.6}×10^{-3}  counts/(keV kg yr) has been achieved; if normalized to the energy resolution this is the lowest ever achieved in any 0νββ experiment. No signal is observed and a new 90% C.L. lower limit for the half-life of 8.0×10^{25}  yr is placed when combining with our previous data. The expected median sensitivity assuming no signal is 5.8×10^{25}  yr.

  12. Improved Limit on Neutrinoless Double-β Decay of Ge 76 from GERDA Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Biernat, J.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Comellato, T.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hiller, R.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kermaidic, Y.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pertoldi, L.; Pullia, A.; Ransom, C.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zschocke, A.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.; Gerda Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for the lepton-number-violating neutrinoless double-β decay of Ge 76 (Ge 76 →Se 76 +2 e- ) operating bare Ge diodes with an enriched Ge 76 fraction in liquid argon. The exposure for broad-energy germanium type (BEGe) detectors is increased threefold with respect to our previous data release. The BEGe detectors feature an excellent background suppression from the analysis of the time profile of the detector signals. In the analysis window a background level of 1. 0-0.4+0.6×10-3 counts /(keV kg yr ) has been achieved; if normalized to the energy resolution this is the lowest ever achieved in any 0 νβ β experiment. No signal is observed and a new 90% C.L. lower limit for the half-life of 8.0 ×1025 yr is placed when combining with our previous data. The expected median sensitivity assuming no signal is 5.8 ×1025 yr .

  13. A randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study of fospropofol disodium for sedation during colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lawrence B; Cattau, Edward; Goetsch, Allen; Shah, Atul; Weber, John R; Rex, Douglas K; Kline, Jacqueline M

    2010-01-01

    This double-blind, multicenter study evaluated the safety and efficacy of intravenous fospropofol (6.5 mg/kg vs. 2 mg/kg) for moderate sedation in patients undergoing colonoscopy. In all, 314 patients >or=18 years (American Society of Anesthesiologists PS1 to PS3) were randomized to receive fospropofol 2 mg/kg, fospropofol 6.5- mg/kg, or midazolam 0.02 mg/kg, after pretreatment with intravenous fentanyl 50 mcg. Supplemental doses of study medication were permitted to achieve a Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale score sedation success, recovery, memory retention, physician satisfaction, and safety. Sedation success was higher in the fospropofol 6.5 mg/kg versus 2 mg/kg group (87% vs. 26%; Pmemory retention (70% and 82% for the 6.5 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg groups, respectively) compared with 41% for the midazolam group. Mean physician satisfaction scores were higher in the fospropofol 6.5-mg/kg group (7.7) than the 2-mg/kg group (4.5), Psedation during colonoscopy and was associated with higher rates of sedation success, memory retention, and physician satisfaction than the fospropofol 2-mg/kg dose.

  14. Diatomite: A promising natural candidate as carrier material for low, middle and high temperature phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Tingting; Li, Jinhong; Min, Xin; Deng, Yong; Guan, Weimin; Ning, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Low-temperature PCMs are always the objects of prime investigations, however, the field of PCMs’ applications is not limited to low temperatures only. In the present study, three kinds of PCMs: polyethylene glycol (PEG), lithium nitrate, and sodium sulfate were respectively employed as the low-, middle- and high-temperature storage medium. A series of novel form-stable phase change materials (fs-PCMs) were tailor-made by blending diatomite and the three kinds of PCMs via a vacuum impregnation method or a facile mixing and sintering method. Various techniques were employed to characterize their structural and thermal properties. - Highlights: • Low-temperature PEG/diatomite was prepared. • Middle-temperature LiNO 3 /diatomite was prepared. • High-temperature Na 2 SO 4 /diatomite was prepared. - Abstract: Low-temperature PCMs are always the objects of prime investigations, however, the field of PCM’s application is not only limited to low temperatures. In this study, polyethylene glycol (PEG), lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ), and sodium sulfate (Na 2 SO 4 ) were respectively employed as the low-, middle- and high-temperature storage medium. A series of novel form-stable phase change materials (fs-PCMs) were tailor-made by blending diatomite and the three PCMs via a vacuum impregnation method or a facile mixing and sintering method. Various techniques were employed to characterize their structural and thermal properties. The maximum loads of PEG, LiNO 3 , and Na 2 SO 4 in diatomite powder could respectively reach 58%, 60%, and 65%, while PCM melts during the solid–liquid phase transformation. SEM, XRD, and FT-IR results indicated that PCMs were well dispersed into diatomite pores and no chemical changes took place during the heating and cooling process. The prepared fs-PCMs were quite stable in terms of thermal and chemical manner even after a 200-cycle of melting and freezing. The resulting composite fs-PCMs were promising candidates to

  15. Analysis of double stub tuner control stability in a phased array antenna with strong cross-coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, G.M., E-mail: wallaceg@mit.edu [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hillairet, J. [CEA-IRFM, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Koert, P.; Lin, Y.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wukitch, S.J. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A novel method for reducing reflection coefficients for LHCD launchers is proposed and evaluated. • Numerical models of antenna behavior with stub tuning are analyzed. • The system is found to be stable under most realistic operating conditions. - Abstract: Active stub tuning with a fast ferrite tuner (FFT) has greatly increased the effectiveness of fusion ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) systems (50–100 MHz) by allowing for the antenna system to respond dynamically to changes in the plasma load impedance such as during the L–H transition or edge localized modes (ELMs). A high power waveguide double-stub tuner is under development for use with the Alcator C-Mod lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system at 4.6 GHz. The amplitude and relative phase shift between adjacent columns of an LHCD antenna are critical for control of the launched n{sub ||} spectrum. Adding a double-stub tuning network will perturb the phase and amplitude of the forward wave particularly if the unmatched reflection coefficient is high. This effect can be compensated by adjusting the phase of the low power microwave drive for each klystron amplifier. Cross-coupling of the reflected power between columns of the launcher must also be considered. The problem is simulated by cascading a scattering matrix for the plasma provided by a linear coupling model with the measured launcher scattering matrix and that of the FFTs. The solution is advanced in an iterative manner similar to the time-dependent behavior of the real system. System performance is presented under a range of edge density conditions from under-dense to over-dense and a range of launched n{sub ||}. Simulations predict power reflection coefficients (Γ{sup 2}) of less than 1% with no contamination of the n{sub ||} spectrum. Instability of the FFT tuning network can be problematic for certain plasma conditions and relative phasings, but reducing the control gain of the FFT network stabilizes the system.

  16. Predictions for the Majorana CP violation phases in the neutrino mixing matrix and neutrinoless double beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, I.; Petcov, S. T.; Titov, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    We obtain predictions for the Majorana phases α21 / 2 and α31 / 2 of the 3 × 3 unitary neutrino mixing matrix U = Ue† Uν, Ue and Uν being the 3 × 3 unitary matrices resulting from the diagonalisation of the charged lepton and neutrino Majorana mass matrices, respectively. We focus on forms of Ue and Uν permitting to express α21 / 2 and α31 / 2 in terms of the Dirac phase δ and the three neutrino mixing angles of the standard parametrisation of U, and the angles and the two Majorana-like phases ξ21 / 2 and ξ31 / 2 present, in general, in Uν. The concrete forms of Uν considered are fixed by, or associated with, symmetries (tri-bimaximal, bimaximal, etc.), so that the angles in Uν are fixed. For each of these forms and forms of Ue that allow to reproduce the measured values of the three neutrino mixing angles θ12, θ23 and θ13, we derive predictions for phase differences (α21 / 2 -ξ21 / 2), (α31 / 2 -ξ31 / 2), etc., which are completely determined by the values of the mixing angles. We show that the requirement of generalised CP invariance of the neutrino Majorana mass term implies ξ21 = 0 or π and ξ31 = 0 or π. For these values of ξ21 and ξ31 and the best fit values of θ12, θ23 and θ13, we present predictions for the effective Majorana mass in neutrinoless double beta decay for both neutrino mass spectra with normal and inverted ordering.

  17. The optimum operating conditions of the phased double-rotor facility at the et-R R-1 reactor. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naguib, K; Habib, N; Kilany, M; Adib, M [Reactor and Neutron Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center, AEA., Cairo (Egypt); Wahba, M [Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The pulsed neutron polyenergetic thermal beam at ET-R R-1 is produced by a phased double-rotor facility. One of the rotors has two diametrically opposite curved slots, while the second is designed to operate as a rotating collimator, the dimensions of the phased rotating collimator are selected to match the curved slot rotor. The calculated collimator transmissions at different operating conditions are found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones. The optimum operating conditions of double-rotor facility are deduced. The calculations were carried out using a computer programme RCOL. The RCOL was designed in Fortran-77 to operate on PCs. 6 figs.

  18. The optimum operating conditions of the phased double-rotor facility at the et-R R-1 reactor. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, K.; Habib, N.; Kilany, M.; Adib, M.; Wahba, M.

    1996-01-01

    The pulsed neutron polyenergetic thermal beam at ET-R R-1 is produced by a phased double-rotor facility. One of the rotors has two diametrically opposite curved slots, while the second is designed to operate as a rotating collimator, the dimensions of the phased rotating collimator are selected to match the curved slot rotor. The calculated collimator transmissions at different operating conditions are found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones. The optimum operating conditions of double-rotor facility are deduced. The calculations were carried out using a computer programme RCOL. The RCOL was designed in Fortran-77 to operate on PCs. 6 figs

  19. Double closed-loop resonant micro optic gyro using hybrid digital phase modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huilian; Zhang, Jianjie; Wang, Linglan; Jin, Zhonghe

    2015-06-15

    It is well-known that the closed-loop operation in optical gyros offers wider dynamic range and better linearity. By adding a stair-like digital serrodyne wave to a phase modulator can be used as a frequency shifter. The width of one stair in this stair-like digital serrodyne wave should be set equal to the optical transmission time in the resonator, which is relaxed in the hybrid digital phase modulation (HDPM) scheme. The physical mechanism for this relaxation is firstly indicated in this paper. Detailed theoretical and experimental investigations are presented for the HDPM. Simulation and experimental results show that the width of one stair is not restricted by the optical transmission time, however, it should be optimized according to the rise time of the output of the digital-to-analogue converter. Based on the optimum parameters of the HDPM, a bias stability of 0.05°/s for the integration time of 400 seconds in 1 h has been carried out in an RMOG with a waveguide ring resonator with a length of 7.9 cm and a diameter of 2.5 cm.

  20. Two-dimensional analytical model of double-gate tunnel FETs with interface trapped charges including effects of channel mobile charge carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huifang; Dai, Yuehua

    2017-02-01

    A two-dimensional analytical model of double-gate (DG) tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) with interface trapped charges is proposed in this paper. The influence of the channel mobile charges on the potential profile is also taken into account in order to improve the accuracy of the models. On the basis of potential profile, the electric field is derived and the expression for the drain current is obtained by integrating the BTBT generation rate. The model can be used to study the impact of interface trapped charges on the surface potential, the shortest tunneling length, the drain current and the threshold voltage for varying interface trapped charge densities, length of damaged region as well as the structural parameters of the DG TFET and can also be utilized to design the charge trapped memory devices based on TFET. The biggest advantage of this model is that it is more accurate, and in its expression there are no fitting parameters with small calculating amount. Very good agreements for both the potential, drain current and threshold voltage are observed between the model calculations and the simulated results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61376106), the University Natural Science Research Key Project of Anhui Province (No. KJ2016A169), and the Introduced Talents Project of Anhui Science and Technology University.

  1. Hydrodynamics of double phase under high pressure: evolutions of flow configurations until critical heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisson, Claude

    1968-01-01

    This research thesis reports the experimental study of flows and of their evolution until critical heating by using appropriate measurement instruments. The objective is to understand how flow evolution may condition critical heating. After a recall of some notions and values related to the study of two-phase flows, and an overview of published works on flow configurations and on critical heating, the author describes test installation and measurement devices, presents the typical test process, reports instrument calibration, and flow configuration tests with water-air flow under low pressure. Results are reported. The author proposes explanations regarding observed phenomena, and a possible scheme to explain the flow evolution until critical heating [fr

  2. Efficacy of DNA double-strand breaks repair in breast cancer is decreased in carriers of the variant allele of the UBC9 gene c.73G>A polymorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Synowiec, Ewelina [Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Krupa, Renata [Laboratory of DNA Repair, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, Lodz (Poland); Morawiec, Zbigniew; Wasylecka, Maja [Department of Surgical Oncology, N. Copernicus Hospital, Lodz (Poland); Dziki, Lukasz; Morawiec, Jan [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Blasiak, Janusz [Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Wozniak, Katarzyna, E-mail: wozniak@biol.uni.lodz.pl [Laboratory of DNA Repair, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, Lodz (Poland)

    2010-12-10

    UBC9 (E2) SUMO conjugating enzyme plays an important role in the maintenance of genome stability and integrity. In the present work we examined the association between the c.73G>A (Val25Met) polymorphism of the UBC9 gene (rs11553473) and efficacy of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair (DRE) in breast cancer patients. We determined the level of endogenous (basal) and exogenous (induced by {gamma}-irradiation) DSBs and efficacy of their repair in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 57 breast cancer patients and 70 healthy individuals. DNA damage and repair were studied by neutral comet assay. Genotypes were determined in DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes by allele-specific PCR (ASO-PCR). We also correlated genotypes with the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients. We observed a strong association between breast cancer occurrence and the variant allele carried genotypes in patients with elevated level of basal as well as induced DNA damage (OR 6.74, 95% CI 2.27-20.0 and OR 5.33, 95% CI 1.81-15.7, respectively). We also found statistically significant (p < 0.05) difference in DRE related to the c.73G>A polymorphism of the UBC9 gene in breast cancer patients. Carriers of variant allele have decreased DNA DRE as compared to wild type genotype carriers. We did not find any association with the UBC9 gene polymorphism and estrogen and progesterone receptor status. The variant allele of the UBC9 gene polymorphism was strongly inversely related to HER negative breast cancer patients (OR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00-0.23). Our results suggest that the c.73G>A polymorphism of the UBC9 gene may affect DNA DSBs repair efficacy in breast cancer patients.

  3. Efficacy of DNA double-strand breaks repair in breast cancer is decreased in carriers of the variant allele of the UBC9 gene c.73G>A polymorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synowiec, Ewelina; Krupa, Renata; Morawiec, Zbigniew; Wasylecka, Maja; Dziki, Lukasz; Morawiec, Jan; Blasiak, Janusz; Wozniak, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    UBC9 (E2) SUMO conjugating enzyme plays an important role in the maintenance of genome stability and integrity. In the present work we examined the association between the c.73G>A (Val25Met) polymorphism of the UBC9 gene (rs11553473) and efficacy of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair (DRE) in breast cancer patients. We determined the level of endogenous (basal) and exogenous (induced by γ-irradiation) DSBs and efficacy of their repair in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 57 breast cancer patients and 70 healthy individuals. DNA damage and repair were studied by neutral comet assay. Genotypes were determined in DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes by allele-specific PCR (ASO-PCR). We also correlated genotypes with the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients. We observed a strong association between breast cancer occurrence and the variant allele carried genotypes in patients with elevated level of basal as well as induced DNA damage (OR 6.74, 95% CI 2.27-20.0 and OR 5.33, 95% CI 1.81-15.7, respectively). We also found statistically significant (p A polymorphism of the UBC9 gene in breast cancer patients. Carriers of variant allele have decreased DNA DRE as compared to wild type genotype carriers. We did not find any association with the UBC9 gene polymorphism and estrogen and progesterone receptor status. The variant allele of the UBC9 gene polymorphism was strongly inversely related to HER negative breast cancer patients (OR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00-0.23). Our results suggest that the c.73G>A polymorphism of the UBC9 gene may affect DNA DSBs repair efficacy in breast cancer patients.

  4. Preparation Of Liquid Phase-Double Antibodies Radioimmunoassay For The In Vitro Determination Of Prolactin Hormone In Human Serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MEHANY, N.L.; EL-KOLALY, M.T.; EBEID, N.H.; MEKY, N.H.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the preparation of the basic reagents of prolactin (PRL) radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique using liquid phase double antibody with low cost is considered to be the main objective. Three primary components were prepared and characterized to obtain valid and accurate system. These components were polyclonal antibody (anti-PRL), 125 I-prolactin ( 125 I-PRL) radio-iodinated tracer and PRL standards. The production of polyclonal anti-PRL was undertaken by immunizing eight males of white New-Zealand rabbits (two groups) with highly purified PRL antigen through primary injection and five booster doses subcutaneously and intramuscular. The preparation of radio-iodinated ( 1 '2 5 I-PRL) tracer was carried out using chloramine-T method. The preparation of PRL standards were carried out using highly purified PRL antigen in assay buffer. The obtained PRL-antisera were characterized in terms of titer, immuno response and displacement profile. Formulation, optimization and validation of the local liquid phase RIA system were carried out. The results obtained provide a highly sensitive, specific and accurate RIA system of PRL. In conclusion, this technique could be used in diagnosis of pituitary dysfunction such as hyperprolactinaemia and hyperprolactinaemia, prolactinoma, galactorrhoea, amenorrhea and diagnosis of infertility in males and females.

  5. Asymmetric double-image encryption method by using iterative phase retrieval algorithm in fractional Fourier transform domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Liansheng; Lu, Haiwei; Ning, Xiaojuan; Wang, Yinghui

    2014-02-01

    A double-image encryption scheme is proposed based on an asymmetric technique, in which the encryption and decryption processes are different and the encryption keys are not identical to the decryption ones. First, a phase-only function (POF) of each plain image is retrieved by using an iterative process and then encoded into an interim matrix. Two interim matrices are directly modulated into a complex image by using the convolution operation in the fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) domain. Second, the complex image is encrypted into the gray scale ciphertext with stationary white-noise distribution by using the FrFT. In the encryption process, three random phase functions are used as encryption keys to retrieve the POFs of plain images. Simultaneously, two decryption keys are generated in the encryption process, which make the optical implementation of the decryption process convenient and efficient. The proposed encryption scheme has high robustness to various attacks, such as brute-force attack, known plaintext attack, cipher-only attack, and specific attack. Numerical simulations demonstrate the validity and security of the proposed method.

  6. Dietary Soy Supplement on Fibromyalgia Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Early Phase Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Thompson, Jeffrey M.; Luedtke, Connie A.; King, Susan M.; Cha, Stephen S.; Elkin, Peter L.; Bruce, Barbara K.; Townsend, Cynthia O.; Bergeson, Jody R.; Eickhoff, Andrea L.; Loehrer, Laura L.; Sood, Amit; Bauer, Brent A.

    2011-01-01

    Most patients with fibromyalgia use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Properly designed controlled trials are necessary to assess the effectiveness of these practices. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, early phase trial. Fifty patients seen at a fibromyalgia outpatient treatment program were randomly assigned to a daily soy or placebo (casein) shake. Outcome measures were scores of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention. Analysis was with standard statistics based on the null hypothesis, and separation test for early phase CAM comparative trials. Twenty-eight patients completed the study. Use of standard statistics with intent-to-treat analysis showed that total FIQ scores decreased by 14% in the soy group (P = .02) and by 18% in the placebo group (P fibromyalgia treatment program, provide a decrease in fibromyalgia symptoms. Separation between the effects of soy and casein (control) shakes did not favor the intervention. Therefore, large-sample studies using soy for patients with fibromyalgia are probably not indicated. PMID:18990724

  7. Facilitated transport of hydrophilic salts by mixtures of anion and cation carriers and by ditopic carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrisstoffels, L.A.J.; de Jong, Feike; Reinhoudt, David; Sivelli, Stefano; Gazzola, Licia; Casnati, Alessandro; Ungaro, Rocco

    1999-01-01

    Anion transfer to the membrane phase affects the extraction efficiency of salt transport by cation carriers 1 and 3. Addition of anion receptors 5 or 6 to cation carriers 1, 3, or 4 in the membrane phase enhances the transport of salts under conditions in which the cation carriers alone do not

  8. Magnetic particles as liquid carriers in the microfluidic lab-in-tube approach to detect phase change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenschein, Nicholas A; Han, Daewoo; Caggioni, Marco; Steckl, Andrew J

    2014-06-11

    Magnetic beads (MBs) with ∼1.9 μm average diameter were used to transport specific microliter-scale volumes of liquids between adjacent reservoirs within a closed tube under the influence of a magnetic field. The tube's inner surface is coated with a hydrophobic layer, enabling the formation of a surface tension valve by inserting an air gap between reservoirs. This transfer process was implemented by keeping the MBs stationary with a fixed external magnet while the liquid reservoirs were translated by a computer-controlled syringe pump system. The magnet induces the aggregation of MBs in a loosely packed cluster (void volume ∼90-95%) against the tube's inner wall. The liquid trapped in the MB cluster is transported across the air gap between reservoirs. Fluorescence intensity from a dye placed in one reservoir is used to measure the volume of liquid transferred between reservoirs. The carry-over liquid volume is controlled by the mass of the MBs within the device. The typical volume of liquid carried by the MB cluster is ∼2 to 3 μL/mg of beads, allowing the use of small samples. This technique can be used to study the effect of small compositional variation on the properties of fluid mixtures. The feasibility of this "lab-in-tube" approach for binary phase diagram determination in a water-surfactant (C12E5) system was demonstrated.

  9. Solar neutrino detection in a large volume double-phase liquid argon experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, D.; Agnes, P. [APC, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris 75205 (France); Giganti, C.; Agostino, L.; De Cecco, S., E-mail: dfranco@in2p3.fr, E-mail: cgiganti@lpnhe.in2p3.fr, E-mail: pagnes@in2p3.fr, E-mail: lagostin@lpnhe.in2p3.fr, E-mail: sandro.dececco@lpnhe.in2p3.fr [LPNHE Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, Paris 75252 (France); and others

    2016-08-01

    Precision measurements of solar neutrinos emitted by specific nuclear reaction chains in the Sun are of great interest for developing an improved understanding of star formation and evolution. Given the expected neutrino fluxes and known detection reactions, such measurements require detectors capable of collecting neutrino-electron scattering data in exposures on the order of 1 ktonne-yr, with good energy resolution and extremely low background. Two-phase liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPCs) are under development for direct Dark Matter WIMP searches, which possess very large sensitive mass, high scintillation light yield, good energy resolution, and good spatial resolution in all three cartesian directions. While enabling Dark Matter searches with sensitivity extending to the ''neutrino floor'' (given by the rate of nuclear recoil events from solar neutrino coherent scattering), such detectors could also enable precision measurements of solar neutrino fluxes using the neutrino-electron elastic scattering events. Modeling results are presented for the cosmogenic and radiogenic backgrounds affecting solar neutrino detection in a 300 tonne (100 tonne fiducial) LAr TPC operating at LNGS depth (3,800 meters of water equivalent). The results show that such a detector could measure the CNO neutrino rate with ∼15% precision, and significantly improve the precision of the {sup 7}Be and pep neutrino rates compared to the currently available results from the Borexino organic liquid scintillator detector.

  10. The Effects of One and Double Heat Treatment Cycles on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Ferritic-Bainitic Dual Phase Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piri, Reza; Ghasemi, Behrooz; Yousefpour, Mardali

    2018-03-01

    In this study, samples with ferritic-bainitic dual phase structures consisting of 62 pct bainite were obtained from the AISI 4140 steel by applying one and double heat treatment cycles. Microstructural investigations by electron and optical microscopy indicated that the sample heat treated through double cycle benefited from finer ferrite and bainite grains. Additionally, results obtained from mechanical tests implied that the double-cycle heat-treated sample not only has a higher tensile strength as well as ultimate strength but also benefits from a higher ductility along with a higher impact energy than the one-cycle heat-treated sample. Moreover, fractography results showed that the type of fracture in both samples is a combination of the brittle and the ductile fracture. Besides, the ratio of the ductile fracture is higher for the double-cycle heat-treated sample than for the one-cycle sample, due to the lower aggregation of sulfur at grain boundaries.

  11. Search for the neutrinoless double β-decay in GERDA phase I using a pulse shape discrimination technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment, located underground at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy, deploys high-purity germanium detectors to search for the neutrinoless double β-decay (0νββ) of 76 Ge. An observation of this lepton number violating process, which is expected by many extensions of the Standard Model, would not only generate a fundamental shift in our understanding of particle physics, but also unambiguously prove the neutrino to have a non-vanishing Majorana mass component. A first phase of data recording lasted from November 2011 to May 2013 - resulting in a total exposure (defined as the product of detector mass and measurement time) of 21.6 kg.yr. Within this thesis a thorough study of this data with special emphasis on the development and scrutiny of an active background suppression technique by means of a signal shape analysis has been performed. Among several investigated multivariate approaches, particularly a selection algorithm based on an artificial neural network is found to yield the best performance; i.a. the background index close to the Q-value of the 0νββ-decay could be suppressed by 45% to 1.10 -2 cts/(keV.kg.yr), while still retaining a considerably high signal survival fraction of (83±3)% leading to a significant improvement of the experimental sensitivity. The efficiency is derived by a simulation and further validated by substantiated consistency checks availing themselves of measurements taken with different calibration sources and physics data. No signal is observed and a new lower limit of T 0ν 1/2 (90%C.L.)> 2.2. 10 25 yr for the half-life of neutrinoless double β-decay of 76 Ge is established.

  12. Search for the neutrinoless double β-decay in GERDA phase I using a pulse shape discrimination technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, Andrea

    2014-07-09

    The Germanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment, located underground at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy, deploys high-purity germanium detectors to search for the neutrinoless double β-decay (0νββ) of {sup 76}Ge. An observation of this lepton number violating process, which is expected by many extensions of the Standard Model, would not only generate a fundamental shift in our understanding of particle physics, but also unambiguously prove the neutrino to have a non-vanishing Majorana mass component. A first phase of data recording lasted from November 2011 to May 2013 - resulting in a total exposure (defined as the product of detector mass and measurement time) of 21.6 kg.yr. Within this thesis a thorough study of this data with special emphasis on the development and scrutiny of an active background suppression technique by means of a signal shape analysis has been performed. Among several investigated multivariate approaches, particularly a selection algorithm based on an artificial neural network is found to yield the best performance; i.a. the background index close to the Q-value of the 0νββ-decay could be suppressed by 45% to 1.10{sup -2} cts/(keV.kg.yr), while still retaining a considerably high signal survival fraction of (83±3)% leading to a significant improvement of the experimental sensitivity. The efficiency is derived by a simulation and further validated by substantiated consistency checks availing themselves of measurements taken with different calibration sources and physics data. No signal is observed and a new lower limit of T{sup 0ν}{sub 1/2} (90%C.L.)> 2.2. 10{sup 25} yr for the half-life of neutrinoless double β-decay of {sup 76}Ge is established.

  13. Eutectic, monotectic and immiscibility systems of nimesulide with water-soluble carriers: phase equilibria, solid-state characterisation and in-vivo/pharmacodynamic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, Hamdy; Abdallah, Ossama Y; Salem, Hesham; Alani, Adam W G; Alany, Raid G

    2014-10-01

    The solid-state interactions of fused mixtures nimesulide (ND) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000, urea or mannitol were studied through constructing thaw-melt phase equilibrium diagrams. The solid-state characteristics were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Various types of interactions were identified such as the formation of a eutectic system of ND-PEG 4000, monotectic system of ND-urea and complete solid immiscibility of ND with mannitol. The effects of carrier concentrations on the equilibrium solubility and in-vitro dissolution characteristics were studied. Linear increases (R(2)  > 0.99) in the aqueous solubility of ND in various concentrations of PEG 4000 and urea were obtained, whereas mannitol did not exhibit any effect on the solubility of ND. Similar trends were obtained with the dissolution efficiency of the fused mixtures of ND with PEG 4000 and urea compared with the corresponding physical mixtures and untreated drug. The analgesic effects of untreated ND and the selected formulations were investigated by evaluating the drug's ability to inhibit the acetic acid-induced writhing response. The analgesic effect of ND in a eutectic mixture with PEG 4000 and a monotectic mixture with urea was potentiated by 3.2 and 2.7-fold respectively compared with the untreated drug. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Everolimus for Previously Treated Advanced Gastric Cancer: Results of the Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase III GRANITE-1 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsu, Atsushi; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Bai, Yu-Xian; Bang, Yung-Jue; Chung, Hyun-Cheol; Pan, Hong-Ming; Sahmoud, Tarek; Shen, Lin; Yeh, Kun-Huei; Chin, Keisho; Muro, Kei; Kim, Yeul Hong; Ferry, David; Tebbutt, Niall C.; Al-Batran, Salah-Eddin; Smith, Heind; Costantini, Chiara; Rizvi, Syed; Lebwohl, David; Van Cutsem, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The oral mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus demonstrated promising efficacy in a phase II study of pretreated advanced gastric cancer. This international, double-blind, phase III study compared everolimus efficacy and safety with that of best supportive care (BSC) in previously treated advanced gastric cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with advanced gastric cancer that progressed after one or two lines of systemic chemotherapy were randomly assigned to everolimus 10 mg/d (assignment schedule: 2:1) or matching placebo, both given with BSC. Randomization was stratified by previous chemotherapy lines (one v two) and region (Asia v rest of the world [ROW]). Treatment continued until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate, and safety. Results Six hundred fifty-six patients (median age, 62.0 years; 73.6% male) were enrolled. Median OS was 5.4 months with everolimus and 4.3 months with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.08; P = .124). Median PFS was 1.7 months and 1.4 months in the everolimus and placebo arms, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.78). Common grade 3/4 adverse events included anemia, decreased appetite, and fatigue. The safety profile was similar in patients enrolled in Asia versus ROW. Conclusion Compared with BSC, everolimus did not significantly improve overall survival for advanced gastric cancer that progressed after one or two lines of previous systemic chemotherapy. The safety profile observed for everolimus was consistent with that observed for everolimus in other cancers. PMID:24043745

  15. Dietary Soy Supplement on Fibromyalgia Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Early Phase Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietlind L. Wahner-Roedler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with fibromyalgia use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Properly designed controlled trials are necessary to assess the effectiveness of these practices. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, early phase trial. Fifty patients seen at a fibromyalgia outpatient treatment program were randomly assigned to a daily soy or placebo (casein shake. Outcome measures were scores of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention. Analysis was with standard statistics based on the null hypothesis, and separation test for early phase CAM comparative trials. Twenty-eight patients completed the study. Use of standard statistics with intent-to-treat analysis showed that total FIQ scores decreased by 14% in the soy group (P = .02 and by 18% in the placebo group (P < .001. The difference in change in scores between the groups was not significant (P = .16. With the same analysis, CES-D scores decreased in the soy group by 16% (P = .004 and in the placebo group by 15% (P = .05. The change in scores was similar in the groups (P = .83. Results of statistical analysis using the separation test and intent-to-treat analysis revealed no benefit of soy compared with placebo. Shakes that contain soy and shakes that contain casein, when combined with a multidisciplinary fibromyalgia treatment program, provide a decrease in fibromyalgia symptoms. Separation between the effects of soy and casein (control shakes did not favor the intervention. Therefore, large-sample studies using soy for patients with fibromyalgia are probably not indicated.

  16. Iodixanol in cerebral computed tomography: a randomized, double-blind, phase-III, parallel study with iodixanol and iohexol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerfler, A.; Wanke, I.; Forsting, M.; Fiebach, J.; Sartor, K.; Henseke, P.

    1999-01-01

    Iodixanol is a new nonionic dimer, isotonic with blood at all clinically relevant concentrations. Iodixanol (270 mg I/ml) was compared in a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, phase-III study to the monomeric nonionic iohexol (300 mg I/ml) for evaluation of safety, tolerability and radiographic efficacy during cerebral CT. One hundred adult patients scheduled to undergo contrast-enhanced cerebral CT were randomly allocated to receive either iodixanol or iohexol. All completed the trial. Safety was evaluated by recording discomfort and other adverse events, tolerance by assessing intensity and incidence of discomfort. Radiographic efficacy was assessed from the diagnostic information and the radiographic density. No serious adverse events occurred. One patient (2 %) in the iodixanol group and one patient (2 %) in the iohexol group experienced a transient reddening at the neck and lower neck-line, respectively. Both contrast agents were well tolerated. One patient (2 %) in the iodixanol group and two patients (4 %) in the iohexol group experienced a sensation of warmth (discomfort) in connection with the injection. No difference between the two contrast media were noted radiographically. This comparison between iodixanol and iohexol showed both contrast media to be safe, well-tolerated and efficacious for use in cerebral CT. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of the double antibody - solid phase radioimmunoassay technique in plasma LH and FSH and urinary LH measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karonen, S.-L.; Laehteenmaeki, P.; Hohenthal, U.; Adlercreutz, H.

    1978-01-01

    Double antibody phase (DASP) radioimmunoassay methods for plasma LH and FSH and urinary LH were developed and carefully evaluated as to their reliability and practicability. The peptide hormones were iodinated enzymatically with immobilized lactoperoxidase which resulted in pure and stable products of unchanged immunoreactivity. The sensitivities of these assay methods are 0.02, 0.17 and 0.20 mlU/tube for plasma LH (MRC 68/40) and FSH (MRC 68/39) and urinary LH (IRP-HMG, urinary), respectively. Interassay coefficients of variation obtained over a 6-18 month period were 14.2, 14.7 and 12.8%, respectively. The latter values for plasma LH and FSH assays were obtained from one level pool samples, and the value for urinary LH is the mean of those obtained from two pools of different levels. Plasma reference values for LH and FSH obtained using these methods are about 1.8-2.9 times higher than those cited for other types of radioimmunoassay. However, the values obtained for LH in urine are similar to those reported in the literature. It is suggested that the DASP technique is less influenced by interference from plasma proteins and because of this gives plasma values closer to the true ones. It is concluded that the methods are well suited for use as routine clinical assays in laboratories with a high work load. (Auth.)

  18. Intravitreal Sirolimus for Noninfectious Uveitis: A Phase III Sirolimus Study Assessing Double-masKed Uveitis TReAtment (SAKURA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quan Dong; Merrill, Pauline T; Clark, W Lloyd; Banker, Alay S; Fardeau, Christine; Franco, Pablo; LeHoang, Phuc; Ohno, Shigeaki; Rathinam, Sivakumar R; Thurau, Stephan; Abraham, Abu; Wilson, Laura; Yang, Yang; Shams, Naveed

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal sirolimus in the treatment of noninfectious uveitis (NIU) of the posterior segment (i.e., posterior, intermediate, or panuveitis). Phase III, randomized, double-masked, active-controlled, 6-month study with intravitreal sirolimus. Adults with active NIU of the posterior segment (intermediate, posterior, or panuveitis), defined as a vitreous haze (VH) score >1+. Subjects discontinued NIU medications before baseline, except for systemic corticosteroids, which were allowed only for those already receiving them at baseline and were rapidly tapered after baseline per protocol. Intravitreal sirolimus assigned 1:1:1 at doses of 44 (active control), 440, or 880 μg, administered on Days 1, 60, and 120. The primary efficacy outcome was the percentage of subjects with VH 0 response at Month 5 (study eye) without use of rescue therapy. Secondary outcomes at Month 5 were VH 0 or 0.5+ response rate, corticosteroid tapering success rate (i.e., tapering to a prednisone-equivalent dosage of ≤5 mg/day), and changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Adverse events during the double-masked treatment period are presented. A total of 347 subjects were randomized. Higher proportions of subjects in the intravitreal sirolimus 440 μg (22.8%; P = 0.025) and 880 μg (16.4%; P = 0.182) groups met the primary end point than in the 44 μg group (10.3%). Likewise, higher proportions of subjects in the 440 μg (52.6%; P = 0.008) and 880 μg (43.1%; P = 0.228) groups achieved a VH score of 0 or 0.5+ than in the 44 μg group (35.0%). Mean BCVA was maintained throughout the study in each dose group, and the majority of subjects receiving corticosteroids at baseline successfully tapered off corticosteroids (44 μg [63.6%], 440 μg [76.9%], and 880 μg [66.7%]). Adverse events in the treatment and active control groups were similar in incidence, and all doses were well tolerated. Intravitreal sirolimus 440 μg demonstrated a significant

  19. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority......, submarines, aircraft and helicopters, is not likely to be fully operational and war-capable until 2020, given the fact that China is starting from a clean sheet of paper. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Russia and India are currently building or have made decisions to build new...

  20. Pomaglumetad Methionil (LY2140023 Monohydrate and Aripiprazole in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Phase 3, Multicenter, Double-Blind Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Adams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that long-term treatment with pomaglumetad methionil would demonstrate significantly less weight gain than aripiprazole in patients with schizophrenia. In this 24-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, Phase 3 study, 678 schizophrenia patients were randomized to either pomaglumetad methionil (n=516 or aripiprazole (n=162. Treatment groups were also compared on efficacy and various safety measures, including serious adverse events (SAEs, discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs, treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs, extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS, and suicide-related thoughts and behaviors. The pomaglumetad methionil group showed significantly greater weight loss at Week 24 (Visit 12 compared with the aripiprazole group (−2.8 ± 0.4 versus 0.4 ± 0.6; P<0.001. However, change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total scores for aripiprazole was significantly greater than for pomaglumetad methionil (−15.58 ± 1.58 versus −12.03 ± 0.99; P=0.045. The incidences of SAEs (8.2% versus 3.1%; P=0.032 and discontinuation due to AEs (16.2% versus 8.7%; P=0.020 were significantly higher for pomaglumetad methionil compared with aripiprazole. No statistically significant differences in the incidence of TEAEs, EPS, or suicidal ideation or behavior were noted between treatment groups. In conclusion, long-term treatment with pomaglumetad methionil resulted in significantly less weight gain than aripiprazole. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01328093.

  1. Comparison of Iohexol-380 and Iohexol-350 for coronary CT angiography: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind phase 3 trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun Ah; Lee, Whal [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Doo Kyoung [Dept. of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-06-15

    This multi-center, randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of contrast agents iohexol-380 and iohexol-350 for coronary CT angiography in healthy subjects. Volunteers were randomized to receive 420 mgI/kg of either iohexol-350 or iohexol-380 using a flow rate of 4 mL/sec. All adverse events were recorded. Two blinded readers independently reviewed the CT images and conflicting results were resolved by a third reader. Luminal attenuations (ascending aorta, left main coronary artery, and left ventricle) in Hounsfield units (HUs) and image quality on a 4-point scale were calculated. A total of 225 subjects were given contrast media (115 with iohexol-380 and 110 with iohexol-350). There was no difference in number of adverse drug reactions between groups: 75 events in 56 (48.7%) of 115 subjects in the iohexol-380 group vs. 74 events in 51 (46.4%) of 110 subjects in the iohexol-350 group (p = 0.690). No severe adverse drug reactions were recorded. Neither group showed an increase in serum creatinine. Significant differences in mean density between the groups was found in the ascending aorta: 375.8 ± 71.4 HU with iohexol-380 vs. 356.3 ± 61.5 HU with iohexol-350 (p = 0.030). No significant differences in image quality scores between both groups were observed for all three anatomic evaluations (all, p > 0.05). Iohexol-380 provides improved enhancement of the ascending aorta and similar attenuation of the coronary arteries without any increase in adverse drug reactions, as compared with iohexol-350 using an identical amount of total iodine.

  2. Comparison of Iohexol-380 and Iohexol-350 for coronary CT angiography: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind phase 3 trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun Ah; Lee, Whal; Kang, Doo Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    This multi-center, randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of contrast agents iohexol-380 and iohexol-350 for coronary CT angiography in healthy subjects. Volunteers were randomized to receive 420 mgI/kg of either iohexol-350 or iohexol-380 using a flow rate of 4 mL/sec. All adverse events were recorded. Two blinded readers independently reviewed the CT images and conflicting results were resolved by a third reader. Luminal attenuations (ascending aorta, left main coronary artery, and left ventricle) in Hounsfield units (HUs) and image quality on a 4-point scale were calculated. A total of 225 subjects were given contrast media (115 with iohexol-380 and 110 with iohexol-350). There was no difference in number of adverse drug reactions between groups: 75 events in 56 (48.7%) of 115 subjects in the iohexol-380 group vs. 74 events in 51 (46.4%) of 110 subjects in the iohexol-350 group (p = 0.690). No severe adverse drug reactions were recorded. Neither group showed an increase in serum creatinine. Significant differences in mean density between the groups was found in the ascending aorta: 375.8 ± 71.4 HU with iohexol-380 vs. 356.3 ± 61.5 HU with iohexol-350 (p = 0.030). No significant differences in image quality scores between both groups were observed for all three anatomic evaluations (all, p > 0.05). Iohexol-380 provides improved enhancement of the ascending aorta and similar attenuation of the coronary arteries without any increase in adverse drug reactions, as compared with iohexol-350 using an identical amount of total iodine

  3. Phase diagram as a function of temperature and magnetic field for magnetic semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, I.; Castro, J.; Baldomir, D.

    2002-01-01

    Using an extension of the Nagaev model of phase separation (E.L. Nagaev, and A.I. Podel'shchikov, Sov. Phys. JETP, 71 (1990) 1108), we calculate the phase diagram for degenerate antiferromagnetic semiconductors in the T-H plane for different current carrier densities. Both, wide-band semiconductors and 'double-exchange' materials, are investigated.

  4. Phase diagram as a function of temperature and magnetic field for magnetic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, I.; Castro, J.; Baldomir, D.

    2002-10-01

    Using an extension of the Nagaev model of phase separation [E. L. Nagaev and A. I. Podel'shchikov, Sov. Phys. JETP, 71, 1108 (1990)] we calculate the phase diagram for degenerate antiferromagnetic semiconductors in the T-H plane for different current carrier densities. Both wide-band semiconductors and double-exchange materials are investigated.

  5. How High Local Charge Carrier Mobility and an Energy Cascade in a Three-Phase Bulk Heterojunction Enable >90% Quantum Efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Burke, Timothy M.

    2013-12-27

    Charge generation in champion organic solar cells is highly efficient in spite of low bulk charge-carrier mobilities and short geminate-pair lifetimes. In this work, kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are used to understand efficient charge generation in terms of experimentally measured high local charge-carrier mobilities and energy cascades due to molecular mixing. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. How High Local Charge Carrier Mobility and an Energy Cascade in a Three-Phase Bulk Heterojunction Enable >90% Quantum Efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Burke, Timothy M.; McGehee, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Charge generation in champion organic solar cells is highly efficient in spite of low bulk charge-carrier mobilities and short geminate-pair lifetimes. In this work, kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are used to understand efficient charge generation in terms of experimentally measured high local charge-carrier mobilities and energy cascades due to molecular mixing. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Advances in coherent optical modems and 16-QAM transmission with feedforward carrier recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, Reinhold; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Wördehoff, Christian; Al-Bermani, Ali; El-Darawy, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Polarization multiplexing and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) both double spectral efficiency. Combined with synchronous coherent polarization diverse intradyne receivers this modulation format is ultra-robust and cost-efficient. A feedforward carrier recovery is required in order to tolerate phase noise of normal DFB lasers. Signal processing in the digital domain permits compensation of at least chromatic and polarization mode dispersion. Some companies have products on the market, others are working on them. For 100 GbE transmission, 50 GHz channel spacing is sufficient. 16ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) is attractive to double capacity once more, possibly in a modulation format flexible transponder which is switched down to QPSK only if system margin is too low. For 16-QAM the phase noise problem is sharply increased. However, also here a feedforward carrier recovery has been implemented. A number of carrier phase angles is tested in parallel, and the recovered data is selected for that phase angle where squared distance of recovered data to the nearest constellation point, averaged over a number of symbols, is minimum. An intradyne/selfhomodyne synchronous coherent 16-QAM experiment (2.5 Gb/s, 81 km) is presented.

  8. Composition and structure of solid-phase carriers of activity in soils of the exclusion zone.; Stroenie i sostav tverdofaznykh nositelej aktivnosti v pochvakh Zony otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, G N; Dolin, V V; Val` ter, A A; Tikhanov, Eh K [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Geokhimii i Fiziki Mineralov; [Nauchno-Proizvodstvennoe Ob` ` edinenie Pripyat` , Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    From four different soils in the exclusion Chernobyl zone 35 << hot >> particles were picked out, their radionuclide and substance composition was investigated. To estimate a specific quantity of solid-phase carriers of activity we have calculated a ratio of activities of {sup 144} Ce and {sup 137} Cs in soils to the particles. Substance composition of the << hot >> particles investigated by the methods of electronic microscopy.

  9. Determination of haloacetic acids in water using layered double hydroxides as a sorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharaa, Abdulnaser; Sajid, Muhammad; Basheer, Chanbasha; Alhooshani, Khalid; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, highly efficient and simple dispersive solid-phase extraction procedure for the determination of haloacetic acids in water samples has been established. Three different types of layered double hydroxides were synthesized and used as a sorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction. Due to the interesting behavior of layered double hydroxides in an acidic medium (pH˂4), the analyte elution step was not needed; the layered double hydroxides are simply dissolved in acid immediately after extraction to release the analytes which are then directly introduced into a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry system for analysis. Several dispersive solid-phase extraction parameters were optimized to increase the extraction efficiency of haloacetic acids such as temperature, extraction time and pH. Under optimum conditions, good linearity was achieved over the concentration range of 0.05-100 μg/L with detection limits in the range of 0.006-0.05 μg/L. The relative standard deviations were 0.33-3.64% (n = 6). The proposed method was applied to different water samples collected from a drinking water plant to determine the concentrations of haloacetic acids. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Raman and infrared spectroscopic investigations of a ferroelastic phase transition in B a2ZnTe O6 double perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Roberto L.; Lobo, Ricardo P. S. M.; Ramos, Sérgio L. L. M.; Sebastian, Mailadil T.; Matinaga, Franklin M.; Righi, Ariete; Dias, Anderson

    2018-05-01

    The low-temperature vibrational properties of B a2ZnTe O6 double-perovskite ceramics obtained by the solid-state route were investigated by Raman scattering and Fourier-transform infrared reflectivity. We found that this material undergoes a reversible ferroelastic phase transition at around 140 K, well compatible with a recently proposed rhombohedral-to-monoclinic structural change that would occur below 165 K. Complementary calorimetric measurements showed that the phase transition has a first-order character, with an entropy jump compatible with a displacive mechanism. The vibrational spectra show clearly the splitting of the doubly degenerate E modes into nondegenerate representations of the low-symmetry phase. In particular, the lowest-frequency Raman mode presents soft-mode behavior and splits below the critical temperature, confirming the in-plane ferroelastic deformation in the low-temperature phase.

  11. Double-phase {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT for determination of pulmonary tuberculoma activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Yong-Ki [Pusan National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Busan (Korea); Pusan National University Hospital, Medical Research Institute, Busan (Korea); Lee, Jung Sub [Pusan National University Hospital, Medical Research Institute, Busan (Korea); Pusan National University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Busan (Korea); Jeong, Yeon Joo [Pusan National University Hospital, Medical Research Institute, Busan (Korea); Pusan National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea); Jun, Sungmin; Nam, Hyun Yul [Pusan National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Busan (Korea); Kim, Ju Sung [College of Medical and Life Sciences, Silla University, Department of Nursing, Busan (Korea)

    2008-04-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential role of double phase acquisition of {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for the differentiation of active pulmonary tuberculoma. A total of 25 consecutive patients with pulmonary tuberculoma were enrolled. PET/CT imaging was performed 60 (range 53-71) and 120 min (range 109-131) after injection of {sup 18}F-FDG. The intensity of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake by pulmonary lesions was assessed visually, and the intensity was scored with a four-point scale (grade 1: absent, grade 2: faint, grade 3: moderate, grade 4: intense). Active tuberculoma shows statistically significant higher values in maximal standardized uptake values SUV{sub maxE} (active = 2.3 {+-} 0.75, inactive = 0.79 {+-} 0.15), SUV{sub maxD} (active = 2.48 {+-} 0.79, inactive = 0.75 {+-} 0.13), and %{delta}SUV{sub max} (active = 8.07 {+-} 7.77%, inactive = -3.83 {+-} 6.59) than those of inactive tuberculoma. When greater than or equal to visual grade 2 was used as the cutoff value, the sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 81.8%. When SUV{sub maxE} 1.05 was used as the cutoff point, the sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 100%. When SUV{sub maxD} 0.97 was used as the cutoff value, the sensitivity and specificity were 92.8 and 100%. When %{delta}SUV{sub max} 6.59 was used as the cutoff value, the sensitivity and specificity were 71.4 and 100%. The %{delta}SUV{sub max} was the potent predictor by logistic regression analysis. The {delta}SUV{sub max} is a potential predictor for activity of pulmonary tuberculoma. However, the diagnostic performances were similar between visual and quantitative analyses. The visual assessment may be sufficient for determination of pulmonary tuberculoma activity. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and improve statistical accuracy. (orig.)

  12. Safety and efficacy of eculizumab in Guillain-Barré syndrome: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Sonoko; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Sato, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Nobuko; Nagashima, Kengo; Katayama, Kanako; Sekiguchi, Yukari; Iwai, Yuta; Amino, Hiroshi; Suichi, Tomoki; Yokota, Takanori; Nishida, Yoichiro; Kanouchi, Tadashi; Kohara, Nobuo; Kawamoto, Michi; Ishii, Junko; Kuwahara, Motoi; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Hirata, Koichi; Kokubun, Norito; Masuda, Ray; Kaneko, Juntaro; Yabe, Ichiro; Sasaki, Hidenao; Kaida, Ken-Ichi; Takazaki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Norihiro; Suzuki, Shigeaki; Nodera, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Naoko; Tsuji, Shoji; Koike, Haruki; Yamasaki, Ryo; Kusunoki, Susumu

    2018-06-01

    Despite the introduction of plasmapheresis and immunoglobulin therapy, many patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome still have an incomplete recovery. Evidence from pathogenesis studies suggests the involvement of complement-mediated peripheral nerve damage. We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of eculizumab, a humanised monoclonal antibody against the complement protein C5, in patients with severe Guillain-Barré syndrome. This study was a 24 week, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase 2 trial done at 13 hospitals in Japan. Eligible patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome were aged 18 years or older and could not walk independently (Guillain-Barré syndrome functional grade 3-5). Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive 4 weeks of intravenous immunoglobulin plus either eculizumab (900 mg) or placebo; randomisation was done via a computer-generated process and web response system with minimisation for functional grade and age. The study had a parallel non-comparative single-arm outcome measure. The primary outcomes were efficacy (the proportion of patients with restored ability to walk independently [functional grade ≤2] at week 4) in the eculizumab group and safety in the full analysis set. For the efficacy endpoint, we predefined a response rate threshold of the lower 90% CI boundary exceeding 50%. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number, NCT02493725. Between Aug 10, 2015, and April 21, 2016, 34 patients were assigned to receive either eculizumab (n=23) or placebo (n=11). At week 4, the proportion of the patients able to walk independently (functional grade ≤2) was 61% (90% CI 42-78; n=14) in the eculizumab group, and 45% (20-73; n=5) in the placebo group. Adverse events occurred in all 34 patients. Three patients had serious adverse events: two in the eculizumab group (anaphylaxis in one patient and intracranial haemorrhage and abscess in another patient) and one in the placebo group (depression

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and immune efficacy of layered double hydroxide@SiO2 nanoparticles with shell-core structure as a delivery carrier for Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kai Zhao,1,* Guangyu Rong,1,2,* Chen Guo,1 Xiaomei Luo,1 Hong Kang,1 Yanwei Sun,1,3 Chunxiao Dai,4 Xiaohua Wang,1 Xin Wang,1 Zheng Jin,4 Shangjin Cui,3 Qingshen Sun1 1Key Laboratory of Microbiology, School of Life Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Avian Infectious Disease, Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Division of Swine Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People’s Republic of China; 4Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Process and Technology for High-efficiency Conversion, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Layered double hydroxide (LDH@SiO2 nanoparticles were developed as a delivery carrier for the plasmid DNA expressing the Newcastle disease virus F gene. The LDH was hydrotalcite-like materials. The plasmid DNA encapsulated in the LDH@SiO2 nanoparticles (pFDNA-LDH@SiO2-NPs was prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the properties of pFDNA-LDH@SiO2-NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results demonstrated that the pFDNA-LDH@SiO2-NPs had a regular morphology and high stability with a mean diameter of 371.93 nm, loading capacity of 39.66%±0.45%, and a zeta potential of +31.63 mV. A release assay in vitro showed that up to 91.36% of the total plasmid DNA could be sustainably released from the pFDNA-LDH@SiO2-NPs within 288 hours. The LDH@SiO2 nanoparticles had very low toxicity. Additionally, their high transfection efficiency in vitro was detected by fluorescent microscopy. Intranasal immunization of specific pathogen-free chickens with pFDNA-LDH@SiO2-NPs

  14. First principles study of the structural and electronic properties of double perovskite Ba{sub 2}YTaO{sub 6} in cubic and tetragonal phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluque Toro, C.E., E-mail: deluquetoro@gmail.com [Grupo de Nuevos Materiales, Universidad Popular del Cesar, Valledupar (Colombia); Rodríguez M, Jairo Arbey [Grupo de Estudios de Materiales—GEMA, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 5997 Bogotá DC (Colombia); Landínez Téllez, D.A. [Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 5997 Bogotá DC (Colombia); Moreno Salazar, N.O. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (Brazil); Roa-Rojas, J. [Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 5997 Bogotá DC (Colombia)

    2014-12-15

    The Ba{sub 2}YTaO{sub 6} double perovskite presents a transition from cubic (Fm−3m) to tetragonal structure (I4/m) at high temperature. In this work, we present a detailed study of the structural and electronic properties of the double perovskite Ba{sub 2}YTaO{sub 6} in space group Fm−3m and I4/m. Calculations were made with the Full-Potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave method (FP-LAPW) within the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) with exchange and correlation effects in the Generalized Gradient (GGA) and Local Density (LDA) approximations. From the minimization of energy as a function of volume and the fitting of the Murnaghan equation some structural characteristics were determined as, for example, total energy, lattice parameter (a=8.50 Å in cubic phase and a=5.985 Å and c=8.576 Å in tetragonal), bulk modulus (135.6 GPa in cubic phase and 134.1 GPa in tetragonal phase) and its derivative. The study of the electronic characteristics was performed from the analysis of the electronic density of states (DOS). We find a non-metallic behavior for this with a direct band gap of approximately 3.5 eV and we found that the Ba{sub 2}YTaO{sub 6} (I4/m) phase is the most stable one. {sup ©} 2013 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved.

  15. First principles study of the structural and electronic properties of double perovskite Ba2YTaO6 in cubic and tetragonal phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluque Toro, C.E.; Rodríguez M, Jairo Arbey; Landínez Téllez, D.A.; Moreno Salazar, N.O.; Roa-Rojas, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Ba 2 YTaO 6 double perovskite presents a transition from cubic (Fm−3m) to tetragonal structure (I4/m) at high temperature. In this work, we present a detailed study of the structural and electronic properties of the double perovskite Ba 2 YTaO 6 in space group Fm−3m and I4/m. Calculations were made with the Full-Potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave method (FP-LAPW) within the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) with exchange and correlation effects in the Generalized Gradient (GGA) and Local Density (LDA) approximations. From the minimization of energy as a function of volume and the fitting of the Murnaghan equation some structural characteristics were determined as, for example, total energy, lattice parameter (a=8.50 Å in cubic phase and a=5.985 Å and c=8.576 Å in tetragonal), bulk modulus (135.6 GPa in cubic phase and 134.1 GPa in tetragonal phase) and its derivative. The study of the electronic characteristics was performed from the analysis of the electronic density of states (DOS). We find a non-metallic behavior for this with a direct band gap of approximately 3.5 eV and we found that the Ba 2 YTaO 6 (I4/m) phase is the most stable one. © 2013 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved

  16. A Phase 3 Placebo-Controlled, Double Blind, Multi-Site Trial of the alpha-2-adrenergic Agonist, Lofexidine, for Opioid Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Elmer; Miotto, Karen; Akerele, Evaristo; Montgomery, Ann; Elkashef, Ahmed; Walsh, Robert; Montoya, Ivan; Fischman, Marian W.; Collins, Joseph; McSherry, Frances; Boardman, Kathy; Davies, David K.; O’Brien, Charles P.; Ling, Walter; Kleber, Herbert; Herman, Barbara H.

    2008-01-01

    Context Lofexidine is an alpha-2-A noradrenergic receptor agonist that is approved in the United Kingdom for the treatment of opioid withdrawal symptoms. Lofexidine has been reported to have more significant effects on decreasing opioid withdrawal symptoms with less hypotension than clonidine. Objective To demonstrate that lofexidine is well tolerated and effective in the alleviation of observationally-defined opioid withdrawal symptoms in opioid dependent individuals undergoing medically supervised opioid detoxification as compared to placebo. Design An inpatient, Phase 3, placebo-controlled, double blind, randomized multi-site trial with three phases: (1) Opioid Agonist Stabilization Phase (days 1–3), (2) Detoxification/Medication or Placebo Phase (days 4–8), and (3) Post Detoxification/Medication Phase (days 9–11). Subjects Sixty-eight opioid dependent subjects were enrolled at three sites with 35 randomized to lofexidine and 33 to placebo. Main Outcome Measure Modified Himmelsbach Opiate Withdrawal Scale (MHOWS) on study day 5 (2nd opioid detoxification treatment day). Results Due to significant findings, the study was terminated early. On the study day 5 MHOWS, subjects treated with lofexidine had significantly lower scores (equating to fewer/less severe withdrawal symptoms) than placebo subjects (Least squares means 19.5 ± 2.1 versus 30.9 ± 2.7; p=0.0019). Lofexidine subjects had significantly better retention in treatment than placebo subjects (38.2% versus 15.2%; Log rank test p=0.01). Conclusions Lofexidine is well tolerated and more efficacious than placebo for reducing opioid withdrawal symptoms in inpatients undergoing medically supervised opioid detoxification. Trial Registration trial registry name A Phase 3 Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Multi-Site Trial of Lofexidine for Opiate Withdrawal, registration number NCT00032942, URL for the registry http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00032942?order=4. PMID:18508207

  17. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 2b Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Recombinant Human Soluble Thrombomodulin, ART-123, in Patients With Sepsis and Suspected Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Ramesh, Mayakonda K.; Ernest, David; Larosa, Steven P.; Pachl, Jan; Aikawa, Naoki; Hoste, Eric; Levy, Howard; Hirman, Joe; Levi, Marcel; Daga, Mradul; Kutsogiannis, Demetrios J.; Crowther, Mark; Bernard, Gordon R.; Devriendt, Jacques; Puigserver, Joan Vidal; Blanzaco, Daniel U.; Esmon, Charles T.; Parrillo, Joseph E.; Guzzi, Louis; Henderson, Seton J.; Pothirat, Chaicharn; Mehta, Parthiv; Fareed, Jawed; Talwar, Deepak; Tsuruta, Kazuhisa; Gorelick, Kenneth J.; Osawa, Yutaka; Kaul, Inder

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the safety and efficacy of recombinant thrombomodulin (ART-123) in patients with suspected sepsis-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation. Design: Phase 2b, international, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group, screening trial.

  18. Phase modulation of mid-infrared radiation in double-quantum-well structures under a lateral electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagula, R. M.; Vinnichenko, M. Ya.; Makhov, I. S.; Sofronov, A. N., E-mail: sofronov@rphf.spbstu.ru; Firsov, D. A.; Vorobjev, L. E. [Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The modulation of polarized radiation by GaAs/AlGaAs structures with tunnel-coupled double quantum wells in a strong lateral electric field is studied. The spectra of the variation in the refractive index under a lateral electric field in the vicinity of the intersubband resonance are experimentally investigated.

  19. [Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinemia. Results of a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewicz, A; Gejdel, E; Sworen, H; Sienkiewicz, K; Jedrzejak, J; Teucher, T; Schmitz, H

    1993-07-01

    The efficacy of a Vitex agnus castus preparation (Strotan capsules) was investigated in a randomized double blind study vs. placebo. This clinical study involved 52 women with luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinaemia. The daily dose was one capsule (20 mg) Vitex agnus castus preparation and placebo, respectively. Aim of the study was to prove whether the elevated pituitary prolactin reserve can be reduced and deficits in luteal phase length and luteal phase progesterone synthesis be normalized. Blood for hormonal analysis was taken at days 5-8 and day 20 of the menstrual cycle before and after three month of therapy. Latent hyperprolactinaemia was analysed by monitoring the prolactin release 15 and 30 min after i.v. injection of 200 micrograms TRH. 37 complete case reports (placebo: n = 20, verum: n = 17) after 3 month of therapy were statistically evaluated. The prolactin release was reduced after 3 months, shortened luteal phases were normalised and deficits in the luteal progesterone synthesis were eliminated. These changes were significant and occurred only in the verum group. All other hormonal parameters did not change with the exception of 17 beta-estradiol which rouse up in the luteal phase in patients receiving verum. Side effects were not seen, two women treated with the Vitex agnus castus preparation got pregnant. The tested preparation is thought to be an efficient medication in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinaemia.

  20. Anti-double strand (ds) DNA antibody formation by NZB/W (F1) spleen cells in a microculture system detected by solid phase radioimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okudaira, H; Terada, E; Ogita, T; Aotsuka, S; Yokohari, R

    1981-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay method was devised to detect mouse anti-double strand (ds) DNA antibody. This method could easily detect the anti-dsDNA antibody in 1 : 10,000 dilutions (1 unit) of pooled 9-10-month-old female NZB/W F1 sera. The sensitivity was about 10(3)- and 10(2)-fold higher than that of the modified Farr method and of the double antibody technique respectively. NZB/W mice developed high titer anti-dsDNA antibody as they grew older. Spleen cells brought to a microculture system using flat-bottomed polystyrene plates produced anti-dsDNA antibody clearly detectable by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Anti-dsDNA antibody produced in vitro (y units) was in close correlation with the anti-dsDNA antibody titer of the spleen donor (x units) (y = 4.8 X 10(-2) x -65, gamma = 0.94, P less than 0.001). A combination of the microculture system and solid-phase radioimmunoassay was recommended for the characterization of anti-dsDNA antibody-forming cells.

  1. Anti-double strand (ds) DNA antibody formation by NZB/W (F1) spleen cells in a microculture system detected by solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okudaira, H.; Terada, E.; Ogita, T.; Aotsuka, S.; Yokohari, R.

    1981-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay method was devised to detect mouse anti-double strand (ds) DNA antibody. This method could easily detect the anti-ds DNA antibody in 1 : 10,000 dilutions (1 unit) of pooled 9-10 month-old female NZB/W F1 sera. The sensitivity was about 10 3 and 10 2 -fold higher than that of the modified Farr method and of the double antibody technique respectively. NZB/W mice developed high titer anti-dsDNA antibody as they grew older. Spleen cells brought to a microculture system using flat-bottomed polystyrene plates produced anti-dsDNA antibody clearly detectable by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Anti-dsDNA antibody produced in vitro (y units) was in close correlation with the anti-dsDNA antibody titer of the spleen donor (x units) (y = 4.8 X 10 -2 x-65, γ = 0.94, P < 0.001). A combination of the microculture system and solid-phase radioimmunoassay was recommended for the characterization of anti-dsDNA antibody-forming cells. (Auth.)

  2. Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskite Single Crystals: Phase-Selective Low-Temperature Growth, Carrier Transport Properties, and Self-Powered Photodetection

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.

    2016-12-06

    A rapid, low-temperature, and solution-based route is developed for growing large-sized cesium lead halide perovskite single crystals under ambient conditions. An ultralow minority carrier concentration was measured in CsPbBr3 (≈108 holes per cm3, much lower than in any other lead halide perovskite and crystalline silicon), which enables to realize self-powered photodetectors with a high ON/OFF ratio (105).

  3. Communication: An effective linear-scaling atomic-orbital reformulation of the random-phase approximation using a contracted double-Laplace transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurkus, Henry F.; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2016-01-01

    An atomic-orbital (AO) reformulation of the random-phase approximation (RPA) correlation energy is presented allowing to reduce the steep computational scaling to linear, so that large systems can be studied on simple desktop computers with fully numerically controlled accuracy. Our AO-RPA formulation introduces a contracted double-Laplace transform and employs the overlap-metric resolution-of-the-identity. First timings of our pilot code illustrate the reduced scaling with systems comprising up to 1262 atoms and 10 090 basis functions. 

  4. Robust Deterministic Controlled Phase-Flip Gate and Controlled-Not Gate Based on Atomic Ensembles Embedded in Double-Sided Optical Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, A.-Peng; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Shou

    2018-02-01

    We first propose a scheme for controlled phase-flip gate between a flying photon qubit and the collective spin wave (magnon) of an atomic ensemble assisted by double-sided cavity quantum systems. Then we propose a deterministic controlled-not gate on magnon qubits with parity-check building blocks. Both the gates can be accomplished with 100% success probability in principle. Atomic ensemble is employed so that light-matter coupling is remarkably improved by collective enhancement. We assess the performance of the gates and the results show that they can be faithfully constituted with current experimental techniques.

  5. Double optical gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Steve

    The observation and control of dynamics in atomic and molecular targets requires the use of laser pulses with duration less than the characteristic timescale of the process which is to be manipulated. For electron dynamics, this time scale is on the order of attoseconds where 1 attosecond = 10 -18 seconds. In order to generate pulses on this time scale, different gating methods have been proposed. The idea is to extract or "gate" a single pulse from an attosecond pulse train and switch off all the other pulses. While previous methods have had some success, they are very difficult to implement and so far very few labs have access to these unique light sources. The purpose of this work is to introduce a new method, called double optical gating (DOG), and to demonstrate its effectiveness at generating high contrast single isolated attosecond pulses from multi-cycle lasers. First, the method is described in detail and is investigated in the spectral domain. The resulting attosecond pulses produced are then temporally characterized through attosecond streaking. A second method of gating, called generalized double optical gating (GDOG), is also introduced. This method allows attosecond pulse generation directly from a carrier-envelope phase un-stabilized laser system for the first time. Next the methods of DOG and GDOG are implemented in attosecond applications like high flux pulses and extreme broadband spectrum generation. Finally, the attosecond pulses themselves are used in experiments. First, an attosecond/femtosecond cross correlation is used for characterization of spatial and temporal properties of femtosecond pulses. Then, an attosecond pump, femtosecond probe experiment is conducted to observe and control electron dynamics in helium for the first time.

  6. DCE: A Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network Based on Double-Phase Cluster-Head Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruisong; Yang, Wei; Wang, Yipeng; You, Kaiming

    2017-05-01

    Clustering is an effective technique used to reduce energy consumption and extend the lifetime of wireless sensor network (WSN). The characteristic of energy heterogeneity of WSNs should be considered when designing clustering protocols. We propose and evaluate a novel distributed energy-efficient clustering protocol called DCE for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks, based on a Double-phase Cluster-head Election scheme. In DCE, the procedure of cluster head election is divided into two phases. In the first phase, tentative cluster heads are elected with the probabilities which are decided by the relative levels of initial and residual energy. Then, in the second phase, the tentative cluster heads are replaced by their cluster members to form the final set of cluster heads if any member in their cluster has more residual energy. Employing two phases for cluster-head election ensures that the nodes with more energy have a higher chance to be cluster heads. Energy consumption is well-distributed in the proposed protocol, and the simulation results show that DCE achieves longer stability periods than other typical clustering protocols in heterogeneous scenarios.

  7. Double ambidexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulio, Matti; Thorén, Kent; Rohrbeck, René

    2017-01-01

    We leverage the business model innovation and ambidexterity literature to investigate a contradictory case, the Swedish-Finnish Telecom operator TeliaSonera. Despite being challenged by three major disruptions, the company not only still exists but also enjoys remarkably good financial performance....... Building on extant archival data and interviews, we carefully identify and map 26 organizational responses during 1992–2016. We find that the firm has overcome three critical phases by experimenting and pioneering with portfolios of business models and/or technological innovations. We describe...... this behaviour as double ambidexterity. We use an in-depth case study to conceptualize double ambidexterity and discuss its impact on the business's survival and enduring success....

  8. Once daily controlled-release pregabalin in the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia: a phase III, double-blind, randomized withdrawal, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Lesley M; Arsenault, Pierre; Huffman, Cynthia; Patrick, Jeffrey L; Messig, Michael; Chew, Marci L; Sanin, Luis; Scavone, Joseph M; Pauer, Lynne; Clair, Andrew G

    2014-10-01

    Safety and efficacy of a once daily controlled-released (CR) formulation of pregabalin was evaluated in patients with fibromyalgia using a placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal design. This multicenter study included 6 week single-blind pregabalin CR treatment followed by 13 week double-blind treatment with placebo or pregabalin CR. The starting dose of 165 mg/day was escalated during the first 3 weeks, up to 495 mg/day based on efficacy and tolerability. Patients with ≥50% reduction in average daily pain score at the end of the single-blind phase were randomized to continue pregabalin CR at the optimized dose (330-495 mg/day) or to placebo. The primary endpoint was time to loss of therapeutic response (LTR), defined as treatment' (Benefit, Satisfaction, and Willingness to Continue Scale) in the pregabalin CR group; no other secondary endpoints were statistically significant. Most AEs were mild to moderate in severity (most frequent: dizziness, somnolence). The percentage of pregabalin CR patients discontinuing because of AEs was 12.2% and 4.8% in the single-blind and double-blind phases, respectively (placebo, 0%). Time to LTR was significantly longer with pregabalin CR versus placebo in fibromyalgia patients who initially showed improvement with pregabalin CR, indicating maintenance of response. Pregabalin CR was well tolerated in most patients. Generalizability may be limited by study duration and selective population.

  9. A Geometry-Based Cycle Slip Detection and Repair Method with Time-Differenced Carrier Phase (TDCP for a Single Frequency Global Position System (GPS + BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Qian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As the field of high-precision applications based on carriers continues to expand, the development of low-cost, small, modular receivers and their application in diverse scenarios and situations with complex data quality has increased the requirements of carrier-phase data preprocessing. A new geometry-based cycle slip detection and repair method based on Global Position System (GPS + BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS is proposed. The method uses a Time-differenced Carrier Phase (TDCP model, which eliminates the Inner-System Bias (ISB between GPS and BDS, and it is conducive to the effective combination of GPS and BDS. It avoids the interference of the noise of the pseudo-range with cycle slip detection, while the cycle slips are preserved as integers. This method does not limit the receiver frequency number, and it is applicable to single-frequency data. The process is divided into two steps to detect and repair cycle slip. The first step is cycle slip detection, using the Improved Local Analysis Method (ILAM to find satellites that have cycle slips; The second step is to repair the cycle slips, including estimating the float solution of changes in ambiguities at the satellites that have cycle slips with the least squares method and the integer solution of the cycle slips by rounding. In the process of rounding, in addition to the success probability, a decimal test is carried out to validate the result. Finally, experiments with filed test data are carried out to prove the effectiveness of this method. The results show that the detectable cycle slips number with GPS + BDS is much greater than that with GPS. The method can also detect the non-integer outliers while fixing the cycle slip. The maximum decimal bias in repair is less than that with GPS. It implies that this method takes full advantages of multi-system.

  10. Linewidth-tolerant 10-Gbit/s 16-QAM transmission using a pilot-carrier based phase-noise cancelling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Moriya; Kamio, Yukiyoshi; Miyazaki, Tetsuya

    2008-07-07

    We experimentally demonstrated linewidth-tolerant 10-Gbit/s (2.5-Gsymbol/s) 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) by using a distributed-feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) with a linewidth of 30 MHz. Error-free operation, a bit-error rate (BER) of noise canceling capability provided by a pilot-carrier and standard electronic pre-equalization to suppress inter-symbol interference (ISI) gave clear 16-QAM constellations and floor-less BER characteristics. We evaluated the BER characteristics by real-time measurement of six (three different thresholds for each I- and Q-component) symbol error rates (SERs) with simultaneous constellation observation.

  11. Inert carriers for column extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katykhin, G.S.

    1978-01-01

    Inert carriers used in column extraction chromatography are reviewed. Such carriers are devided into two large groups: hydrophilic carriers which possess high surface energy and are well wetted only with strongly polar liquids (kieselguhrs, silica gels, glasses, cellulose, Al 2 O 3 ) and water-repellent carriers which possess low surface energy and are well wetted with various organic solvents (polyethylene, polytetrafluorethylene polytrifluorochlorethylene). Properties of various carriers are presented: structure, chemical and radiation stability, adsorption properties, extracting agent capacity. The effect of structure and sizes of particles on the efficiency of chromatography columns is considered. Ways of immovable phase deposition on the carrier and the latter's regeneration. Peculiarities of column packing for preparative and continuous chromatography are discussed

  12. Propagation of small disturbances in two phases, one component flow (1963); Propagation de petites perturbations dans un ecoulement double phase a un seul constituant (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boure, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    A small disturbance is, shown to give rise to two waves: a pressure (sonic) wave and a continuity wave. Their propagation velocities are calculated. These velocities are independent of the disturbance amplitude. The sonic velocity is primarily a function of that one corresponding to the same medium with no flow and of the liquid phase velocity. It is also a function of the physical properties of the phases on the saturation line, of the slip laws and of the void fraction. The continuity wave velocity is only a function of the slip laws, of the void fraction and of the velocity of either phase. It appears two kinds of critical flow rates which are calculated. The void fraction and the liquid and gas velocities variations are calculated. These results are extended to the case of a real loop and an approximative method is given for the treatment of this case. (author) [French] On montre qu'une petite perturbation donne naissance a deux ondes: une onde de pression (onde sonique) et une onde de continuite. On calcule leurs vitesses de propagation qui sont independantes de l'amplitude de la perturbation. La vitesse du son depend des proprietes physiques des phases le long de la courbe de saturation, des lois du glissement, de la fraction volumique de vapeur. Elle depend surtout de la vitesse qu'il aurait dans le milieu immobile de meme fraction volumique de vapeur, et de la vitesse de la phase liquide. La vitesse de l'onde de continuite depend des lois du glissement, de la fraction volumique de vapeur et de la vitesse d'une des phases. Il apparait deux types de debits critiques que l'on calcule. On calcule egalement les variations de la fraction volumique de vapeur et des vitesses des phases dans la perturbation. On generalise des resultats precedents dans le cas d'un circuit reel et on propose une methode approchee pour traiter le probleme dans ce cas. (auteur)

  13. Gefitinib plus cisplatin and radiotherapy in previously untreated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: A phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, Vincent; Hamoir, Marc; Chen Changhu; Kane, Madeleine; Kawecki, Andrzej; Julka, Pramod K.; Wang, Hung-Ming; Prasad, Srihari; D'Cruz, Anil K.; Radosevic-Jelic, Ljiljana; Kumar, Rejnish R.; Korzeniowski, Stanislaw; Fijuth, Jacek; Machiels, Jean-Pascal; Sellers, Mark V.; Tchakov, Ilian; Raben, David

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess the efficacy and safety of gefitinib given concomitantly and/or as maintenance therapy to standard cisplatin/radiotherapy for previously untreated, unresected, stage III/IV non-metastatic SCCHN. Materials and methods: In this phase II, double-blind, study, 226 patients were randomized to gefitinib 250 mg/day, 500 mg/day or placebo in two phases: a concomitant phase (gefitinib or placebo with chemoradiotherapy), followed by a maintenance phase (gefitinib or placebo alone). Primary endpoint was local disease control rate (LDCR) at 2 years; secondary endpoints were LDCR at 1 year, objective response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety and tolerability. Results: Gefitinib (250 and 500 mg/day) did not improve 2-year LDCR compared with placebo either when given concomitantly with chemoradiotherapy (32.7% vs. 33.6%, respectively; OR 0.921, 95% CI 0.508, 1.670 [1-sided p = 0.607]) or as maintenance therapy (28.8% vs. 37.4%, respectively; OR 0.684, 95% CI 0.377, 1.241 [1-sided p = 0.894]). Secondary efficacy outcomes were broadly consistent with the 2-year LDCR results. In both doses, gefitinib was well-tolerated and did not adversely affect the safety and tolerability of concomitant chemoradiotherapy. Conclusion: Gefitinib was well-tolerated, but did not improve efficacy compared with placebo when given concomitantly with chemoradiotherapy, or as maintenance therapy alone.

  14. Phase behavior of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon double-chain hydroxylated and galactosylated amphiphiles and bolaamphiphiles. Long-term shelf-stability of their liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, L; Gadras, C; Greiner, J; Rolland, J P; Santaella, C; Vierling, P; Gulik, A

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the morphological characterization, by freeze-fracture electron microscopy, and the thermotropic phase behavior, by differential scanning calorimetry and/or X-ray scattering, of aqueous dispersions of various hydroxylated and galactosylated double-chain amphiphiles and bolaamphiphiles, several of them containing one or two hydrophobic fluorocarbon chains. Colloidal systems are observed in water with the hydroxylated hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon bolaamphiphiles only when they are dispersed with a co-amphiphile such as rac-1,2-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) or rac-1,2-distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC). Liposomes are formed providing the relative content of bolaamphiphiles does not exceed 20% mol. Most of these liposomes can be thermally sterilized and stored at room temperature for several months without any significant modification of their size and size distribution. The hydrocarbon galactosylated bolaamphiphile HO[C24][C12]Gal forms in water a lamellar phase (the gel to liquid-crystal phase transition is complete at 45 degrees C) and a Im3m cubic phase above 47 degrees C. The fluorocarbon HO[C24][F6C5]Gal analog displays a more complex and metastable phase behavior. The fluorinated non-bolaform galactosylated [F8C7][C16]AEGal and SerGal amphiphiles form lamellar phases in water. Low amounts (10% molar ratio) of the HO[C24][F6C5]Gal or HO[C24][C12]Gal bolaamphiphiles or of the single-headed [F8C7][C16]AEGal improve substantially the shelf-stability of reference phospholipon/cholesterol 2/1 liposomes. These liposomes when co-formulated with a single-headed amphiphile from the SerGal series are by far less stable.

  15. Phase Diagram of the Bose Condensation of Interwell Excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs Double Quantum Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dremin, A. A.; Timofeev, V. B.; Larionov, A. V.

    2002-01-01

    The luminescence of interwell excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum wells (n–i–n heterostructures) with large-scale fluctuations of random potential in the heteroboundary planes was studied at low temperatures down to 0.5 K. The properties of excitons whose photoexcited electron and hole...... was coated with a metal mask containing special openings (windows) of a micron size or smaller. Both photoexcitation and observation of luminescence were performed through these windows by the fiber optic technique. At low pumping powers, the interwell excitons were strongly localized because of the residual...... charged impurities, and the corresponding photoluminescence line was nonuniformly broadened. As the laser excitation power increased, a narrow line due to delocalized excitons arose in a threshold-like manner, after which its intensity rapidly increased with growing pumping and the line itself narrowed...

  16. New DC conductivity spectra of Zn–Al layered double hydroxide (Zn–Al–NO3–LDH and its calcined product of ZnO phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ahmed Ali Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Zn–Al–NO3–LDH nanostructure was synthesized via the coprecipitation method at molar ratio Zn2+/Al3+ = 4 and pH = 7. The resultant sample was thermally treated at calcined temperatures of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 °C. The layered structure of the Zn–Al–NO3–LDH samples was stable below the calcination temperature 200 °C as shown in powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD patterns of calcined samples. The calcination products showed a collapse of LDH structure and ZnO phase was formed at 200 °C and above. The dielectric spectroscopy of LDH was explained using anomalous low frequency dispersion (ALFD due to the low mobility of LDH carriers. The conductivity spectra of LDH can be theoretically described according to the effective phase within the calcination products of LDH. In the comparison with previously researches, this study presented higher values of DC conductivity for all studied samples.

  17. Dexpramipexole versus placebo for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (EMPOWER): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cudkowicz, Merit E.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Shefner, Jeremy M.; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Mora, Jesus S.; Ludolph, Albert; Hardiman, Orla; Bozik, Michael E.; Ingersoll, Evan W.; Archibald, Donald; Meyers, Adam L.; Dong, Yingwen; Farwell, Wildon R.; Kerr, Douglas A.; Henderson, R.; Kiernan, M.; Mathers, S.; Vucic, S.; de Bleecker, J.; Robberecht, W.; Briemberg, H.; Genge, A.; Korngut, L.; Matte, G.; Shoesmith, C.; Zinman, L.; Camu, W.; Desnuelle, C.; Destee, A.; Meininger, V.; Pouget, J.; Grehl, T.; Grosskreutz, J.; Ludolph, A.; Meyer, T.; Petri, S.; Hardiman, O.; de Visser, M.; Voermans, N.; van den Berg, L.; de Rivera, F. J. R.; Gamez, J.; Carbonell, J. G.; Pardina, J. S. Mora; Povedano, M.; Persson, L.; Ronnevi, L.-O.; Al-Chalabi, A.; Morrison, K.; Shaw, P.

    2013-01-01

    In a phase 2 study, dexpramipexole (25-150 mg twice daily) was well tolerated for up to 9 months and showed a significant benefit at the high dose in a combined assessment of function and mortality in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of

  18. Dexpramipexole versus placebo for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (EMPOWER): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cudkowicz, M.E.; Berg, L.H. van den; Shefner, J.M.; Mitsumoto, H.; Mora, J.S.; Ludolph, A.; Hardiman, O.; Bozik, M.E.; Ingersoll, E.W.; Archibald, D.; Meyers, A.L.; Dong, Y.; Farwell, W.R.; Kerr, D.A.; Voermans, N.C.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a phase 2 study, dexpramipexole (25-150 mg twice daily) was well tolerated for up to 9 months and showed a significant benefit at the high dose in a combined assessment of function and mortality in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of

  19. Characterization of quasi-phase-matching gratings in quadratic media through double-pass second-harmonic power measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær; Baldi, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    A new scheme for nondestructive characterization of quasi-phase-matching grating structures and temperature gradients through inverse Fourier theory using second-harmonic-generation experiments is proposed. By inserting a mirror to reflect the signals back through the sample, we show how...

  20. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled phase III clinical trial of chicken type II collagen in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Xu, Jian-Hua; Xiao, Feng; Bao, Chun-De; Ni, Li-Qing; Li, Xing-Fu; Wu, Yu-Qing; Sun, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Sun, Bao-Liang; Xu, Sheng-Qian; Liu, Shang; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Jie; Liu, Hua-Xiang; Wang, Ren-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Chicken type II collagen (CCII) is a protein extracted from the cartilage of chicken breast and exhibits intriguing possibilities for the treatment of autoimmune diseases by inducing oral tolerance. A 24-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, methotrexate (MTX)-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CCII in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Five hundred three RA patients were included in the study. Patients received either 0.1 mg daily of CCII (n = 326) or 10 mg once a week of MTX (n = 177) for 24 weeks. Each patient was evaluated for pain, morning stiffness, tender joint count, swollen joint count, health assessment questionnaire (HAQ), assessments by investigator and patient, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) by using the standard tools at baseline (week 0) and at weeks 12 and 24. Additionally, rheumatoid factor (RF) was evaluated at weeks 0 and 24. Measurement of a battery of biochemical parameters in serum, hematological parameters, and urine analysis was performed to evaluate the safety of CCII. Four hundred fifty-four patients (94.43%) completed the 24-week follow-up. In both groups, there were decreases in pain, morning stiffness, tender joint count, swollen joint count, HAQ, and assessments by investigator and patient, and all differences were statistically significant. In the MTX group, ESR and CRP decreased. RF did not change in either group. At 24 weeks, 41.55% of patients in the CCII group and 57.86% in the MTX group met the American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement criteria (ACR-20) and 16.89% and 30.82%, respectively, met the ACR 50% improvement criteria (ACR-50). Both response rates for ACR-20 and ACR-50 in the CCII group were lower than those of the MTX group, and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The DAS28 (disease activity score using 28 joint counts) values of the two treatment groups were calculated, and there was a statistically

  1. Crystallization behavior of nanocomposites based on poly(L-lactide) and layered double hydroxides - Unbiased determination of the rigid amorphous phases due to the crystals and the nanofiller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenhals, Andreas; Leng, Jing; Wurm, Andreas; Schick, Christoph

    Semicrystalline polymers have to be described by a three phase model consisting of a mobile amorphous (MAF), a crystalline (CF), and a rigid amorphous fraction (RAF). For nanocomposites based on a semicrystalline polymer the RAF is due to both the crystallites (RAFcrystal) and the filler (RAFfiller) . In most cases a separation of both contributions is not possible without further assumptions. Here polymer nanocomposite based on poly(L-lactide) and layered double hydroxide nanofiller were prepared. Due to the low crystallization rate of PLA its crystallization can be suppressed by a high enough cooling rate, and the RAF is due only to the nanofiller. The MAF, CF, and RAF were estimated by Temperature Modulated DSC. For the first time CF, MAF, RAFcrystal, and RAFfiller could be estimated without any assumption. Two different systems with a different degree of exfoliation were prepared and discussed in detail.

  2. Phase III double-blind evaluation of an aloe vera gel as a prophylactic agent for radiation-induced skin toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Maureen S.; Burk, Mary; Loprinzi, Charles L.; Hill, Mary; Schomberg, Paula J.; Nearhood, Kim; O'Fallon, Judith R.; Laurie, John A.; Shanahan, Thomas G.; Moore, Randy L.; Urias, Rodolfo E.; Kuske, Robert R.; Engel, Roland E.; Eggleston, William D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Considerable pilot data and clinical experience suggested that an aloe vera gel might help to prevent radiation therapy-induced dermatitis. Methods and Materials: Two Phase III randomized trials were conducted. The first one was double blinded, utilized a placebo gel, and involved 194 women receiving breast or chest wall irradiation. The second trial randomized 108 such patients to aloe vera gel vs. no treatment. Skin dermatitis was scored weekly during both trials both by patients and by health care providers. Results: Skin dermatitis scores were virtually identical on both treatment arms during both of the trials. The only toxicity from the gel was rare contact dermatitis. Conclusions: This dose and schedule of an aloe vera gel does not protect against radiation therapy-induced dermatitis

  3. A double-blind, randomized, multicenter phase 2 study of prasugrel versus placebo in adult patients with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wun Ted

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease (SCD suggesting antiplatelet agents may be therapeutic. To evaluate the safety of prasugrel, a thienopyridine antiplatelet agent, in adult patients with SCD, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Methods The primary endpoint, safety, was measured by hemorrhagic events requiring medical intervention. Patients were randomized to prasugrel 5 mg daily (n = 41 or placebo (n = 21 for 30 days. Platelet function by VerifyNow® P2Y12 and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein assays at days 10 and 30 were significantly inhibited in prasugrel- compared with placebo-treated SCD patients. Results There were no hemorrhagic events requiring medical intervention in either study arm. Mean pain rate (percentage of days with pain and intensity in the prasugrel arm were decreased compared with placebo. However, these decreases did not reach statistical significance. Platelet surface P-selectin and plasma soluble P-selectin, biomarkers of in vivo platelet activation, were significantly reduced in SCD patients receiving prasugrel compared with placebo. In sum, prasugrel was well tolerated and not associated with serious hemorrhagic events. Conclusions Despite the small size and short duration of this study, there was a decrease in platelet activation biomarkers and a trend toward decreased pain.

  4. Structural phase transitions at high-temperature in double perovskite Sr{sub 2}GdRuO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triana, C.A.; Corredor, L.T.; Landinez Tellez, D.A. [Grupo de Fisica de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 14490, Bogota D.C (Colombia); Roa-Rojas, J., E-mail: jroar@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Fisica de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 14490, Bogota D.C (Colombia)

    2012-08-15

    The crystal structure evolution of the Sr{sub 2}GdRuO{sub 6} complex perovskite at high-temperature has been investigated over a wide temperature range between 298 K{<=}T{<=}1273 K. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements at room temperature and Rietveld analysis show that this compounds crystallizes in a monoclinic perovskite-type structure with P2{sub 1}/n (no. 14) space group and the 1:1 ordered arrangement of Ru{sup 5+} and Gd{sup 3+} cations over the six-coordinate M sites, with lattice parameters a=5.81032(8) A, b=5.82341(4) A, c=8.21939(7) A, V=278.11(6) A{sup 3} and angle {beta}=90.311(2){sup o}. The high-temperature analysis shows that this material suffers two-phase transitions. At 373 K it adopts a monoclinic perovskite structure with I2/m space group, and lattice parameters a=5.81383(2) A, b=5.82526(4) A, c=8.22486(1) A, V=278.56(2) A{sup 3} and angle {beta}=90.28(2){sup o}. Above of 773 K, it suffers a phase transition from monoclinic I2/m to tetragonal I4/m, with lattice parameters a=5.84779(1) A, c=8.27261(1) A, V=282.89(5) A{sup 3} and angle {beta}=90.02(9){sup o}. The high-temperature phase transition from monoclinic I2/m to tetragonal I4/m is characterized by strongly anisotropic displacements of the anions.

  5. Topical Minocycline Foam for the Treatment of Impetigo in Children: Results of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase 2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamny, Shlomo; Miron, Dan; Lumelsky, Nadia; Shalev, Hana; Gazal, Elana; Keynan, Rita; Shemer, Avner; Tamarkin, Dov

    2016-10-01

    Currently available treatment options for impetigo are limited by either systemic side effects (for oral therapy) or lack of ease of use (for topical ointment). A novel foam formulation of minocycline for topical use may improve convenience and treatment utilization for pediatric patients with impetigo. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of topically applied minocycline foam (FMX-102 1% and 4%) in the treatment of impetigo and to determine the optimal therapeutic active ingredient concentration. In this randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, comparative clinical trial, 32 subjects aged ≥2 years with a clinical diagnosis of pure impetigo, impetigo contagiosa, or uncomplicated blistering impetigo were randomized to treatment with FMX-102 1% or 4%, twice daily for 7 days. Subjects were followed for up to 7 days post-treatment. Clinical cure, defined as ≥80% cured lesions (fully recovered lesions, visually determined by investigators), was achieved by 57.1% and 50.0% of FMX-102 1% and 4% subjects, respectively, at the end of treatment (visit 3). Clinical success, defined as the absence of lesions, or the drying or improvement of treated lesions (decrease in size of affected area, lesion number, or both), was demonstrated in 81.3% and 78.6% of FMX-102 1% and 4% subjects, respectively, following 3 days of treatment (visit 2), in 92.3% and 100% of the respective subjects at the end of treatment, and in 100% in both groups at follow-up (visit 4). Bacteriologic success rates at the end of treatment, defined as complete pathogen eradication, were 85% and 74% in the FMX-102 1% and 4% groups, respectively. The bacteriologic success rate for MRSA infections was 100% (11/11), with no recurrences. Both FMX-102 1% and 4% were considered well tolerated and safe. Topical minocycline foam may be a safe and effective new treatment option for impetigo in children, including those with MRSA. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1238-1243.

  6. A phase III double-blind randomised study of rectal sucralfate suspension in the prevention of acute radiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Peter C.; Franklin, C. Ian; Dear, Keith B.G.; Hamilton, Christopher C.; Poulsen, Michael; Joseph, David J.; Spry, Nigel; Denham, James W.

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: A limited number of studies have suggested that oral sucralfate reduces the acute and late gastro-intestinal side-effects of pelvic radiotherapy and sucralfate enemas ameliorate symptoms of chronic proctitis. Sucralfate may act via local bFGF at the mucosal level in promoting angiogenesis and reducing epithelial associated microvascular injury. This multi-institutional study was designed to test the hypothesis that sucralfate given as an enema would have a significant protective effect against acute radiation induced rectal injury by direct application to the mucosa. Materials and methods: Eighty-six patients having radiotherapy for localised carcinoma of the prostate were randomised in a double-blind placebo-controlled study to receive either 15 ml of placebo suspension or 3 g of sucralfate in 15 ml suspension, given as a once daily enema during and for 2 weeks following radiotherapy. Assessment was based on the EORTC/RTOG acute toxicity criteria and a patient self-assessment diary. Results: There was no significant difference between placebo and sucralfate for peak incidences of EORTC/RTOG proctitis. For the placebo and sucralfate arms 95 and 88% (difference 7 ± 11%) suffered some degree of proctitis, with 71 and 61% (difference 10 ± 19%) reaching grade 2, respectively. The median period to onset of grade 2 proctitis was 33.5 and 36 days, with the median duration being 9.5 and 15 days, respectively, again these difference being non-significant. Thirty-five and 37% of patients rated the effect of radiotherapy on bowel habit as 'a lot' with a moderate or severe effect on normal daily living in 52 and 49%, respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that sucralfate given as a once daily enema does not substantially reduce the incidence of symptoms associated with acute radiation proctitis and its routine clinical use cannot be recommended. This cohort of patients will be followed to determine if any difference develops in relation to late

  7. Phase 1 Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of Dapivirine and Maraviroc Vaginal Rings: A Double-Blind Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Beatrice A; Panther, Lori; Marzinke, Mark A; Hendrix, Craig W; Hoesley, Craig J; van der Straten, Ariane; Husnik, Marla J; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Nel, Annalene; Johnson, Sherri; Richardson-Harman, Nicola; Rabe, Lorna K; Dezzutti, Charlene S

    2015-11-01

    Variable adherence limits effectiveness of daily oral and intravaginal tenofovir-containing pre-exposure prophylaxis. Monthly vaginal antiretroviral rings are one approach to improve adherence and drug delivery. MTN-013/IPM 026, a multisite, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 48 HIV-negative US women, evaluated vaginal rings containing dapivirine (DPV) (25 mg) and maraviroc (MVC) (100 mg), DPV only, MVC only, and placebo used continuously for 28 days. Safety was assessed by adverse events. Drug concentrations were quantified in plasma, cervicovaginal fluid (CVF), and cervical tissue. Cervical biopsy explants were challenged with HIV ex vivo to evaluate pharmacodynamics. There was no difference in related genitourinary adverse events between treatment arms compared with placebo. DPV and MVC concentrations rose higher initially before falling more rapidly with the combination ring compared with relatively stable concentrations with the single-drug rings. DPV concentrations in CVF were 1 and 5 log10 greater than cervical tissue and plasma for both rings. MVC was consistently detected only in CVF. DPV and MVC CVF and DPV tissue concentrations dropped rapidly after ring removal. Cervical tissue showed a significant inverse linear relationship between HIV replication and DPV levels. In this first study of a combination microbicide vaginal ring, all 4 rings were safe and well tolerated. Tissue DPV concentrations were 1000 times greater than plasma concentrations and single drug rings had more stable pharmacokinetics. DPV, but not MVC, demonstrated concentration-dependent inhibition of HIV-1 infection in cervical tissue. Because MVC concentrations were consistently detectable only in CVF and not in plasma, improved drug release of MVC rings is needed.

  8. DNA double-strand break and apoptosis induction in human lymphocytes in different cycle cell phases by 60Co gamma rays and Bragg peak protons of a medical beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachenkova, A.A.; Boreyko, A.V.; Mozhaeva, A.V.; Chausov, V.N.; Ravnachka, I.I.; Amov, I.; Tiunchik, S.I.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative analysis is made of the regularities in the formation of DNA double-strand break and apoptosis induction in peripheral human blood lymphocytes in different cell cycle phases after 60 Co gamma and extended Bragg peak proton irradiation. It is shown that the formation of apoptotic cells in a lymphocyte population increases linearly in all the cell cycle stages after proton irradiation. The maximal DNA double-strand break and apoptosis yield in lymphocytes is observed in the S phase of the cell cycle

  9. Frequency-Diversity Reception for Phase Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Signal-to-noise ratio improved. System receives phase modulation transmitted simultaneously on different carrier frequencies. Used for carriers received through different antennas or through same antenna.

  10. Radiommunoassay for triiodothyronine in serum. Development of the solid phase technic and comparison with two liquid phase RIA systems: the polyethylene glycol (PEG) and double antibody methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    A solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) system for triiodothyronine (T 3 ) was established by immobilizing triiodothyronine antibodies on the inner wall of reaction tubes. The antibody-coated tubes were made via reaction of antibody with glutaraldeyde residue pre coated on the inner wall of the tubes by alkaline self-polimerization. The quality of the coated tubes was tested through its performance in RIA methodology, by analysing the following RIA parameters: minimum detectable dose (MMD), nonspecific binding (NSB), X 50%, slope of the standard curve, intra and inter assay precision, accuracy of the method and figure of merit. The quality and characteristics of the reagents used in the RIA were analysed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Adjunctive Taurine in First-Episode Psychosis: A Phase 2, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Colin P; Allott, Kelly A; Murphy, Brendan P; Yuen, Hok Pan; Proffitt, Tina-Marie; Papas, Alicia; Moral, Jennifer; Pham, Tee; O'Regan, Michaela K; Phassouliotis, Christina; Simpson, Raelene; McGorry, Patrick D

    2016-12-01

    Taurine is an inhibitory neuromodulatory amino acid in the central nervous system that activates the GABA- and glycine-insensitive chloride channel and inhibits the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. It also functions as a neuroprotective agent and has a role in neural development and neurogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of adjunctive taurine in improving symptomatology and cognition among patients with a DSM-IV first-episode psychotic disorder. 121 patients with first-episode psychosis, aged 18-25 years, attending early intervention services consented to participate in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted from January 2007 to May 2009. Patients taking low-dose antipsychotic medication were randomly assigned to receive once-daily taurine 4 g or placebo for 12 weeks. The coprimary outcomes were change in symptomatology (measured by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale [BPRS] total score) and change in cognition (measured by the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia [MATRICS] Consensus Cognitive Battery composite score) at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included tolerability and safety and additional clinical and functioning measures. 86 participants (n = 47 taurine; n = 39 placebo) were included in the final analysis. Taurine significantly improved symptomatology measured by the BPRS total score (95% CI, 1.8-8.5; P = .004) and psychotic subscale (95% CI, 0.1-1.5; P = .026) compared to placebo. Additionally, improvements were observed in the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (95% CI, 0.1-3.0; P = .047) and Global Assessment of Functioning (95% CI, 0.3-8.8; P = .04) scores. There was no group difference in composite cognitive score (95% CI, -1.7 to 1.0; P = .582). A significant group difference was found on one safety and tolerability item (psychic item 2, asthenia/lassitude/increased fatigability) of the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser, with the taurine group showing a

  12. Vandetanib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer: a randomized, double-blind phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Samuel A; Robinson, Bruce G; Gagel, Robert F; Dralle, Henning; Fagin, James A; Santoro, Massimo; Baudin, Eric; Elisei, Rossella; Jarzab, Barbara; Vasselli, James R; Read, Jessica; Langmuir, Peter; Ryan, Anderson J; Schlumberger, Martin J

    2012-01-10

    There is no effective therapy for patients with advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Vandetanib, a once-daily oral inhibitor of RET kinase, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, has previously shown antitumor activity in a phase II study of patients with advanced hereditary MTC. Patients with advanced MTC were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive vandetanib 300 mg/d or placebo. On objective disease progression, patients could elect to receive open-label vandetanib. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS), determined by independent central Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) assessments. Between December 2006 and November 2007, 331 patients (mean age, 52 years; 90% sporadic; 95% metastatic) were randomly assigned to receive vandetanib (231) or placebo (100). At data cutoff (July 2009; median follow-up, 24 months), 37% of patients had progressed and 15% had died. The study met its primary objective of PFS prolongation with vandetanib versus placebo (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.69; P < .001). Statistically significant advantages for vandetanib were also seen for objective response rate (P < .001), disease control rate (P = .001), and biochemical response (P < .001). Overall survival data were immature at data cutoff (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.48 to 1.65). A final survival analysis will take place when 50% of the patients have died. Common adverse events (any grade) occurred more frequently with vandetanib compared with placebo, including diarrhea (56% v 26%), rash (45% v 11%), nausea (33% v 16%), hypertension (32% v 5%), and headache (26% v 9%). Vandetanib demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in a phase III trial of patients with advanced MTC (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00410761).

  13. Electrochemical energy storage behavior of Sn/SnO2 double phase nanocomposite anodes produced on the multiwalled carbon nanotube buckypapers for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaf, Mirac; Akbulut, Hatem

    2014-02-01

    Recent development of electrode materials for Li-ion batteries is driven mainly by hybrid nanocomposite structures consisting of Li storage compounds and CNTs. In this study, tin/tinoxide (Sn/SnO2) films and tin/tinoxide/multi walled carbon nanotube (Sn/SnO2/MWCNT) nanocomposites are produced by a two steps process; thermal evaporation and subsequent plasma oxidation as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. The physical, structural, and electrochemical behaviors of the nanocomposite electrodes containing MWCNTs are discussed. The ratio between metallic tin (Sn) and tinoxide (SnO2) is controlled with plasma oxidation time and effects of the ratio are investigated on the structural and electrochemical properties. The greatly enhanced electrochemical performance is mainly due to the morphological stability and reduced diffusion resistance, which are induced by MWCNT core and deposited Sn/SnO2 double phase shell. The outstanding long-term cycling stability is a result of the two layers Sn and SnO2 phases on MWCNTs. The nanoscale Sn/SnO2/MWCNT network provides good electrical conductivity, and the creation of open spaces that buffer a large volume change during the Li-alloying/de-alloying reaction.

  14. Joint Iterative Carrier Synchronization and Signal Detection Employing Expectation Maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; de Carvalho, Luis Henrique Hecker; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel

    2014-01-01

    and nonlinear phase noise, compared to digital phase-locked loop (PLL) followed by hard decisions. Additionally, soft decision driven joint carrier synchronization and detection offers an improvement of 0.5 dB in terms of input power compared to hard decision digital PLL based carrier synchronization...

  15. High-resolution observation by double-biprism electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Ken; Tonomura, Akira; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Akashi, Tetsuya; Togawa, Yoshihiko

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution electron holography has been achieved by using a double-biprism interferometer implemented on a 1 MV field emission electron microscope. The interferometer was installed behind the first magnifying lens to narrow carrier fringes and thus enabled complete separation of sideband Fourier spectrum from center band in reconstruction process. Holograms of Au fine particles and single-crystalline thin films with the finest fringe spacing of 4.2 pm were recorded and reconstructed. The overall holography system including the reconstruction process performed well for holograms in which carrier fringes had a spacing of around 10 pm. High-resolution lattice images of the amplitude and phase were clearly reconstructed without mixing of the center band and sideband information. Additionally, entire holograms were recorded without Fresnel fringes normally generated by the filament electrode of the biprism, and the holograms were thus reconstructed without the artifacts caused by Fresnel fringes

  16. Identification of Hürthle cell tumor by single-injection, double-phase scintigraphy with technetium-99m-sestamibi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattimo, A; Bertelli, P; Cintorino, M; Burroni, L; Volterrani, D; Vella, A

    1995-05-01

    Early and late (double-phase) scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI was used in a comparative study of the scintigraphic aspects of Hürthle cell tumors and other thyroid tumors. Single-injection, dual-phase (15-30 min and 3-4 hr) thyroid scintigraphy with 99mTc-sestamibi (MIBI) was performed on 41 patients who displayed a cold nodule on previous 99mTc scintigraphy. Visual scoring of nodular uptake was done to compare thyroidal and background tracer uptake. In addition, the nodular-to-thyroid (N/T) uptake ratio in the early and late images and the washout rate from the nodule (WON) and thyroidal tissue (WOT) were measured. Cytologic results were obtained for all patients; histopathologic results were obtained for the 20 patients who had surgery. In eight patients (Group A), the nodule displayed intense and persistent uptake of MIBI (N/T = 1.77 +/- 0.46 and 3.20 +/- 1.37; WON = 17.2% +/- 6.3%; WOT = 24.6% +/- 7.5%); histopathology revealed Hürthle cell tumors (two carcinomas and three adenomas) in five surgical patients. In 15 patients (Group B), the nodule displayed intense uptake in the early image with fading activity in the late image (N/T = 1.45 +/- 0.54 and 0.84 +/- 0.30; WON = 30.0% +/- 7.3%; WOT = 24.5% +/- 6.8%); histopathology revealed a colloid nodule (n = 1), papillary carcinoma (n = 4) and follicular carcinoma (n = 5) in 10 surgical patients. In the remaining 18 patients (Group C), the nodule was cold and late images were not acquired. Histopathology revealed colloid nodules (n = 2) and follicular adenoma (n = 3) in five surgical patients. Single-injection, dual-phase MIBI scintigraphy of the thyroid can identify Hürthle cell tumors because these tumors have intense, persistent tracer uptake in contrast to other thyroid tumors.

  17. Comparing signal intensity and refraction sensitivity of double and single mask edge illumination lab-based x-ray phase contrast imaging set-ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallon, G K; Diemoz, P C; Vittoria, F A; Basta, D; Endrizzi, M; Olivo, A

    2017-01-01

    Double mask edge illumination (DM-EI) set-ups can detect differential phase and attenuation information from a sample. However, analytical separation of the two signals often requires acquiring two frames with inverted differential phase contrast signals. Typically, between these two acquisitions, the first mask is moved to create a different illumination condition. This can lead to potential errors which adversely affect the data collected. In this paper, we implement a single mask EI laboratory set-up that allows for a single shot retrieval of the differential phase and attenuation images, without the need for a high resolution detector or high magnification. As well as simplifying mask alignment, the advantages of the proposed set-up can be exploited in one of two ways: either the total acquisition time can be halved with respect to the DM-EI set-up or, for the same acquisition time, twice the statistics can be collected. In this latter configuration, the signal-to-noise ratio and contrast in the mixed intensity images, and the angular sensitivity of the two set-ups were compared. We also show that the angular sensitivity of the single mask set-up can be well approximated from its illumination curve, which has been modelled as a convolution between the source spatial distribution at the detector plane, the pre-sample mask and the detector point spread function (PSF). A polychromatic wave optics simulation was developed on these bases and benchmarked against experimental data. It can also be used to predict the angular sensitivity and contrast of any set-up as a function of detector PSF. (paper)

  18. Solid-phase synthesis and high-resolution NMR studies of two synthetic double-helical RNA dodecamers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, S.H.; Flynn, P.; Reid, B.

    1989-01-01

    Ten-micromole solid-phase RNA synthesis has been successfully performed on an automated nucleic acid synthesizer with coupling efficiencies up to 99%, using the tert-butyldimethylsilyl group to protect the 2'-hydroxyl. The tert-butyldimethylsilyl group was easily removed by tetrabutylammonium fluoride under conditions in which virtually no 2'- to 3'-isomerization was found to occur. By use of this approach, the self-complementary RNA dodecamers r(CGCGAAUUCGCG) and r(CGCGUAUACGCG) were synthesized on an automated nucleic acid synthesizer, purified by TLC, and studied by high-resolution NMR. Imino protons were assigned from one-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effects. The nonexchangeable base, H1', and H2' protons were assigned by the sequential NOESY connectivity method. The NOE data from these two oligomers were analyzed qualitatively and compared to the ideal A- and B-type helix models of Arnott et al. (1972a,b). The internucleotide H6/H8 NOEs to the preceding H1' in r(CGCGUAUACGCG) were found to be sequence-dependent and probably reflect the roll angles between adjacent bases. The internucleotide H6/H8 to H2' NOEs of these oligomers correspond very well to an A-type conformation, but the interstrand adenine H2 NOEs to the following H1' were much stronger than those predicted from the fiber model. These strong interstrand NOEs can be rationalized by base pair slide to favor more interstrand base overlap

  19. Itopride in functional dyspepsia: results of two phase III multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, N J; Tack, J; Ptak, T; Gupta, R; Giguère, M

    2008-06-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common disorder but there is currently little efficacious drug therapy. Itopride, a prokinetic approved in several countries, showed promising efficacy in FD in a phase IIb trial. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy and safety of this drug in FD. Two similar placebo-controlled clinical trials were conducted (International and North America). Males and females, 18-65 years old, with a diagnosis of FD (Rome II) and the absence (by upper endoscopy) of any relevant structural disease were recruited. All were negative for Helicobacter pylori and, if present, heartburn could not exceed one episode per week. Following screening, patients were randomised to itopride 100 mg three times daily or identical placebo. The co-primary end points were: (1) global patient assessment (GPA) of efficacy; and (2) Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ). Symptoms were evaluated at weeks 2, 4 and 8. Secondary measures of efficacy included Nepean Dyspepsia Index (NDI) quality of life. The GPA responder rates at week 8 on itopride versus placebo were similar in both trials (45.2% vs 45.6% and 37.8 vs 35.4%, respectively; p = NS). A significant benefit of itopride over placebo was observed for the LDQ responders in the International (62% vs 52.7%, p = 0.04) but not the North American trial (46.9% vs 44.8%). The safety and tolerability profile were comparable with placebo, with the exception of prolactin elevations, which occurred more frequently on itopride (18/579) than placebo (1/591). In this population with FD, itopride did not show a difference in symptom response from placebo.

  20. A solid-phase technique for preparation of no-carrier-added technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals: application to the streptavidin/biotin system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn-Dufault, Robert; Pollak, Alfred; Fitzgerald, Jane; Thornback, John R.; Ballinger, James R.

    2000-01-01

    A high effective specific activity (HESA) formulation of a biotin-containing 99m Tc ligand [RP488: dimethyl-Gly-Ser-Cys(Acm)-Lys(Biotin)-Gly] conveniently prepared from solid phase was compared to a typical low effective specific activity (LESA) solution formulation to demonstrate improved targeting to streptavidin in an in vitro assay and in an in vivo rat model. RP488 was coupled to a maleimide-functionalized polyethylene glycol resin via a thiol ether linkage and labeled with 99m Tc-gluconate at room temperature, followed by elution of the HESA 99m Tc-RP488 in saline (minimum specific activity ∼ 1000 TBq/mmol by amino acid analysis). Both HESA and LESA 99m Tc-RP488 labeled at > 90% purity. In vitro, HESA 99m Tc-RP488 incubated with streptavidin-agarose was bound quantitatively, but there was competition from addition of increasing amounts of cold RP488. In rats, radiotracer uptake was evident at the site of implantation of streptavidin-agarose beads for the HESA dose, less uptake of low effective specific activity (LESA) material, and no appreciable uptake in the control rats of the LESA or HESA dose. The target-to-background ratio for HESA 99m Tc-RP488 was 5.4 times that of the control. The solid-phase technology offers a convenient way to prepare high specific activity receptor-targeting 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals

  1. Effect of interlayer tunneling on the electronic structure of bilayer cuprates and quantum phase transitions in carrier concentration and high magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Makarov, I. A.; Shneyder, E. I.

    2011-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the electronic structure of bilayer HTSC cuprates and its evolution under doping and in a high magnetic field. Analysis is based on the t-t′-t″-J* model in the generalized Hartree-Fock approximation. Possibility of tunneling between CuO2 layers is taken into account in the form of a nonzero integral of hopping between the orbitals of adjacent planes and is included in the scheme of the cluster form of perturbation theory. The main effect of the coupling between two CuO 2 layers in a unit cell is the bilayer splitting manifested in the presence of antibonding and bonding bands formed by a combination of identical bands of the layers themselves. A change in the doping level induces reconstruction of the band structure and the Fermi surface, which gives rise to a number of quantum phase transitions. A high external magnetic field leads to a fundamentally different form of electronic structure. Quantum phase transitions in the field are observed not only under doping, but also upon a variation of the field magnitude. Because of tunneling between the layers, quantum transitions are also split; as a result, a more complex sequence of the Lifshitz transitions than in single-layer structures is observed.

  2. Comparison study of lesion localization in patients with primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism using double-phase Tc-99m sestamibi scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Tae Joo; Lee, Jong Doo; Rhyu, Young Hoon; Park, Jung Soo; Jang, Hang Seok

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the scintigraphic findings and diagnostic accuracy of double-phase Tc-99m sestamibi scan in primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). We retrospectively reviewed 16 cases of primary (18 lesions) and 11 cases of secondary HPT (44 lesions) who underwent Tc-99m-sestamibi scan before the surgical intervention. Scan was performed using LEM camera (Siemens, Germany ) after the injection of 740MBq of Tc-99m sestamibi. Routine image consisted of baseline and 3-hour delayed images and each image was obtained using both parallel and pine hole collimator. The study population was 27 patients (male/ females=5/22, age: 49.1±10.8). Eighteen lesions of primary HPT consisted of 13 adenomas and 5 hyperplasias, while while all lesions of secondary but only 2 lesions of 5 hyperplasias, while all lesions of secondary HPT were hyperplasias. Among the case of primary HPT, we could detect all the lesions of 13 adenomas but only 2 lesions of 5 hyperplasias (40%) could be detected by double phase scintigraphy. Three cases of primary lesion showed decreased uptake in delayed images compared with baseline. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and accuracy of primary and secondary HPT were 58.5% (10/17), 83.3% (10/12), 83.3%(10/12), 75.9%(22/29), and 37.5%(15/40), 50% (2/4), 88.2% (15/17), 38.6% (17/44), respectively. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and accuracy were 43.9% (25/57), 75%(12/16), 86.2% (25/29), and 53.4% (39/73). There were no statistical difference between the weight of primary and secondary HPT lesion (p>0.05). Tc-99m sestamibi scan is fairly good modality to detect parathyroid lesion in patient with primary HPT before the surgical intervention. However, since some of cases may reveal decreased uptake in delayed image, a careful attention to the findings of baseline images may be helpful. Still the low accuracy of sestamibi scan in diagnosis of secondary HPT prohibits

  3. Phase 1 trial evaluating cisplatin, gemcitabine, and veliparib in 2 patient cohorts: Germline BRCA mutation carriers and wild-type BRCA pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Eileen M; Lee, Jonathan W; Lowery, Maeve A; Capanu, Marinela; Stadler, Zsofia K; Moore, Malcolm J; Dhani, Neesha; Kindler, Hedy L; Estrella, Hayley; Maynard, Hannah; Golan, Talia; Segal, Amiel; Salo-Mullen, Erin E; Yu, Kenneth H; Epstein, Andrew S; Segal, Michal; Brenner, Robin; Do, Richard K; Chen, Alice P; Tang, Laura H; Kelsen, David P

    2018-04-01

    A phase 1 trial was used to evaluate a combination of cisplatin, gemcitabine, and escalating doses of veliparib in patients with untreated advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in 2 cohorts: a germline BRCA1/2-mutated (BRCA+) cohort and a wild-type BRCA (BRCA-) cohort. The aims were to determine the safety, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), maximum tolerated dose, and recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of veliparib combined with cisplatin and gemcitabine and to assess the antitumor efficacy (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1) and overall survival. Gemcitabine and cisplatin were dosed at 600 and 25 mg/m 2 , respectively, over 30 minutes on days 3 and 10 of a 21-day cycle. Four dose levels of veliparib were evaluated: 20 (dose level 0), 40 (dose level 1), and 80 mg (dose level 2) given orally twice daily on days 1 to 12 and 80 mg given twice daily on days 1 to 21 (dose level 2A [DL2A]). Seventeen patients were enrolled: 9 BRCA+ patients, 7 BRCA- patients, and 1 patient with an unknown status. DLTs were reached at DL2A (80 mg twice daily on days 1 to 21). Two of the 5 patients in this cohort (40%) experienced grade 4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Two grade 5 events occurred on protocol. The objective response rate in the BRCA+ cohort was 7 of 9 (77.8%). The median overall survival for BRCA+ patients was 23.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.8-30.2 months). The median overall survival for BRCA- patients was 11 months (95% CI, 1.5-12.1 months). The RP2D of veliparib was 80 mg by mouth twice daily on days 1 to 12 in combination with cisplatin and gemcitabine; the DLT was myelosuppression. Substantial antitumor activity was seen in BRCA+ PDAC. A randomized phase 2 trial is currently evaluating cisplatin and gemcitabine with and without veliparib for BRCA+ PDAC (NCT01585805). Cancer 2018;124:1374-82. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  4. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter improves symbol SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomalaza-Raez, Carlos A.; Hurd, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (SNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  5. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter can improve symbol SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, W. J.; Pomalaza-Raez, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (CNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  6. The Hb E (HBB: c.79G>A), Mean Corpuscular Volume, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Cutoff Points in Double Heterozygous Hb E/- -SEA α-Thalassemia-1 Carriers are Dependent on Hemoglobin Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckngam, Prapapun; Limweeraprajak, Ektong; Kiewkarnkha, Tiemjan; Tatu, Thanusak

    2017-01-01

    Identifying double heterozygosities in Hb E (HBB: c.79 G>A)/- - SEA (Southeast Asian) (α-thalassemia-1) (α-thal-1) in patients first diagnosed as carrying Hb E is important in thalassemia control. Low Hb E, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (Hb) (MCH) levels have been observed in this double heterozygosity. However, the cutoff points of these parameters have never been systematically established. Here, we analyzed Hb E and red blood cell (RBC) parameters in 372 Hb E patients grouped by Hb levels, by the status of - - SEA and -α 3.7 (α-thal-2; rightward) deletions, to establish the cutoff points. Then, the established cutoff points were evaluated in 184 Hb E patients. It was found that the cutoff points of Hb E, MCV, MCH were significantly dependent on the Hb levels. In the group having Hb levels Hb E, MCV and MCH were 21.2%, 64.9 fL and 21.0 pg, respectively, and were 25.6%, 72.8 fL and 23.9 pg, respectively, in the group having Hb levels 10.0-11.9 g/dL. Finally, in the group having Hb levels ≥12.0 g/dL, the cutoff points of Hb E, MCV and MCH were 27.1%, 76.7 fL and 25.3 pg, respectively. Thus, to screen for the double heterozygous Hb E/- - SEA anomaly in patients initially diagnosed as carrying Hb E, the Hb levels must be taken into account in choosing the suitable cutoff points of these three parameters.

  7. Dynamics of the phase transitions in the system of nonequilibrium charge carriers in quantum-dimensional Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x}/Si structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagaev, V. S.; Krivobok, V. S., E-mail: krivobok@lebedev.ru; Nikolaev, S. N.; Onishchenko, E. E.; Pruchkina, A. A.; Aminev, D. F.; Skorikov, M. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Lobanov, D. N.; Novikov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    The dynamics of the phase transition from an electron-hole plasma to an exciton gas is studied during pulsed excitation of heterostructures with Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x}/Si quantum wells. The scenario of the phase transition is shown to depend radically on the germanium content in the Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} layer. The electron-hole system decomposes into a rarefied exciton and a dense plasma phases for quantum wells with a germanium content x = 3.5% in the time range 100–500 ns after an excitation pulse. In this case, the electron-hole plasma existing in quantum wells has all signs of an electron-hole liquid. A qualitatively different picture of the phase transition is observed for quantum wells with x = 9.5%, where no separation into phases with different electronic spectra is detected. The carrier recombination in the electron-hole plasma leads a gradual weakening of screening and the appearance of exciton states. For a germanium content of 5–7%, the scenario of the phase transition is complex: 20–250 ns after an excitation pulse, the properties of the electron-hole system are described in terms of a homogeneous electron-hole plasma, whereas its separation into an electron-hole liquid and an exciton gas is detected after 350 ns. It is shown that, for the electron-hole liquid to exist in quantum wells with x = 5–7% Ge, the exciton gas should have a substantially higher density than in quantum wells with x = 3.5% Ge. This finding agrees with a decrease in the depth of the local minimum of the electron-hole plasma energy with increasing germanium concentration in the SiGe layer. An increase in the density of the exciton gas coexisting with the electron-hole liquid is shown to enhance the role of multiparticle states, which are likely to be represented by trions T{sup +} and biexcitons, in the exciton gas.

  8. Safety and efficacy of AMG 334 for prevention of episodic migraine: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Dodick, David W; Silberstein, Stephen; Goadsby, Peter J; Reuter, Uwe; Ashina, Messoud; Saper, Joel; Cady, Roger; Chon, Yun; Dietrich, Julie; Lenz, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway is a promising target for preventive therapies in patients with migraine. We assessed the safety and efficacy of AMG 334, a fully human monoclonal antibody against the CGRP receptor, for migraine prevention. In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial, patients aged 18-60 years with 4 to 14 migraine days per month were enrolled at 59 headache and clinical research centres in North America and Europe, and randomly assigned in a 3:2:2:2 ratio to monthly subcutaneous placebo, AMG 334 7 mg, AMG 334 21 mg, or AMG 334 70 mg using a sponsor-generated randomisation sequence centrally executed by an interactive voice response or interactive web response system. Study site personnel, patients, and the sponsor study personnel were masked to the treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was the change in monthly migraine days from baseline to the last 4 weeks of the 12-week double-blind treatment phase. The primary endpoint was calculated using the least squares mean at each timepoint from a generalised linear mixed-effect model for repeated measures. Safety endpoints were adverse events, clinical laboratory values, vital signs, and anti-AMG 334 antibodies. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01952574. An open-label extension phase of up to 256 weeks is ongoing and will assess the long-term safety of AMG 334. From Aug 6, 2013, to June 30, 2014, 483 patients were randomly assigned to placebo (n=160), AMG 334 7 mg (n=108), AMG 334 21 mg (n=108), or AMG 334 70 mg (n=107). The mean change in monthly migraine days at week 12 was -3·4 (SE 0·4) days with AMG 334 70 mg versus -2·3 (0·3) days with placebo (difference -1·1 days [95% CI -2·1 to -0·2], p=0·021). The mean reductions in monthly migraine days with the 7 mg (-2·2 [SE 0·4]) and the 21 mg (-2·4 [0·4]) doses were not significantly different from that with placebo. Adverse events were recorded in 82 (54

  9. Neuroplastic effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on painful symptoms reduction in chronic Hepatitis C: a phase II randomized, double blind, sham controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Patricia Brietzke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pegylated Interferon Alpha (Peg-IFN in combination with other drugs is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C infection (HCV and is related to severe painful symptoms. The aim of this study was access the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in controlling the painful symptoms related to Peg-IFN side effects. Material and Methods: In this phase II double-blind trial, twenty eight (n=28 HCV subjects were randomized to receive either five consecutive days of active tDCS (n=14 or sham (n=14 during five consecutive days with anodal stimulation over the primary motor cortex region using 2 mA for 20 minutes. The primary outcomes were visual analogue scale (VAS pain and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF serum levels. Secondary outcomes were the pressure-pain threshold (PPT, the Brazilian Profile of Chronic Pain: Screen (B-PCP:S and drug analgesics use. Results: tDCS reduced the VAS scores (P<0.003, with a mean pain drop of 56% (p<0.001. Furthermore, tDCS was able to enhance BDNF levels (p<0.01. The mean increase was 37.48% in the active group. Finally, tDCS raised PPT (p<0.001 and reduced the B-PCP:S scores and analgesic use (p<0.05. Conclusions: Five sessions of tDCS were effective in reducing the painful symptoms in HCV patients undergoing Peg-IFN treatment. These findings support the efficacy of tDCS as a promising therapeutic tool to improve the tolerance of the side effects related to the use of Peg-IFN. Future larger studies (phase III and IV trials are needed to confirm the clinical use of the therapeutic effects of tDCS in such condition. Trial registration: Brazilian Human Health Regulator for Research with the approval number CAAE 07802012.0.0000.5327

  10. Synthetic Influenza vaccine (FLU-v) stimulates cell mediated immunity in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled Phase I trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleguezuelos, Olga; Robinson, Stuart; Stoloff, Gregory A; Caparrós-Wanderley, Wilson

    2012-06-29

    Current Influenza vaccines elicit antibody mediated prophylactic immunity targeted to viral capsid antigens. Despite their global use these vaccines must be administered yearly to the population, cannot be manufactured until the circulating viral strain(s) have been identified and have limited efficacy. A need remains for Influenza vaccines addressing these issues and here we report the results of a Phase Ib trial of a novel synthetic Influenza vaccine (FLU-v) targeting T cell responses to NP, M1 and M2. Forty-eight healthy males aged 18-40 were recruited for this single-centre, randomised, double blind study. Volunteers received one single low (250 μg) or high (500 μg) dose of FLU-v, either alone or adjuvanted. Safety, tolerability and basic immunogenicity (IgG and IFN-γ responses) parameters were assessed pre-vaccination and for 21 days post-vaccination. FLU-v was found to be safe and well tolerated with no vaccine associated severe adverse events. Dose-dependent IFN-γ responses >2-fold the pre-vaccination level were detected in 80% and 100% of volunteers receiving, respectively, the low and high dose adjuvanted FLU-v formulations. No formulation tested induced any significant FLU-v antibody response. FLU-v is safe and induces a vaccine-specific cellular immunity. Cellular immune responses are historically known to control and mitigate infection and illness during natural infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phase inversion and frequency doubling of reflection high-energy electron diffraction intensity oscillations in the layer-by-layer growth of complex oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhangwen; Guo, Wei; Ji, Dianxiang; Zhang, Tianwei; Gu, Chenyi; Tang, Chao; Gu, Zhengbin; Nie*, Yuefeng; Pan, Xiaoqing

    In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and its intensity oscillations are extremely important for the growth of epitaxial thin films with atomic precision. The RHEED intensity oscillations of complex oxides are, however, rather complicated and a general model is still lacking. Here, we report the unusual phase inversion and frequency doubling of RHEED intensity oscillations observed in the layer-by-layer growth of SrTiO3 using oxide molecular beam epitaxy. In contacts to the common understanding that the maximum(minimum) intensity occurs at SrO(TiO2) termination, respectively, we found that both maximum or minimum intensities can occur at SrO, TiO2, or even incomplete terminations depending on the incident angle of the electron beam, which raises a fundamental question if one can rely on the RHEED intensity oscillations to precisely control the growth of thin films. A general model including surface roughness and termination dependent mean inner potential qualitatively explains the observed phenomena, and provides the answer to the question how to prepare atomically and chemically precise surface/interfaces using RHEED oscillations for complex oxides. We thank National Basic Research Program of China (No. 11574135, 2015CB654901) and the National Thousand-Young-Talents Program.

  12. Determination of Iodate in Food, Environmental, and Biological Samples after Solid-Phase Extraction with Ni-Al-Zr Ternary Layered Double Hydroxide as a Nanosorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abdolmohammad-Zadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured nickel-aluminum-zirconium ternary layered double hydroxide was successfully applied as a solid-phase extraction sorbent for the separation and pre-concentration of trace levels of iodate in food, environmental and biological samples. An indirect method was used for monitoring of the extracted iodate ions. The method is based on the reaction of the iodate with iodide in acidic solution to produce iodine, which can be spectrophotometrically monitored at 352 nm. The absorbance is directly proportional to the concentration of iodate in the sample. The effect of several parameters such as pH, sample flow rate, amount of nanosorbent, elution conditions, sample volume, and coexisting ions on the recovery was investigated. In the optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection (3s and enrichment factor were 0.12 μg mL−1 and 20, respectively. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system was linear in the range of 0.2–2.8 μg mL−1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. In order to validate the presented method, a certified reference material, NIST SRM 1549, was also analyzed.

  13. Assessment of amide I spectroscopic maps for a gas-phase peptide using IR-UV double-resonance spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, J. K.; Roy, S.; Skinner, J. L. [Department of Chemistry and Theoretical Chemistry Institute, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Zabuga, A. V.; Rizzo, T. R. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Moleculaire, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL SB ISIC LCPM, Station 6, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-06-14

    The spectroscopy of amide I vibrations has become a powerful tool for exploring protein structure and dynamics. To help with spectral interpretation, it is often useful to perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. To connect spectroscopic experiments to simulations in an efficient manner, several researchers have proposed “maps,” which relate observables in classical MD simulations to quantum spectroscopic variables. It can be difficult to discern whether errors in the theoretical results (compared to experiment) arise from inaccuracies in the MD trajectories or in the maps themselves. In this work, we evaluate spectroscopic maps independently from MD simulations by comparing experimental and theoretical spectra for a single conformation of the α-helical model peptide Ac-Phe-(Ala){sub 5}-Lys-H{sup +} in the gas phase. Conformation-specific experimental spectra are obtained for the unlabeled peptide and for several singly and doubly {sup 13}C-labeled variants using infrared-ultraviolet double-resonance spectroscopy, and these spectra are found to be well-modeled by density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G** level. We then compare DFT results for the deuterated and {sup 13}C{sup 18}O-labeled peptide with those from spectroscopic maps developed and used previously by the Skinner group. We find that the maps are typically accurate to within a few cm{sup −1} for both frequencies and couplings, having larger errors only for the frequencies of terminal amides.

  14. Investigation of Iron-based double perovskite oxides on the magnetic phase stability, mechanical, electronic and optical properties via first-principles calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rached, H., E-mail: habib_rached@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire des Matériaux Magnétiques, Faculté des Sciences Exactes, Université Djillali Liabès de Sidi Bel-Abbès, Sidi Bel-Abbès, 22000 (Algeria); Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences Exactes et Informatique, Université Hassiba BenBouali de Chlef, Chlef, 02000 (Algeria); Bendaoudia, S. [Laboratoire des Matériaux Magnétiques, Faculté des Sciences Exactes, Université Djillali Liabès de Sidi Bel-Abbès, Sidi Bel-Abbès, 22000 (Algeria); Rached, D., E-mail: rachdj@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire des Matériaux Magnétiques, Faculté des Sciences Exactes, Université Djillali Liabès de Sidi Bel-Abbès, Sidi Bel-Abbès, 22000 (Algeria)

    2017-06-01

    The main goal of the present work is to obtain report on the magnetic phase stability, mechanical, electronic and optical properties of double perovskite oxides Pb{sub 2}FeMO{sub 6} (M = Mo, Re and W) by employing the ab-initio plane-wave method, based on the density functional theory (DFT). The exchange-correlation (XC) energy of electrons was treated using the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof parametrization. The ground-state electronic properties for different magnetic configurations were calculated. The formation enthalpies has been evaluated in order to determinate the stability of our compounds. The independent elastic constants and the related mechanical properties are investigated. The electronic structure calculation reveal the half-metallic ferrimagnets (FiM-HM) for all investigated compounds. The optical constants as the dielectric function, refractive index, optical reflectivity and absorption coefficient were calculated and discussed in detail. Therefore, our compounds are identified as potential candidates for spintronic applications and high performance electronic devices. - Highlights: • Based on the DFT calculation, the Pb{sub 2}FeMO{sub 6} (M = Mo, Re and W) compounds have been investigated. • The ground-state properties are predicted. • The mechanical properties reveals that these compounds are stable against any elastic deformations. • The electronic structures reveals the half-metallic ferrimagnets (FiM-HM) for all investigated compounds.

  15. Local measurements in two-phase flow using a double-sensor conductivity probes and laser doppler anemometry in a vertical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiva, S.; Julia, E.; Hernandez, L.; Mendez, S.; Munoz-Cobo, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    An upward isothermal co-current air-water flow in a vertical pipe (50.2 mm inner diameter) has been experimental investigated. Local measurements of void fraction, interfacial area concentration (IAC), and interfacial velocity and Sauter mean diameter were measured using a double sensor conductivity probe. Liquid velocity and turbulence intensity were measured using laser Doppler anemometry. Different air-water flow configurations was investigated for a liquid flow rate ranged from 0.29 m/s to 2 m/s and a void fraction up to 15%. For each two-phase flow configuration 15 radial position and three axial positions was measured by the conductivity probe methodology, and several radial profiles was measured with LDA at different axial positions. Two theoretical calibration factors have been defined to relate the mean measurable parameter to the interfacial area concentrations obtained and the measured bubbles, including the missed bubbles. Those factors include the effects of bubble motions, and probe spacing. These calibration factors were obtained through new analytical and numerical method, using a Monte Carlo approach. (author)

  16. The effect of secukinumab on moderate-to-severe scalp psoriasis: Results of a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3b study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagel, Jerry; Duffin, Kristina Callis; Moore, Angela; Ferris, Laura K; Siu, Kimberly; Steadman, Jennifer; Kianifard, Farid; Nyirady, Judit; Lebwohl, Mark

    2017-10-01

    Moderate-to-severe scalp psoriasis has not been evaluated in prospective trials of patients without moderate-to-severe body psoriasis. Evaluate the efficacy and safety of secukinumab in moderate-to-severe scalp psoriasis. In this 24-week, double-blind, phase 3b study, 102 patients were randomized 1:1 to subcutaneous secukinumab 300 mg or placebo at baseline, weeks 1, 2, and 3, and then every 4 weeks from week 4 to 20. The primary efficacy variable was 90% improvement of Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI 90) score from baseline to week 12. At week 12, PSSI 90 (secukinumab 300 mg vs placebo, 52.9% vs 2.0%) and Investigator's Global Assessment modified 2011 scalp responses of 0 or 1 (secukinumab 300 mg vs placebo, 56.9% vs 5.9%) were significantly greater with secukinumab 300 mg than placebo (P psoriasis at week 12 with secukinumab 300 mg than placebo (35.3% vs 0%; P psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of amide I spectroscopic maps for a gas-phase peptide using IR-UV double-resonance spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J. K.; Roy, S.; Skinner, J. L.; Zabuga, A. V.; Rizzo, T. R.

    2014-01-01

    The spectroscopy of amide I vibrations has become a powerful tool for exploring protein structure and dynamics. To help with spectral interpretation, it is often useful to perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. To connect spectroscopic experiments to simulations in an efficient manner, several researchers have proposed “maps,” which relate observables in classical MD simulations to quantum spectroscopic variables. It can be difficult to discern whether errors in the theoretical results (compared to experiment) arise from inaccuracies in the MD trajectories or in the maps themselves. In this work, we evaluate spectroscopic maps independently from MD simulations by comparing experimental and theoretical spectra for a single conformation of the α-helical model peptide Ac-Phe-(Ala) 5 -Lys-H + in the gas phase. Conformation-specific experimental spectra are obtained for the unlabeled peptide and for several singly and doubly 13 C-labeled variants using infrared-ultraviolet double-resonance spectroscopy, and these spectra are found to be well-modeled by density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G** level. We then compare DFT results for the deuterated and 13 C 18 O-labeled peptide with those from spectroscopic maps developed and used previously by the Skinner group. We find that the maps are typically accurate to within a few cm −1 for both frequencies and couplings, having larger errors only for the frequencies of terminal amides

  18. A phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of misoprostol rectal suppositories to prevent acute radiation proctitis in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, Andrea; Schmidberger, Heinz; Hermann, Robert M.; Christiansen, Hans; Saile, Bernhard; Pradier, Olivier; Hess, Clemens F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation proctitis is the most relevant complication of pelvic radiation and is still mainly treated supportively. Considering the negative impact of acute proctitis symptoms on patients' daily activities and the potential relationship between the severity of acute radiation injury and late damage, misoprostol was tested in the prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 100 patients who underwent radiotherapy for prostate cancer were entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. Radiation-induced toxicity was evaluated weekly during radiotherapy using the Common Toxicity Criteria. Results: Between the placebo and the misoprostol groups, no significant differences in proctitis symptoms occurred: 76% of patients in each group had Grade 1 toxicity, and 26% in the placebo group and 36% in the misoprostol group had Grade 2 toxicity. No differences were found in onset or symptom duration. Comparing the peak incidence of patients' toxicity symptoms, significantly more patients experienced rectal bleeding in the misoprostol group (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Misoprostol given as a once-daily suppository did not decrease the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis and may increase the incidence of acute bleeding

  19. Assessment of amide I spectroscopic maps for a gas-phase peptide using IR-UV double-resonance spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J. K.; Zabuga, A. V.; Roy, S.; Rizzo, T. R.; Skinner, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    The spectroscopy of amide I vibrations has become a powerful tool for exploring protein structure and dynamics. To help with spectral interpretation, it is often useful to perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. To connect spectroscopic experiments to simulations in an efficient manner, several researchers have proposed “maps,” which relate observables in classical MD simulations to quantum spectroscopic variables. It can be difficult to discern whether errors in the theoretical results (compared to experiment) arise from inaccuracies in the MD trajectories or in the maps themselves. In this work, we evaluate spectroscopic maps independently from MD simulations by comparing experimental and theoretical spectra for a single conformation of the α-helical model peptide Ac-Phe-(Ala)5-Lys-H+ in the gas phase. Conformation-specific experimental spectra are obtained for the unlabeled peptide and for several singly and doubly 13C-labeled variants using infrared-ultraviolet double-resonance spectroscopy, and these spectra are found to be well-modeled by density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G** level. We then compare DFT results for the deuterated and 13C18O-labeled peptide with those from spectroscopic maps developed and used previously by the Skinner group. We find that the maps are typically accurate to within a few cm−1 for both frequencies and couplings, having larger errors only for the frequencies of terminal amides. PMID:24929378

  20. The use of dissolvable layered double hydroxide components in an in situ solid-phase extraction for chromatographic determination of tetracyclines in water and milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiroonsoontorn, Nattaphorn; Sansuk, Sira; Santaladchaiyakit, Yanawath; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2017-10-13

    This research presents a simple and green in situ solid phase extraction (is-SPE) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the simultaneous analysis of tetracyclines (TCs) including tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline. In is-SPE, TCs were efficiently extracted through the precipitation formation of dissolvable layered double hydroxides (LDHs) by mixing the LDH components such as magnesium and aluminum ions (both in metal chloride salts) thoroughly in an alkaline sample solution. After the centrifugation, the precipitate was completely dissolved with trifluoroacetic acid to release the enriched TCs, and then analyzed by HPLC. Under optimized conditions, this method gave good enrichment factors (EFs) of 41-93 with low limits of detection (LODs) of 0.7-6μg/L and limits of quantitation (LOQs) of 3-15μg/L. Also, the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of TCs in water and milk samples with the recoveries ranging from 81.7-108.1% for water and 55.7-88.7% for milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The comparison of Tc99m-pertechnetate/mibi subtraction and double phase Tc99m-mibi techniques in parathyroid imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilkay, Ue.; Erinc, R.; Karapolat, I.; Kumanlioglu, K.

    2001-01-01

    Experienced parathyroid surgeons can localize nearly %90-95 of the abnormal parathyroid glands with total thyroid bed exploration. For this reason, for the first surgical exploration preoperative imaging of the gland could be considered unnecessary. However, localization of the abnormal parathyroid tissue preoperatively could be beneficial in ectopic adenomas which consists %20 of all adenomas and also in shortening surgical procedure in single adenomas with the use of unilateral exploration. Re-exploration after an unsuccessful surgery is the most widely accepted indication for parathyroid imaging. Today, although Tc99m-MIBI is the accepted radionuclide with the advantages of giving better image quality with lower radiation dose over Tl-201, for imaging hyper functioning parathyroid tissue, there is no consensus on the ideal imaging protocol. Single-tracer double-phase imaging (STDP) and dual-tracer subtraction technique (Tc99m-pertechnetate/Tc99m-MIBI) (DTST) are proposed protocols using Tc99m-MIBI. The aim of this ongoing study is; to compare STDP imaging with DTST and to compare sensitivity of pinhole and high resolution parallel hole images in STDP protocol

  2. Efficient production of α-ketoglutarate in the gdh deleted Corynebacterium glutamicum by novel double-phase pH and biotin control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjun; Sun, Lanchao; Feng, Jia; Wu, Ruifang; Xu, Qingyang; Zhang, Chenglin; Chen, Ning; Xie, Xixian

    2016-06-01

    Production of L-glutamate using a biotin-deficient strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum has a long history. The process is achieved by controlling biotin at suboptimal dose in the initial fermentation medium, meanwhile feeding NH4OH to adjust pH so that α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) can be converted to L-glutamate. In this study, we deleted glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh1 and gdh2) of C. glutamicum GKG-047, an L-glutamate overproducing strain, to produce α-KG that is the direct precursor of L-glutamate. Based on the method of L-glutamate fermentation, we developed a novel double-phase pH and biotin control strategy for α-KG production. Specifically, NH4OH was added to adjust the pH at the bacterial growth stage and NaOH was used when the cells began to produce acid; besides adding an appropriate amount of biotin in the initial medium, certain amount of additional biotin was supplemented at the middle stage of fermentation to maintain a high cell viability and promote the carbon fixation to the flux of α-KG production. Under this control strategy, 45.6 g/L α-KG accumulated after 30-h fermentation in a 7.5-L fermentor and the productivity and yield achieved were 1.52 g/L/h and 0.42 g/g, respectively.

  3. First operation and performance of a 200 lt double phase LAr LEM-TPC with a 40x76 $\\cm^2$ readout

    CERN Document Server

    Badertscher, A; Degunda, U; Epprecht, L; Gendotti, A; Horikawa, S; Knecht, L; Natterer, D Lussi G; Nguyen, K; Resnati, F; Rubbia, A; Viant, T

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design, construction, and operation of a first large area double-phase liquid argon Large Electron Multiplier Time Projection Chamber (LAr LEM-TPC). The detector has a maximum drift length of 60 cm and the readout consists of a $40\\times 76$ cm$^2$ LEM and 2D projective anode to multiply and collect drifting charges. Scintillation light is detected by means of cryogenic PMTs positioned below the cathode. To record both charge and light signals, we have developed a compact acquisition system, which is scalable up to ton-scale detectors with thousands of charge readout channels. The acquisition system, as well as the design and the performance of custom-made charge sensitive preamplifiers, are described. The complete experimental setup has been operated for a first time during a period of four weeks at CERN in the cryostat of the ArDM experiment, which was equipped with liquid and gas argon purification systems. The detector, exposed to cosmic rays, recorded events with a single-ch...

  4. Treatment of epistaxis in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia with tranexamic acid - a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over phase IIIB study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisthoff, Urban W; Seyfert, Ulrich T; Kübler, Marcus; Bieg, Birgitt; Plinkert, Peter K; König, Jochem

    2014-09-01

    Epistaxis is the most frequent manifestation in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, in which no optimal treatment exists. It can lead to severe anemia and reduced quality of life. Positive effects of tranexamic acid, an antifibrinolytic drug, have been reported on epistaxis related to this disorder. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of treating nosebleeds in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia with tranexamic acid. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over phase IIIB study, 1 gram of tranexamic acid or placebo was given orally 3 times daily for 3 months for a total of 6 months. 22 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Hemoglobin levels, the primary outcome measure, did not change significantly (p=0.33). The secondary outcome measure was epistaxis score and patients reported a statistically significant reduction in nosebleeds, equaling a clinically relevant 54% diminution (p=0.0031), as compared to the placebo period. No severe side effects were observed. Tranexamic acid reduces epistaxis in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. (Clinical trial registration numbers: BfArM 141 CHC 9008-001 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01031992). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The use of recombinant human LH (lutropin alfa) in the late stimulation phase of assisted reproduction cycles: a double-blind, randomized, prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlatzis, B; Tavmergen, E; Szamatowicz, M; Barash, A; Amit, A; Levitas, E; Shoham, Z

    2006-01-01

    The effect of recombinant human LH (r-hLH; lutropin alfa) in women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation with recombinant human FSH (r-hFSH) prior to IVF was investigated. After down-regulation with the GnRH agonist, buserelin, 114 normo-ovulatory women (aged 18-37 years) received r-hFSH alone until the lead follicle reached a diameter of 14 mm. Patients were then randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive r-hFSH in addition to r-hLH, 75 IU s.c., or placebo daily for a maximum of 10 days prior to oocyte retrieval and IVF. The primary end-point was the number of metaphase II oocytes. There were no significant differences between treatment groups for the primary end-point. Serum estradiol concentrations on the day of HCG administration were significantly higher in the group receiving r-hLH plus r-hFSH than in the group receiving r-hFSH alone (P = 0.0001), but there were no significant differences between the groups in dose and duration of r-hFSH treatment required, oocyte maturation, fertilization rate, pregnancy rate and live birth rate. In this patient population, the addition of r-hLH during the late follicular phase of a long GnRH agonist and r-hFSH stimulation cycle provides no further benefit in terms of oocyte maturation or other end-points.

  6. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  7. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  8. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  9. Mechanism of carrier-induced ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Furukawa, N.; Kubo, K.

    2004-01-01

    Using the spin-polarized band obtained by applying the dynamical coherent potential approximation to a simple model, we have calculated the magnetization of Ga x Mn 1-x As as a function of the temperature for various values of carrier density. The result is consistent with the experimental observation, supporting the view previously proposed by us that the ferromagnetism is induced by the carriers in the bandtail through double-exchange-like mechanism

  10. COAST (Cisplatin ototoxicity attenuated by aspirin trial): A phase II double-blind, randomised controlled trial to establish if aspirin reduces cisplatin induced hearing-loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, Simon J; Martin, Karen; Abab, Julia; Ratcliffe, Ian; Thornton, Roger; Lineton, Ben; Ellis, Mary; Moody, Ronald; Stanton, Louise; Galanopoulou, Angeliki; Maishman, Tom; Geldart, Thomas; Bayne, Mike; Davies, Joe; Lamb, Carolynn; Popat, Sanjay; Joffe, Johnathan K; Nutting, Chris; Chester, John; Hartley, Andrew; Thomas, Gareth; Ottensmeier, Christian; Huddart, Robert; King, Emma

    2017-12-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most ototoxic chemotherapy drugs, resulting in a permanent and irreversible hearing loss in up to 50% of patients. Cisplatin and gentamicin are thought to damage hearing through a common mechanism, involving reactive oxygen species in the inner ear. Aspirin has been shown to minimise gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that aspirin could also reduce ototoxicity from cisplatin-based chemotherapy. A total of 94 patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy for multiple cancer types were recruited into a phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and randomised in a ratio of 1:1 to receive aspirin 975 mg tid and omeprazole 20 mg od, or matched placebos from the day before, to 2 days after, their cisplatin dose(s), for each treatment cycle. Patients underwent pure tone audiometry before and at 7 and 90 days after their final cisplatin dose. The primary end-point was combined hearing loss (cHL), the summed hearing loss at 6 kHz and 8 kHz, in both ears. Although aspirin was well tolerated, it did not protect hearing in patients receiving cisplatin (p-value = 0.233, 20% one-sided level of significance). In the aspirin arm, patients demonstrated mean cHL of 49 dB (standard deviation [SD] 61.41) following cisplatin compared with placebo patients who demonstrated mean cHL of 36 dB (SD 50.85). Women had greater average hearing loss than men, and patients treated for head and neck malignancy experienced the greatest cHL. Aspirin did not protect from cisplatin-related ototoxicity. Cisplatin and gentamicin may therefore have distinct ototoxic mechanisms, or cisplatin-induced ototoxicity may be refractory to the aspirin regimen used here. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Dapoxetine for the treatment of premature ejaculation: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial in 22 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvat, Jacques; Tesfaye, Fisseha; Rothman, Margaret; Rivas, David A; Giuliano, François

    2009-04-01

    Dapoxetine is being developed for the on-demand treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). Previous clinical trials have demonstrated its safety and efficacy. To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in men with PE. This randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, conducted in 22 countries, enrolled men (N=1162) > or = 18 yr of age who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision criteria for PE for > or = 6 mo, with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) or = 75% of intercourse episodes at baseline. Dapoxetine 30 mg or dapoxetine 60 mg or placebo on demand (1-3 h before intercourse) for 24 wk. Stopwatch-measured IELT, Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP), Clinical Global Impression (CGI) of change, adverse events (AEs). The study was completed by 618 men. Mean average IELT increased from 0.9 min at baseline (all groups) to 1.9 min, 3.2 min, and 3.5 min with placebo and dapoxetine 30 mg and dapoxetine 60 mg, respectively, at study end point; geometric mean IELT increased from 0.7 min at baseline to 1.1 min, 1.8 min, and 2.3 min, respectively, at study end point. All PEP measures and IELTs improved significantly with dapoxetine versus placebo at week 12 and week 24 (p<0.001 for all). The most common AEs were nausea, dizziness, diarrhea, and headache. AEs led to discontinuation in 1.3%, 3.9%, and 8.2% of subjects with placebo and dapoxetine 30 mg and dapoxetine 60 mg, respectively. Limitations of this study included the exclusion of men who were not in long-term monogamous relationships. Dapoxetine significantly improved all aspects of PE and was generally well tolerated in this broad population.

  12. Immunogenicity and safety assessment of a trivalent, inactivated split influenza vaccine in Korean children: Double-blind, randomized, active-controlled multicenter phase III clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Beom; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Shin, Hye Jo; Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Park, Joon Soo; Kim, Hwang Min; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Dong Ho; Choi, Young Youn; Cha, Sung-Ho; Hong, Young Jin; Kang, Jin Han

    2015-01-01

    A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, active-control phase III clinical trial was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent, inactivated split influenza vaccine. Korean children between the ages of 6 months and 18 y were enrolled and randomized into a study (study vaccine) or a control vaccine group (commercially available trivalent, inactivated split influenza vaccine) in a 5:1 ratio. Antibody responses were determined using hemagglutination inhibition assay, and post-vaccination immunogenicity was assessed based on seroconversion and seroprotection rates. For safety assessment, solicited local and systemic adverse events up to 28 d after vaccination and unsolicited adverse events up to 6 months after vaccination were evaluated. Immunogenicity was assessed in 337 and 68 children of the study and control groups. In the study vaccine group, seroconversion rates against influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B strains were 62.0% (95% CI: 56.8-67.2), 53.4% (95% CI: 48.1-58.7), and 54.9% (95% CI: 48.1-60.2), respectively. The corresponding seroprotection rates were 95.0% (95% CI: 92.6-97.3), 93.8% (95% CI: 91.2-96.4), and 95.3% (95% CI: 93.0-97.5). The lower 95% CI limits of the seroconversion and seroprotection rates were over 40% and 70%, respectively, against all strains. Seroconversion and seroprotection rates were not significantly different between the study and control vaccine groups. Furthermore, the frequencies of adverse events were not significantly different between the 2 vaccine groups, and no serious vaccination-related adverse events were noted. In conclusion, the study vaccine exhibited substantial immunogenicity and safety in Korean children and is expected to be clinically effective.

  13. 25–34 GHz Single-Pole, Double-Throw CMOS Switches for a Ka-Band Phased-Array Transceiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two single-pole, double-throw (SPDT mm-wave switches for Ka-band phased-array transceivers, fabricated with a 65-nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. One switch employs cross-biasing (CB control with a single supply, while the other uses dual-supply biasing (DSB control with positive and negative voltages. Negative voltages were generated internally, using a ring oscillator and a charge pump. Identical gate and body floated N-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (N-MOSFETs in a triple well were used as the switch core transistors. Inductors were used to improve the isolation between the transmitter (TX and receiver (RX, as well as insertion loss, by canceling the parasitic capacitance of the switch core transistors at resonance. The size of the proposed radio frequency (RF switch is 260 μm × 230 μm, excluding all pads. The minimum insertion losses of the CB and DSB switches were 2.1 dB at 28 GHz and 1.93 dB at 24 GHz, respectively. Between 25 GHz and 34 GHz, the insertion losses were less than 2.3 dB and 2.5 dB, the return losses were less than 16.7 dB and 17.3 dB, and the isolation was over 18.4 dB and 15.3 dB, respectively. The third order input intercept points (IIP3 of the CB and DSB switches were 38.4 dBm and 39 dBm at 28 GHz, respectively.

  14. Postprandial effects of dark chocolate on portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis: results of a phase 2, double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gottardi, Andrea; Berzigotti, Annalisa; Seijo, Susana; D'Amico, Mario; Thormann, Wolfgang; Abraldes, Juan G; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos; Bosch, Jaime

    2012-09-01

    In cirrhosis, hepatic endothelial dysfunction as a result of oxidative stress contributes to the postprandial increase in hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG). We aimed at testing the hypothesis that dark chocolate, which holds potent antioxidant properties, might attenuate the postprandial increase in HVPG in patients with cirrhosis. In this phase 2, double-blind, controlled study, 22 cirrhotic patients referred for HVPG measurement were included and randomly assigned to receive a liquid meal containing either dark chocolate (active treatment; 85% cocoa, 0.55 g/kg body wt; n = 11) or isocaloric amounts of white chocolate (devoid of cocoa flavonoids; control subjects; n = 11). HVPG, arterial pressure, portal blood flow, serum flavonoids (catechin and epicatechin), and nitric oxide were measured at baseline and 30 min after meal administration. The main outcome measure was the change in HVPG 30 min after the test meal. Postprandial hyperemia was accompanied by a marked increase in HVPG in the white-chocolate group (16.0 ± 4.7-19.7 ± 4.1 mm Hg or +26.4 ± 12.7%; P chocolate group (16.9 ± 2.9-18.7 ± 3.5 mm Hg or +11.5 ± 15.9%; P = 0.02 compared with white chocolate). Portal blood flow increased similarly after meals containing dark or white chocolate (median increase: 32% compared with 39%). Plasma flavonoids increased 15-50-fold after dark chocolate consumption. Dark but not white chocolate induced a mild increase in arterial pressure (+8.8 ± 8.8% compared with -0.3 ± 4.9%; P = 0.002). In patients with cirrhosis, dark chocolate blunted the postprandial increase in HVPG by improving flow-mediated hepatic vasorelaxation and ameliorated systemic hypotension. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01408966.

  15. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 2 Study of Oral ELND005 (scyllo-Inositol) in Young Adults with Down Syndrome without Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Michael S.; Skotko, Brian G.; McDonough, Mary Ellen; Pulsifer, Margaret; Evans, Casey; Doran, Eric; Muranevici, Gabriela; Kesslak, Patrick; Abushakra, Susan; Lott, Ira T.

    2018-01-01

    Background ELND005 (scyllo-Inositol; cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol) has been evaluated as a potential disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have an increased risk for developing AD dementia. Objective To evaluate the safety and tolerability of ELND005 and to determine its pharmacokinetics (PK) and relationship between PK parameters, safety outcome measures, and exploratory efficacy outcome measures in young adults with DS without dementia. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, three-arm, multicenter Phase 2 study of the safety and pharmacokinetics of ELND005 administered orally for 4 weeks (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01791725). Participants who met study eligibility criteria were randomly assigned in a 2:1:1 ratio to receive ELND005 at either 250 mg twice daily (BID) or 250 mg once daily (QD) or matching placebo for 4 weeks. Results There were no apparent treatment group-related trends on cognitive or behavioral measures and there were no SAEs and no deaths in the study. Overall, mean changes from baseline in clinical laboratory parameters, vital sign measurements, electrocardiogram (ECG) results, and other physical findings were unremarkable. ELND005 accumulation averaged approximately 2-fold with QD dosing, and 3- to 4-fold with BID dosing. Conclusion Overall, treatment of adults with DS with ELND005 at both doses was well tolerated, achieved measurable blood levels and demonstrated no safety findings. Further studies will be needed to test efficacy. PMID:28453471

  16. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase II Study of Oral ELND005 (scyllo-Inositol) in Young Adults with Down Syndrome without Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Michael S; Skotko, Brian G; McDonough, Mary Ellen; Pulsifer, Margaret; Evans, Casey; Doran, Eric; Muranevici, Gabriela; Kesslak, Patrick; Abushakra, Susan; Lott, Ira T

    2017-01-01

    ELND005 (scyllo-Inositol; cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol) has been evaluated as a potential disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have an increased risk for developing AD dementia. To evaluate the safety and tolerability of ELND005 and to determine its pharmacokinetics (PK) and relationship between PK parameters, safety outcome measures, and exploratory efficacy outcome measures in young adults with DS without dementia. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, three-arm, multicenter Phase II study of the safety and pharmacokinetics of ELND005 administered orally for 4 weeks (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01791725). Participants who met study eligibility criteria were randomly assigned in a 2 : 1:1 ratio to receive ELND005 at either 250 mg twice daily (BID) or 250 mg once daily (QD) or matching placebo for 4 weeks. There were no apparent treatment group-related trends on cognitive or behavioral measures and there were no SAEs and no deaths in the study. Overall, mean changes from baseline in clinical laboratory parameters, vital sign measurements, electrocardiogram results, and other physical findings were unremarkable. ELND005 accumulation averaged approximately 2-fold with QD dosing, and 3- to 4-fold with BID dosing. Overall, treatment of adults with DS with ELND005 at both doses was well tolerated, achieved measurable blood levels and demonstrated no safety findings. Further studies will be needed to test efficacy.

  17. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase II trial of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with radiation-induced breast induration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooker, Sonja; Martin, Susan; Pearson, Ann; Bagchi, Debasis; Earl, Judith; Gothard, Lone; Hall, Emma; Porter, Lucy; Yarnold, John

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tissue hardness (induration), pain and tenderness are common late adverse effects of curative radiotherapy for early breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with tissue induration after high-dose radiotherapy for early breast cancer in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised phase II trial. Patients and methods: Sixty-six eligible research volunteers with moderate or marked breast induration at a mean 10.8 years since radiotherapy for early breast cancer were randomised to active drug (n=44) or placebo (n=22). All patients were given grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) 100 mg three times a day orally, or corresponding placebo capsules, for 6 months. The primary endpoint was percentage change in surface area (cm 2 ) of palpable breast induration measured at the skin surface 12 months after randomisation. Secondary endpoints included change in photographic breast appearance and patient self-assessment of breast hardness, pain and tenderness. Results: At 12 months post-randomisation, ≥50% reduction in surface area (cm 2 ) of breast induration was recorded in13/44 (29.5%) GSPE and 6/22 (27%) placebo group patients (NS). At 12 months post-randomisation, there was no significant difference between treatment and control groups in terms of external assessments of tissue hardness, breast appearance or patient self-assessments of breast hardness, pain or tenderness. Conclusions: The study failed to show efficacy of orally-adminstered GSPE in patients with breast induration following radiotherapy for breast cancer

  18. Icotinib versus gefitinib in previously treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (ICOGEN): a randomised, double-blind phase 3 non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuankai; Zhang, Li; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Caicun; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Shucai; Wang, Dong; Li, Qiang; Qin, Shukui; Hu, Chunhong; Zhang, Yiping; Chen, Jianhua; Cheng, Ying; Feng, Jifeng; Zhang, Helong; Song, Yong; Wu, Yi-Long; Xu, Nong; Zhou, Jianying; Luo, Rongcheng; Bai, Chunxue; Jin, Yening; Liu, Wenchao; Wei, Zhaohui; Tan, Fenlai; Wang, Yinxiang; Ding, Lieming; Dai, Hong; Jiao, Shunchang; Wang, Jie; Liang, Li; Zhang, Weimin; Sun, Yan

    2013-09-01

    Icotinib, an oral EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, had shown antitumour activity and favourable toxicity in early-phase clinical trials. We aimed to investigate whether icotinib is non-inferior to gefitinib in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. In this randomised, double-blind, phase 3 non-inferiority trial we enrolled patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer from 27 sites in China. Eligible patients were those aged 18-75 years who had not responded to one or more platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1), using minimisation methods, to receive icotinib (125 mg, three times per day) or gefitinib (250 mg, once per day) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, analysed in the full analysis set. We analysed EGFR status if tissue samples were available. All investigators, clinicians, and participants were masked to patient distribution. The non-inferiority margin was 1·14; non-inferiority would be established if the upper limit of the 95% CI for the hazard ratio (HR) of gefitinib versus icotinib was less than this margin. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01040780, and the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, number ChiCTR-TRC-09000506. 400 eligible patients were enrolled between Feb 26, 2009, and Nov 13, 2009; one patient was enrolled by mistake and removed from the study, 200 were assigned to icotinib and 199 to gefitinib. 395 patients were included in the full analysis set (icotinib, n=199; gefitinib, n=196). Icotinib was non-inferior to gefitinib in terms of progression-free survival (HR 0·84, 95% CI 0·67-1·05; median progression-free survival 4·6 months [95% CI 3·5-6·3] vs 3·4 months [2·3-3·8]; p=0·13). The most common adverse events were rash (81 [41%] of 200 patients in the icotinib group vs 98 [49%] of 199 patients in the gefitinib group) and diarrhoea (43 [22%] vs 58 [29%]). Patients given icotinib had less drug

  19. First phase 1 double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized rectal microbicide trial using UC781 gel with a novel index of ex vivo efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Anton

    Full Text Available Successful control of the HIV/AIDS pandemic requires reduction of HIV-1 transmission at sexually-exposed mucosae. No prevention studies of the higher-risk rectal compartment exist. We report the first-in-field Phase 1 trial of a rectally-applied, vaginally-formulated microbicide gel with the RT-inhibitor UC781 measuring clinical and mucosal safety, acceptability and plasma drug levels. A first-in-Phase 1 assessment of preliminary pharmacodynamics was included by measuring changes in ex vivo HIV-1 suppression in rectal biopsy tissue after exposure to product in vivo.HIV-1 seronegative, sexually-abstinent men and women (N = 36 were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing UC781 gel at two concentrations (0.1%, 0.25% with placebo gel (1∶1∶1. Baseline, single-dose exposure and a separate, 7-day at-home dosing were assessed. Safety and acceptability were primary endpoints. Changes in colorectal mucosal markers and UC781 plasma drug levels were secondary endpoints; ex vivo biopsy infectibility was an ancillary endpoint.All 36 subjects enrolled completed the 7-14 week trial (100% retention including 3 flexible sigmoidoscopies, each with 28 biopsies (14 at 10 cm; 14 at 30 cm. There were 81 Grade 1 adverse events (AEs and 8 Grade 2; no Grade 3, 4 or procedure-related AEs were reported. Acceptability was high, including likelihood of future use. No changes in mucosal immunoinflammatory markers were identified. Plasma levels of UC781 were not detected. Ex vivo infection of biopsies using two titers of HIV-1(BaL showed marked suppression of p24 in tissues exposed in vivo to 0.25% UC781; strong trends of suppression were seen with the lower 0.1% UC781 concentration.Single and 7-day topical rectal exposure to both concentrations of UC781 were safe with no significant AEs, high acceptability, no detected plasma drug levels and no significant mucosal changes. Ex vivo biopsy infections demonstrated marked suppression of HIV

  20. Repeated nebulisation of non-viral CFTR gene therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alton, Eric W F W; Armstrong, David K; Ashby, Deborah; Bayfield, Katie J; Bilton, Diana; Bloomfield, Emily V; Boyd, A Christopher; Brand, June; Buchan, Ruaridh; Calcedo, Roberto; Carvelli, Paula; Chan, Mario; Cheng, Seng H; Collie, D David S; Cunningham, Steve; Davidson, Heather E; Davies, Gwyneth; Davies, Jane C; Davies, Lee A; Dewar, Maria H; Doherty, Ann; Donovan, Jackie; Dwyer, Natalie S; Elgmati, Hala I; Featherstone, Rosanna F; Gavino, Jemyr; Gea-Sorli, Sabrina; Geddes, Duncan M; Gibson, James S R; Gill, Deborah R; Greening, Andrew P; Griesenbach, Uta; Hansell, David M; Harman, Katharine; Higgins, Tracy E; Hodges, Samantha L; Hyde, Stephen C; Hyndman, Laura; Innes, J Alastair; Jacob, Joseph; Jones, Nancy; Keogh, Brian F; Limberis, Maria P; Lloyd-Evans, Paul; Maclean, Alan W; Manvell, Michelle C; McCormick, Dominique; McGovern, Michael; McLachlan, Gerry; Meng, Cuixiang; Montero, M Angeles; Milligan, Hazel; Moyce, Laura J; Murray, Gordon D; Nicholson, Andrew G; Osadolor, Tina; Parra-Leiton, Javier; Porteous, David J; Pringle, Ian A; Punch, Emma K; Pytel, Kamila M; Quittner, Alexandra L; Rivellini, Gina; Saunders, Clare J; Scheule, Ronald K; Sheard, Sarah; Simmonds, Nicholas J; Smith, Keith; Smith, Stephen N; Soussi, Najwa; Soussi, Samia; Spearing, Emma J; Stevenson, Barbara J; Sumner-Jones, Stephanie G; Turkkila, Minna; Ureta, Rosa P; Waller, Michael D; Wasowicz, Marguerite Y; Wilson, James M; Wolstenholme-Hogg, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Lung delivery of plasmid DNA encoding the CFTR gene complexed with a cationic liposome is a potential treatment option for patients with cystic fibrosis. We aimed to assess the efficacy of non-viral CFTR gene therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis. We did this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial in two cystic fibrosis centres with patients recruited from 18 sites in the UK. Patients (aged ≥12 years) with a forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of 50-90% predicted and any combination of CFTR mutations, were randomly assigned, via a computer-based randomisation system, to receive 5 mL of either nebulised pGM169/GL67A gene-liposome complex or 0.9% saline (placebo) every 28 days (plus or minus 5 days) for 1 year. Randomisation was stratified by % predicted FEV1 (<70 vs ≥70%), age (<18 vs ≥18 years), inclusion in the mechanistic substudy, and dosing site (London or Edinburgh). Participants and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was the relative change in % predicted FEV1. The primary analysis was per protocol. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01621867. Between June 12, 2012, and June 24, 2013, we randomly assigned 140 patients to receive placebo (n=62) or pGM169/GL67A (n=78), of whom 116 (83%) patients comprised the per-protocol population. We noted a significant, albeit modest, treatment effect in the pGM169/GL67A group versus placebo at 12 months' follow-up (3.7%, 95% CI 0.1-7.3; p=0.046). This outcome was associated with a stabilisation of lung function in the pGM169/GL67A group compared with a decline in the placebo group. We recorded no significant difference in treatment-attributable adverse events between groups. Monthly application of the pGM169/GL67A gene therapy formulation was associated with a significant, albeit modest, benefit in FEV1 compared with placebo at 1 year, indicating a stabilisation of lung function in the treatment group. Further improvements in

  1. Dissolvable layered double hydroxide as an efficient nanosorbent for centrifugeless air-agitated dispersive solid-phase extraction of potentially toxic metal ions from bio-fluid samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajabi, Maryam, E-mail: mrajabi@semnan.ac.ir; Arghavani-Beydokhti, Somayeh; Barfi, Behruz; Asghari, Alireza

    2017-03-08

    In the present work, a novel nanosorbent namely layered double hydroxides with 4-amino-5-hydroxyl-2,7-naphthalendisulfonic acid monosodium salt interlayer anion (Mg-Al-AHNDA-LDH) was synthesized and applied as a dissolvable nanosorbent in a centrifugeless ultrasound-enhanced air-agitated dispersive solid-phase extraction (USE-AA-D-SPE) method. This method was used for the separation and preconcentration of some metal ions including Cd{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 6+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, and Ni{sup 2+} prior to their determination using the micro-sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometry (MS-FAAS) technique. The most interesting aspect of this nanosorbent is its immediate dissolvability at pH values lower than 4. This capability drastically eliminates the elution step, leading to a great improvement in the extraction efficiency and a decrease in the extraction time. Also in this method, the use of a syringe nanofilter eliminates the need for the centrifugation step, which is time-consuming and essentially causes the analysis to be off-line. Several effective parameters governing the extraction efficiency including the sample solution pH, amount of nanosorbent, eluent condition, number of air-agitation cycles, and sonication time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the good linear dynamic ranges of 2–70, 6–360, 7–725, 7–370, and 8–450 ng mL{sup −1} for the Cd{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 6+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}and Ni{sup 2+} ions, respectively, with the correlation of determinations (R{sup 2}s) higher than 0.997 were obtained. The limits of detection (LODs) were found to be 0.6, 1.7, 2.0, 2.1, and 2.4 for the Cd{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 6+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, and Ni{sup 2+} ions, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (percent relative standard deviations (%RSDs) (n = 5)) were below 7.8%. The proposed method was also successfully applied for the extraction and determination of the target ions in different biological fluid

  2. Dissolvable layered double hydroxide as an efficient nanosorbent for centrifugeless air-agitated dispersive solid-phase extraction of potentially toxic metal ions from bio-fluid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajabi, Maryam; Arghavani-Beydokhti, Somayeh; Barfi, Behruz; Asghari, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, a novel nanosorbent namely layered double hydroxides with 4-amino-5-hydroxyl-2,7-naphthalendisulfonic acid monosodium salt interlayer anion (Mg-Al-AHNDA-LDH) was synthesized and applied as a dissolvable nanosorbent in a centrifugeless ultrasound-enhanced air-agitated dispersive solid-phase extraction (USE-AA-D-SPE) method. This method was used for the separation and preconcentration of some metal ions including Cd 2+ , Cr 6+ , Pb 2+ , Co 2+ , and Ni 2+ prior to their determination using the micro-sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometry (MS-FAAS) technique. The most interesting aspect of this nanosorbent is its immediate dissolvability at pH values lower than 4. This capability drastically eliminates the elution step, leading to a great improvement in the extraction efficiency and a decrease in the extraction time. Also in this method, the use of a syringe nanofilter eliminates the need for the centrifugation step, which is time-consuming and essentially causes the analysis to be off-line. Several effective parameters governing the extraction efficiency including the sample solution pH, amount of nanosorbent, eluent condition, number of air-agitation cycles, and sonication time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the good linear dynamic ranges of 2–70, 6–360, 7–725, 7–370, and 8–450 ng mL −1 for the Cd 2+ , Cr 6+ , Pb 2+ , Co 2+ and Ni 2+ ions, respectively, with the correlation of determinations (R 2 s) higher than 0.997 were obtained. The limits of detection (LODs) were found to be 0.6, 1.7, 2.0, 2.1, and 2.4 for the Cd 2+ , Cr 6+ , Pb 2+ , Co 2+ , and Ni 2+ ions, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (percent relative standard deviations (%RSDs) (n = 5)) were below 7.8%. The proposed method was also successfully applied for the extraction and determination of the target ions in different biological fluid and tap water samples. - Highlights: • A novel centrifugeless dispersive

  3. Vorinostat in patients with advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma who have progressed on previous chemotherapy (VANTAGE-014): a phase 3, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Lee M; Kindler, Hedy L; Calvert, Hilary; Manegold, Christian; Tsao, Anne S; Fennell, Dean; Öhman, Ronny; Plummer, Ruth; Eberhardt, Wilfried E E; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Gaafar, Rabab M; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Hillerdal, Gunnar; Chu, Quincy; Buikhuisen, Wieneke A; Lubiniecki, Gregory M; Sun, Xing; Smith, Margaret; Baas, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Vorinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that changes gene expression and protein activity. On the basis of the clinical benefit reported in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma treated in a phase 1 study of vorinostat, we designed this phase 3 trial to investigate whether vorinostat given as a second-line or third-line therapy improved patients' overall survival. This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial was done in 90 international centres. Patients with measurable advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma and disease progression after one or two previous systemic regimens were eligible. After stratification for Karnofsky performance status, histology, and number of previous chemotherapy regimens, patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by use of an interactive voice response system with a block size of four to either treatment with vorinostat or placebo. Patients received oral vorinostat 300 mg (or matching placebo) twice daily on days 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, and 17 of a 21-day cycle. The primary endpoints were overall survival and safety and tolerability of vorinostat. The primary efficacy comparison was done in the intention-to-treat population, and safety and tolerability was assessed in the treated population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00128102. From July 12, 2005, to Feb 14, 2011, 661 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either vorinostat (n=329) or placebo (n=332) and included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Median overall survival for vorinostat was 30·7 weeks (95% CI 26·7-36·1) versus 27·1 weeks (23·1-31·9) for placebo (hazard ratio 0·98, 95% CI 0·83-1·17, p=0·86). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events for patients treated with vorinostat were fatigue or malaise (51 [16%] patients in the vorinostat group vs 25 [8%] in the placebo group]) and dyspnoea (35 [11%] vs 45 [14%]). In this randomised trial, vorinostat given as a second-line or third

  4. Measurements of the spin-orbit interaction and Landé g factor in a pure-phase InAs nanowire double quantum dot in the Pauli spin-blockade regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiyin; Huang, Shaoyun, E-mail: hqxu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: syhuang@pku.edu.cn; Lei, Zijin [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Pan, Dong; Zhao, Jianhua [State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, H. Q., E-mail: hqxu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: syhuang@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate direct measurements of the spin-orbit interaction and Landé g factors in a semiconductor nanowire double quantum dot. The device is made from a single-crystal pure-phase InAs nanowire on top of an array of finger gates on a Si/SiO{sub 2} substrate and the measurements are performed in the Pauli spin-blockade regime. It is found that the double quantum dot exhibits a large singlet-triplet energy splitting of Δ{sub ST} ∼ 2.3 meV, a strong spin-orbit interaction of Δ{sub SO} ∼ 140 μeV, and a large and strongly level-dependent Landé g factor of ∼12.5. These results imply that single-crystal pure-phase InAs nanowires are desired semiconductor nanostructures for applications in quantum information technologies.

  5. Project Half Double

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Ehlers, Michael; Adland, Karoline Thorp

    activities carried out within the framework of the projects. The formal part of Project Half Double was initiated in June 2015. We started out by developing, refining and testing the Half Double methodology on seven pilot projects in the first phase of the project, which will end June 2016. The current......Project Half Double has a clear mission to succeed in finding a project methodology that can increase the success rate of our projects while increasing the speed at which we generate new ideas and develop new products and services. Chaos and complexity should be seen as a basic condition...... and as an opportunity rather than a threat and a risk. We are convinced that by doing so, we can strengthen Denmark’s competitiveness and play an important role in the battle for jobs and future welfare. The overall goal is to deliver “projects in half the time with double the impact”, where projects in half the time...

  6. Optical investigation of carrier tunneling in semiconductor nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliani, V.; Ceccherini, S.; Bogani, F.; Colocci, M.; Frova, A.; Shi, Song Stone

    1997-08-01

    The tunneling dynamics of excitons and free carriers in AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs asymmetric double quantum well and near-surface quantum well structures has been investigated by means of time-resolved optical techniques. The competing processes of carrier tunneling out of the quantum well and exciton formation and recombination inside the quantum well have been thoroughly studied in the range of the excitation densities relevant to device applications. A consistent picture capable of fully describing the carrier and exciton-tunneling mechanisms in both types of structures has been obtained and apparently contrasting results in the recent literature are clarified.

  7. Performance-based standards for South African car-carriers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Saxe, C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, car-carriers in South Africa operated under abnormal load permits allowing a finite relaxation of legal height and length limits. This practice is being phased out, and exemption will only be granted if a car-carrier complies...

  8. Double Trouble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; Kievit, Robert; Simons, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Double Trouble highlights the career of Dutch scriptwriter and television producer Chiem van Houweninge, well-known for his long-running TV comedy series and as author of episodes for TV detective series. Double Trouble gives Van Houweninge's own views on writing and filming in television prime

  9. Partial restoration of spin-isospin SU(4) symmetry and the one-quasiparticle random-phase approximation method in double-β decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, V. dos S.; Krmpotić, F.; Barbero, C. A.; Samana, A. R.

    2017-10-01

    The one-quasiparticle random-phase approximation (one-QRPA) method is used to describe simultaneously both double-β -decay modes, giving special attention to the partial restoration of spin-isospin SU(4 ) symmetry. To implement this restoration and to fix the model parameters, we resort to the energetics of Gamow-Teller resonances and to the minima of the single-β+-decay strengths. This makes the theory predictive regarding the β β2 ν decay, producing the 2 ν moments in 48Ca, 76Ge, 82Se, 96Zr, 100Mo, Te,130128, and 150Nd, that are of the same order of magnitude as the experimental ones; however, the agreement with β β2 ν data is only modest. To include contributions coming from induced nuclear weak currents, we extend the β β0 ν -decay formalism employed previously in C. Barbero et al., Nucl. Phys. A 628, 170 (1998), 10.1016/S0375-9474(97)00614-3, which is based on the Fourier-Bessel expansion. The numerical results for the β β0 ν moments in the above mentioned nuclei are similar to those obtained in other theoretical studies although smaller on average by ˜40 % . We attribute this difference basically to the one-QRPA method, employed here for the first time, instead of the currently used two-QRPA method. The difference is partially due also to the way of carrying out the restoration of the spin-isospin symmetry. It is hard to say which is the best way to make this restoration, since the β β0 ν moments are not experimentally measurable. The recipe proposed here is based on physically robust arguments. The numerical uncertainties in the β β moments, related to (i) their strong dependence on the residual interaction in the particle-particle channel when evaluated within the QRPA, and (ii) lack of proper knowledge of single-particle energies, have been quantified. It is concluded that the partial restoration of the SU(4 ) symmetry, generated by the residual interaction, is crucial in the description of the β β decays, regardless of the nuclear

  10. Safety and efficacy of uric acid in patients with acute stroke (URICO-ICTUS): a randomised, double-blind phase 2b/3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Angel; Amaro, Sergio; Castellanos, Mar; Segura, Tomás; Arenillas, Juan; Martí-Fábregas, Joan; Gállego, Jaime; Krupinski, Jurek; Gomis, Meritxell; Cánovas, David; Carné, Xavier; Deulofeu, Ramón; Román, Luis San; Oleaga, Laura; Torres, Ferran; Planas, Anna M

    2014-05-01

    Uric acid is an antioxidant with neuroprotective effects in experimental models of stroke. We assessed whether uric acid therapy would improve functional outcomes at 90 days in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. URICO-ICTUS was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b/3 trial that recruited patients with acute ischaemic stroke admitted to ten Spanish stroke centres. Patients were included if they were aged 18 years or older, had received alteplase within 4·5 h of symptom onset, and had an eligible National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (>6 and ≤25) and premorbid (assessed by anamnesis) modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score (≤2). Patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive uric acid 1000 mg or placebo (both infused intravenously in 90 min during the infusion of alteplase), stratified by centre and baseline stroke severity. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with excellent outcome (ie, an mRS score of 0-1, or 2 if premorbid score was 2) at 90 days, analysed in the target population (all randomly assigned patients who had been correctly diagnosed with ischaemic stroke and had begun study medication). The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00860366. Between July 1, 2011, and April 30, 2013, we randomly assigned 421 patients, of whom 411 (98%) were included in the target population (211 received uric acid and 200 received placebo). 83 (39%) patients who received uric acid and 66 (33%) patients who received placebo had an excellent outcome (adjusted risk ratio 1·23 [95% CI 0·96-1·56]; p=0·099). No clinically relevant or statistically significant differences were reported between groups with respect to death (28 [13%] patients who received uric acid vs 31 [16%] who received placebo), symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (nine [4%] vs six [3%]), and gouty arthritis (one [<1%] vs four [2%]). 516 adverse events occurred in the uric acid group and 532 in the placebo group, of which 61 (12

  11. A phase I double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study of a multigenic HIV-1 adenovirus subtype 35 vector vaccine in healthy uninfected adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Keefer

    Full Text Available We conducted a phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of escalating doses of two recombinant replication defective adenovirus serotype 35 (Ad35 vectors containing gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase and nef (Ad35-GRIN and env (Ad35-ENV, both derived from HIV-1 subtype A isolates. The trial enrolled 56 healthy HIV-uninfected adults.Ad35-GRIN/ENV (Ad35-GRIN and Ad35-ENV mixed in the same vial in equal proportions or Ad35-GRIN was administered intramuscularly at 0 and 6 months. Participants were randomized to receive either vaccine or placebo (10/4 per group, respectively within one of four dosage groups: Ad35-GRIN/ENV 2×10(9 (A, 2×10(10 (B, 2×10(11 (C, or Ad35-GRIN 1×10(10 (D viral particles.No vaccine-related serious adverse event was reported. Reactogenicity events reported were dose-dependent, mostly mild or moderate, some severe in Group C volunteers, all transient and resolving spontaneously. IFN-γ ELISPOT responses to any vaccine antigen were detected in 50, 56, 70 and 90% after the first vaccination, and in 75, 100, 88 and 86% of Groups A-D vaccine recipients after the second vaccination, respectively. The median spot forming cells (SFC per 10(6 PBMC to any antigen was 78-139 across Groups A-C and 158-174 in Group D, after each of the vaccinations with a maximum of 2991 SFC. Four to five HIV proteins were commonly recognized across all the groups and over multiple timepoints. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were polyfunctional. Env antibodies were detected in all Group A-C vaccinees and Gag antibodies in most vaccinees after the second immunization. Ad35 neutralizing titers remained low after the second vaccination.Ad35-GRIN/ENV reactogenicity was dose-related. HIV-specific cellular and humoral responses were seen in the majority of volunteers immunized with Ad35-GRIN/ENV or Ad35-GRIN and increased after the second vaccination. T-cell responses were broad and polyfunctional

  12. Dissolvable layered double hydroxide as an efficient nanosorbent for centrifugeless air-agitated dispersive solid-phase extraction of potentially toxic metal ions from bio-fluid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Maryam; Arghavani-Beydokhti, Somayeh; Barfi, Behruz; Asghari, Alireza

    2017-03-08

    In the present work, a novel nanosorbent namely layered double hydroxides with 4-amino-5-hydroxyl-2,7-naphthalendisulfonic acid monosodium salt interlayer anion (Mg-Al-AHNDA-LDH) was synthesized and applied as a dissolvable nanosorbent in a centrifugeless ultrasound-enhanced air-agitated dispersive solid-phase extraction (USE-AA-D-SPE) method. This method was used for the separation and preconcentration of some metal ions including Cd 2+ , Cr 6+ , Pb 2+ , Co 2+ , and Ni 2+ prior to their determination using the micro-sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometry (MS-FAAS) technique. The most interesting aspect of this nanosorbent is its immediate dissolvability at pH values lower than 4. This capability drastically eliminates the elution step, leading to a great improvement in the extraction efficiency and a decrease in the extraction time. Also in this method, the use of a syringe nanofilter eliminates the need for the centrifugation step, which is time-consuming and essentially causes the analysis to be off-line. Several effective parameters governing the extraction efficiency including the sample solution pH, amount of nanosorbent, eluent condition, number of air-agitation cycles, and sonication time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the good linear dynamic ranges of 2-70, 6-360, 7-725, 7-370, and 8-450 ng mL -1 for the Cd 2+ , Cr 6+ , Pb 2+ , Co 2+ and Ni 2+ ions, respectively, with the correlation of determinations (R 2 s) higher than 0.997 were obtained. The limits of detection (LODs) were found to be 0.6, 1.7, 2.0, 2.1, and 2.4 for the Cd 2+ , Cr 6+ , Pb 2+ , Co 2+ , and Ni 2+ ions, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (percent relative standard deviations (%RSDs) (n = 5)) were below 7.8%. The proposed method was also successfully applied for the extraction and determination of the target ions in different biological fluid and tap water samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bromocriptine Mesylate Attenuates Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Phase 2a, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Research in Japanese Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichiro Nagata

    Full Text Available Bromocriptine mesylate (BRC, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist has been shown to confer neuroprotection, sustained motor function and slowed disease progression in mouse models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS Here we report a first in human trial in ALS.A multicenter, Riluzole add-on, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled 102-week extension BRC clinical trial.The trial was conducted between January 2009 and March 2012 on 36 Japanese ALS patients. A 12-week treatment with Riluzole observational period was followed by combined treatment (Riluzole + BRC; n = 29 or Riluzole + placebo; n = 7. The dosing commenced at 1.25 mg/day increasing in steps at two weeks intervals to a maximum of 15 mg/day. The efficacy of BRC was evaluated by comparing BRC and placebo groups upon completion of stepwise dosing at 14 weeks 2 points (1st endpoint and upon completion or discontinuation of the study (2nd endpoint of the dosing.Statistics analyses revealed a marginal BRC treatment efficacy with P≦20%to placebo by 1st and 2nd endpoint analysis. In the 1st endpoint analysis, BRC group was significantly effective on the scores of ALSAQ40-communicaton (P = 1.2%, eating and drinking (P = 2.2%, ALSFRS-R total (P = 17.6%, grip strength (P = 19.8% compared to the placebo group. In the 2nd endpoint analysis, differences between the scores of Limb Norris Scale (P = 18.3%, ALSAQ40-communication (P = 11.9%, eating and drinking (P = 13.6%, and neck forward-bent test (P = 15.4% of BRC group were detected between the two groups. There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for adverse events or serious drug reactions incidence.BRC sustains motoneuronal function at least in part through BRC treatment. Further analysis involving a Phase 2b or 3 clinical trial is required but BRC currently shows promise for ALS treatment.UMIN Clinical Trials UMIN000008527.

  14. Efficacy and safety of the biosimilar ABP 501 compared with adalimumab in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised, double-blind, phase III equivalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stanley; Genovese, Mark C; Choy, Ernest; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Matsumoto, Alan; Pavelka, Karel; Pablos, Jose L; Rizzo, Warren; Hrycaj, Pawel; Zhang, Nan; Shergy, William; Kaur, Primal

    2017-10-01

    ABP 501 is a Food and Drug Administration-approved biosimilar to adalimumab; structural, functional and pharmacokinetic evaluations have shown that the two are highly similar. We report results from a phase III study comparing efficacy, safety and immunogenicity between ABP 501 and adalimumab. In this randomised, double-blind, active comparator-controlled, 26-week equivalence study, patients with moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite methotrexate were randomised (1:1) to ABP 501 or adalimumab (40 mg) every 2 weeks. Primary endpoint was risk ratio (RR) of ACR20 between groups at week 24. Primary hypothesis that the treatments were equivalent would be confirmed if the 90% CI for RR of ACR20 at week 24 fell between 0.738 and 1.355, demonstrating that ABP 501 is similar to adalimumab. Secondary endpoints included Disease Activity Score 28-joint count-C reactive protein (DAS28-CRP). Safety was assessed via adverse events (AEs) and laboratory evaluations. Antidrug antibodies were assessed to determine immunogenicity. A total of 526 patients were randomised (n=264, ABP 501; n=262 adalimumab) and 494 completed the study. ACR20 response at week 24 was 74.6% (ABP 501) and 72.4% (adalimumab). At week 24, the RR of ACR20 (90% CI) between groups was 1.039 (0.954, 1.133), confirming the primary hypothesis. Changes from baseline in DAS28-CRP, ACR50 and ACR70 were similar. There were no clinically meaningful differences in AEs and laboratory abnormalities. A total of 38.3% (ABP 501) and 38.2% (adalimumab) of patients tested positive for binding antidrug antibodies. Results from this study demonstrate that ABP 501 is similar to adalimumab in clinical efficacy, safety and immunogenicity in patients with moderate to severe RA. NCT01970475; Results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase II Study of Ruxolitinib or Placebo in Combination With Capecitabine in Patients With Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer for Whom Therapy With Gemcitabine Has Failed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Herbert I; Uppal, Nikhil; Wagner, Stephanie A; Bendell, Johanna C; Beck, J Thaddeus; Wade, Seaborn M; Nemunaitis, John J; Stella, Philip J; Pipas, J Marc; Wainberg, Zev A; Manges, Robert; Garrett, William M; Hunter, Deborah S; Clark, Jason; Leopold, Lance; Sandor, Victor; Levy, Richard S

    2015-12-01

    Patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma have a poor prognosis and limited second-line treatment options. Evidence suggests a role for the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway in the pathogenesis and clinical course of pancreatic cancer. In this double-blind, phase II study, patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer who had experienced treatment failure with gemcitabine were randomly assigned 1:1 to the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib (15 mg twice daily) plus capecitabine (1,000 mg/m(2) twice daily) or placebo plus capecitabine. The primary end point was overall survival (OS); secondary end points included progression-free survival, clinical benefit response, objective response rate, and safety. Prespecified subgroup analyses evaluated treatment heterogeneity and efficacy in patients with evidence of inflammation. In the intent-to-treat population (ruxolitinib, n = 64; placebo, n = 63), the hazard ratio was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.53 to 1.18; P = .25) for OS and was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.52 to 1.10; P = .14) for progression-free survival. In a prespecified subgroup analysis of patients with inflammation, defined by serum C-reactive protein levels greater than the study population median (ie, 13 mg/L), OS was significantly greater with ruxolitinib than with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.85; P = .011). Prolonged survival in this subgroup was supported by post hoc analyses of OS that categorized patients by the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score, a systemic inflammation-based prognostic system. Grade 3 or greater adverse events were observed with similar frequency in the ruxolitinib (74.6%) and placebo (81.7%) groups. Grade 3 or greater anemia was more frequent with ruxolitinib (15.3%; placebo, 1.7%). Ruxolitinib plus capecitabine was generally well tolerated and may improve survival in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer and evidence of systemic inflammation. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  16. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, K.; Nakano, I.

    1989-01-01

    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.)

  17. The effect of dose on the safety and immunogenicity of the VSV Ebola candidate vaccine: a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1/2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttner, Angela; Dayer, Julie-Anne; Yerly, Sabine; Combescure, Christophe; Auderset, Floriane; Desmeules, Jules; Eickmann, Markus; Finckh, Axel; Goncalves, Ana Rita; Hooper, Jay W; Kaya, Gürkan; Krähling, Verena; Kwilas, Steve; Lemaître, Barbara; Matthey, Alain; Silvera, Peter; Becker, Stephan; Fast, Patricia E; Moorthy, Vasee; Kieny, Marie Paule; Kaiser, Laurent; Siegrist, Claire-Anne

    2015-10-01

    Safe and effective vaccines against Ebola could prevent or control outbreaks. The safe use of replication-competent vaccines requires a careful dose-selection process. We report the first safety and immunogenicity results in volunteers receiving 3 × 10(5) plaque-forming units (pfu) of the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based candidate vaccine expressing the Zaire Ebola virus glycoprotein (rVSV-ZEBOV; low-dose vaccinees) compared with 59 volunteers who had received 1 ×10(7) pfu (n=35) or 5 × 10(7) pfu (n=16) of rVSV-ZEBOV (high-dose vaccinees) or placebo (n=8) before a safety-driven study hold. The Geneva rVSV-ZEBOV study, an investigator-initiated phase 1/2, dose-finding, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial conducted at the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland, enrolled non-pregnant, immunocompetent, and otherwise healthy adults aged 18-65 years. Participants from the low-dose group with no plans to deploy to Ebola-aff5cted regions (non-deployable) were randomised 9:1 in a double-blind fashion using randomly permuted blocks of varying sizes to a single injection of 3 × 10(5) pfu or placebo, whereas deployable participants received single-injection 3 × 10(5) pfu open-label. Primary safety and immunogenicity outcomes were the incidence of adverse events within 14 days of vaccination and day-28 antibody titres, respectively, analysed by intention to treat. After viral oligoarthritis was observed in 11 of the first 51 vaccinees (22%) receiving 10(7) or 5 × 10(7) pfu, 56 participants were given a lower dose (3 × 10(5) pfu, n=51) or placebo (n=5) to assess the effect of dose reduction on safety and immunogenicity. This trial is ongoing with a follow-up period of 12 months; all reported results are from interim databases. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02287480. Between Jan 5 and Jan 26, 2015, 43 non-deployable participants received low-dose rVSV-ZEBOV (3 × 10(5) pfu) or placebo in a

  18. Safety and efficacy of ebselen for the prevention of noise-induced hearing loss: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Jonathan; Lobarinas, Edward; Spankovich, Christopher; Griffiths, Scott K; Antonelli, Patrick J; Lynch, Eric D; Le Prell, Colleen G

    2017-09-02

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a leading cause of occupational and recreational injury and disease, and a major determinant of age-related hearing loss. No therapeutic agent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of this disorder. In animal models, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) activity is reduced after acute noise exposure. Ebselen, a novel GPx1 mimic, has been shown to reduce both temporary and permanent noise-induced hearing loss in preclinical studies. We assessed the safety and efficacy of ebselen for the prevention of noise-induced hearing loss in young adults in a phase 2 clinical trial. In this single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial, healthy adults aged 18-31 years were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) at the University of Florida (Gainsville, FL, USA) to receive ebselen 200 mg, 400 mg, or 600 mg, or placebo orally twice daily for 4 days, beginning 2 days before a calibrated sound challenge (4 h of pre-recorded music delivered by insert earphones). Randomisation was done with an allocation sequence generated by an independent third party. The primary outcome was mean temporary threshold shift (TTS) at 4 kHz measured 15 min after the calibrated sound challenge by pure tone audiometry; a reduction of 50% in an ebselen dose group compared with the placebo group was judged to be clinically relevant. All participants who received the calibrated sound challenge and at least one dose of study drug were included in the efficacy analysis. All randomly assigned patients were included in the safety analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01444846. Between Jan 11, 2013, and March 24, 2014, 83 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive ebselen 200 mg (n=22), 400 mg (n=20), or 600 mg (n=21), or placebo (n=20). Two participants in the 200 mg ebselen group were discontinued from the study before the calibrated sound challenge because they no longer met the inclusion criteria; these

  19. Asymmetric Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2010-01-01

    index. The flat motor current spectrum generates an acoustical noise close to the white noise, which may improve the acoustical performance of the drive. The new carrier wave is easy to implement digitally, without employing any external circuits. The modulation method can be used in open, as well...

  20. Willis H Carrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 2. Willis H. Carrier - Father of Air Conditioning. R V Simha. General Article Volume 17 Issue 2 February 2012 pp 117-138. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/02/0117-0138 ...

  1. Sealed substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava [Fremont, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are held, and conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body. A conductive bus bar is embedded into a top side of the carrier body and is conductively coupled to the conductive lines. A thermoplastic overmold covers a portion of the bus bar, and there is a plastic-to-plastic bond between the thermoplastic overmold and the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  2. Tasimelteon for non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder in totally blind people (SET and RESET): two multicentre, randomised, double-masked, placebo-controlled phase 3 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Steven W; Dressman, Marlene A; Licamele, Louis; Xiao, Changfu; Fisher, Dennis M; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Hull, Joseph T; Torres, Rosarelis; Lavedan, Christian; Polymeropoulos, Mihael H

    2015-10-31

    Most totally blind people have non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder (non-24), a rare circadian rhythm disorder caused by an inability of light to reset their circadian pacemaker. In two consecutive placebo-controlled trials (SET and RESET), we assessed safety and efficacy (in terms of circadian entrainment and maintenance) of once-daily tasimelteon, a novel dual-melatonin receptor agonist. We undertook the placebo-controlled, randomised, double-masked trials in 27 US and six German clinical research centres and sleep centres. We screened totally blind adults (18-75 years of age), who were eligible for the randomisation phase of SET if they had a non-24-hour circadian period (τ) of 24·25 h or longer (95% CI greater than 24·0 and up to 24·9 h), as calculated from measurements of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythms. For SET, we used block randomisation to assign patients (1:1) to receive tasimelteon (20 mg) or placebo every 24 h at a fixed clock time 1 h before target bedtime for 26 weeks. Patients who entered the open-label group receiving tasimelteon in SET or who did not meet the SET inclusion criteria but did meet the RESET inclusion criteria were screened for RESET. A subset of the patients who entered the open-label group before the RESET study and who had eligible τ values were screened for RESET after completing the open-label treatment. In RESET, we withdrew tasimelteon in a randomised manner (1:1) in patients who responded (ie, entrained) after a tasimelteon run-in period. Entrainment was defined as having τ of 24·1 h or less and a 95% CI that included 24·0 h. In SET, the primary endpoint was the proportion of entrained patients, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. The planned step-down primary endpoint assessed the proportion of patients who had a clinical response (entrainment at month 1 or month 7 plus clinical improvement, measured by the Non-24 Clinical Response Scale). In RESET, the primary endpoint was the proportion of non

  3. Phase diagram of a two-dimensional liquid in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs biased double quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timofeev, V. B.; Larionov, A. V.; Alessi, M. G.

    2000-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation (PLE) measurements have been performed in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs biased double quantum well heterostructures. The recombination of electrons, e, with holes, h, located in the same or in two adjacent wells, has been investigated for different exciting power...

  4. Regorafenib for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who progressed on sorafenib treatment (RESORCE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruix, Jordi; Qin, Shukui; Merle, Philippe; Granito, Alessandro; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Bodoky, György; Pracht, Marc; Yokosuka, Osamu; Rosmorduc, Olivier; Breder, Valeriy; Gerolami, René; Masi, Gianluca; Ross, Paul J; Song, Tianqiang; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Ollivier-Hourmand, Isabelle; Kudo, Masatoshi; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Llovet, Josep M; Finn, Richard S; LeBerre, Marie-Aude; Baumhauer, Annette; Meinhardt, Gerold; Han, Guohong

    2017-01-07

    There are no systemic treatments for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) whose disease progresses during sorafenib treatment. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of regorafenib in patients with HCC who have progressed during sorafenib treatment. In this randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 3 trial done at 152 sites in 21 countries, adults with HCC who tolerated sorafenib (≥400 mg/day for ≥20 of last 28 days of treatment), progressed on sorafenib, and had Child-Pugh A liver function were enrolled. Participants were randomly assigned (2:1) by a computer-generated randomisation list and interactive voice response system and stratified by geographical region, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, macrovascular invasion, extrahepatic disease, and α-fetoprotein level to best supportive care plus oral regorafenib 160 mg or placebo once daily during weeks 1-3 of each 4-week cycle. Investigators, patients, and the funder were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was overall survival (defined as time from randomisation to death due to any cause) and analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01774344. Between May 14, 2013, and Dec 31, 2015, 843 patients were screened, of whom 573 were enrolled and randomised (379 to regorafenib and 194 to placebo; population for efficacy analyses), and 567 initiated treatment (374 received regorafenib and 193 received placebo; population for safety analyses). Regorafenib improved overall survival with a hazard ratio of 0·63 (95% CI 0·50-0·79; one-sided p<0·0001); median survival was 10·6 months (95% CI 9·1-12·1) for regorafenib versus 7·8 months (6·3-8·8) for placebo. Adverse events were reported in all regorafenib recipients (374 [100%] of 374) and 179 (93%) of 193 placebo recipients. The most common clinically relevant grade 3 or 4 treatment-emergent events were hypertension (57 patients [15%] in the regorafenib group

  5. Vosaroxin plus cytarabine versus placebo plus cytarabine in patients with first relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia (VALOR): a randomised, controlled, double-blind, multinational, phase 3 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravandi, Farhad; Ritchie, Ellen K; Sayar, Hamid; Lancet, Jeffrey E; Craig, Michael D; Vey, Norbert; Strickland, Stephen A; Schiller, Gary J; Jabbour, Elias; Erba, Harry P; Pigneux, Arnaud; Horst, Heinz-August; Recher, Christian; Klimek, Virginia M; Cortes, Jorge; Roboz, Gail J; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Thomas, Xavier; Havelange, Violaine; Maertens, Johan; Derigs, Hans-Günter; Heuser, Michael; Damon, Lloyd; Powell, Bayard L; Gaidano, Gianluca; Carella, Angelo-Michele; Wei, Andrew; Hogge, Donna; Craig, Adam R; Fox, Judith A; Ward, Renee; Smith, Jennifer A; Acton, Gary; Mehta, Cyrus; Stuart, Robert K; Kantarjian, Hagop M

    2015-09-01

    Safe and effective treatments are urgently needed for patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia. We investigated the efficacy and safety of vosaroxin, a first-in-class anticancer quinolone derivative, plus cytarabine in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia. This phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken at 101 international sites. Eligible patients with acute myeloid leukaemia were aged 18 years of age or older and had refractory disease or were in first relapse after one or two cycles of previous induction chemotherapy, including at least one cycle of anthracycline (or anthracenedione) plus cytarabine. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to vosaroxin (90 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1 and 4 in a first cycle; 70 mg/m(2) in subsequent cycles) plus cytarabine (1 g/m(2) intravenously on days 1-5) or placebo plus cytarabine through a central interactive voice system with a permuted block procedure stratified by disease status, age, and geographical location. All participants were masked to treatment assignment. The primary efficacy endpoint was overall survival and the primary safety endpoint was 30-day and 60-day all-cause mortality. Efficacy analyses were done by intention to treat; safety analyses included all treated patients. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01191801. Between Dec 17, 2010, and Sept 25, 2013, 711 patients were randomly assigned to vosaroxin plus cytarabine (n=356) or placebo plus cytarabine (n=355). At the final analysis, median overall survival was 7·5 months (95% CI 6·4-8·5) in the vosaroxin plus cytarabine group and 6·1 months (5·2-7·1) in the placebo plus cytarabine group (hazard ratio 0·87, 95% CI 0·73-1·02; unstratified log-rank p=0·061; stratified p=0·024). A higher proportion of patients achieved complete remission in the vosaroxin plus cytarabine group than in the placebo plus cytarabine group (107 [30%] of 356 patients vs 58 [16%] of 355

  6. Axitinib with or without dose titration for first-line metastatic renal-cell carcinoma: a randomised double-blind phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rini, Brian I; Melichar, Bohuslav; Ueda, Takeshi; Grünwald, Viktor; Fishman, Mayer N; Arranz, José A; Bair, Angel H; Pithavala, Yazdi K; Andrews, Glen I; Pavlov, Dmitri; Kim, Sinil; Jonasch, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Population pharmacokinetic data suggest axitinib plasma exposure correlates with efficacy in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma. Axitinib dose titration might optimise exposure and improve outcomes. We prospectively assessed the efficacy and safety of axitinib dose titration in previously untreated patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma. In this randomised, double-blind, multicentre, phase 2 study, patients were enrolled from 49 hospitals and outpatient clinics in the Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Russia, Spain, and USA. Patients with treatment-naive metastatic renal-cell carcinoma received axitinib 5 mg twice daily during a 4 week lead-in period. Those patients with blood pressure 150/90 mm Hg or lower, no grade 3 or 4 treatment-related toxic effects, no dose reductions, and no more than two antihypertensive drugs for 2 consecutive weeks were stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0 vs 1), and then randomly assigned (1:1) to either masked titration with axitinib to total twice daily doses of 7 mg, and then 10 mg, if tolerated, or placebo titration. Patients who did not meet these criteria continued without titration. The primary objective was comparison of the proportion of patients achieving an objective response between randomised groups. Safety analyses were based on all patients who received at least one dose of axitinib. Between Sept 2, 2009, and Feb 28, 2011, we enrolled 213 patients, of whom 112 were randomly assigned to either the axitinib titration group (56 patients) or the placebo titration group (56 patients). 91 were not eligible for titration, and ten withdrew during the lead-in period. 30 patients (54%, 95% CI 40-67) in the axitinib titration group had an objective response, as did 19 patients (34%, 22-48]) in the placebo titration group (one-sided p=0·019). 54 (59%, 95% CI 49-70) of non-randomised patients achieved an objective response. Common grade 3 or worse, all-causality adverse events in treated patients

  7. Oral prenylation inhibition with lonafarnib in chronic hepatitis D infection: a proof-of-concept randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2A trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Christopher; Canini, Laetitia; Dahari, Harel; Zhao, Xiongce; Uprichard, Susan L; Haynes-Williams, Vanessa; Winters, Mark A; Subramanya, Gitanjali; Cooper, Stewart L; Pinto, Peter; Wolff, Erin F; Bishop, Rachel; Han, Ma Ai Thanda; Cotler, Scott J; Kleiner, David E; Keskin, Onur; Idilman, Ramazan; Yurdaydin, Cihan; Glenn, Jeffrey S; Heller, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Therapies for chronic hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection are unsatisfactory. Prenylation is essential for HDV and inhibition abrogates HDV production in experimental models. In a proof-of-concept study, we aimed to assess the effect on HDV RNA levels, safety, and tolerability of the prenylation inhibitor lonafarnib in patients with chronic delta hepatitis. Methods In this phase 2A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study, patients aged 18 years or older with chronic HDV infection were randomly assigned (3:1 in group 1 and 2:1 in group 2) to receive lonafarnib 100 mg (group 1) or lonafarnib 200 mg (group 2) twice daily for 28 days with 6 months’ follow-up. Participants were randomised by random-number tables blocked in groups of four without stratification. Both groups enrolled six treatment participants and two placebo participants. Group 1 placebo patients received open-label lonafarnib as group 2 participants. The primary therapeutic endpoint was a decrease in HDV RNA viral titre in serum and the primary safety endpoint was the ability to tolerate the drug at the prescribed dose for the full 4-week duration, defined as drug discontinuation due to intolerance or grade 3/4 adverse events. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01495585. Findings Between Jan 19, 2012, and April 28, 2014, 14 patients were enrolled, of whom eight were assigned to group 1 and six were assigned to group 2. At day 28, compared with placebo, mean log HDV RNA declines from baseline were −0.73 log IU/mL in group 1 (95% CI 0.17–1.31; p=0.03) and −1.54 log IU/mL in group 2 (1.21–1.93; p<0.0001). Lonafarnib serum concentrations correlated with HDV RNA change (r2=0.78, p<0.0001). Model fits show that hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) remained stable after a short pharmacological delay (0.75 days [SE 0.24]), lonafarnib effectiveness in blocking HDV production was greater in group 2 than in group 1 (0.952 [SE 0.06] vs 0.739 [0

  8. Axitinib with or without dose titration for first-line metastatic renal-cell carcinoma: a randomised double-blind phase 2 trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rini, Brian I; Melichar, Bohuslav; Ueda, Takeshi; GrÜnwald, Viktor; Fishman, Mayer N; Arranz, José A; Bair, Angel H; Pithavala, Yazdi K; Andrews, Glen I; Pavlov, Dmitri; Kim, Sinil; Jonasch, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Population pharmacokinetic data suggest axitinib plasma exposure correlates with efficacy in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma. Axitinib dose titration might optimise exposure and improve outcomes. We prospectively assessed the efficacy and safety of axitinib dose titration in previously untreated patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma. Methods In this randomised, double-blind, multicentre, phase 2 study, patients were enrolled from 49 hospitals and outpatient clinics in the Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Russia, Spain, and USA. Patients with treatment-naive metastatic renal-cell carcinoma received axitinib 5 mg twice daily during a 4 week lead-in period. Those patients with blood pressure 150/90 mm Hg or lower, no grade 3 or 4 treatment-related toxic effects, no dose reductions, and no more than two antihypertensive drugs for 2 consecutive weeks were stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0 vs 1), and then randomly assigned (1:1) to either masked titration with axitinib to total twice daily doses of 7 mg, and then 10 mg, if tolerated, or placebo titration. Patients who did not meet these criteria continued without titration. The primary objective was comparison of the proportion of patients achieving an objective response between randomised groups. Safety analyses were based on all patients who received at least one dose of axitinib. This ongoing trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00835978. Findings Between Sept 2, 2009, and Feb 28, 2011, we enrolled 213 patients, of whom 112 were randomly assigned to either the axitinib titration group (56 patients) or the placebo titration group (56 patients). 91 were not eligible for titration, and ten withdrew during the lead-in period. 30 patients (54%, 95% CI 40–67) in the axitinib titration group had an objective response, as did 19 patients (34%, 22–48]) in the placebo titration group (one-sided p=0·019). 54 (59%, 95% CI 49–70) of non

  9. Pharmacodynamics and safety of the novel selective progesterone receptor modulator vilaprisan: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütt, Barbara; Kaiser, Andreas; Schultze-Mosgau, Marcus-Hillert; Seitz, Christian; Bell, David; Koch, Manuela; Rohde, Beate

    2016-08-01

    Does administration of vilaprisan (VPR) to healthy women for 12 weeks reduce menstrual bleeding? In this 12-week proof-of-concept phase 1 trial, most women (30/33, 90%) who received VPR at daily doses of 1-5 mg reported the absence of menstrual bleeding. Vilaprisan (BAY 1002670) is a novel, highly potent selective progesterone receptor modulator that markedly reduces the growth of human leiomyoma tissue in a preclinical model of uterine fibroids (UFs). In this double-blind, parallel-group study, of the 163 healthy women enrolled 73 were randomized to daily VPR 0.1 mg (n = 12), 0.5 mg (n = 12), 1 mg (n = 13), 2 mg (n = 12), 5 mg (n = 12) or placebo tablets (n = 12) for 12 weeks. Participants were followed up until the start of the second menstrual bleeding after the end of treatment. Trial simulations were used to determine the minimum sample size required to estimate the non-bleeding rate (i.e. self-assessed bleeding intensity of 'none' or 'spotting') using Bayesian dose-response estimation with incorporated prior information. It was estimated that 48 participants in the per-protocol analysis population would be sufficient. Women aged 18-45 years who had been sterilized by tubal ligation were enrolled between November 2011 and May 2012. Participants kept a daily diary of bleeding intensity. Blood and urine samples were taken, and transvaginal ultrasound was performed before treatment, during treatment and follow-up. Endometrial biopsies were obtained during the pretreatment cycle, at the end of the treatment period and during the follow-up phase. The primary outcome was the estimated dose-response curve of the observed non-bleeding rate during Days 10-84 of treatment, excluding the endometrial biopsy day and 2 days after biopsy. Secondary outcomes included return of bleeding during follow-up, size of follicle-like structures and serum hormone levels. Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs), endometrial thickness and histology, laboratory parameters, vital

  10. Energy carriers in Norway; Energibaerere i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Within the Norwegian energy consumption, electricity is by far the most dominant energy carrier. In the last thirty years electricity has had an increased significance, while oil has been reduce. A trend that is likely to continue. Energy politics has among others these objectives: environment, reliability of supply and effective energy supply. These objectives are somewhat contradictory. In agreement with the environmental politic phasing out oil leads to a reduction in greenhouse gases. However this politic will have a local impact only effecting Norway, in a larger European connection it might lead to a larger net emission of CO{sub 2}. A political intervention in the energy market might also lead to a reduction in the energy markets effectiveness and flexibility. This report addresses this problem: If a total phase out of the stationary oil consumption is conducted, what energy carriers will this consumption convert to?

  11. Motor carrier evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, James

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ), Transportation Management Program (TMP) has the overall responsibility to provide a well-managed transportation program for the safe, efficient, and economical transportation of DOE-owned materials. The DOE-TMP has established an excellent safety record in the transportation of hazardous materials including radioactive materials and radioactive wastes. This safety record can be maintained only through continued diligence and sustained effort on the part of the DOE-TMP, its field offices, and the contractors' organizations. Key elements in the DOE'S effective hazardous and radioactive materials shipping program are (1) integrity of packages, (2) strict adherence to regulations and procedures, (3) trained personnel, (4) complete management support, and (5) use of the best commercial carriers. The DOE Motor Carrier Evaluation Program was developed to better define the criteria and methodology needed to identify motor carriers for use in the transportation of Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ), Truck Load (TL) quantities of radioactive materials, hazardous materials and waste. (author)

  12. Carrier transport uphill. I. General

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T; Wilbrandt, W

    1963-01-01

    A quantitative treatment of a carrier pump operating with two carrier forms C and Z is presented. Asymmetric metabolic reactions are assumed to transform Z into C on one and C into Z on the other side of the membrane, establishing a carrier cycle. The kinetical consequences of this mechanism...

  13. Carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yu; Sha, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool used in a cylindrical borehole environment during oil-based mud drilling processes. The new tool is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access-based contactless multi-measurand detection tool. The tool can measure formation resistivity in different azimuthal angles and elevational depths. It can measure many more measurands simultaneously in a specified bandwidth than the legacy frequency division multiplexing multi-measurand tool without a channel-select filter while avoiding inter-carrier interference. The paper also shows that formation resistivity is not sensitive to frequency in certain frequency bands. The average resistivity collected from N subcarriers can increase the measurement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by N times given no amplitude clipping in the current-injection electrode. If the clipping limit is taken into account, with the phase rotation of each single carrier, the amplitude peak-to-average ratio can be reduced by 3 times, and the SNR can achieve a 9/ N times gain over the single-carrier system. The carrier-interleaving technique is also introduced to counter the carrier frequency offset (CFO) effect, where the CFO will cause inter-pad interference. A qualitative analysis and simulations demonstrate that block-interleaving performs better than tone-interleaving when coping with a large CFO. The theoretical analysis also suggests that increasing the subcarrier number can increase the measurement speed or enhance elevational resolution without sacrificing receiver performance. The complex orthogonal multi-pad multi-carrier resistivity logging tool, in which all subcarriers are complex signals, can provide a larger available subcarrier pool than other types of transceivers. (paper)

  14. Use of ChAd3-EBO-Z Ebola virus vaccine in Malian and US adults, and boosting of Malian adults with MVA-BN-Filo: a phase 1, single-blind, randomised trial, a phase 1b, open-label and double-blind, dose-escalation trial, and a nested, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Milagritos D; Sow, Samba O; Lyke, Kirsten E; Haidara, Fadima Cheick; Diallo, Fatoumata; Doumbia, Moussa; Traore, Awa; Coulibaly, Flanon; Kodio, Mamoudou; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Sztein, Marcelo B; Wahid, Rezwanul; Campbell, James D; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Moorthy, Vasee; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Rampling, Tommy; Roman, Francois; De Ryck, Iris; Bellamy, Abbie R; Dally, Len; Mbaya, Olivier Tshiani; Ploquin, Aurélie; Zhou, Yan; Stanley, Daphne A; Bailer, Robert; Koup, Richard A; Roederer, Mario; Ledgerwood, Julie; Hill, Adrian V S; Ballou, W Ripley; Sullivan, Nancy; Graham, Barney; Levine, Myron M

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 west African Zaire Ebola virus epidemic prompted worldwide partners to accelerate clinical development of replication-defective chimpanzee adenovirus 3 vector vaccine expressing Zaire Ebola virus glycoprotein (ChAd3-EBO-Z). We aimed to investigate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of ChAd3-EBO-Z in Malian and US adults, and assess the effect of boosting of Malians with modified vaccinia Ankara expressing Zaire Ebola virus glycoprotein and other filovirus antigens (MVA-BN-Filo). In the phase 1, single-blind, randomised trial of ChAd3-EBO-Z in the USA, we recruited adults aged 18-65 years from the University of Maryland medical community and the Baltimore community. In the phase 1b, open-label and double-blind, dose-escalation trial of ChAd3-EBO-Z in Mali, we recruited adults 18-50 years of age from six hospitals and health centres in Bamako (Mali), some of whom were also eligible for a nested, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of MVA-BN-Filo. For randomised segments of the Malian trial and for the US trial, we randomly allocated participants (1:1; block size of six [Malian] or four [US]; ARB produced computer-generated randomisation lists; clinical staff did randomisation) to different single doses of intramuscular immunisation with ChAd3-EBO-Z: Malians received 1 × 10(10) viral particle units (pu), 2·5 × 10(10) pu, 5 × 10(10) pu, or 1 × 10(11) pu; US participants received 1 × 10(10) pu or 1 × 10(11) pu. We randomly allocated Malians in the nested trial (1:1) to receive a single dose of 2 × 10(8) plaque-forming units of MVA-BN-Filo or saline placebo. In the double-blind segments of the Malian trial, investigators, clinical staff, participants, and immunology laboratory staff were masked, but the study pharmacist (MK), vaccine administrator, and study statistician (ARB) were unmasked. In the US trial, investigators were not masked, but participants were. Analyses were per protocol. The primary outcome was safety, measured

  15. Vorinostat in patients with advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma who have progressed on previous chemotherapy (VANTAGE-014): a phase 3, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krug, Lee M.; Kindler, Hedy L.; Calvert, Hilary; Manegold, Christian; Tsao, Anne S.; Fennell, Dean; Öhman, Ronny; Plummer, Ruth; Eberhardt, Wilfried E. E.; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Gaafar, Rabab M.; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Hillerdal, Gunnar; Chu, Quincy; Buikhuisen, Wieneke A.; Lubiniecki, Gregory M.; Sun, Xing; Smith, Margaret; Baas, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Vorinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that changes gene expression and protein activity. On the basis of the clinical benefit reported in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma treated in a phase 1 study of vorinostat, we designed this phase 3 trial to investigate whether vorinostat

  16. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-An [Milpitas, CA; Abas, Emmanuel Chua [Laguna, PH; Divino, Edmundo Anida [Cavite, PH; Ermita, Jake Randal G [Laguna, PH; Capulong, Jose Francisco S [Laguna, PH; Castillo, Arnold Villamor [Batangas, PH; Ma,; Xiaobing, Diana [Saratoga, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  17. PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION PROCESS EMPLOYING THORIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CARRIER

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E.L.

    1959-04-28

    The separation and purification of plutonium from the radioactive elements of lower atomic weight is described. The process of this invention comprises forming a 0.5 to 2 M aqueous acidffc solution containing plutonium fons in the tetravalent state and elements with which it is normally contaminated in neutron irradiated uranium, treating the solution with a double thorium compound and a soluble pyrophosphate compound (Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/) whereby a carrier precipitate of thorium A method is presented of reducing neptunium and - trite is advantageous since it destroys any hydrazine f so that they can be removed from solutions in which they are contained is described. In the carrier precipitation process for the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products including zirconium and columbium, the precipitated blsmuth phosphate carries some zirconium, columbium, and uranium impurities. According to the invention such impurities can be complexed and removed by dissolving the contaminated carrier precipitate in 10M nitric acid, followed by addition of fluosilicic acid to about 1M, diluting the solution to about 1M in nitric acid, and then adding phosphoric acid to re-precipitate bismuth phosphate carrying plutonium.

  18. Organized polysaccharide fibers as stable drug carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Gill, Kristin L.; Campanella, Osvaldo H.; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Many challenges arise during the development of new drug carrier systems, and paramount among them are safety, solubility and controlled release requirements. Although synthetic polymers are effective, the possibility of side effects imposes restrictions on their acceptable use and dose limits. Thus, a new drug carrier system that is safe to handle and free from side effects is very much in need and food grade polysaccharides stand tall as worthy alternatives. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of sodium iota-carrageenan fibers and their distinctive water pockets to embed and release a wide variety of drug molecules. Structural analysis has revealed the existence of crystalline network in the fibers even after encapsulating the drug molecules, and iota-carrageenan maintains its characteristic and reproducible double helical structure suggesting that the composites thus produced are reminiscent of cocrystals. The melting properties of iota-carrageenan:drug complexes are distinctly different from those of either drug or iota-carrageenan fiber. The encapsulated drugs are released in a sustained manner from the fiber matrix. Overall, our research provides an elegant opportunity for developing effective drug carriers with stable network toward enhancing and/or controlling bioavailability and extending shelf-life of drug molecules using GRAS excipients, food polysaccharides, that are inexpensive and non–toxic. PMID:23544530

  19. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...... in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...... the experience of all users and not just the few best ones; while overall cell capacity is not compromised....

  20. Study of Charge Carrier Transport in GaN Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Kuokstis, Edmundas; Meskauskaite, Dovile; Pavlov, Jevgenij; Reklaitis, Ignas

    2016-01-01

    Capacitor and Schottky diode sensors were fabricated on GaN material grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition techniques using plasma etching and metal deposition. The operational characteristics of these devices have been investigated by profiling current transients and by comparing the experimental regimes of the perpendicular and parallel injection of excess carrier domains. Profiling of the carrier injection location allows for the separation of the bipolar and the monopolar charge drift components. Carrier mobility values attributed to the hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) GaN material have been estimated as μe = 1000 ± 200 cm2/Vs for electrons, and μh = 400 ± 80 cm2/Vs for holes, respectively. Current transients under injection of the localized and bulk packets of excess carriers have been examined in order to determine the surface charge formation and polarization effects. PMID:28773418

  1. Evaluation of carrier-mediated siRNA delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Stefano; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Foged, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    RNA delivery. An in vitro cell culture model system expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was used to develop the assay, which was based on the intracellular quantification of a full-length double-stranded Dicer substrate siRNA by stem-loop RT qPCR. The result is a well-documented protocol......RNA delivered by use of carriers remains an analytical challenge. The purpose of the present study was to optimize and validate an analytical protocol based on stem-loop reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT qPCR) to quantitatively monitor the carrier-mediated intracellular si...

  2. Shape evolution of new-phased lepidocrocite VOOH from single-shelled to double-shelled hollow nanospheres on the basis of programmed reaction-temperature strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changzheng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ning, Bo; Yang, Jinlong; Xie, Yi

    2009-07-06

    Solid templates have been long regarded as one of the most promising ways to achieve single-shelled hollow nanostructures; however, few effective methods for the construction of multishelled hollow objects from their solid template counterparts have been developed. We report here, for the first time, a novel and convenient route to synthesizing double-shelled hollow spheres from the solid templates via programming the reaction-temperature procedures. The programmed temperature strategy developed in this work then provides an essential and general access to multishelled hollow nanostructures based on the designed extension of single-shelled hollow objects, independent of their outside contours, such as tubes, hollow spheres, and cubes. Starting from the V(OH)(2)NH(2) solid templates, we show that the relationship between the hollowing rate and the reaction temperature obey the Van't Hoff rule and Arrhenius activation-energy equation, revealing that it is the chemical reaction rather than the diffusion process that guided the whole hollowing process, despite the fact that the coupled reaction/diffusion process is involved in the hollowing process. Using the double-shelled hollow spheres as the PCM (CaCl(2).6H(2)O) matrix grants much better thermal-storage stability than that for the nanoparticles counterpart, revealing that the designed nanostructures can give rise to significant improvements for the energy-saving performance in future "smart house" systems.

  3. Double Chooz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The goal of the Double Chooz reactor neutrino experiment is to search for the neutrino mixing parameter {theta}{sub 13}. Double Chooz will use two identical detectors at 150 m and 1.05 km distance from the reactor cores. The near detector is used to monitor the reactor {nu}-bar {sub e} flux while the second is dedicated to the search for a deviation from the expected (1/distance){sup 2} behavior. This two detector concept will allow a relative normalization systematic error of ca. 0.6 %. The expected sensitivity for sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} is then in the range 0.02 - 0.03 after three years of data taking. The antineutrinos will be detected in a liquid scintillator through the capture on protons followed by a gamma cascade, produced by the neutron capture on Gd.

  4. Double supergeometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederwall, Martin [Division for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology,SE 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-06-27

    A geometry of superspace corresponding to double field theory is developed, with type I I supergravity in D=10 as the main example. The formalism is based on an orthosymplectic extension OSp(d,d|2s) of the continuous T-duality group. Covariance under generalised super-diffeomorphisms is manifest. Ordinary superspace is obtained as a solution of the orthosymplectic section condition. A systematic study of curved superspace Bianchi identities is performed, and a relation to a double pure spinor superfield cohomology is established. A Ramond-Ramond superfield is constructed as an infinite-dimensional orthosymplectic spinor. Such objects in minimal orbits under the OSp supergroup (“pure spinors”) define super-sections.

  5. Motion of a carrier with a mobile load along a rough inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilchenko, G. G.

    2018-03-01

    The mechanical system consisting of a carrier and a load is considered. The load can move respectively the carrier according to the preset given motion law. The carrier motion from rest caused the load motion is investigated. The carrier can move translationally along rectilinear trajectory along rough inclined plane. The trajectory is the line of the greatest descent. The axis of rectilinear channel along which the load moves is situated in vertical plane containing the carrier trajectory. The Coulomb model is taken to describe the friction forces on sloped plane. Differential equations of motion of carrier with load are obtained. The sufficient condition of the carrier motion without detachment from inclined plane is given. For two special cases of the channel installation angle and the plane inclination angle combination the motion types are described. The computation experiments results are presented: the carrier motions in the special cases are illustrated, the phase portraits for some types of motions are constructed.

  6. Secukinumab, a human anti-interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody, in patients with psoriatic arthritis (FUTURE 2): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McInnes, Iain B.; Mease, Philip J.; Kirkham, Bruce; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Ritchlin, Christopher T.; Rahman, Proton; van der Heijde, Désirée; Landewé, Robert; Conaghan, Philip G.; Gottlieb, Alice B.; Richards, Hanno; Pricop, Luminita; Ligozio, Gregory; Patekar, Manmath; Mpofu, Shephard; Bird, Paul; Hall, Stephen; Nash, Peter; Zochling, Jane; de Vlam, Kurt; Langenaken, Christine; Geusens, Piet; Beaulieu, Andre; Tremblay, Jean-Luc; McCarthy, Tim; Papp, Kim; Poulin, Yves; Cohen, Martin; Galatikova, Dagmar; Dokoupilova, Eva; Dvorak, Zdenek; Mann, Herman; Sieper, Joachim; Spieler, Wolfgang; Kurthen, Reiner; Braun, Juergen; Wollenhaupt, Juergen; Tony, Hans-Peter; Schuch, Florian; Schulze-Koops, Hendrik; Rech, Juergen; Leszczynski, Piotr; Adamski, Zygmunt; Szepietowski, Jacek; Tlustochowicz, Witold; Kaszuba, Andrzej; Szymanska, Malgorzata; Stanislav, Marina; Nesmeyanova, Olga; Vezikova, Natalia; Ershova, Olga; Izmozherova, Nadezda; Zotkin, Eugeny; Petrova, Marianna; Kastanayan, Alexander; Yakupova, Svetlana; Agafina, Alina; Asavatanabodee, Paijit; Suwannalai, Parawee; Kerrane, Jerome; Tahir, Hasan; McInnes, Iain; Edwards, Christopher; Chinoy, Hector; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; Kaul, Arvind; Sheeran, Thomas; Clunie, Gavin; Schechtman, Joy; Gaylis, Norman; Kaine, Jeffrey; Lawson, Jeffrey; El-Kadi, Hisham; Flint, Kathleen; Kivitz, Alan; Churchhill, Melvin; Sikes, David; Lowenstein, Mitchell; Halpert, Elias; Abdulky, Mary; Palmer, William; Codding, Christine; Legerton, Clarence; Singhal, Atul; Sunkureddi, Prashanth; Gough, William; Forman, Seth; Box, Jane; Khan, Mohamed; Barranco, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Interleukin 17A is a proinflammatory cytokine that is implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis. We assessed the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous secukinumab, a human anti-interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody, in patients with psoriatic arthritis. Methods In this phase 3,

  7. Analysis and modeling of low voltage electrical network at power line carrier frequencies (3-148.5 kHz); Analyse et modelisation du reseau basse tension aux frequences courants porteurs (3 KHZ-148,5 KHZ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, G.

    1998-07-01

    Electricite de France (EdF) wishes to establish a physical communication link between his clients and the EdF centres. The final link, i.e. between the high/low voltage transformation substation and the residential clients, being ensured by carrier currents. With this aim, an analysis and a modeling of the low voltage network at the carrier frequencies (3 kHz - 148.5 kHz) has been performed. This work has been carried out in parallel with an experiment involving 3500 apparatuses that use carrier currents. The diversity of the French low voltage networks and the limitations imposed by the EN50065-1 standard about the use of carrier currents in Europe do not favour the development of such carrier current systems. Disturbing voltages and localized impedances represent the main difficulties to get round. Inside accommodations, domotic carrier currents have a reduced range but a higher disturbance amplitude because of the proximity of appliances. A differential mode to common mode conversion phenomenon has been evidenced which generates network couplings and important electromagnetic fields. Energy lines and cables have been analyzed using numerical models. Load peaks have been analyzed using statistical tools in order to take into account the daily fluctuations. The modeling of the network is made in two steps: a double-wire model is considered first. Then a three-phase model is developed which analyzes the inter-phases coupling and the effect of the distribution of clients' loads on each phase. The results of this model are conformable with measurements except for underground networks. As perspectives of future works and beyond todays standard framework, the techniques that allow a sensible increase of communication flow rates have been reviewed. (J.S.)

  8. Simulation of phase I FOPI detector and the study of the double differential cross sections of the fragment production in Au + Au collisions at 600 and 800 A.MeV; Simulation du detecteur FOPI phase I et etude des sections efficaces doublement differentielles de production de fragments dans les collisions Au + Au A 600 et 800 A.MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, L. [Ecole Doctorale des Sciences Fondamentales, Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France). U.F.R. de Recherche Scientifique et Technique

    1995-10-13

    This thesis has two parts. The first one is devoted to the study of influence of multiple collisions on various variables by means of the interface GEANT-FOPI. The second part deals with the study of mass double differential cross sections relative to rapidity and transverse energy obtained by phase I FOPI detector. It was found that the estimate of the rate of double collisions is strongly dependent on the utilised model and that the influence of multiple collisions on the double differential cross sections was negligible for rapidities near that of mass center. The second part of this work is devoted to the study of double differential cross sections of fragment production. The fitting of experimental distributions with the Boltzmann law seems to be convenient for the Z=1 fragments emitted in central collisions. The hypothesis of a unique pure thermal source is to be excluded for the Z > 1 fragments. In the case of central collisions, the consideration of the collective effects occurring, in the case of a thermal source explosion followed by an isotropic radial collective expansion, has resulted in a unique temperature value for Z=1 and Z=2, as well as, in a value of collective radial speed, of the order of magnitude of 0.3 c, common for all the fragments. The experimental findings achieved with the phase I FOPI detector allowed to conclude firmly that this scenario, implying an isotropic radial expansion, is strongly made evident in case of central reactions. In addition, the comparison of experimental data with the results obtained with the Isospin Quantum Molecular Dynamics model has shown that, in spite of an overall overestimation of distributions, a good agreement between theoretical estimates and experimental data was obtained for the collective temperature and speed values 76 refs.

  9. Efficacy and safety of rilpivirine (TMC278) versus efavirenz at 48 weeks in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients: pooled results from the phase 3 double-blind randomized ECHO and THRIVE Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Calvin J; Molina, Jean-Michel; Cahn, Pedro; Clotet, Bonaventura; Fourie, Jan; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wu, Hao; Johnson, Margaret A; Saag, Michael; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Crauwels, Herta; Lefebvre, Eric; Rimsky, Laurence T; Vanveggel, Simon; Williams, Peter; Boven, Katia

    2012-05-01

    Pooled analysis of phase 3, double-blind, double-dummy ECHO and THRIVE trials comparing rilpivirine (TMC278) and efavirenz. Treatment-naive HIV-1-infected adults were randomized 1:1 to rilpivirine 25 mg once daily or efavirenz 600 mg once daily, with background tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) (ECHO) or TDF/FTC, zidovudine/lamivudine, or abacavir/lamivudine (THRIVE). The primary endpoint was confirmed response [viral load effects on virologic failure were more apparent with rilpivirine. CD4 cell count increased over time in both groups. Rilpivirine compared with efavirenz gave smaller incidences of adverse events leading to discontinuation (3% vs. 8%, respectively), treatment-related grade 2-4 adverse events (16% vs. 31%), rash (3% vs. 14%), dizziness (8% vs. 26%), abnormal dreams/nightmares (8% vs. 13%), and grade 2-4 lipid abnormalities. At week 48, rilpivirine 25 mg once daily and efavirenz 600 mg once daily had comparable response rates. Rilpivirine had more virologic failures and improved tolerability versus efavirenz.

  10. Double transitions, non-Ising criticality and the critical absorbing phase in an interacting monomer–dimer model on a square lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Keekwon; Kim, Bongsoo; Park, Sangwoong; Lee, Sung Jong

    2011-01-01

    We present a numerical study on an interacting monomer–dimer model with nearest neighbor repulsion on a square lattice, which possesses two symmetric absorbing states. The model is observed to exhibit two nearby continuous transitions: the Z 2 symmetry-breaking order–disorder transition and the absorbing transition with directed percolation criticality. We find that the symmetry-breaking transition shows a non-Ising critical behavior, and that the absorbing phase becomes critical, in the sense that the critical decay of the dimer density observed at the absorbing transition persists even within the absorbing phase. Our findings call for further studies on microscopic models and the corresponding continuum description belonging to the generalized voter university class. (letter)

  11. Simultaneous reconstruction of 3D refractive index, temperature, and intensity distribution of combustion flame by double computed tomography technologies based on spatial phase-shifting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhenyan; Song, Yang; Yuan, Qun; Wulan, Tuya; Chen, Lei

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a transient multi-parameter three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction method is proposed to diagnose and visualize a combustion flow field. Emission and transmission tomography based on spatial phase-shifted technology are combined to reconstruct, simultaneously, the various physical parameter distributions of a propane flame. Two cameras triggered by the internal trigger mode capture the projection information of the emission and moiré tomography, respectively. A two-step spatial phase-shifting method is applied to extract the phase distribution in the moiré fringes. By using the filtered back-projection algorithm, we reconstruct the 3D refractive-index distribution of the combustion flow field. Finally, the 3D temperature distribution of the flame is obtained from the refractive index distribution using the Gladstone-Dale equation. Meanwhile, the 3D intensity distribution is reconstructed based on the radiation projections from the emission tomography. Therefore, the structure and edge information of the propane flame are well visualized.

  12. 125IdUrd-induced chromosome fragments, assayed by premature chromosome condensation, and DNA double-strand breaks have similar repair kinetics in G1-phase CHO-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, George; Pantelias, G.E.; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Seaner, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The effect of 125 I-decay on cell lethality, and induction of chromosome and DNA damage, was studied in synchronous non-cycling, G 1 -phase CHO-cells. Neutral filter elution was used to assay repair of DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs), and premature chromosome condensation was used to assay repair of chromosome fragments and induction of ring chromosomes. The results indicate very little repair at the cell survival level (repair of PLD). At the DNA level an efficient repair of DNA dsbs was observed, with kinetics similar to those observed after exposure to X-rays. At the chromosome level a fast repair of prematurely condensed chromosome fragments was observed, with a concomitant increase in the number of ring chromosomes induced. The repair kinetics of chromosome fragments and DNA dsbs were very similar, suggesting that DNA dsbs may underlie chromosome fragmentation. (author)

  13. Ipilimumab versus placebo after radiotherapy in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer that had progressed after docetaxel chemotherapy (CA184-043): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Eugene D; Drake, Charles G; Scher, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ipilimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 to enhance antitumour immunity. Our aim was to assess the use of ipilimumab after radiotherapy in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer that progressed after docetaxel...... chemotherapy. METHODS: We did a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial in which men with at least one bone metastasis from castration-resistant prostate cancer that had progressed after docetaxel treatment were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive bone-directed radiotherapy (8 Gy in one...... fraction) followed by either ipilimumab 10 mg/kg or placebo every 3 weeks for up to four doses. Non-progressing patients could continue to receive ipilimumab at 10 mg/kg or placebo as maintenance therapy every 3 months until disease progression, unacceptable toxic effect, or death. Patients were randomly...

  14. Double-blind randomized phase III study comparing a mixture of natural agents versus placebo in the prevention of acute mucositis during chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucci, Laura; Farneti, Alessia; Di Ridolfi, Paolo; Pinnaro, Paola; Pellini, Raul; Giannarelli, Diana; Vici, Patrizia; Conte, Mario; Landoni, Valeria; Sanguineti, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    There is no widely accepted intervention in the prevention of acute mucositis during chemoradiotherapy for head and neck carcinoma. In the present double-blind study, we tested 4 natural agents, propolis, aloe vera, calendula, and chamomile versus placebo. Patients undergoing concomitant chemo-intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were given natural agent or matched placebo; grade 3 mucositis on physical examination according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0 was the primary endpoint. Various covariates were tested at logistic regression, including the individual amount of mucosa receiving at least 9.5 Gy per week (V9.5w). One hundred seven patients were randomized from January 2011 to July 2014, and 104 were assessable (51%-49% were assigned to the placebo group and 53%-51% were assigned to the natural agent). Overall, 61 patients developed peak grade 3 mucositis with no difference between arms (P = .65). Conversely, V9.5w (P = .007) and primary site (P = .037) were independent predictors. The selected natural agents do not prevent mucositis, whereas the role of V9.5w is confirmed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Time course of the effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in two phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in adults with binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Hudson, James I; Gasior, Maria; Herman, Barry K; Radewonuk, Jana; Wilfley, Denise; Busner, Joan

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the time course of efficacy-related endpoints for lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) versus placebo in adults with protocol-defined moderate to severe binge-eating disorder (BED). In two 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, adults meeting DSM-IV-TR BED criteria were randomized 1:1 to receive placebo or dose-optimized LDX (50 or 70 mg). Analyses across visits used mixed-effects models for repeated measures (binge eating days/week, binge eating episodes/week, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Binge Eating [Y-BOCS-BE] scores, percentage body weight change) and chi-square tests (Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement [CGI-I; from the perspective of BED symptoms] scale dichotomized as improved or not improved). These analyses were not part of the prespecified testing strategy, so reported p values are nominal (unadjusted and descriptive only). Least squares mean treatment differences for change from baseline in both studies favored LDX over placebo (all nominal p values binge eating days/week, binge-eating episodes/week, and percentage weight change and at the first posttreatment assessment (Week 4) for Y-BOCS-BE total and domain scores. On the CGI-I, more participants on LDX than placebo were categorized as improved starting at Week 1 in both studies (both nominal p values Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Dietary nitrate provides sustained blood pressure lowering in hypertensive patients: a randomized, phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Vikas; Khambata, Rayomand S; Robertson, Amy; Caulfield, Mark J; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2015-02-01

    Single dose administration of dietary inorganic nitrate acutely reduces blood pressure (BP) in normotensive healthy volunteers, via bioconversion to the vasodilator nitric oxide. We assessed whether dietary nitrate might provide sustained BP lowering in patients with hypertension. We randomly assigned 68 patients with hypertension in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to receive daily dietary supplementation for 4 weeks with either dietary nitrate (250 mL daily, as beetroot juice) or a placebo (250 mL daily, as nitrate-free beetroot juice) after a 2-week run-in period and followed by a 2-week washout. We performed stratified randomization of drug-naive (n=34) and treated (n=34) patients with hypertension aged 18 to 85 years. The primary end point was change in clinic, ambulatory, and home BP compared with placebo. Daily supplementation with dietary nitrate was associated with reduction in BP measured by 3 different methods. Mean (95% confidence interval) reduction in clinic BP was 7.7/2.4 mm Hg (3.6-11.8/0.0-4.9, Pnitrate consumption with no change after placebo. The intervention was well tolerated. This is the first evidence of durable BP reduction with dietary nitrate supplementation in a relevant patient group. These findings suggest a role for dietary nitrate as an affordable, readily-available, adjunctive treatment in the management of patients with hypertension (funded by The British Heart Foundation). http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01405898. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Exploration of the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe nucleus by the 'KamLAND-Zen' experiment. Results of the first phase and future prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Satoru; Shirai, Junpei

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of the double beta decay without neutrino production (0 ν ββ decay) has come to be considered as one of the clues to the new physics beyond the standard model in the recent years. Searching for this phenomenon is the only possible method to verify if the neutrino itself be the equal particle of the antineutrino (Majorana particle) or not. If this decay process is found, it is the discovery of the nonconservative process of the total lepton number which goes beyond the standard theory. At the same time, it confirms that the neutrinos are the Majorana particles. In addition, from the decay half-lives, the absolute value of neutrino mass and hierarchy as well as the new knowledge of the CP violation in the lepton sector are expected to be obtained. Further progress is expected toward the development of the research of the particle creation mechanism at the beginning of the universe. Strong competitions are now being developed throughout the world to become the first to discover the phenomenon to go beyond the standard theory. In this text, the underground facility of KamLAND-Zen experiment with remodeled KamLAND detector with large amount of 136 Xe isotope is introduced and the results of the data obtained and analyzed by June 2012 are reported. Future prospect is described finally. (S. Funahashi)

  18. Refractive index dispersion measurement using carrier-envelope phasemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansinger, Peter; Töpfer, Philipp; Adolph, Daniel; Hoff, Dominik; Rathje, Tim; Sayler, A Max; Paulus, Gerhard G; Dimitrov, Nikolay; Dreischuh, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel method for direct and accurate measurement of refractive index dispersion based on carrier-envelope phase detection of few-cycle laser pulses, exploiting the difference between phase and group velocity in a dispersive medium. In a layout similar to an interferometer, two carrier-envelope phasemeters are capable of measuring the dispersion of a transparent or reflective sample, where one phasemeter serves as the reference and the other records the influence of the sample. Here we report on proof-of-principle measurements that already reach relative uncertainties of a few 10 −4 . Further development is expected to allow for unprecedented precision. (paper)

  19. The Earth's revolution, Moon phase, Syzygy astronomy events, their effect in disturbances of the Earth's geomagnetic field, and the ``Magnetic Storm Double Time Method'' for predicting the occurrence time, magnitude and epicenter location of earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I. W.

    2003-04-01

    An increasing number of geomagnetic observation stations were established and operated in China since 1966 to the 1980s (and until present), effectively covering a large area of the nation. Close relativity between magnetic storms and earthquakes, as well as close relativity between the regional differences of magnetic disturbance recorded by these stations and the epicenter location of earthquakes, was discovered and observed by Tie-zheng Zhang during1966 - 1969. On such basis during 1969/1970, Zhang developed the “Magnetic Storm Double Time Method” for predicting the occurrence time, magnitude and epicenter location of EQs. By this method,.Zhang successfully predicted the Yunnan Tonghai Ms7.7 EQ Jan. 5, 1970 (occurrence date only), the Bohai ML5.2 EQ, Feb. 12, 1970 and other EQs, including the Haicheng Ms7.3 EQ Feb. 4, 1975, and the Tangshan Ms7.8 EQ July 28, 1976. On the basis of this method, Z.P. Shen developed the “Geomagnetic Deflection Angle Double Time Method” in 1970, and later developed the “Magnetic Storm - Moon Phase Double Time Method” in 1990s. With this method, Shen is able to predict the occurrence dates of most of the strongest EQs Ms37.5 on the Earth since 1991. Zhang also discovered that strong EQs often correspond with a number of sets of magnetic storms. Z.Q. Ren discovered close relativity exists between Syzygy astronomy events and such sets of magnetic storm as well as the occurrence dates of strong EQs. Computerized calculation of historical magnetic storm and EQ data proves the effectiveness of this method. Over 3,000 days of geomagnetic isoline images are computer processed by the Author from over 400,000 geomagnetic field data obtained by Zhang from over 100 geomagnetic observation stations during 1966 - 1984. Clear relativity is shown between the Earth’s revolution, Moon phases, Syzygy astronomy events related to the Earth, and their disturbance effect on the Earth’s geomagnetic field and the occurrence of EQs.

  20. Molecular cloning and transcriptional activity of a new Petunia calreticulin gene involved in pistil transmitting tract maturation, progamic phase, and double fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenartowski, Robert; Suwińska, Anna; Prusińska, Justyna; Gumowski, Krzysztof; Lenartowska, Marta

    2014-02-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed Ca²⁺-binding protein in multicellular eukaryotes. As an endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein, CRT plays a key role in many cellular processes including Ca²⁺ storage and release, protein synthesis, and molecular chaperoning in both animals and plants. CRT has long been suggested to play a role in plant sexual reproduction. To begin to address this possibility, we cloned and characterized the full-length cDNA of a new CRT gene (PhCRT) from Petunia. The deduced amino acid sequence of PhCRT shares homology with other known plant CRTs, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that the PhCRT cDNA clone belongs to the CRT1/CRT2 subclass. Northern blot analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization were used to assess PhCRT gene expression in different parts of the pistil before pollination, during subsequent stages of the progamic phase, and at fertilization. The highest level of PhCRT mRNA was detected in the stigma-style part of the unpollinated pistil 1 day before anthesis and during the early stage of the progamic phase, when pollen is germinated and tubes outgrow on the stigma. In the ovary, PhCRT mRNA was most abundant after pollination and reached maximum at the late stage of the progamic phase, when pollen tubes grow into the ovules and fertilization occurs. PhCRT mRNA transcripts were seen to accumulate predominantly in transmitting tract cells of maturing and receptive stigma, in germinated pollen/growing tubes, and at the micropylar region of the ovule, where the female gametophyte is located. From these results, we suggest that PhCRT gene expression is up-regulated during secretory activity of the pistil transmitting tract cells, pollen germination and outgrowth of the tubes, and then during gamete fusion and early embryogenesis.

  1. The energy carrier hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The potential of hydrogen to be used as a clean fuel for the production of heat and power, as well as for the propulsion of aeroplanes and vehicles, is described, in particular for Germany. First, attention is paid to the application of hydrogen as a basic material for the (petro)chemical industry, as an indirect energy source for (petro)chemical processes, and as a direct energy source for several purposes. Than the importance of hydrogen as an energy carrier in a large-scale application of renewable energy sources is discussed. Next an overview is given of new and old hydrogen production techniques from fossil fuels, biomass, or the electrolysis of water. Energetic applications of hydrogen in the transportation sector and the production of electric power and heat are mentioned. Brief descriptions are given of techniques to store hydrogen safely. Finally attention is paid to hydrogen research in Germany. Two hydrogen projects, in which Germany participates, are briefly dealt with: the Euro-Quebec project (production of hydrogen by means of hydropower), and the HYSOLAR project (hydrogen production by means of solar energy). 18 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  2. An Estimation Method for number of carrier frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method that utilizes AR model power spectrum estimation based on Burg algorithm to estimate the number of carrier frequency in single pulse. In the modern electronic and information warfare, the pulse signal form of radar is complex and changeable, among which single pulse with multi-carrier frequencies is the most typical one, such as the frequency shift keying (FSK signal, the frequency shift keying with linear frequency (FSK-LFM hybrid modulation signal and the frequency shift keying with bi-phase shift keying (FSK-BPSK hybrid modulation signal. In view of this kind of single pulse which has multi-carrier frequencies, this paper adopts a method which transforms the complex signal into AR model, then takes power spectrum based on Burg algorithm to show the effect. Experimental results show that the estimation method still can determine the number of carrier frequencies accurately even when the signal noise ratio (SNR is very low.

  3. Pain relief of sore throat with a new anti-inflammatory throat lozenge, ibuprofen 25 mg: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, international phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouroubi, Athmane; Donazzolo, Yves; Donath, Franck; Eccles, Ron; Russo, Marc; Harambillet, Nadine; Gautier, Stéphanie; Montagne, Agnès

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a new oromucosal ibuprofen form, ibuprofen 25 mg lozenge, in single and repeat dosing for up to 4 days, to the matched placebo, in the treatment of acute sore throat pain in adults. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adult patients with non-streptococcal sore throat and signs of moderate-to-severe associated pain (≥5 on the objective Tonsillo-Pharyngitis Assessment 21-point scale and ≥60 mm on the subjective 0-100 mm visual analogue Sore Throat Pain Intensity Scale [STPIS]) were assigned ibuprofen 25 mg (n=194) or matching placebo (n=191) lozenge treatment. Efficacy was assessed (at the investigating centre up to 2 hours after first dosing, then on an ambulatory basis) by parameters derived from patient's scores on scales of pain relief, pain intensity, and global efficacy assessment. The primary efficacy end-point was the time-weighted TOTal PAin Relief (TOTPAR) over 2 hours after first dosing using the Sore Throat Relief Scale (STRS). Safety and local tolerability were assessed. Ibuprofen 25 mg was superior to placebo on numerous pain relief parameters; TOTPAR was significantly higher with ibuprofen 25 mg over 2 hours after first dosing (Ppain (n=128), after an average 4 days (Prelief of sore throat pain and is as well tolerated as placebo. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01785862. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Impact of neo-adjuvant Sorafenib treatment on liver transplantation in HCC patients - a prospective, randomized, double-blind, phase III trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Katrin; Ganten, Tom; Gotthardtp, Daniel; Radeleff, Boris; Settmacher, Utz; Kollmar, Otto; Nadalin, Silvio; Karapanagiotou-Schenkel, Irini; Kalle, Christof von; Jäger, Dirk; Büchler, Markus W; Schemmer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Liver Transplantation (LT) is treatment of choice for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within MILAN Criteria. Tumour progression and subsequent dropout from waiting list have significant impact on the survival. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) controls tumour growth in the treated HCC nodule, however, the risk of tumour development in the untreated liver is increased by simultaneous release of neo-angiogenic factors. Due to its anti-angiogenic effects, Sorafenib delays the progression of HCC. Aim of this study was to determine whether combination of TACE and Sorafenib improves tumour control in HCC patients on waiting list for LT. Fifty patients were randomly assigned on a 1:1 ratio in double-blinded fashion at four centers in Germany and treated with TACE plus either Sorafenib (n = 24) or placebo (n = 26). The end of treatment was development of progressive disease according to mRECIST criteria or LT. The primary endpoint of the trial was the Time-to-Progression (TTP). Other efficacy endpoints were Tumour Response, Progression-free Survival (PFS), and Time-to-LT (TTLT). The median time of treatment was 125 days with Sorafenib and 171 days with the placebo. Fourteen patients (seven from each group) developed tumour progression during the course of the study period. The Hazard Ratio of TTP was 1.106 (95% CI: 0.387, 3.162). The results of the Objective Response Rate, Disease Control Rate, PFS, and TTLT were comparable in both groups. The incidence of AEs was comparable in the placebo group (n = 23, 92%) and in the Sorafenib group (n = 23, 96%). Twelve patients (50%) on Sorafenib and four patients (16%) on placebo experienced severe treatment-related AEs. The TTP is similar after neo-adjuvant treatment with TACE and Sorafenib before LT compared to TACE and placebo. The Tumour Response, PFS, and TTLT were comparable. The safety profile of the Sorafenib group was similar to that of the placebo group

  5. Clinical similarity of biosimilar ABP 501 to adalimumab in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis: A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Kim; Bachelez, Herve; Costanzo, Antonio; Foley, Peter; Gooderham, Melinda; Kaur, Primal; Narbutt, Joanna; Philipp, Sandra; Spelman, Lynda; Weglowska, Jolanta; Zhang, Nan; Strober, Bruce

    2017-06-01

    ABP 501 is a biosimilar of adalimumab. We sought to compare the efficacy and safety of ABP 501 with adalimumab. This 52-week, double-blind study randomized patients with moderate to severe psoriasis to ABP 501 or adalimumab. At week 16, those with 50% or more improvement in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score from baseline on ABP 501 continued the same treatment, whereas adalimumab-treated patients were rerandomized to adalimumab or ABP 501. Clinical similarity in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index percent improvement from baseline to week 16 (primary end point) was established if the point estimate of treatment difference and its 2-sided 95% confidence interval between groups was within equivalence margin of ±15. Patients, including those undergoing a single transition at week 16, were evaluated for safety and immunogenicity. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index percent improvement at week 16 was 80.9 for ABP 501 and 83.1 for adalimumab (least-square mean difference -2.18 [95% confidence interval -7.39 to 3.02]). Adverse events (67.2% [117/174] vs 63.6% [110/173]) and antidrug antibody incidence (55.2% [96/174] vs 63.6% [110/173]) for ABP 501 vs adalimumab were similar. Safety, including immunogenicity, was similar among groups after single transition (week 20). The 52-week data are not reported here. ABP 501 was shown to be clinically similar to adalimumab. Safety and immunogenicity were not impacted immediately after single transition (adalimumab to ABP 501). Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose phase III study of vilazodone in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommoll, Carl; Durgam, Suresh; Mathews, Maju; Forero, Giovanna; Nunez, Rene; Tang, Xiongwen; Thase, Michael E

    2015-06-01

    Vilazodone, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, is approved for treating major depressive disorder in adults. This study (NCT01629966 ClinicalTrials.gov) evaluated the efficacy and safety of vilazodone in adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). A multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study in patients with GAD randomized (1:1:1) to placebo (n = 223), or vilazodone 20 mg/day (n = 230) or 40 mg/day (n = 227). Primary and secondary efficacy parameters were total score change from baseline to week 8 on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAMA) and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), respectively, analyzed using a predefined mixed-effect model for repeated measures (MMRM). Safety outcomes were presented by descriptive statistics. The least squares mean difference (95% confidence interval) in HAMA total score change from baseline (MMRM) was statistically significant for vilazodone 40 mg/day versus placebo (-1.80 [-3.26, -0.34]; P = .0312 [adjusted for multiple comparisons]), but not for vilazodone 20 mg/day versus placebo. Mean change from baseline in SDS total score was not significantly different for either dose of vilazodone versus placebo when adjusted for multiplicity; significant improvement versus placebo was noted for vilazodone 40 mg/day without adjustment for multiplicity (P = .0349). The incidence of adverse events was similar for vilazodone 20 and 40 mg/day (∼71%) and slightly lower for placebo (62%). Nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, vomiting, and fatigue were reported in ≥5% of patients in either vilazodone group and at least twice the rate of placebo. Vilazodone was effective in treating anxiety symptoms of GAD. No new safety concerns were identified. © 2015 The Authors. Depression and Anxiety published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A phase III, randomized, multi-center, double blind, placebo controlled study of safety and efficacy of lofexidine for relief of symptoms in individuals undergoing inpatient opioid withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodetzky, Charles W; Walsh, Sharon L; Martin, Peter R; Saxon, Andrew J; Gullo, Kristen L; Biswas, Kousick

    2017-07-01

    Lofexidine is an alpha-2-adrenergic receptor agonist approved in the United Kingdom (UK) for the treatment of opioid withdrawal symptoms. Lofexidine has demonstrated better efficacy than placebo for reducing opioid withdrawal symptoms in patients undergoing opioid withdrawal with less reported hypotension than clonidine. Designed as an FDA registration trial, this 8-day, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in 264 patients dependent on short-acting opioids evaluated the efficacy of lofexidine hydrochloride in reducing withdrawal symptoms in patients undergoing opioid withdrawal. The primary efficacy measures were SOWS-Gossop on Day 3 and time-to-dropout. Secondary endpoints included the proportion of participants who were completers; area under the 5-day SOWS-Gossop - time curve (i.e., AUC 1-5 ), and daily mean SOWS-Gossop, OOWS-Handelsman, MCGI (subject and rater), and VAS-E scores. Participants received lofexidine HCl 3.2mg daily in four divided doses or matching placebo on Days 1-5, followed by 2days of placebo. Lofexidine significantly decreased mean Day 3 SOWS scores compared to placebo, 6.32 versus 8.67, respectively, p=0.0212. Fewer lofexidine patients were early terminators compared to placebo (59 versus 80, respectively); and non-completers in the lofexidine group remained in the study longer than those assigned to placebo (p=0.0034). Secondary endpoints consistently favored lofexidine. Lofexidine was well tolerated in this trial. Lofexidine significantly decreased SOWS scores compared to placebo and demonstrated better retention rates in participants undergoing opioid withdrawal. Lofexidine potentially offers a useful non-opioid alternative to treat opioid withdrawal symptoms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. TROPICS 1: a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of tenecteplase for restoration of function in dysfunctional central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrail, Nashat; Sandler, Eric; Charu, Veena; Anas, Nick; Lim, Eduardo; Blaney, Martha; Ashby, Mark; Gillespie, Barbara S; Begelman, Susan M

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the thrombolytic tenecteplase, a fibrin-specific recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, for restoring function to dysfunctional central venous catheters (CVCs). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, eligible patients with dysfunctional nonhemodialysis CVCs were randomly assigned to two treatment arms. In the first arm (TNK-TNK-PBO), patients received an initial dose of intraluminal tenecteplase (TNK) (up to 2 mg), a second dose of tenecteplase if indicated, and a third placebo (PBO) dose. In the PBO-TNK-TNK arm, placebo was instilled first followed by up to two doses of tenecteplase, if needed, for restoration of catheter function. After administration of each dose, CVC function was assessed at 15, 30, and 120 minutes. There were 97 patients who received either TNK-TNK-PBO (n = 50) or PBO-TNK-TNK (n = 47). Within 120 minutes of initial study drug instillation, catheter function was restored to 30 patients (60%) in the TNK-TNK-PBO arm and 11 patients (23%) in the PBO-TNK-TNK arm, for a treatment difference of 37 percentage points (95% confidence interval 18-55; P = .0002). Cumulative restoration rates for CVC function increased to 87% after the second dose of tenecteplase in both study arms combined. Two patients developed a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after exposure to tenecteplase; one DVT was considered to be drug related. No cases of intracranial hemorrhage, major bleeding, embolic events, catheter-related bloodstream infections, or catheter-related complications were reported. Tenecteplase was efficacious for restoration of catheter function in these study patients with dysfunctional CVCs. Copyright © 2010 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of different soft segments on the formation and properties of binary core microencapsulated phase change materials with polyurea/polyurethane double shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanhong; Chu, Xiaodong; Tang, Guoyi; Yao, Youwei

    2013-02-15

    A series of polyurea/polyurethane microcapsules with butyl stearate and paraffin as binary core materials are successfully synthesized via interfacial polymerization method. The phase change temperature of these microencapsulated phase change materials (micro-PCMs) can be adjusted by regulating the composition of the binary core. SEM photographs show that these micro-PCMs have relatively spherical profiles and compact surfaces with diameter ranging from 5 to 15 μm. DSC results indicate that the binary core content in micro-PCMs is in a range of 45-60 wt%. Moreover, after being treated under 50°C for 7 days or subjected to thermal-cycling test for 500 times, the micro-PCMs keep good thermal performances and stabilities. Besides, these micro-PCMs show good thermal stability, and the degradation temperature differs from the different compositions of the binary core and molecular weight of the water-soluble monomers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Beyond the double banana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenzweig, Ivana; Fogarasi, András; Johnsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether extending the 10-20 array with 6 electrodes in the inferior temporal chain and constructing computed montages increases the diagnostic value of ictal EEG activity originating in the temporal lobe. In addition, the accuracy of computer-assisted spectral source......). Spectral source analysis used source montage to calculate density spectral array, defining the earliest oscillatory onset. From this, phase maps were calculated for localization. The reference standard was the decision of the multidisciplinary epilepsy surgery team on the seizure onset zone. Clinical...... performance was compared with the double banana (longitudinal bipolar montage, 10-20 array). RESULTS: Adding the inferior temporal electrode chain, computed montages (reference free, common average, and source derivation), and voltage maps significantly increased the sensitivity. Phase maps had the highest...

  11. Multicenter, randomized, double-blind phase 2 trial of FOLFIRI with regorafenib or placebo as second-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanoff, Hanna K; Goldberg, Richard M; Ivanova, Anastasia; O'Reilly, Seamus; Kasbari, Samer S; Kim, Richard D; McDermott, Ray; Moore, Dominic T; Zamboni, William; Grogan, William; Cohn, Allen Lee; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios S; Leonard, Gregory; Ryan, Theresa; Olowokure, Olugbenga O; Fernando, Nishan H; McCaffrey, John; El-Rayes, Bassel F; Horgan, Anne M; Sherrill, Gary Bradley; Yacoub, George Hosni; O'Neil, Bert H

    2018-06-15

    Regorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor that inhibits angiogenesis, growth, and proliferation, prolongs survival as monotherapy in patients with refractory colorectal cancer. This international, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial assessed the efficacy of regorafenib with folinic acid, fluorouracil, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) as a second-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who progressed on first-line oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine enrolled at 45 sites in the United States and Ireland. Patients, stratified by prior bevacizumab use, were randomized 2:1 to regorafenib or placebo. The treatment consisted of FOLFIRI on days 1 and 2 and days 15 and 16 with 160 mg of regorafenib or placebo on days 4 to 10 and days 18 to 24 of every 28-day cycle. Crossover was not allowed. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Under the assumption of a 75% event rate, 180 patients were required for 135 events to achieve 90% power to detect a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.65 with a 1-sided α value of .1. One hundred eighty-one patients were randomized (120 to regorafenib-FOLFIRI and 61 to placebo-FOLFIRI) with a median age of 62 years. Among these, 117 (65%) received prior bevacizumab or aflibercept. PFS was longer with regorafenib-FOLFIRI than placebo-FOLFIRI (median, 6.1 vs 5.3 months; HR, 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53-1.01; log-rank P = .056). The median overall survival was not longer (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.71-1.44). The response rate was higher with regorafenib-FOLFIRI (34%; 95% CI, 25%-44%) than placebo-FOLFIRI (21%; 95% CI, 11%-33%; P = .07). Grade 3/4 adverse events with a >5% absolute increase from regorafenib included diarrhea, neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, hypophosphatemia, and hypertension. The addition of regorafenib to FOLFIRI as second-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer only modestly prolonged PFS over FOLFIRI alone. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer

  12. A phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study of belimumab in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Daniel J; Stohl, William; Furie, Richard A; Lisse, Jeffrey R; McKay, James D; Merrill, Joan T; Petri, Michelle A; Ginzler, Ellen M; Chatham, W Winn; McCune, W Joseph; Fernandez, Vivian; Chevrier, Marc R; Zhong, Z John; Freimuth, William W

    2009-09-15

    To assess the safety, tolerability, biologic activity, and efficacy of belimumab in combination with standard of care therapy (SOC) in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients with a Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus: National Assessment (SELENA) version of the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score >/=4 (n = 449) were randomly assigned to belimumab (1, 4, or 10 mg/kg) or placebo in a 52-week study. Coprimary end points were the percent change in the SELENA-SLEDAI score at week 24 and the time to first SLE flare. Significant differences between the treatment and placebo groups were not attained for either primary end point, and no dose response was observed. Reductions in SELENA-SLEDAI scores from baseline were 19.5% in the combined belimumab group versus 17.2% in the placebo group. The median time to first SLE flare was 67 days in the combined belimumab group versus 83 days in the placebo group. However, the median time to first SLE flare during weeks 24-52 was significantly longer with belimumab treatment (154 versus 108 days; P = 0.0361). In the subgroup (71.5%) of serologically active patients (antinuclear antibody titer >/=1:80 and/or anti-double-stranded DNA [anti-dsDNA] >/=30 IU/ml), belimumab treatment resulted in significantly better responses at week 52 than placebo for SELENA-SLEDAI score (-28.8% versus -14.2%; P = 0.0435), physician's global assessment (-32.7% versus -10.7%; P = 0.0011), and Short Form 36 physical component score (+3.0 versus +1.2 points; P = 0.0410). Treatment with belimumab resulted in a 63-71% reduction of naive, activated, and plasmacytoid CD20+ B cells, and a 29.4% reduction in anti-dsDNA titers (P = 0.0017) by week 52. The rates of adverse events and serious adverse events were similar in the belimumab and placebo groups. Belimumab was biologically active and well tolerated. The effect of belimumab on the reduction of SLE disease activity or flares was not significant

  13. YBa2Cu3O7-δ/NdBa2(Cu1-xNix)3O7-δ double layers by liquid-phase epitaxial growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, X.; Izumi, Toru; Hobara, Natsuro; Nakamura, Yuichi; Izumi, Teruo; Shiohara, Yuh

    2001-01-01

    Our present investigation has answered questions pertaining to the REBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (RE123, RE=rare-earth elements)-coated conductor application when NdBa 2 (Cu 1-x Ni x ) 3 O 7-δ (Ni-NdBCO) solid solution is used as a buffer layer by the liquid-phase epitaxy(LPE) process. The NiO/Ni substrate has no substantial reaction in the Ni-saturated Nd-Ba-Cu-O liquid. There is no essential Ni interdiffusion between YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) and Ni-NdBCO LPE thick films as evident from T c values of 90 K obtained from multilayer YBCO/Ni-NdBCO samples. (author)

  14. Phase transformations, ionic conductivity and dipole ordering of NASICON-like double phosphates Na3M2(PO4)3 (M-Sc,Fe,Cr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, V.B.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental data obtained using ceramic samples of Na 3 M 2 (PO 4 ) 3 and solid solutions on their basis have been analyzed and generalized. It is shown that isostoichiometry of Na 3 M 2 (PO 4 ) 3 compounds and different types of dipole ordering in their α-phases stimulate investigations of subsolidus regions in the systems Na 3 Sc 2 (PO 4 ) 3 -Na 3 Fe 2 (PO 4 ) 3 , Na 3 Sc 2 (PO 4 ) 3 -Na 3 Cr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 , Na 3 Fe 2 (PO 4 ) 3 -Na 3 Cr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 .It proved possible to detect changes of the properties in case of ferroelectric-antiferroelectric, antiferroelectric-antiferroelectric transitions

  15. A flexible 70 MHz phase-controlled double waveguide system for hyperthermia treatment of superficial tumours with deep infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stam, Gerard; Kok, H Petra; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Kolff, M Willemijn; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Sijbrands, Jan; Bakker, Akke; Zum Vörde Sive Vörding, Paul J; Oldenborg, Sabine; de Greef, Martijn; Rasch, Coen R N; Crezee, Hans

    2017-11-01

    Superficial tumours with deep infiltration in the upper 15 cm of the trunk cannot be treated adequately with existing hyperthermia systems. The aim of this study was to develop, characterise and evaluate a new flexible two-channel hyperthermia system (AMC-2) for tumours in this region. The two-channel AMC-2 system has two horizontally revolving and height adjustable 70 MHz waveguides. Three different interchangeable antennas with sizes 20 × 34, 15 × 34 and 8.5 × 34 cm were developed and their electrical properties were determined. The performance of the AMC-2 system was tested by measurements of the electric field distribution in a saline water filled elliptical phantom, using an electric field vector probe. Clinical feasibility was demonstrated by treatment of a melanoma in the axillary region. Phantom measurements showed a good performance for all waveguides. The large reflection of the smallest antenna has to be compensated by increased forward power. Field patterns become asymmetrical when using smaller top antennas, necessitating phase corrections. The clinical application showed that tumours deeper than 4 cm can be heated adequately. A median tumour temperature of 42 °C can be reached up to 12 cm depth with adequate antenna positioning and phase-amplitude steering. This 70 MHz AMC-2 waveguide system is a useful addition to existing loco-regional hyperthermia equipment as it is capable of heating axillary tumours and other tumours deeper than 4 cm.

  16. Effect of green tea catechins in patients with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: Results of a short-term double-blind placebo controlled phase II clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Micali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and study objective: Several studies suggest a protective role of green tea catechins against prostate cancer (PCa. In order to evaluate the efficacy of green tea catechins for chemoprevention of PCa in patients with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PIN we performed a phase II clinical trial. Methods: Sixty volunteers with HG-PIN were enrolled to carry out a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial. Treated group took daily 600 mg of green tea catechins (Categ Plus® for 1 year. Patients were screened at 6 and 12 months through prostatic biopsy and measurements of prostate-specific antigen (PSA. Results: Despite the statistically significant reduction of PSA observed in subjects who received green tea catechins for 6 and 12 months, we did not find any statistical difference in PCa incidence between the experimental groups neither after 6 nor after 12 months. However, throughout the one-year follow- up we observed very limited adverse effects induced by green tea catechins and a not significant improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms and quality of life. Conclusions: Although the small number of patients enrolled in our study and the relatively short duration of intervention, our findings seems to deny the efficacy of green tea catechins. However, results of our clinical study, mainly for its low statistical strength, suggest that the effectiveness of green tea catechins should be evaluated in both a larger cohort of men and longer trial.

  17. Phase formation in the Ag2O - MgO - MoO3 system and the crystal structure of new double molybdate Ag2Mg2(MoO4)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyrenova, G.D.; Khajkina, E.G.; Khobrakova, Eh.T.; Solodovnikov, S.F.

    2001-01-01

    The phase correlations in subsolidus area of the Ag 2 O - MgO - MoO 3 system were studied, the Ag 2 MoO 4 - MgMoO 4 polythermal cross-section was investigated and its T-x diagram was constructed. X-ray diffraction and thermal analytic researches were conducted. The formation of the new double Ag 2 Mg 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 molybdates relating to the structural group Na 2 Mg 5 (MoO 4 ) 6 was established, and its structure (a=6.978(1), b=8.715(2), c=10.294(2) A, α=107.56(3) Deg, β=105.11(3) Deg, γ=103.68(3) Deg, Z=2, sp. gr. P 1-bar, R=0.038) was determined. The mixed carcass from the twin MgO 6 -octahedrons and MoO 4 -tetrahedrons, in which blankness the Ag atoms are arranged, stand out in the structure.The character of disordering in the part of Ag + is analogous to previously found one in the Ag 2 Zn 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 structure. The possible limits in the fields of homogeneity of silver-magnesium molybdate and its analogs, as well as the differences their structure from the structure of isotopic sodium-containing phases, are discussed [ru

  18. Impact of carriers in oral absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Luise Kvisgaard; Rist, Gerda Marie; Lennernäs, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Carriers may mediate the permeation across enterocytes for drug substances being organic anions. Carrier mediated permeation for the organic anions estrone-3-sulfate (ES) and glipizide across Caco-2 cells were investigated kinetically, and interactions on involved carriers evaluated. Initial...

  19. 7 CFR 35.4 - Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.4 Carrier. Carrier means any common or private carrier, including, but not being limited to, trucks, rail, airplanes, vessels, tramp or chartered steamers, whether carrying for...

  20. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  1. Carrier and aberrations removal in interferometric fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, P.; Michel, F.; Renotte, Y.; Habraken, S.

    2012-04-01

    A profilometer which takes advantage of polarization states splitting technique and monochromatic light projection method as a way to overcome ambient lighting for in-situ measurement is under development [1, 2]. Because of the Savart plate which refracts two out of axis beams, the device suffers from aberrations (mostly coma and astigmatism). These aberrations affect the quality of the sinusoidal fringe pattern. In fringe projection profilometry, the unwrapped phase distribution map contains the sum of the object's shape-related phase and carrier-fringe-related phase. In order to extract the 3D shape of the object, the carrier phase has to be removed [3, 4]. An easy way to remove both the fringe carrier and the aberrations of the optical system is to measure the phases of the test object and to measure the phase of a reference plane with the same set up and to subtract both phase maps. This time consuming technique is suitable for laboratory but not for industry. We propose a method to numerically remove both the fringe carrier and the aberrations. A first reference phase of a calibration plane is evaluated knowing the position of the different elements in the set up and the orientation of the fringes. Then a fitting of the phase map by Zernike polynomials is computed [5]. As the triangulation parameters are known during the calibration, the computation of Zernike coefficients has only to be made once. The wavefront error can be adjusted by a scale factor which depends on the position of the test object.

  2. Phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of whole-brain irradiation with concomitant chloroquine for brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Puentes, Luis L; Gonzalez-Pinedo, Marcelino; Crismatt, Alejando; Ortega-Gomez, Alette; Gamboa-Vignolle, Carlos; Nuñez-Gomez, Rodrigo; Dorantes-Gallareta, Yusmiren; Arce-Salinas, Claudia; Arrieta, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Chloroquine (CLQ), an antimalarial drug, has a lysosomotropic effect associated with increased radiationsensibility, which is mediated by the leakage of hydrolytic enzymes, increased apoptosis, autophagy and increased oxidative stress in vitro. In this phase II study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of radiosensibilization using CLQ concomitant with 30 Gray (Gy) of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) to treat patients with brain metastases (BM) from solid tumors. Seventy-three eligible patients were randomized. Thirty-nine patients received WBI (30 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks) concomitant with 150 mg of CLQ for 4 weeks (the CLQ arm). Thirty-four patients received the same schedule of WBI concomitant with a placebo for 4 weeks (the control arm). All the patients were evaluated for quality of life (QoL) using the EORTC Quality of Life (QoL) Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) (Mexican version) before beginning radiotherapy and one month later. The overall response rate (ORR) was 54% for the CLQ arm and 55% for the control arm (p=0.92). The progression-free survival of brain metastases (BMPFS) rates at one year were 83.9% (95% CI 69.4-98.4) for the CLQ arm and 55.1% (95% CI 33.6-77.6) for the control arm. Treatment with CLQ was independently associated with increased BMPFS (RR 0.31,95% CI [0.1-0.9], p=0.046).The only factor that was independently associated with increased overall survival (OS) was the presence of< 4 brain metastases (RR 1.9, 95% CI [1.12-3.3], p=0.017). WBI was associated with improvements in cognitive and emotional function but also with worsened nausea in both patients groups. No differences in QoL or toxicity were found between the study arms. Treatment with CLQ plus WBI improved the control of BM (compared with the control arm) with no increase in toxicity; however, CLQ did not improve the RR or OS. A phase III clinical trial is warranted to confirm these findings

  3. Efficacy of idebenone on respiratory function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy not using glucocorticoids (DELOS): a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyse, Gunnar M; Voit, Thomas; Schara, Ulrike; Straathof, Chiara S M; D'Angelo, M Grazia; Bernert, Günther; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Finkel, Richard S; Goemans, Nathalie; McDonald, Craig M; Rummey, Christian; Meier, Thomas

    2015-05-02

    Cardiorespiratory failure is the leading cause of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Based on preclinical and phase 2 evidence, we assessed the efficacy and safety of idebenone in young patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who were not taking concomitant glucocorticoids. In a multicentre phase 3 trial in Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, France, Sweden, Austria, Italy, Spain, and the USA, patients (age 10-18 years old) with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were randomly assigned in a one-to-one ratio with a central interactive web response system with a permuted block design with four patients per block to receive idebenone (300 mg three times a day) or matching placebo orally for 52 weeks. Study personnel and patients were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was change in peak expiratory flow (PEF) as percentage predicted (PEF%p) from baseline to week 52, measured with spirometry. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT) and a modified ITT (mITT), which was prospectively defined to exclude patients with at least 20% difference in the yearly change in PEF%p, measured with hospital-based and weekly home-based spirometry. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01027884. 31 patients in the idebenone group and 33 in the placebo group comprised the ITT population, and 30 and 27 comprised the mITT population. Idebenone significantly attenuated the fall in PEF%p from baseline to week 52 in the mITT (-3·05%p [95% CI -7·08 to 0·97], p=0·134, vs placebo -9·01%p [-13·18 to -4·84], p=0·0001; difference 5·96%p [0·16 to 11·76], p=0·044) and ITT populations (-2·57%p [-6·68 to 1·54], p=0·215, vs -8·84%p [-12·73 to -4·95], pmuscular dystrophy. Santhera Pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter Phase II study comparing the efficacy and safety of oral nemonoxacin with oral levofloxacin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yingyuan; Wu, Jufang; Zhu, Demei; Sun, Shenghua; Zhao, Li; Wang, Xuefeng; Liu, Hua; Ren, Zhenyi; Wang, Changzheng; Xiu, Qingyu; Xiao, Zuke; Cao, Zhaolong; Cui, Shehuai; Yang, Heping; Liang, Yongjie; Chen, Ping; Lv, Yuan; Hu, Chengping; Lv, Xiaoju; Liu, Shuang; Kuang, Jiulong; Li, Jianguo; Wang, Dexi; Chang, Liwen

    2017-12-01

    To compare the clinical efficacy and safety of nemonoxacin with levofloxacin in treating community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a Phase II clinical trial. One hundred ninety-two patients with CAP were randomized to receive oral nemonoxacin (500 mg or 750 mg) or levofloxacin (500 mg) once daily for 7-10 days. Clinical and bacteriological responses were determined at the test of cure (TOC) visit in the full analysis set (FAS). The clinical cure rate of nemonoxacin (500 mg), nemonoxacin (750 mg), and levofloxacin (500 mg) was 93.3%, 87.3%, and 88.5%, respectively, in the FAS (n = 168), and 93.0%, 93.9%, and 88.9%, respectively in the per protocol set (n = 152). At the TOC visit, nemonoxacin at 500 mg and 750 mg was proven to be noninferior to levofloxacin at 500 mg in the FAS in terms of clinical efficacy. The overall bacteriological success rate was 83.3% in both nemonoxacin groups and 80.0% in the levofloxacin 500 mg group in the bacteriological FAS. The comprehensive efficacy rate was comparable among the three groups (87.5% for the nemonoxacin 500 mg group, 93.8% for the nemonoxacin 750 mg group, and 81.3% for the levofloxacin 500 mg group). Most drug-related adverse events were mild and transient, mainly gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, transient neutropenia, and elevated liver enzymes. No drug-related serious adverse events occurred. Either 500 mg or 750 mg of oral nemonoxacin taken once daily for 7-10 days demonstrated high clinical and bacteriological success rates in Chinese adult patients with CAP. Nemonoxacin at 500 mg once daily for 7-10 days is recommended for future Phase III clinical trials. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01537250. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Solution Method and Precision Analysis of Double-difference Dynamic Precise Orbit Determination of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Weiping

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To resolve the high relativity between the transverse element of GEO orbit and double-difference ambiguity, the classical double-difference dynamic method is improved and the method, which is to determine precise BeiDou satellite orbit using carrier phase and pseudo-range smoothed by phase, is proposed. The feasibility of the method is discussed and the influence of the method about ambiguity fixing is analyzed. Considering the characteristic of BeiDou, the method, which is to fix double-difference ambiguity of BeiDou satellites by QIF, is derived. The real data analysis shows that the new method, which can reduce the relativity and assure the precision, is better than the classical double-difference dynamic method. The result of ambiguity fixing is well by QIF, but the ambiguity fixing success rate is not high on the whole. So the precision of BeiDou orbit can't be improved clearly after ambiguity fixing.

  6. Cannabidiol in patients with seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (GWPCARE4): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Elizabeth A; Marsh, Eric D; French, Jacqueline A; Mazurkiewicz-Beldzinska, Maria; Benbadis, Selim R; Joshi, Charuta; Lyons, Paul D; Taylor, Adam; Roberts, Claire; Sommerville, Kenneth

    2018-03-17

    Patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a rare, severe form of epileptic encephalopathy, are frequently treatment resistant to available medications. No controlled studies have investigated the use of cannabidiol for patients with seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. We therefore assessed the efficacy and safety of cannabidiol as an add-on anticonvulsant therapy in this population of patients. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial done at 24 clinical sites in the USA, the Netherlands, and Poland, we investigated the efficacy of cannabidiol as add-on therapy for drop seizures in patients with treatment-resistant Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Eligible patients (aged 2-55 years) had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, including a history of slow (caregivers, investigators, and individuals assessing data were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was percentage change from baseline in monthly frequency of drop seizures during the treatment period, analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug and had post-baseline efficacy data. All randomly assigned patients were included in the safety analyses. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02224690. Between April 28, 2015, and Oct 15, 2015, we randomly assigned 171 patients to receive cannabidiol (n=86) or placebo (n=85). 14 patients in the cannabidiol group and one in the placebo group discontinued study treatment; all randomly assigned patients received at least one dose of study treatment and had post-baseline efficacy data. The median percentage reduction in monthly drop seizure frequency from baseline was 43·9% (IQR -69·6 to -1·9) in the cannibidiol group and 21·8% (IQR -45·7 to 1·7) in the placebo group. The estimated median difference between the treatment groups was -17·21 (95% CI -30·32 to -4·09; p=0·0135) during the 14-week treatment period. Adverse events occurred in 74 (86%) of 86 patients in the cannabidiol group and 59 (69%) of

  7. Motor carrier evaluation program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, J.H.; Maxwell, J.E.; Boness, G.O.; Rice, L.E.

    1991-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Management Program (TMP) has established a program to assist the DOE field offices and their contractors in evaluating the motor carriers used to transport DOE-owned hazardous and radioactive materials. This program was initiated to provide the DOE field offices with the tools necessary to help ensure, during this period of motor carrier deregulation, that only highly qualified carriers transport radioactive and hazardous commodities for the DOE. This program will assist DOE in maintaining their excellent performance record in the safe transportation of hazardous commodities. The program was also developed in response to public concern surrounding the transportation of hazardous materials. Representatives of other federal agencies, states, and tribal governments, as well as the news media, have expressed concern about the selection and qualification of carriers engaged in the transportation of Highway Route-Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) and Truckload (TL) quantities of radioactive material for the DOE. 8 refs

  8. Solute carrier transporters: Pharmacogenomics research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghogho

    2010-12-27

    Dec 27, 2010 ... This paper reviews the solute carrier transporters and highlights the fact that there is much to be learnt from .... transporters, drug targets, effect or proteins and meta- ... basolateral or apical plasma membrane of polarized cells,.

  9. Antisite-disorder driven large exchange bias effect in phase separated La{sub 1.5}Ca{sub 0.5}CoMnO{sub 6} double perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, R.C.; Paladhi, D. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Dasgupta, Papri; Poddar, A. [Experimental Condensed Matter Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, West Bengal (India); Singh, Ripandeep; Das, A. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Nath, T.K., E-mail: tnath@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2017-04-15

    Investigations of structural and magnetic properties of polycrystalline hole doped double perovskite La{sub 1.5}Ca{sub 0.5}CoMnO{sub 6} has clearly revealed the existence of structural antisite-disorder (either, Co–O–Co or Mn–O–Mn) in the system. The ordering of Co{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 4+} gives rise to a ferromagnetic transition around 157 K. A spin-canted antiferromagnetic transition is found in this material at T{sub CAFM} ~9 K. The effect of antisite-disorder in the double perovskite structure is most likely the prime reason for antiferromagnetic interaction. The temperature dependent inverse susceptibility exhibits Curie-Weiss like behaviour and it yields an effective paramagnetic moment of 6.49 μ{sub B}. At very low temperature (Tdouble perovskite material. A phenomenological model has been proposed to explain the exchange coupling between the ferromagnetic and canted-antiferromagnetic interfaces of antisite-disordered La{sub 1.5}Ca{sub 0.5}CoMnO{sub 6} mainly on the basis of uncompensated interface spins. - Highlights: • Large exchange bias (EB) effect has been observed in 25% Ca doped La{sub 2}CoMnO{sub 6} antisite-disordered system. • Neutron powder diffraction analysis clearly suggested canted antiferromagnetic spin ordering at low temperature in our phase separated system. • A phenomenological model has been proposed for experimental results. • The results may be useful to acquire enough information about exchange biased interfaces for various magnetic device applications.

  10. Transdermal granisetron for the prevention of nausea and vomiting following moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy in Chinese patients: a randomized, double-blind, phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu-Qing; Sun, Xin-Chen; Qin, Shu-Kui; Chen, Ying-Xia; Zhang, He-Long; Cheng, Ying; Chen, Zhen-Dong; Shi, Jian-Hua; Wu, Qiong; Bai, Yu-Xian; Han, Bao-Hui; Liu, Wei; Ouyang, Xue-Nong; Liu, Ji-Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Li, Yong-Qiang; Xu, Jian-Ming; Yu, Shi-Ying

    2016-12-01

    The granisetron transdermal delivery system (GTDS) has been demonstrated effectiveness in the control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in previous studies. This is the first phase III study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of GTDS in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) in China. A total of 313 patients were randomized into the GTDS group (one transdermal granisetron patch, 7 days) or the oral granisetron group (granisetron oral 2 mg/day, ≥2 days). The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients achieving complete control (CC) from chemotherapy initiation until 24 h after final administration (PEEP). Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. Two hundred eighty-one patients were included in the per protocol analysis. During PEEP, CC was achieved by 67 (47.52%) patients in the GTDS group and 83 (59.29%) patients in the oral granisetron group. There was no statistical significance between the groups (P=0.0559). However, the difference of the CC percentage mainly occurred on the first day of chemotherapy between the groups. The CC was 70.13% on day 1 in the GTDS group, which was significantly lower than that of 91.03% in the oral granisetron group in the full analysis set. In the following days of chemotherapy, the CC was similar between the groups. In terms of cisplatin-contained regimen and female, there was statistical significance between the groups. Both treatments were well tolerated and safe. The most common adverse event was constipation. GTDS provided effective and well-tolerated control of CINV in Chinese patients, especially to non-cisplatin-contained regimen.

  11. Efficacy and safety of belimumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, William; Merrill, Joan T; McKay, James D; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Zhong, Z John; Freimuth, William W; Genovese, Mark C

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy/safety of belimumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients fulfilling American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA for ≥ 1 year who had at least moderate disease activity while receiving stable disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy and failed ≥ 1 DMARD were randomly assigned to placebo or belimumab 1, 4, or 10 mg/kg, administered intravenously on Days 1, 14, and 28, and then every 4 weeks for 24 weeks (n = 283). This was followed by an optional 24-week extension (n = 237) in which all patients received belimumab. Primary efficacy endpoint was the Week 24 ACR20 response. Week 24 ACR20 responses with placebo and belimumab 1, 4, and 10 mg/kg were 15.9%, 34.7% (p = 0.010), 25.4% (p = 0.168), and 28.2% (p = 0.080), respectively. Patients taking any belimumab dose who continued with belimumab in the open-label extension had an ACR20 response of 41% at 48 weeks. A similar ACR20 response (42%) at 48 weeks was seen in patients taking placebo who switched in the extension to belimumab 10 mg/kg. Greater response rates were observed in patients who at baseline were rheumatoid factor-positive, anticitrullinated protein antibody-positive, or tumor necrosis factor inhibitor-naive, or had elevated C-reactive protein levels, Disease Activity Score 28 > 5.1, or low B lymphocyte stimulator levels (< 0.858 ng/ml). Adverse event rates were similar across treatment groups. In this phase II trial, belimumab demonstrated efficacy and was generally well tolerated in patients with RA who had failed previous therapies. [ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00071812].

  12. Safety of bazedoxifene in a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled phase 3 study of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios Santiago

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the safety findings from a 3-year phase 3 study (NCT00205777 of bazedoxifene, a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator under development for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Methods Healthy postmenopausal osteoporotic women (N = 7,492; mean age, 66.4 years were randomized to daily doses of bazedoxifene 20 or 40 mg, raloxifene 60 mg, or placebo for 3 years. Safety and tolerability were assessed by adverse event (AE reporting and routine physical, gynecologic, and breast examination. Results Overall, the incidence of AEs, serious AEs, and discontinuations due to AEs in the bazedoxifene groups was not different from that seen in the placebo group. The incidence of hot flushes and leg cramps was higher with bazedoxifene or raloxifene compared with placebo. The rates of cardiac disorders and cerebrovascular events were low and evenly distributed among groups. Venous thromboembolic events, primarily deep vein thromboses, were more frequently reported in the active treatment groups compared with the placebo group; rates were similar with bazedoxifene and raloxifene. Bazedoxifene showed a neutral effect on the breast and an excellent endometrial safety profile. The incidence of fibrocystic breast disease was lower with bazedoxifene 20 and 40 mg versus raloxifene or placebo. Reductions in total and low-density lipoprotein levels and increases in high-density lipoprotein levels were seen with bazedoxifene versus placebo; similar results were seen with raloxifene. Triglyceride levels were similar among groups. Conclusion Bazedoxifene showed a favorable safety and tolerability profile in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Trial Registration Trial registration number: NCT00205777; Trial registration date: September 16, 2005

  13. Double inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-04-01

    The Zel'dovich spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations is a generic prediction of inflation. There is increasing evidence that when the spectrum is normalized by observational data on small scales, there is not enough power on large scales to account for the observed large-scale structure in the Universe. Decoupling the spectrum on large and small scales could solve this problem. As a means of decoupling the large and small scales we propose double inflation (i.e., two episodes of inflation). In this scenario the spectrum on large scales is determined by the first episode of inflation and those on small scales by a second episode of inflation. We present three models for such a scenario. By nearly saturating the large angular-scale cosmic microwave anisotropy bound, we can easily account for the observed large-scale structure. We take the perturbations on small scales to be very large, deltarho/rho approx. = 0.1 to 0.01, which results in the production of primordial black holes (PBHs), early formation of structure, reionization of the Universe, and a rich array of astrophysical events. The Ω-problem is also addressed by our scenario. Allowing the density perturbations produced by the second episode of inflation to be large also lessens the fine-tuning required in the scalar potential and makes reheating much easier. We briefly speculate on the possibility that the second episode of inflation proceeds through the nucleation of bubbles, which today manifest themselves as empty bubbles whose surfaces are covered with galaxies. 37 refs., 1 fig

  14. Double Outlet Right Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Right Ventricle Menu Topics Topics FAQs Double Outlet Right Ventricle Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital heart disease. En español Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital ...

  15. Solid-phase extraction of cobalt(II) from lithium chloride solutions using a poly(vinyl chloride)-based polymer inclusion membrane with Aliquat 336 as the carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaya, Shigehiro; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of cobalt(II) from solutions containing various concentrations of lithium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and mixtures of lithium chloride plus hydrochloric acid is reported using a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing 40% (w/w) Aliquat 336 as a carrier. The extraction from lithium chloride solutions and mixtures with hydrochloric acid is shown to be more effective than extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions alone. The solution concentrations giving the highest amounts of extraction are 7 mol L(-1) for lithium chloride and 8 mol L(-1) lithium chloride plus 1 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid for mixed solutions. Cobalt(II) is easily stripped from the membrane using deionized water. The cobalt(II) species extracted into the membrane are CoCl(4)(2-) for lithium chloride solutions and HCoCl(4)(-) for mixed solutions; these form ion-pairs with Aliquat 336. It is also shown that both lithium chloride and hydrochloric acid are extracted by the PIM and suppress the extraction of cobalt(II) by forming ion-pairs in the membrane (i.e. R(3)MeN(+)·HCl(2)(-) for hydrochloric acid and R(3)MeN(+)·LiCl(2)(-) for lithium chloride). 2011 © The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry

  16. COMPARE CPM-RMI Trial: Intramyocardial Transplantation of Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived CD133+ Cells and MNCs during CABG in Patients with Recent MI: A Phase II/III, Multicenter, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Madani, Hoda; Ahmadi Tafti, Seyed Hossein; Moshkani Farahani, Maryam; Kazemi Saleh, Davood; Hosseinnejad, Hossein; Hosseini, Saeid; Hekmat, Sepideh; Hossein Ahmadi, Zargham; Dehghani, Majid; Saadat, Alireza; Mardpour, Soura; Hosseini, Seyedeh Esmat; Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Sadeghian, Hakimeh; Bahoush, Gholamreza; Bassi, Ali; Amin, Ahmad; Fazeli, Roghayeh; Sharafi, Yaser; Arab, Leila; Movahhed, Mansour; Davaran, Saeid; Ramezanzadeh, Narges; Kouhkan, Azam; Hezavehei, Ali; Namiri, Mehrnaz; Kashfi, Fahimeh; Akhlaghi, Ali; Sotoodehnejadnematalahi, Fattah; Vosough Dizaji, Ahmad; Gourabi, Hamid; Syedi, Naeema; Shahverdi, Abdol Hosein; Baharvand, Hossein; Aghdami, Nasser

    2018-07-01

    The regenerative potential of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) and CD133+ stem cells in the heart varies in terms of their pro-angiogenic effects. This phase II/III, multicenter and double-blind trial is designed to compare the functional effects of intramyocardial autologous transplantation of both cell types and placebo in patients with recent myocardial infarction (RMI) post-coronary artery bypass graft. This was a phase II/III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial COMPARE CPM-RMI (CD133, Placebo, MNCs - recent myocardial infarction) conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki that assessed the safety and efficacy of CD133 and MNCs compared to placebo in patients with RMI. We randomly assigned 77 eligible RMI patients selected from 5 hospitals to receive CD133+ cells, MNC, or a placebo. Patients underwent gated single photon emission computed tomography assessments at 6 and 18 months post-intramyocardial transplantation. We tested the normally distributed efficacy outcomes with a mixed analysis of variance model that used the entire data set of baseline and between-group comparisons as well as within subject (time) and group×time interaction terms. There were no related serious adverse events reported. The intramyocardial transplantation of both cell types increased left ventricular ejection fraction by 9% [95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.14% to 15.78%, P=0.01] and improved decreased systolic wall thickening by -3.7 (95% CI: -7.07 to -0.42, P=0.03). The CD133 group showed significantly decreased non-viable segments by 75% (P=0.001) compared to the placebo and 60% (P=0.01) compared to the MNC group. We observed this improvement at both the 6- and 18-month time points. Intramyocardial injections of CD133+ cells or MNCs appeared to be safe and efficient with superiority of CD133+ cells for patients with RMI. Although the sample size precluded a definitive statement about clinical outcomes, these results have provided the

  17. 29 CFR 1201.1 - Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carrier. 1201.1 Section 1201.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD DEFINITIONS § 1201.1 Carrier. The term carrier includes any express company, sleeping car company, carrier by railroad, subject to the Interstate Commerce Act...

  18. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should

  19. Double hard scattering without double counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gaunt, Jonathan R. [VU Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands). NIKHEF Theory Group; Schoenwald, Kay [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  20. Double hard scattering without double counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.

    2017-02-01

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  1. Double Dirac cones in phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yan

    2014-07-07

    A double Dirac cone is realized at the center of the Brillouin zone of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) consisting of a triangular array of core-shell-structure cylinders in water. The double Dirac cone is induced by the accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate Bloch states. Using a perturbation method, we demonstrate that the double Dirac cone is composed of two identical and overlapping Dirac cones whose linear slopes can also be accurately predicted from the method. Because the double Dirac cone occurs at a relatively low frequency, a slab of the PC can be mapped onto a slab of zero refractive index material by using a standard retrieval method. Total transmission without phase change and energy tunneling at the double Dirac point frequency are unambiguously demonstrated by two examples. Potential applications can be expected in diverse fields such as acoustic wave manipulations and energy flow control.

  2. Double Dirac cones in phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yan; Wu, Ying; Mei, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A double Dirac cone is realized at the center of the Brillouin zone of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) consisting of a triangular array of core-shell-structure cylinders in water. The double Dirac cone is induced by the accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate Bloch states. Using a perturbation method, we demonstrate that the double Dirac cone is composed of two identical and overlapping Dirac cones whose linear slopes can also be accurately predicted from the method. Because the double Dirac cone occurs at a relatively low frequency, a slab of the PC can be mapped onto a slab of zero refractive index material by using a standard retrieval method. Total transmission without phase change and energy tunneling at the double Dirac point frequency are unambiguously demonstrated by two examples. Potential applications can be expected in diverse fields such as acoustic wave manipulations and energy flow control.

  3. Safety and Immunogenicity of EBA-175 RII-NG Malaria Vaccine Administered Intramuscularly in Semi-Immune Adults: A Phase 1, Double-Blinded Placebo Controlled Dosage Escalation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwadwo A Koram

    Full Text Available The erythrocyte binding antigen region II (EBA-175 RII is a Plasmodium falciparum ligand that mediates erythrocyte invasion and is considered an important malaria vaccine candidate. A phase Ia trial in malaria naïve adults living in the United States found the recombinant non-glycosylated vaccine antigen, EBA-175 RII-NG adjuvanted with aluminium phosphate to be safe, immunogenic and capable of inducing biologically active antibodies that can inhibit parasite growth in vitro. The aim of the current study was to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine in malaria exposed semi-immune healthy adults living in a malaria endemic country, Ghana. In this double-blinded, placebo controlled, dose escalation phase I trial, eighteen subjects per group received ascending dose concentrations (5 μg, 20 μg or 80 μg of the vaccine intramuscularly at 0, 1 and 6 months, while 6 subjects received placebo (normal saline. The primary end point was the number of subjects experiencing Grade 3 systemic or local adverse events within 14 days post-vaccination. Serious adverse events were assessed throughout the study period. Blood samples for immunological analyses were collected at days 0, 14, 28, 42, 180 and 194. A total of 52 subjects received three doses of the vaccine in the respective groups. No serious adverse events were reported. The majority of all adverse events reported were mild to moderate in severity, with local pain and tenderness being the most common. All adverse events, irrespective of severity, resolved without any sequelae. Subjects who received any of the EBA-175 RII-NG doses had high immunoglobulin G levels which moderately inhibited P. falciparum growth in vitro, compared to those in the placebo group. In conclusion, the EBA-175 RII-NG vaccine was safe, well tolerated and immunogenic in malaria semi-immune Ghanaian adults. Its further development is recommended.ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01026246.

  4. Safety and Immunogenicity of EBA-175 RII-NG Malaria Vaccine Administered Intramuscularly in Semi-Immune Adults: A Phase 1, Double-Blinded Placebo Controlled Dosage Escalation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koram, Kwadwo A; Adu, Bright; Ocran, Josephine; Karikari, Yaa S; Adu-Amankwah, Susan; Ntiri, Michael; Abuaku, Benjamin; Dodoo, Daniel; Gyan, Ben; Kronmann, Karl C; Nkrumah, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The erythrocyte binding antigen region II (EBA-175 RII) is a Plasmodium falciparum ligand that mediates erythrocyte invasion and is considered an important malaria vaccine candidate. A phase Ia trial in malaria naïve adults living in the United States found the recombinant non-glycosylated vaccine antigen, EBA-175 RII-NG adjuvanted with aluminium phosphate to be safe, immunogenic and capable of inducing biologically active antibodies that can inhibit parasite growth in vitro. The aim of the current study was to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine in malaria exposed semi-immune healthy adults living in a malaria endemic country, Ghana. In this double-blinded, placebo controlled, dose escalation phase I trial, eighteen subjects per group received ascending dose concentrations (5 μg, 20 μg or 80 μg) of the vaccine intramuscularly at 0, 1 and 6 months, while 6 subjects received placebo (normal saline). The primary end point was the number of subjects experiencing Grade 3 systemic or local adverse events within 14 days post-vaccination. Serious adverse events were assessed throughout the study period. Blood samples for immunological analyses were collected at days 0, 14, 28, 42, 180 and 194. A total of 52 subjects received three doses of the vaccine in the respective groups. No serious adverse events were reported. The majority of all adverse events reported were mild to moderate in severity, with local pain and tenderness being the most common. All adverse events, irrespective of severity, resolved without any sequelae. Subjects who received any of the EBA-175 RII-NG doses had high immunoglobulin G levels which moderately inhibited P. falciparum growth in vitro, compared to those in the placebo group. In conclusion, the EBA-175 RII-NG vaccine was safe, well tolerated and immunogenic in malaria semi-immune Ghanaian adults. Its further development is recommended. ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01026246.

  5. On-line packed magnetic in-tube solid phase microextraction of acidic drugs such as naproxen and indomethacin by using Fe3O4@SiO2@layered double hydroxide nanoparticles with high anion exchange capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsayei, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Asiabi, Hamid; Safari, Meysam

    2018-02-22

    The authors describe a 3-component nanoparticle system composed of a silica-coated magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) core and a layered double (Cu-Cr) hydroxide nanoplatelet shell. The sorbent has a high anion exchange capacity for extraction anionic species. A simple online system, referred to as "on-line packed magnetic-in-tube solid phase microextraction" was designed. The nanoparticles were placed in a stainless steel cartridge via dry packing. The cartridge was then applied to the preconcentration acidic drugs including naproxen and indomethacin from urine and plasma. Extraction and desorption times, pH values of the sample solution and flow rates of sample solution and eluent were optimized. Analytes were then quantified by HPLC with UV detection. Under optimal conditions, the limits of detection range from 70 to 800 ng L -1 , with linear responses from 0.1-500 μg L -1 (water samples), 0.6-500 μg L -1 (spiked urine), and 0.9-500 μg L -1 (spiked plasma). The inter- and intra-assay precisions (RSDs, for n = 5) are in the range of 2.2-5.4%, 2.8-4.9%, and 2.0-5.2% at concentration levels of 5, 25 and 50 μg L -1 , respectively. The method was applied to the analysis of the drugs in spiked human urine and plasma, and good results were achieved. Graphical abstract Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @CuCr-LDH magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized and packed in to a stainless steel column. The column was applied to solid phase microextraction of acidic drugs from biological samples.

  6. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over, phase IV trial of oros-methylphenidate (CONCERTA(®)) and generic novo-methylphenidate ER-C (NOVO-generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallu, Angelo; Dabouz, Farida; Furtado, Melissa; Anand, Leena; Katzman, Martin A

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder with onset during childhood. Multiple aspects of a child's development are hindered, in both home and school settings, with negative impacts on social, emotional, and cognitive functioning. If left untreated, ADHD is commonly associated with poor academic achievement and low occupational status, as well as increased risk of substance abuse and delinquency. The objective of this study was to evaluate adult ADHD subject reported outcomes when switched from a stable dose of CONCERTA(®) to the same dose of generic Novo-methylphenidate ER-C(®). Randomized, double-blind, cross-over, phase IV trial consisted of two phases in which participants with a primary diagnosis of ADHD were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to 3 weeks of treatment with CONCERTA or generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C. Following 3 weeks of treatment, participants were crossed-over to receive the other treatment for an additional 3 weeks. Primary efficacy was assessed through the use of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication, Version II (TSQM-II). Participants with ADHD treated with CONCERTA were more satisfied in terms of efficacy and side effects compared to those receiving an equivalent dose of generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C. All participants chose to continue with CONCERTA treatment at the conclusion of the study. Although CONCERTA and generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C have been deemed bioequivalent, however the present findings demonstrate clinically and statistically significant differences between generic and branded CONCERTA. Further investigation of these differences is warranted.

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of the new reduced-dose tetanus-diphtheria vaccine in healthy Korean adolescents: A comparative active control, double-blind, randomized, multicenter phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Beom; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Shin, Hye Jo; Kim, Sang Yong; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Kim, Hwang Min; Choi, Young Youn; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Dong Ho; Ahn, Dong Ho; Kang, Jin Han

    2017-04-01

    A new reduced-dose tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine was developed in Korea, and phase I and II clinical trials were successfully undertaken. We conducted this double-blind, randomized, multicenter phase III clinical trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the new Td vaccine. Healthy adolescents 11-12 years of age were enrolled and randomized to receive the new Td vaccine (study group) or a commercially available Td vaccine (control group). Blood samples were collected prior to and 4 weeks after the vaccination. Between the study and control groups, seroprotection rate, booster response, and geometric mean titer of antibodies against diphtheria and tetanus toxoids were compared after the vaccination. All solicited and unsolicited adverse events and serious adverse events during the 6-week study period were monitored. A total of 164 adolescents received vaccination, and 156 of them were evaluated to assess immunogenicity. The seroprotection rate and geometric mean titer for antibodies against diphtheria were significantly higher in the study group, whereas those against tetanus were significantly higher in the control group. However, all seroprotection rates against diphtheria and tetanus in the study and control groups were high: 100% against diphtheria and tetanus in the study group, and 98.7% against diphtheria and 100% against tetanus in the control group. No significant differences in the frequency of solicited and unsolicited adverse events were observed between the two vaccine groups. The new Td vaccine is highly immunogenic and safe, and this new Td vaccine can be effectively used for preventing diphtheria and tetanus. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. A Pooled Analysis of the Phase 3 REVIVE Trials: Randomized, Double-blind Studies to EValuate the Safety and Efficacy of Iclaprim Versus Vancomycin for trEatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David B; Corey, G Ralph; Holland, Thomas L; Lodise, Thomas; O'Riordan, William; Wilcox, Mark H; File, Thomas M; Dryden, Matthew; Balser, Barbara; Desplats, Eve; Torres, Antoni

    2018-05-18

    Iclaprim, a diaminopyrimidine antibiotic, was compared with vancomycin for the treatment of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) in two studies (REVIVE-1 and REVIVE-2). We explored the efficacy and tolerability of iclaprim in a pooled analysis of results from both studies. REVIVE-1 and REVIVE-2 were Phase 3, double-blind, randomized (1:1), multicenter, active-controlled, non-inferiority (margin of 10%) trials, each designed to enroll 600 patients a piece with ABSSSI. The studies used identical study protocols. Iclaprim 80 mg and vancomycin 15 mg/kg were administered IV every 12 hours for 5-14 days. The primary endpoint was a ≥20% reduction from baseline in lesion size (early clinical response [ECR]) at the early time point (48 to 72 hours after the start of study drug) in the intent-to-treat population. In REVIVE-1, ECR at the early time point was 80.9% with iclaprim vs. 81.0% with vancomycin (treatment difference, -0.13%; 95% confidence interval, -6.42% to 6.17%). In REVIVE-2, ECR was 78.3% with iclaprim vs. 76.7% with vancomycin (treatment difference: 1.58%, 95% CI: -5.10% to 8.26%). The pooled ECR was 79.6% with iclaprim vs. 78.8% with vancomycin (treatment difference: 0.75%, 95% CI: -3.84 to 5.35%). Iclaprim and vancomycin were comparable for the incidence of mostly mild adverse events, except for a higher incidence of elevated serum creatinine with vancomycin (n=7) compared with iclaprim (n=0). Iclaprim achieved noninferiority compared with vancomycin for early clinical response at the early time point and secondary endpoints with a similar safety profile in two Phase 3 studies for the treatment of ABSSSI suspected or confirmed to be caused by Gram-positive pathogens. NCT02600611 and NCT02607618. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Metal-organic framework MIL-101 as sorbent based on double-pumps controlled on-line solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of flavonoids in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Hu, Jia; Li, Yan; Li, Xiao-Shuang; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2016-10-01

    A novel method with high sensitivity for the rapid determination of chrysin, apigenin and luteolin in environment water samples was developed by double-pumps controlled on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the developed technique, metal organic framework MIL-101 was synthesized and applied as a sorbent for SPE. The as-synthesized MIL-101 was characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, thermal gravimetric analysis and micropore physisorption analysis. The MIL-101 behaved as a fast kinetics in the adsorption of chrysin, apigenin and luteolin. On-line SPE of chrysin, apigenin and luteolin was processed by loading a sample solution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min for 10 min. The extracted analytes were subsequently eluted into a ZORBAX Bonus-RP analytical column (25 cm long × 4.6 mm i.d.) for HPLC separation under isocratic condition with a mobile phase (MeOH: ACN: 0.02 M H 3 PO 4 = 35:35:30) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Experimental conditions, including ionic strength, sample pH, sample loading rates, sample loading time and desorption analytes time, were further optimized to obtain efficient preconcentration and high-precision determination of the analytes mentioned above. The method achieved the merits of simplicity, rapidity, sensitivity, wide linear range and high sample throughput. The possible mechanism for the adsorption of flavonoids on MIL-101 was proposed. The developed method has been applied to determine trace chrysin, apigenin and luteolin in a variety of environmental water samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Phase 2, Randomized, Double-Blind, Dose-Ranging Study Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, Population Pharmacokinetics, and Efficacy of Oral Torezolid Phosphate in Patients with Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections▿ † ‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokocimer, P.; Bien, P.; Surber, J.; Mehra, P.; DeAnda, C.; Bulitta, J. B.; Corey, G. R.

    2011-01-01

    Torezolid (TR-700) is the active moiety of the prodrug torezolid phosphate ([TP] TR-701), a second-generation oxazolidinone with 4- to 16-fold greater potency than linezolid against Gram-positive species including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A double-blind phase 2 study evaluated three levels (200, 300, or 400 mg) of oral, once-daily TP over 5 to 7 days for complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI). Patients 18 to 75 years old with cSSSI caused by suspected or confirmed Gram-positive pathogens were randomized 1:1:1. Of 188 treated patients, 76.6% had abscesses, 17.6% had extensive cellulitis, and 5.9% had wound infections. S. aureus, the most common pathogen, was isolated in 90.3% of patients (139/154) with a baseline pathogen; 80.6% were MRSA. Cure rates in clinically evaluable patients were 98.2% at 200 mg, 94.4% at 300 mg, and 94.4% at 400 mg. Cure rates were consistent across diagnoses, regardless of lesion size or the presence of systemic signs of infection. Clinical cure rates in patients with S. aureus isolated at baseline were 96.6% overall and 96.8% for MRSA. TP was safe and well tolerated at all dose levels. No patients discontinued treatment due to an adverse event. Three-stage hierarchical population pharmacokinetic modeling yielded a geometric mean clearance of 8.28 liters/h (between-patient variability, 32.3%), a volume of the central compartment of 71.4 liters (24.0%), and a volume of the peripheral compartment of 27.9 liters (35.7%). Results of this study show a high degree of efficacy at all three dose levels without significant differences in the safety profile and support the continued evaluation of TP for the treatment of cSSSI in phase 3 trials. PMID:21115795

  11. Efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate three-monthly formulation in East Asian patients with schizophrenia: subgroup analysis of a global, randomized, double-blind, Phase III, noninferiority study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitz AJ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adam J Savitz,1 Haiyan Xu,2 Srihari Gopal,1 Isaac Nuamah,2 Paulien Ravenstijn,3 David Hough,1 Maju Mathews,4 Yu Feng,5 Lu Yu,6 Masayoshi Takahashi,7 Dennis Liu,8 Gang Wang,9 Jin-Sang Yoon,10 Jiahn-Jyh Chen11 1Department of Central Nervous System, 2Department of Clinical Biostatistics, Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA; 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Janssen Research & Development, Beerse, Belgium; 4Global Medical Affairs, Neurosciences, Janssen Research & Development, NY, USA; 5Medical Affairs, Neurosciences, Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson and Johnson, Singapore; 6Department of Clinical Development, Janssen Research & Development, Beijing, China; 7Department of Central Nervous System, Janssen Pharmaceutical KK, Tokyo, Japan; 8Playford Community Team, Northern Adelaide Local Health Network, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 9National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, Beijing Anding Hospital, Affiliated Capital University of Medical Science, Beijing, China; 10Department of Psychiatry, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, South Korea; 11Department of Geriatric Psychiatry, Taoyuan Mental Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan Objective: To demonstrate the efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate three-monthly (PP3M formulation in an East Asian population with schizophrenia by subgroup analysis of a double-blind (DB, multicenter, noninferiority study. Patients and methods: Of 1,429 patients who entered the open-label (OL phase, 510 were East Asian (China: 296 [58%], Japan: 175 [34%], South Korea: 19 [4%] and Taiwan: 20 [4%]. In the 17-week OL phase, patients received paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M formulation on day 1 (150 mg eq., day 8 (100 mg eq. and once-monthly thereafter (50–150 mg eq., flexible. Following the OL phase, patients (n=344 East Asian entered DB phase and were randomized (1:1 to PP1M (n=174 or PP3M (n=170. Primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of patients who

  12. Bacterial Carriers for Glioblastoma Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mehta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of aggressive glioblastoma brain tumors is challenging, largely due to diffusion barriers preventing efficient drug dosing to tumors. To overcome these barriers, bacterial carriers that are actively motile and programmed to migrate and localize to tumor zones were designed. These carriers can induce apoptosis via hypoxia-controlled expression of a tumor suppressor protein p53 and a pro-apoptotic drug, Azurin. In a xenograft model of human glioblastoma in rats, bacterial carrier therapy conferred a significant survival benefit with 19% overall long-term survival of >100 days in treated animals relative to a median survival of 26 days in control untreated animals. Histological and proteomic analyses were performed to elucidate the safety and efficacy of these carriers, showing an absence of systemic toxicity and a restored neural environment in treated responders. In the treated non-responders, proteomic analysis revealed competing mechanisms of pro-apoptotic and drug-resistant activity. This bacterial carrier opens a versatile avenue to overcome diffusion barriers in glioblastoma by virtue of its active motility in extracellular space and can lead to tailored therapies via tumor-specific expression of tumoricidal proteins.

  13. Single-pass, efficient type-I phase-matched frequency doubling of high-power ultrashort-pulse Yb-fiber laser using LiB_3O_5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Mukesh Kumar; Kumar, Samir; Das, Ritwick

    2016-05-01

    We report 48 % efficient single-pass second harmonic generation of high-power ultrashort-pulse ({≈ }250 fs) Yb-fiber laser by utilizing type-I phase matching in LiB_3O_5 (LBO) crystal. The choice of LBO among other borate crystals for high-power frequency doubling is essentially motivated by large thermal conductivity, low birefringence and weak group velocity dispersion. By optimally focussing the beam in a 4-mm-long LBO crystal, we have generated about 2.3 W of average power at 532 nm using 4.8 W of available pump power at 1064 nm. The ultrashort green pulses were found out to be near-transform limited sech^2 pulses with a pulse width of Δ τ ≈ 150 fs and being delivered at 78 MHz repetition rate. Due to appreciably low spatial walk-off angle for LBO ({≈ }0.4°), we obtain M^2beam which signifies marginal distortion in comparison with the pump beam (M^2<1.15). We also discuss the impact of third-order optical nonlinearity of the LBO crystal on the generated ultrashort SH pulses.

  14. A Phase II/III Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) for Nausea Caused by Chemotherapy for Cancer: A Currently Accruing URCC CCOP Cancer Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Jane T; Roscoe, Joseph A; Morrow, Gary R; Ryan, Julie L

    2007-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist antiemetics such as ondansetron and granistron, up to 70% of patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy agents experience postchemotherapy nausea and vomiting. Delayed postchemotherapy nausea (nausea that occurs >/= 24 hours after chemotherapy administration) and anticipatory nausea (nausea that develops before chemotherapy administration, in anticipation of it) are poorly controlled by currently available antiemetic agents. Scientific studies suggest that ginger (Zingiber officinale) might have beneficial effects on nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness, surgery, and pregnancy. In 2 small studies of patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy, addition of ginger to standard antiemetic medication further reduced the severity of postchemotherapy nausea. This article describes a phase II/III randomized, dose-finding, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial to assess the efficacy of ginger for nausea associated with chemotherapy for cancer. The study is currently being conducted by private practice oncology groups that are funded by the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program and affiliated with the University of Rochester Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program Research Base.

  15. Efficacy and tolerability of transdermal granisetron for the control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting associated with moderately and highly emetogenic multi-day chemotherapy: a randomized, double-blind, phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Ralph V; Gordan, Lucio N; Clark, Gemma; Howell, Julian D; Grunberg, Steven M

    2011-10-01

    A novel transdermal formulation of granisetron (the granisetron transdermal delivery system (GTDS)) has been developed to deliver granisetron continuously over 7 days. This double-blind, phase III, non-inferiority study compared the efficacy and tolerability of the GTDS to daily oral granisetron for the control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Six hundred forty-one patients were randomized to oral (2 mg/day, 3-5 days) or transdermal granisetron (one GTDS patch, 7 days), before receiving multi-day chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was complete control of CINV (no vomiting/retching, no more than mild nausea, no rescue medication) from chemotherapy initiation until 24 h after final administration. The prespecified non-inferiority margin was 15%. Five hundred eighty-two patients were included in the per protocol analysis. The GTDS displayed non-inferiority to oral granisetron: complete control was achieved by 60% of patients in the GTDS group, and 65% in the oral granisetron group (treatment difference, -5%; 95% confidence interval, -13-3). Both treatments were well tolerated, the most common adverse event being constipation. The GTDS provides effective, well-tolerated control of CINV associated with moderately or highly emetogenic multi-day chemotherapy. It offers a convenient alternative route for delivering granisetron for up to 7 days that is as effective as oral granisetron.

  16. Efficacy and safety of tolvaptan in heart failure patients with volume overload despite the standard treatment with conventional diuretics: a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (QUEST study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Masunori; Hori, Masatsugu; Izumi, Tohru; Fukunami, Masatake

    2011-12-01

    Diuretics are recommended to treat volume overload with heart failure (HF), however, they may cause serum electrolyte imbalance, limiting their use. Moreover, patients with advanced HF could poorly respond to these diuretics. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of Tolvaptan, a competitive vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist developed as a new drug to treat volume overload in HF patients. A phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study was performed to assess the efficacy and safety of tolvaptan in treating HF patients with volume overload despite the use of conventional diuretics. One hundred and ten patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or 15 mg/day tolvaptan for 7 consecutive days. Compared with placebo, tolvaptan administered for 7 days significantly reduced body weight and improved symptoms associated with volume overload. The safety profile of tolvaptan was considered acceptable for clinical use with minimal adverse effects. Tolvaptan reduced volume overload and improved congestive symptoms associated with HF by a potent water diuresis (aquaresis).

  17. Comparison of DNA double-strand break rejoining as measured by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, neutral sucrose gradient centrifugation and non-unwinding filter elution in irradiated plateau-phase CHO cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.; Metzger, L.; Pantelias, G.

    1991-01-01

    The initial (up to 30 min) rate of DNA double-strand break (dsb) rejoining was measured in irradiated plateau-phase CHO cells, in a set of parallel experiments using the same cell suspension, by means of non-unwinding filter elution, neutral sucrose gradient centrifugation, and two pulsed-field gel electrophoresis assays: asymmetric field inversion gel electrophoresis (AFIGE) and clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) gel electrophoresis. The rate of DNA dsb rejoining was compared to the rate of rejoining of chromatin breaks measured, also in the same cell population, using the technique of premature chromosome condensation (PCC). Two radiation exposures, 25 Gy and/or 50 Gy, were used and applied to the individual parts of the experiments according to the sensitivity of the assay under investigation. The results suggest all major techniques currently used for assaying rejoining of DNA dsb give similar results, and indicate that more information is required before a direct correlation between rejoining of DNA dsb and rejoining of chromatin breaks can be established. (author)

  18. Disorder effect on carrier mobility in Fullerene organic semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendil, N; Daoudi, M; Berkai, Z; Belghachi, A

    2015-01-01

    The critical factor that limits the efficiencies of organic electronic devices is the low charge carrier mobility which is attributed to disorder in organic films. In this context, we have studied the effects of disorder on carrier mobility in organic Schottky diode of electrons for the fullerene (C 60 ). Our results show that the mobility is sensitive probes of structural phase transitions and order-disorder underlying C 60 . Where it is one reason behind the low mobility which it take as value 1.4x10 -2 cm 2 /V.s above critical temperature Tc =289K. (paper)

  19. Optimal Scheduling and Operating Target (OPTAR) Cost Model for Aircraft Carriers in the Fleet Response Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    York, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    .... This capability is developed through the Fleet Readiness Training Plan (FRTP) where the Navy's carriers are scheduled in staggered 32-month cycles consisting of four phases of progressive readiness levels...

  20. Phase noise reduction by self-phase locking in semiconductor lasers using phase conjugate feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lykke; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Nielsen, Torben Nørskov

    1994-01-01

    noise takes a finite-low value corresponding to a state of first-order self-phase locking of the laser. As a result, the spectral shape of the laser signal does not remain Lorentzian but collapses around the carrier to a delta function with a close to carrier noise level of less than -137 d...

  1. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs and motor carrier safety regulations through a...

  2. Effects of extracellular and intracellular pH on repair of potentially lethal damage, chromosome aberrations and DNA double-strand breaks in irradiated plateau-phase A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanth, V.R.; Bayne, M.T.; Varnes, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    Plateau-phage A549 cells exhibit a high capacity for repair of potentially lethal radiation damage (PLD). Previously it was found that PLD repair could be partially inhibited by increasing the extracellular pH (pH e ) of the spent medium from its normal value of 6.7-6.8 to 7.6 during postirradiation holding. This study shows that PLD repair is also inhibited by reducing the pH e of the spent medium to 6.0. The effects of altering pH e on rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) as measured by neutral filter elution and on mitotic delay and chromosome aberrations seen after releasing cells from the plateau phase were investigated. Neither increasing nor decreasing the pH e of the spent medium had an effect on radiation-induced mitotic delay. Rejoining of DSBs was significantly inhibited by holding at pH e 6.0 but not affected by holding at pH e 7.6. At 2 h after irradiation about 51% of unrejoined breaks remained at pH e 6.0, compared to about 15% at pH e 6.7 or 7.6. However, holding at pH e 7.6 appeared to cause a marginal change in the kinetics of rejoining of DSBs. Repair of lesions leading to dicentric and acentric chromosome aberrations did not occur when cells were held at pH e 6.0, since less than 10% of these aberrations disappeared from cells held for 24 h before subculture. In contrast, holding plateau-phase cells at pH e 7.6 vs 6.7 caused a small but significant reduction in the disappearance of dicentrics but had no effect on the rate or extent of the disappearance of acentrics. These data have led us to hypothesize that inhibition of PLD repair by holding at pH e 6.0 is related both to inhibition of pH-dependent DNA repair enzymes and to induction of changes in DNA which lead to misrepair when the cells are released from plateau phase. Inhibition of PLD repair by holding at pH e 7.6 is related primarily to changes in DNA structure which promote misrepair. 43 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  3. A Novel Bio-carrier Fabricated Using 3D Printing Technique for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; Fan, Shu-Qian; Shen, Yu; Yang, Ji-Xiang; Yan, Peng; Chen, You-Peng; Li, Jing; Guo, Jin-Song; Duan, Xuan-Ming; Fang, Fang; Liu, Shao-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The structure of bio-carriers is one of the key operational characteristics of a biofilm reactor. The goal of this study is to develop a series of novel fullerene-type bio-carriers using the three-dimensional printing (3DP) technique. 3DP can fabricate bio-carriers with more specialized structures compared with traditional fabrication processes. In this research, three types of fullerene-type bio-carriers were fabricated using the 3DP technique and then compared with bio-carrier K3 (from AnoxKaldnes) in the areas of physicochemical properties and biofilm growth. Images acquired by 3D profiling and SEM indicated that the surface roughness of the 3DP bio-carrier was greater than that of K3. Furthermore, contact angle data indicated that the 3DP bio-carriers were more hydrophilic than K3. The biofilm on the 3DP bio-carriers exhibited higher microbial activity and stronger adhesion ability. These findings were attributed to excellent mass transfer of the substrate (and oxygen) between the vapour-liquid-solid tri-phase system and to the surface characteristics. It is concluded that the novel 3DP fullerene-type bio-carriers are ideal carriers for biofilm adherence and growth. PMID:26202477

  4. Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase III Clinical Trial of Anti-T-Lymphocyte Globulin to Assess Impact on Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease-Free Survival in Patients Undergoing HLA-Matched Unrelated Myeloablative Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soiffer, Robert J; Kim, Haesook T; McGuirk, Joseph; Horwitz, Mitchell E; Johnston, Laura; Patnaik, Mrinal M; Rybka, Witold; Artz, Andrew; Porter, David L; Shea, Thomas C; Boyer, Michael W; Maziarz, Richard T; Shaughnessy, Paul J; Gergis, Usama; Safah, Hana; Reshef, Ran; DiPersio, John F; Stiff, Patrick J; Vusirikala, Madhuri; Szer, Jeff; Holter, Jennifer; Levine, James D; Martin, Paul J; Pidala, Joseph A; Lewis, Ian D; Ho, Vincent T; Alyea, Edwin P; Ritz, Jerome; Glavin, Frank; Westervelt, Peter; Jagasia, Madan H; Chen, Yi-Bin

    2017-12-20

    Purpose Several open-label randomized studies have suggested that in vivo T-cell depletion with anti-T-lymphocyte globulin (ATLG; formerly antithymocyte globulin-Fresenius) reduces chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) without compromising survival. We report a prospective, double-blind phase III trial to investigate the effect of ATLG (Neovii Biotech, Lexington, MA) on cGVHD-free survival. Patients and Methods Two hundred fifty-four patients 18 to 65 years of age with acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who underwent myeloablative HLA-matched unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) were randomly assigned one to one to placebo (n =128 placebo) or ATLG (n = 126) treatment at 27 sites. Patients received either ATLG or placebo 20 mg/kg per day on days -3, -2, -1 in addition to tacrolimus and methotrexate as GVHD prophylaxis. The primary study end point was moderate-severe cGVHD-free survival. Results Despite a reduction in grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD (23% v 40%; P = .004) and moderate-severe cGVHD (12% v 33%; P < .001) in ATLG recipients, no difference in moderate-severe cGVHD-free survival between ATLG and placebo was found (2-year estimate: 48% v 44%, respectively; P = .47). Both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were lower with ATLG (2-year estimate: 47% v 65% [ P = .04] and 59% v 74% [ P = .034], respectively). Multivariable analysis confirmed that ATLG was associated with inferior PFS (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.28; P = .026) and OS (hazard ratio, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.71; P = .01). Conclusion In this prospective, randomized, double-blind trial of ATLG in unrelated myeloablative HCT, the incorporation of ATLG did not improve moderate-severe cGVHD-free survival. Moderate-severe cGVHD was significantly lower with ATLG, but PFS and OS also were lower. Additional analyses are needed to understand the appropriate role for ATLG in HCT.

  5. Multipactor susceptibility on a dielectric with two carrier frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif; Verboncoeur, John; Zhang, Peng

    2018-04-01

    This work investigates multipactor discharge on a single dielectric surface with two carrier frequencies of an rf electric field. We use Monte Carlo simulations and analytical calculations to obtain susceptibility diagrams in terms of the rf electric field and normal electric field due to the residual charge on the dielectric. It is found that in contrast to the single frequency case, in general, the presence of a second carrier frequency of the rf electric field increases the threshold of the magnitude of the rf electric field to initiate multipactor. The effects of the relative strength and phase, and the frequency separation of the two carrier frequencies are examined. The conditions to minimize mulitpactor are derived.

  6. Hot Charge Carrier Transmission from Plasmonic Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Phillip; Moskovits, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Surface plasmons have recently been harnessed to carry out processes such as photovoltaic current generation, redox photochemistry, photocatalysis, and photodetection, all of which are enabled by separating energetic (hot) electrons and holes—processes that, previously, were the domain of semiconductor junctions. Currently, the power conversion efficiencies of systems using plasmon excitation are low. However, the very large electron/hole per photon quantum efficiencies observed for plasmonic devices fan the hope of future improvements through a deeper understanding of the processes involved and through better device engineering, especially of critical interfaces such as those between metallic and semiconducting nanophases (or adsorbed molecules). In this review, we focus on the physics and dynamics governing plasmon-derived hot charge carrier transfer across, and the electronic structure at, metal-semiconductor (molecule) interfaces, where we feel the barriers contributing to low efficiencies reside. We suggest some areas of opportunity that deserve early attention in the still-evolving field of hot carrier transmission from plasmonic nanostructures to neighboring phases.

  7. Optimal threshold of error decision related to non-uniform phase distribution QAM signals generated from MZM based on OCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xifeng; Zhou, Wen

    2018-03-01

    Optical vector radio-frequency (RF) signal generation based on optical carrier suppression (OCS) in one Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) can realize frequency-doubling. In order to match the phase or amplitude of the recovered quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal, phase or amplitude pre-coding is necessary in the transmitter side. The detected QAM signals usually have one non-uniform phase distribution after square-law detection at the photodiode because of the imperfect characteristics of the optical and electrical devices. We propose to use optimal threshold of error decision for non-uniform phase contribution to reduce the bit error rate (BER). By employing this scheme, the BER of 16 Gbaud (32 Gbit/s) quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) millimeter wave signal at 36 GHz is improved from 1 × 10-3 to 1 × 10-4 at - 4 . 6 dBm input power into the photodiode.

  8. Hot carrier degradation in semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers with a variety of tools to address the challenges posed by hot carrier degradation, one of today’s most complicated reliability issues in semiconductor devices.  Coverage includes an explanation of carrier transport within devices and book-keeping of how they acquire energy (“become hot”), interaction of an ensemble of colder and hotter carriers with defect precursors, which eventually leads to the creation of a defect, and a description of how these defects interact with the device, degrading its performance. • Describes the intricacies of hot carrier degradation in modern semiconductor technologies; • Covers the entire hot carrier degradation phenomenon, including topics such as characterization, carrier transport, carrier-defect interaction, technological impact, circuit impact, etc.; • Enables detailed understanding of carrier transport, interaction of the carrier ensemble with the defect precursors, and an accurate assessment of how the newly created defects imp...

  9. ISS qualified thermal carrier equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Jennings, Wm. M.

    2000-01-01

    Biotechnology is undergoing a period of rapid and sustained growth, a trend which is expected to continue as the general population ages and as new medical treatments and products are conceived. As pharmaceutical and biomedical companies continue to search for improved methods of production and, for answers to basic research questions, they will seek out new avenues of research. Space processing on the International Space Station (ISS) offers such an opportunity! Space is rapidly becoming an industrial laboratory for biotechnology research and processing. Space bioprocessing offers exciting possibilities for developing new pharmaceuticals and medical treatments, which can be used to benefit mankind on Earth. It also represents a new economic frontier for the private sector. For over eight years, the thermal carrier development team at SHOT has been working with government and commercial sector scientists who are conducting microgravity experiments that require thermal control. SHOT realized several years ago that the hardware currently being used for microgravity thermal control was becoming obsolete. It is likely that the government, academic, and industrial bioscience community members could utilize SHOT's hardware as a replacement to their current microgravity thermal carrier equipment. Moreover, SHOT is aware of several international scientists interested in utilizing our space qualified thermal carrier. SHOT's economic financing concept could be extremely beneficial to the international participant, while providing a source of geographic return for their particular region. Beginning in 2000, flight qualified thermal carriers are expected to be available to both the private and government sectors. .

  10. Charge transport in organic transistors accounting for a wide distribution of carrier energies, Part I : Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torricelli, F.

    2012-01-01

    An extended theory of carrier hopping transport in organic transistors is proposed. According to many experimental studies, the density of localized states in organic thin-film transistors can be described by a double-exponential function. In this work, using a percolation model of hopping, the

  11. Measurement of Minority-Carrier Lifetime in Silicon Solar Cells by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This manuscript describes the measurement of minority - carrier lifetime of silicon solar cells, at room temperature, by photoconductive decay method. The Holobeam, Model 655 Double-Pulsed Holographic system, is used as the light source. This consists of a Q-switched, pulsed ruby laser oscillator with two ruby laser ...

  12. Self-assembly of concentric quantum double rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Takaaki; Kuroda, Takashi; Sanguinetti, Stefano; Ochiai, Tetsuyuki; Tateno, Takahiro; Kim, Jongsu; Noda, Takeshi; Kawabe, Mitsuo; Sakoda, Kazuaki; Kido, Giyuu; Koguchi, Nobuyuki

    2005-03-01

    We demonstrate the self-assembled formation of concentric quantum double rings with high uniformity and excellent rotational symmetry using the droplet epitaxy technique. Varying the growth process conditions can control each ring's size. Photoluminescence spectra emitted from an individual quantum ring complex show peculiar quantized levels that are specified by the carriers' orbital trajectories.

  13. Carrier concentration induced ferromagnetism in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Story, T.

    2007-01-01

    In semiconductor spintronics the key materials issue concerns ferromagnetic semiconductors that would, in particular, permit an integration (in a single multilayer heterostructure) of standard electronic functions of semiconductors with magnetic memory function. Although classical semiconductor materials, such as Si or GaAs, are nonmagnetic, upon substitutional incorporation of magnetic ions (typically of a few atomic percents of Mn 2+ ions) and very heavy doping with conducting carriers (at the level of 10 20 - 10 21 cm -3 ) a ferromagnetic transition can be induced in such diluted magnetic semiconductors (also known as semimagnetic semiconductors). In the lecture the spectacular experimental observations of carrier concentration induced ferromagnetism will be discussed for three model semiconductor crystals. p - Ga 1-x Mn x As currently the most actively studied and most perspective ferromagnetic semiconductor of III-V group, in which ferromagnetism appears due to Mn ions providing both local magnetic moments and acting as acceptor centers. p - Sn 1-x Mn x Te and p - Ge 1-x Mn x Te classical diluted magnetic semiconductors of IV-VI group, in which paramagnet-ferromagnet and ferromagnet-spin glass transitions are found for very high hole concentration. n - Eu 1-x Gd x Te mixed magnetic crystals, in which the substitution of Gd 3+ ions for Eu 2+ ions creates very high electron concentration and transforms antiferromagnetic EuTe (insulating compound) into ferromagnetic n-type semiconductor alloy. For each of these materials systems the key physical features will be discussed concerning: local magnetic moments formation, magnetic phase diagram as a function of magnetic ions and carrier concentration as well as Curie temperature and magnetic anisotropy engineering. Various theoretical models proposed to explain the effect of carrier concentration induced ferromagnetism in semiconductors will be briefly discussed involving mean field approaches based on Zener and RKKY

  14. Magnetospectroscopy of double HgTe/CdHgTe quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovkun, L. S.; Krishtopenko, S. S.; Ikonnikov, A. V., E-mail: antikon@ipmras.ru; Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Kadykov, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Ruffenach, S.; Consejo, C.; Teppe, F.; Knap, W. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb (L2C), UMR CNRS 5221 and UM (France); Orlita, M.; Piot, B.; Potemski, M. [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses (LNCMI-G), CNRS-UJF-UPS-INSA (France); Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretskii, S. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Russian Federation); Gavrilenko, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The magnetoabsorption spectra in double HgTe/CdHgTe quantum wells (QWs) with normal and inverted band structures are investigated. The Landau levels in symmetric QWs with a rectangular potential profile are calculated based on the Kane 8 × 8 model. The presence of a tunnel-transparent barrier is shown to lead to the splitting of states and “doubling” of the main magnetoabsorption lines. At a QW width close to the critical one the presence of band inversion and the emergence of a gapless band structure, similar to bilayer graphene, are shown for a structure with a single QW. The shift of magnetoabsorption lines as the carrier concentration changes due to the persistent photoconductivity effect associated with a change in the potential profile because of trap charge exchange is detected. This opens up the possibility for controlling topological phase transitions in such structures.

  15. AlGaN/GaN double-channel HEMT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Si; Hao Yue; Ma Xiaohua; Zheng Pengtian; Xie Yuanbin

    2010-01-01

    The fabrication of AlGaN/GaN double-channel high electron mobility transistors on sapphire substrates is reported. Two carrier channels are formed in an AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN/GaN multilayer structure. The DC performance of the resulting double-channel HEMT shows a wider high transconductance region compared with single-channel HEMT. Simulations provide an explanation for the influence of the double-channel on the high transconductance region. The buffer trap is suggested to be related to the wide region of high transconductance. The RF characteristics are also studied. (semiconductor devices)

  16. A phase 1–2, prospective, double blind, randomized study of the safety and efficacy of Sulfasalazine for the treatment of progressing malignant gliomas: study protocol of [ISRCTN45828668

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robe, Pierre A; Martin, Didier; Albert, Adelin; Deprez, Manuel; Chariot, Alain; Bours, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    The prognosis of patients suffering from WHO grade 3 and 4 astrocytic glioma remains poor despite surgery, radiation therapy and the use of current chemotherapy regimen. Indeed, the median survival of glioblastoma multiforme (WHO grade 4) patients is at best 14.6 month with only 26.5 percents of the patients still alive after 2 years and the median survival of anaplastic astrocytomas (WHO grade 3) is 19.2 month. Recent evidence suggests that the transcription factor NF-kappaB is constitutively expressed in malignant gliomas and that its inhibition by drugs like Sulfasalazine may block the growth of astrocytic tumors in vitro and in experimental models of malignant gliomas. ULg-GBM-04/1 is a prospective, randomized, double blind single-center phase 1–2 study. A total of twenty patients with progressive malignant glioma despite surgery, radiation therapy and a first line of chemotherapy will be recruited and assigned to four dosage regimen of Sulfasalazine. This medication will be taken orally t.i.d. at a daily dose of 1.5–3–4 or 6 g, continuously until complete remission, evidence of progression or drug intolerance. Primary endpoints are drug safety in the setting of malignant gliomas and tumor response as measured according to MacDonald's criteria. An interim analysis of drug safety will be conducted after the inclusion of ten patients. The complete evaluation of primary endpoints will be conducted two years after the enrolment of the last patient or after the death of the last patient should this occur prematurely. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Sulfasalazine as a treatment for recurring malignant gliomas. The safety and efficacy of this drug are analyzed as primary endpoints. Overall survival and progression-free survival are secondary endpoint

  17. Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of DA-9601 versus Its New Formulation, DA-5204, in Patients with Gastritis: Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind, Non-Inferiority Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Jin; Lee, Dong Ho; Choi, Myung Gyu; Lee, Sung Joon; Kim, Sung Kook; Song, Geun Am; Rhee, Poong Lyul; Jung, Hwoon Yong; Kang, Dae Hwan; Lee, Yong Chan; Lee, Si Hyung; Choi, Suck Chei; Shim, Ki Nam; Seol, Sang Yong; Moon, Jeong Seop; Shin, Yong Woon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Soo Teik;